WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost sharing

  1. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  2. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  3. State cost sharing of training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.M.; Flater, D.A.; Hughes, D.R. Sr.; Lubenau, J.O.; Merges, P.J.; Mobley, M.H.; Raglin, K.A.

    1989-08-01

    In March 1988, The Office of Governmental and Public Affairs (GPA) completed a report (NUREG-1311) entitled, ''Funding the NRC Training Program for States.'' This report responded to a Commission's request for study of NRC's long-standing practice of paying the travel and per diem of state personnel who attend NRC sponsored training. In May 1988, the Chairman endorsed the report in most respects but asked for further study of a cost sharing of travel and per diem costs. As a result, the Director of GPA's State, Local and Indian Tribe Programs (SLITP) established a Task Force comprised of representatives from the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., the Agreement States and the NRC to look at ways that the states can share the costs of NRC training, particularly travel and per diem. At the request of the Director, GPA, the Task Force also looked at related cost and quantity issues associated with the NRC training program for state personnel. This report includes a discussion of NRC and state perspectives on the issue of sharing travel and per diem costs, a discussion of options, and recommendations for likely cost savings and quality of training improvement. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. 50 CFR 80.12 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of cash or in-kind contributions. (c) The non-Federal share of project costs may not be derived from... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing. 80.12 Section 80.12 Wildlife... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.12 Cost sharing. Federal...

  5. 10 CFR 602.12 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost sharing. 602.12 Section 602.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.12 Cost sharing. Cost sharing is not required, nor will it be considered, as a criterion in...

  6. 10 CFR 605.13 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost sharing. 605.13 Section 605.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.13 Cost sharing. Cost sharing is not required nor will it be considered as a criterion in the...

  7. 50 CFR 85.40 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.40 Cost sharing. (a) The Federal share shall not exceed 75% of total... grant objectives and represent the current market value of noncash contributions furnished as part of...

  8. Sharing the costs of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd Kooiker; Mirjam de Klerk; Judith ter Berg; Yolanda Schothorst

    2012-01-01

    The costs of care in the Netherlands have risen sharply since 2000 and will become increasingly difficult to finance in the future. How are those increasing costs to be paid, and who is to pay them? The Dutch care system is based on the principle of solidarity, which begs the question of who is

  9. Cost sharing and HEDIS performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernew, Michael; Gibson, Teresa B

    2008-12-01

    Physicians, health plans, and health systems are increasingly evaluated and rewarded based on Health Plan Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) and HEDIS-like performance measures. Concurrently, employers and health plans continue to try to control expenditures by increasing out-of-pocket costs for patients. The authors use fixed-effect logit models to assess how rising copayment rates for physician office visits and prescription drugs affect performance on HEDIS measures. Findings suggest that the increase in copayment rates lowers performance scores, demonstrating the connection between financial aspects of plan design and quality performance, and highlighting the potential weakness of holding plans and providers responsible for performance when payers and benefit plan managers also influence performance. Yet the effects are not consistent across all domains and, in many cases, are relatively modest in magnitude. This may reflect the HEDIS definitions and suggests that more sensitive measures may capture the impact of benefit design changes on performance.

  10. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules...... additive in costs....

  11. Sharing the cost of risky projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    Users share the cost of unreliable non-rival projects (items). For instance, industry partners pay today for R&D that may or may not deliver a cure to some viruses, agents pay for the edges of a network that will cover their connectivity needs, but the edges may fail, etc. Each user has a binary...

  12. Sharing cost in social community networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pal, Ranjan; Elango, Divya; Wardana, Satya Ardhy

    2012-01-01

    their deployment in a residential locality. Our proposed mechanism accounts for heterogeneous user preferences towards different router features and comes up with the optimal (feature-set, user costs) router blueprint that satisfies each user in a locality, in turn motivating them to buy routers and thereby improve......Wireless social community networks (WSCNs) is an emerging technology that operate in the unlicensed spectrum and have been created as an alternative to cellular wireless networks for providing low-cost, high speed wireless data access in urban areas. WSCNs is an upcoming idea that is starting...... reflect their slow progress in capturing the WiFi router market. In this paper, we look at a router design and cost sharing problem in WSCNs to improve deployment. We devise a simple to implement, successful, budget-balanced, ex-post efficient, and individually rational auction-based mechanism...

  13. 42 CFR 423.782 - Cost-sharing subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing subsidy. 423.782 Section 423.782... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost-Sharing Subsidies... cents. (c) When the out-of-pocket cost for a covered Part D drug under a Part D sponsor's plan benefit...

  14. Cost sharing in production situations and network exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.A.L.

    1999-01-01

    In many real-life situations where individuals work together in a joint project, joint costs (or profits) occur which have to be shared. The central problem of cost sharing is the allocation of costs in a 'just' way among the participants. Examples are numerous and range from setting fees for the

  15. 10 CFR 600.30 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... research and development except where: (1) A research or development activity of a basic or fundamental... with the applicable cost principles: (i) Cash; (ii) Personnel costs; (iii) The value of a service... circular of the Office of Management and Budget; (iv) Indirect costs or facilities and administrative costs...

  16. Cost Sharing in the Prevention of Supply Chain Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of cost-sharing mechanism on the disruption prevention investment in a supply chain with unreliable suppliers. When a supply chain faces considerable loss following a disruption, supply chain members are motivated toward investing in manners that reduce their disruption probability. In improving supply chain reliability, the cost-sharing mechanism must be set appropriately to realize the efficiency of the disruption prevention investment. In a supply chain where the focal manufacturing company has its own subsidiary supplier and an outsourcing supplier, we analyze different forms of cost-sharing mechanisms when both suppliers confront disruption risks. Through the cost-sharing mechanisms presented in this study, supply chain members can improve their reliability via disruption prevention investments without considerably increasing the total supply chain cost. We present two concepts, the cost-sharing structure and the cost-sharing ratio, in this study. As the two key components of cost-sharing mechanism, these two elements constitute a practicable cost allocation mechanism to facilitate disruption prevention.

  17. 42 CFR 423.6 - Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs. 423.6 Section 423.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... BENEFIT General Provisions § 423.6 Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs. The...

  18. 7 CFR 634.27 - Cost-share payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... essential for meeting the water quality objectives in the project area. (c) Basis for cost-share payment. (1... administering agency for each project using cost data from the local area. These costs should be reviewed by the... responsibility to apply for payments. (f) Authorizations for payments to suppliers. (1) The contract may...

  19. 10 CFR 603.575 - Repayment of Federal cost share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.575 Repayment of Federal cost share. In accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58), section 988(e), the contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 1816.303-70 - Cost-sharing contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... likely to enhance the contractor's capability, expertise, or competitive advantage. (b) Cost-sharing with... has no commercial, production, education, or service activities that would benefit from the results of...

  1. Cost Sharing in the Prevention of Supply Chain Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Wang; Kelei Xue; Xiaochen Sun

    2017-01-01

    We examine the influence of cost-sharing mechanism on the disruption prevention investment in a supply chain with unreliable suppliers. When a supply chain faces considerable loss following a disruption, supply chain members are motivated toward investing in manners that reduce their disruption probability. In improving supply chain reliability, the cost-sharing mechanism must be set appropriately to realize the efficiency of the disruption prevention investment. In a supply chain where the f...

  2. 34 CFR 675.45 - Allowable costs, Federal share, and institutional share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... education, financial self-help, and community service-learning opportunities. (3) Carry out activities in... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs, Federal share, and institutional share. 675.45 Section 675.45 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued...

  3. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  4. Kyoto, coal and sharing the cost burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, J.

    1998-01-01

    Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Rio Treaty) at their first conference in 1995 agreed that the commitments entered into under the Convention were 'not adequate' to achieve its objective. These nations determined to proceed to strengthen those commitments under a protocol to be prepared for the third conference at Kyoto. Also it was to contain 'quantified emissions limitation objectives' (binding targets) on the industrial countries. For such targets to be consistent with Australia's interests, they would need to recognise Australia's relatively fast population and economic growth (both of which imply relatively faster growth in emissions), the increasing preponderance of energy intensive industries in the Australian economy, and our dependence on the export of energy intensive manufactures (like aluminium and other metals) and direct export of fossil fuels (including coal and natural gas). Major parties to the protocol negotiations - the USA and the EU - were advocates of uniform percentage emissions reductions from 1990 levels. Uniform percentage reductions, however intuitively appealing, impose widely different costs on different parties on account of their different circumstances. Australia would have been penalised by uniform reductions because our projected business-as-usual emissions trajectory is relatively steep, and measures adopted internationally to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions impact disproportionately on this economy (notably on account of reduced demand for Australian coal). The accompanying charts depict ABAREs 'less stringent' emissions scenario - addressing a goal of stabilising industrial countries' emissions of C0 2 rather than reducing them. ABARE's simulation for Australia by sector shows big negative impacts on output of non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, and coal. The metals industries, directly or indirectly are the coal industry's most important domestic customers. It is argued that because of the impact

  5. Assessing the cost saving potential of shared product architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Løkkegaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    company. Experiences from the case company show it is possible to reduce the number of architectures with 60% which leads to significant reduction in direct material and labor costs. This can be achieved without compromising the market offerings of products. Experiences from the case study indicate cost......This article presents a method for calculating cost savings of shared architectures in industrial companies called Architecture Mapping and Evaluation. The main contribution is an operational method to evaluate the cost potential and evaluate the number of product architectures in an industrial...

  6. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. 34 CFR 74.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property for cost sharing or matching shall be the lesser of— (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation; or (2) The... volunteer services must be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In...

  8. 22 CFR 226.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.23 Cost sharing or... volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organizations. In...

  9. 75 FR 38748 - Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 447 and 457 [CMS-2244-CN] RIN 0938-AP73 Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS ACTION: Correction of final rule with comment period...

  10. 42 CFR 447.50 - Cost sharing: Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments: General Provisions Cost Sharing § 447... the following four criteria: (A) Is a member of a tribe, band, or other organized group of Indians, including those tribes, bands, or groups terminated since 1940 and those recognized now or in the future by...

  11. 7 CFR 625.10 - Cost-share payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... recovery of listed species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). These protections operate with lands... cost-share assistance. (d) Failure to perform planned management activities can result in violation of...

  12. Assessment of cost sharing in the Pima County Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Nicholas B; Eng, Howard J

    2017-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established health insurance marketplaces to allow consumers to make educated decisions about their health care coverage. During the first open enrollment period in 2013, the federally facilitated marketplace in Pima County, Arizona listed 119 plans, making it one of the most competitive markets in the country. This study compares these plans based on differences in consumer cost sharing, including deductibles, co-pays and premiums. Consumer costs were reviewed using specific cases including a normal delivery pregnancy, the management of Type II Diabetes, and the utilization of specialty drugs to treat Hepatitis C. Total cost of care was calculated as the cost of managing the condition or event plus the cost of monthly premiums, evaluated as a single individual age 27. Evaluating a plan on premium alone is not sufficient as cost sharing can dramatically raise the cost of care. A rating system and better cost transparency tools could provider easier access to pertinent information for consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumer cost sharing and use of biopharmaceuticals for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of consumer cost sharing on use of physician-administered and patient self-administered specialty drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Multivariate statistical analysis of probability and use of physician-administered specialty drugs, patient self-injected specialty drugs, non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and symptom relief drugs. Analyses were conducted for patients enrolling in preferred provider organization (PPO) plans and health maintenance organization (HMO) plans with different cost-sharing requirements, adjusted for patient demographics, health status, and geographical location. Professional, facility, and pharmaceutical claims for beneficiaries of CalPERS, the public employee insurance purchasing alliance in California, for 2008-2009. Consumer cost-sharing requirements were obtained for each type of drug and service for each type of insurance plan. PPO insurance enrollees face substantially higher cost sharing for physician-administered specialty drugs, compared with HMO enrollees in CalPERS. PPO patients with rheumatoid arthritis are only half as likely as HMO enrollees to choose a physician-administered specialty drug (4.2% vs 9.3%) (P ≤.05), and use 25% less of the drugs if they use any ($10,356 vs $13,678) (P ≤.05). They are 30% more likely to use a self-administered specialty drug than are HMO enrollees (29.3% vs 22.1%) (P ≤.05), and use 35% more of the drugs if any ($16,015 vs $12,378) (P ≤.05). Consumer cost sharing reduces the use of physician-administered specialty drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. The higher use of patient self-administered specialty drugs suggests that the disincentives for use of physician-administered drugs were offset by an increased incentive to use self-administered drugs.

  14. Taxing behavioral control diminishes sharing and costly punishment in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Instances of altruism in children are well documented. However, the underlying mechanisms of such altruistic behavior are still under considerable debate. While some claim that altruistic acts occur automatically and spontaneously, others argue that they require behavioral control. This study focuses on the mechanisms that give rise to prosocial decisions such as sharing and costly punishment. In two studies it is shown in 124 children aged 6-9 years that behavioral control plays a critical role for both prosocial decisions and costly punishment. Specifically, the studies assess the influence of taxing aspects of self-regulation, such as behavioral control (Study 1) and emotion regulation (Study 2) on subsequent decisions in a Dictator and an Ultimatum Game. Further, children's perception of fairness norms and emotional experience were measured. Taxing children's behavioral control prior to making their decisions reduced sharing and costly punishment of unfair offers, without changing perception of fairness norms or the emotional experience. Conversely, taxing children's emotion regulation prior to making their decisions only led to increased experience of anger at seeing unfair offers, but left sharing, costly punishment and the perception of fairness norms unchanged. These findings stress the critical role of behavioral control in prosocial giving and costly punishment in childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. 78 FR 5781 - Cost-Sharing Rates for Pharmacy Benefits Program of the TRICARE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Cost-Sharing Rates for Pharmacy Benefits Program of... to cost-sharing rates to the TRICARE Pharmacy Benefits Program. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested parties of cost-sharing rate change for the Pharmacy Benefits Program. DATES: The cost-sharing...

  16. 75 FR 54590 - Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... Certification Cost-Share Funds. The AMS has allocated $22.0 million for this organic certification cost-share... National Organic Certification Cost- Share Program is authorized under 7 U.S.C. 6523, as amended by section...

  17. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites the... Agreement with the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) for the Allocation of Organic Certification Cost...

  18. The role of personal values in children's costly sharing and non-costly giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Lior; Daniel, Ella; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether children's values, global and abstract motivations serving as guiding principles, are organized similarly to those of adults, whether values can predict individual differences in children's sharing behaviors, and whether the normative nature of the situation influences the expression of these individual differences. Children (N=243, ages 5-12years) participated in a values ranking task as part of a visit to a science museum. The majority of children (n=150) also participated in a task examining costly sharing (i.e., sharing that results in giving up part of one's own resources) and non-costly giving (i.e., giving that does not influence one's own share). Starting from 5years of age, children showed a structure of values similar to that of adolescents and adults, specifically contrasting preferences for opposing values (i.e., self-transcendence with self-enhancement and openness to change with conservation). Importance given to self-transcendence values related positively to costly sharing but not to non-costly giving, indicating that in situations where it is more normative to share, individual differences in values are less expressed in children's actual sharing. In addition, children's sex and age moderated the relation between values and behavior. Children's values are an important aspect of their developing personalities. Taking them into consideration can greatly promote the research of prosocial and normative development as well as our understanding of individual differences in children's behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probabilistic sharing solves the problem of costly punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-08-01

    Cooperators that refuse to participate in sanctioning defectors create the second-order free-rider problem. Such cooperators will not be punished because they contribute to the public good, but they also eschew the costs associated with punishing defectors. Altruistic punishers—those that cooperate and punish—are at a disadvantage, and it is puzzling how such behaviour has evolved. We show that sharing the responsibility to sanction defectors rather than relying on certain individuals to do so permanently can solve the problem of costly punishment. Inspired by the fact that humans have strong but also emotional tendencies for fair play, we consider probabilistic sanctioning as the simplest way of distributing the duty. In well-mixed populations the public goods game is transformed into a coordination game with full cooperation and defection as the two stable equilibria, while in structured populations pattern formation supports additional counterintuitive solutions that are reminiscent of Parrondo's paradox.

  20. Modeling social norms increasingly influences costly sharing in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Bailey R; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Prosocial and normative behavior emerges in early childhood, but substantial changes in prosocial behavior in middle childhood may be due to it becoming integrated with children's understanding of what is normative. Here we show that information about what is normative begins influencing children's costly sharing in middle childhood in a sample of 6- to 11-year-old German children. Information about what is normative was most influential when indicating what was "right" (i.e., "The right thing is to choose this"). It was less influential when indicating what was prescribed by a rule (i.e., "There is a rule that says to choose this") or when it indicated what the majority of people do (i.e., "Most people choose this"). These findings support the idea that middle childhood is when social norms begin to shape children's costly sharing and provide insight into the psychological foundations of the relationship between norms and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Techniques for cost-effective electric information sharing; Cost balance wo koryoshita denshi joho kyoyuka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    The key technology that can effectively support the sharing of each information such as documents, data, and know-how was rearranged to clarify how to utilize it for constructing an electronic information sharing system. The key technology that supports the sharing of electronic information was rearranged from the viewpoint of information gathering, information rearrangement, and information utilization. The reduction in cost for information gathering and rearrangement is indispensable to the promotion of much information sharing. However, each automation method presently causes the deterioration in quality of the rearranged information and the increase in cost for information utilization. To realize a practical electronic information sharing system, it is important to combine the key technologies properly so that the total cost balance of information gathering and information utilization is improved. Therefore, the combination of character recognition by OCR and unpreciseness retrieval, and the complementary combination of automatic document sorting, based on multiple incomplete rearrangement systems, and multiple sorting menus were proposed. 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 7 CFR 631.7 - Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., conservation practices, or identifiable units eligible for GPCP cost sharing in the state. (b) The designated... conservation systems, practices, or identifiable units eligible for GPCP cost sharing in the county. ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing. 631...

  3. 48 CFR 52.216-12 - Cost-Sharing Contract-No Fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....216-12 Cost-Sharing Contract—No Fee. As prescribed in 16.307(f), insert the following clause in... nonprofit organization. Cost-Sharing Contract—No Fee (APR 1984) (a) The Government shall not pay to the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-Sharing Contract-No...

  4. 78 FR 5164 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program... organic certification cost-share funds. The AMS has allocated $1.425 million for this organic...

  5. 76 FR 55000 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program... organic certification cost-share funds. The AMS has allocated $1.5 million for this organic certification...

  6. 76 FR 54999 - Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...] Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... for the National Organic Certification Cost- Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites all States of...) for the allocation of National Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. Beginning in Fiscal Year 2008...

  7. 78 FR 52131 - Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...] Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This Organic Certification Cost-Share Program is part of the Agricultural Management... Wyoming. The AMS has allocated $1,352,850 for this organic certification cost- share program in Fiscal...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27... § 27.1166 Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. (a) Registration of reimbursement rights. Claims for reimbursement under the cost-sharing plan are limited to relocation expenses incurred on or after...

  9. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Volker

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and the regulation of entry into the pharmaceutical sector for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure and drug prices. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to higher R&D spending of pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between R&D spending per firm and the number of firms may be hump-shaped. In this case, the number of rivals which maximizes R&D expenditure per firm is decreasing in the coinsurance rate and increasing in labor productivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 48 CFR 1516.303-76 - Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Fee on cost-sharing... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1516.303-76 Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors. (a) Subcontractors under prime cost...

  11. An Introduction to Cost Sharing: Why Good Deeds Do Not Go Unpunished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the concept of cost sharing between grantor agencies and grantee institutions and identifies problems encountered, including use of cost sharing to leverage funds by both funding agencies and grantee institutions; and various grantee institution costing, accounting, and auditing issues, such as effort reporting, the Cost Accounting…

  12. 10 CFR 470.16 - Cost sharing and funds from other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost sharing and funds from other sources. 470.16 Section... § 470.16 Cost sharing and funds from other sources. Proposers are encouraged to offer to share in the... other entities to obtain supplemental funding. ...

  13. The Cost of Cost-Sharing: The Impact of Medicaid Benefit Design on Influenza Vaccination Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Stoecker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research indicates that cost-sharing and lack of insurance coverage reduce preventive services use among low-income persons. State Medicaid policy may affect the uptake of recommended adult vaccinations. We examined the impact of three aspects of Medicaid benefit design (coverage for vaccines, prohibiting cost-sharing, and copayment amounts on vaccine uptake in the fee-for-service Medicaid population 19–64 years old. We combined previously published reports to obtain state Medicaid policy information from 2003 and 2012. Data on influenza vaccination uptake were taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used a differences-in-differences framework, controlling for national trends and state differences, to estimate the effect of each benefit design factor on vaccination uptake in different Medicaid-eligible populations. Each additional dollar of copayment for vaccination decreased influenza vaccination coverage 1–6 percentage points. The effects of covering vaccines or prohibiting cost-sharing were mixed. Imposing copayments for vaccination is associated with lower vaccination coverage. These findings have implications for the implementation of Medicaid expansion in states that currently impose copayments.

  14. 7 CFR 1484.50 - What cost share contributions are eligible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FAS to ensure compliance with program requirements; (14) The cost of giveaways, awards, prizes and... development activity; (22) Payment of employee's or contractor's share of personal taxes; (23) The cost... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What cost share contributions are eligible? 1484.50...

  15. 45 CFR 2521.45 - What are the limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Your share of member support costs must be non-Federal cash. (4) The Corporation's share of health care... administration costs. (1) You may provide your share of program operating costs with cash, including other...'s share of program costs? 2521.45 Section 2521.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  16. Carbon Emission Reduction with Capital Constraint under Greening Financing and Cost Sharing Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juanjuan; Zhao, Yuhui; Xia, Liangjie

    2018-04-13

    Motivated by the industrial practices, this work explores the carbon emission reductions for the manufacturer, while taking into account the capital constraint and the cap-and-trade regulation. To alleviate the capital constraint, two contracts are analyzed: greening financing and cost sharing. We use the Stackelberg game to model four cases as follows: (1) in Case A1, the manufacturer has no greening financing and no cost sharing; (2) in Case A2, the manufacturer has greening financing, but no cost sharing; (3) in Case B1, the manufacturer has no greening financing but has cost sharing; and, (4) in Case B2, the manufacturer has greening financing and cost sharing. Then, using the backward induction method, we derive and compare the equilibrium decisions and profits of the participants in the four cases. We find that the interest rate of green finance does not always negatively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. Meanwhile, the cost sharing from the retailer does not always positively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. When the cost sharing is low, both of the participants' profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are not less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). When the cost sharing is high, both of the participants' profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance).

  17. 47 CFR 24.245 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24... 1850-1990 Mhz Band § 24.245 Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. (a) Registration of reimbursement rights. (1) To obtain reimbursement, a PCS relocator must submit documentation of the relocation...

  18. Carbon Emission Reduction with Capital Constraint under Greening Financing and Cost Sharing Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juanjuan; Zhao, Yuhui; Xia, Liangjie

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the industrial practices, this work explores the carbon emission reductions for the manufacturer, while taking into account the capital constraint and the cap-and-trade regulation. To alleviate the capital constraint, two contracts are analyzed: greening financing and cost sharing. We use the Stackelberg game to model four cases as follows: (1) in Case A1, the manufacturer has no greening financing and no cost sharing; (2) in Case A2, the manufacturer has greening financing, but no cost sharing; (3) in Case B1, the manufacturer has no greening financing but has cost sharing; and, (4) in Case B2, the manufacturer has greening financing and cost sharing. Then, using the backward induction method, we derive and compare the equilibrium decisions and profits of the participants in the four cases. We find that the interest rate of green finance does not always negatively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. Meanwhile, the cost sharing from the retailer does not always positively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. When the cost sharing is low, both of the participants’ profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are not less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). When the cost sharing is high, both of the participants’ profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). PMID:29652859

  19. Differential Game Analyses of Logistics Service Supply Chain Coordination by Cost Sharing Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of all the members in a supply chain plays an important role in logistics service. The service integrator can encourage cooperation from service suppliers by sharing their cost during the service, which we assume can increase the sales by accumulating the reputation of the supply chain. A differential game model is established with the logistics service supply chain that consists of one service integrator and one supplier. And we derive the optimal solutions of the Nash equilibrium without cost sharing contract and the Stackelberg equilibrium with the integrator as the leader who partially shares the cost of the efforts of the supplier. The results make the benefits of the cost sharing contract in increasing the profits of both players as well as the whole supply chain explicit, which means that the cost sharing contract is an effective coordination mechanism in the long-term relationship of the members in a logistics service supply chain.

  20. 32 CFR 32.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sharing or matching shall be the lesser of: (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation; or (2) The current fair market... services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those...

  1. 45 CFR 74.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sharing or matching shall be the lesser of: (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation; or (2) The current fair market... services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those...

  2. A Cost Sharing Plan: Solutions for the Child Care Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet discusses the current child care crisis and suggests a solution to the crisis. The gap between the cost of child care and parents' ability to pay is restricting the expansion and availability of child care services and undercutting the quality of child care. The average cost of full-day child care in the Delaware Valley, Pennsylvania,…

  3. How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect total care costs among people with chronic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haichang; Harman, Jeffrey S; Yang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether high cost-sharing in physician care is associated with a differential impact on total care costs by health status. Total care includes physician care, emergency room (ER) visits and inpatient care. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients. This study used the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data with a cross-sectional study design. Difference in difference (DID), instrumental variable technique, two-part model, and bootstrap technique were employed to analyze cost data. Chronically ill individuals' probability of reducing any overall care costs was significantly less than healthier individuals (beta = 2.18, p = 0.04), while the integrated DID estimator from split results indicated that going from low cost-sharing to high cost-sharing significantly reduced costs by $12,853.23 more for sick people than for healthy people (95% CI: -$17,582.86, -$8,123.60). This greater cost reduction in total care among sick people likely resulted from greater cost reduction in physician care, and may have come at the expense of jeopardizing health outcomes by depriving patients of needed care. Thus, these policies would be inappropriate in the short run, and unlikely in the long run to control health plans costs among chronically ill individuals. A generous benefit design with low cost-sharing policies in physician care or primary care is recommended for both health plans and chronically ill individuals, to save costs and protect these enrollees' health status.

  4. The Current and Projected Taxpayer Shares of US Health Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-03-01

    We estimated taxpayers' current and projected share of US health expenditures, including government payments for public employees' health benefits as well as tax subsidies to private health spending. We tabulated official Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services figures on direct government spending for health programs and public employees' health benefits for 2013, and projected figures through 2024. We calculated the value of tax subsidies for private spending from official federal budget documents and figures for state and local tax collections. Tax-funded health expenditures totaled $1.877 trillion in 2013 and are projected to increase to $3.642 trillion in 2024. Government's share of overall health spending was 64.3% of national health expenditures in 2013 and will rise to 67.1% in 2024. Government health expenditures in the United States account for a larger share of gross domestic product (11.2% in 2013) than do total health expenditures in any other nation. Contrary to public perceptions and official Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates, government funds most health care in the United States. Appreciation of government's predominant role in health funding might encourage more appropriate and equitable targeting of health expenditures.

  5. Sharing the Costs of Access to a Set of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2018-01-01

    A group of agents share assess to a set of public goods. Each good has a cost and the total cost of all goods must be shared among the agents. Agents preferences are described by subsets of goods that provides the agent with service. As such, demands are binary, and it is further assumed...... that agents prefer a low cost share, but other differences in their individual preferences are irrelevant, making demand fully inelastic. The model captures central aspects of several classes of practical problems and therefore has many potential applications. The paper surveys some recent axiomatic...

  6. 44 CFR 13.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... donated. (f) Valuation of grantee or subgrantee donated real property for construction/acquisition. If a....25(g).) (5) Services or property financed by income earned by contractors. Contractors under a grant... from the party awarding the contract. No costs of services or property supported by this income may...

  7. 45 CFR 602.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment and buildings is based on the property's market value at the time it was donated. (f) Valuation of... is described in § 602.25(g).) (5) Services or property financed by income earned by contractors... the amounts earned from the party awarding the contract. No costs of services or property supported by...

  8. 28 CFR 66.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... donated. (f) Valuation of grantee or subgrantee donated real property for construction/acquisition. If a... described in § 66.25(g).) (5) Services or property financed by income earned by contractors. Contractors... amounts earned from the party awarding the contract. No costs of services or property supported by this...

  9. 45 CFR 1183.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment and buildings is based on the property's market value at the time it was donated. (f) Valuation of... is described in § 1183.25(g).) (5) Services or property financed by income earned by contractors... the amounts earned from the party awarding the contract. No costs of services or property supported by...

  10. 34 CFR 80.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... donated. (f) Valuation of grantee or subgrantee donated real property for construction/acquisition. If a....25(g).) (5) Services or property financed by income earned by contractors. Contractors under a grant... from the party awarding the contract. No costs of services or property supported by this income may...

  11. 45 CFR 1157.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... time it was donated. (f) Valuation of grantee or subgrantee donated real property for construction... § 1157.25(g).) (5) Services or property financed by income earned by contractors. Contractors under a... earned from the party awarding the contract. No costs of services or property supported by this income...

  12. 45 CFR 1174.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment and buildings is based on the property's market value at the time it was donated. (f) Valuation of... is described in § 1174.25(g).) (5) Services or property financed by income earned by contractors... the amounts earned from the party awarding the contract. No costs of services or property supported by...

  13. 10 CFR 600.313 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...'s accounting records at the time of donation; or (ii) The current fair market value. If there is... charges. When use charges are applied, values must be determined in accordance with the usual accounting... of recipient's employees. Values are established in accordance with the applicable cost principles in...

  14. 47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; project management; site lease renegotiation; required antenna upgrades for interference control; power... depreciation factor shall be [180−Tm]/180, and the variable C shall be applied as set forth in paragraph (b) of...); towers and/or modifications; back-up power equipment; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs...

  15. 32 CFR 33.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  16. 21 CFR 1403.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other organizations. When an employer... of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If the services are in a... paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, no amount may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use...

  17. 10 CFR 600.224 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other organizations. When an employer... of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If the services are in a... paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, no amount may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use...

  18. 41 CFR 105-71.124 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  19. 29 CFR 97.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  20. 24 CFR 85.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  1. 49 CFR 18.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If... may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated...

  2. 45 CFR 2541.240 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  3. 13 CFR 143.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other organizations. When an employer... of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If the services are in a... paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, no amount may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use...

  4. 38 CFR 43.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  5. 22 CFR 135.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other organizations. When an employer... of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If the services are in a... paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, no amount may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use...

  6. 45 CFR 92.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other organizations. When an employer... of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If the services are in a... paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, no amount may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use...

  7. 15 CFR 24.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other organizations. When an employer... of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If the services are in a... paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, no amount may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use...

  8. 14 CFR 1273.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other organizations. When an employer... of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If the services are in a... paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, no amount may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use...

  9. 7 CFR 3016.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  10. 43 CFR 12.64 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  11. 40 CFR 31.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case, a reasonable amount for fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other... the employee's regular rate of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If..., and only depreciation or use allowances may be counted for donated equipment and buildings. The...

  12. 29 CFR 1470.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fringe benefits may be included in the valuation. (2) Employees of other organizations. When an employer... of pay exclusive of the employee's fringe benefits and overhead costs. If the services are in a... paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, no amount may be counted for donated land, and only depreciation or use...

  13. Research on Cost Information Sharing and Channel Choice in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies examine information sharing in an uncertain demand environment in a supply chain. However there is little literature on cost information sharing in a dual-channel structure consisting of a retail channel and a direct sales channel. Assuming that the retail sale cost and direct sale cost are random variables with a general distribution, the paper investigates the retailer’s choice on cost information sharing in a Bertrand competition model. Based on the equilibrium outcome of information sharing, the manufacturer’s channel choice is discussed in detail. Our paper provides several interesting conclusions. In both single- and dual-channel structures, the retailer has little motivation to share its private cost information which is verified to be valuable for the manufacturer. When the cost correlation between the two channels increases, our analyses show that the manufacturer’s profit improves. However, when channel choice is involved, the value of information could play a different role. The paper finds that a dual-channel structure can benefit the manufacturer only when the cost correlation is sufficiently low. In addition, if the cost correlation is weak, the cost fluctuation will bring out the advantage of a dual-channel structure and adding a new direct channel will help in risk pooling.

  14. On international cost-sharing of pharmaceutical R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita; Martinez-Giralt, Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Ramsey pricing has been proposed in the pharmaceutical industry as a principle to price discriminate among markets while allowing to recover the (fixed) R&D cost. However, such analyses neglect the presence of insurance or the fund raising costs for most of drug reimbursement. By incorporating these new elements, we aim at providing some building blocks towards an economic theory incorporating Ramsey pricing and insurance coverage. We show how coinsurance affects the optimal prices to pay for the R&D investment. We also show that under certain conditions, there is no strategic incentive by governments to set coinsurance rates in order to shift the financial burden of R&D. This will have important implications to the application of Ramsey pricing principles to pharmaceutical products across countries.

  15. Pooled inventory management: a unique cost-sharing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromenschenkel, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    A totally fresh approach to stocking an inventory of costly, long-lead-time nuclear plant equipment became a reality in January, 1981, after three years of effort to form the program. The program, known as Pooled Inventory Management (PIM), is now procuring the first equipment to be stocked in its inventory. This report describes the formation of PIM, how the program works, PIM accomplishments, equipment included in PIM stockpiles, and economics, implementation, and future plans of the program

  16. Dividend Taxation and the Cost of New Share Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias; Södersten, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how the effects of dividend taxation on the cost of new equity funds depend on whether or not shareholders can recover their original equity injections without being subject to the dividend tax. We point out the alternative assumptions in the literature on this, and we compare two different tax regimes, one where it is impossible for the firm to pay cash to its shareholders that is not taxed as dividends, the other where the shareholders are allowed a tax-free return of th...

  17. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... contributions of this thesis are firstly the investigation of incentives for Danish livestock farmers to prevent animal diseases at the farm level and recommendations on how they could be improved. Secondly, the exploration of a mutual fund as a possibility for risk pooling among farmers and how it can...... is used in paper 5. The thesis consists of two parts; first is the introduction section where I introduce the thesis in general and provide an overview of the objectives and main theories and the second part includes the 5 papers which address the thesis objectives. Paper 1 uses existing literature...

  18. 43 CFR 404.40 - What is the non-Federal share of operation, maintenance, and replacement costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost-Sharing § 404.40 What is the non-Federal share of operation, maintenance, and replacement costs? You are required to pay 100 percent of the operation, maintenance, and replacement costs of any rural... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the non-Federal share of operation...

  19. Does a One-Size-Fits-All Cost-Sharing Approach Incentivize Appropriate Medication Use? A Roundtable on the Fairness and Ethics Associated with Variable Cost Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Jennifer S; Shih, Chuck; Barker, Thomas; Dieguez, Gabriela; Larson, Cheryl; Sherman, Helen; Dubois, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    Tiered formularies, in which patients pay copays or coinsurance out-of-pocket (OOP), are used to manage costs and encourage more efficient health care resource use. Formulary tiers are typically based on the cost of treatment rather than the medical appropriateness for the patient. Cost sharing may have unintended consequences on treatment adherence and health outcomes. Use of higher-cost, higher-tier medications can be due to a variety of factors, including unsuccessful treatment because of lack of efficacy or side effects, patient clinical or genetic characteristics, patient preferences to avoid potential side effects, or patient preferences based on the route of administration. For example, patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be required to fail low-cost generic treatments before obtaining coverage for a higher-tier tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor for which they would have a larger financial burden. Little is known about stakeholders' views on the acceptability of greater patient cost sharing if the individual patient characteristics lead to the higher-cost treatments. To identify and discuss the trade-offs associated with variable cost sharing in pharmacy benefits. To discuss the trade-offs associated with variable cost sharing in pharmacy benefits, we convened an expert roundtable of patient, payer, and employer representatives (panelists). Panelists reviewed background white papers, including an ethics framework; actuarial analysis; legal review; and stakeholder perspectives representing health plan, employer, and patient views. Using case studies, panelists were asked to consider (a) when it would be more (or less) acceptable to require higher cost sharing; (b) the optimal distribution of financial burdens across patients, all plan members, and employers; and (c) the existing barriers and potential solutions to align OOP costs with medically appropriate treatments. Panelists felt it was least acceptable for patients to have greater OOP costs if the

  20. Is Job Sharing Worthwhile? A Cost-Benefit Analysis in UK Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    Data from a survey of personnel directors in United Kingdom universities were used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of job sharing from the institutions' perspective. Results show a 5% rise in productivity would raise the ratio of benefits to cost to 14.3 to 1. Retention of staff, reduction of stress, and reduced unemployment are also benefits.…

  1. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation... software) as cost sharing, because: (1) It is difficult to assign values to these intangible contributions... the same cost of lost opportunity to a recipient as contributions of cash or tangible assets. The...

  2. Effects of Caps on Cost Sharing for Skilled Nursing Facility Services in Medicare Advantage Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Rahman, Momotazur; Thomas, Kali S; Trivedi, Amal N

    2018-03-12

    To evaluate a federal regulation effective in 2011 that limited how much that Medicare Advantage (MA) plans could charge for the first 20 days of care in a skilled nursing facility (SNF). Difference-in-differences retrospective analysis comparing SNF utilization trends from 2008-2012. Select MA plans. Members of 27 plans with mandatory cost sharing reductions (n=132,000) and members of 21 plans without such reductions (n=138,846). Mean monthly number of SNF admissions and days per 1,000 members; annual proportion of MA enrollees exiting the plan. In plans with mandated cost sharing reductions, cost sharing for the first 20 days of SNF care decreased from an average of $2,039 in 2010 to $992 in 2011. In adjusted analyses, plans with mandated cost-sharing reductions averaged 158.1 SNF days (95% confidence interval (CI)=153.2-163.1 days) per 1,000 members per month before the cost sharing cap. This measure increased by 14.3 days (95% CI=3.8-24.8 days, p=0.009) in the 2 years after cap implementation. However, increases in SNF utilization did not significantly differ between plans with and without mandated cost-sharing reductions (adjusted between-group difference: 7.1 days per 1,000 members, 95% CI=-6.5-20.8, p=.30). Disenrollment patterns did not change after the cap took effect. When a federal regulation designed to protect MA members from high out-of-pocket costs for postacute care took effect, the use of SNF services did not change. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Costs and Benefits of a Shared Digital Long-Term Preservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa-Pekka Keskitalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the cost-benefit analysis of digital long-term preservation (LTP that was carried out in the context of the Finnish National Digital Library Project (NDL in 2010. The analysis was based on the assumption that as many as 200 archives, libraries, and museums will share an LTP system. The term ‘system’ shall be understood as encompassing not only information technology, but also human resources, organizational structures, policies and funding mechanisms. The cost analysis shows that an LTP system will incur, over the first 12 years, cumulative costs of €42 million, i.e. an average of €3.5 million per annum. Human resources and investments in information technology are the major cost factors. After the initial stages, the analysis predicts annual costs of circa €4 million. The analysis compared scenarios with and without a shared LTP system. The results indicate that a shared system will have remarkable benefits. At the development and implementation stages, a shared system shows an advantage of €30 million against the alternative scenario consisting of five independent LTP solutions. During the later stages, the advantage is estimated at €10 million per annum. The cumulative cost benefit over the first 12 years would amount to circa €100 million.

  4. The Effect of Infrastructure Sharing in Estimating Operations Cost of Future Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace industry are extremely serious about reducing the cost and improving the performance of launch vehicles both manned or unmanned. In the aerospace industry, sharing infrastructure for manufacturing more than one type spacecraft is becoming a trend to achieve economy of scale. An example is the Boeing Decatur facility where both Delta II and Delta IV launch vehicles are made. The author is not sure how Boeing estimates the costs of each spacecraft made in the same facility. Regardless of how a contractor estimates the cost, NASA in its popular cost estimating tool, NASA Air force Cost Modeling (NAFCOM) has to have a method built in to account for the effect of infrastructure sharing. Since there is no provision in the most recent version of NAFCOM2002 to take care of this, it has been found by the Engineering Cost Community at MSFC that the tool overestimates the manufacturing cost by as much as 30%. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess the impact of infrastructure sharing so that better operations cost estimates may be made.

  5. First-dollar cost-sharing for skilled nursing facility care in medicare advantage plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Grebla, Regina C; Rahman, Momotazur; Mukamel, Dana B; Lee, Yoojin; Mor, Vincent; Trivedi, Amal

    2017-08-29

    The initial days of a Medicare-covered skilled nursing facility (SNF) stay may have no cost-sharing or daily copayments depending on beneficiaries' enrollment in traditional Medicare or Medicare Advantage. Some policymakers have advocated imposing first-dollar cost-sharing to reduce post-acute expenditures. We examined the relationship between first-dollar cost-sharing for a SNF stay and use of inpatient and SNF services. We identified seven Medicare Advantage plans that introduced daily SNF copayments of $25-$150 in 2009 or 2010. Copays began on the first day of a SNF admission. We matched these plans to seven matched control plans that did not introduce first-dollar cost-sharing. In a difference-in-differences analysis, we compared changes in SNF and inpatient utilization for the 172,958 members of intervention and control plans. In intervention plans the mean annual number of SNF days per 100 continuously enrolled inpatients decreased from 768.3 to 750.6 days when cost-sharing changes took effect. Control plans experienced a concurrent increase: 721.7 to 808.1 SNF days per 100 inpatients (adjusted difference-in-differences: -87.0 days [95% CI (-112.1,-61.9)]). In intervention plans, we observed no significant changes in the probability of any SNF service use or the number of inpatient days per hospitalized member relative to concurrent trends among control plans. Among several strategies Medicare Advantage plans can employ to moderate SNF use, first-dollar SNF cost-sharing may be one influential factor. Not applicable.

  6. Exploring the cost and value of private versus shared bedrooms in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Margaret; Cassella, Christine

    2007-04-01

    There is debate about the relative merits and costs of private versus shared bedrooms in nursing homes, particularly in light of the current efforts at creating both cost-efficient and person-centered care facilities. The purpose of this project was to explore the extent to which there is evidence-based information that supports the merits of three different bedroom configurations: traditional shared, enhanced shared, and private. We developed a framework of four broad domains that were related to the different bedroom configurations: psychosocial, clinical, operational, and construction or building factors. Within each dimension, we identified individual factors through the literature, interviews, and focus groups, with the goal of determining the breadth, depth, and quality of evidence supporting the benefits of one configuration over another. The vast majority of factors identified in this study, regardless of whether there was solid empirical data, information from the focus groups, or other anecdotal evidence, indicated better outcomes associated with private rooms over shared rooms in nursing homes. Cost estimates suggest that construction cost (plus debt service) differences range from roughly $20,506 per bed for a traditional shared room to $36,515 for a private one, and that such differences are recouped in less than 2 years if beds are occupied, and in less than 3 months if a shared bed remains unoccupied at average private-pay room costs. Despite limited empirical evidence in some areas, this project provides the foundation for an evidence-based life-cycle costing perspective regarding the relative merits of different bedroom configurations.

  7. Association of prescription abandonment with cost share for high-cost specialty pharmacy medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Patrick P; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Sarran, H Scott

    2009-10-01

    In 2008, specialty medications accounted for 15.1% of total pharmacy benefit medication spending, and per member expenditures have increased by 11.1% annually from 2004 to 2008 within a commercially insured population of 8 million members. Insurers face increasing pressure to control specialty medication expenditures and to rely on increasing member cost share through creation of a fourth copayment tier within the incentive-based formulary pharmacy benefit system. Data are needed on the influence that member out-of-pocket (OOP) expense may have on prescription abandonment (defined as the patient never actually taking possession of the medication despite evidence of a written prescription generated by a prescriber). To explore the relationship between prescription abandonment and OOP expense among individuals newly initiating high-cost medication therapy with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocker or multiple sclerosis (MS) biologic agent. This observational cross-sectional study queried a midwestern and southern U.S. database of 13,172,480 commercially insured individuals to find members with a pharmacy benefit-adjudicated claim for a TNF blocker or MS specialty medication during the period from July 2006 through June 2008. Prescription abandonment was assessed among continuously enrolled members newly initiating TNF blocker or MS therapy. Prescription abandonment was defined as reversal of the adjudicated claim with no evidence of a subsequent additional adjudicated paid claim in the ensuing 90 days. Separate analyses for MS and TNF blocker therapy were performed to assess the association between member OOP expense and abandonment rate using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariate logistic regression. Members were placed into 1 of the 7 following OOP expense groups per claim: $0-$100, $101-$150, $151-$200, $201-$250, $251-$350, $351-$500, or more than $500. The association of MS or TNF blocker abandonment rate with OOP expense was tested with logistic

  8. 26 CFR 1.482-7A - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... into a cost sharing agreement to develop manufacturing intangibles for a new product line A. USP and FS... (FS) enter into a cost sharing arrangement to develop new food products, dividing costs on the basis.... See generally § 1.864-2(a). (2) Limitation on allocations. The district director shall not make...

  9. An Update: Changes Abound in Forestry Cost-Share Assistance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Moulton

    1999-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the line-up and funding for federal incentive programs that provide technical and financial assistance to non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners since I last reported on this subject ("Sorting Through Cost-Share Assistance Programs," Nov./Dec. 1994 Tree Farmer). The purpose of this article is to bring you up to...

  10. 34 CFR 658.41 - What are the cost-sharing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the cost-sharing requirements? 658.41 Section 658.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE...

  11. Cost-Sharing of Agricultural Technology Transfer in Nigeria: Perceptions of Farmers and Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozor, N.; Agwu, A. E.; Chukwuone, N. A.; Madukwe, M. C.; Garforth, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    Cost-sharing, which involves government-farmer partnership in the funding of agricultural extension service, is one of the reforms aimed at achieving sustainable funding for extension systems. This study examined the perceptions of farmers and extension professionals on this reform agenda in Nigeria. The study was carried out in six geopolitical…

  12. Impact of cost sharing on utilization of primary health care Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of cost sharing on health-care utilization as viewed from both the providers and beneficiary ... Policy reform for user fees in public health care in poor countries was derived ..... 10,000 (equivalent to US$ 6.25) annually. In return, one gets.

  13. The Role of Medicare's Inpatient Cost-Sharing in Medicaid Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    To isolate the effect of greater inpatient cost-sharing on Medicaid entry among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare administrative data (years 2007-2010) were linked to nursing home assessments and area-level socioeconomic indicators. Medicare beneficiaries who are readmitted to a hospital must pay an additional deductible ($1,100 in 2010) if their readmission occurs more than 59 days following discharge. In a regression discontinuity analysis, we take advantage of this Medicare benefit feature to test whether beneficiaries with greater cost-sharing have higher rates of Medicaid enrollment. We identified 221,248 Medicare beneficiaries with an initial hospital stay and a readmission 53-59 days later (no deductible) or 60-66 days later (charged a deductible). Among beneficiaries in low-socioeconomic areas with two hospitalizations, those readmitted 60-66 days after discharge were 21 percent more likely to join Medicaid compared with those readmitted 53-59 days following their initial hospitalization (absolute difference in adjusted risk of Medicaid entry: 3.7 percent vs. 3.1 percent, p = .01). Increasing Medicare cost-sharing requirements may promote Medicaid enrollment among low-income beneficiaries. Potential savings from an increased cost-sharing in the Medicare program may be offset by increased Medicaid participation. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. 48 CFR 1516.303-75 - Amount of cost-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 1516.303-75 Section 1516.303-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1516.303-75 Amount of... market share position; (3) The time and risk necessary to achieve success; (4) If the results of the...

  15. Cost-Sharing and Drug Pricing Strategies : Introducing Tiered Co-Payments in Reference Price Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppliet, Moritz; Herr, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Health insurances curb price insensitive behavior and moral hazard of insureds through different types of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing. This paper evaluates the effect of newly introduced price limits below which drugs are exempt from co-payments on the pricing

  16. Online Cooperative Promotion and Cost Sharing Policy under Supply Chain Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjiang E

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies online cooperative promotion and cost sharing decisions in competing supply chains. We consider a model of one B2C e-commerce platform and two supply chains each consisting of a supplier and an online retailer. The problem is studied using a multistage game. Firstly, the e-commerce platform carries out the cooperative promotion and sets the magnitude of markdown (the value of e-coupon. Secondly, each retailer and his supplier determine the fraction of promotional cost sharing when they have different bargaining power. Lastly, the retailers decide whether to participate in the cooperative promotion campaign. We show that the retailers are likely to participate in the promotion if consumers become more price-sensitive. However, it does not imply that the retailers can benefit from the price promotion; the promotion decision game resembles the classical prisoner’s dilemma game. The retailers and suppliers can benefit from the cooperative promotion by designing an appropriate cost sharing contract. For a supply chain, the bargaining power between supplier and retailer, consumer price sensitivity, and competition intensity affect the fraction of the promotional cost sharing. We also find that equilibrium value of e-coupon set by the e-commerce platform is not optimal for all the parties.

  17. Punishment in the form of shared cost promotes altruism in the cooperative dilemma games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhu, Yuying; Chen, Zengqiang; Zhang, Jianlei

    2017-05-07

    One phenomenon or social institution often observed in multi-agent interactions is the altruistic punishment, i.e. the punishment of unfair behavior by others at a personal cost. Inspired by the works focusing on punishment and the intricate mechanism behind it, we theoretically study the strategy evolution in the framework of two-strategy game models with the punishment on defectors, moreover, the cost of punishing will be evenly shared among the cooperators. Theoretical computations suggest that larger punishment on defectors or smaller punishment cost incurred by cooperators will enhance the fixation of altruistic cooperation in the population. Through the replicate dynamics, the group size of the randomly selected individuals from the sufficiently large population will notably affect the strategy evolution in populations nested within a dilemma. By theoretical modeling the concept of shared cost for punishment from one point of view, our findings underscore the importance of punishment with shared cost as a factor in real-life decisions in an evolutionary game context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost-effectiveness Assessment of 5G Systems with Cooperative Radio Resource Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nikolikj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By use of techno-economic analysis of heterogeneous hierarchical cell structures and spectral efficiencies of the forthcoming advanced radio access technologies, this paper proposes various cost-efficient capacity enlargement strategies evaluated through the level of the production cost per transferred data unit and achievable profit margins. For the purpose of maximizing the aggregate performance (capacity or profit, we also assess the cooperative manners of radio resource sharing between mobile network operators, especially in the cases of capacity over-provisioning, when we also determine the principles to provide guaranteed data rates to a particular number of users. The results show that, for heavily loaded office environments, the future 5G pico base stations could be a preferable deployment solution. Also, we confirm that the radio resource management method with dynamic resource allocation can significantly improve the capacity of two comparably loaded operators which share the resources and aim to increase their cost effectiveness.

  19. Cost-Sharing of Ecological Construction Based on Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cooperative Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiacai; Zhao, Wenjian

    2016-11-08

    There exist some fuzziness and uncertainty in the process of ecological construction. The aim of this paper is to develop a direct and an effective simplified method for obtaining the cost-sharing scheme when some interested parties form a cooperative coalition to improve the ecological environment of Min River together. Firstly, we propose the solution concept of the least square prenucleolus of cooperative games with coalition values expressed by trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Then, based on the square of the distance in the numerical value between two trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, we establish a corresponding quadratic programming model to obtain the least square prenucleolus, which can effectively avoid the information distortion and uncertainty enlargement brought about by the subtraction of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Finally, we give a numerical example about the cost-sharing of ecological construction in Fujian Province in China to show the validity, applicability, and advantages of the proposed model and method.

  20. Cost-Sharing of Ecological Construction Based on Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cooperative Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacai Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There exist some fuzziness and uncertainty in the process of ecological construction. The aim of this paper is to develop a direct and an effective simplified method for obtaining the cost-sharing scheme when some interested parties form a cooperative coalition to improve the ecological environment of Min River together. Firstly, we propose the solution concept of the least square prenucleolus of cooperative games with coalition values expressed by trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Then, based on the square of the distance in the numerical value between two trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, we establish a corresponding quadratic programming model to obtain the least square prenucleolus, which can effectively avoid the information distortion and uncertainty enlargement brought about by the subtraction of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Finally, we give a numerical example about the cost-sharing of ecological construction in Fujian Province in China to show the validity, applicability, and advantages of the proposed model and method.

  1. Patient cost-sharing, socioeconomic status, and children’s health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Alexander; Nilsson, Anton

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of cost-sharing on the demand for children’s and adolescents’ use of medical care. We use a large population-wide registry dataset including detailed information on contacts with the health care system as well as family income. Two different estimation strategies...... caused by factors other than cost-sharing. We find that when care is free of charge, individuals increase their number of doctor visits by 5–10%. Effects are similar in middle childhood and adolescence, and are driven by those from low-income families. The differences across income groups cannot...... are used: regression discontinuity design exploiting age thresholds above which fees are charged, and difference- in-differences models exploiting policy changes. We also estimate combined regression discontinuity difference-in-differences models that take into account discontinuities around age thresholds...

  2. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  3. The Costs of Benefit Sharing: Historical and Institutional Analysis of Shared Water Development in the Ferghana Valley, the Syr Darya Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkhom Soliev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions on water-energy-food nexus generally lack a historical perspective and more rigorous institutional analysis. Scrutinizing a relatively mature benefit sharing approach in the context of transboundary water management, the study shows how such analysis can be implemented to facilitate understanding in an environment of high institutional and resource complexity. Similar to system perspective within nexus, benefit sharing is viewed as a positive sum approach capable of facilitating cooperation among riparian parties by shifting the focus from the quantities of water to benefits derivable from its use and allocation. While shared benefits from use and allocation are logical corollary of the most fundamental principles of international water law, there are still many controversies as to the conditions under which benefit sharing could serve best as an approach. Recently, the approach has been receiving wider attention in the literature and is increasingly applied in various basins to enhance negotiations. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the costs associated with benefit sharing, particularly in the long run. The study provides a number of concerns that have been likely overlooked in the literature and examines the approach in the case of the Ferghana Valley shared by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan utilizing data for the period from 1917 to 2013. Institutional analysis traces back the origins of property rights of the transboundary infrastructure, shows cooperative activities and fierce negotiations on various governance levels. The research discusses implications of the findings for the nexus debate and unveils at least four types of costs associated with benefit sharing: (1 Costs related to equity of sharing (horizontal and vertical; (2 Costs to the environment; (3 Transaction costs and risks of losing water control; and (4 Costs as a result of likely misuse of issue linkages.

  4. Computational cost estimates for parallel shared memory isogeometric multi-frontal solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Woźniak, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present computational cost estimates for parallel shared memory isogeometric multi-frontal solvers. The estimates show that the ideal isogeometric shared memory parallel direct solver scales as O( p2log(N/p)) for one dimensional problems, O(Np2) for two dimensional problems, and O(N4/3p2) for three dimensional problems, where N is the number of degrees of freedom, and p is the polynomial order of approximation. The computational costs of the shared memory parallel isogeometric direct solver are compared with those corresponding to the sequential isogeometric direct solver, being the latest equal to O(N p2) for the one dimensional case, O(N1.5p3) for the two dimensional case, and O(N2p3) for the three dimensional case. The shared memory version significantly reduces both the scalability in terms of N and p. Theoretical estimates are compared with numerical experiments performed with linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic, and quintic B-splines, in one and two spatial dimensions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computational cost estimates for parallel shared memory isogeometric multi-frontal solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Woźniak, Maciej; Kuźnik, Krzysztof M.; Paszyński, Maciej R.; Calo, Victor M.; Pardo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present computational cost estimates for parallel shared memory isogeometric multi-frontal solvers. The estimates show that the ideal isogeometric shared memory parallel direct solver scales as O( p2log(N/p)) for one dimensional problems, O(Np2) for two dimensional problems, and O(N4/3p2) for three dimensional problems, where N is the number of degrees of freedom, and p is the polynomial order of approximation. The computational costs of the shared memory parallel isogeometric direct solver are compared with those corresponding to the sequential isogeometric direct solver, being the latest equal to O(N p2) for the one dimensional case, O(N1.5p3) for the two dimensional case, and O(N2p3) for the three dimensional case. The shared memory version significantly reduces both the scalability in terms of N and p. Theoretical estimates are compared with numerical experiments performed with linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic, and quintic B-splines, in one and two spatial dimensions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Army Corps of Engineers: Actions Needed to Improve Cost Sharing for Dam Safety Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    agreements with the Corps, their history of being a sponsor, the financial impacts of cost sharing for dam safety repair projects, and the Corps...1240 (2007)) and Beaver Lake dam, AR (Pub. L. No. 102-377, 106 Stat. 1315, 1318 (1992), Pub. L. No. 102-580, § 209(f), 106 Stat. 4797, 4830 (1992...inaction in setting a clear policy for a provision under which sponsors face significant financial impacts has contributed to conditions under

  7. Impact of accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety - Share cost project of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the growing interest in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), some European institutes have established a shared cost project in the framework of the European Community. The overall objective of the project is to make an assessment of the possibilities of accelerator-driven hybrid reactor systems from the point of view of safe energy production, minimum waste production and transmutation capabilities

  8. Price elasticity and medication use: cost sharing across multiple clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Gibson, Teresa B; Chernew, Michael E; Farr, Amanda M; Vogtmann, Emily; Fendrick, A Mark

    2014-11-01

    To address the impact that out-of-pocket prices may have on medication use, it is vital to understand how the demand for medications may be affected when patients are faced with changes in the price to acquire treatment and how price responsiveness differs across medication classes.  To examine the impact of cost-sharing changes on the demand for 8 classes of prescription medications. This was a retrospective database analysis of 11,550,363 commercially insured enrollees within the 2005-2009 MarketScan Database. Patient cost sharing, expressed as a price index for each medication class, was the main explanatory variable to examine the price elasticity of demand. Negative binomial fixed effect models were estimated to examine medication fills. The elasticity estimates reflect how use changes over time as a function of changes in copayments. Model estimates revealed that price elasticity of demand ranged from -0.015 to -0.157 within the 8 categories of medications (P  less than  0.01 for 7 of 8 categories). The price elasticity of demand for smoking deterrents was largest (-0.157, P  less than  0.0001), while demand for antiplatelet agents was not responsive to price (P  greater than 0.05). The price elasticity of demand varied considerably by medication class, suggesting that the influence of cost sharing on medication use may be related to characteristics inherent to each medication class or underlying condition.

  9. Effect of reducing cost sharing for outpatient care on children's inpatient services in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotaka; Goto, Rei

    2017-08-15

    Assessing the impact of cost sharing on healthcare utilization is a critical issue in health economics and health policy. It may affect the utilization of different services, but is yet to be well understood. This paper investigates the effects of reducing cost sharing for outpatient services on hospital admissions by exploring a subsidy policy for children's outpatient services in Japan. Data were extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database for 2012 and 2013. A total of 366,566 inpatients from 1390 municipalities were identified. The impact of expanding outpatient care subsidy on the volume of inpatient care for 1390 Japanese municipalities was investigated using the generalized linear model with fixed effects. A decrease in cost sharing for outpatient care has no significant effect on overall hospital admissions, although this effect varies by region. The subsidy reduces the number of overall admissions in low-income areas, but increases it in high-income areas. In addition, the results for admissions by type show that admissions for diagnosis increase particularly in high-income areas, but emergency admissions and ambulatory-care-sensitive-condition admissions decrease in low-income areas. These results suggest that outpatient and inpatient services are substitutes in low-income areas but complements in high-income ones. Although the subsidy for children's healthcare would increase medical costs, it would not improve the health status in high-income areas. Nevertheless, it could lead to some health improvements in low-income areas and, to some extent, offset costs by reducing admissions in these regions.

  10. The Great Recession And Increased Cost Sharing In European Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Raffaele; Lee, John Tayu; Hone, Thomas; Filippidis, Filippos T; Millett, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    European health systems are increasingly adopting cost-sharing models, potentially increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for patients who use health care services or buy medications. Government policies that increase patient cost sharing are responding to incremental growth in cost pressures from aging populations and the need to invest in new health technologies, as well as to general constraints on public expenditures resulting from the Great Recession (2007-09). We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to examine changes from 2006-07 to 2013 in out-of-pocket expenditures among people ages fifty and older in eleven European countries. Our results identify increases both in the proportion of older European citizens who incurred out-of-pocket expenditures and in mean out-of-pocket expenditures over this period. We also identified a significant increase over time in the percentage of people who incurred catastrophic health expenditures (greater than 30 percent of the household income) in the Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain. Poorer populations were less likely than those in the highest income quintile to incur an out-of-pocket expenditure and reported lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures, which suggests that measures are in place to provide poorer groups with some financial protection. These findings indicate the substantial weakening of financial protection for people ages fifty and older in European health systems after the Great Recession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Emission allowances and mitigation costs of China and India resulting from different effort-sharing approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijven, Bas J. van; Weitzel, Matthias; den Elzen, Michel G.J.; Hof, Andries F.; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Peterson, Sonja; Narita, Daiju

    2012-01-01

    To meet ambitious global climate targets, mitigation effort in China and India is necessary. This paper presents an analysis of the scientific literature on how effort-sharing approaches affect emission allowances and abatement costs of China and India. We find that reductions for both China and India differ greatly in time, across- and within approaches and between concentration stabilisation targets. For China, allocated emission allowances in 2020 are substantially below baseline projections. Moreover, they may be below 2005 emission levels, particularly for low concentration targets (below 490 ppm CO 2 -eq). Effort-sharing approaches based on allocating reduction targets lead to relatively lower reductions for China than approaches that are based on allocating emission allowances. For 2050, emission allowances for China are 50–80% below 2005 levels for low concentration targets with minor differences between approaches. Still, mitigation costs of China (including emissions trading) remain mostly below global average. According to literature, Chinese emission allowances peak before 2025–2030 for low concentration targets. India’s emission allowances show high increases compared to 2005 levels. If emission trading is allowed, financial revenues from selling credits might compensate mitigation costs in most approaches, even for low concentration targets. India’s emission allowances peak around 2030–2040 for all concentration targets.

  12. Assessing Programming Costs of Explicit Memory Localization on a Large Scale Shared Memory Multiprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Picano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed experimental work involving a commercially available large scale shared memory multiple instruction stream-multiple data stream (MIMD parallel computer having a software controlled cache coherence mechanism. To make effective use of such an architecture, the programmer is responsible for designing the program's structure to match the underlying multiprocessors capabilities. We describe the techniques used to exploit our multiprocessor (the BBN TC2000 on a network simulation program, showing the resulting performance gains and the associated programming costs. We show that an efficient implementation relies heavily on the user's ability to explicitly manage the memory system.

  13. Policy Framework for Covering Preventive Services Without Cost Sharing: Saving Lives and Saving Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie C; Pearson, Steven D

    2016-08-01

    The US Affordable Care Act mandates that private insurers cover a list of preventive services without cost sharing. The list is determined by 4 expert committees that evaluate the overall health effect of preventive services. We analyzed the process by which the expert committees develop their recommendations. Each committee uses different criteria to evaluate preventive services and none of the committees consider cost systematically. We propose that the existing committees adopt consistent evidence review methodologies and expand the scope of preventive services reviewed and that a separate advisory committee be established to integrate economic considerations into the final selection of free preventive services. The comprehensive framework and associated criteria are intended to help policy makers in the future develop a more evidence-based, consistent, and ethically sound approach.

  14. A Supply Chain Coordination Mechanism with Cost Sharing of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The competition of modern enterprises has shifted from brand competition among enterprises of the past to that of supply chains; and considering corporate social responsibility (CSR within supply chain management has become an inevitable requirement for improving the competitiveness of enterprises and conforms to the trend of standardization of social responsibility guidelines. This paper deals with channel coordination and decision-making in a CSR supply chain that is comprised of a dominant retailer and n homogeneous suppliers. The Stackelberg game is employed to analyze the optimal decision-making of this supply chain under either decentralized or centralized decision-making processes. After that, the thought and method of super conflict equilibrium are used to design the coordination decision-making mechanism of this supply chain based on the cost sharing of CSR to solve channel conflict and to optimize the decision. The results show that the proposed mechanism based on the cost sharing of CSR is better than those with only either the retailer or the suppliers being CSR; and it can well describe the relationship between the retailer and the suppliers, and increase the eagerness of the retailer and suppliers to carry out their CSR under various circumstances without having the profits adversely affected. As a matter of fact, this mechanism maximizes the profits of the entire supply chain system and also enhances the competitiveness of the chain.

  15. Impact of Cost-Sharing Increases on Continuity of Specialty Drug Use: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengxiang; Hu, Tianyan; Yu, Xinyan; Chahin, Salim; Dahodwala, Nabila; Blum, Marissa; Pettit, Amy R; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2017-07-24

    To examine the impact of cost-sharing increases on continuity of specialty drug use in Medicare beneficiaries with multiple sclerosis (MS) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Five percent Medicare claims data (2007-2010). Quasi-experimental study examining changes in specialty drug use among a group of Medicare Part D beneficiaries without low-income subsidies (non-LIS) as they transitioned from a 5 percent cost-sharing preperiod to a ≥25 percent cost-sharing postperiod, as compared to changes among a disease-matched contemporaneous control group of patients eligible for full low-income subsidies (LIS), who faced minor cost sharing (≤$6.30 copayment) in both the pre- and postperiods. Key variables were extracted from Medicare data. Relative to the LIS group, the non-LIS group had a greater increase in incidence of 30-day continuous gaps in any Part D treatment from the lower cost-sharing period to the higher cost-sharing period (MS, absolute increase = 10.1 percent, OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.19-2.17; RA, absolute increase = 21.9 percent, OR = 2.75, 95% CI 2.15-3.51). The increase in Part D treatment gaps was not offset by increased Part B specialty drug use. Cost-sharing increases due to specialty tier-level cost sharing were associated with interruptions in MS and RA specialty drug treatments. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Cost shared wildfire risk mitigation in Log Hill Mesa, Colorado: Survey evidence on participation and willingness to pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Travis Warziniack; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia C. Falk

    2014-01-01

    Wildland-urban interface (WUI) homeowners who do not mitigate the wildfire risk on their properties impose a negative externality on society. To reduce the social costs of wildfire and incentivise homeowners to take action, cost sharing programs seek to reduce the barriers that impede wildfire risk mitigation. Using survey data from a WUI community in western Colorado...

  17. Recent results from CEC cost sharing research programme on LWR fuel behaviour under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The present structure and intentions of the CEC sponsored cost sharing programme for LWR safety research are outlined. Detailed results are reported for two projects from this programme. The first project concerns experimental data on the thermohydraulic effects of flow diversion around ballooned fuel rods. Data are presented on single and two phase heat transfer in an electrically heated rod bundle. Detailed photographic data on droplet behaviour are also given. The second project is an investigation of the effects of zircaloy oxidation on rewetting during reflood. It is shown that as oxide thickness increases from 1μm to 76μm that rewet rates can increase by up to 40%. A systematic effect of oxidation on rewet temperatures is also noted. (author)

  18. The magnitude, share and determinants of unpaid care costs for home-based palliative care service provision in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Huamin; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care in Canada, economic evaluation is warranted, given its tremendous demands on family caregivers. Despite this, very little is known about the economic outcomes associated with home-based unpaid care-giving at the end of life. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the magnitude and share of unpaid care costs in total healthcare costs for home-based palliative care patients, from a societal perspective and (ii) examine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that account for variations in this share. One hundred and sixty-nine caregivers of patients with a malignant neoplasm were interviewed from time of referral to a home-based palliative care programme provided by the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, until death. Information regarding palliative care resource utilisation and costs, time devoted to care-giving and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was collected between July 2005 and September 2007. Over the last 12 months of life, the average monthly cost was $14 924 (2011 CDN$) per patient. Unpaid care-giving costs were the largest component - $11 334, accounting for 77% of total palliative care expenses, followed by public costs ($3211; 21%) and out-of-pocket expenditures ($379; 2%). In all cost categories, monthly costs increased exponentially with proximity to death. Seemingly unrelated regression estimation suggested that the share of unpaid care costs of total costs was driven by patients' and caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics. Results suggest that overwhelming the proportion of palliative care costs is unpaid care-giving. This share of costs requires urgent attention to identify interventions aimed at alleviating the heavy financial burden and to ultimately ensure the viability of home-based palliative care in future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Understanding Barriers to Participation in Cost-Share Programs For Pollinator Conservation by Wisconsin (USA) Cranberry Growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250) regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees.

  20. Understanding Barriers to Participation in Cost-Share Programs For Pollinator Conservation by Wisconsin (USA Cranberry Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Gaines-Day

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250 regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees.

  1. The association of consumer cost-sharing and direct-to-consumer advertising with prescription drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Schommer, Jon C; Cline, Richard R; Hadsall, Ronald S; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Nyman, John A

    2005-06-01

    Previous research on the impact of various cost-sharing strategies on prescription drug use has not considered the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. To explore the association of cost-containment strategies with prescription drug use and to determine if the association is moderated by DTC prescription drug advertising. The study population included 288 280 employees and dependents aged 18 to 65 years with employer-sponsored health insurance contributing to the MEDSTAT MarketScan administrative data set. Person-level enrollment and claims data were obtained for beneficiaries enrolled continuously during July 1997 through December 1998. Direct-to-consumer advertising data were obtained from Competitive Media Reporting and linked to the MEDSTAT enrollment files. Localized DTC advertising expenditures for one class of medication were evaluated and matched with prescription claims for eligible MEDSTAT contributors. The association of various types and levels of cost-sharing incentives with incident product use was evaluated, controlling for the level of DTC advertising, health status, and other demographic covariates. The relationship of cost-sharing amounts with drug use was modified by the level of DTC advertising in a geographic market. This relationship was dependent on the type of cost-sharing, distinguishing between co-payments for provider visits and co-payments for prescription drugs. Compared with low-advertising markets, individuals residing in markets with high levels of advertising and paying provider co-payments of $10.00 or more were more likely to use the advertised product. In the same markets, higher prescription drug co-payments were associated with a decreased likelihood of using the advertised product. A similar relationship was not observed for the nonadvertised competitor. Among insured individuals, response to cost-sharing strategies is moderated by DTC prescription drug advertising. The relative ability of cost-sharing strategies to

  2. Shared use of school facilities with community organizations and afterschool physical activity program participation: a cost-benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Filardo, Mary; Edwards, Michael B; McKenzie, Thomas L; Floyd, Myron F

    2014-05-01

    Partnerships between school districts and community-based organizations to share school facilities during afterschool hours can be an effective strategy for increasing physical activity. However, the perceived cost of shared use has been noted as an important reason for restricting community access to schools. This study examined shared use of middle school facilities, the amount and type of afterschool physical activity programs provided at middle schools together with the costs of operating the facilities. Afterschool programs were assessed for frequency, duration, and type of structured physical activity programs provided and the number of boys and girls in each program. School operating costs were used to calculate a cost per student and cost per building square foot measure. Data were collected at all 30 middle schools in a large school district over 12 months in 2010-2011. Policies that permitted more use of school facilities for community-sponsored programs increased participation in afterschool programs without a significant increase in operating expenses. These results suggest partnerships between schools and other community agencies to share facilities and create new opportunities for afterschool physical activity programs are a promising health promotion strategy. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  3. Vertical Cost-Information Sharing in a Food Supply Chain with Multiple Unreliable Suppliers and Two Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjian Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a food supply chain where multiple suppliers provide completely substitutable food products to two manufacturers. Meanwhile, the suppliers face yield uncertainty and the manufacturers face uncertain production costs that are private information. While the suppliers compete on price, the manufacturers compete on quantity. We build a stylized multistage game theoretic model to analyze the issue of vertical cost-information sharing (VCIS within the supply chain by considering key parameters, including the level of yield uncertainty, two manufacturers’ cost correlation, the correlated coefficient of suppliers’ yield processes, and the number of suppliers. We study the suppliers’ optimal wholesale price and the manufacturers’ optimal order quantities under different VCIS strategies. Finally, through numerical analyses, we examine how key parameters affect the value of VCIS to each supplier and each manufacturer, respectively. We found that the manufacturers are willing to share cost information with suppliers only when the two manufacturers’ cost correlation is less than a threshold. While a high correlated coefficient of suppliers’ yield processes and a large number of suppliers promote complete information sharing, a high level of yield uncertainty hinders complete information sharing. All these findings have important implications to industry practices.

  4. Do individuals respond to cost-sharing subsidies in their selections of marketplace health insurance plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeire, Thomas; Chappel, Andre; Finegold, Kenneth; Gee, Emily

    2017-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides assistance to low-income consumers through both premium subsidies and cost-sharing reductions (CSRs). Low-income consumers' lack of health insurance literacy or information regarding CSRs may lead them to not take-up CSR benefits for which they are eligible. We use administrative data from 2014 to 2016 on roughly 22 million health insurance plan choices of low-income individuals enrolled in ACA Marketplace coverage to assess whether they behave in a manner consistent with being aware of the availability of CSRs. We take advantage of discontinuous changes in the schedule of CSR benefits to show that consumers are highly sensitive to the value of CSRs when selecting insurance plans and that a very low percentage select dominated plans. These findings suggest that CSR subsidies are salient to consumers and that the program is well designed to account for any lack of health insurance literacy among the low-income population it serves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between drug insurance cost sharing strategies and outcomes in patients with chronic diseases: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikaramjit S Mann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prescription drugs are used in people with hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease to manage their illness. Patient cost sharing strategies such as copayments and deductibles are often employed to lower expenditures for prescription drug insurance plans, but the impact on health outcomes in these patients is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between drug insurance and patient cost sharing strategies on medication adherence, clinical and economic outcomes in those with chronic diseases (defined herein as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Studies were included if they examined various cost sharing strategies including copayments, coinsurance, fixed copayments, deductibles and maximum out-of-pocket expenditures. Value-based insurance design and reference based pricing studies were excluded. Two reviewers independently identified original intervention studies (randomized controlled trials, interrupted time series, and controlled before-after designs. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and relevant reference lists were searched until March 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, quality, and extracted data. Eleven studies, assessing the impact of seven policy changes, were included: 2 separate reports of one randomized controlled trial, 4 interrupted time series, and 5 controlled before-after studies. FINDINGS: Outcomes included medication adherence, clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke, death, quality of life, healthcare utilization, or cost. The heterogeneity among the studies precluded meta-analysis. Few studies reported the impact of cost sharing strategies on mortality, clinical and economic outcomes. The association between patient copayments and medication adherence varied across studies, ranging from no difference to significantly lower adherence, depending on the amount of the copayment

  6. An analysis of factors affecting participation behavior of limited resource farmers in agricultural cost-share programs in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Buddhi Gyawali; Jianbang Gan; Mark Dubois; John Schelhas

    2004-01-01

    This study examines factors that affect the participation behavior of limited resource farmers in agricultural cost-share programs in Alabama. The data were generated from a survey administered to a sample of limited resource farm operators. A binary logit model was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that college education, age, gross sales, ratio of owned...

  7. Knowledge Sharing Behavior in E-Communities: from the Perspective of Transaction Cost Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa L. Ju; Szu-Yuan Sun; Pei-Ju Chao; Chang-Yao Wu

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors affecting knowledge sharing behavior in knowledge-based electronic communities (e-communities) because quantity and quality of knowledge shared among the members play a critical role in the community-s sustainability. Past research has suggested three perspectives that may affect the quantity and quality of knowledge shared: economics, social psychology, and social ecology. In this study, we strongly believe that an economic perspective ma...

  8. Elimination of cost-sharing and receipt of screening for colorectal and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Goodman, Michael; Flanders, W Dana; Han, Xuesong; Smith, Robert A; M Ward, Elizabeth; Doubeni, Chyke A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-09-15

    The aim of the cost-sharing provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was to reduce financial barriers for preventive services, including screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC) among privately and Medicare-insured individuals. Whether the provision has affected CRC and BC screening prevalence is unknown. The current study investigated whether CRC and BC screening prevalence among privately and Medicare-insured adults by socioeconomic status (SES) changed before and after the ACA. Data obtained from the National Health Interview Survey pertaining to privately and Medicare-insured adults from 2008 (before the ACA) and 2013 (after the ACA) were used. There were 15,786 adults aged 50 to 75 years in the CRC screening analysis and 14,530 women aged ≥40 years in the BC screening analysis. Changes in guideline-recommended screening between 2008 and 2013 by SES were expressed as the prevalence difference (PD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) adjusted for demographics, insurance, income, education, body mass index, and having a usual provider. Overall, CRC screening prevalence increased from 57.3% to 61.2% between 2008 and 2013 (Pscreening prevalence during the corresponding period increased in low-income (PD, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 10.2), least-educated (PD, 7.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 13.5), and Medicare-insured (PD, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.7 to 10.7) individuals, but not in high-income, most-educated, and privately insured respondents. BC screening remained unchanged overall (70.5% in 2008 vs 70.2% in 2013) and in the low SES groups. Increases in CRC screening prevalence between 2008 and 2013 were confined to respondents with low SES. These findings may in part reflect the ACA's removal of financial barriers. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Cost sharing and hereditary cancer risk: predictors of willingness-to-pay for genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matro, Jennifer M; Ruth, Karen J; Wong, Yu-Ning; McCully, Katen C; Rybak, Christina M; Meropol, Neal J; Hall, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Increasing use of predictive genetic testing to gauge hereditary cancer risk has been paralleled by rising cost-sharing practices. Little is known about how demographic and psychosocial factors may influence individuals' willingness-to-pay for genetic testing. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Risk Assessment Program Registry includes individuals presenting for genetic risk assessment based on personal/family cancer history. Participants complete a baseline survey assessing cancer history and psychosocial items. Willingness-to-pay items include intention for: genetic testing only if paid by insurance; testing with self-pay; and amount willing-to-pay ($25-$2,000). Multivariable models examined predictors of willingness-to-pay out-of-pocket (versus only if paid by insurance) and willingness-to-pay a smaller versus larger sum (≤$200 vs. ≥$500). All statistical tests are two-sided (α = 0.05). Of 385 evaluable participants, a minority (42%) had a personal cancer history, while 56% had ≥1 first-degree relative with colorectal cancer. Overall, 21.3% were willing to have testing only if paid by insurance, and 78.7% were willing-to-pay. Predictors of willingness-to-pay were: 1) concern for positive result; 2) confidence to control cancer risk; 3) fewer perceived barriers to colorectal cancer screening; 4) benefit of testing to guide screening (all p testing (all p testing, and anticipate benefits to reducing cancer risk. Identifying factors associated with willingness-to-pay for genetic services is increasingly important as testing is integrated into routine cancer care.

  10. Procedures for initiation, cost-sharing and management of OECD projects in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    , finances and management should be considered in order to accommodate requirements and boundary conditions that might differ from case to case. Flexibility might include consideration of in-kind contributions when applicable for project furtherance. This proposal is primarily concerned with projects that are organised by the NEA secretariat upon CSNI recommendations and initiative. One should also notice that the NEA Nuclear Safety Division has for some time operated a database on common cause events denominated ICDE. Two additional databases, one on fire events (FIRE database) and one on piping failure (OPDE database) have started in 2002. They are smaller projects, which do not have a host country. These procedures apply also to these projects, with the exception that, for the latter ones, costs are equally shared among participants

  11. Incentive mechanism based on cooperative advertising for cost information sharing in a supply chain with competing retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setak, Mostafa; Kafshian Ahar, Hajar; Alaei, Saeed

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new motivation for information sharing in a decentralized channel consisting of a single manufacturer and two competing retailers. The manufacturer provides a common product to the retailers at the same wholesale price. Both retailers add their own values to the product and distribute it to consumers. Factors such as retail prices, values added to the product, and local advertising of the retailers simultaneously have effect on market demand. Each retailer has full information about the own added value which is unknown to the manufacturer and other retailer. The manufacturer uses a cooperative advertising program for motivating the retailers to disclose their private information. A numerical study is presented to compare different scenarios of information sharing. Computational results show that there is a condition in which full information sharing is beneficial for all members of the supply chain through cooperative advertising program and, therefore, retailers have enough incentive to disclose their cost information to the manufacturer.

  12. Increased Patient Cost-Sharing, Weak US Economy, and Poor Health Habits: Implications for Employers and Insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haren, Melinda C; McConnell, Kirk; Shinn, Arthur F

    2009-04-01

    Many healthcare stakeholders, including insurers and employers, agree that growth in healthcare costs is inevitable. But the current trend toward further cost-shifting to employees and other health plan members is unsustainable. In 2008, the Zitter Group conducted a large national study on the relationship between insurers and employers, to understand how these 2 healthcare stakeholders interact in the creation of health benefit design. The survey results were previously summarized and discussed in the February/March 2009 issue of this journal. The present article aims to assess the implications of those results in the context of the growing tendency to increase patient cost-sharing, a weak US economy, and poor health habits. Increasing cost-sharing is a blunt instrument: although it may reduce utilization of frivolous services, it may also result in individuals forgoing medically necessary care. Increases in deductibles will lead to an overall decrease in optimal care-seeking behavior as families juggle healthcare costs with a weak economy and stagnating wages.

  13. Medicaid program; premiums and cost sharing. Final rule; delay of effective date and reopening of comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-27

    This action temporarily delays the effective date of the November 25, 2008 final rule entitled, Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing" (73 FR 71828) until December 31, 2009. In addition, this action reopens the comment period on the policies set out in the November 25, 2008 final rule, and specifically solicits comments on the effect of certain provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  14. Scaling cost-sharing to wages: how employers can reduce health spending and provide greater economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    In the employer-sponsored insurance market that covers most Americans; many workers are "underinsured." The evidence shows onerous out-of-pocket payments causing them to forgo needed care, miss work, and fall into bankruptcies and foreclosures. Nonetheless, many higher-paid workers are "overinsured": the evidence shows that in this domain, surplus insurance stimulates spending and price inflation without improving health. Employers can solve these problems together by scaling cost-sharing to wages. This reform would make insurance better protect against risk and guarantee access to care, while maintaining or even reducing insurance premiums. Yet, there are legal obstacles to scaled cost-sharing. The group-based nature of employer health insurance, reinforced by federal law, makes it difficult for scaling to be achieved through individual choices. The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) "essential coverage" mandate also caps cost-sharing even for wealthy workers that need no such cap. Additionally, there is a tax distortion in favor of highly paid workers purchasing healthcare through insurance rather than out-of-pocket. These problems are all surmountable. In particular, the ACA has expanded the applicability of an unenforced employee-benefits rule that prohibits "discrimination" in favor of highly compensated workers. A novel analysis shows that this statute gives the Internal Revenue Service the authority to require scaling and to thereby eliminate the current inequities and inefficiencies caused by the tax distortion. The promise is smarter insurance for over 150 million Americans.

  15. Costing Household Surveys for Monitoring Progress Toward Ending Extreme Poverty and Boosting Shared Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Talip; Serajuddin, Umar; Uematsu, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    On October 15, 2015, World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim announced the World Bank Group’s commitment to support the 78 poorest countries to implement a multi-topic household survey every three years between 2016 and 2030, for monitoring progress toward ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. This paper estimates the resource requirements to achieve the objectives of impl...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1182 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... actual relocation costs. Specifically, the AWS relocator must submit, in the first instance, only the uniform cost data requested by the clearinghouse along with copies, without redaction, of the relocation...) Wholly outside its frequency band; or (2) Not within line of sight of the relocator's transmitting base...

  17. Ensuring the adequacy of cost share provisions in superfund state contracts. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The memorandum requests regional offices to re-examine existing Superfund State Contracts (SSCs) for Fund-financed remedial actions to verify that they adequately reflect incurred and projected remedial action costs

  18. Medicaid program; premiums and cost sharing. Final rule; delay of effective data and reopening of comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-27

    In accordance with the memorandum of January 20, 2009, from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Review Plan," this action temporarily delays for 60 days the effective date of the final rule entitled "Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing" (73 FR 71828). The temporary 60-day delay in effective date is necessary to give Department officials the opportunity for further review and consideration of new regulations. In addition, this action reopens the comment period on the policies set out in the November 25, 2008 final rule.

  19. Sharing the cost of dike maintenance in the south- western Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijningen, van Piet

    2017-01-01

    For early modern societies, distributing the costs of flood defences between the stakeholders in an equitable way was difficult. Institutions were abused by powerful groups to shift the financial burden to poorer groups. According to Epstein, such elite abuse of institutions was possible because

  20. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

  1. 33 CFR 241.5 - Procedures for estimating the alternative cost-share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pay differential for Federal workers who purchase local retail and who use private housing, employed... in the Federal Government's cost of living pay differential for Federal workers who purchase local... replacement income factor by both b1 and b2 and subtract each from a in the equation in § 241.5(b)(5)). The...

  2. The Community's R and D programme on the management and storage of radioactive waste. Shared-cost action programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMenamin, T.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1975 the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) has been operating a series of shared-cost action programmes in the field of radioactive waste management with the primary objective of developing methods to protect the public and the environment against the potential hazards of radioactive waste. Member States with small, as well as sizeable, nuclear programmes have been taking part. The choice and type of topics for the programme have depended largely on the work being carried out nationally by these countries with the programmes acting as a support and extension to national projects. To this end they have acted as a catalyst in encouraging and promoting cross-border cooperation and have provided a unique opportunity to compare results and ideas leading to improved quality and efficiency. The list of publications covers reports, proceedings, communications and information leaflets produced and published in the framework of the cost-sharing research programmes of the Commission of the European Communities on radioactive waste management and disposal. The list, which is regularly updated, includes: reports of contractors on research supported by the Commission; reports on research in coordinated actions, assembled and edited by the Commission staff or on behalf of the Commission; proceedings of meetings, conferences and workshops organized and edited by the Commission staff; scientific reports, communications, annual progress reports and information leaflets produced and edited by the Commission staff. Not included are contributions of contractors and staff to national or international meetings, workshops, conferences and expert groups

  3. Community R and D programme on radioactive waste management and storage (Shared Cost Action). List of scientific reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.; Falke, W.

    1984-11-01

    The scientific reports listed herein have been brought out in the scope of the Research and Development programme sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities in the field of Radioactive Waste Management and Storage. The list systematically contains the references of all final R and D reports and equivalent scientific publications drawn up since 1975 on the various contractual research works sponsored by the Commission in its programme on shared cost terms (Shared Cost Action). It states the autor of the work, the title, the EUR report number (where applicable), the way of publication and the contractor's reference (CEC contract number). The content headings are: conditioning of fuel cladding and dissolution residues, immobilization and storage of gaseous waste, treatment of Low and Medium Level waste, processing of alpha contaminated waste, characterization of conditioned Low and Medium Level waste forms, testing of solidified High Level waste forms, shallow land burial of solid Low Level waste, waste disposal in geological formations, safety of radioactive waste disposal, and annual progress reports of the Community programme

  4. [Changing the internal cost allocation (ICA) on DRG shares : Example of computed tomography in a university radiology setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, K; Zielinski, P; Trinter, T; Stahl, R; Mück, F; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2016-08-01

    In hospitals, the radiological services provided to non-privately insured in-house patients are mostly distributed to requesting disciplines through internal cost allocation (ICA). In many institutions, computed tomography (CT) is the modality with the largest amount of allocation credits. The aim of this work is to compare the ICA to respective DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups) shares for diagnostic CT services in a university hospital setting. The data from four CT scanners in a large university hospital were processed for the 2012 fiscal year. For each of the 50 DRG groups with the most case-mix points, all diagnostic CT services were documented including their respective amount of GOÄ allocation credits and invoiced ICA value. As the German Institute for Reimbursement of Hospitals (InEK) database groups the radiation disciplines (radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy) together and also lacks any modality differentiation, the determination of the diagnostic CT component was based on the existing institutional distribution of ICA allocations. Within the included 24,854 cases, 63,062,060 GOÄ-based performance credits were counted. The ICA relieved these diagnostic CT services by € 819,029 (single credit value of 1.30 Eurocent), whereas accounting by using DRG shares would have resulted in € 1,127,591 (single credit value of 1.79 Eurocent). The GOÄ single credit value is 5.62 Eurocent. The diagnostic CT service was basically rendered as relatively inexpensive. In addition to a better financial result, changing the current ICA to DRG shares might also mean a chance for real revenues. However, the attractiveness considerably depends on how the DRG shares are distributed to the different radiation disciplines of one institution.

  5. Association of Cost Sharing With Use of Home Health Services Among Medicare Advantage Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qijuan; Keohane, Laura M; Thomas, Kali; Lee, Yoojin; Trivedi, Amal N

    2017-07-01

    Several policy proposals advocate introducing copayments for home health care in the Medicare program. To our knowledge, no prior studies have assessed this cost-containment strategy. To determine the association of home health copayments with use of home health services. A difference-in-differences case-control study of 18 Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that introduced copayments for home health care between 2007 and 2011 and 18 concurrent control MA plans. The study included 135 302 enrollees in plans that introduced copayment and 155 892 enrollees in matched control plans. Introduction of copayments for home health care between 2007 and 2011. Proportion of enrollees receiving home health care, annual numbers of home health episodes, and days receiving home health care. Copayments for home health visits ranged from $5 to $20 per visit, which were estimated to be associated with $165 (interquartile range [IQR], $45-$180) to $660 (IQR, $180-$720) in out-of-pocket spending for the average user of home health care. The increased copayment for home health care was not associated with the proportion of enrollees receiving home health care (adjusted difference-in-differences, -0.15 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.38 to 0.09), the number of home health episodes per user (adjusted difference-in-differences, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.03), and home health days per user (adjusted difference-in-differences, -0.19; 95% CI, -3.02 to 2.64). In both intervention and control plans and across all levels of copayments, we observed higher disenrollment rates among enrollees with greater baseline use of home health care. We found no evidence that imposing copayments reduced the use of home health services among older adults. More intensive use of home health services was associated with increased rates of disenrollment in MA plans. The findings raise questions about the potential effectiveness of this cost-containment strategy.

  6. The Effect of Cost Sharing on an Employee Weight Loss Program: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Leslie K; Troxel, Andrea B; Yancy, William S; Friedman, Joelle; Zhu, Jingsan; Yang, Lin; Galvin, Robert; Miller-Kovach, Karen; Halpern, Scott D; Loewenstein, George; Volpp, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    To test the effects of employer subsidies on employee enrollment, attendance, and weight loss in a nationally available weight management program. A randomized trial tested the impact of employer subsidy: 100%; 80%, 50%, and a hybrid 50% subsidy that could become a 100% subsidy by attaining attendance targets. NCT01756066. Twenty three thousand twenty-three employees of 2 US companies. The primary outcome was the percentage of employees who enrolled in the weight management program. We also tested whether the subsidies were associated with differential attendance and weight loss over 12 months, as might be predicted by the expectation that they attract employees with differing degrees of motivation. Analysis and Results: Enrollment differed significantly by subsidy level ( P < .0001). The 100% subsidy produced the highest enrollment (7.7%), significantly higher than each of the lower subsidies (vs 80% subsidy: 6.2%, P = .002; vs 50% subsidy: 3.9%, P < .0001; vs hybrid: 3.7%, P < .0001). Enrollment in the 80% subsidy group was significantly higher than both lower subsidy groups (vs 50% subsidy: 3.9%, P < .0001; vs hybrid: 3.7%, P < .0001). Among enrollees, there were no differences among the 4 groups in attendance or weight loss. This pragmatic trial, conducted in a real-world workplace setting, suggests that higher rates of employer subsidization help individuals to enroll in weight loss programs, without a decrement in program effectiveness. Future research could explore the cost-effectiveness of such subsidies or alternative designs.

  7. Does cost sharing do more harm or more good? - a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kolasa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are positive and negative consequences of the implementation of out of pocket (OOP payments as a source of the healthcare financing. On the one hand, OOP burden increases awareness of treatment costs and limits unnecessary use of healthcare services. On the other hand, it may prevent the sick from accessing needed care. Consequently there are several aspects that ought to be taken into consideration while defining the optimal structure of OOP payments. The objective of this study was twofold. Firstly, it was to understand what actions are taken to decrease the OOP burden. Secondly, it was to address the question whether the implementation of any form of formal OOP payments may impact negatively upon fairness in financial contribution. Methods The literature search was conducted using the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Center of Review and Dissemination databases. Only studies which measured the Kakwani index of progressivity in at least two time points were included. Articles written in English published between January 2004 and September 2015 were searched. No geographical restriction was imposed. An increment of more than 0.10 in the Kakwani index was considered as a significant health policy impact. Results In total 16 publications were included, of which nine studied attempts to decrease the OOP burden, four described the consequences of the introduction of formal fees, and three covered both topics. Overall, a significant health policy impact was noted in four cases. All of them related to a reduction in the OOP burden, with three and one noting a change towards the progressivity and regressivity of direct healthcare payments respectively. Among jurisdictions which introduced formal fees, none study noted a significant impact on the regressivity of OOP spendings. Conclusions In the majority of cases, a health policy impact on the distribution of OOP health payments was insignificant. The reduction of OOP

  8. Cost-Sharing Contracts for Energy Saving and Emissions Reduction of a Supply Chain under the Conditions of Government Subsidies and a Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yuyin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level, and wholesale price successively. In the end, the retailer determines the retail price. As a regulation, the government provides subsidies for energy-saving products, while imposing a carbon tax on the carbon emitted. The results show that (1 both the energy-saving cost-sharing (ECS and the carbon emissions reduction cost-sharing (CCS contracts are not the dominant strategy of the two parties by which they can facilitate energy savings and emissions reductions; (2 compared with single cost-sharing contracts, the bivariate cost-sharing (BCS contract for energy saving and emissions reduction is superior, although it still cannot realise prefect coordination of the supply chain; (3 government subsidy and carbon tax policies can promote the cooperation of both the upstream and downstream enterprises of the supply chain—a subsidy policy can always drive energy saving and emissions reductions, while a carbon tax policy does not always exert positive effects, as it depends on the initial level of pollution and the level of carbon tax; and (4 the subsidy policy reduces the coordination efficiency of the supply chain, while the influences of carbon tax policy upon the coordination efficiency relies on the initial carbon-emission level.

  9. Women Saw Large Decrease In Out-Of-Pocket Spending For Contraceptives After ACA Mandate Removed Cost Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nora V; Polsky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act mandates that private health insurance plans cover prescription contraceptives with no consumer cost sharing. The positive financial impact of this new provision on consumers who purchase contraceptives could be substantial, but it has not yet been estimated. Using a large administrative claims data set from a national insurer, we estimated out-of-pocket spending before and after the mandate. We found that mean and median per prescription out-of-pocket expenses have decreased for almost all reversible contraceptive methods on the market. The average percentages of out-of-pocket spending for oral contraceptive pill prescriptions and intrauterine device insertions by women using those methods both dropped by 20 percentage points after implementation of the ACA mandate. We estimated average out-of-pocket savings per contraceptive user to be $248 for the intrauterine device and $255 annually for the oral contraceptive pill. Our results suggest that the mandate has led to large reductions in total out-of-pocket spending on contraceptives and that these price changes are likely to be salient for women with private health insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. An evaluation of the impact of patient cost sharing for antihypertensive medications on adherence, medication and health care utilization, and expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesa JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline A Pesa1, Jill Van Den Bos2, Travis Gray2, Colleen Hartsig2, Robert Brett McQueen3, Joseph J Saseen3, Kavita V Nair31Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Louisville, CO, USA; 2Milliman, Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 3University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USAObjective: To assess the impact of patient cost-sharing for antihypertensive medications on the proportion of days covered (PDC by antihypertensive medications, medical utilization, and health care expenditures among commercially insured individuals assigned to different risk categories.Methods: Participants were identified from the Consolidated Health Cost Guidelines (CHCG database (January 1, 2006–December 31, 2008 based on a diagnosis (index claim for hypertension, continuous enrollment ≥12 months pre- and post-index, and no prior claims for antihypertensive medications. Participants were assigned to: low-risk group (no comorbidities, high-risk group (1+ selected comorbidities, or very high-risk group (prior hospitalization for 1+ selected comorbidities. The relationship between patient cost sharing and PDC by antihypertensive medications was assessed using standard linear regression models, controlling for risk group membership, and various demographic and clinical factors. The relationship between PDC and health care service utilization was subsequently examined using negative binomial regression models.Results: Of the 28,688 study patients, 66% were low risk. The multivariate regression model supported a relationship between patient cost sharing per 30-day fill and PDC in the following year. For every US$1.00 increase in cost sharing, PDC decreased by 1.1 days (P < 0.0001. Significant predictors of PDC included high risk, older age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, geography, and total post-index insurer- and patient-paid costs. An increase in PDC was associated with a decrease in all-cause and hypertension-related inpatient, outpatient, and emergency

  11. When patients have to pay a share of drug costs: effects on frequency of physician visits, hospital admissions and filling of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Aslam H; Guh, Daphne P; Lacaille, Diane; Marra, Carlo A; Rashidi, Amir A; Li, Xin; Esdaile, John M

    2005-11-22

    Previous research has shown that patient cost-sharing leads to a reduction in overall health resource utilization. However, in Canada, where health care is provided free of charge except for prescription drugs, the converse may be true. We investigated the effect of prescription drug cost-sharing on overall health care utilization among elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Elderly patients (> or = 65 years) were selected from a population-based cohort with rheumatoid arthritis. Those who had paid the maximum amount of dispensing fees (200 dollars) for the calendar year (from 1997 to 2000) were included in the analysis for that year. We defined the period during which the annual maximum co-payment had not been reached as the "cost-sharing period" and the one beyond which the annual maximum co-payment had been reached as the "free period." We compared health services utilization patterns between these periods during the 4 study years, including the number of hospital admissions, the number of physician visits, the number of prescriptions filled and the number of prescriptions per physician visit. Overall, 2968 elderly patients reached the annual maximum cost-sharing amount at least once during the study periods. Across the 4 years, there were 0.38 more physician visits per month (p filled per month (p = 0.001) and 0.52 fewer prescriptions filled per physician visit (p health care system, the implementation of cost-containment policies such as prescription drug cost-sharing may have the unintended effect of increasing overall health utilization among elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. The Distinction between Direct and General Costs with Regard to the Deduction of Input VAT - The Case of Acquisition, Holding and Sale of Shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of distinguishing between direct and general costs. On the other hand the aim is to describe and analyse the law as it stands regarding the treatment of shares in the EU VAT system, with a special focus on the right to deduct input VAT on costs re-lating to transactions in shares. As a part of this analysis the aim......In revealing the conditions for the deduction of input VAT, the essential questions concern the nature of the so-called ‘direct and immediate link’ test and thus also the criteria for the important distinction between direct costs and general costs. The ‘direct and immediate link’ test...... is of general importance to all types of costs, but judged from the case law of the ECJ it has especially materialised itself when it comes to costs related to the acquisition, holding or sales of shares. The purpose of this article is therefore twofold. On the one hand it deals with the difficult question...

  13. The costs of electricity systems with a high share of fluctutating renewables. A stochastic investment and dispatch optimization model for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagl, Stephan; Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energies are meant to produce a large share of the future electricity demand. However, the availability of wind and solar power depends on local weather conditions and therefore weather characteristics must be considered when optimizing the future electricity mix. In this article we analyze the impact of the stochastic availability of wind and solar energy on the cost-minimal power plant mix and the related total system costs. To determine optimal conventional, renewable and storage capacities for different shares of renewables, we apply a stochastic investment and dispatch optimization model to the European electricity market. The model considers stochastic feed-in structures and full load hours of wind and solar technologies and different correlations between regions and technologies. Key findings include the overestimation of fluctuating renewables and underestimation of total system costs compared to deterministic investment and dispatch models. Furthermore, solar technologies are - relative to wind turbines - underestimated when neglecting negative correlations between wind speeds and solar radiation.

  14. Report: Implementation Plan With Cost Sharing Methodology Needed for Region 8 Senior Environmental Employee Work on Lead Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #13-P-0430, September 24, 2013. The two Region 8 program offices that jointly implement the Lead Renovation, Repair and Painting Program do not have methodology or agreement for sharing SEE funding, which has led to confusion.

  15. A Study on an efficient management system, proper investment, and cost sharing for improving the quality of water in water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun Joo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    With the overall prospects on water quality management in water system, the problems on policy and implementation, investment and cost sharing were analyzed. Considering water system, a scheme for the rationalization of management policy and financial supply was presented. Also, based on the analysis on problem of present management structure, the rationalizing plan of management structure and organization was provided. 30 refs., 2 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. The Community's research and development programme on radioactive waste management and storage. Shared cost action. Annual progress report 1988. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Third annual progress report of the European Community's 1985-89 programme of research and development on radioactive waste management and disposal, carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Community under cost-sharing contracts with the Commission of the European Communities. This report describes the work to be carried out under research contracts already concluded before the end of 1988, as well as the work performed and the results obtained so far

  17. The Community's research and development programme on radioactive waste management and storage. Shared cost action. Annual progress report 1988. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Third annual progress report of the European Community's 1985-89 programme of research and development on radioactive waste management and disposal, carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Community under cost-sharing contracts with the Commission of the European Communities. This report describes the work to be carried out under research contracts already concluded before the end of 1988, as well as the work performed and the results obtained so far

  18. The Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) tool : a shared decision-making instrument that is predictive of healthcare costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-vanMolken, Maureen P. H. M.; Goossens, Lucas M A; Boland, Melinde R. S.; Donkers, Bas; Jonker, Marcel F.; Slok, Annerika H. M.; Salome, Philippe L.; van Schayck, Constant; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M; Stolk, Elly A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) tool is an instrument that supports shared decision making between patients and physicians. It includes a coloured balloon diagram to visualize a patient’s scores on a questionnaire about the experienced burden of COPD and several objective severity

  19. Sharing the cost of river basin adaptation portfolios to climate change: Insights from social justice and cooperative game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The adaptation of water resource systems to the potential impacts of climate change requires mixed portfolios of supply and demand adaptation measures. The issue is not only to select efficient, robust, and flexible adaptation portfolios but also to find equitable strategies of cost allocation among the stakeholders. Our work addresses such cost allocation problems by applying two different theoretical approaches: social justice and cooperative game theory in a real case study. First of all, a cost-effective portfolio of adaptation measures at the basin scale is selected using a least-cost optimization model. Cost allocation solutions are then defined based on economic rationality concepts from cooperative game theory (the Core). Second, interviews are conducted to characterize stakeholders' perceptions of social justice principles associated with the definition of alternatives cost allocation rules. The comparison of the cost allocation scenarios leads to contrasted insights in order to inform the decision-making process at the river basin scale and potentially reap the efficiency gains from cooperation in the design of river basin adaptation portfolios.

  20. The Affordable Care Act and the Burden of High Cost Sharing and Utilization Management Restrictions on Access to HIV Medications for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Hank, Yasamean

    2016-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a critical public health issue in the United States, where an estimated 1.2 million individuals live with HIV infection. Viral suppression is one of the primary public health goals for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A crucial component of this goal involves adequate access to health care, specifically anti-retroviral HIV medications. The enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 raised hopes for millions of PLWHA without access to health care coverage. High cost-sharing requirements enacted by health plans place a financial burden on PLWHA who need ongoing access to these life-saving medications. Plighted with poverty, Detroit, Michigan, is a center of attention for examining the financial burden of HIV medications on PLWHA under the new health plans. From November 2014 to January 2015, monthly out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization requirements for 31 HIV medications were examined for the top 12 insurance carriers offering Qualified Health Plans on Michigan's Health Insurance Marketplace Exchange. The percentage of medications requiring quantity limits and prior authorization were calculated. The average monthly out-of-pocket cost per person ranged from $12 to $667 per medication. Three insurance carriers placed all 31 HIV medications on the highest cost-sharing tier, charging 50% coinsurance. High out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization restrictions discourage PLWHA from enrolling in health plans and threaten interrupted medication adherence, drug resistance, and increased risk of viral transmission. Health plans inflicting high costs and medication restrictions violate provisions of the ACA and undermine health care quality for PLWHA. (Population Health Management 2016;19:272-278).

  1. Requirements for low-cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multiunit inertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.B.; Moir, R.W.; Hoffmman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The economy of scale for multiunit inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants is explored based on the molten salt HYLIFE-II fusion chamber concept, for the purpose of producing lower cost electricity and hydrogen fuel. The cost of electricity (CoE) is minimized with a new IFE systems code IFEFUEL5 for a matrix of plant cases with one to eight fusion chambers of 250 to 2000-MW (electric) net output each, sharing a common heavy-ion driver and target factory. Improvements to previous HYLIFE-II models include a recirculating induction linac driver optimized as a function of driver energy and rep-rate (average driver power), inclusion of beam switchyard costs, a fusion chamber cost scaling dependence on both thermal power and fusion yield, and a more accurate bypass pump power scaling with chamber rep-rate. A CoE less than 3 cents/kW(electric)-h is found for plant outputs greater than 2 GW(electric), allowing hydrogen fuel production by wafer electrolysis to provide lower fuel cost per mile for higher efficiency hydrogen engines compared with gasoline engines. These multiunit, multi-GW(electric) IFE plants allow staged utility plant deployment, lower optimum chamber rep-rates, less sensitivity to driver and target fabrication costs, and a CoE possibly lower than future fission, fossil, and solar competitors. 37 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Cost-effectiveness of monitoring glaucoma patients in shared care: an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazinga Niek S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population aging increases the number of glaucoma patients which leads to higher workloads of glaucoma specialists. If stable glaucoma patients were monitored by optometrists and ophthalmic technicians in a glaucoma follow-up unit (GFU rather than by glaucoma specialists, the specialists' workload and waiting lists might be reduced. We compared costs and quality of care at the GFU with those of usual care by glaucoma specialists in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital (REH in a 30-month randomized clinical trial. Because quality of care turned out to be similar, we focus here on the costs. Methods Stable glaucoma patients were randomized between the GFU and the glaucoma specialist group. Costs per patient year were calculated from four perspectives: those of patients, the Rotterdam Eye Hospital (REH, Dutch healthcare system, and society. The outcome measures were: compliance to the protocol; patient satisfaction; stability according to the practitioner; mean difference in IOP; results of the examinations; and number of treatment changes. Results Baseline characteristics (such as age, intraocular pressure and target pressure were comparable between the GFU group (n = 410 and the glaucoma specialist group (n = 405. Despite a higher number of visits per year, mean hospital costs per patient year were lower in the GFU group (€139 vs. €161. Patients' time and travel costs were similar. Healthcare costs were significantly lower for the GFU group (€230 vs. €251, as were societal costs (€310 vs. €339 (p Conclusion We conclude that this GFU is cost-effective and deserves to be considered for implementation in other hospitals.

  3. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  4. Effects of shared medical appointments on quality of life and cost-effectiveness for patients with a chronic neuromuscular disease. Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wilt Gert-Jan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared medical appointments are a series of one-to-one doctor-patient contacts, in presence of a group of 6-10 fellow patients. This group visits substitute the annual control visits of patients with the neurologist. The same items attended to in a one-to- one appointment are addressed. The possible advantages of a shared medical appointment could be an added value to the present management of neuromuscular patients. The currently problem-focused one-to-one out-patient visits often leave little time for the patient's psychosocial needs, patient education, and patient empowerment. Methods/design A randomized, prospective controlled study (RCT with a follow up of 6 months will be conducted to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of shared medical appointments compared to usual care for 300 neuromuscular patients and their partners at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center. Every included patient will be randomly allocated to one of the two study arms. This study has been reviewed and approved by the medical ethics committee of the region Arnhem-Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure is quality of life as measured by the EQ-5D, SF-36 and the Individualized neuromuscular Quality of Life Questionnaire. The primary analysis will be an intention-to-treat analysis on the area under the curve of the quality of life scores. A linear mixed model will be used with random factor group and fixed factors treatment, baseline score and type of neuromuscular disease. For the economic evaluation an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from a societal perspective, relating differences in costs to difference in health outcome. Results are expected in 2012. Discussion This study will be the first randomized controlled trial which evaluates the effect of shared medical appointments versus usual care for neuromuscular patients. This will enable to determine if there is additional value of shared

  5. Shared care or nurse consultations as an alternative to rheumatologist follow-up for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outpatients with stable low disease-activity RA: cost-effectiveness based on a 2-year randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J; Primdahl, J; Horn, H C; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    2015-01-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of three types of follow-up for outpatients with stable low-activity rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 287 patients were randomized to either planned rheumatologist consultations, shared care without planned consultations, or planned nurse consultations. Effectiveness measures included disease activity (Disease Activity Score based on 28 joint counts and C-reactive protein, DAS28-CRP), functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol EQ-5D). Cost measures included activities in outpatient clinics and general practice, prescription and non-prescription medicine, dietary supplements, other health-care resources, and complementary and alternative care. Measures of effectiveness and costs were collected by self-reported questionnaires at inclusion and after 12 and 24 months. Incremental cost-effectiveness rates (ICERs) were estimated in comparison with rheumatologist consultations. Changes in disease activity, functional status, and health-related quality of life were not statistically significantly different for the three groups, although the mean scores were better for the shared care and nurse care groups compared with the rheumatologist group. Shared care and nurse care were non-significantly less costly than rheumatologist care. As both shared care and nurse care were associated with slightly better EQ-5D improvements and lower costs, they dominated rheumatologist care. At EUR 10,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) threshold, shared care and nurse care were cost-effective with more than 90% probability. Nurse care was cost-effective in comparison with shared care with 75% probability. Shared care and nurse care seem to cost less but provide broadly similar health outcomes compared with rheumatologist outpatient care. However, it is still uncertain whether nurse care and shared care are cost-effective in comparison with rheumatologist outpatient care.

  6. The Military Health System: Redefining the Role of Employers and Improving Cost-Share Parity Among Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    program and optional dental plans. Active-duty military members are automatically enrolled into TRICARE Prime and are assigned to a military treatment...registers as a cost consideration in the calculus of the majority of employers in the U.S. who provide health insurance to their employees. Military

  7. 77 FR 3606 - Section 482; Methods To Determine Taxable Income in Connection With a Cost Sharing Arrangement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ...'s anticipated post-tax discounted present value of the financial projections under the CSA (taking... present value of the financial projections under a reasonably available licensing alternative that... the present value of income and costs attributable to its participation in the licensing alternative...

  8. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  9. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    1992-01-01

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  10. Supporting the Development and Adoption of Automatic Lameness Detection Systems in Dairy Cattle: Effect of System Cost and Performance on Potential Market Shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Gucht, Tim; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Van Nuffel, Annelies; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Saeys, Wouter

    2017-10-08

    Most automatic lameness detection system prototypes have not yet been commercialized, and are hence not yet adopted in practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to simulate the effect of detection performance (percentage missed lame cows and percentage false alarms) and system cost on the potential market share of three automatic lameness detection systems relative to visual detection: a system attached to the cow, a walkover system, and a camera system. Simulations were done using a utility model derived from survey responses obtained from dairy farmers in Flanders, Belgium. Overall, systems attached to the cow had the largest market potential, but were still not competitive with visual detection. Increasing the detection performance or lowering the system cost led to higher market shares for automatic systems at the expense of visual detection. The willingness to pay for extra performance was €2.57 per % less missed lame cows, €1.65 per % less false alerts, and €12.7 for lame leg indication, respectively. The presented results could be exploited by system designers to determine the effect of adjustments to the technology on a system's potential adoption rate.

  11. The impact of cost recovery and sharing system on water policy implementation and human right to water: a case of Ileje, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibassa, Deusdedit

    2011-01-01

    In Tanzania, the National Water Policy (NAWAPO) of 2002 clearly stipulates that access to water supply and sanitation is a right for every Tanzanian and that cost recovery is the foundation of sustainable service delivery. To meet these demands, water authorities have introduced cost recovery and a water sharing system. The overall objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on water policy implementation and human rights to water in four villages in the Ileje district. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on the availability of water to the poor, (2) to assess user willingness to pay for the services provided, (3) to assess community understanding on the issue of water as a human right, (4) to analyse the implications of the results in relation to policies on human rights to water and the effectiveness of the implementation of the national water policy at the grassroots, and (5) to establish the guidelines for water pricing in rural areas. Questionnaires at water demand, water supply, ability and willingness to pay and revenue collection were the basis for data collection. While 36.7% of the population in the district had water supply coverage, more than 73,077 people of the total population of 115,996 still lacked access to clean and safe water and sanitation services in the Ileje district. The country's rural water supply coverage is 49%. Seventy-nine percent of the interviewees in all four villages said that water availability in litres per household per day had decreased mainly due to high water pricing which did not consider the income of villagers. On the other hand, more than 85% of the villagers were not satisfied with the amount they were paying because the services were still poor. On the issue of human rights to water, more than 92% of the villagers know about their right to water and want it exercised by the government. In all four villages, more than

  12. Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling and high shares of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard; Brown, Tom [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems such as the European power system. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be stable and convergent. It is then scaled to the European level in order to find the optimal power system infrastructure development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe until 2050 with a specific focus on photovoltaic (PV) power. (orig.)

  13. How the ACA's Health Insurance Expansions Have Affected Out-of-Pocket Cost-Sharing and Spending on Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Solís-Román, Claudia; Parikh, Shivani

    2016-09-01

    One important benefit gained by the millions of Americans with health insurance through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is protection from high out-of-pocket health spending. While Medicaid unambiguously reduces out-of-pocket premium and medical costs for low-income people, it is less certain that marketplace coverage and other types of insurance purchased to comply with the law's individual mandate also protect from high health spending. Goal: To compare out-of-pocket spending in 2014 to spending in 2013; assess how this spending changed in states where many people enrolled in the marketplaces relative to states where few people enrolled; and project the decline in the percentage of people paying high amounts out-of-pocket. Methods: Linear regression models were used to estimate whether people under age 65 spent above certain thresholds. Key findings and conclusions: The probability of incurring high out-of-pocket costs and premium expenses declined as marketplace enrollment increased. The percentage reductions were greatest among those with incomes between 250 percent and 399 percent of poverty, those who were eligible for premium subsidies, and those who previously were uninsured or had very limited nongroup coverage. These effects appear largely attributable to marketplace enrollment rather than to other ACA provisions or to economic trends.

  14. Knowledge sharing in global health research - the impact, uptake and cost of open access to scholarly literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Haustein, Stefanie; Mongeon, Philippe; Shu, Fei; Ridde, Valéry; Larivière, Vincent

    2017-08-29

    In 1982, the Annals of Virology published a paper showing how Liberia has a highly endemic potential of Ebola warning health authorities of the risk for potential outbreaks; this journal is only available by subscription. Limiting the accessibility of such knowledge may have reduced information propagation toward public health actors who were indeed surprised by and unprepared for the 2014 epidemic. Open access (OA) publication can allow for increased access to global health research (GHR). Our study aims to assess the use, cost and impact of OA diffusion in the context of GHR. A total of 3366 research articles indexed under the Medical Heading Subject Heading "Global Health" published between 2010 and 2014 were retrieved using PubMed to (1) quantify the uptake of various types of OA, (2) estimate the article processing charges (APCs) of OA, and (3) analyse the relationship between different types of OA, their scholarly impact and gross national income per capita of citing countries. Most GHR publications are not available directly on the journal's website (69%). Further, 60.8% of researchers do not self-archive their work even when it is free and in keeping with journal policy. The total amount paid for APCs was estimated at US$1.7 million for 627 papers, with authors paying on average US$2732 per publication; 94% of APCs were paid to journals owned by the ten most prominent publication houses from high-income countries. Researchers from low- and middle-income countries are generally citing less expensive types of OA, while researchers in high-income countries are citing the most expensive OA. Although OA may help in building global research capacity in GHR, the majority of publications remain subscription only. It is logical and cost-efficient for institutions and researchers to promote OA by self-archiving publications of restricted access, as it not only allows research to be cited by a broader audience, it also augments citation rates. Although OA does not

  15. BBSRC Data Sharing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Collis; David McAllister; Michael Ball

    2011-01-01

    BBSRC recognizes the importance of contributing to the growing international efforts in data sharing. BBSRC is committed to getting the best value for the funds we invest and believes that making research data more readily available will reinforce open scientific inquiry and stimulate new investigations and analyses. BBSRC supports the view that data sharing should be led by the scientific community and driven by scientific need. It should also be cost effective and the data shared should be ...

  16. A SHARED study-the benefits and costs of setting up a health research study involving lay co-researchers and how we overcame the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockford, Carole; Murray, Matt; Seers, Kate; Oyebode, Jan; Grant, Richard; Boex, Sue; Staniszewska, Sophie; Diment, Yvonne; Leach, Jim; Sharma, Uma; Clarke, Rosemary; Suleman, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), official bodies such as the Department of Health and research funders such as the National Institute for Health Research support and encourage lay involvement in all stages of research studies. The SHARED study has had substantial patient and public involvement (PPI) from developing the idea to dissemination. The aim of the study has been to develop recommendations led by service users for health and social care professionals to use at hospital discharge and in care planning for people living with memory loss and their carers. This article is about how the study started and the benefits, costs and challenges we encountered as the lead and lay co-researchers. Once we were successful with the grant application, we had to recruit and train the lay co-researchers and obtain various approvals before we could start the project. We had various support from funders, the Research Ethics Committee, lay members of Alzheimer's Society and from the lay co-researchers. However, we encountered some challenges with paying the lay co-researchers and with getting the approval for the co-researchers to interview staff on NHS premises. The challenges were overcome eventually but some aspects of the study changed because of this. We suggest that some changes could be made to the research system which would lead to greater inclusion of the lay co-researchers in research studies and would make the process more straightforward for the research team. Background Involving patients and the public in all stages of research has been the focus of the SHARED study. Patient and public involvement (PPI) is an important strategic priority for the Department of Health and funders such as the National Institute for Health Research. The aim of this paper is to describe the benefits, challenges and costs involved in setting up the research study with lay members as part of the research team. The study focused on developing service user-led recommendations for people with

  17. Shared pledge shared vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, Ali; Diatta, Christian Sina

    2005-01-01

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a pledge by African leaders to eradicate poverty and to promote sustainable growth and development. NEPAD is a 'new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organizations.' The agenda is based on regional priorities and development plans and its implementation relies on African ownership and management. As a UN system organisation, the IAEA strongly supports the priorities identified in the Millennium Declaration and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. As a technical agency, the IAEA shares its recognized core competencies and technical expertise in support of NEPAD goals. Efforts aim at strengthening institutional capacity building in nuclear sciences and technology and promoting the sustainable application of nuclear techniques for social and economic development. The IAEA has a membership of 34 African countries. The Agency supports them under its technical cooperation programme through provision of expertise, training opportunities and equipment in priority areas identified by the countries themselves. For many African Member States, meeting basic human needs through the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies remains the top priority on the agenda for national development plans and international cooperation programmes. In the context of sustainable development, special attention is being paid to enlarging the contribution of isotopes and nuclear techniques in major areas of economic and social significance and to promoting regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology related fields. As a partner in development, the Agency has promoted and undertaken programmes to support African countries' efforts to address priority development issues particularly in the areas of health care, food and agriculture and water resources development. The IAEA technical cooperation mechanism includes support to the African Regional

  18. To share and be shared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2018-01-01

    to another. To a certain degree, they share their everyday lives, things, places, memories, and past/future, but as the ones who move back and forth, they belong a little less in each place. This article is about children who are shared between their parent, households and siblings. They are shared...

  19. Instant Social Ride-Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Gidofalvi, Gyözö; Herenyi, Gergely; Bach Pedersen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of ride–sharing as a resource-efficient mode of personal transportation. While the perceived benefits of ride–sharing include reduced travel times, transportation costs, congestion, and carbon emissions, its wide–spread adoption is hindered by a number of barriers. These include the scheduling and coordination of routes, safety risks, social discomfort in sharing private spaces, and an imbalance of costs and benefits among parties. To address these barriers, the au...

  20. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  1. Report endorses data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential benefits of sharing data so outweigh its costs that investigators should be required to include plans for sharing data as part of their grant proposals, according to recommendations issued recently by the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) of the National Research Council (NRC).In their report Sharing Research Data, CNSTAT also recommended that “Journals should give more emphasis to reports of secondary analyses and to replications,” provided that the original collections of data receive full credit. In addition, “Journal editors should require authors to provide access to data during the peer review process.”

  2. File sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    ‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural

  3. Shared leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, this paper comprehensively will review the conceptual and empirical literature to identify such critical underlying mechanisms which enable shared or collective leadership. Second, this article identifies the antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership...... according to the literature review to develop a re-conceptualised and synthesized framework for managing the organizational issues associated with shared leadership on various organizational levels. The paper rectifies this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership...... and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a re-conceptualized and synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  4. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with MOX fuel fabrication facility: alternative 4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), which is being costed in a separate report, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option

  5. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with pit disassembly and conversion facility: alternative 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), which is being costed in a separate report by LANL, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option

  6. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  7. 13 CFR 314.5 - Federal Share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing costs. (b) The Federal Share excludes that portion of the current fair market value of the..., which are not included in the total Project costs. For example, if the total Project costs are $100...

  8. The Complete Guide to Job Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Marcia D.

    This booklet provides information on job sharing that resulted from the research and experience of the Merrimack Valley Job Sharing Project. An overview of the topic considers the need for job sharing, employer benefits, types of jobs shared, job division, benefits, employer costs and savings, financial considerations for job sharers, perspectives…

  9. Kwaabana: File sharing for rural networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, DL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available , Zambia. The results show that our localized file sharing service facilitates reliable sharing amongst rural users. Importantly, it also removes the cost barrier present for similar Internet-based services. We outline the process used by Kwaabana...

  10. New Technologies: Real-time Telepathology Systems-Novel Cost-effective Tools for Real-time Consultation and Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Gabriel; Regelman, Dan; Maronpot, Robert; Rosenstock, Moti; Nyska, Abraham

    2017-12-01

    Real-time telepathology for use in investigative and regulated preclinical toxicology studies is now feasible. Newly developed microscope-integrated telepathology systems enable geographically remote stakeholders to view the live histopathology slide as seen by the study pathologist within the microscope. Simultaneous online viewing and dialog between study pathologist and remote colleagues is an efficient and cost-effective means for consultation, pathology working groups, and peer review, facilitating good science and economic benefits by enabling more timely and informed clinical decisions.

  11. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs: essential health benefits in alternative benefit plans, eligibility notices, fair hearing and appeal processes, and premiums and cost sharing; exchanges: eligibility and enrollment. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act. This final rule finalizes new Medicaid eligibility provisions; finalizes changes related to electronic Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) eligibility notices and delegation of appeals; modernizes and streamlines existing Medicaid eligibility rules; revises CHIP rules relating to the substitution of coverage to improve the coordination of CHIP coverage with other coverage; and amends requirements for benchmark and benchmark-equivalent benefit packages consistent with sections 1937 of the Social Security Act (which we refer to as ``alternative benefit plans'') to ensure that these benefit packages include essential health benefits and meet certain other minimum standards. This rule also implements specific provisions including those related to authorized representatives, notices, and verification of eligibility for qualifying coverage in an eligible employer-sponsored plan for Affordable Insurance Exchanges. This rule also updates and simplifies the complex Medicaid premium and cost sharing requirements, to promote the most effective use of services, and to assist states in identifying cost sharing flexibilities. It includes transition policies for 2014 as applicable.

  12. Task-sharing or public finance for the expansion of surgical access in rural Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrime, Mark G; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Desalegn, Dawit; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-07-01

    Despite a high burden of surgical disease, access to surgical services in low- and middle-income countries is often limited. In line with the World Health Organization's current focus on universal health coverage and equitable access to care, we examined how policies to expand access to surgery in rural Ethiopia would impact health, impoverishment and equity. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Deterministic and stochastic models of surgery in rural Ethiopia were constructed, utilizing pooled estimates of costs and probabilities from national surveys and published literature. Model calibration and validation were performed against published estimates, with sensitivity analyses on model assumptions to check for robustness. Outcomes of interest were the number of deaths averted, the number of cases of poverty averted and the number of cases of catastrophic expenditure averted for each policy, divided across wealth quintiles. Health benefits, financial risk protection and equity appear to be in tension in the expansion of access to surgical care in rural Ethiopia. Health benefits from each of the examined policies accrued primarily to the poor. However, without travel vouchers, many policies also induced impoverishment in the poor while providing financial risk protection to the rich, calling into question the equitable distribution of benefits by these policies. Adding travel vouchers removed the impoverishing effects of a policy but decreased the health benefit that could be bought per dollar spent. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  14. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  15. Bonobos share with strangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhi Tan

    Full Text Available Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others--including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts.

  16. Understanding shared services (Article 1 of 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Van der Linde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Shared services is a viable business model that can be used by organisations to reduce costs and enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the organisation. The purpose of this trilogy of articles is to introduce shared services as a business model, and how to efficiently and effectively manage a shared services business unit. The purpose of the first article in the trilogy, introduces shared services as a business model, defines what shared services is, the transformation required to successfully implement a shared services business model, as well as the benefits that can be derived from implementing a shared services business model. Methodology: A comprehensive literature study was conducted in order to: - Define and describe shared services as a business model, - Compare shared services with centralisation and de-centralisation, - Determine and describe the transformation required to successfully implement shared services. Findings: In the article, a framework is generated to help organisations understand the business concept of shared services. This work has further potential: when applied correctly, there are both tangible and intangible benefits that can be accrued above cost savings. Implications: The findings of this article are important for organisations that are in the process of implementing or have implemented shared services, as it will assist the organisation in determining if shared services is the correct business model for them to implement. Value: This article provides an understanding of shared services and the business environment required to successfully implement a shared services business model. Value created by a shared services business model is further enhanced once the organisation has embarked on the successful implementation of a shared services business model, which is the primary objective of the second article, Implementation and continuous evolution in shared services.

  17. Shared consultant physician posts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1\\/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14\\/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17\\/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1\\/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1\\/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (p<0.001) patients were seen per clinic. Length of stay was shortened by 2.49 days (p<0.001). A saving of 69,212 was made due to decreased locum requirements. We present data suggesting structured shared consultancy posts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  18. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  19. Egalitarian Risk Sharing under Liquidity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Boonen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Undertaking joint projects in practice involves a lot of uncertainty, especially when it comes to the final costs. This paper addresses the problem of sharing realized costs by the participants, subject to their indvidual liquidity constraints. If all cost levels can be accounted for, and it the

  20. To share or not to share? Business aspects of network sharing for Mobile Network Operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Hendrix, G.; Chatzicharistou, I.; Haas, T. de; Hamera, D.

    2010-01-01

    Radio spectrum and network infrastructure are two essential resources for mobile service delivery, which are both costly and increasingly scarce. In this paper we consider drivers and barriers of network sharing, which is seen as a potential solution for scarcity in these resources. We considered a

  1. Understanding your health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...

  2. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  3. Troubleshooting Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  4. Do Artists Benefit from Online Music Sharing?

    OpenAIRE

    Ram D. Gopal; G. Lawrence Sanders

    2006-01-01

    We present a model of online music sharing that incorporates economic and technological incentives to sample, purchase, and pirate. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that lowering the cost of sampling music will propel more consumers to purchase music online as the total cost of evaluation and acquisition decreases. Attempts to prevent sampling will be counterproductive in the long run. Sharing technologies erode the superstar phenomenon widely prevalent in the music business. Extensiv...

  5. Financial Impact of Liver Sharing and Organ Procurement Organizations' Experience With Share 35: Implications for National Broader Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, H; Weber, J; Barnes, K; Wright, L; Levy, M

    2016-01-01

    The Share 35 policy for organ allocation, which was adopted in June 2013, allocates livers regionally for candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores of 35 or greater. The authors analyzed the costs resulting from the increased movement of allografts related to this new policy. Using a sample of nine organ procurement organizations, representing 17% of the US population and 19% of the deceased donors in 2013, data were obtained on import and export costs before Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2012, to June 14, 2013) and after Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2013, to June 14, 2014). Results showed that liver import rates increased 42%, with an increased cost of 51%, while export rates increased 112%, with an increased cost of 127%. When the costs of importing and exporting allografts were combined, the total change in costs for all nine organ procurement organizations was $11 011 321 after Share 35 implementation. Extrapolating these costs nationally resulted in an increased yearly cost of $68 820 756 by population or $55 056 605 by number of organ donors. Any alternative allocation proposal needs to account for the financial implications to the transplant infrastructure. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehan, Terry

    2002-01-01

    Support utilization of the RINSC reactor for student and faculty instructions and research. The Department of Energy award has provided financial assistance during the period 9/29/1995 to 5/31/2001 to support the utilization of the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center (RINSC) reactor for student and faculty instruction and research by non-reactor owning educational institutions within approximately 300 miles of Narragansett, Rhode Island. Through the reactor sharing program, the RINSC (including the reactor and analytical laboratories) provided reactor services and laboratory space that were not available to the other universities and colleges in the region. As an example of services provided to the users: Counting equipment, laboratory space, pneumatic and in-pool irradiations, demonstrations of sample counting and analysis, reactor tours and lectures. Funding from the Reactor Sharing Program has provided the RINSC to expand student tours and demonstration programs that emphasized our long history of providing these types of services to the universities and colleges in the area. The funding have also helped defray the cost of the technical assistance that the staff has routinely provided to schools, individuals and researchers who have called on the RINSC for resolution of problems relating to nuclear science. The reactor has been featured in a Public Broadcasting System documentary on Pollution in the Arctic and how a University of Rhode Island Professor used Neutron Activation Analysis conducted at the RINSC to discover the sources of the ''Arctic Haze''. The RINSC was also featured by local television on Earth Day for its role in environmental monitoring

  7. To share or not to share? Expected pros and cons of data sharing in radiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Alì, Marco; Hunink, Myriam G; Houssami, Nehmat; Sconfienza, Luca M; Di Leo, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    The aims of this paper are to illustrate the trend towards data sharing, i.e. the regulated availability of the original patient-level data obtained during a study, and to discuss the expected advantages (pros) and disadvantages (cons) of data sharing in radiological research. Expected pros include the potential for verification of original results with alternative or supplementary analyses (including estimation of reproducibility), advancement of knowledge by providing new results by testing new hypotheses (not explored by the original authors) on pre-existing databases, larger scale analyses based on individual-patient data, enhanced multidisciplinary cooperation, reduced publication of false studies, improved clinical practice, and reduced cost and time for clinical research. Expected cons are outlined as the risk that the original authors could not exploit the entire potential of the data they obtained, possible failures in patients' privacy protection, technical barriers such as the lack of standard formats, and possible data misinterpretation. Finally, open issues regarding data ownership, the role of individual patients, advocacy groups and funding institutions in decision making about sharing of data and images are discussed. • Regulated availability of patient-level data of published clinical studies (data-sharing) is expected. • Expected benefits include verification/advancement of knowledge, reduced cost/time of research, clinical improvement. • Potential drawbacks include faults in patients' identity protection and data misinterpretation.

  8. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the no...... of sharing: economic and moral. Our paper contributes to this Special Issue of the Academy of Management Discoveries by highlighting and explaining the two-fold economic and moral nature of sharing and the organization of sharing between movement and platform....... sharing of resources (i.e., the economic dimension): the sharing of a distinct concern (i.e., the moral dimension of sharing). Our discovery exemplifies such a moral dimension that is rather different from the status quo materialistic treatments focusing on economic transactions and property rights...

  9. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  10. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  11. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  12. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  13. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    the probability of satisfaction. Results show that comparison sharing impacts satisfaction for women, and that those women who share more equally than their peers are more likely to be satisfied, whereas comparison sharing has no influence on satisfaction for men. Also, parents are less likely to be satisfied...

  14. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  15. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  16. Job sharing. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K; Forbes, R

    1989-01-01

    This article is the first of a three part series discussing the impact of nurses job sharing at University Hospital, London, Ontario. This first article explores the advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for staff nurses and their supervising nurse manager, as discussed in the literature. The results of a survey conducted on a unit with a large number of job sharing positions, concur with literature findings. The second article will present the evaluation of a pilot project in which two nurses job share a first line managerial position in the Operating Room. The third article will relate the effects of job sharing on women's perceived general well being. Job sharing in all areas, is regarded as a positive experience by both nurse and administrators.

  17. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  18. Can job sharing work for nurse managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, Laurence; Ahmling, Janette A; Bujas, Lenka

    2006-02-01

    Addressing employer reluctance to employ nurse managers in a job-sharing capacity, the aim of this paper is to explore job sharing among nurse managers. The literature highlighted potential fragmentation of leadership, breakdown of communication and higher costs as issues, with the retention of experienced highly motivated managers identified as an advantage. A staff survey explored whether the job-sharing arrangement trialled in a day surgery setting by two nurse managers was successful compared with similar roles held by full-time managers. This paper suggests that nurse managers can successfully job share. Overall, this paper recommends that employers consider a job-sharing arrangement when they wish to retain experienced nurse managers, and highlights aspects that can enhance a successful outcome.

  19. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The sharing economy has been growing continuously in the last decade thanks to the proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to disintermediate the traditional commercial channels and to share excess resources and trade with one another effectively at a reasonably low transaction...... cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns...

  20. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  1. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  2. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  3. Workshop 'Reducing the share of drilling in the total cost of geothermal power generation'; Workshop 'Senkung des bohrtechnischen Anteils an den geothermischen Stromgestehungskosten'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    For a further development of geothermal power generation, technological adaptations of drilling technology will be required that will reduce the specific power generation cost. This workshop discussed the options for adaptation and the resulting cost improvements. Both technical and non-technical issues were tackled. The full-text documents of the workshop (overheads) can be downloaded at http://www.ie-leipzig.de. Subjects were: (1) Downhole engine technology; (2) New drilling equipment in consideration of geothermal requirements; (3) New drilling equipment in consideration of geothermal requirements; (4) Innovative drilling concepts/ Current cost allotment; (5) Higher efficiency in drilling with flushing adapted to drilling horizons; (6) MWD/LWD technologies of the KW industry; (7) Completion technology in geothermal plants; (8) Time and cost planning in drilling plans; (9) Cost-optimized drilling from a drilling contractor's view; (10) Requirements and obstacles in the licensing of new drilling equipment. (orig.)

  4. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl......The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended...

  5. A Data Sharing Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Crosas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early days of modern science through this century of Big Data, data sharing has enabled some of the greatest advances in science. In the digital age, technology can facilitate more effective and efficient data sharing and preservation practices, and provide incentives for making data easily accessible among researchers. At the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University, we have developed an open-source software to share, cite, preserve, discover and analyze data, named the Dataverse Network. We share here the project’s motivation, its growth and successes, and likely evolution.

  6. Share your sweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-01-01

    study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of two different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that, the large majority of food transfers in both species came about...... as sharing in which group members were allowed to co-feed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than...

  7. The production sharing contract in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machmud, T.N.

    1994-01-01

    The basic concept of production sharing is that the petroleum resource is owned and controlled by the host country while all cost and risk of exploration are borne by the contractor who is freely allowed to lift his share of petroleum. The first Production Sharing Contract (PSC) was established by the government of Indonesia in 1967 and has since become an accepted pattern for petroleum exploration and exploitation agreements between host governments and private oil companies in many developing countries in addition to Indonesia. The history of the PSC in Indonesia is briefly reviewed and a new incentive package and new contractual arrangements for gas developments are discussed. (UK)

  8. Share Contract Choices and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar Espinoza, César Antonio

    2015-01-01

    framework, we estimate a dose-response function to study the formation of contracts and identify the marginal effects of changes in crew profit shares on fishing returns in Chilean artisanal fisheries. The results support share contract choices based on bargaining power, monitoring costs, technology, state...... of fishing resources, and outside options. We find significant effects of increasing crew profit shares on vessel owner returns in the interval (0.25, 0.65). The results vary across fisheries, however. While the effects are not significant in the fish group, they are larger and robust for molluscs...

  9. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  10. Mobile energy sharing futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  11. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  12. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  13. 'An Arena for Sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    relatives). In-depth interviews were conducted in the participants' homes 1 month after the rehabilitation course. Data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. Results: Residential rehabilitation course was identified to serve as an "arena for sharing," underpinned by 3 dimensions of sharing...

  14. Own or share? - social science's analysis of car sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.

    2003-01-01

    This 339 page book examines the social aspects of car-sharing. Today's traffic system is not sustainable. In spite of its efforts not to restrict individual mobility, politics are showing first signs of ecological restructuring. Politics is, however, continuously trying to find the balance between acceptance and efficiency of the measures it proposes. The introduction of innovative mobility concepts can be very helpful here. These meet a wide range of consumers' wants and needs and can motivate them to change their patterns of behaviour towards a more environment-friendly direction at the same time. Car-sharing is chosen here as an example of such mobility technology. Because of its low entry costs and its fixed costs, this solution can be made use of by a large majority of the population and, according to experience already made, has a high potential for relieving the strain on the environment. It must be guaranteed, however, that a significant proportion of its users gives up ownership of their own cars and that not just 'car-less' people can be won over. The theoretical and empirical analyses of the factors that hinder or promote membership that are presented here show under which conditions this can be achieved

  15. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  16. Sharing Rare Attitudes Attracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hans

    2018-04-01

    People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.

  17. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...

  18. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  19. Sharing the dance -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jing; Ravn, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    In his recent works on daily face-to-face encounters, Zahavi claims that the phenomenon of sharing involves reciprocity. Following Zahavi’s line of thought, we wonder what exactly reciprocity amounts to and how the shared experience emerges from the dynamic process of interaction. By turning...... to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics of two separate flows of movement constitute a shared experience of dancing together...

  20. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  1. Quantifying the conservation gains from shared access to linear infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Gordon, Ascelin; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2017-12-01

    The proliferation of linear infrastructure such as roads and railways is a major global driver of cumulative biodiversity loss. One strategy for reducing habitat loss associated with development is to encourage linear infrastructure providers and users to share infrastructure networks. We quantified the reductions in biodiversity impact and capital costs under linear infrastructure sharing of a range of potential mine to port transportation links for 47 mine locations operated by 28 separate companies in the Upper Spencer Gulf Region of South Australia. We mapped transport links based on least-cost pathways for different levels of linear-infrastructure sharing and used expert-elicited impacts of linear infrastructure to estimate the consequences for biodiversity. Capital costs were calculated based on estimates of construction costs, compensation payments, and transaction costs. We evaluated proposed mine-port links by comparing biodiversity impacts and capital costs across 3 scenarios: an independent scenario, where no infrastructure is shared; a restricted-access scenario, where the largest mining companies share infrastructure but exclude smaller mining companies from sharing; and a shared scenario where all mining companies share linear infrastructure. Fully shared development of linear infrastructure reduced overall biodiversity impacts by 76% and reduced capital costs by 64% compared with the independent scenario. However, there was considerable variation among companies. Our restricted-access scenario showed only modest biodiversity benefits relative to the independent scenario, indicating that reductions are likely to be limited if the dominant mining companies restrict access to infrastructure, which often occurs without policies that promote sharing of infrastructure. Our research helps illuminate the circumstances under which infrastructure sharing can minimize the biodiversity impacts of development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  2. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  3. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  4. A Sharing Proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  5. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  6. Pricing Shared Appreciation Mortgages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yina

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a model for the valuation of shared appreciation mortgage (SAM) and examines the effect of reduction in interest rate on the mortgage duration and share of property appreciation lender charges. The recent rise in SAM availability, as a result of some secondary market financial support and prerequisite standardization, motivates a more careful consideration of the underlying SAM value. The primary difference between the SAM model and the model for general traditional mor...

  7. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Photo 01: L. to r. Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, Corrado Pettenati, Head Librarian, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.

  8. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  9. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture.

  10. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  11. Labia Majora Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjing Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients.

  12. Logistics costs of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describe a problem of specification and systematization of enterprise’s logistics costs. With in a growing division of labour, also logistics costs increase their part in enterprises total costs.Almost all decisions about products and production in general, influence logistics processes even logistics costs and performances.In present is not clear enough, which of the cost-particles are relevant fot logistics costs, because some of logistics cost-particles accounts within overhead are charged together with costs of other sorts.Substantive step in the process of the monitoring and evidence of logistics costs is definition of this, that costs of enterprise´s processes will be inclusive in logistics costs and determining points of contact with the others departments (acquisition, production, sale etc.. After the specification of meditation processes, there is a need to choose applicable parameters for the expression of logistics performances. Besides logistics costs is needed to know logistics performances equivalent herewith at a cost of, therefore from the control side have for enterprise bigger value indices expressive correlation costs and performances(e.g. share of logistics unit costs performance.At the proposal and evidence of logistics costs and performances is needed consistently entertain an individual conditions of enterprise. Because the area of processes included strongly affects the size of account logistics costs and its share part in total costs of enterprise. Logistics costs are flow line between economy and logistics of the enterprise.

  13. Option pricing: a flexible tool to disseminate shared savings contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Mark W; Buendia, Anthony M; Lauderdale, Katherine E; Hussey, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Due to volatility in healthcare costs, shared savings contracts can create systematic financial losses for payers, especially when contracting with smaller providers. To improve the business case for shared savings, we calculated the prices of financial options that payers can "sell" to providers to offset these losses. Using 2009 to 2010 member-level total cost of care data from a large commercial health plan, we calculated option prices by applying a bootstrap simulation procedure. We repeated these simulations for providers of sizes ranging from 500 to 60,000 patients and for shared savings contracts with and without key design features (minimum savings thresholds,bonus caps, cost outlier truncation, and downside risk) and under assumptions of zero, 1%, and 2% real cost reductions due to the shared savings contracts. Assuming no real cost reduction and a 50% shared savings rate, per patient option prices ranged from $225 (3.1% of overall costs) for 500-patient providers to $23 (0.3%) for 60,000-patient providers. Introducing minimum savings thresholds, bonus caps, cost outlier truncation, and downside risk reduced these option prices. Option prices were highly sensitive to the magnitude of real cost reductions. If shared savings contracts cause 2% reductions in total costs, option prices fall to zero for all but the smallest providers. Calculating the prices of financial options that protect payers and providers from downside risk can inject flexibility into shared savings contracts, extend such contracts to smaller providers, and clarify the tradeoffs between different contract designs, potentially speeding the dissemination of shared savings.

  14. Collaborate, compete and share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2009-02-01

    We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.

  15. Urban sharing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    of the structures of the networked urban mobilities and holds the potentials to change the future mobilities. References Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (Published in Association with Theory, Culture & Society). London: SAGE......In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... problems and side effects from concentration of consumption and contamination; and due to the shift from ownership to access it change our basic social cultural norms (Sayer 2005; Sayer 2011) about the ‘good’ life and social status (Freudendal-Pedersen 2007), commons and individuality, responsibility...

  16. Data sharing system for lithography APC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

  17. Contracting and Information Sharing Under Supply Chain Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Y. Ha; Shilu Tong

    2008-01-01

    We investigate contracting and information sharing in two competing supply chains, each consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer. The two supply chains are identical, except they may have different investment costs for information sharing. The problem is studied using a two-stage game. In the first stage, the manufacturers decide whether to invest in information sharing. In the second stage, given the information structure created in the first stage, the manufacturers offer contracts t...

  18. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... costs. An institution's share of allowable costs may be in cash or in the form of services. The... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section...

  19. Combination of Sharing Matrix and Image Encryption for Lossless $(k,n)$ -Secret Image Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Long; Yi, Shuang; Zhou, Yicong

    2017-12-01

    This paper first introduces a (k,n) -sharing matrix S (k, n) and its generation algorithm. Mathematical analysis is provided to show its potential for secret image sharing. Combining sharing matrix with image encryption, we further propose a lossless (k,n) -secret image sharing scheme (SMIE-SIS). Only with no less than k shares, all the ciphertext information and security key can be reconstructed, which results in a lossless recovery of original information. This can be proved by the correctness and security analysis. Performance evaluation and security analysis demonstrate that the proposed SMIE-SIS with arbitrary settings of k and n has at least five advantages: 1) it is able to fully recover the original image without any distortion; 2) it has much lower pixel expansion than many existing methods; 3) its computation cost is much lower than the polynomial-based secret image sharing methods; 4) it is able to verify and detect a fake share; and 5) even using the same original image with the same initial settings of parameters, every execution of SMIE-SIS is able to generate completely different secret shares that are unpredictable and non-repetitive. This property offers SMIE-SIS a high level of security to withstand many different attacks.

  20. Information Sharing and Knowledge Sharing as Communicative Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper elaborates the picture of information sharing and knowledge sharing as forms of communicative activity. Method: A conceptual analysis was made to find out how researchers have approached information sharing and knowledge sharing from the perspectives of transmission and ritual. The findings are based on the analysis of one…

  1. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Sharing collateral savings... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority of the HCA to determine that the cost of calculating and tracking collateral savings will exceed the...

  2. The Evolution of the Shared Services Business Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Leland

    2000-01-01

    Explains shared services, where common business practices are applied by a staff unit focused entirely on delivering needed services at the highest value and lowest cost to internal customers. Highlights include accountability; examples of pioneering shared services organizations; customer focus transition; relationship management; expertise…

  3. 42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disproportionate share adjustment factor. 412.320... Capital-Related Costs § 412.320 Disproportionate share adjustment factor. (a) Criteria for classification... adjustment factor. (1) If a hospital meets the criteria in paragraph (a)(1) of this section for a...

  4. Shared Care in Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Keld

    2006-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health has recently released a report that is intended to mark the start of a new project to establish it support for shared care in diabetes. In this paper I raise a number of concerns where lack of attention towards participation from prospective users constitute...

  5. Sharing (and) familiarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Dag; Winther, Ida Wentzel; Davies, Hayley

    but not exclusive to lifestories/biographies, travels, times, spaces and material items, bodies and intimate knowledge of one another, surnames - in the subjective lives of family members? Sociology has traditionally been preoccupied with notions and logics of sharing in homely contexts (e.g. Simmel’s work...

  6. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamari, Juho; Sjöklint, Mimmi; Ukkonen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technologies (ICTs) have enabled the rise of so-called “Collaborative Consumption” (CC): the peer-to-peer-based activity of obtaining, giving, or sharing the access to goods and services, coordinated through community-based online services. CC has been expected to a...

  7. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  8. Anonymity versus privacy: selective information sharing in online cancer communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jeana; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-05-14

    Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients' prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F1,114=135.59, P=.001, η(2)=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Respondents' information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity information. The results suggest the need to focus on

  9. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  10. Promoting cooperative federalism through state shared savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alan

    2013-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is transforming American federalism and creating strain between the states and the federal government. By expanding the scale of intergovernmental health programs, creating new state requirements, and setting the stage for increased federal fiscal oversight, the act has disturbed an uneasy truce in American federalism. This article outlines a policy proposal designed to harness cooperative federalism, based on the shared state and federal desire to control health care cost growth. The proposal, which borrows features of the Medicare Shared Savings Program, would provide states with an incentive in the form of an increased share of the savings they generate in programs that have federal financial participation, as long as they meet defined performance standards.

  11. Applying secret sharing for HIS backup exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto; Sato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    To secure business continuity is indispensable for hospitals to fulfill its social responsibility under disasters. Although to back up the data of the hospital information system (HIS) at multiple remote sites is a key strategy of business continuity plan (BCP), the requirements to treat privacy sensitive data jack up the cost for the backup. The secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message up so that each individual piece is meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together to reveal the original message. The secret sharing method eases us to exchange HIS backups between multiple hospitals. This paper evaluated the feasibility of the commercial secret sharing solution for HIS backup through several simulations. The result shows that the commercial solution is feasible to realize reasonable HIS backup exchange platform when template of contract between participating hospitals is ready.

  12. Sharing data increases citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Thea Marie; Ellegaard, Ole; Larsen, Asger Væring

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...... by bibliographical links, and consists of papers receiving on average significantly more citations per paper per year, than do papers not associated with links to data.......This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...

  13. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    are developed using a simultaneous equation model applied to a unique dataset encompassing a German MNC, HeidelbergCement. Enablers and impediments of knowledge outflows are assessed in order to explain why subsidiaries share their knowledge with other MNC units. Implications are examined by studying the link......This empirical paper explores knowledge outflow from MNC subsidiaries and its impact on the MNC performance. We develop and test hypotheses derived from literature on MNC knowledge flows integrated with the perspective of knowledge-creating, self-interested MNC subsidiaries. The hypotheses...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  14. Globalization and Risk Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Jaume Ventura; Fernando A. Broner

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of globalization on risk sharing and welfare. Like the previous literature, we assume that governments cannot commit to enforce the repayment of debts owed by their citizens. Unlike the previous literature, we assume that governments cannot discriminate between domestic and foreign creditors when enforcing debt payments. This creates novel interactions between domestic and international trade in assets. (i) Increases in domestic trade raise the benefits of enforcement and...

  15. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...... it possible to lead through processes that engage and excite while creating transparency and accountability. The paper will be illustrated with examples from Denmark and the Helios initiative taken by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) under the headline “The value creating university – courage...

  16. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Until now many people were unaware that copies of the same book (or standard, or journal) are often held not only by the library but by different divisions. (Here Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.) The idea behind the library's new sharing resources@CERN' initiative is not at all to collect the books in individual collections at the CERN library, but simply to register them in the Library database. Those not belonging to the library will in principle be unavailable for loan, but should be able to be consulted by anybody at CERN who is interested. "When you need a book urgently and it is not available in the library,' said PS Division engineer Eduardo Aldaz Carroll, it is a sham...

  17. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary......, IT designers and project managers should attend to the specific ways in which boundaries are inevitably enacted and to the ways in which care is already shared. This will provide them with opportunities to use the potentials of new identities and concerns that emerge from changing the organisation...

  18. The essential nature of sharing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Advances in science are the combined result of the efforts of a great many scientists, and in many cases, their willingness to share the products of their research. These products include data sets, both small and large, and unique research resources not commercially available, such as cell lines and software programs. The sharing of these resources enhances both the scope and the depth of research, while making more efficient use of time and money. However, sharing is not without costs, many of which are borne by the individual who develops the research resource. Sharing, for example, reduces the uniqueness of the resources available to a scientist, potentially influencing the originator's perceived productivity and ultimately his or her competitiveness for jobs, promotions, and grants. Nevertheless, for most researchers-particularly those using public funds-sharing is no longer optional but must be considered an obligation to science, the funding agency, and ultimately society at large. Most funding agencies, journals, and professional societies now require a researcher who has published work involving a unique resource to make that resource available to other investigators. Changes could be implemented to mitigate some of the costs. The creator of the resource could explore the possibility of collaborating with those who request it. In addition, institutions that employ and fund researchers could change their policies and practices to make sharing a more attractive and viable option. For example, when evaluating an individual's productivity, institutions could provide credit for the impact a researcher has had on their field through the provision of their unique resources to other investigators, regardless of whether that impact is reflected in the researcher's list of publications. In addition, increased funding for the development and maintenance of user-friendly public repositories for data and research resources would also help to reduce barriers to sharing

  19. Development of Educational SharePoint portal for coding students

    OpenAIRE

    Colomer Castelló, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The project will explain what is SharePoint, why is used and who does use it. It will also expose some alternatives, compare them to SharePoint and expose the pros and cons. The main objective of this project will be developing an educational SharePoint portal. Using this portal, coding students will be able to share their solutions to different exercises, vote the best solutions and comment them. This portal will be developed using only software and servers obtained legally without any cost....

  20. Attention and Visuospatial Working Memory Share the Same Processing Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eFeng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention and visuospatial working memory (VWM share very similar characteristics; both have the same upper bound of about four items in capacity and they recruit overlapping brain regions. We examined whether both attention and visuospatial working memory share the same processing resources using a novel dual-task-costs approach based on a load-varying dual-task technique. With sufficiently large loads on attention and VWM, considerable interference between the two processes was observed. A further load increase on either process produced reciprocal increases in interference on both processes, indicating that attention and VWM share common resources. More critically, comparison among four experiments on the reciprocal interference effects, as measured by the dual-task costs, demonstrates no significant contribution from additional processing other than the shared processes. These results support the notion that attention and VWM share the same processing resources.

  1. Stakeholders' views on data sharing in multicenter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Kathleen M; Richards, Allison; Gallagher, Mia; Arterburn, David E; Raebel, Marsha A; Nowell, W Benjamin; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Paolino, Andrea R; Toh, Sengwee

    2017-09-01

    To understand stakeholders' views on data sharing in multicenter comparative effectiveness research studies and the value of privacy-protecting methods. Semistructured interviews with five US stakeholder groups. We completed 11 interviews, involving patients (n = 15), researchers (n = 10), Institutional Review Board and regulatory staff (n = 3), multicenter research governance experts (n = 2) and healthcare system leaders (n = 4). Perceptions of the benefits and value of research were the strongest influences toward data sharing; cost and security risks were primary influences against sharing. Privacy-protecting methods that share summary-level data were acknowledged as being appealing, but there were concerns about increased cost and potential loss of research validity. Stakeholders were open to data sharing in multicenter studies that offer value and minimize security risks.

  2. 40 CFR 35.6285 - Recipient payment of response costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of response costs. The recipient may pay for its share of response costs using cash, services... costs in the form of cash. (b) Services. The recipient may provide equipment and services to satisfy its... CFR part 300). (d) Excess cash cost share contributions/overmatch. The recipient may direct EPA to...

  3. The science of sharing and the sharing of science

    OpenAIRE

    Milkman, Katherine L.; Berger, Jonah

    2014-01-01

    Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii)...

  4. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...... ressourceanvendelse er muligt at skabe en betydeligt forbedret mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre Key words: Geriatric dentistry, nursing home, community health services, prevention, situated learning...

  5. Socially Shared Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kjeld S.

    2018-01-01

    In this PhD project, I'm investigating how health organizations are sharing health information on social media. My PhD project is divided into two parts, but in this paper, I will only focus on the first part: To understand current practices of how health organizations engage with health...... information and users on social media (empirical studies 1,2,3) and to develop a theoretical model for how it is done efficiently and effectively. I have currently conducted and published on two empirical studies (1,2). I am in the process of collecting data for a revised version of empirical study (2...

  6. Shared decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, William

    2009-01-01

    Shared decision-making has been called the crux of patient-centred care and identified as a key part of change for improved quality and safety in healthcare. However, it rarely happens, is hard to do and is not taught - for many reasons. Talking with patients about options is not embedded in the attitudes or communication skills training of most healthcare professionals. Information tools such as patient decision aids, personal health records and the Internet will help to shift this state, as will policy that drives patient and public involvement in healthcare delivery and training.

  7. Sharing Keynote Slideshows

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Slideshows have come a long way since overhead projectors were your only option. You can show share your ideas with the world via email, DVD, PDF, YouTube, iPhone, or kiosk. Once your show is polished to perfection, this thorough, accessible guide shows you how to export and deliver it all possible ways-even as a PowerPoint file, QuickTime movie, or web site. As a bonus, you'll find advice on setting up your equipment and delivering an effective presentation.

  8. Research on Information Sharing Mechanism of Network Organization Based on Evolutionary Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Gaozhi

    2018-02-01

    This article first elaborates the concept and effect of network organization, and the ability to share information is analyzed, secondly introduces the evolutionary game theory, network organization for information sharing all kinds of limitations, establishes the evolutionary game model, analyzes the dynamic evolution of network organization of information sharing, through reasoning and evolution. The network information sharing by the initial state and two sides of the game payoff matrix of excess profits and information is the information sharing of cost and risk sharing are the influence of network organization node information sharing decision.

  9. Secure and Trustable Electronic Medical Records Sharing using Blockchain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovitskaya, Alevtina; Xu, Zhigang; Ryu, Samuel; Schumacher, Michael; Wang, Fusheng

    2017-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are critical, highly sensitive private information in healthcare, and need to be frequently shared among peers. Blockchain provides a shared, immutable and transparent history of all the transactions to build applications with trust, accountability and transparency. This provides a unique opportunity to develop a secure and trustable EMR data management and sharing system using blockchain. In this paper, we present our perspectives on blockchain based healthcare data management, in particular, for EMR data sharing between healthcare providers and for research studies. We propose a framework on managing and sharing EMR data for cancer patient care. In collaboration with Stony Brook University Hospital, we implemented our framework in a prototype that ensures privacy, security, availability, and fine-grained access control over EMR data. The proposed work can significantly reduce the turnaround time for EMR sharing, improve decision making for medical care, and reduce the overall cost.

  10. Reconceptualising Shared Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McKinlay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Endeavours to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of local government have been a persistent theme both of politicians in higher tiers of government and of interest groups, especially business. The two contenders for improvement which receive most coverage both in the research literature and in popular discussion are amalgamation and shared services. Arguments from the literature have generally favoured shared services over amalgamation. Bish (2001 in a comprehensive review of North American research dismisses the argument for amalgamation as a product of flawed nineteenth-century thinking and a bureaucratic urge for centralized control. He does so making the very reasonable point that the presumed economies of scale which will result from amalgamation are a function not of the size and scale of individual local authorities, but of the services for which those local authorities are responsible, and the point at which economies of scale will be optimised will be very different for different services. The case against amalgamation is also reinforced by the absence of any significant post-facto evidence that amalgamation achieves either the promised savings or the anticipated efficiency gains (McKinlay 2006.

  11. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  13. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  14. Challenges in sharing information effectively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2006-01-01

    collaborating successfully, i.e., a deceptively false shared understanding had emerged. These incidents were analysed to discover what led to these unsuspected breakdowns in information sharing. Results. Unsuspected breakdowns in information sharing emerged when: differences in implementations of shared symbols......Introduction. The goal of information sharing is to change a person's image of the world and to develop a shared working understanding. It is an essential component of collaboration. This paper examines barriers to sharing information effectively in dynamic group work situations. Method. Three...... types of battlefield training simulations were observed and open-ended interviews with military personnel were conducted. Analysis. Observation notes and interview transcripts were analysed to identify incidents when group members erroneously believed they had shared information effectively and were...

  15. Sharing information among existing data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    share crucial investigative information across jurisdictional bounds by establishing a communications infrastructure for all of its law enforcement jurisdictions. The Criminal Justice Network (CJ-Net) is a statewide TCP/IP network, dedicated to the sharing of law enforcement information. CJ-Net is managed and maintained by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) and provides open access and privileges to any criminal justice agency, including the state court and penitentiary systems. In addition to Florida, other states, such as North Carolina, are also beginning to implement common protocol communication infrastructures and architectures in order to link local jurisdictions together throughout the state. The law enforcement domain in an optimum situation for information-sharing technologies. Communication infrastructures are continually established, and as such, action is required to effectively use these networks to their full potential. Information technologies that are best suited for the law enforcement domain, must be evaluated and implemented in a cost-effective manner. Unlike the Defense Department and other large federal agencies, individual jurisdictions at both the local and state level cannot afford to expend limited resources on research and development of prototype systems. Therefore, we must identify enabling technologies that have matured in related domains and transition them into law enforcement at a minimum cost. Crucial to this measure, is the selection of the appropriate levels of information-sharing technologies to be inserted. Information-sharing technologies that are unproven or have extensive recurring costs are not suitable for this domain. Information-sharing technologies traditionally exist between two distinct polar bounds: the data warehousing approach and mediation across distributed heterogeneous data sources. These two ends of the spectrum represent extremely different philosophies in accomplishing the same goal. In the

  16. Job-Sharing the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shelley; Feltham, Wendy

    1997-01-01

    The coprincipals of a California elementary school share their ideas for building a successful job-sharing partnership. They suggest it is important to find the right partner, develop and present a job-sharing proposal, establish systems of communication with each other, evaluate one's progress, focus on the principalship, and provide leadership…

  17. School Nurses Share a Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra

    1981-01-01

    Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)

  18. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  19. Thermodynamical quantum information sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesniak, M.; Vedral, V.; Brukner, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Thermodynamical properties fully originate from classical physics and can be easily measured for macroscopic systems. On the other hand, entanglement is a widely spoken feature of quantum physics, which allows to perform certain task with efficiency unavailable with any classical resource. Therefore an interesting question is whether we can witness entanglement in a state of a macroscopic sample. We show, that some macroscopic properties, in particular magnetic susceptibility, can serve as an entanglement witnesses. We also study a mutual relation between magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation. Such a complementarity exhibits quantum information sharing between these two thermodynamical quantities. Magnetization expresses properties of individual spins, while susceptibility might reveal non-classical correlations as a witness. Therefore, a rapid change of one of these two quantities may mean a phase transition also in terms of entanglement. The complementarity relation is demonstrated by an analytical solution of an exemplary model. (author)

  20. Borrowing brainpower - sharing insecurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Meier, Ninna; Ingerslev, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing is a vital, yet complex skill that must be developed within a doctoral training process. In addition, becoming an academic researcher is a journey of changing sense of self and identity. Through analysis of a group session, we show how the feedback of peers addresses questions...... of structure and writing style along with wider issues of researcher identity. Thus, peer learning is demonstrated as a process of simultaneously building a text and an identity as scholarly researcher. The paper advocates ‘borrowing brainpower’ from peers in order to write better texts and, at the same time......, ‘share insecurities’ during the development of the researcher identity. Based on a distributed notion of peer learning and identity, we point to the need for further research into the everyday activities of doctoral writing groups in order to understand the dynamic relationship between production of text...

  1. University Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center

  2. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  3. Implementation of shared queues

    OpenAIRE

    Motte, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The transactional framework used to develop Amadeus C++ applications is based on a mechanism of queues to manage the message exchanges between components. These structures are protected from concurrent access thanks to synchronization services provided by Linux. But theses services have a cost in term of performance and they bound the volume of messages transmitted by these queues. In a first step, I have to investigate on the state-of-the-art in term of management algorithms o...

  4. Job share a consultant post.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornicroft, G.; Strathdee, G.

    1992-01-01

    Job sharing offers advantages to both employer and employee but it is still uncommon in medicine. Based on the experiences of two psychiatrists sharing a consultant post this article describes some of the problems in obtaining a job share. The most difficult part can be getting an interview, and once a post has been obtained the terms and conditions of service may have to be modified to suit job sharing. Getting on well with your job sharing partner and good communication will not only help o...

  5. Sharing data is a shared responsibility: Commentary on: "The essential nature of sharing in science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffels, Joe

    2010-12-01

    Research data should be made readily available. A robust data-sharing plan, led by the principal investigator of the research project, requires considerable administrative and operational resources. Because external support for data sharing is minimal, principal investigators should consider engaging existing institutional information experts, such as librarians and information systems personnel, to participate in data-sharing efforts.

  6. Share and share alike? Social information and interaction style in coordination of shared use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, Karin; van de Werff, T.C.F.; van Essen, H.A.; Eggen, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Interfaces are commonly designed from the perspective of individual users, even though most of the systems we use in everyday life are in fact shared. We argue that more attention is needed for system sharing, especially because interfaces are known to influence coordination of shared use. In this

  7. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Soimakallio, Sampo; Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either -10% or -50% from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system.

  8. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either or from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system. (author)

  9. The science of sharing and the sharing of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkman, Katherine L; Berger, Jonah

    2014-09-16

    Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii) who generates discoveries that are likely to be shared, and (iii) which types of people are most likely to share scientific discoveries. The results described here, combined with a review of recent research on interpersonal communication, suggest how scientists can frame their work to increase its dissemination. They also provide insights about which audiences may be the best targets for the diffusion of scientific content.

  10. 45 CFR 2543.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation, or.... Rates for volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's..., rates shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient...

  11. 2 CFR 215.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of paragraphs (c)(1) or (2) of this section. (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair... volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In...

  12. 41 CFR 105-72.303 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lesser of paragraph (c)(1) or (2) of this section. (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair... volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In...

  13. 43 CFR 12.923 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of paragraph (c) (1) or (2) of this section: (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair... volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In...

  14. 40 CFR 30.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2... volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In... consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient competes for the kind...

  15. 24 CFR 84.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2... volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In... consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient competes for the kind...

  16. 22 CFR 145.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraphs (c) (1) or (2) of this section. (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair market value... consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those instances in which the...

  17. 38 CFR 49.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the... work in the recipient's organization. In those instances in which the required skills are not found in the recipient organization, rates shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor...

  18. 7 CFR 3019.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2.... Rates for volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's..., rates shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient...

  19. 22 CFR 518.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the... work in the recipient's organization. In those instances in which the required skills are not found in the recipient organization, rates shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor...

  20. 29 CFR 95.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (c)(1) or paragraph (c)(2) of this section. (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair... services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those...

  1. 20 CFR 435.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of paragraph (c)(1) or (2) of this section. (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair... must be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those instances...

  2. 15 CFR 14.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lesser of paragraph (c) (1) or (2). (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair market value... shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those instances...

  3. 32 CFR 34.13 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., that full value shall be the lesser of the following: (i) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation; or (ii) The... work in the recipient's organization. In those instances in which the required skills are not found in...

  4. 14 CFR 1260.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time... volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In... consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the recipient competes for the kind...

  5. 10 CFR 600.123 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section. (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair market value. However, when there is... project or program. Rates for volunteer services shall be consistent with those paid for similar work in...

  6. 28 CFR 70.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the lesser of paragraph (c) (1) or (2) of this section. (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The... volunteer services must be consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In...

  7. 49 CFR 19.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of (1) or (2). (1) The certified value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the recipient's accounting records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair market value. However, when... consistent with those paid for similar work in the recipient's organization. In those instances in which the...

  8. The Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP): Assessing Retirees' Cost Share

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiPuccio, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP) was created to enable a surviving beneficiary of a retired military service member to continue to receive a portion of the retiree's retirement benefits upon the death of the retiree...

  9. 75 FR 30243 - Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... each week from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. To schedule an appointment to view public comments, phone 1-800-743... Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110- 343), relate to the...

  10. Pricing Digital Goods: Discontinuous Costs and Shared Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ke-Wei Huang; Arun Sundararajan

    2006-01-01

    We develop and analyze a model of pricing for digital products with discontinuous supply functions. This characterizes a number of information technology-based products and services for which variable increases in demand are fulfilled by the addition of "blocks" of computing or network infrastructure. Examples include internet service, telephony, online trading, on-demand software, digital music, streamed video-on-demand and grid computing. These goods are often modeled as information goods w...

  11. 47 CFR 27.1164 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immediate reimbursement of the lump sum amount based on present value using current interest rates, provided... incumbent, is entitled to pro rata reimbursement based on the following formula: ER24MY06.007 (a) R N equals...

  12. 36 CFR 1210.23 - Cost sharing or matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 1210.23 Section 1210.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... records at the time of donation. (2) The current fair market value. However, when there is sufficient justification, the NHPRC may approve the use of the current fair market value of the donated property, even if...

  13. 36 CFR 1207.24 - Matching or cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 1207.24 Section 1207.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... consistent with those ordinarily paid by other employers for similar work in the same labor market. In either..., the contribution will be valued at the market value of the supplies at the time of donation. (2) If a...

  14. 10 CFR 603.215 - Recipient's commitment and cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... self-interest in the success of the project and incorporating the technology into products and... proposal, in the recipient's management plan, or through other means. (b) The contracting officer must seek... 603.215 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT...

  15. Value, Cost, and Sharing: Open Issues in Constrained Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering is an important tool for data mining, since it can identify major patterns or trends without any supervision (labeled data). Over the past five years, semi-supervised (constrained) clustering methods have become very popular. These methods began with incorporating pairwise constraints and have developed into more general methods that can learn appropriate distance metrics. However, several important open questions have arisen about which constraints are most useful, how they can be actively acquired, and when and how they should be propagated to neighboring points. This position paper describes these open questions and suggests future directions for constrained clustering research.

  16. Sharing the IT pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, R

    2001-08-01

    Outsourcing info tech is too appealing a temptation for many hospitals to pass up. Information technology is costly, complex, prone to breakdowns and ever-changing. Many hospitals already outsource part of their IT operation, but there appears to be a trend toward outsourcing entire departments. Recently, a number of deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars were announced by some of the nation's largest systems and outsourcing companies. While outsourcing is the best alternative for certain operations, for others it may just be a trade-off between a short-term headache and long-term pain.

  17. Distributed Sharing of Functionalities and Resources in Survivable GMPLS-controlled WSONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Cerutti, I.; Muñoz, R.

    2012-01-01

    Sharing of functionalities and sharing of network resources are effective solutions for improving the cost-effectiveness of wavelength-switched optical networks (WSONs). Such cost-effectiveness should be pursued together with the objective of ensuring the requested level of performance at the phy...

  18. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eGarcía-Carpintero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary semantics assumes two different notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989, on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originated in Stalnaker (1978, on which contexts are sets of propositions that are common ground. The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility to account for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980 point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014 defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions, but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  19. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  20. The multipurpose water use of hydropower reservoir: the SHARE concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, E.

    2017-01-01

    Multipurpose hydropower reservoirs are designed and/or operated to provide services beyond electricity generation, such as water supply, flood and drought management, irrigation, navigation, fisheries, environmental services and recreational activities, etc. While these objectives (renewable and power services, water quantity management, ecosystem services, economic growth and local livelihoods) can conflict at times, they are also often complementary. Although there are no universal solutions, there are principles that can be shared and adapted to local contexts. Indeed the development and/or operation of such multipurpose hydropower reservoirs to reach sustainable water management should rely on the following principles: shared vision, shared resource, shared responsibilities, shared rights and risks, shared costs and benefits. These principles and acknowledgement of joint sharing among all the stakeholders are essential to successful development and management of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs, and should frame all phases from early stage to operation. The SHARE concept also gives guidance. Based on 12 worldwide case studies of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs, the SHARE concept was developed and proposed as a solution to address this issue. A special focus will be presented on the Durance-Verdon Rivers in France. (author)

  1. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Max; Eissing, Klaus; Langton, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter and Kramer (2011, 2012), we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we cond...

  2. Capital Market Integration and Consumption Risk Sharing over the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Schmeling, Maik

    integration. We also calculate the welfare costs of imperfect capital market integration and risk sharing and find that these costs vary a lot over time. Finally, we show that consumption risk sharing is higher during times of crises, i.e. at times when marginal utility is high and risk sharing is most......We empirically investigate time variation in capital market integration and consumption risk sharing using data for 16 countries from 1875 to 2012. We show that there has been considerable variation over time in the degrees of capital market integration and consumption risk sharing and that higher...... capital market integration forecasts more consumption risk sharing in the future. This finding is robust is to controlling for trade openness and exchange rate volatilities. Hence, financial integration seems to drive consumption risk sharing whereas we find no evidence that risk sharing forecasts market...

  3. 2012 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  4. 2013 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  5. Use of econometric models to estimate expenditure shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogdon, Justin G; Finkelstein, Eric A; Hoerger, Thomas J

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the use of regression models to calculate disease-specific shares of medical expenditures. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 2000-2003. Theoretical investigation and secondary data analysis. Condition files used to define the presence of 10 medical conditions. Incremental effects of conditions on expenditures, expressed as a fraction of total expenditures, cannot generally be interpreted as shares. When the presence of one condition increases treatment costs for another condition, summing condition-specific shares leads to double-counting of expenditures. Condition-specific shares generated from multiplicative models should not be summed. We provide an algorithm that allows estimates based on these models to be interpreted as shares and summed across conditions.

  6. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Manual for the REBUS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.

    2001-03-01

    The REBUS model quantifies the effects of implementing renewable electricity targets, and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Results are obtained for a range of so-called burden sharing options that reflect differences in economic, social and geographical possibilities to increase the share of renewables in individual geographical regions. The REBUS model furthermore analyses the impact of other supporting mechanisms for renewable electricity on the effects of a burden sharing mechanism. With this, the REBUS model is a framework that can be used for quantifying the most equitable distribution of costs (burden sharing) and compare consequences of different equity criteria. Therewith it aims to support key policy makers, industrial stakeholders and consumers in making decisions on the possibilities to achieve their joint RES-E targets

  7. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Werner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter-Kramer (2011, we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/ property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we conducted comparative analysis to quantify and compare the abovementioned factors for Hyperloop and over-the-road cargo transport in Germany. Then, we monetized the individual and collective benefits of the shared value created by Hyperloop replacing a significant share of cargo transported by truck. Our findings indicate that the hypothetical Hyperloop project in Northern Germany would create €660 to €900 million of shared value annually. Our research method establishes a framework for assessing future transportation projects like Hyperloop, and our findings can be generalized to industrialized nations beyond Germany.

  8. SharePoint User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Corporation, Infusion Development

    2009-01-01

    This straightforward guide shows SharePoint users how to create and use web sites for sharing and collaboration. Learn to use the document and picture libraries for adding and editing content, add discussion boards and surveys, receive alerts when documents and information have been added or changed, and enhance security. Designed to help you find answers quickly, the book shows how to make the most of SharePoint for productivity and collaboration.

  9. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  10. Trends in the use of flow-through shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Flow-through shares financing is considered the most cost effective equity-based financing option for non-tax-paying exploration companies, a form of financing that has helped a very large number of resource-based companies start, stay alive and grow in a very competitive financial marketplace. This paper provides a brief historical review of the flow-though shares concept, outlines developments in recent legislation, changes in the Income Tax Act, and trends in financial structures, and reviews flow-through shares from a tax perspective of the investor and the issuer

  11. [Risk sharing methods in middle income countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotai, András; Kaló, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    The pricing strategy of innovative medicines is based on the therapeutic value in the largest pharmaceutical markets. The cost-effectiveness of new medicines with value based ex-factory price is justifiable. Due to the international price referencing and parallel trade the ex-factory price corridor of new medicines has been narrowed in recent years. Middle income countries have less negotiation power to change the narrow drug pricing corridor, although their fair intention is to buy pharmaceuticals at lower price from their scarce public resources compared to higher income countries. Therefore the reimbursement of new medicines at prices of Western-European countries may not be justifiable in Central-Eastern European countries. Confidential pricing agreements (i.e. confidential price discounts, claw-back or rebate) in lower income countries of the European Union can alleviate this problem, as prices of new medicines can be adjusted to local purchasing power without influencing the published ex-factory price and so the accessibility of patients to these drugs in other countries. In order to control the drug budget payers tend to apply financial risk sharing agreements for new medicines in more and more countries to shift the consequences of potential overspending to pharmaceutical manufacturers. The major paradox of financial risk-sharing schemes is that increased mortality, poor persistence of patients, reduced access to healthcare providers, and no treatment reduce pharmaceutical spending. Consequently, payers have started to apply outcome based risk sharing agreements for new medicines recently to improve the quality of health care provision. Our paper aims to review and assess the published financial and outcome based risk sharing methods. Introduction of outcome based risk-sharing schemes can be a major advancement in the drug reimbursement strategy of payers in middle income countries. These schemes can help to reduce the medical uncertainty in coverage

  12. Teilen, Sharing 1 und Sharing 2: die Sharing Economy im Licht theoretischer Zugänge

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Michaela; Pick, Doreén

    2016-01-01

    Der Artikel geht theoretischen Zugängen zum Sharing-Begriff nach. Er erläutert den Beitrag, aber auch die Grenzen von Dienstleistungstheorie und Property-Rights-Theorie für das Verständnis der Sharing Economy. Gründe für die Unterscheidung zwischen kommerzieller und nichtkommerzieller Sharing Economy werden dargelegt sowie mögliche Impulse der Sharing Economy für Änderungen im Verständnis wirtschaftlichen Handels und seiner Organisationsformen erörtert. This article elaborates on theoretic...

  13. Job Sharing in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Barbara; And Others

    Job sharing is defined as "two people sharing the responsibilities of one full-time position with salary and benefits prorated"; the concept focuses on positions usually offered only as full-time jobs, often in professional and managerial categories. This book is a guide for teachers and administrators on the implementation and use of…

  14. Unveiling the Knowledge Sharing Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that organisation culture affects how knowledge processes such as knowledge-sharing evolve. Despite the growing attention to the aspects of culture, the knowledge management debate has not paid systematic attention to the assessment or measurement of a knowledge-sharing

  15. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  16. Shared Contract-Obedient Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Lozes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing verification techniques for message-passing programs suppose either that channel endpoints are used in a linear fashion, where at most one thread may send or receive from an endpoint at any given time, or that endpoints may be used arbitrarily by any number of threads. The former approach usually forbids the sharing of channels while the latter limits what is provable about programs. In this paper we propose a midpoint between these techniques by extending a proof system based on separation logic to allow sharing of endpoints. We identify two independent mechanisms for supporting sharing: an extension of fractional shares to endpoints, and a new technique based on what we call reflexive ownership transfer. We demonstrate on a number of examples that a linear treatment of sharing is possible.

  17. Knowledge Sharing and National Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailova, Snejina; Hutchings, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Much of the knowledge management literature tends to assume a rather universalistunderstanding of knowledge sharing. Yet, attitudes to knowledge sharing as well as actualknowledge-sharing behaviour depend on conditions that vary across institutional and culturalenvironments. This paper contributes...... to the knowledge-sharing literature by specificallydiscussing the interplay between knowledge-sharing and national cultural factors in the context oftransition countries. The paper engages in a comparative examination of two major transitionsocieties, China and Russia, and contributes to understanding...... the complexity of differencesbetween transition economies. The paper is written as a set of theoretical arguments andpropositions that is designed to elucidate more nuanced ways of thinking about knowledgesharing in China and Russia. We argue that in the case of China and Russia, verticalindividualism...

  18. Using business intelligence to manage supply costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunata, Ernest

    2013-08-01

    Business intelligence tools can help materials managers and managers in the operating room and procedural areas track purchasing costs more precisely and determine the root causes of cost increases. Data can be shared with physicians to increase their awareness of the cost of physician preference items. Proper use of business intelligence goes beyond price benchmarking to manage price performance over time.

  19. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SHARE TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cojocaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its content, the memorandum of association, even in the case of a limited liability company, stipulates the contribution of each shareholder to the share capital while the share capital is divided into shares, corresponding to the contribution of each shareholder to the share capital. The limited liability company is established in consideration of the people who set it up and as such, the share transfer is subject to certain conditions provided by law. Therefore, the law sets out strict conditions for share transfer in the case the transfer is done to one or more shareholders, but especially if the transfer is done to people outside the company, or following the inheritance. If the transfer is done to a shareholder, such is possible provided that this transfer has not been prohibited by the act of incorporation itself. Instead, the transfer to people outside the company cannot be done without the cons ent of shareholders representing at least three quarters of the capital. In case of share transfer by succession, the law allows it provided that this transfer is permitted within the memorandum of association .

  20. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  1. Drilling cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Drilling assumes greater importance in present day uranium exploration which emphasizes to explore more areas on the basis of conceptual model than merely on surface anomalies. But drilling is as costly as it is important and consumes a major share (50% to 60%) of the exploration budget. As such the cost of drilling has great bearing on the exploration strategy as well as on the overall cost of the project. Therefore, understanding the cost analysis is very much important when planning or intensifying an exploration programme. This not only helps in controlling the current operations but also in planning the budgetary provisions for future operations. Also, if the work is entrusted to a private party, knowledge of in-house cost analysis helps in fixing the rates of drilling in different formations and areas to be drilled. Under this topic, various factors that contribute to the cost of drilling per meter as well as ways to minimize the drilling cost for better economic evaluation of mineral deposits are discussed. (author)

  2. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  3. One Share-One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Eklund, Johan E.

    Shares with more voting rights than cash flow rights provide their owners with a disproportional influence that is often found to destroy the value of outside equity. This is taken as evidence of discretionary use of power. However, concentration of power does not necessarily result from control...... enhancing mechanisms; it could also be that some shareholders retain a large block in a one share-one vote structure. In this paper, we develop a methodology to disentangle disproportionality, which allows us to test the effect of deviations from one share-one vote more precisely. Our empirical findings add...

  4. Share capitalism and worker wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E; Freeman, Richard B; Green, Colin P

    2016-10-01

    We show that worker wellbeing is determined not only by the amount of compensation workers receive but also by how compensation is determined. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been preoccupied with individual performance-related pay, we find that the receipt of a range of group-performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) is associated with higher job satisfaction. This holds conditional on wage levels, so that pay methods are associated with greater job satisfaction in addition to that coming from higher wages. We use a variety of methods to control for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We suggest that half of the share-capitalism effect is accounted for by employees reciprocating for the "gift"; we also show that share capitalism helps dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality.

  5. Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) Payments This link provides you with information about Medicaid DSH Payments. You can find information on DSH Audit...

  6. Los espacios compartidos ("Shared Space"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Porto Schettino

    2008-07-01

    The "Shared Space" concept was formally defined when the European Project with this title took place, as part of the Interreg IIIB, North Sea Program. "Shared Space" initiated at 2004 and it's time as a project partly financed by the European Union finish at 2008, after having promoted seven "pilot projects" at Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Holland and England. Nevertheless, Shared Space, it's just a new name for a technique with decades of history, developed fundamentally in Holland and which implemented new criteria for traffic regulation and public space design, were based on all traffic signs elimination and on the spatial integration of all different street users. To analyze Shared Space's projects construction and operation experience, and evaluate their possible application in some Spanish city centres is this paper main objective.

  7. Benefit sharing in health research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... [4] Those who contribute to scientific research ought to share in its benefits. .... women to form new relationships, social networks and develop a sense of ... or discoveries about the indigenous biological resources before.

  8. United Network for Organ Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... donor families & recipients Organ donation facts Policy Policy development Policy brochures Membership Data Transplant trends Data resources Technology Get Involved EDUCATE Become a UNOS Ambassador Promote organ donation Share through social media VISIT Attend a UNOS event Tour the National ...

  9. Sharing Resources in Educational Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoush Margarayn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the implications of mobility within educational communities for sharing and reuse of educational resources. The study begins by exploring individuals’ existing strategies for sharing and reusing educational resources within localised and distributed communities, with particular emphasis on the impact of geographic location on these strategies. The results indicate that the geographic distribution of communities has little impact on individuals’ strategies for resource management, since many individuals are communicating via technology tools with colleagues within a localised setting. The study points to few major differences in the ways in which individuals within the localised and distributed communities store, share and collaborate around educational resources. Moving beyond the view of individuals being statically involved in one or two communities, mobility across communities, roles and geographic location are formulated and illustrated through eight scenarios. The effects of mobility across these scenarios are outlined and a framework for future research into mobility and resource sharing within communities discussed.

  10. Network node for peripheral sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbitt, J.; Johnson, M.

    1977-01-01

    A module which enables several independent computer systems to share the peripherals (graphics display and line printer) of a PDP-11 computer is described. The module requires no software support in the PDP-11

  11. OSU Reactor Sharing Program FY 1995 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, J.F.

    1996-10-01

    This is the annual report of the activities supported under the Oregon State University Reactor Sharing Program, award number DE-FG06-NE38137. The beginning date for the award was September, 30, 1995 and the end date was September 29, 1996. Work conducted under this award is internally administered at the Radiation Center through a project tasking system. This allows for excellent quality control for the work which is performed from the point of initial contact, through the reactor application, project report generation and financial accounting. For the current fiscal year, FY95, the total cost of the reactor sharing program, including Radiation Center contributions, was $66,323.20 of which $40,000.00 was supplied by the DOE Reactor Sharing Program. The details of individual project costs is given in Table 1. The work performed for the individual projects are described in the brief work descriptions given in Table 2

  12. Legal, economic and cultural aspects of file sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Poort, J.P.; Rutten, P.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution seeks to identify the short and long-term economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, films and games, while taking into account the legal context and policy developments. The short-term implications examined concern direct costs and benefits to society, whereas the

  13. Barriers and opportunities for shared decision making in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitmaker-Warnaar, T.J.; Scheele, Fedde

    2017-01-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is promoted as tool for improving quality and responsiveness of care, while lowering overall costs. The underlying idea of SDM is well-conceptualised and a wide range of experiments in the Netherlands and abroad have been executed over the last couple of years. However,

  14. Addressing Challenges to the Shared Use of School Recreational Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, John O.; Connaughton, Daniel P.; Carroll, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The shared use of school recreational facilities holds the potential to offer activity opportunities for many people, especially those in low-income, minority, and under-resourced communities. School facilities are usually easily accessible and offer safe, free or low cost, and convenient recreation and sport opportunities. However, a number of…

  15. Implementing shared decision-making: consider all the consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwyn, G.; Frosch, D.L.; Kobrin, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ethical argument that shared decision-making is "the right" thing to do, however laudable, is unlikely to change how healthcare is organized, just as evidence alone will be an insufficient factor: practice change is governed by factors such as cost, profit margin, quality, and

  16. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  17. Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Aydın; Aşina Gülerarslan; Süleyman Karaçor; Tarık Doğan

    2013-01-01

    Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertise...

  18. Decommissioning Cost Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labor, Bea

    2012-03-01

    The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

  19. Relevansi Nilai Selisih Loans Book Value dan Loans Fair Value, Book Value Per Share, Earnings Per Share dan Ukuran Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Bakti Pertiwi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the impacts of IFRS convergence is the tendency to leave historical cost to the fair value primarily for financial instruments, one of which is bank loans. Therefore, the benefit of the use of historical cost and fair value needs to be examined. This study aims to evaluate the relationship of the difference between loan book value and fair value, book value per share, earnings per share and the company size to the stock price of banks that use accounting standard that has been converged to IFRS. The samples used are banks listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period of 2010-2013. The relationship between the difference loans book value and fair value, book value per share, earnings per share and the size with the stock price were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The results of this study indicate that the difference between loans book value and fair value, book value per share, earnings per share and the size can be used to predict the stock price of bank. Thus, the difference between loan book value and fair value of financial instruments have a relevant value.

  20. Labour Costs and the Size of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Facchini, François; Melki, Mickael; Pickering, Andrew Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Given inelastic demand for labour-intensive public services, the size of government depends positively on labour costs. OECD data exhibit a strong statistical association between government size and the business-sector labour share of income. When the labour share is instrumented with measures of technological change, institutional variation and predetermined data it continues to positively impact government size. In contrast, transfer spending is unaffected by the labour share. The evidence ...

  1. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  2. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  3. Sharing wind power forecasts in electricity markets: A numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, S. Jalal; Pinson, Pierre; Greve, Zacharie de; Vallée, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Information sharing among different agents can be beneficial for electricity markets. • System cost decreases by sharing wind power forecasts between different agents. • Market power of wind producer may increase by sharing forecasts with market operator. • Extensive out-of-sample analysis is employed to draw reliable conclusions. - Abstract: In an electricity pool with significant share of wind power, all generators including conventional and wind power units are generally scheduled in a day-ahead market based on wind power forecasts. Then, a real-time market is cleared given the updated wind power forecast and fixed day-ahead decisions to adjust power imbalances. This sequential market-clearing process may cope with serious operational challenges such as severe power shortage in real-time due to erroneous wind power forecasts in day-ahead market. To overcome such situations, several solutions can be considered such as adding flexible resources to the system. In this paper, we address another potential solution based on information sharing in which market players share their own wind power forecasts with others in day-ahead market. This solution may improve the functioning of sequential market-clearing process through making more informed day-ahead schedules, which reduces the need for balancing resources in real-time operation. This paper numerically evaluates the potential value of sharing forecasts for the whole system in terms of system cost reduction. Besides, its impact on each market player’s profit is analyzed. The framework of this study is based on a stochastic two-stage market setup and complementarity modeling, which allows us to gain further insights into information sharing impacts.

  4. A Strategic Analysis of Information Sharing Among Cyber Attackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We build a game theory model where the market design is such that one firm invests in security to defend against cyber attacks by two hackers. The firm has an asset, which is allocated between the three market participants dependent on their contest success. Each hacker chooses an optimal attack, and they share information with each other about the firm’s vulnerabilities. Each hacker prefers to receive information, but delivering information gives competitive advantage to the other hacker. We find that each hacker’s attack and information sharing are strategic complements while one hacker’s attack and the other hacker’s information sharing are strategic substitutes. As the firm’s unit defense cost increases, the attack is inverse U-shaped and reaches zero, while the firm’s defense and profit decrease, and the hackers’ information sharing and profit increase. The firm’s profit increases in the hackers’ unit cost of attack, while the hackers’ information sharing and profit decrease. Our analysis also reveals the interesting result that the cumulative attack level of the hackers is not affected by the effectiveness of information sharing between them and moreover, is also unaffected by the intensity of joint information sharing. We also find that as the effectiveness of information sharing between hackers increases relative to the investment in attack, the firm’s investment in cyber security defense and profit are constant, the hackers’ investments in attacks decrease, and information sharing levels and hacker profits increase. In contrast, as the intensity of joint information sharing increases, while the firm’s investment in cyber security defense and profit remain constant, the hackers’ investments in attacks increase, and the hackers’ information sharing levels and profits decrease. Increasing the firm’s asset causes all the variables to increase linearly, except information sharing which is constant. We extend

  5. Capital Market Integration and Consumption Risk Sharing over the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Schmeling, Maik

    2016-01-01

    capital market integration forecasts more consumption risk sharing in the future. This finding is robust to controlling for trade openness and exchange rate volatility as alternative drivers of risk sharing. Finally, we calculate the welfare costs of imperfect consumption risk sharing and find......We empirically investigate time variation in capital market integration and consumption risk sharing using data for 16 countries from 1875 to 2012. We show that there has been considerable variation over time in the degrees of capital market integration and consumption risk sharing and that higher...

  6. 12 CFR 701.35 - Share, share draft, and share certificate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and share certificate accounts in all advertising, disclosures, or agreements, whether written or oral..., other federal law, and its contractual obligations, determine the types of fees or charges and other...

  7. Share opportunity sets and cooperative games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caprari, E.; Patrone, F.; Pusillo, L.; Tijs, S.H.; Torre, A.

    2008-01-01

    In many share problems there is ana priorigiven a natural set of possible divisions to solve the sharing problem. Cooperative games related to such share sets are introduced, which may be helpful in solving share problems. Relations between properties of share sets and properties of games are

  8. Share Opportunity Sets and Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caprari, E.; Patrone, F.; Pusillo, L.; Tijs, S.H.; Torre, A.

    2006-01-01

    In many share problems there is a priori given a natural set of possible divisions to solve the sharing problem.Cooperative games related to such share sets are introduced, which may be helpful in solving share problems.Relations between properties of share sets and properties of games are

  9. Job Sharing--Opportunities or Headaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Patricia

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the issue of job sharing as a new alternative available to workers. Topics covered include (1) a profile of job sharers, (2) response to job sharing, (3) establishing a job share, (4) job sharing in operation, and (5) legal analysis of job sharing. (CH)

  10. Optimized load sharing control by means of thermal reliability management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    time and system cost. However, due to non-ideal parts each converter unit deviates from the ideal case, which makes a power system comprised of parallel-connected converters a rather poor performing system. To account for the non-ideal parts some form of load sharing is needed, whereby it is ensured......With new applications for high-current low-output voltage power systems emerging nearly every day the need for new and cost-efficient power system designs is a matter of course. As output voltage levels continue to decrease an approach that seems more and more attractive is the implementation...... that each converter in the configuration delivers its share of the total output power. In other words parallel-operation of multiple converters is employed when specifications require a highly reliable system, designable within a very short time frame and at low costs. However, to make full use...

  11. Akuisisi dan Budaya Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Kusumawardhani Soeprapto Putri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large companies which are experiencing barriers in innovation often take a radical step to acquire knowledge, namely acquisition. Though innovation is not the only reason, acquisition will result in the company wishes to achieve competitive advantage affected by the creation of ideas, creativity and innovation. The three points can be achieved more easily when the knowledge sharing within the organization / company runs well. However, the acquisition maybe impacts as a counter-attack for the knowledge sharing culture both in the acquisitor and and company which obtains the acquisition. Therefore, a key to succeed the acquisition is a sharing culture among individuals within a company that runs well or even better. Individuals from the acquisitor and those of the company that obtains the acquisition can adapt to each other and have confidence in order not to hinder them to share knowledge. This study discusses in detail the potential impacts of an acquisition upon a knowledge sharing culture in a company. 

  12. One-way shared memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Standard multicore processors use the shared main memory via the on-chip caches for communication between cores. However, this form of communication has two limitations: (1) it is hardly time-predictable and therefore not a good solution for real-time systems and (2) this single shared memory...... is a bottleneck in the system. This paper presents a communication architecture for time-predictable multicore systems where core-local memories are distributed on the chip. A network-on-chip constantly copies data from a sender core-local memory to a receiver core-local memory. As this copying is performed...... in one direction we call this architecture a one-way shared memory. With the use of time-division multiplexing for the memory accesses and the network-on-chip routers we achieve a time-predictable solution where the communication latency and bandwidth can be bounded. An example architecture for a 3...

  13. Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption......In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...

  14. Fast transfer of shared data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, C.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; Jostizembski, E.; MacLeod, R.W.; Wolin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Event Transfer system enables its users to produce events (data) and share them with other users by utilizing shared memory on either Solaris or Linux-based computers. Its design emphasizes speed, reliability, ease of use, and recoverability from crashes. In addition to fast local operation, the ET system allows network transfer of events. Using multi-threaded code based on POSIX threades and mutexes, a successful implementation was developed which allowed passing events over 500 kHz on a 4 cpu Sun workstation and 150 kHz on a dual cpu PC

  15. Security interest in business share

    OpenAIRE

    Žák, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    75 English summary Lien of the share in a limited liability company The main goal of my thesis "Lien of the share in a limited liability company" is to analyze provisions of the new Czech Civil Code and Corporation Act, which were passed in the spring of 2012. Both statutes come into effect on 1 January 2014. At first I briefly describe the historical development of this issue since 1906, when first a statute concerning the limited liability company was passed in our country. Then I describe ...

  16. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...

  17. Towards a higher share of distributed generation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lise, Wietze

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, there is 8.5% distributed generation (DG) in Turkey which are generation units connected to the low and medium voltage distribution network. Out of this, 56% is industrial combined heat and power production (CHP) and 20% are renewables (RES-E), mainly runoff small scale hydro. Various technical and economical barriers have kept the DG share relatively low. This paper assesses how Turkey could increase the DG share. The methodology employed in this paper consist of a survey of the literature and legislation, combined with interviews with regulators, transmission and distribution system operators. Scenarios for DG are developed, barriers to increase the DG share are identified, DG and central generation (CG) are compared economically and regulatory measures are identified. The addition of long-run marginal transmission costs to the investment cost of new power generation units could close the long-run marginal cost difference between DG and CG. However, the share of DG is likely to stay low unless regulatory measures are taken. Moreover, a specific policy and regulation on DG is needed, the distribution grid needs strengthening, local dispatch centres need to become active and RES-E limits are needed for Turkey.

  18. SHARED VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR COLLECTIVE TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, R. Bowen

    2000-01-01

    Historically NASA has trained teams of astronauts by bringing them to the Johnson Space Center in Houston to undergo generic training, followed by mission-specific training. This latter training begins after a crew has been selected for a mission (perhaps two years before the launch of that mission). While some Space Shuttle flights have included an astronaut from a foreign country, the International Space Station will be consistently crewed by teams comprised of astronauts from two or more of the partner nations. The cost of training these international teams continues to grow in both monetary and personal terms. Thus, NASA has been seeking alternative training approaches for the International Space Station program. Since 1994 we have been developing, testing, and refining shared virtual environments for astronaut team training, including the use of virtual environments for use while in or in transit to the task location. In parallel with this effort, we have also been preparing applications for training teams of military personnel engaged in peacekeeping missions. This paper will describe the applications developed to date, some of the technological challenges that have been overcome in their development, and the research performed to guide the development and to measure the efficacy of these shared environments as training tools.

  19. Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich K. Jondral

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of “markets” that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

  20. The effects of rising energy costs and transportation mode mix on forest fuel procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, Peter; Gronalt, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Since fossil fuels have been broadly recognized as a non-renewable energy source that threatens the climate, sustainable and CO 2 neutral energy sources - such as forest fuels - are being promoted in Europe, instead. With the expeditiously growing forest fuel demand, the strategic problem of how to design a cost-efficient distribution network has evolved. This paper presents an MILP model, comprising decisions on modes of transportation and spatial arrangement of terminals, in order to design a forest fuel supply network for Austria. The MILP model is used to evaluate the impacts of rising energy costs on procurement sources, transport mix and procurement costs on a national scale, based on the example of Austria. A 20% increase of energy costs results in a procurement cost increase of 7%, and another 20% increase of energy costs would have similar results. While domestic waterways become more important as a result of the first energy cost increase, rail only does so after the second. One way to decrease procurement costs would be to reduce the share of empty trips with truck and trailer. Reducing this share by 10% decreases the average procurement costs by up to 20%. Routing influences the modal split considerably, and the truck transport share increases from 86% to 97%, accordingly. Increasing forest fuel imports by large CHPs lowers domestic competition and also enables smaller plants to cut their procurement costs. Rising forest fuel imports via ship will not significantly decrease domestic market shares, but they will reduce procurement costs considerably. (author)

  1. Teacher Costs

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this technical brief is to assess current methodologies for the collection and calculation of teacher costs in European Union (EU) Member States in view of improving data series and indicators related to teacher salaries and teacher costs. To this end, CRELL compares the Eurydice collection on teacher salaries with the similar Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data collection and calculates teacher costs based on the methodology established by Statis...

  2. Security Investment, Hacking, and Information Sharing between Firms and between Hackers

    OpenAIRE

    Kjell Hausken

    2017-01-01

    A four period game between two firms and two hackers is analyzed. The firms first defend and the hackers thereafter attack and share information. Each hacker seeks financial gain, beneficial information exchange, and reputation gain. The two hackers’ attacks and the firms’ defenses are inverse U-shaped in each other. A hacker shifts from attack to information sharing when attack is costly or the firm’s defense is cheap. The two hackers share information, but a second more disadvantaged hacker...

  3. Security investment, hacking, and information sharing between firms and between hackers

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    A four period game between two firms and two hackers is analyzed. The firms first defend and the hackers thereafter attack and share information. Each hacker seeks financial gain, beneficial information exchange, and reputation gain. The two hackers' attacks and the firms' defenses are inverse U-shaped in each other. A hacker shifts from attack to information sharing when attack is costly or the firm's defense is cheap. The two hackers share information, but a second more disadvantaged hacker...

  4. Security Investment, Hacking, and Information Sharing Between Firms and Between Hackers

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    A four period game between two firms and two hackers is analyzed. The firms first defend and the hackers thereafter attack and share information. Each hacker seeks financial gain, beneficial information exchange, and reputation gain. The two hackers’ attacks and the firms’ defenses are inverse U-shaped in each other. A hacker shifts from attack to information sharing when attack is costly or the firm’s defense is cheap. The two hackers share information, but a second more disadvantaged hacker...

  5. Shared-resource computing for small research labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, M J

    1982-04-01

    A real time laboratory computer network is described. This network is composed of four real-time laboratory minicomputers located in each of four division laboratories and a larger minicomputer in a centrally located computer room. Off the shelf hardware and software were used with no customization. The network is configured for resource sharing using DECnet communications software and the RSX-11-M multi-user real-time operating system. The cost effectiveness of the shared resource network and multiple real-time processing using priority scheduling is discussed. Examples of utilization within a medical research department are given.

  6. Assessing Customer Evaluation and Revenue Consequences of Component Sharing Across Brands in the Vertical Product Line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); K.H. Pauwels (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractComponent sharing may look great in the boardroom, but not in the showroom. Indeed, savings on R&D and production costs could be offset by a plunge in customer brand attractiveness and willingness to pay. This paper investigates the impact of component sharing on customer evaluation of

  7. Who Should I Share Risk with? Gifts can tell : Theory and Evidence from Rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ruixin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how gift exchange may help to overcome limited commitment problem in risk sharing. When efficient contract enforcement is lacking, people rely on friends (or relatives) to share risk since emotional or moral cost of defaulting between friends can help to prevent moral hazard. The

  8. Knowledge sharing in industrial research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the field of organization studies has increasingly focused on knowledge and knowledge processes in organizations. This thesis describes a study of one of those processes, knowledge sharing, in the context of industrial research. Though the attention for knowledge in

  9. Sharing Power in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Amato, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that be sharing power in the classroom teachers allow the development of participatory classrooms in which all students can thrive. Examines participatory teaching and critical pedagogy, components of the participatory learning experience, manifestations of participatory teaching, an application of the language experience approach,…

  10. Scalable shared-memory multiprocessing

    CERN Document Server

    Lenoski, Daniel E

    1995-01-01

    Dr. Lenoski and Dr. Weber have experience with leading-edge research and practical issues involved in implementing large-scale parallel systems. They were key contributors to the architecture and design of the DASH multiprocessor. Currently, they are involved with commercializing scalable shared-memory technology.

  11. The People's Time Sharing System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; Benson, W.H.

    1973-01-01

    A set of programs running under a multiprogramming batch operating system on the CDC 6600 which provide remote users with a time sharing service is described. The basis for the system is the ability of a user program to create job control statements during execution, thereby tricking the operating

  12. Job Sharing: One District's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Mahlon L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes responses of principals, teachers, and parents to a job sharing program instituted to reduce impact of staff layoffs. Principals were satisfied overall; teachers believed that students benefited from interaction with two instructors; and a majority of parents felt likewise. (TE)

  13. DOE/university reactor sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy's program of reactor sharing is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering instruction and nuclear research opportunities in non-reactor-owning colleges and universities. The benefits of the program and need for the continuation of the program in the future are discussed

  14. Information Sharing and International Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The sharing between national tax authorities of taxpayer-specific information has emerged over the last few years as a-probably "the"-central issue in the formation of international tax policy.Yet this refocusing of the debate on international taxation-away from parametric tax coordination and

  15. Shared breastfeeding in central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramharter, Michael; Chai, Sanders K.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Klöpfer, Anna; Längin, Matthias; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Issifou, Saadon; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, shared breastfeeding is described asa novel risk factor for vertical HIV transmission. This cross-sectional survey conducted in the central African country Gabon found that 40% of lactating mothers also breastfed other children than their own, and as many children were additionally

  16. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  17. Integrating rheumatology care in the community: can shared care work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita YN Lim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Singapore's rapidly ageing population and chronic disease burden at public hospital specialist clinics herald a silver tsunami. In Singapore, “right siting” aims to manage stable chronic disease in primary care at a lower cost. To improve the quality of rheumatology care, we created shared care between rheumatologist and family physician to reduce hospital visits. Methods: Clinical practice improvement methodology was used to structure shared care of stable patients between hospital rheumatologists and eleven community family physicians; one ran a hospital clinic. A case manager coordinated the workflow. Results: About 220 patients entered shared care over 29 months. Patients without hospital subsidies (private patients and private family physicians independently predicted successful shared care, defined as one cycle of alternating care. Discussion: Our shared care model incorporated a case manager, systematic workflows, patient selection criteria, willing family physician partners and rheumatologists in the absence of organizational integration. Health care affordability impacts successful shared care. Government subsidy hindered right siting to private primary care. Conclusions: Financing systems in Singapore, at health policy level, must allow transfer of hospital subsidies to primary care, both private and public, to make it more affordable than hospital care. Structural integration will create a seamless continuum between hospital and primary care.

  18. Integrating rheumatology care in the community: can shared care work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita YN Lim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Singapore's rapidly ageing population and chronic disease burden at public hospital specialist clinics herald a silver tsunami. In Singapore, “right siting” aims to manage stable chronic disease in primary care at a lower cost. To improve the quality of rheumatology care, we created shared care between rheumatologist and family physician to reduce hospital visits.Methods: Clinical practice improvement methodology was used to structure shared care of stable patients between hospital rheumatologists and eleven community family physicians; one ran a hospital clinic. A case manager coordinated the workflow.Results: About 220 patients entered shared care over 29 months. Patients without hospital subsidies (private patients and private family physicians independently predicted successful shared care, defined as one cycle of alternating care.Discussion: Our shared care model incorporated a case manager, systematic workflows, patient selection criteria, willing family physician partners and rheumatologists in the absence of organizational integration. Health care affordability impacts successful shared care. Government subsidy hindered right siting to private primary care.Conclusions: Financing systems in Singapore, at health policy level, must allow transfer of hospital subsidies to primary care, both private and public, to make it more affordable than hospital care. Structural integration will create a seamless continuum between hospital and primary care.

  19. Integrating rheumatology care in the community: can shared care work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anita Yn; Tan, Chuen Seng; Low, Bernadette Pl; Lau, Tang Ching; Tan, Tze Lee; Goh, Lee Gan; Teng, Gim Gee

    2015-01-01

    Singapore's rapidly ageing population and chronic disease burden at public hospital specialist clinics herald a silver tsunami. In Singapore, "right siting" aims to manage stable chronic disease in primary care at a lower cost. To improve the quality of rheumatology care, we created shared care between rheumatologist and family physician to reduce hospital visits. Clinical practice improvement methodology was used to structure shared care of stable patients between hospital rheumatologists and eleven community family physicians; one ran a hospital clinic. A case manager coordinated the workflow. About 220 patients entered shared care over 29 months. Patients without hospital subsidies (private patients) and private family physicians independently predicted successful shared care, defined as one cycle of alternating care. Our shared care model incorporated a case manager, systematic workflows, patient selection criteria, willing family physician partners and rheumatologists in the absence of organizational integration. Health care affordability impacts successful shared care. Government subsidy hindered right siting to private primary care. Financing systems in Singapore, at health policy level, must allow transfer of hospital subsidies to primary care, both private and public, to make it more affordable than hospital care. Structural integration will create a seamless continuum between hospital and primary care.

  20. Motivation Counts: Autonomous But Not Obligated Sharing Promotes Happiness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Rui; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that prosocial sharing is emotionally rewarding, which leads to further prosocial actions; such a positive feedback loop suggests a proximal mechanism of human's tendency to act prosocially. However, it leaves open a question as to how the emotional benefits from sharing develop in young children and whether sharing under pressure promotes happiness as well. The current study directly compared 3- and 5-year-old Chinese children's happiness when sharing was autonomous (the recipient did not contribute to getting the reward) with when sharing was obligated (the recipient and the actor jointly earned the reward). We found that children shared more items overall when sharing was obligated than autonomous, demonstrating their conformity to social norms of merit-based sharing. In children who eventually shared with others, 5-year-olds gave out more stickers in the obligated sharing condition than in the autonomous sharing condition, but 3-year-olds shared the same amount between the conditions, suggesting that 5-year-olds adhered to the merit-based sharing norm more strictly than 3-year-olds. Moreover, in the autonomous sharing condition, children displayed greater happiness when they shared with the recipient than when they kept stickers for themselves, suggesting that costly prosocial giving benefited children with positive mood; however, children did not gain happiness when they shared with the recipient in the obligated sharing condition. These findings demonstrate that children's affective benefits depend on the motivation underlying their prosocial behavior, and further imply that normative force and emotional gains may independently drive preschoolers' prosocial behaviors.

  1. Motivation Counts: Autonomous But Not Obligated Sharing Promotes Happiness in Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that prosocial sharing is emotionally rewarding, which leads to further prosocial actions; such a positive feedback loop suggests a proximal mechanism of human’s tendency to act prosocially. However, it leaves open a question as to how the emotional benefits from sharing develop in young children and whether sharing under pressure promotes happiness as well. The current study directly compared 3- and 5-year-old Chinese children’s happiness when sharing was autonomous (the recipient did not contribute to getting the reward with when sharing was obligated (the recipient and the actor jointly earned the reward. We found that children shared more items overall when sharing was obligated than autonomous, demonstrating their conformity to social norms of merit-based sharing. In children who eventually shared with others, 5-year-olds gave out more stickers in the obligated sharing condition than in the autonomous sharing condition, but 3-year-olds shared the same amount between the conditions, suggesting that 5-year-olds adhered to the merit-based sharing norm more strictly than 3-year-olds. Moreover, in the autonomous sharing condition, children displayed greater happiness when they shared with the recipient than when they kept stickers for themselves, suggesting that costly prosocial giving benefited children with positive mood; however, children did not gain happiness when they shared with the recipient in the obligated sharing condition. These findings demonstrate that children’s affective benefits depend on the motivation underlying their prosocial behavior, and further imply that normative force and emotional gains may independently drive preschoolers’ prosocial behaviors.

  2. Security Investment, Hacking, and Information Sharing between Firms and between Hackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A four period game between two firms and two hackers is analyzed. The firms first defend and the hackers thereafter attack and share information. Each hacker seeks financial gain, beneficial information exchange, and reputation gain. The two hackers’ attacks and the firms’ defenses are inverse U-shaped in each other. A hacker shifts from attack to information sharing when attack is costly or the firm’s defense is cheap. The two hackers share information, but a second more disadvantaged hacker receives less information, and mixed motives may exist between information sharing and own reputation gain. The second hacker’s attack is deterred by the first hacker’s reputation gain. Increasing information sharing effectiveness causes firms to substitute from defense to information sharing, which also increases in the firms’ unit defense cost, decreases in each firm’s unit cost of own information leakage, and increases in the unit benefit of joint leakage. Increasing interdependence between firms causes more information sharing between hackers caused by larger aggregate attacks, which firms should be conscious about. We consider three corner solutions. First and second, the firms deter disadvantaged hackers. When the second hacker is deterred, the first hacker does not share information. Third, the first hacker shares a maximum amount of information when certain conditions are met. Policy and managerial implications are provided for how firms should defend against hackers with various characteristics.

  3. Shared reality in interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M; Przybylinski, Elizabeth

    2017-11-24

    Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked. In these pages, we briefly review the literature on meaning as interpersonally defined and then selectively review research on transference in interpersonal perception. Based on this, we then highlight a recent series of studies focused on shared meaning systems in transference. The highlighted studies show that values and beliefs that develop in close relationships (as shared reality) are linked in memory to significant-other knowledge, and thus, are indirectly activated (made accessible) when cues in a new person implicitly activate that significant-other knowledge (in transference), with these shared beliefs then actively pursued with the new person and even protected against threat. This also confers a sense of mutual understanding, and all told, serves both relational and epistemic functions. In concluding, we consider as well the relevance of co-construction of shared reality n such processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sharing the burden of adaptation financing. Translating ethical principles into practical policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellink, R.; Dekker, T.; Aiking, H.; Peters, J.; Gupta, J.; Bergsma, E.; Berkhout, F.; Den Elzen, M.

    2008-12-01

    Burden-sharing of adaptation costs to climate change has received limited attention in the scientific literature. This study identifies a set of principles that can serve as a basis for choices about how to share the burden of the costs of adaptation to climate change, i.e. historical responsibility and capacity to pay. The numerical analysis shows that the developed countries need to contribute the greatest burden

  5. An Analysis of Introduction of Cloud Computing Affects the Corporate IT Shared Services Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Chin Hoi

    2013-01-01

    I.T. Shared Services is a global trend that is adopted by many companies’ especially global multi-national companies. The initial drivers of such services company setup is to around standardizing, consolidating and centrally manage I.T, this move would eventually bring cost reduction and saving to the company in long run. Today, business organizations are increasingly leveraging Shared Services to manage their I.T Infrastructure and application services with expectation further cost reduction...

  6. Rehabilitation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [BDM Corp., VA (United States); [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates.

  7. Rehabilitation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates

  8. Cost considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evelien Eggink

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Lasten onder de loep The Dutch government spends almost 7 billion euros  each year on care for people with intellectual disabilities, and these costs are rising steadily. This report analyses what underlies the increase in costs that occurred between 2007 and 2011. Was

  9. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  10. From shared data to sharing workflow: Merging PACS and teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Menashe; Aradi, Yinon; Shreiber, Reuven

    2010-01-01

    Due to a host of technological, interface, operational and workflow limitations, teleradiology and PACS/RIS were historically developed as separate systems serving different purposes. PACS/RIS handled local radiology storage and workflow management while teleradiology addressed remote access to images. Today advanced PACS/RIS support complete site radiology workflow for attending physicians, whether on-site or remote. In parallel, teleradiology has emerged into a service of providing remote, off-hours, coverage for emergency radiology and to a lesser extent subspecialty reading to subscribing sites and radiology groups. When attending radiologists use teleradiology for remote access to a site, they may share all relevant patient data and participate in the site's workflow like their on-site peers. The operation gets cumbersome and time consuming when these radiologists serve multi-sites, each requiring a different remote access, or when the sites do not employ the same PACS/RIS/Reporting Systems and do not share the same ownership. The least efficient operation is of teleradiology companies engaged in reading for multiple facilities. As these services typically employ non-local radiologists, they are allowed to share some of the available patient data necessary to provide an emergency report but, by enlarge, they do not share the workflow of the sites they serve. Radiology stakeholders usually prefer to have their own radiologists perform all radiology tasks including interpretation of off-hour examinations. It is possible with current technology to create a system that combines the benefits of local radiology services to multiple sites with the advantages offered by adding subspecialty and off-hours emergency services through teleradiology. Such a system increases efficiency for the radiology groups by enabling all users, regardless of location, to work 'local' and fully participate in the workflow of every site. We refer to such a system as SuperPACS.

  11. Digital music and subculture: Sharing files, sharing styles

    OpenAIRE

    Ebare, Sean

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I propose a new approach for the study of online music sharing communities, drawing from popular music studies and cyberethnography. I describe how issues familiar to popular music scholars — identity and difference, subculture and genre hybridity, and the political economy of technology and music production and consumption — find homologues in the dynamics of online communication, centering around issues of anonymity and trust, identity experimentation, and online communication...

  12. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  13. On the human ethology of food sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefenhövel Wulf

    2014-12-01

    status is increased. Western farmers would find this generosity quite strange. It is one outcome of the human tendency to create bonds through food gifts. It is interesting, that Marcel Mauss has well described the power of the gift which generates a counter gift, but did not inquire evolutionary nor ontogenetic building blocks of the often very complex acts and rituals of giving and receiving one finds in all cultures. It seems reasonable to take an evolutionary position and argue that those of our ancestors who were generous and socially competent with a well-developed emphronesis (Theory of Mind were preferred interaction and marriage partners and that this sexual selection was the ultimate mechanism spreading the motivations and behaviours involved in sharing. To counteract cheaters humans have a rather sharp perception to detect those who don’t play by the rules and a very strong motivation to punish them, even accepting, in doing so, high costs for themselves. This strongly disproves the idea that humans mainly act on rationale choice. Rather, we are endowed, one must conclude, with a very powerful, archaic sense of balanced social interaction, of fairness and justice. This raises the interesting question whether the laws governing social conduct, made by all cultures of the world, are contra or secundum naturam. For quite some time, in the wave of sociobiological thinking, the common stand was that humans are dangerously egoistic beings and that their antisocial instincts must be kept in check by powerful laws. As Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt, the founder of human ethology as a discipline, has stated and as recent primatological and anthropological research has corroborated, humans are much more social than postulated by some authors. The Ten Commandments are built on not against basic human tendencies. Konrad Lorenz spoke of animals having “morally analogous” behaviours and was criticised for this. Modern research is rehabilitating him. The joy of sharing, a

  14. Agency costs and income taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmidt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes agency costs and the moral hazard problem in the presence of income taxation. As basic framework, income taxes are integrated in the hidden action model of agency theory. In the case of symmetric information no agency costs occur, i.e. optimal risk-sharing can be achieved, if and only if the tax is proportional. It is well-known that asymmetric information causes a welfare loss, termed agency costs, even if no taxes are imposed. Introducing a proportional income tax now increases (decreases these agency costs if the agent exhibits decreasing (increasing absolute risk aversion. Additionally, we show that non-proportional taxes cause higher (lower agency costs than a proportional tax if the agent’s marginal tax rate exceeds (is smaller than the marginal tax rate of the principal.

  15. Professional SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, Tom; Fried, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Learn to leverage the features of the newest version of SharePoint, in this update to the bestseller. More than simply a portal, SharePoint is Microsoft's popular content management solution for building intranets and Web sites or hosting wikis and blogs. Offering broad coverage on all aspects of development for the SharePoint platform, this comprehensive book shows you exactly what SharePoint does, how to build solutions, and what features are accessible within SharePoint. Written by one of the most recognized names in SharePoint development, Professional SharePoint 2010 Development offers an

  16. Professional SharePoint 2013 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Shane; Klindt, Todd

    2013-01-01

    SharePoint admin author gurus return to prepare you for working with the new features of SharePoint 2013! The new iteration of SharePoint boasts exciting new features. However, any new version also comes with its fair share of challenges and that's where this book comes in. The team of SharePoint admin gurus returns to presents a fully updated resource that prepares you for making all the new SharePoint 2013 features work right. They cover all of the administration components of SharePoint 2013 in detail, and present a clear understanding of how they affect the role of the adminis

  17. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-07-01

    Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context. Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  18. The evolution of extreme cooperation via shared dysphoric experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Harvey; Jong, Jonathan; Buhrmester, Michael D; Gómez, Ángel; Bastian, Brock; Kavanagh, Christopher M; Newson, Martha; Matthews, Miriam; Lanman, Jonathan A; McKay, Ryan; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2017-03-14

    Willingness to lay down one's life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins). Our empirical results show that sharing painful experiences produces "identity fusion" - a visceral sense of oneness - which in turn can motivate self-sacrifice, including willingness to fight and die for the group. Practically, our account of how shared dysphoric experiences produce identity fusion helps us better understand such pressing social issues as suicide terrorism, holy wars, sectarian violence, gang-related violence, and other forms of intergroup conflict.

  19. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  20. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  1. Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Lutz, Christoph

    ’s digital services through providing recommendations to Europe’s institutions. The initial stage of this research project involves a set of three literature reviews of the state of research on three core topics in relation to the sharing economy: participation (1), privacy (2), and power (3). This piece...... is a literature review on the topic of privacy. It addresses key privacy challenges for different stakeholders in the sharing economy. Throughout, we use the term "consumers" to refer to users on the receiving end (e.g., Airbnb guests, Uber passengers), "providers" to refer to users on the providing end (e.......g., Airbnb hosts, Uber drivers) and "platforms" to refer to the mediating sites, apps and infrastructures matching consumers and providers (e.g., Airbnb, Uber)....

  2. Designing for Sharing in Local Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmborg, Lone; Light, Ann; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The Sharing Economy has brought new attention to the everyday practice of sharing. Digital tools are changing both what we can do together across neighbourhoods and how we think about sharing our time, materials and skills. It is possible to design to boost resource management, economic wellbeing...... and social resilience by fostering sharing practices, but do different designs speak to different priorities in design for sharing?...

  3. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  4. Implementing shared decision-making: consider all the consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Frosch, Dominick L; Kobrin, Sarah

    2016-08-08

    The ethical argument that shared decision-making is "the right" thing to do, however laudable, is unlikely to change how healthcare is organized, just as evidence alone will be an insufficient factor: practice change is governed by factors such as cost, profit margin, quality, and efficiency. It is helpful, therefore, when evaluating new approaches such as shared decision-making to conceptualize potential consequences in a way that is broad, long-term, and as relevant as possible to multiple stakeholders. Yet, so far, evaluation metrics for shared decision-making have been mostly focused on short-term outcomes, such as cognitive or affective consequences in patients. The goal of this article is to hypothesize a wider set of consequences, that apply over an extended time horizon, and include outcomes at interactional, team, organizational and system levels, and to call for future research to study these possible consequences. To date, many more studies have evaluated patient decision aids rather than other approaches to shared decision-making, and the outcomes measured have typically been focused on short-term cognitive and affective outcomes, for example knowledge and decisional conflict. From a clinicians perspective, the shared decision-making process could be viewed as either intrinsically rewarding and protective, or burdensome and impractical, yet studies have not focused on the impact on professionals, either positive or negative. At interactional levels, group, team, and microsystem, the potential long-term consequences could include the development of a culture where deliberation and collaboration are regarded as guiding principles, where patients are coached to assess the value of interventions, to trade-off benefits versus harms, and assess their burdens-in short, to new social norms in the clinical workplace. At organizational levels, consistent shared decision-making might boost patient experience evaluations and lead to fewer complaints and legal

  5. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  6. Knowledge Management for Shared Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    knowledge derived from experiences that can be communicated through mechanisms such as storytelling , debriefing etc., or summarized in databases...patterned on the neural architecture of the brain . Neural nets often consist of a large number of nodes connected by links that transmit signals...that allow speech generation by a computer. Storytelling : The use of stories in organizations as a way of sharing knowledge and helping learning

  7. Underestimation of Project Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  8. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Administration Windows SharePoint Foundation 2010 and Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Husman, Göran

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage on the latest advances in SharePoint 2010 administration. SharePoint 2010 comprises an abundance of new features, and this book shows you how to take advantage of all SharePoint 2010's many improvements. Written by a four-time SharePoint MVP, Beginning SharePoint 2010 Administration begins with a comparison of SharePoint 2010 compared to the previous version and then examines the differences between WSS 4.0 and MSS 2010. Packed with step-by-step instructions, tips and tricks, and real-world examples, this book dives into the basics of how to install, manage, and administrate

  9. MCTS Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Configuration Study Guide Exam 70-667

    CERN Document Server

    Pyles, James

    2010-01-01

    A Sybex study guide for the new SharePoint Server 2010 Configuration examSharePoint holds 55 percent of the collaboration and content management market, with many more companies indicating they plan to join the fold. IT professionals interested in enhancing their marketability with the new Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist: Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 Configuring exam will find this guide may be their only alternative to costly classroom training.Microsoft SharePoint claims over half the market for collaboration and content management software; IT professionals will boost their ma

  10. Virtual laboratory strategies for data sharing, communications and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Canessa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the VL approach to promote research and education in developing countries and to help reduce the technology gap of the digital divide. We discuss software tools for instrument control, data sharing and e-collaboration and communications with special attention to low-bandwidth networks. We analyse the tentative costs involved in VL and the skills needed for VL administration. We conclude by identifying some VL strategies for development.

  11. Drivers of imbalance cost of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obersteiner, C.; Siewierski, T.; Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In Europe an increasing share of wind power is sold on the power market. Therefore more and more wind power generators become balancing responsible and face imbalance cost that reduce revenues from selling wind power. A comparison of literature illustrates that the imbalance cost of wind power...... varies in a wide range. To explain differences we indentify parameters influencing imbalance cost and compare them for case studies in Austria, Denmark and Poland. Besides the wind power forecast error also the correlation between imbalance and imbalance price influences imbalance cost significantly...... of imperfect forecast is better suited to reflect real cost incurred due to inaccurate wind power forecasts....

  12. Nuclear utilities must cut costs: ANS meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This article looks at cost factors in the nuclear industry, and concludes that the nuclear industry must be very careful with its operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in particular to stay competitive in the energy marketplace. These costs have been rising at 5% per year lately, and are becoming a major cost for the nuclear industry. Analysts feel that a major reason for these increases is the responsibility of management. The article highlights the need to tighten the cost factors or face the loss of market share

  13. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabisky, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  14. Enhancing knowledge sharing management using BIM technology in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Ping; Tserng, Hui-Ping; Jan, Shu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology.

  15. The virtues of gossip: reputational information sharing as prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Stellar, Jennifer; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-05-01

    Reputation systems promote cooperation and deter antisocial behavior in groups. Little is known, however, about how and why people share reputational information. Here, we seek to establish the existence and dynamics of prosocial gossip, the sharing of negative evaluative information about a target in a way that protects others from antisocial or exploitative behavior. We present a model of prosocial gossip and the results of 4 studies testing the model's claims. Results of Studies 1 through 3 demonstrate that (a) individuals who observe an antisocial act experience negative affect and are compelled to share information about the antisocial actor with a potentially vulnerable person, (b) sharing such information reduces negative affect created by observing the antisocial behavior, and (c) individuals possessing more prosocial orientations are the most motivated to engage in such gossip, even at a personal cost, and exhibit the greatest reduction in negative affect as a result. Study 4 demonstrates that prosocial gossip can effectively deter selfishness and promote cooperation. Taken together these results highlight the roles of prosocial motivations and negative affective reactions to injustice in maintaining reputational information sharing in groups. We conclude by discussing implications for reputational theories of the maintenance of cooperation in human groups.

  16. Shared memories reveal shared structure in neural activity across individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Leong, Y.C.; Honey, C.J.; Yong, C.H.; Norman, K.A.; Hasson, U.

    2016-01-01

    Our lives revolve around sharing experiences and memories with others. When different people recount the same events, how similar are their underlying neural representations? Participants viewed a fifty-minute movie, then verbally described the events during functional MRI, producing unguided detailed descriptions lasting up to forty minutes. As each person spoke, event-specific spatial patterns were reinstated in default-network, medial-temporal, and high-level visual areas. Individual event patterns were both highly discriminable from one another and similar between people, suggesting consistent spatial organization. In many high-order areas, patterns were more similar between people recalling the same event than between recall and perception, indicating systematic reshaping of percept into memory. These results reveal the existence of a common spatial organization for memories in high-level cortical areas, where encoded information is largely abstracted beyond sensory constraints; and that neural patterns during perception are altered systematically across people into shared memory representations for real-life events. PMID:27918531

  17. A fuzzy set preference model for market share analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing, and market segmentation. The success of new products depends on accurate market share prediction and design decisions based on consumer preferences. The vague linguistic nature of consumer preferences and product attributes, combined with the substantial differences between individuals, creates a formidable challenge to marketing models. The most widely used methodology is conjoint analysis. Conjoint models, as currently implemented, represent linguistic preferences as ratio or interval-scaled numbers, use only numeric product attributes, and require aggregation of individuals for estimation purposes. It is not surprising that these models are costly to implement, are inflexible, and have a predictive validity that is not substantially better than chance. This affects the accuracy of market share estimates. A fuzzy set preference model can easily represent linguistic variables either in consumer preferences or product attributes with minimal measurement requirements (ordinal scales), while still estimating overall preferences suitable for market share prediction. This approach results in flexible individual-level conjoint models which can provide more accurate market share estimates from a smaller number of more meaningful consumer ratings. Fuzzy sets can be incorporated within existing preference model structures, such as a linear combination, using the techniques developed for conjoint analysis and market share estimation. The purpose of this article is to develop and fully test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation), and how much to make (market share

  18. Professional SharePoint 2010 Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Klindt, Todd; Caravajal, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Thorough coverage of the improvements and changes to SharePoint 2010. SharePoint 2010 boasts a variety of incredible new features that will challenge even the most experienced administrator who is upgrading from SharePoint 2007. Written by a team of SharePoint experts, this book places a takes aim at showing you how to make these new features work right for you. Offering an in-depth look at SharePoint 2010, the authors focus on how SharePoint functionality has changed from its earliest version to its newest, and they provide you with detailed coverage of all the new features and capabilities.:

  19. SharePoint 2010 Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Steven; Gazmuri, Pablo; Caravajal, Steve; Wheeler, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Hands-on solutions for common SharePoint 2010 challenges Aimed at the more than 100 million licensed SharePoint 2010 users, this indispensable field guide addresses an abundance of common SharePoint 2010 problems and offers proven solutions. A team of authors encourages you to customize SharePoint beyond the out-of-the-box functionality so that you can build more complex solutions to these challenges. You?ll discover intricate details and specific full-scale solutions that you can then implement to your own SharePoint 2010 solutions.Tackles a variety of SharePoint 2010 problems ranging from si

  20. Professional SharePoint 2013 development

    CERN Document Server

    Alirezaei, Reza; Ranlett, Matt; Hillier, Scot; Wilson, Brian; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thorough coverage of development in SharePoint 2013 A team of well-known Microsoft MVPs joins forces in this fully updated resource, providing you with in-depth coverage of development tools in the latest iteration of the immensely popular SharePoint. From building solutions to building custom workflow and content management applications, this book shares field-tested best practices on all aspect of SharePoint 2013 development. Offers a thorough look at Windows Azure and SharePoint 2013Includes new chapters on Application Life Cycle Management, developing apps in ShareP

  1. Professional SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, Tom; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul J; Hillier, Scot; Schaefer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Updated guidance on how to take advantage of the newest features of SharePoint programmability More than simply a portal, SharePoint is Microsoft's popular content management solution for building intranets and websites or hosting wikis and blogs. Offering broad coverage on all aspects of development for the SharePoint platform, this comprehensive book shows you exactly what SharePoint does, how to build solutions, and what features are accessible within SharePoint. Written by a team of SharePoint experts, this new edition offers an extensive selection of field-tested best practices that shows

  2. SharePoint 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vanessa L

    2012-01-01

    Here's the bestselling guide on SharePoint 2010, updated to cover Office 365 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. The Office 365 version includes significantly enhanced cloud capabilities. This second edition of the bestselling guide to SharePoint covers getting a SharePoint site up and running, branded, populated with content, and more. It explains ongoing site management and offers plenty of advice for administrators who want to leverage SharePoint and Office 365 in various ways.Many businesses today rely on SharePoint Portal Ser

  3. Sharing best practice in partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne; Pedersen, Claus Stig

    In this paper, the promotion of sustainable products through the sharing of best practices in product chains is examined. The general understanding is that the interactions in the supply chain are changing from a traditional focus on the supply of goods “just in time” towards a focus on value...... creation for the different stakeholders and closer collaboration and communication between manufacturers, suppliers, consumers, and retailers. Supply Chain Management can be divided into two main categories with rather different focus areas: ”risk minimization” related to environmental and social impacts...... of and demand for sustainable products – in other words the creation of new markets....

  4. Secret sharing via quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, M.; Buzek, V.

    1999-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for splitting a message into several parts so that no single part is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. This procedure can be implemented using either GHZ states or two-particle entangled states. In the quantum case the presence of an eavesdropper will introduce errors so that her presence can be detected. We also discuss how quantum information can be split into parts so that the message can be reconstructed from a sufficiently large subset of the parts. (Authors)

  5. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  6. Sharing China's Bank Restructuring Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guonan Ma

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.

  7. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  8. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  9. (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing)

    OpenAIRE

    Çakıcı, Cemal

    2006-01-01

    (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing) The aim of this study is to explain the super-variable costing method which is a new subject in cost and management accounting and to show it’s working practicly.Shortly, super-variable costing can be defined as a costing method which is use only direct material costs in calculate of product costs and treats all costs except these (direct labor and overhead) as periad costs or operating costs.By using super-variable costing method, product costs ar...

  10. To Share or Not to Share: Parental, Sibling, and Situational Influences on Sharing with a Younger Sibling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Sheila R.; Van der Pol, Lotte D.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    Sharing is an important indicator of internalised prosocial values. We examined predictors of sharing of 302 preschoolers with their younger siblings in a one-year longitudinal study. Sharing was observed during different home visits, once with father and once with mother. We examined the following predictors: both children's externalising…

  11. To share or not to share : Parental, sibling, and situational influences on sharing with a younger sibling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Berkel, Sheila R.; Van Der Pol, Lotte D.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    Sharing is an important indicator of internalised prosocial values. We examined predictors of sharing of 302 preschoolers with their younger siblings in a one-year longitudinal study. Sharing was observed during different home visits, once with father and once with mother. We examined the following

  12. To share or not to share, that is the question. Conditions for the willingness to share knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sharing knowledge is an important aspect of most modern organisation. Ideas about how to stimulate knowledge sharing abound, but without much theorising. The objective of this article is to link basic motivation theories to empirical studies of knowledge sharing and its conditions. The paper starts

  13. Data sharing for public health research: A qualitative study of industry and academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Pamela A; Wilhelm, Erin E; Lee, Sinae; Merkhofer, Elizabeth; Shoulson, Ira

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is a key biomedical research theme for the 21st century. Biomedical data sharing is the exchange of data among (non)affiliated parties under mutually agreeable terms to promote scientific advancement and the development of safe and effective medical products. Wide sharing of research data is important for scientific discovery, medical product development, and public health. Data sharing enables improvements in development of medical products, more attention to rare diseases, and cost-efficiencies in biomedical research. We interviewed 11 participants about their attitudes and beliefs about data sharing. Using a qualitative, thematic analysis approach, our analysis revealed a number of themes including: experiences, approaches, perceived challenges, and opportunities for sharing data.

  14. The Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of Take Shared Bicycles as Connecting to Public Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Sun, H.; Li, P. F.; Li, C. C.

    2017-10-01

    Shared bicycles as an important way of connecting public transport, have few literature to evaluate its effectiveness.This paper taking Beijing city as an example, make anevaluationfor the six types of travel combinations which are commonly used by the citizens. The author selects four quantitative indicators: fuel consumption, economic cost, total time spent, and CO2 emission. And two qualitative indicators: degree of comfort and convenience. The relative efficiency of quantitative indicators is obtained by data envelopment analysis (DEA) and fuzzification and then take fuzzy synthetic evaluation with qualitative indicators.It was found that the choice of shared bicycles +subway+ shared bicycles and shared bicycles has good comprehensive benefits in medium distance travel. The findings also suggest that shared bicycles +subway+ shared bicycles is the best choice in the utilitarian trips. The conclusions not only provide suggestions for the travellers to select travel modes, but also can adjust the relevant factors to increase the proportion of green travel.

  15. Shared virtual environments for telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, George V; Burdea, Grigore; Boian, Rares

    2002-01-01

    Current VR telerehabilitation systems use offline remote monitoring from the clinic and patient-therapist videoconferencing. Such "store and forward" and video-based systems cannot implement medical services involving patient therapist direct interaction. Real-time telerehabilitation applications (including remote therapy) can be developed using a shared Virtual Environment (VE) architecture. We developed a two-user shared VE for hand telerehabilitation. Each site has a telerehabilitation workstation with a videocamera and a Rutgers Master II (RMII) force feedback glove. Each user can control a virtual hand and interact hapticly with virtual objects. Simulated physical interactions between therapist and patient are implemented using hand force feedback. The therapist's graphic interface contains several virtual panels, which allow control over the rehabilitation process. These controls start a videoconferencing session, collect patient data, or apply therapy. Several experimental telerehabilitation scenarios were successfully tested on a LAN. A Web-based approach to "real-time" patient telemonitoring--the monitoring portal for hand telerehabilitation--was also developed. The therapist interface is implemented as a Java3D applet that monitors patient hand movement. The monitoring portal gives real-time performance on off-the-shelf desktop workstations.

  16. Communicating shared knowledge in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egyed, Katalin; Király, Ildikó; Gergely, György

    2013-07-01

    Object-directed emotion expressions provide two types of information: They can convey the expressers' person-specific subjective disposition toward objects, or they can be used communicatively as referential symbolic devices to convey culturally shared valence-related knowledge about referents that can be generalized to other individuals. By presenting object-directed emotion expressions in communicative versus noncommunicative contexts, we demonstrated that 18-month-olds can flexibly assign either a person-centered interpretation or an object-centered interpretation to referential emotion displays. When addressed by ostensive signals of communication, infants generalized their object-centered interpretation of the emotion display to other individuals as well, whereas in the noncommunicative emotion-expression context, they attributed to the emoting agent a person-specific subjective dispositional attitude without generalizing this attribution as relevant to other individuals. The findings indicate that, as proposed by natural pedagogy theory, infants are prepared to learn shared cultural knowledge from nonverbal communicative demonstrations addressed to them at a remarkably early age.

  17. Shared ownership: what's the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    The status of library consortia has evolved over time in terms of their composition and alternative negotiating models. New purchasing models may allow improved library involvement in the acquisitions process and improved methods for meeting users' future needs. Ever-increasing costs of library resources and the need to reduce expenses make it necessary to continue the exploration of library consortia for group purchases.

  18. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  19. Relational models for knowledge sharing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, N.I.; Berends, J.J.; Baalen, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relational dimension of knowledge sharing behavior by proposing a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying knowledge sharing in organizations. This theoretical framework originates from (Fiske, 1991) and (Fiske, 1992) Relational Models Theory (RMT). The RMT

  20. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-09-01

    Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance. Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’. Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.