WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost saving opportunities

  1. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  2. Cooperative vehicle routing problem: an opportunity for cost saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, Sedighe; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Ghashami, Seyed Sajad

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology is proposed to solve a cooperative multi-depot vehicle routing problem. We establish a mathematical model for multi-owner VRP in which each owner (i.e. player) manages single or multiple depots. The basic idea consists of offering an option that owners cooperatively manage the VRP to save their costs. We present cooperative game theory techniques for cost saving allocations which are obtained from various coalitions of owners. The methodology is illustrated with a numerical example in which different coalitions of the players are evaluated along with the results of cooperation and cost saving allocation methods.

  3. Cost Saving Opportunities in NSCLC Therapy by Optimized Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nenadić

    2017-07-01

    also be observed in healthy tissues and are not compulsorily associated with tumors. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that even for the known variants of ALK fusion genes, the biological function is not known for all variants, and that no information is available on the homogeneity of ALK fusion variants within a single tumor. These facts, in concert with data for ALK mutation prevalence and therapy outcomes of a German cohort of NSCLC patients, support the hypothesis that, by using novel companion diagnostic tools in combination with therapy outcome predictions, massive cost savings could be possible in European Health Care systems without a loss of patient care.

  4. Tele-Dysphagia Management: An Opportunity for Prevention, Cost-Savings and Advanced Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Coyle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many patients survive severe stroke because of aggressive management in intensive care units.  However, acquiring pneumonia during the post-onset phase significantly reduces both the quality and likelihood of survival. Aspiration pneumonia (AP, a relatively recent addition to the list of the pneumonias, is associated with dysphagia, a swallowing disorder that may cause aspiration of swallowed food or liquids mixed with bacterial pathogens common to saliva, or by aspiration of gastric contents due to emesis or gastroesophageal reflux. While it is within the purview of speech-language pathologists to provide evaluation, treatment, and management of dysphagia, the number of patients with dysphagia is growing faster than the number of qualified dysphagia clinicians.  Because dysphagia consultations via telepractice are feasible and relatively accessible from a technological standpoint, they offer a promising strategy to bring the expertise of distant dysphagia experts to patients in underserved areas.  Tele-dysphagia management has the potential to increase patients’ survival, enhance the expertise of primary, local clinicians, and reduce healthcare costs. Even a modest reduction in either hospital admissions for aspiration pneumonia, or in the length of stay for AP, could save the US health care system hundreds of millions of dollars each year.  Wide spread tele-dysphagia management offers significant opportunities for prevention, cost-savings and advanced training, and is therefore worthy of consideration by stakeholders in the health care system and university training programs.

  5. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Concrete Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, E.; Masanet, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for about 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficienc...

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  10. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  11. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Milby, M. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  12. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Concrete Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, E.; Masanet, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for about 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accou

  14. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the Ontario meat and poultry sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Means by which the Ontario meat and poultry industries can reduce their consumption of energy, water and other resources, and reduce environmental discharges are discussed. In turn, improvements in resource and environmental efficiency by Ontario meat and poultry plants could help alleviate the load on Ontario's municipal infrastructure, reducing the need for new construction, as well as helping to minimize greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. By implementing the measures recommended in this guide the industry can also significantly reduce its operating cost at little or no capital expense. This revised edition improves the visual appearance and versatility of the Guide, in addition to including suggestions by the Canadian Meat Council, the Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency , and the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, as amplification of the views of the authorities consulted in the preparation of the 1994 first edition. 22 refs., 26 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. Energy saving opportunities in Jordanian pharmaceutical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areen Al-Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of energy consumption saving opportunities in Jordanian pharmaceutical industry has been carried out in this paper, current status of energy consumption, possible saving techniques, and recommendations that could be implemented successfully through Energy Saving Program (ESP is explored. All variables that influence energy consumption are considered accordingly using a suitable methodology. This methodology integrates a simulation programs into the analysis process; thereafter an accurate analysis and a reliable assessment for energy consumption is provided. HAP 4.41software has been used to simulate and to calculate energy consumption and costs. One biggest Jordanian pharmaceutical facility that produces Penicillin and Cephalosporin products is considered as an illustrative example, the facility consists of four main energy consumption centers and includes consuming systems namely; HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning system, lighting, compressed air, steam boilers, and miscellaneous equipments like computers, refrigerators, fume hoods, etc. Historical energy consumption quantities are estimated, details of energy data are tabulated accordingly input data files for the computer simulation method using HAP 4.41 are created. Energy saving recommendations has been decided and incorporated into the ESP system. The paper concluded with a good quality room of energy saving opportunities that mirrored positively on the national energy bill with a reduction of 13% of the total annual energy consumption.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  17. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  19. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Baking Industry: An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Plant and Energy Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Therkelsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-12-28

    The U.S. baking industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the manufacture of commercial bakery products such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, and cookies and crackers—consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in food processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. A summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency is also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. baking industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Kermeli, Katerina; Galitsky, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, typically at 20 to 40% of operational costs, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity see

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, E.; Kermeli, Katerina; Galitsky, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, typically at 20 to 40% of operational costs, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. A variety of waste fuels, including tires,...

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Adrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  7. Existing Whole-House Case Study: Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations.

  8. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  9. Opportunity Cost: A Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The author's objective for this reply in reexamining opportunity cost was to draw attention to two conflicting definitions of the concept in current use and to argue the case for dropping one of them. The comments of Daniel Arce, Rod O'Donnell, and Daniel Stone might be read as demonstration that the author has failed on both counts. Such a…

  10. FY 1995 cost savings report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue

  11. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  12. USAID IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Office of the Chief Information Officer in the Management Bureau of USAID launched initiatives designed for IT cost savings and avoidance. This dataset includes...

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  14. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP (90.9%, animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%, and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%. The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529. Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits.

  15. Activity-based costing saves on supply distribution costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Activity-based costing is coming, but is your organization ready? A few pioneering hospitals are already reaping the operational and economic benefits of activity-based costing in their materials management, and now the VHA purchasing alliance is offering this costing option to its 1,200 hospital members. The concept is simple, so why aren't there more takers? Here are the details on this pragmatic pricing approach that could save your facility plenty.

  16. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios.

  17. The Opportunity Cost of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Chit PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this “hidden” cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D.

  18. Lowering medical costs through the sharing of savings by physicians and patients: inclusive shared savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2014-12-01

    Current approaches to controlling health care costs have strengths and weaknesses. We propose an alternative, "inclusive shared savings," that aims to lower medical costs through savings that are shared by physicians and patients. Inclusive shared savings may be particularly attractive in situations in which treatments, such as those for gastric cancer, are similar in clinical effectiveness and have modest differences in convenience but substantially differ in cost. Inclusive shared savings incorporates features of typical insurance coverage, shared savings, and value-based insurance design but differs from value-based insurance design, which merely seeks to decrease or eliminate out-of-pocket costs. Inclusive shared savings offers financial incentives to physicians and patients to promote the use of lower-cost, but equally effective, interventions and should be evaluated in a rigorous trial or demonstration project.

  19. EFFECTIVE SAVINGS IN PRODUCTION TIMES AND COST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    THROUGH MONITORING OF THE EFFECT OF ADDITIVES AND ... planning, using the in-depth knowledge of gel times, can there be a saving in production times and prevention of material ..... production lines staff handlay-up laminators and ...

  20. GSA IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA IT provides data related to Agency IT initiatives that save or avoid expenditures. This data is provided as a requirement of OMB's Integrated Data Collection...

  1. Potential opportunities for energy savings in a Jordanian poultry company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlQdah, K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Tafila Technical University, P.O. Box: 179, Tafila 66110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    Rising concern about energy resource availability and energy prices in Jordan, cost of energy has become an issue that cannot be ignored in Jordan's industrial sector. In this study, energy auditing in a meat production factory related to poultry company was carried out. Based on the collected data and the conservation laws of energy, the performance of steam boilers, domestic hot water boilers, compressors, refrigeration systems, chillers, pumps, daily consumption of diesel and water were reviewed. The percentage of energy consumed by the refrigeration units, with respect to the total energy consumed, has been estimated. The results demonstrated a normal operation with thermal efficiency of 80.66% for the steam boiler, ability to save 18818.99 JD by installing economizer with payback period of 0.637 year and a 12.3% reduction of the energy cost achieved by reducing the blow down rate. The rate of diesel consumption was reduced by 12.87% over the last period of the study as a result of the recommendations that have been submitted to the technicians and professionals. The sum of 22223.77 JD can be saved by using heavy fuel oil instead of diesel oil. Moreover, this study demonstrated that energy saving can be considered as an ideal choice to increase profit and promote competition within the poultry industry if the company adopts all the proposals and recommendations that have been offered by this study. (author)

  2. Small Buildings = Big Opportunity for Energy Savings (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have a big impact on energy use. In the United States, 44.6 million small buildings consume 44% of the overall energy used in buildings, presenting an enormous opportunity to cut costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Savings account for health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... employer or yourself if you change jobs Flexible Spending Arrangements (FSA) An FSA is a pre-tax savings account offered by an employer for any type of health plan. You can use the money to be reimbursed for medical expenses. Self-employed individuals cannot get an FSA. With an FSA, you ...

  4. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  5. Identifying energy saving opportunities in buildings by the analysis of time series data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vasco [ENERGAIA- Energy Management Agency of Gaia, Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal); Fleming, Paul; Ajiboye, Paul [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes how the analysis of time series energy data can be used to identify energy saving opportunities in buildings. Using readily available historic records of energy consumption, particularly quarter-hourly and half-hourly electricity time-series data, and with basic knowledge of the building, potential energy saving opportunities can be highlighted. A review of energy monitoring and targeting (MandT) procedures and techniques of analysing time series data have been carried out. The analysis of electricity time series data has been reviewed in the UK. This has involved analysing demand for power in 8 office buildings. Three different analytical approaches have been applied, simple visualisation and interpretation of energy use patterns, contour mapping and recurrent cumulative sum deviation (CUSUM). This paper concludes that such approaches to analyse electrical power demand could increase the cost-effectiveness and reliability of energy audits and surveys.

  6. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  7. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  8. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  9. 24 CFR 242.43 - Application of cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.43 Application of cost savings. At the...

  10. Cost Savings Associated With Pharmacy Student Interventions During APPEs

    OpenAIRE

    Shepler, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the impact of pharmacy students’ clinical interventions in terms of number and cost savings throughout advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) using a Web-based documentation program.

  11. Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2009-07-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed their merits and the challenges associated with them. While in the United States ESC markets have yet to gain significant traction, lessons can be drawn from early experiences in the states of Connecticut and New York, as well as from established markets in Italy, France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. This article compares ESCs with renewable energy certificates (RECs), looks at the unique opportunities and challenges they present, and reviews solutions and best practices demonstrated by early ESC markets. Three major potential ESC market types are also reviewed: compliance, voluntary, and carbon. Additionally, factors that will benefit ESC markets in the United States are examined: new state EEPS policies, public interest in tools to mitigate climate change, and the growing interest in a voluntary market for ESCs.

  12. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  13. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    BASICS AND COST-ESTIMATING METHODOLOGY Several RAND studies detail cost methodology and spending assessments across the full range of support of both...Moore, Lorell, Mason, and Graser’s 2002 RAND Report Military Jet Engine Acquisition: Technology Basics and Cost- Estimating Methodology, pages 9 -14...9 2 2 ,016 .75$ F t W ayn e F W A 3 3 .6 7.9 3 2 0 .526 2 .326 1 .01 5 2 .8 9 2 92 .5 2 3 ,400 .00$ D ulu th D LH 4 0

  14. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  15. A Method for Estimating Potential Energy and Cost Savings for Cooling Existing Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto

    2017-04-24

    NREL has developed a methodology to prioritize which data center cooling systems could be upgraded for better efficiency based on estimated cost savings and economics. The best efficiency results are in cool or dry climates where 'free' economizer or evaporative cooling can provide most of the data center cooling. Locations with a high cost of energy and facilities with high power usage effectiveness (PUE) are also good candidates for data center cooling system upgrades. In one case study of a major cable provider's data centers, most of the sites studied had opportunities for cost-effective cooling system upgrades with payback period of 5 years or less. If the cable provider invested in all opportunities for upgrades with payback periods of less than 15 years, it could save 27% on annual energy costs.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  17. Achieving cost savings through collaborative seismic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, G. [Union Electric Co., Fulton, MO (United States); Richards, J. [Duke Power Company (United States); Loflin, L. [EPRI, Plant Support Engineering (PSE) (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Seismic qualification of nuclear power plant equipment through testing has been perceived by utility personnel as a costly and complicated process. Certainly, some equipment types may only be qualified by test due to the complexity of the item and/or the inability to represent the item in a quantitative analysis. Other factors also influence the reluctance by some to resort to seismic testing. These include cost, dealing with test failures, lack of understanding of the testing process, and greater reliance on new analytical techniques. A group of utilities have allied themselves to address these issues and have formed the seismic qualification reporting and testing standardization (SQURTS) group. SQURTS has implemented a program whereby testing is performed at a low cost, often lower than a comparable analytical solution. Testing is conducted at generic seismic levels using generic test procedures, which broadens the applicability of results. Test reports are published in a standard format which shortens the process of review and approval. Testing is no longer just a requirement, but a cost-effective option. (orig.)

  18. Incorrect storage of medicines and potential for cost savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colberg, Lene; Schmidt-Petersen, Lone; Hansen, Merete Kock

    2016-01-01

    Objective Incorrect storage and handling of refrigerated medicines may result in destruction of medicines and financial loss for hospitals. At the Medicine Information Centre we receive and answer queries on drug-related issues. In this study we aimed to investigate and quantify savings made...... in 2013. Data show that advice from Medicine Information Centre pharmacists resulted medicine cost savings of DKK 13 million (approx. €1.7 million) in hospitals in the Capital Region for that year. Conclusions Substantial savings can be made by seeking the advice of a team of information pharmacists...

  19. Users enlist consultants to calculate costs, savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-24

    Consultants who calculate payback provide expertise and a second opinion to back up energy managers' proposals. They can lower the costs of an energy-management investment by making complex comparisons of systems and recommending the best system for a specific application. Examples of payback calculations include simple payback for a school system, a university, and a Disneyland hotel, as well as internal rate of return for a corporate office building and a chain of clothing stores. (DCK)

  20. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  1. 21 Cost-Saving Measures For The Judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Vapnek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Courts around the world are increasingly facing budget cuts and funding shortfalls. Budget problems are particularly acute in developing countries, where courts need to increase efficiency and access to justice while also managing resource limitations. International development agencies and donors expect measurable progress to justify continued funding of judicial reform projects. Yet, as rule of law efforts in developing countries improve public perception of courts and streamline court administration, more cases may be filed. Greater use of the courts puts greater strain on court resources, triggering the need to implement cost-saving measures while maintaining effective court administration.This paper outlines 21 measures that courts can implement to reduce costs. Specific examples from developing countries are presented wherever possible, with additional examples drawn from the United States and Europe. Although this paper is intended mainly for audiences in developing countries, the issues facing those courts are similar to issues addressed through court reforms in the United States over the past 50 years. For this reason, examples of cost-saving measures from developed countries such as the United States may be directly applicable or could be used as starting points to spur further cost savings innovation in the developing world.Section I of this paper explains the context for the implementation of judicial cost-saving measures, and raises some issues for reflection. Section II sets out specific judicial cost-saving measures, dividing them into three categories: measures that address court operations; measures directed at staffing and salaries; and measures that relate to court and case management. Section III discusses ways that countries and judiciaries can generate ideas for new and innovative cost-saving mechanisms.

  2. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm

  3. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:28184202

  4. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. DETERMINING ENERGY SAVINGS IN BUILDINGS USING THE REDUCING COSTS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAN IVAN F.E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in four parts. The first part presents the importance of thermal insulation for buildings energy economy and some insulation properties. In the second part of the paper it is described the reducing cost method to determine the energy savings. The third part of the paper includes an analysis and a comparison for an exterior wall provided with different thicknesses of insulation layer in order to determine the average savings cost. The last part presents conclusions and discussion.

  6. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm

  7. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  8. Assessing the cost saving potential of shared product architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Løkkegaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a method for calculating cost savings of shared architectures in industrial companies called Architecture Mapping and Evaluation. The main contribution is an operational method to evaluate the cost potential and evaluate the number of product architectures in an industrial...... company. Experiences from the case company show it is possible to reduce the number of architectures with 60% which leads to significant reduction in direct material and labor costs. This can be achieved without compromising the market offerings of products. Experiences from the case study indicate cost...

  9. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  10. Permanent magnets in accelerators can save energy, space and cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, F.; Baandrup, L.O.; Hauge, N.

    2013-01-01

    Green Magnet® technology with close to zero electrical power consumption without the need for cooling water saves costs, space and natural resources. A compact dipole based on permanent magnets has been developed at Danfysik in collaboration with Sintex and Aarhus University. Our first Green Magnet...... Magnet technology in other accelerator systems like synchrotron light sources and transfer beamlines....

  11. Identifying cost management strategies in dialysis clinics: sustainable savings with positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy D; Gupta, Mahendra; Balas, E Andrew; West, David A

    2002-05-01

    To examine whether cost management strategies are used in a revenue-constrained environment without compromising clinical effectiveness. Cross-sectional analysis of monthly cost and acuity-adjusted hospitalization data. This research included longitudinal regression analyses involving 10 years of data, 1990 through 1999, from each of 6 dialysis centers. Two sets of regression models were used: one set examined cost interactions and cost trends (P management strategies were examined: (1) selective reductions in targeted cost categories, (2) cost reductions through improved efficiencies, (3) cost avoidance by shifting responsibilities to external parties, and (4) uniform reductions across all cost categories. Managers appeared to have limited opportunity to selectively or uniformly reduce costs because of cost "stickiness" and minimal resource substitutability. Improvements in operational efficiencies and cost shifting to external parties occurred. Over time, however, realized efficiencies increased at a decreasing rate, whereas cost shifting actually declined. Contrary to prior hospital studies, these results indicate significant economies of scale. No statistical correlation was found to indicate that the physician/clinic management teams' use of cost reduction strategies affected acuity-adjusted hospitalizations of dialysis patients. Strategic models that include both financial and outcomes data can enable healthcare managers to predict both positive and negative results of cost management proposals. These models can help identify aspects of an organization's cost structure that affect sustainable cost savings: cost stickiness, cost substitutability, institutional experience, realized operational improvements, and economies of scale.

  12. Unveiling information on opportunity costs in REDD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delacote, Philip; Palmer, Charles; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim;

    2014-01-01

    Improving information about individual opportunity costs of deforestation agents has the potential to increase the efficiency of REDD when it takes the form of a payment for environmental services scheme. However, objectives pursued in REDD projects may vary across policy makers. Within a theoret...

  13. Cost savings associated with improving appropriate and reducing inappropriate preventive care: cost-consequences analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskerville Neill

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outreach facilitation has been proven successful in improving the adoption of clinical preventive care guidelines in primary care practice. The net costs and savings of delivering such an intensive intervention need to be understood. We wanted to estimate the proportion of a facilitation intervention cost that is offset and the potential for savings by reducing inappropriate screening tests and increasing appropriate screening tests in 22 intervention primary care practices affecting a population of 90,283 patients. Methods A cost-consequences analysis of one successful outreach facilitation intervention was done, taking into account the estimated cost savings to the health system of reducing five inappropriate tests and increasing seven appropriate tests. Multiple data sources were used to calculate costs and cost savings to the government. The cost of the intervention and costs of performing appropriate testing were calculated. Costs averted were calculated by multiplying the number of tests not performed as a result of the intervention. Further downstream cost savings were determined by calculating the direct costs associated with the number of false positive test follow-ups avoided. Treatment costs averted as a result of increasing appropriate testing were similarly calculated. Results The total cost of the intervention over 12 months was $238,388 and the cost of increasing the delivery of appropriate care was $192,912 for a total cost of $431,300. The savings from reduction in inappropriate testing were $148,568 and from avoiding treatment costs as a result of appropriate testing were $455,464 for a total savings of $604,032. On a yearly basis the net cost saving to the government is $191,733 per year (2003 $Can equating to $3,687 per physician or $63,911 per facilitator, an estimated return on intervention investment and delivery of appropriate preventive care of 40%. Conclusion Outreach facilitation is more expensive

  14. Accrued Cost Savings of a Free Clinic Using Quality-Adjusted Life Years Saved and Return on Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Lacey, Marcus; Guse, Clare E

    2017-01-01

    Savings garnered through the provision of preventive services is a form of profit for health systems. Free clinics have been using this logic to demonstrate their cost-savings. The Community-Based Chronic Disease Management (CCDM) clinic treats hypertension using nurse-led teams, clinical protocols, and community-based settings. We calculated CCDM's cost-effectiveness from 2007 to 2013 using 2 metrics: Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved and return on investment (ROI). QALYs were calculated using the Clinical Preventive Burden (CPB) score for hypertension care. ROI was calculated by tallying the savings from prevented heart attacks, strokes, and emergency department visits against the total operating costs. Using conservative assumptions for cost estimates, hypertension care resulted in a value of QALYs saved of $711,000 to $2,133,000 and an ROI ratio range of 0.35 to 1.20. Our study shows that when using conservative assumptions to calculate cost-savings, our free clinic did not save money. Cost-savings did occur, but the amount was modest, was less than that of cost-inputs, and was not likely captured by any single health entity. Although free clinics remain a vital health care access point for many Americans, it has yet to be demonstrated that they generate a net savings. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  15. Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2012-06-01

    Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

  16. Assessing the cost saving potential of shared product architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Løkkegaard, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a method for calculating cost savings of shared architectures in industrial companies called Architecture Mapping and Evaluation. The main contribution is an operational method to evaluate the cost potential and evaluate the number of product architectures in an industrial...... company. Experiences from the case company show it is possible to reduce the number of architectures with 60% which leads to significant reduction in direct material and labor costs. This can be achieved without compromising the market offerings of products. Experiences from the case study indicate cost...... reductions between 0.5% and 2% of turnover. The main implication is that the method provides a quantitative basis for the discussion on whether or not to implement shared product architectures. This means a more fact-based approach is introduced....

  17. Consistent cost curves for identification of optimal energy savings across industry and residential sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Baldini, Mattia

    Energy savings are a key element in reaching ambitious climate targets and may contribute to increased productivity as well. For identification of the most attractive saving options cost curves for savings are constructed illustrating potentials of savings with associated costs. In optimisation...... with constructing and applying the cost curves in modelling: • Cost curves do not have the same cost interpretation across economic subsectors and end-use technologies (investment cost for equipment varies – including/excluding installation – adaptation costs – indirect production costs) • The time issue of when...... the costs are incurred and savings (difference in discount rates both private and social) • The issue of marginal investment in a case of replacement anyway or a full investment in the energy saving technology • Implementation costs (and probability of investment) differs across sectors • Cost saving...

  18. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  19. Canadian Potential Healthcare and Societal Cost Savings from Consumption of Pulses: A Cost-Of-Illness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential annual healthcare and societal cost savings relevant to rates of reduction in complications from type 2 diabetes (T2D and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD following a low glycemic index (GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses, or 100 g/day pulse intake in Canada, respectively. A four-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to: (1 estimate the proportions of individuals who are likely to consume pulses; (2 evaluate the reductions in established risk factors for T2D and CVD; (3 assess the percent reduction in incidences or complications of the diseases of interest; and (4 calculate the potential annual savings in relevant healthcare and related costs. A low GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses and 100 g/day pulse intake were shown to potentially yield Can$6.2 (95% CI $2.6–$9.9 to Can$62.4 (95% CI $26–$98.8 and Can$31.6 (95% CI $11.1–$52 to Can$315.5 (95% CI $110.6–$520.4 million in savings on annual healthcare and related costs of T2D and CVD, respectively. Specific provincial/territorial analyses suggested annual T2D and CVD related cost savings that ranged from up to Can$0.2 million in some provinces to up to Can$135 million in others. In conclusion, with regular consumption of pulse crops, there is a potential opportunity to facilitate T2D and CVD related socioeconomic cost savings that could be applied to Canadian healthcare or re-assigned to other priority domains. Whether these potential cost savings will be offset by other healthcare costs associated with longevity and diseases of the elderly is to be investigated over the long term.

  20. Dialyzer reuse: justified cost saving for south Asian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhrolia, Murtaza F; Nasir, Kiran; Imtiaz, Salman; Ahmad, Aasim

    2014-08-01

    In spite of controversies, dialyzer reuse has remained an integral part of hemodialysis because of lower cost, good overall safety record, and improved membrane biocompatibility. Reuse declined in developed countries from the beginning of this century because of mass production of hemodialyzers at favourable price with better biocompatible membrane. Abandoning dialyzer reuse became challenging in South Asian region, where more than 40% of the population live below the International Poverty Line of $1.25 per day, less than 10% of end stage renal disease patients receive renal replacement therapy, and upto 70% of those starting dialysis stop treatment due to cost within the first 3 months. Dialyzer reuse is an efficient cost-saving method that allows the use of more efficient and expensive biocompatible synthetic membranes, thereby providing high-quality dialysis to individuals living in countries with limited medical resources without compromising the safety or effectiveness of the treatment.

  1. New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

  2. Autonomous hip exoskeleton saves metabolic cost of walking uphill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keehong; Lee, Jusuk; Park, Young Jin

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a hip joint exoskeleton to boost gait function in the elderly and rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of the power and mass of the exoskeleton, we measured the metabolic cost of walking on slopes of 0, 5, and 10% grade, once not wearing the exoskeleton and then wearing it. The exoskeleton reduced the metabolic cost by 13.5,15.5 and 9.8% (31.9, 51.6 and 45.6 W) at 0, 5, and 10% grade, respectively. The exoskeleton performance index was computed as 0.97, 1.24, and 1.24 at each grade, implicating that the hip exoskeleton was more effective on slopes than level ground in saving the metabolic cost.

  3. Small Buildings = Big Opportunity for Energy Savings (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the Small Buildings and Small Portfolios roadmap, which outlines approaches and strategic priorities for the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Office to pursue over the next three to five years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for small business and building owners and operators.

  4. Unveiling information on opportunity costs in REDD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delacote, Philip; Palmer, Charles; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    2014-01-01

    a theoretical framework, this paper explores the impacts of different policy objectives under two opportunity cost settings: asymmetric and full information. For a policy maker aiming to maximize net income from REDD, having full information may not increase the amount of forest conserved but could lead...... to a redistribution of rents away from agents. By contrast, for an environmental policy maker focused on maximizing the amount of forest conserved under REDD having full information increases the amount of forest conserved while reducing the rents received by agents. For a policy maker pursuing poverty alleviation...

  5. How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This guide addresses contributions that school facility administrators and business officials can make in an effort to reduce operating costs and free up money for capital improvements. The guide explores opportunities available to utilize energy-saving strategies at any stage in a building's life, from its initial design phase through renovation.…

  6. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  7. Permanent magnets in accelerators can save energy, space and cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, F.; Baandrup, L.O.; Hauge, N.

    2013-01-01

    Green Magnet® technology with close to zero electrical power consumption without the need for cooling water saves costs, space and natural resources. A compact dipole based on permanent magnets has been developed at Danfysik in collaboration with Sintex and Aarhus University. Our first Green Magnet...... coils permit fine tuning of the magnetic field. Magnetic field measurements and thermal stability tests show that the Green Magnet fully meets the magnetic requirements of the previously used electromagnet. A permanent 30° bending dipole is currently being development to demonstrate the use of Green...

  8. Evaluation of energy and cost savings in mobile Cloud RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    The load in mobile networks is subject to variations during the day, due to user mobility and varying network average usage. Therefore, the traditional or Distributed Radio Access Network (D-RAN) architecture, where the BaseBand processing Units (BBUs) are assigned statically to a number of cells......, is sub optimal, comparing to a novel, cloud based architecture called Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN). In C-RAN a group of cells shares processing resources, and hence benefit from statistical multiplexing gain is expected. In this paper, the energy and cost savings in C-RAN are evaluated numerically...

  9. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  10. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  11. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  12. Cost Savings Analysis Guidelines for Manufacturing Technology Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-28

    14 3.2.1 ’CHANGED COSTO SAMPLE PROJECT .................. .. 16 3.2.1.1 COST SAVINGS NARRATIVE ..................... 17 3.2.1.2 RECURRING COSTS...the Level II refurbishment techniques, develop additional Level III regrinding techniques, and produce a generic manual on bearing rework procedures...40 c L0 4) 10 4) ) 4-0 4 0C A 0~~ 0 10 4C C 4) I L.~1 0 f ) AU 1 .01 4S *~~C P;ir L 0I. 0 4) - 0 0IC C I-.C*12 IA Iii 0 0 0~~~ N b>v> *w .0 o a ab2 0

  13. Student Attitudes Regarding Ebooks: A Survey with cost savings implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bialaszewski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Students were surveyed regarding usage of ebooks. Findings demonstrate that their propensity to using Ebooks increases as costs decrease, Tecnological advancements have led to ebooks being more than a written text displayed in digital format as web sites provide more up to date information. Also, licensing changes such as Creative Commons allow for more data to be accessible for students allowing for more student research opportunity.

  14. Energy cost saving strategies in distributed power networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcheukam Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study energy cost saving strategies in power networks in presence of prosumers. Three tips are considered: (i distributed power network architecture, (ii peak energy shaving with the integration of prosumers’ contribution, (iii Electric vehicles self-charging by means of prosumers’ production. The proposed distributed power network architecture reduces significantly the transmission costs and can reduce significantly the global energy cost up to 42 percent. Different types of prosumer who use self-charging photovoltaic systems, are able to intelligently buy energy from, or sell it, to the power grid. Therein, prosumers interact in a distributed environment during the purchase or sale of electric power using a double auction with negotiation mechanism. Using a two-step combined learning and optimization scheme, each prosumer can learn its optimal bidding strategy and forecast its energy production, consumption and storage. Our simulation results, conducted for the region of Sicily in Italy, show that the integration of prosumers can reduce peak hour costs up to 19 percent and 6 percent for eligible prosumers with electric vehicles.

  15. The Potential Cost Savings of Greater Use of Home- and Hospice- Based End of Life Care in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    end of their life. It focuses on prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and treatment of pain and other problems. In...Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects) and Health Technology Assessment ( HTA ). Any reviews were also scanned for useful references. Search terms used...to the patient. There are opportunity-cost savings from futile interventions. Such costs are avoided by freeing up hospital beds by early discharge

  16. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  17. LOW-COST STRATEGIES TO SAVE ENERGY IN K-12 SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C. Tesiero III

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Energy Management Control Systems (EMCS offer an excellent means of reducing energy consumption in Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems while maintaining and improving indoor environmental conditions. This can be achieved through the use of computational intelligence and optimization with a building automation system and multiple sensors, which can be quite expensive. However, energy awareness and proper scheduling achieve the best opportunities to save energy with little to no cost for existing facilities. These “low-tech/low-cost” ideas are easily implemented and quickly reduce utility costs. This article includes actual utility data and information gathered over the past 20 years while performing energy audits at several K-12 Schools in North Carolina, discusses well known and documented control strategies that are rarely implemented in most school districts and universities and will extrapolate savings for an entire school district based on real data. These processes can also be integrated into an EMCS to perform several intelligent functions achieving optimal system performance. This article focuses on control strategies utilizing time-of-day scheduling that can be used with 7-day programmable thermostats, electronic time controllers and a Building Automation System (BAS. These controllers (7d-prog. thermostat, electronic time controller and BAS will achieve lower energy consumption while maintaining occupant comfort by performing and prioritizing the appropriate actions. Real savings can be achieved quickly by utilizing these common sense approaches to control existing HVAC and lighting systems in schools.

  18. Wellness incentives in the workplace: cost savings through cost shifting to unhealthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Kelly, Brenna D; DiNardo, John E

    2013-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act encourages workplace wellness programs, chiefly by promoting programs that reward employees for changing health-related behavior or improving measurable health outcomes. Recognizing the risk that unhealthy employees might be punished rather than helped by such programs, the act also forbids health-based discrimination. We reviewed results of randomized controlled trials and identified challenges for workplace wellness programs to function as the act intends. For example, research results raise doubts that employees with health risk factors, such as obesity and tobacco use, spend more on medical care than others. Such groups may not be especially promising targets for financial incentives meant to save costs through health improvement. Although there may be other valid reasons, beyond lowering costs, to institute workplace wellness programs, we found little evidence that such programs can easily save costs through health improvement without being discriminatory. Our evidence suggests that savings to employers may come from cost shifting, with the most vulnerable employees--those from lower socioeconomic strata with the most health risks--probably bearing greater costs that in effect subsidize their healthier colleagues.

  19. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  20. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  1. Opportunities to Reduce Potential Duplication in Government Programs, Save Tax Dollars, and Enhance Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    reporting could improve tax compliance IRS Page 13 GAO-11-441T Missions Areas identified Federal agencies and programs where cost-saving or...requirements and increase revenues IRS 61. Many options could improve the tax compliance of sole proprietors and begin to reduce their $68 billion

  2. The total lifetime health cost savings of smoking cessation to society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2005-01-01

    Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined....

  3. Opportunity Cost and the Intelligence of Economists: A Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    In "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination," Professor Parkin contrasts forgone physical quantities with forgone values as measures of the opportunity cost of basic economic decisions. The impetus for his study stems from an experiment conducted by Ferraro and Taylor (2005), in which professional economists could not reach a consensus over…

  4. Cost-Savings and Economic Benefits due to the Assistive Robotic Manipulator (ARM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Stuyt, Harry J.A.; Peters, Albér

    2005-01-01

    Besides the social and personal benefits of a rehabilitation robot, the direct cost-savings and other (indirect) economic benefits, or effectiveness, are of major importance to party who pays for (or reimburses) the rehabilitation robot. This paper gives an overview of these cost-savings and, on a

  5. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-09-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author`s previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B {+-} $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author`s engineering judgment.

  6. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 151 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project.

  7. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  8. Preventing chronic disease: an important investment, but don't count on cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B

    2009-01-01

    Over the four decades since cost-effectiveness analysis was first applied to health and medicine, hundreds of studies have shown that prevention usually adds to medical costs instead of reducing them. Medications for hypertension and elevated cholesterol, diet and exercise to prevent diabetes, and screening and early treatment for cancer all add more to medical costs than they save. Careful choices about frequency, groups to target, and component costs can increase the likelihood that interventions will be highly cost-effective or even cost-saving.

  9. Costs and Savings Associated With Community Water Fluoridation Programs in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M. O’Connell, PhD

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Local, state, and national health policy makers require information on the economic burden of oral disease and the cost-effectiveness of oral health programs to set policies and allocate resources. In this study, we estimate the cost savings associated with community water fluoridation programs (CWFPs in Colorado and potential cost savings if Colorado communities without fluoridation programs or naturally high fluoride levels were to implement CWFPs. Methods We developed an economic model to compare the costs associated with CWFPs with treatment savings achieved through averted tooth decay. Treatment savings included those associated with direct medical costs and indirect nonmedical costs (i.e., patient time spent on dental visit. We estimated program costs and treatment savings for each water system in Colorado in 2003 dollars. We obtained parameter estimates from published studies, national surveys, and other sources. We calculated net costs for Colorado water systems with existing CWFPs and potential net costs for systems without CWFPs. The analysis includes data for 172 public water systems in Colorado that serve populations of 1000 individuals or more. We used second-order Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the inherent uncertainty of the model assumptions on the results and report the 95% credible range from the simulation model. Results We estimated that Colorado CWFPs were associated with annual savings of $148.9 million (credible range, $115.1 million to $187.2 million in 2003, or an average of $60.78 per person (credible range, $46.97 to $76.41. We estimated that Colorado would save an additional $46.6 million (credible range, $36.0 to $58.6 million annually if CWFPs were implemented in the 52 water systems without such programs and for which fluoridation is recommended. Conclusion Colorado realizes significant annual savings from CWFPs; additional savings and reductions in morbidity could be achieved if fluoridation

  10. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  11. F-22A Multiyear Procurement Program. An Assessment of Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    estimated net savings of about $8 million during the multiyear contract. In the second case, about 60 composite parts will be outsourced from the LM...Paper-4116 (May 2006) Funded cost reduction initiatives; EOQ savings; supplier savings due to multiyear; new supplier for winglet and doors. (p. 19...with MYP EOQ funding included development of a composite horizontal stabilizer, overhead panel redesign, the Electrical Product Improvement Program

  12. HOW CAN OPPORTUNITY COST BE USED IN DETERMINING THE PROFIT?

    OpenAIRE

    ȘTELIAC NELA

    2014-01-01

    Opportunity cost is an economic concept which takes on multiple forms of expression. One of these is the foregone profit as a result of the manufacturer’s option to produce goods by quality classes or of its choice of goods with certain values of gross margin and production lead times. This paper is focused on presenting some situations of avoiding opportunity costs within the meaning of foregone profit. To this end we contemplated two situations: i) one where manufacturers ma...

  13. Potential cost savings from generic medicines – protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reconsider these requirements in order to increase the affordability of medical ... site of the Pharmaceutical Blue Book and the cost per defined daily dose for one ... There were examples of high-cost differentials in highly competitive areas of.

  14. Verify by Genability - Providing Solar Customers with Accurate Reports of Utility Bill Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), partnering with Genability and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Incubator program, independently verified the accuracy of Genability's monthly cost savings.

  15. Costs, effects, and savings of screening for cystic fibrosis gene carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Wildhagen (Mark); H.B. Hilderink; J.G. Verzijl; J.B. Verheij (Joke); L. Kooij (Loes); T. Tijmstra; L.P. ten Kate; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the costs, effects, and savings of several strategies for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene carrier screening. DESIGN: A general model for evaluating prenatal, preconceptional, school, and neonatal carrier screening was constructed. For p

  16. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  17. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc).

  18. China's Free Trade Agreements Unlocking the "Hidden"Cost Savings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Smith; Joanne Lim; Xing Dong Lin

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China price is reshaping how and where products are manufactured in today's global economy. With China's abundant workforce and low cost structure, products with the Made in China label can be produced for a fraction of the costs incurred in other countries.

  19. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting

  20. Energy management in multi-municipal water supply systems. Identifying energy cost savings from readily available time-series electricity consumption and water production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.; Castanheira, L. [ENERGAIA, Energy Management Agency of Gaia (Portugal); Fleming, P. [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, (United Kingdom); Gouveia, J. Borges [Department of Engineering and Industrial Management, Aveiro University (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses data from 21 water pumping stations to identify electricity saving opportunities. The specific energy consumption of the different pumping stations are calculated. Using a combination of bivariate correlation analysis and CUSUM analysis, the water pumping related energy consumption and the non pumping of electricity consumption have been identified. This time-series energy analysis techniques provided much more information than the traditional energy consumption technique. Data is presented for one pumping station that identifies potential electricity savings through modifications to the current pumping regime. Bivariate analysis, followed by CUSUM technique can help improve the cost effectiveness of the energy audit by analysing the data for the pumping stations prior to the audit. Such an analysis can then help the energy auditor identify a major electricity saving opportunities in a shorter time and so make the whole approach more cost effective.

  1. The opportunity cost of capital: development of new pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Ayman; Chit, Ahmad; Papadimitropoulos, Manny; Krahn, Murray; Parker, Jayson; Grootendorst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this "hidden" cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D.

  2. Potential Medicaid Cost Savings from Maternity Care Based..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid pays for about half the births in the United States, at very high cost. Compared to usual obstetrical care, care by midwives at a birth center could reduce...

  3. Maximum potential cost-savings attributable to generic substitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. Husselmann

    Background: Schizophrenia is a costly illness to treat, especially during a time of escalating medicine ... suffer from common mental disorders, including, inter alia, ...... delusional or even hostile when changing their medicine to a generic ...

  4. Potential Medicaid Cost Savings from Maternity Care Based..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid pays for about half the births in the United States, at very high cost. Compared to usual obstetrical care, care by midwives at a birth center could reduce...

  5. Cost savings from performance-based maintenance contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2009-01-01

    New procurement approaches combined with performance-based building approaches should reduce costs, but empirical qualitative and quantitative studies are lacking. Performance-based maintenance contracts give maintenance suppliers incentives to improve their way of working. Innovative,

  6. DOD Civilian and Contractor Workforces: Additional Cost Savings Data and Efficiencies Plan are Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    equivalents may not be a reliable measure of the costs of the civilian workforce.12 For example, while FTE’s may go down, costs may go up due to a...reductions reported in average strength bNumber of reductions reported in full- time equivalents Note: DOD costs savings provided for the prior FY are...comparing costs from FY 2012 to FY 2017, and not each year in between. Further, officials stated that DOD did not include full- time equivalents

  7. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  8. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  9. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  10. Power Saving Strategies and Technologies in Network Equipment Opportunities and Challenges, Risk and Rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Ceuppens, Luc; Kharitonov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from todays best-in-class solutions, we identify power-saving strategies that have succeeded in the past and look forward to new ideas and paradigms. We strongly believe that designing energy-efficient network equipment can be compared to building sports cars, task-oriented, focused and fast. However, unlike track-bound sports cars, ultra-fast and purpose-built silicon yields better energy efficiency when compared to more generic family sedan designs that mitigate go-to-market risks by being the masters of many tasks. Thus, we demonstrate that the best opportunities for power savings come via protocol simplification, best-of-breed technology, and silicon and software optimization, to achieve the least amount of processing necessary to move packets. We also look to the future of networking from a new angle, where energy efficiency and environmental concerns are viewed as fundamental design criteria and forces that need to be harnessed to continually create more powerful networking equipment.

  11. Five Smart Ways Educators Can Save Money on Benefit Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Pat

    2012-01-01

    State and local governments today face significant financial stress from the most recent recession, which makes their need to control benefit costs even greater. Revenues declined 22% from 2008 to 2009, mostly because of reduced tax income. At the same time, state and local government spending on unemployment compensation jumped 86%. It is no…

  12. Five Smart Ways Educators Can Save Money on Benefit Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Pat

    2012-01-01

    State and local governments today face significant financial stress from the most recent recession, which makes their need to control benefit costs even greater. Revenues declined 22% from 2008 to 2009, mostly because of reduced tax income. At the same time, state and local government spending on unemployment compensation jumped 86%. It is no…

  13. Pressure sores in spinal cord injury: Active intervention saves costs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-22

    Jul 22, 2008 ... 33% incidence in the acute management phase.1. This high ... noted.2 Pressure sores not only pose a significant risk to the patient, but ... medical/nursing staff education on pressure sore incidence, extended stay and associated costs. Results. ... employed via a private nursing agency to address the.

  14. Rightsizing HVAC Systems to Reduce Capital Costs and Save Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, James

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every institution is faced with the situation of having to reduce the cost of a construction project from time to time through a process generally referred to as "value engineering." Just the mention of those words, however, gives rise to all types of connotations, thoughts, and memories (usually negative) for those in the facilities…

  15. Energy Costs of Energy Savings in Buildings: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rousse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that the cheapest energy is the one you do not need to produce. Nevertheless, this claim could somehow be unsubstantiated. In this article, the authors try to shed some light on this issue by using the concept of energy return on investment (EROI as a yardstick. This choice brings semantic issues because in this paper the EROI is used in a different context than that of energy production. Indeed, while watts and negawatts share the same physical unit, they are not the same object, which brings some ambiguities in the interpretation of EROI. These are cleared by a refined definition of EROI and an adapted nomenclature. This review studies the research in the energy efficiency of building operation, which is one of the most investigated topics in energy efficiency. This study focuses on the impact of insulation and high efficiency windows as means to exemplify the concepts that are introduced. These results were normalized for climate, life time of the building, and construction material. In many cases, energy efficiency measures imply a very high EROI. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, this is not the case and it might be more profitable to produce the required energy than to try to save it.

  16. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which

  17. Strategy on energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks based on life cycle cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Qiu, Zejing; Xu, Zhaoyang; Xiao, Chupeng

    2017-08-01

    Because the actual distribution network reconstruction project funds are often limited, the cost-benefit model and the decision-making method are crucial for distribution network energy saving reconstruction project. From the perspective of life cycle cost (LCC), firstly the research life cycle is determined for the energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks with multi-devices. Then, a new life cycle cost-benefit model for energy-saving reconstruction of distribution network is developed, in which the modification schemes include distribution transformers replacement, lines replacement and reactive power compensation. In the operation loss cost and maintenance cost area, the operation cost model considering the influence of load season characteristics and the maintenance cost segmental model of transformers are proposed. Finally, aiming at the highest energy saving profit per LCC, a decision-making method is developed while considering financial and technical constraints as well. The model and method are applied to a real distribution network reconstruction, and the results prove that the model and method are effective.

  18. The costs and potential savings of telemedicine for acute care neonatal consultation: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Nigel R; Donovan, Tim; Bensink, Mark E; Smith, Anthony C

    2012-12-01

    Telemedicine was used as a substitute for the telephone (usual care) for some acute care consultations from nurseries at four peripheral hospitals in Queensland. Over a 12-month study period, there were 19 cases of neonatal teleconsultation. Five (26%) cases of avoided infant transport were confirmed by independent assessment, four of which were avoided helicopter retrievals. We conducted two analyses. In the first, the actual costs of providing telemedicine at the study sites were compared with the actual savings associated with confirmed avoided infant transport and nursery costs. There was a net saving to the health system of 54,400 Australian Dollars (AUD) associated with the use of telemedicine over the 12-month period. In the second analysis, we estimated the potential savings that might have been achieved if telemedicine had been used for all retrieval consultations from the study sites. The total projected costs were AUD 64,969 while the projected savings were AUD 271,042, i.e. a projected net saving to the health system of AUD 206,073 through the use of telemedicine. A sensitivity analysis suggested that the threshold proportion of retrievals needed to generate telemedicine-related savings under the study conditions was 5%. The findings suggest that from the health-service perspective, the use of telemedicine for acute care neonatal consultation has substantial economic benefits.

  19. Costs and savings associated with implementation of a police crisis intervention team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallakh, Peggy L; Kiran, Kranti; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2014-06-01

    Police crisis intervention teams (CIT) have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing injury to law enforcement personnel and citizens and the criminalization of mental illness; however, their financial effect has not been fully investigated. The objective of the study was to determine the total costs or total savings associated with implementing a CIT program in a medium-size city. The costs and savings associated with the implementation of a CIT program were analyzed in a medium-size city, Louisville, Kentucky, 9 years after the program's initiation. Costs associated with officer training, increased emergency psychiatry visits, and hospital admissions resulting from CIT activity were compared with the savings associated with diverted hospitalizations and reduced legal bookings. Based on an average of 2400 CIT calls annually, the overall costs associated with CIT per year were $2,430,128 ($146,079 for officer training, $1,768,536 for hospitalizations of patients brought in by CIT officers, $508,690 for emergency psychiatry evaluations, and $6823 for arrests). The annual savings of the CIT were $3,455,025 ($1,148,400 in deferred hospitalizations, $2,296,800 in reduced inpatient referrals from jail, and $9825 in avoided bookings and jail time). The balance is $1,024,897 in annual cost savings. The net financial effect of a CIT program is of modest benefit; however, much of this analysis was based on estimates and average length of stay. Furthermore, the costs and savings associated with officer or citizen injuries were not included because there was inadequate information about their prevalence and costs. Finally, this analysis does not take into account the nonmonetary gains of a CIT program.

  20. Power shopping - practical advice and cost-saving alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthofer, J. [Encore Energy Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Encore Energy Solutions is a power consulting company which operates in California, Alberta and Ontario. The company manages electricity portfolios, sells risk management instruments and works with end users to lower power costs. It also helps utilities manage the evolution to a competitive energy market. In this presentation, a series of overhead viewgraphs were used to explain the roles of different players in Ontario's electric power industry, including generators, retailers, distributors, wholesale sellers, transmitters, wholesale consumers, independent market operators (IMOs), and consultants. The challenges facing municipal electric utilities regarding the wires business and retail services were also discussed. The trends in today's evolving power market were highlighted. These included price elasticity, load dispatch, granularity, long- and short-term volatility, gas prices, day/night spread, transmission tariffs, congestion and cost of capital. A graph depicting volatility term structures for electricity, natural gas and crude oil suggests that instantaneous volatility of power is almost infinite. Issues regarding risk management in terms of shareholder's portfolio values were also discussed. 17 figs.

  1. Major cost savings associated with biologic dose reduction in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, C L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether patients with Inflammatory Arthritis (IA) (Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) or Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)) would remain in remission following a reduction in biologic dosing frequency and to calculate the cost savings associated with dose reduction. This prospective non-blinded non-randomised study commenced in 2010. Patients with Inflammatory Arthritis being treated with a biologic agent were screened for disease activity. A cohort of those in remission according to standardized disease activity indices (DAS28 < 2.6, BASDAI < 4) was offered a reduction in dosing frequency of two commonly used biologic therapies (etanercept 50 mg once per fortnight instead of weekly, adalimumab 40 mg once per month instead of fortnightly). Patients were assessed for disease activity at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following reduction in dosing frequency. Cost saving was calculated. 79 patients with inflammatory arthritis in remission were recruited. 57% had rheumatoid arthritis (n = 45), 13% psoriatic arthritis (n = 10) and 30% ankylosing spondylitis (n = 24). 57% (n = 45) were taking etanercept and 43% (n = 34) adalimumab. The percentage of patients in remission at 24 months was 56% (n = 44). This resulted in an actual saving to the state of approximately 600,000 euro over two years. This study demonstrates the reduction in biologic dosing frequency is feasible in Inflammatory Arthritis. There was a considerable cost saving at two years. The potential for major cost savings in biologic usage should be pursued further.

  2. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  3. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  4. Cost-Savings Achieved in Two Semesters Through the Adoption of Open Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Levi Hilton III

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks represent a significant portion of the overall cost of higher education in the United States. The burden of these costs is typically shouldered by students, those who support them, and the taxpayers who fund the grants and student loans which pay for textbooks. Open educational resources (OER provide students a way to receive high-quality learning materials at little or no cost to students. We report on the cost savings achieved by students at eight colleges when these colleges began utilizing OER in place of traditional commercial textbooks.

  5. A Cost-Savings Analysis of a Statewide Parenting Education Program in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Erin J.; Corwin, Tyler W.; Hodnett, Rhenda; Faulk, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a cost-savings analysis of the statewide implementation of an evidence-informed parenting education program. Methods: Between the years 2005 and 2008, the state of Louisiana used the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) to impart parenting skills to child welfare-involved families. Following these families' outcomes…

  6. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Roslizar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school’s usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year.

  7. Costs, effects, and savings of screening for cystic fibrosis gene carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Verzijl, JG; Verheij, JBGM; Kooij, L; Tijmstra, T; ten Kate, LP; Habbema, JDF

    1998-01-01

    Study objective-Evaluating the costs, effects, and savings of several strategies for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene carrier screening. Design-A general model for evaluating prenatal, preconceptional, school, and neonatal carrier screening was constructed. For prenatal and preconceptional screening, two s

  8. Standard Tools for Measuring Post Implementation TECH MOD (Technology Modernization) Cost Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Another con- tractor developed a formula based on the Cost Performance Report ( CPR ) which provides unit cost savings. The final contractor measured...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE INITIATIVES ........... 2 C. TECH MOD HISTORY ............ ...... ......... 3 D. THE TECH MOD PROCESS ........... ............ 4...Guide 4 Oct 1984). C. TECH MOD HISTORY The first Tech Mod planning started in late 1970 with the F-16 program and the need to improve the government

  9. Volvo Logistics Corporation Returnable Packaging System : a model for analysing cost savings when switching packaging system

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study for analysing costs affected by packaging in a producing industry. The purpose is to develop a model that will calculate and present possible cost savings for the customer by using Volvo Logistics Corporations, VLC’s, returnable packaging instead of other packaging solutions. The thesis is based on qualitative data gained from both theoretical and empirical studies. The methodology for gaining information has been to study theoretical sources such as course literature a...

  10. HOW CAN OPPORTUNITY COST BE USED IN DETERMINING THE PROFIT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTELIAC NELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity cost is an economic concept which takes on multiple forms of expression. One of these is the foregone profit as a result of the manufacturer’s option to produce goods by quality classes or of its choice of goods with certain values of gross margin and production lead times. This paper is focused on presenting some situations of avoiding opportunity costs within the meaning of foregone profit. To this end we contemplated two situations: i one where manufacturers may opt, or not, to produce branded goods; ii another where a restrictive factor (technical/physical and financial may influence the manufacturer’s decision-making in what type of goods should be manufactured.

  11. The earnings of informal carers: wage differentials and opportunity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmueller, Axel; Inglis, Kirsty

    2007-07-01

    A substantial proportion of working age individuals in Britain are looking after sick, disabled or elderly people, often combining their work and caring responsibilities. Previous research has shown that informal care is linked with substantial opportunity costs for the individual due to forgone wages as a result of non-labour market participation. In this paper we show that informal carers exhibit further disadvantages even when participating. Using the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) we decompose wage differentials and show that carers can expect lower returns for a given set of characteristics, with this wage penalty varying along the pay distribution and by gender. Furthermore, opportunity costs from forgone wages and wage penalties are estimated and found to be substantial.

  12. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting

  13. Reuse and refurbish: a cost savings delivery model for specialized seating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Pi Shan, Rodney S; Chrusch, Wendy M; Linassi, Angelo G; Sankaran, Rajini; Munchinsky, Jeanine

    2012-07-01

    To describe a unique specialized seating delivery model for children with disabilities that focuses on cost containment and environmental preservation. To determine whether this delivery model achieves cost containment. A retrospective cost analysis using data from billing records and annual statistical reports of the specialized seating program, for the 2004 to 2009 billing period. The specialized seating program is a service provided on a referral basis by the Saskatchewan Abilities Council, which is under contract to Saskatchewan Health. Pediatric patients (N=40) with physical disabilities (cerebral palsy, developmental delay, acquired brain injury, spinal cord injury, Down syndrome, other) who were referred, assessed, and met inclusion criteria. Not applicable. Relative cost (in Canadian dollars) of providing units with recycled components compared with purchasing new units. The average cost of a used wheelchair was Can $698.11. The average cost of a new chair was $2143.69, leading to an average savings per chair of $1445.58. Of the 49 chairs issued, this resulted in a total cost savings of $85,393.97. When labor costs were taken into account ($50,060.26), the savings amounted to $35,333.71. Overall cost reduction was 41.3%. A retrospective analysis shows evidence of cost containment. Long-term sustainability of the program requires ongoing analysis of the cost and environmental advantages of a recycling program and review of benefits provided in relation to the ability to meet patient needs. This delivery model does incorporate accountability and a policy framework, which could serve as a model for other centers. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient level costing in Ireland: process, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A; McElroy, B

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, the Department of Health released their policy paper on hospital financing entitled Money Follows the Patient. A fundamental building block for the proposed financing model is patient level costing. This paper outlines the patient level costing process, identifies the opportunities and considers the challenges associated with the process in the Irish hospital setting. Methods involved a review of the existing literature which was complemented with an interview with health service staff. There are considerable challenges associated with implementing patient level costing including deficits in information and communication technologies and financial expertise as well as timeliness of coding. In addition, greater clinical input into the costing process is needed compared to traditional costing processes. However, there are long-term benefits associated with patient level costing; these include empowerment of clinical staff, improved transparency and price setting and greater fairness, especially in the treatment of outliers. These can help to achieve the Government's Health Strategy. The benefits of patient level costing need to be promoted and a commitment to investment in overcoming the challenges is required.

  15. Cost savings from a teledentistry model for school dental screening: an Australian health system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Tennant, Marc

    2017-06-05

    Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the costs of teledentistry and traditional dental screening approaches in Australian school children.Methods A cost-minimisation analysis was performed from the perspective of the oral health system, comparing the cost of dental screening in school children using a traditional visual examination approach with the cost of mid-level dental practitioners (MLDPs), such as dental therapists, screening the same cohort of children remotely using teledentistry. A model was developed to simulate the costs (over a 12-month period) of the two models of dental screening for all school children (2.7million children) aged 5-14 years across all Australian states and territories. The fixed costs and the variable costs, including staff salary, travel and accommodation costs, and cost of supply were calculated. All costs are given in Australian dollars.Results The total estimated cost of the teledentistry model was $50million. The fixed cost of teledentistry was $1million and that of staff salaries (tele-assistants, charters and their supervisors, as well as information technology support was estimated to be $49million. The estimated staff salary saved with the teledentistry model was $56million, and the estimated travel allowance and supply expenses avoided were $16million and $14million respectively; an annual reduction of $85million in total.Conclusions The present study shows that the teledentistry model of dental screening can minimise costs. The estimated savings were due primarily to the low salaries of dental therapists and the avoidance of travel and accommodation costs. Such savings could be redistributed to improve infrastructure and oral health services in rural or other underserved areas.What is known about the topic? Caries is a preventable disease, which, if it remains untreated, can cause significant morbidity requiring costly treatment. Regular dental screening and oral health education have the great potential

  16. [Economic Loss of Remaining Contents in Molecular Target Drug Preparation and the Simulation for Cost Saving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Eiseki; Kimura, Michio; Fukuoka, Tomohiro; Okada, Kazutomo; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-01

    While preparing an anticancer drug, even if it is an expensive molecular target drug, the remainder is not divided and saved for use in other patients; instead, it is discarded, resulting in waste of medical resources. In this study, we examined the economic loss in terms of medical costs by calculating the discarded amounts of 12 commonly used molecular target drugs at Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Japan between January 2012 and December 2014. We found, on average, that drugs valued at ¥ 52,593,182 were discarded annually. In particular, the discarded amounts of relatively expensive drugs, such as bevacizumab, bortezomib, and rituximab, were valued at ¥ 16,646,300, ¥ 15,866,289, and ¥ 8,401,324, respectively. Among these, the average amount of waste per administration of bortezomib was particularly expensive, at a cost of ¥ 67,325. Bortezomib is a commonly used treatment, resulting in excessive cumulative discarded cost. In an effort to save cost, we should consider using small capacity standard injections. Development of a simulation that used the remaining drug contents from only 1 day showed that bevacizumab alone accounts for an average cost saving of ¥1 2,542,191(75.3%) per year. This study suggests that effectively utilizing the remaining drug contents would ensure efficient use of medical resources, thereby reducing economic losses.

  17. Cost savings deliverables and criteria for the OST technology decision process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, A.

    1997-04-01

    This document has been prepared to assist focus area (FA) technical and management teams in understanding the cost savings deliverables associated with a technology system during its research and development (R and D) phases. It discusses the usefulness of cost analysis in the decision-making process, and asserts that the level of confidence and data quality of a cost analysis is proportional to the maturity of the technology system`s development life cycle. Suggestions of specific investment criteria or cost savings metrics that a FA might levy on individual research projects are made but the final form of these elements should be stipulated by the FA management based on their rationale for a successful technology development project. Also, cost savings deliverables for a single FA will be more detailed than those for management of the Office of Science and Technology (OST). For example, OST management may want an analysis of the overall return on investment for each FA, while the FA program manager may want this analysis and the return on investment metrics for each technology research activity the FA supports.

  18. Potential Drug Cost Saving at Five Government Hospitals in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syarifuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health expenditure increases over time, while drug cost takes 30% of total health expenditure. An alternative to reduce drug cost is by using generic medicines. This research aimed to count the drug cost saving potential by the use of generic drugs. Methods: A cross sectional non intervention study has been conducted in five hospitals in DKI Jakarta province. Result: Showed the total number of prescription prescribed from all hospitals during 6 months was 72,492. From 1600 prescription analyzed there were 5,891 items of drug. Five of ten drugs which were often prescribed had no generic match. The highest price comparison of branded and generic drugs was in antibiotic groups (59 times. The price of prescription can be reduces Rp.28,733 per each and the cost saving potential from 6 months period in 5 hospitals were Rp.2,082,912,636 by using generic drugs. The Conclusionof this research was generic drug use can save drug cost approximately Rp.28,000 per prescription or equal to about 2 billion for 6 months.

  19. On the assessment of marginal life saving costs for risk acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Katharina; Virguez, Edgar; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    : The definition of the marginal life saving costs, the discount rate used for comparing costs and benefits that accrue at different points in time and the time horizon over which future consequences of the decision are taken into account. In the present paper these issues are discussed based on a clear......During the evaluation of societal risk acceptance based on the Life Quality Index (LQI), the marginal life saving costs have to be assessed and compared with the Societal Willingness to Pay for a marginal increase in life safety. With this procedure, decisions on investments into different risk...... reduction measures are based on efficiency considerations in order to achieve an optimal allocation of limited societal resources. Three basic assumptions can have a large effect on the efficiency of a risk reduction measure and the absolute level of risk to life deemed to be acceptable by the LQI criterion...

  20. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  1. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  2. The costs and potential savings of a novel telepaediatric service in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuffham Paul

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few cost-minimisation studies in telemedicine. We have compared the actual costs of providing a telepaediatric service to the potential costs if patients had travelled to see the specialist in person. Methods In November 2000, we established a novel telepaediatric service for selected regional hospitals in Queensland. Instead of transferring patients to Brisbane, the majority of referrals to specialists in Brisbane were dealt with via videoconference. Since the service began, 1499 consultations have been conducted for a broad range of paediatric sub-specialities including burns, cardiology, child development, dermatology, diabetes, endocrinology, gastroenterology, nephrology, neurology, oncology, orthopaedics, paediatric surgery and psychiatry. Results During a five year period, the total cost of providing 1499 consultations through the telepaediatric service was A$955,996. The estimated potential cost of providing an outpatient service to the same number of patients at the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane was A$1,553,264; thus, telepaediatric services resulted in a net saving of approximately A$600,000 to the health service provider. Conclusion Telepaediatrics was a cheaper method for the delivery of outpatient services when the workload exceeded 774 consultations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the threshold point was most sensitive to changes related to patient travel costs, coordinator salaries and videoconference equipment costs. The study showed substantial savings for the health department, mainly due to reduced costs associated with patient travel.

  3. Vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in San Jose, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algert, Susan J; Baameur, Aziz; Renvall, Marian J

    2014-07-01

    Urban dwellers across the United States increasingly access a variety of fresh vegetables through participation in neighborhood-level community gardens. Here we document vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in the city of San Jose, CA, to better understand the capacity of community gardens to affect food affordability in an urban setting. A convenience sample of 83 community gardeners in San Jose completed a background survey during spring and summer 2012. On average, gardeners were aged 57 years and had a monthly income of $4,900; 25% had completed college. A representative subset of 10 gardeners was recruited to weigh vegetable output of their plots using portable electronic scales at three separate garden sites. Accuracy of each portable scale was verified by comparing the weight of a sample vegetable to weights obtained using a lab scale precise to 0.2 oz. Garden yields and cost savings were tabulated overall for each plot. Results indicate that community garden practices are more similar to biointensive high-production farming, producing 0.75 lb vegetables/sq ft, rather than conventional agricultural practices, producing 0.60 lb/sq ft. Gardens produced on average 2.55 lb/plant and saved $435 per plot for the season. Results indicate that cost savings are greatest if vertical high value crops such as tomatoes and peppers are grown in community gardens, although yields depend on growing conditions, gardener's skill, availability of water, and other factors. Future research is needed to document cost savings and yields for specific crops grown in community gardens.

  4. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  5. Exergy costing for energy saving in combined heating and cooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Chan; Veje, Christian T.; Willatzen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a price model that motivates energy saving for a combined district heating and cooling system. A novel analysis using two thermoeconomic methods for apportioning the costs to heating and cooling provided simultaneously by an ammonia heat pump is demonstrated....... In the first method, referred to as energy costing, a conventional thermoeconomic analysis is used. Here the ammonia heat pump is subject to a thermodynamic analysis with mass and energy balance equations. In the second method referred to as exergy costing, an exergy based economic analysis is used, where....... The analysis shows that the two methods yield significantly different results. Rather surprisingly, it is demonstrated that the exergy costing method results in about three times higher unit cost for heating than for cooling as opposed to equal unit costs when using the energy method. Further the exergy-based...

  6. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which

  7. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  8. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  9. Time-driven activity-based costing to identify opportunities for cost reduction in pediatric appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang R; Abbas, Paulette I; Smith, Carolyn M; Carberry, Kathleen E; Ren, Hui; Patel, Binita; Nuchtern, Jed G; Lopez, Monica E

    2016-12-01

    As reimbursement programs shift to value-based payment models emphasizing quality and efficient healthcare delivery, there exists a need to better understand process management to unearth true costs of patient care. We sought to identify cost-reduction opportunities in simple appendicitis management by applying a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methodology to this high-volume surgical condition. Process maps were created using medical record time stamps. Labor capacity cost rates were calculated using national median physician salaries, weighted nurse-patient ratios, and hospital cost data. Consumable costs for supplies, pharmacy, laboratory, and food were derived from the hospital general ledger. Time-driven activity-based costing resulted in precise per-minute calculation of personnel costs. Highest costs were in the operating room ($747.07), hospital floor ($388.20), and emergency department ($296.21). Major contributors to length of stay were emergency department evaluation (270min), operating room availability (395min), and post-operative monitoring (1128min). The TDABC model led to $1712.16 in personnel costs and $1041.23 in consumable costs for a total appendicitis cost of $2753.39. Inefficiencies in healthcare delivery can be identified through TDABC. Triage-based standing delegation orders, advanced practice providers, and same day discharge protocols are proposed cost-reducing interventions to optimize value-based care for simple appendicitis. II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What are the cost savings associated with providing access to specialist care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service? A costing evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsult cases completed between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2015. Design Costing evaluation from the societal perspective estimating the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsults completed during the study period. Setting Champlain health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Population Primary care providers and specialists registered to use the eConsult service. Main outcome measures Costs include...

  11. Vaginal microbicides save money: a model of cost-effectiveness in South Africa and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, S; Walsh, J A

    2010-06-01

    To determine the hypothetical cost-effectiveness of vaginal microbicides preventing male to female HIV transmission. A mathematical epidemiological and cost-effectiveness model using data from South Africa and the USA was used. The prospective 1-year-long intervention targeted a general population of women in a city of 1,000,000 inhabitants in two very different epidemiological settings, South Africa with a male HIV prevalence of 18.80% and the USA with a male HIV prevalence of 0.72%. The base case scenario assumes a microbicide effective at 55%, used in 30% of sexual episodes at a retail price for the public sector in South Africa of US$0.51 per use and in the USA of US$2.23 per use. In South Africa, over 1 year, the intervention would prevent 1908 infections, save US$6712 per infection averted as compared with antiretroviral treatment. In the USA, it would be more costly: over 1 year, the intervention would prevent 21 infections, amounting to a net cost per infection averted of US$405,077. However, in the setting of Washington DC, with a higher HIV prevalence, the same intervention would prevent 93 infections and save US$91,176 per infection averted. Sensitivity analyses were conducted and even a microbicide with a low effectiveness of 30% would still save healthcare costs in South Africa. A microbicide intervention is likely to be very cost-effective in a country undergoing a high-level generalised epidemic such as South Africa, but is unlikely to be cost-effective in a developed country presenting epidemiological features similar to the USA unless the male HIV prevalence exceeds 2.4%.

  12. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family suppor...

  13. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  14. Color tunable low cost transparent heat reflector using copper and titanium oxide for energy saving application

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Kumar Dalapati; Saeid Masudy-Panah; Sing Teng Chua; Mohit Sharma; Ten It Wong; Hui Ru Tan; Dongzhi Chi

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer coating structure comprising a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between titanium dioxide (TiO2) were demonstrated as a transparent heat reflecting (THR) coating on glass for energy-saving window application. The main highlight is the utilization of Cu, a low-cost material, in-lieu of silver which is widely used in current commercial heat reflecting coating on glass. Color tunable transparent heat reflecting coating was realized through the design of multilayer structure and process opt...

  15. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, International Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This English/Spanish fact sheet describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  16. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies (English/Portuguese Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This English/Portuguese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  17. Cost and Benefit Tradeoffs in Using a Shade Tree for Residential Building Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sappinandana Akamphon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and urban heat islands result in increased cooling energy consumption in buildings. Previous literature shows that planting trees to shade a building can reduce its cooling load. This work proposes a model to determine the cost effectiveness and profitability of planting a shade tree by considering both its potential to reduce cooling energy and its purchase and maintenance cost. A comparison between six selected tree species is used for illustration. Using growth rates, crown sizes, and shading coefficients, cooling energy savings from the tree shades are computed using an industrial-standard building energy simulation program, offset by costs of purchase, planting, and maintenance of these trees. The result shows that most worthwhile tree to plant should have high shading coefficient and moderate crown size to maximize shading while keeping the maintenance costs manageable.

  18. Graphic Warning Labels and the Cost Savings from Reduced Smoking among Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Tauras

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs. By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies. This study aims to fill the gap by quantifying the national hospital cost savings from the reductions in prenatal smoking that will arise if GWLs are implemented in the U.S. Data and Methods: This study uses several data sources. It uses Natality Data from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS in 2013 to estimate the impact of prenatal smoking on the likelihood of having a low-birth-weight baby, controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics as well as medical and non-medical risk factors. Using these estimates, along with the estimates of Huang et al. (2014 regarding the effect of GWLs on smoking, we calculate the change in the number of LBW (low birth weight babies resulting from decreased prenatal smoking due to GWLs. Using this estimated change and the estimates from Russell et al. (2007 and AHRQ (2013 on the excess hospital costs of LBW babies, we calculate cost saving that arises from reduced prenatal smoking in response of GWLs. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicated that GWLs for this population could lead to hospital cost savings of 1.2 billion to 2.0 billion dollars over a 30 year horizon.

  19. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  20. Opportunity Costs in Paediatric Training: The Specialist Registrars Experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Neill, MB

    2017-08-01

    In the training process, there is a tension between the work life and home life of trainees. This study explored both the personal impact and the opportunity costs of training from the Specialist Paediatric Registrar (SPR) perspective. The survey explored 1) career progression2) perceived functional effectiveness at work 3) psychological impact of hospital based training and 4) the personal and social cost of training. Fifty-three (71%) SPRs responded of whom 47 (89%)were married or in long term relationships. Seventy-five percent of trainees had a definite career plan with 86% intending to undertake fellowship training. Seventy percent believed they were efficient time managers but 53% had difficulty in making time for academic pursuits and fifty percent experienced negative feelings, which lingered after work and interfered with their relationships at home. Seventy-four percent stated training was undertaken at significant personal cost with only 21% achieving a very satisfactory work\\/life balance. To address these difficulties trainee wellbeing should be addressed at the Basic Specialist Training (BST) level and the career path clearly explained outlining the challenges that are likely to be encountered.

  1. Savings plan of transportation energy: Automobile running and cost reduction at the age of austerity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, T.J. [Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Kwachon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The effect that appears due to driving small compact cars can be largely divided into national and territorial levels and another at personal level. As the use of small cars is activated, the effects at the national and territorial levels are as follows: energy savings, reduction of environmental pollution, capacity increase of transportation facilities, improvements in residential area environments. The benefits given to small car users are savings in automobile operating costs, solution of parking problems due to the decrease of required parking space, savings in fuel costs. The effects at the national and territorial levels can be the indispensable but not the sufficient condition of the use of small cars. That is, when the effect at the national and territorial levels following the use of small cars is transferred to persons and the effect is ensured, then running small compact cars will be more activated. There are a few tasks to overcome for activating the operation of small compact cars even though they have a lot of benefits. First, there should be the change of perception toward the size of cars, and second, legal and systematic supports are needed to activate the running small compact cars. 6 tabs.

  2. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients.

  3. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  4. Green Routing Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment: A Case Study on California Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    New technologies, such as connected and automated vehicles, have attracted more and more researchers for improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of current transportation systems. The green routing strategy instructs a vehicle to select the most fuel-efficient route before the vehicle departs. It benefits the current transportation system with fuel saving opportunity through identifying the greenest route. This paper introduces an evaluation framework for estimating benefits of green routing based on large-scale, real-world travel data. The framework has the capability to quantify fuel savings by estimating the fuel consumption of actual routes and comparing to routes procured by navigation systems. A route-based fuel consumption estimation model, considering road traffic conditions, functional class, and road grade is proposed and used in the framework. An experiment using a large-scale data set from the California Household Travel Survey global positioning system trajectory data base indicates that 31% of actual routes have fuel savings potential with a cumulative estimated fuel savings of 12%.

  5. Green Routing Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment: A Case Study on California Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei; Holden, Jacob; Gonder, Jeff; Wood, Eric

    2017-07-13

    New technologies, such as connected and automated vehicles, have attracted more and more researchers for improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of current transportation systems. The green routing strategy instructs a vehicle to select the most fuel-efficient route before the vehicle departs. It benefits the current transportation system with fuel saving opportunity through identifying the greenest route. This paper introduces an evaluation framework for estimating benefits of green routing based on large-scale, real-world travel data. The framework has the capability to quantify fuel savings by estimating the fuel consumption of actual routes and comparing to routes procured by navigation systems. A route-based fuel consumption estimation model, considering road traffic conditions, functional class, and road grade is proposed and used in the framework. An experiment using a large-scale data set from the California Household Travel Survey global positioning system trajectory data base indicates that 31% of actual routes have fuel savings potential with a cumulative estimated fuel savings of 12%.

  6. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  7. Carbon and Energy Saving Financial Opportunities in the Industrial Compressed Air Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    The transition towards a more sustainable energy scenario calls for both medium-to-long and short term interventions, with CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving as main goals for all the Countries in the World. Among all others, one way to support these efforts is the setting-up of immaterial markets able to regulate, in the form of purchase and sales quotas, CO2 emissions avoided and fossil fuels not consumed. As a consequence, the upgrade of those sectors, characterized by high energy impact, is currently more than an option due to the related achievable financial advantage on the afore mentioned markets. Being responsible for about 10% electricity consumption in Industry, the compressed air sector is currently addressed as extremely appealing, when CO2 emissions and burned fossil fuels saving are in question. In the paper, once a standard is defined for compressors performances, based on data from the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP, the achievable energy saving is evaluated along with the effect in terms of CO2 emissions: with reference to those contexts in which mature intangible markets are established, an estimation of the financial benefit from savings sale on correspondent markets is possible, in terms of both avoided CO2 and fossil fuels not burned. The approach adopted allows to extend the analysis results to every context of interest, by applying the appropriate emission factor to the datum on compressor specific consumption.

  8. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R. Ghimire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S. using life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA categories included energy demand, fossil fuel, metals, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, smog, blue and green water use, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and human health effects. Building upon previous LCAs of near-optimal domestic and agricultural RWH systems in the region, we scaled functional unit LCIA scores for adoption rates of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% and compared these to conventional municipal water and well water systems. In addition to investigating watershed-scale impacts of RWH adoption, which few studies have addressed, potential life cycle cost savings due to reduced cumulative energy demand were scaled in each watershed for a more comprehensive analysis. The importance of managing the holistic water balance, including blue water (surface/ground water, green water (rainwater use, and annual precipitation and their relationship to RWH are also addressed. RWH contributes to water resource sustainability by offsetting surface and ground water consumption and by reducing environmental and human health impacts compared to conventional sources. A watershed-wide RWH adoption rate of 25% has a number of ecological and human health benefits including blue water use reduction ranging from 2–39 Mm3, cumulative energy savings of 12–210 TJ, and reduced global warming potential of 600–10,100 Mg CO2 eq. Potential maximum lifetime energy cost savings were estimated at $5M and $24M corresponding to domestic RWH in Greens Mill and agricultural RWH in Back Creek watersheds.

  9. Determining the Cost-Savings Threshold and Alignment Accuracy of Patient-Specific Instrumentation in Total Ankle Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Kamran S; Matson, Andrew P; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Scott, Daniel J; Mather, Richard C; DeOrio, James K

    2017-01-01

    Traditional intraoperative referencing for total ankle replacements (TARs) involves multiple steps and fluoroscopic guidance to determine mechanical alignment. Recent adoption of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) allows for referencing to be determined preoperatively, resulting in less steps and potentially decreased operative time. We hypothesized that usage of PSI would result in decreased operating room time that would offset the additional cost of PSI compared with standard referencing (SR). In addition, we aimed to compare postoperative radiographic alignment between PSI and SR. Between August 2014 and September 2015, 87 patients undergoing TAR were enrolled in a prospectively collected TAR database. Patients were divided into cohorts based on PSI vs SR, and operative times were reviewed. Radiographic alignment parameters were retrospectively measured at 6 weeks postoperatively. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was used to derive direct costs. Cost vs operative time-savings were examined via 2-way sensitivity analysis to determine cost-saving thresholds for PSI applicable to a range of institution types. Cost-saving thresholds defined the price of PSI below which PSI would be cost-saving. A total of 35 PSI and 52 SR cases were evaluated with no significant differences identified in patient characteristics. Operative time from incision to completion of casting in cases without adjunct procedures was 127 minutes with PSI and 161 minutes with SR ( P cost-savings threshold range at our institution of $863 below which PSI pricing would provide net cost-savings. Two-way sensitivity analysis generated a globally applicable cost-savings threshold model based on institution-specific costs and surgeon-specific time-savings. This study demonstrated equivalent postoperative TAR alignment with PSI and SR referencing systems but with a significant decrease in operative time with PSI. Based on TDABC and associated sensitivity analysis, a cost-savings threshold

  10. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due...... heating comfort is minimised. The private solution may deviate from the socio-economical optimal solution and we suggest changes to policy to incentivise the individuals to make choices more in line with the socio-economic optimal mix of energy savings and technologies. The households can combine...

  11. Cost savings and clinical acceptability of an intravascular line tip culture triage policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, J; Batchelor, B; Bowler, I C J W

    2013-05-01

    Culture of intravascular line tips is useful for the diagnosis of intravascular line-related phlebitis and bacteraemia. However, the test lacks specificity, with a low predictive value for intravascular line bacteraemia. A recent randomised study showed that predictive value could be increased and costs reduced by refrigerating intravascular lines and retrieving them for culture only if there was a bacteraemia in the seven days before or after the intravascular line was received. We studied whether a similar triage policy could be introduced into our 1400-bed National Health Service (NHS) teaching hospital in the UK. We assessed cost reduction in the laboratory and clinical acceptability. Data regarding the number of intravascular lines received, stored and cultured and blood cultures received was retrieved from the microbiology computer, for five-month periods before and after the introduction of the new triage policy. Of the 134 intravascular line tips received in the five months after the policy had been introduced, 101 (75%) were stored without retrieval and 33 were cultured. Of these, 7/134 (5%) were culture positive and three matched a concurrent blood culture. Audit showed that compliance with the policy was >98%. The estimated annual cost reduction following the introduction of the policy was £3,166.96. The policy was acceptable to clinicians. The policy was both cost saving and clinically acceptable. If the policy were adopted throughout the NHS in the UK, the annual cost saving to the service might be in the order of £300,000. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The need for ventilators in the developing world: An opportunity to improve care and save lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Krishnamoorthy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The drive to breathe is a fundamental human and biologic behavior, regulated by a complex system of checks and balances in the body. When respiratory mechanics are deregulated by injury, infection, coma, or a host of other conditions, the biologic equilibrium shifts into a state of respiratory failure. When this occurs, mechanical ventilation can be a life saving therapy. While commonplace in developed countries, critical care is at its infancy in many developing countries, where basic technology is often not available. Thus, while many lives are saved in developed nations through the provision of mechanical ventilation, patients in many developing nations often die from otherwise reversible causes due to lack of resources, education, and training.

  13. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-09

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE’s cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews.

  14. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  15. School nurses' role in asthma management, school absenteeism, and cost savings: a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Rivera, Diana Austria; Perlroth, Daniella; Becker, Edmund; Wang, Nancy Ewen; Landau, Melinda

    2013-12-01

    With increasing budget cuts to education and social services, rigorous evaluation needs to document school nurses' impact on student health, academic outcomes, and district funding. Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated outcomes in 4 schools with added full-time nurses and 5 matched schools with part-time nurses in the San Jose Unified School District. Student data and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of illness-related absenteeism for 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. We calculated average daily attendance (ADA) funding and parent wages associated with an improvement in illness-related absenteeism. Utilizing parent surveys, we also estimated the cost of services for asthma-related visits to the emergency room (ER; N = 2489). Children with asthma were more likely to be absent due to illness; however, mean absenteeism due to illness decreased when full-time nurses were added to demonstration schools but increased in comparison schools during 2008-2009, resulting in a potential savings of $48,518.62 in ADA funding (N = 6081). Parents in demonstration schools reported fewer ER visits, and the estimated savings in ER services and parent wages were significant. Full-time school nurses play an important role in improving asthma management among students in underserved schools, which can impact school absenteeism and attendance-related economic costs. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  16. Valuing human leptospirosis prevention using the opportunity cost of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbiol, Joseph; Borja, Maridel; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Nomura, Hisako; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2013-05-03

    Leptospirosis is a serious public health concern in the Philippines, not only because of its increasing incidence rate, but also because of its significant health and economic impacts. Despite its relatively high seroprevalence, knowledge on the economic burden of disease, particularly on the value that the society places on disease prevention remains limited. Obtaining such information is important within the context of public health policy. This study was conducted in Metro Manila to determine the economic burden of leptospirosis, by asking respondents about their willingness to contribute to labor (WTCL) for the prevention of leptospirosis. The respondents pledged an average labor contribution of 10.66 h/month. The average WTCL corresponded to a monetary value of US$4.01 per month when valued using the opportunity cost of labor (leisure rate of time). From the monetized labor contribution, the total economic value of preventing leptospirosis was estimated at US$124.97 million per annum, which represents 1.13% of Metro Manila's gross domestic product (GDP). Estimates from a Tobit regression model identified the respondents' knowledge regarding leptospirosis, the susceptibility of their homes to flooding, and the proximity of their homes to sewers as significant factors to consider when developing resource contribution programs for leptospirosis prevention. More efforts need to be made in developing community level preventive programs, and in improving public's knowledge and awareness about leptospirosis.

  17. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2013-09-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (~5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p long-term care use.

  18. Impact of a University-Based Outpatient Telemedicine Program on Time Savings, Travel Costs, and Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullet, Navjit W; Geraghty, Estella M; Kaufman, Taylor; Kissee, Jamie L; King, Jesse; Dharmar, Madan; Smith, Anthony C; Marcin, James P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate travel-related and environmental savings resulting from the use of telemedicine for outpatient specialty consultations with a university telemedicine program. The study was designed to retrospectively analyze the telemedicine consultation database at the University of California Davis Health System (UCDHS) between July 1996 and December 2013. Travel distances and travel times were calculated between the patient home, the telemedicine clinic, and the UCDHS in-person clinic. Travel cost savings and environmental impact were calculated by determining differences in mileage reimbursement rate and emissions between those incurred in attending telemedicine appointments and those that would have been incurred if a visit to the hub site had been necessary. There were 19,246 consultations identified among 11,281 unique patients. Telemedicine visits resulted in a total travel distance savings of 5,345,602 miles, a total travel time savings of 4,708,891 minutes or 8.96 years, and a total direct travel cost savings of $2,882,056. The mean per-consultation round-trip distance savings were 278 miles, average travel time savings were 245 minutes, and average cost savings were $156. Telemedicine consultations resulted in a total emissions savings of 1969 metric tons of CO2, 50 metric tons of CO, 3.7 metric tons of NOx, and 5.5 metric tons of volatile organic compounds. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a health system's outpatient telemedicine program on patient travel time, patient travel costs, and environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecham Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1 a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2 the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices. Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity.

  20. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  1. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  2. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  3. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  4. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  5. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  6. Review of the Fuel Saving, Life Cycle GHG Emission, and Ownership Cost Impacts of Lightweighting Vehicles with Different Powertrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Kim, Hyung Chul; De Kleine, Robert; Wallington, Timothy J; MacLean, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    The literature analyzing the fuel saving, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and ownership cost impacts of lightweighting vehicles with different powertrains is reviewed. Vehicles with lower powertrain efficiencies have higher fuel consumption. Thus, fuel savings from lightweighting internal combustion engine vehicles can be higher than those of hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. However, the impact of fuel savings on life cycle costs and GHG emissions depends on fuel prices, fuel carbon intensities and fuel storage requirements. Battery electric vehicle fuel savings enable reduction of battery size without sacrificing driving range. This reduces the battery production cost and mass, the latter results in further fuel savings. The carbon intensity of electricity varies widely and is a major source of uncertainty when evaluating the benefits of fuel savings. Hybrid electric vehicles use gasoline more efficiently than internal combustion engine vehicles and do not require large plug-in batteries. Therefore, the benefits of lightweighting depend on the vehicle powertrain. We discuss the value proposition of the use of lightweight materials and alternative powertrains. Future assessments of the benefits of vehicle lightweighting should capture the unique characteristics of emerging vehicle powertrains.

  7. Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2014-02-15

    The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option.

  8. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Beecham Jennifer; Stevens Madeleine; Bonin Eva-Maria; Byford Sarah; Parsonage Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent c...

  9. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonin, Eva-Maria; Stevens, Madeleine; Beecham, Jennifer; Byford, Sarah; Parsonage, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent con...

  10. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Eline L

    2012-03-28

    Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST), extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent.Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination.Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy makers and programme planners

  11. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenromp Eline L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST, extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent. Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination. Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy

  12. Supply chain collaboration and cost saving as a result of returns handling programmes in retail corporations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective is to define on the basis of the literature as well as to test empirically the main factors that affect the cost saving of many retail chains, resulting from deliberate and conscious policies as well as organized activities in the area of product returns management. Methods: Based on a survey developed for the study, standardized interviews were conducted with representatives of trade corporations in the apparel industry in Poland. The data collected were analysed statistically. Results:  The results of the statistical analysis showed that the analysed factors had a significant impact on cost saving. A company's ability to cooperate in the supply chain, limited  for the purposes of the study to the distributor - retailer relationship, is relevant to the cost savings resulting from the policies of retail corporations in the area of reverse logistics. The integration of IT systems with suppliers and customers also influences the level of cost saving, as does collaboration within a team. Conclusions: To date, studies in this field have not been conducted in Poland. A particularly important element seems to be the relationship between cooperation in the supply chain and the possible savings which this can generate. This study contributes to the growing trend of research into reverse logistics and emphasizes the role of retailers and cooperation in the supply chain.  

  13. Analysis of benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (BOCR) with the AHP+ANP : A critical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that the usual multiplicative synthesis of alternative priorities for benefits, opportunities, costs and risks, obtained from separate Analytic Hierarchy or Network models, can be ambiguous. The ratio of benefit and opportunity priorities to cost and risk priorities can be misleadin

  14. The Influence of School Factors on Racial Opportunity Cost for High-Achieving Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; Huggins, Kristin Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Previous work on racial opportunity cost--that is, the price that students of color pay in their pursuit of academic success--is extended here using organizational culture literature to more closely explore the interplay of school culture with the racial opportunity cost experienced by the study participants. Eighteen African American and Latina/o…

  15. Opportunities for saving energy by means of cogeneration in Vegetales's Cannery of Sancti Spiritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alberto Clemente Corujo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the viability to install a system of cogeneration and to save energy at Vegetales's Cannery. The type of more convenient arrangement according to the conditions of the industry was defined. The magnitude of necessary investment, the equipment required, and also the additional quantity of diesel were determined for the correct operation of the project. It was considered the steam production and the consumptions of combustible oil and the electricity in the year 2008. As a primary motor was each engine Volvo of 3 existent generating sets. A minimal time of 4 daily hours during 300 days was calculated to work annually and they analyzed the necessary investments for expected benefits. The economic evaluation has as possitive results: a VAN of $192 646,89's and 36 %'s TIR. The cogeneration scheme more convenient is with Topping cycle. The necessary investment is about $144 000 and for having profitability it is necessary to work the same amount of hours from 6 to 10 p.m. that in the rest of a day.

  16. Cutting costs in your own backyard: opportunities in financial services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Londen, Jan; Zimmerman, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Hospitals looking to reduce cost and improve performance in financial services should focus on these areas: Treasury banking services costs and fees. The possibility of a revenue-generating vendor payment solution. The accounts payable process.

  17. Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hannibal, Ted [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ivanic, Ziga [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. The strategic targets were a 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. The baseline vehicle was an average of several available vehicles in this class. Mass and cost breakdowns from several sources were used, including original equipment manufacturers’ (OEMs’) input through U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office programs and public presentations, A2Mac1 LLC’s teardown information, Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. breakdowns in their respective lightweighting studies, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses. Information on lightweighting strategies in this analysis came from these same sources and the ongoing U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc. /Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, and many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs.

  18. Cost saving by reloading the multiband ligator in endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation: A proposal for developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaigham Abbas; Lubna Rizvi; Umair Syed Ahmed; Khalid Mumtaz; Wasim Jafri

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost savings of reloading the multiband ligator in endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation (EVL) used on the same patient for subsequent sessions,METHODS: This single centre retrospective descriptive study analysed patients undergoing variceal ligation at a tertiary care centre between 1st January, 2003 and 30th June, 2006. The multiband ligator was reloaded with six hemorrhoidal bands using hemorrhoidal ligator for the second and subsequent sessions. Analysis of cost saving was done for the number of follow-up sessions for the variceal eradication.RESULTS: A total of 261 patients underwent at least one session of endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation between January 2003 and June 2006. Out of 261, 108 patients (males 67) agreed to follow the eradication program and underwent repeated sessions. A total of 304 sessions was performed with 2.81 sessions per patient on average. Thirty-two patients could not complete the programm. In 76 patients (70%), variceal obliteration was achieved. The ratio of the costs for the session with reloaded ligator versus a session with a new ligator was 1:2.37. Among the patients who completed esophageal varices eradication, cost saving with reloaded ligator was 58%.CONCLUSION: EVL using reloaded multiband ligators for the follow-up sessions on patients undergoing variceal eradication is a cost saving procedure. Reloading the ligator thus is recommended especially for developing countries where most of the patients are not health insured.

  19. Color tunable low cost transparent heat reflector using copper and titanium oxide for energy saving application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Chua, Sing Teng; Sharma, Mohit; Wong, Ten It; Tan, Hui Ru; Chi, Dongzhi

    2016-02-05

    Multilayer coating structure comprising a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between titanium dioxide (TiO2) were demonstrated as a transparent heat reflecting (THR) coating on glass for energy-saving window application. The main highlight is the utilization of Cu, a low-cost material, in-lieu of silver which is widely used in current commercial heat reflecting coating on glass. Color tunable transparent heat reflecting coating was realized through the design of multilayer structure and process optimization. The impact of thermal treatment on the overall performance of sputter deposited TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film on glass substrate is investigated in detail. Significant enhancement of transmittance in the visible range and reflectance in the infra-red (IR) region has been observed after thermal treatment of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film at 500 °C due to the improvement of crystal quality of TiO2. Highest visible transmittance of 90% and IR reflectance of 85% at a wavelength of 1200 nm are demonstrated for the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film after annealing at 500 °C. Performance of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 heat reflector coating decreases after thermal treatment at 600 °C. The wear performance of the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer structure has been evaluated through scratch hardness test. The present work shows promising characteristics of Cu-based THR coating for energy-saving building industry.

  20. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  1. Political economy of marine reserves: understanding the role of opportunity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N; Wilson, James A

    2010-10-26

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen's behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen's responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves.

  2. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D.; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N.; Wilson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen’s behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen’s responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves. PMID:20133732

  3. Opportunity cost for early treatment of Chagas disease in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M Ramsey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life.

  4. Demonstration Program for Low-Cost, High-Energy-Saving Dynamic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Design The scope of this project was to demonstrate the impact of dynamic windows via energy savings and HVAC peak-load reduction; to validate the...dominated by the internal thermal loads of office equipment (example AC 7) so the HVAC energy savings are lower in those zones. Figure 8. Plot...of daily HVAC energy consumption in four representative zones, before and after dynamic windows retrofit. Overall, energy savings in all eastern

  5. The cost of harm and savings through safety: using simulated patients for leadership decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Charles R; Guilloteau, Franck R

    2012-09-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is to provide an approach to understanding and communicating health-care harm and cost to compel health-care provider leadership teams to vote "yes" to investments in patient safety initiatives, with the confidence that clinical, financial, and operational performance will be improved by such programs. Through a coordinated combination of literature evaluations, careful mapping of high impact scenarios using simulated patients and consensus review of clinical, operational, and financial factors, we confirmed value in such approaches to decision support information for hospital leadership teams to invest in patient safety projects. The study resulted in the following preliminary findings: ·Communication between hospital quality and finance departments can be much improved by direct collaborative relationships through regular meetings to help both clarify direct costs, indirect costs, and the savings of waste and harm to patients by avoidance of infections. ·Governance leaders and the professional administrative leaders should consider establishing the structures and systems necessary to act on risks and hazards as they evolve to deploy resources to areas of harm and risk. ·Quality and Infection Control Professionals can best wage their war on healthcare waste and harm by keeping abreast of the latest literature regarding the latest measures, standards, and safe practices for healthcare-acquired infections and hospital-acquired conditions. ·Regular reviews of patients with health-careYassociated infections, with direct attention to the attributable cost of treatment and how financial waste and harm to patients may be avoided, may provide hospital leaders with new insights for improvement. ·If hospitals developed their own risk scenarios to determine impact of harm and waste from hospital-acquired conditions in addition to impact scenarios for specific processes through technology and process innovations, they would have

  6. Opportunity cost for early treatment of Chagas disease in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramsey, Janine M; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely...

  7. The energy consumption and cost savings of truck electrification for heavy duty vocational applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the application of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and genset plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to Class-7 local delivery trucks and genset PHEV for Class-8 utility bucket trucks over widely real-world driving data performed by conventional heavy-duty trucks. A simulation tool based on vehicle tractive energy methodology and component efficiency for addressing component and system performance was developed to evaluate the energy consumption and performance of the trucks. As part of this analysis, various battery sizes combined with different charging powers on the E-Trucks for local delivery and utility bucket applications were investigated. The results show that the E-Truck applications not only reduce energy consumption but also achieve significant energy cost savings. For delivery E-Trucks, the results show that periodic stops at delivery sites provide sufficient time for battery charging, and for this reason, a high-power charger is not necessary. For utility bucket PHEV trucks, energy consumption per mile of bucket truck operation is typically higher because of longer idling times and extra high idling load associated with heavy utility work. The availability of on-route charging is typically lacking at the work sites of bucket trucks; hence, the battery size of these trucks is somewhat larger than that of the delivery trucks studied.

  8. Opportunities and costs of tourism for a new Humanism

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzarri Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes the flow of tourism on a national and international scale, emphasizing the role that entertainment tourism and theme parks play globally. Following these preliminary remarks, the second part of the paper presents the positive and negative economic effects of leisure tourism opportunities at the European and regional level. The third part of the paper analyses the environmental aspects of tourism and entertainment tourism. It shows that sustainable touris...

  9. Rumble over jailhouse healthcare. As states broaden outsourcing to private vendors, critics question quality of care and cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth; Meyer, Harris

    2013-09-02

    The trend for states to outsource prison healthcare has met opposition from inmate advocates and legal aid groups. They fear quality of care will suffer, while others debate whether outsourcing care saves any money. Corizon, the largest U.S. private prison healthcare provider, says it definitely delivers savings. "We are the model because we've been doing capitated rates since we've been in business. Our cost per individual is significantly less than in the 'free world,' "says Corizon CEO Rich Hallworth.

  10. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa - Evidence to sustain cost-effective gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST), extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-

  11. Development and analysis of an economizer control strategy algorithm to promote an opportunity for energy savings in air conditioning installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Jose H.M.; Azevedo, Walter L. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: henrique@daem.des.cefetmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an algorithm control strategy denominated enthalpy economizer. The objective of this algorithm strategy is to determine the adequate fractions of outside and return air flowrates entering a cooling coil based on the analysis of the outside, return and supply air enthalpies, rather than on the analysis of the dry bulb temperatures. The proposed algorithm predicts the actual opening position of the outside and return air dampers in order to provide the lower mixing air enthalpy. First, the psychometrics properties of the outside and return air are calculated from actual measurements of the dry and wet bulb temperatures. Then, three distinct cases are analyzed: the enthalpy of the outside air is lower than the enthalpy of the supply air (free cooling); the enthalpy of the outside air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air; the enthalpy of the outside air is lower than the enthalpy of the return air and higher than the temperature of the supply air. Different outside air conditions were selected in order to represent typical weather data of Brazilians cities, as well as typical return air conditions. It was found that the enthalpy control strategy could promote an opportunity for energy savings mainly during mild nights and wintertime periods as well as during warm afternoons and summertime periods, depending on the outside air relative humidity. The proposed algorithm works well and can be integrated in some commercial automation software to reduce energy consumption and electricity demand. (author)

  12. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Jordana K; Miller, Paige E; Levine, Jessica A; Perez, Vanessa; Maki, Kevin C; Rains, Tia M; Devareddy, Latha; Sanders, Lisa M; Alexander, Dominik D

    2014-04-17

    Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation. Literature searches were conducted to identify nationally representative input parameters for the U.S. population, which included prevalence of functional constipation; current dietary fiber intakes; proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes; and the percentage that would be expected to respond, in terms of alleviation of constipation, to a change in dietary fiber consumption. A dose-response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to U.S. $ 2012. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact on adult vs. pediatric populations and the robustness of the model to each input parameter. The base case direct medical cost-savings was $12.7 billion annually among adults. The base case assumed that 3% of men and 6% of women currently met recommended dietary fiber intakes; each 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake would lead to a reduction of 1.9% in constipation prevalence; and all adults would increase their dietary fiber intake to recommended levels (mean increase of 9 g/day). Sensitivity analyses, which explored numerous alternatives, found that even if only 50% of the adult population increased dietary fiber intake by 3 g/day, annual medical costs savings exceeded $2 billion. All plausible scenarios resulted in cost savings of at least $1 billion. Increasing dietary fiber consumption is associated with

  13. What Strategies Do Physicians and Patients Discuss to Reduce Out-of-Pocket Costs? Analysis of Cost-Saving Strategies in 1,755 Outpatient Clinic Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wynn G; Zhang, Cecilia Z; Hesson, Ashley; Davis, J Kelly; Kirby, Christine; Williamson, Lillie D; Barnett, Jamison A; Ubel, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    More than 1 in 4 Americans report difficulty paying medical bills. Cost-reducing strategies discussed during outpatient physician visits remain poorly characterized. We sought to determine how often patients and physicians discuss health care costs during outpatient visits and what strategies, if any, they discussed to lower patient out-of-pocket costs. Retrospective analysis of dialogue from 1,755 outpatient visits in community-based practices nationwide from 2010 to 2014. The study population included 677 patients with breast cancer, 422 with depression, and 656 with rheumatoid arthritis visiting 56 oncologists, 36 psychiatrists, and 26 rheumatologists, respectively. Thirty percent of visits contained cost conversations (95% confidence interval [CI], 28 to 32). Forty-four percent of cost conversations involved discussion of cost-saving strategies (95% CI, 40 to 48; median duration, 68 s). We identified 4 strategies to lower costs without changing the care plan. They were, in order of overall frequency: 1) changing logistics of care, 2) facilitating co-pay assistance, 3) providing free samples, and 4) changing/adding insurance plans. We also identified 4 strategies to reduce costs by changing the care plan: 1) switching to lower-cost alternative therapy/diagnostic, 2) switching from brand name to generic, 3) changing dosage/frequency, and 4) stopping/withholding interventions. Strategies were relatively consistent across health conditions, except for switching to a lower-cost alternative (more common in breast oncology) and providing free samples (more common in depression). Focus on 3 conditions with potentially high out-of-pocket costs. Despite price opacity, physicians and patients discuss a variety of out-of-pocket cost reduction strategies during clinic visits. Almost half of cost discussions mention 1 or more cost-saving strategies, with more frequent mention of those not requiring care-plan changes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. An economic evaluation of anticipated costs and savings of a behavior change intervention to enhance medication adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegand PN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence across disease states is generally poor. Research has focused on various methods to improve medication adherence, but there is little conclusive evidence regarding specific methods efficacy. The Transtheoretical Model for Behavior Change has been used to modify existing addictive behaviors but not in medication adherence specifically. As a behavioral component is inherently related to medication adherence, it is thought that this model may be applicable. Objective: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the costs and savings of implementing a novel behavioral intervention against the cost of poor medication adherence to determine whether further development is realistic.Methods: The basic tools required to administer this intervention were determined through primary literature review and priced by vendors supplying such materials. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2 was used as a vehicle to establish the cost of care for long-term complications of a chronic disease. The primary literature provided information regarding the cost of care for DM2 morbidity and outpatient annual drug therapy expenditure. The total cost of the behavioral intervention components and the cost of care for DM2 morbidity were applied to a theoretical cohort of 1000 patients. By dividing this cost across 1000 patients, a per-patient cost was yielded and multiplied over a 16-year timeframe. Results: It was found that the cost to implement the behavioral intervention and resultant medication costs is USD13,574 per-patient over 16 years. The cost to treat complications of diabetes mellitus is USD 36,528 per patient over the 16 years. The total amount of healthcare dollars potentially saved by utilizing this intervention is USD 22,954 per-patient. Conclusions: It appears that the cost to implement this behavioral intervention is reasonable and permits further evaluation in other chronic conditions with notoriously poor adherence levels.

  15. Defense Headquarters: Improved Data Needed to Better Identify Streamlining and Cost Savings Opportunities by Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    approaches from the commercial sector to the department’s six core business processes— management of human resources , healthcare, financial flow... human resource programs for nonappropriated funds, and centrally managed information technology functions. Most of the personnel involved in these...Defense Contract Management Agency • Defense Finance and Accounting Service • Defense Health Agency • Defense Human Resource Activity • Defense

  16. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  17. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  18. Opportunities and costs of tourism for a new Humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizzarri Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the flow of tourism on a national and international scale, emphasizing the role that entertainment tourism and theme parks play globally. Following these preliminary remarks, the second part of the paper presents the positive and negative economic effects of leisure tourism opportunities at the European and regional level. The third part of the paper analyses the environmental aspects of tourism and entertainment tourism. It shows that sustainable tourism development can be an essential condition for the protection of natural and cultural resources. Finally, the fourth part summarizes some of the most important social issues arising from tourism activities, among them the conflict between residents and tourists on the exploitation of resources and the demonstration effect deriving from the consumption of resources. To avoid this spoliation and destruction of the destination (land and local community, the paper suggests a new Humanism based on Catholicism as a way to realize a sustainability utopia.

  19. An analysis of potential and real cost savings by the addition of ranitidine to total parenteral nutrition solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, V E; King, L M

    1992-07-01

    The results of two analyses that assessed the potential savings and the actual savings derived from the addition of ranitidine to total parenteral nutrition solutions are discussed. A clinical pharmacist determined on a daily basis the number of patients receiving concurrent total parenteral nutrition solutions and intermittent intravenous ranitidine in a critical care unit. The cost of each mode of administration was determined and the savings were calculated to be over +16,000/year. Once the practice of adding ranitidine to total parenteral nutrition solutions became routine, total parenteral nutrition solution orders for April-June 1991 were collected and the number of patient days were counted and the accrued savings were determined to be slightly more than +10,000 each year. Differences are explained by discrepancies in expected and true number of patient days. The authors conclude that there are savings to be realized by adding ranitidine, or any H2 antagonist, to total parenteral nutrition TPN solutions and avoiding intermittent infusions.

  20. Exploring No-Cost Opportunities for Public Sector Information Systems Energy Efficiency: A Tennessee Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Abkowitz Brooks

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC completed a pilot project within its Central Office spaces to test the utilization of computer power management (CPM technologies to implement power saving settings on state-owned, network-connected computer equipment. Currently, the State of Tennessee has no clear protocol regarding energy-conserving power settings on state-owned machines. Activation of monitor sleep modes and system standby and hibernation modes on 615 Central Office computers over an 18-month period reduced energy consumption by an estimated 8093 kWh and $526 per month, amounting to approximately $6312 in cost savings for Tennessee annually. If implemented throughout State of Tennessee executive agencies across the state, energy cost savings could amount to an estimated $323,341 annually. The research endeavored to understand both positive and negative impacts that strategic power management approaches can have on energy consumption, worker productivity, network security, and state budgets. Nearly all impacts discussed were positive. Based on successful results within TDEC Central Office spaces in Tennessee Tower, and considering the potential cost savings that could be achieved, expansion of the implementation of computer power management policies to machines in offices across the state was recommended.

  1. Pharmacogenomic test that predicts response to inhaled corticosteroids in adults with asthma likely to be cost-saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann Chen; Gay, Charlene; Rett, Melisa D; Stout, Natasha; Weiss, Scott T; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify the clinical and economic circumstances under which a pharmacogenomic test that predicts response to inhaled corticosteroids might be a cost-effective option for individuals with asthma. Materials & methods We synthesized published data on clinical and economic outcomes to project 10-year costs, quality-adjusted life-years and cost–effectiveness of pharmacogenomic testing for inhaled corticosteroid response. We assumed the pharmacogenomic test cost was $500 with a sensitivity and specificity of 84 and 98%, respectively. These were varied in sensitivity analyses. Results Both strategies, pharmacogenomic testing for inhaled corticosteroid response and no testing conferred 7.1 quality-adjusted life-years. Compared with no testing, pharmacogenomic testing costs less. Conclusion Pharmacogenomic testing for asthma is cost-saving and noninferior in improving health. PMID:25880024

  2. Scope-of-practice laws for nurse practitioners limit cost savings that can be achieved in retail clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Parente, Stephen T; Town, Robert J; Bazarko, Dawn

    2013-11-01

    Retail clinics have the potential to reduce health spending by offering convenient, low-cost access to basic health care services. Retail clinics are often staffed by nurse practitioners (NPs), whose services are regulated by state scope-of-practice regulations. By limiting NPs' work scope, restrictive regulations could affect possible cost savings. Using multistate insurance claims data from 2004-07, a period in which many retail clinics opened, we analyzed whether the cost per episode associated with the use of retail clinics was lower in states where NPs are allowed to practice independently and to prescribe independently. We also examined whether retail clinic use and scope of practice were associated with emergency department visits and hospitalizations. We found that visits to retail clinics were associated with lower costs per episode, compared to episodes of care that did not begin with a retail clinic visit, and the costs were even lower when NPs practiced independently. Eliminating restrictions on NPs' scope of practice could have a large impact on the cost savings that can be achieved by retail clinics.

  3. Evaluating Opportunities for Achieving Cost Efficiencies Through the Introduction of PrePex Device Male Circumcision in Adult VMMC Programs in Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandament, Lyndsey; Chintu, Naminga; Yano, Nanako; Mugurungi, Owen; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mpasela, Felton; Muguza, Edward; Mangono, Tichakunda; Madidi, Ngonidzashe; Samona, Alick; Tagar, Elva; Hatzold, Karin

    2016-06-01

    Results from recent costing studies have put into question potential Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) cost savings with the introduction of the PrePex device. We evaluated the cost drivers and the overall unit cost of VMMC for a variety of service delivery models providing either surgical VMMC or both PrePex and surgery using current program data in Zimbabwe and Zambia. In Zimbabwe, 3 hypothetical PrePex only models were also included. For all models, clients aged 18 years and older were assumed to be medically eligible for PrePex and uptake was based on current program data from sites providing both methods. Direct costs included costs for consumables, including surgical VMMC kits for the forceps-guided method, device (US $12), human resources, demand creation, supply chain, waste management, training, and transport. Results for both countries suggest limited potential for PrePex to generate cost savings when adding the device to current surgical service delivery models. However, results for the hypothetical rural Integrated PrePex model in Zimbabwe suggest the potential for material unit cost savings (US $35 per VMMC vs. US $65-69 for existing surgical models). This analysis illustrates that models designed to leverage PrePex's advantages, namely the potential for integrating services in rural clinics and less stringent infrastructure requirements, may present opportunities for improved cost efficiency and service integration. Countries seeking to scale up VMMC in rural settings might consider integrating PrePex only MC services at the primary health care level to reduce costs while also increasing VMMC access and coverage.

  4. Saving Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    More and more Chinese consumers are beginning to think about their energy-saving needs when buying apartments. The energy-saving estate market is huge, which provides great opportunities for companies in the business, especially foreign investors. But just how big is this market and how is it developing? Which fields in this industry are suitable for foreign businesses? With these questions in mind, Beijing Review spoke with Li Shuren, Vice Secretary General of the China Real Estate and Housing Research ...

  5. The Opportunity Cost of Electricity Outages and Privatization of Substations in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Roop Jyoti; Aygul Ozbafli; Glenn Jenkins

    2006-01-01

    The unreliability of electricity supplies is a major cause of the high cost of manufacturing in developing countries. In this paper, we are able to measure the cost imposed by power outages and suggest some feasible mitigating measures. The study employs a rich, if not unique, set of data from three large manufacturing enterprises in Nepal. Using it, the opportunity costs to the enterprises from lost production from electricity outages can be estimated accurately. Power outages due to substat...

  6. Energy Efficiency and Least-Cost Planning: The Best Way to Save Money and Reduce Energy Use in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowris, Robert J.

    1990-05-21

    If the 500 MW geothermal project on the Big Island of Hawaii is developed as planned, the Wao Kele O Puna rain forest will be severely damaged or destroyed. If this happens the State will lose one of its most precious resources. It would be tragic for this to happen, since on a least-cost basis, the geothermal project does not make economic sense. Improving energy efficiency in the commercial and residential sectors of Hawaii can save about 500 MW of power at a cost of $700 million.

  7. Calculation of direct antiretroviral treatment costs and potential cost savings by using generics in the German HIV ClinSurv cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stoll

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND/AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a long-term follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART, -regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop potential cost saving strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios. METHODS: Antiretroviral regimens (ART from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 participating ClinSurv study centres have been investigated since 1996. Biannual data cART-initiation, cART-changes, surrogate markers, clinical events and the Centre of Disease Control- (CDC-stage of HIV disease are reported. Treatment duration was calculated on a daily basis via the documented dates for the beginning and end of each antiretroviral drug treatment. Prices were calculated for each individual regimen based on actual office sales prices of the branded pharmaceuticals distributed by the license holder including German taxes. RESULTS: During the 13-year follow-up period, 21,387,427 treatment days were covered. Cumulative direct costs for antiretroviral drugs of €812,877,356 were determined according to an average of €42.08 per day (€7.52 to € 217.70. Since cART is widely used in Germany, the costs for an entire regimen increased by 13.5%. Regimens are more expensive in the advanced stages of HIV disease. The potential for cost savings was calculated using non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor, NNRTI, more frequently instead of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, PI/r, in first line therapy. This calculation revealed cumulative savings of 10.9% to 19.8% of daily treatment costs (50% and 90% substitution of PI/r, respectively. Substituting certain branded drugs by generic drugs showed potential cost savings of between 1.6% and 31.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the data of this nationwide study reflects disease-specific health services research

  8. Developing a student-led health and wellbeing clinic in an underserved community: collaborative learning, health outcomes and cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M; Tolchard, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The University of New England (UNE), Australia decided to develop innovative placement opportunities for its increasing numbers of nursing students. Extensive community and stakeholder consultation determined that a community centre in rural New South Wales was the welcomed site of the student-led clinic because it fit the goals of the project-to increase access to health care services in an underserved area while providing service learning for students. Supported by a grant from Health Workforce Australia and in partnership with several community organisations, UNE established a student-led clinic in a disadvantaged community using an engaged scholarship approach which joins academic service learning with community based action research. The clinic was managed and run by the students, who were supervised by university staff and worked in collaboration with residents and local health and community services. Local families, many of whom were Indigenous Australians, received increased access to culturally appropriate health services. In the first year, the clinic increased from a one day per week to a three day per week service and offered over 1000 occasions of care and involved 1500 additional community members in health promotion activities. This has led to improved health outcomes for the community and cost savings to the health service estimated to be $430,000. The students learned from members of the community and community members learned from the students, in a collaborative process. Community members benefited from access to drop in help that was self-determined. The model of developing student-led community health and wellbeing clinics in underserved communities not only fulfils the local, State Government, Federal Government and international health reform agenda but it also represents good value for money. It offers free health services in a disadvantaged community, thereby improving overall health and wellbeing. The student-led clinic is an invaluable

  9. Kinky thresholds revisited: opportunity costs differ in the NE and SW quadrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon

    2015-02-01

    Historically, a kinked threshold line on the cost-effectiveness plane at the origin was suggested due to differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for health gain with trade-offs in the north-east (NE) quadrant versus willingness to accept (WTA) cost reductions for health loss with trade-offs in the south-west (SW) quadrant. Empirically, WTA is greater than WTP for equivalent units of health, a finding supported by loss aversion under prospect theory. More recently, appropriate threshold values for health effects have been shown to require an endogenous consideration of the opportunity cost of alternative actions in budget-constrained health systems, but also allocative and displacement inefficiency observed in health system practice. Allocative and displacement inefficiency arise in health systems where the least cost-effective program in contraction has a higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER = m) than the most cost-effective program in expansion (ICER = n) and displaced services (ICER = d), respectively. The health shadow price derived by Pekarsky, [Formula: see text] reflects the opportunity cost of best alternative adoption and financing actions in reimbursing new technology with expected incremental costs and net effect allowing for allocative (n < m), and displacement, inefficiency (d < m). This provides an appropriate threshold value for the NE quadrant. In this paper, I show that for trade-offs in the SW quadrant, where new strategies have lower expected net cost while lower expected net effect than current practice, the opportunity cost is contraction of the least cost-effective program, with threshold ICER m. That is, in the SW quadrant, the cost reduction per unit of decreased effect should be compared with the appropriate opportunity cost, best alternative generation of funding. Consequently, appropriate consideration of opportunity cost produces a kink in the threshold at the origin, with the health shadow price in the NE quadrant

  10. Significant cost savings achieved by in-sourcing urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Snyder, Marion L; Darragh, Alicia; Quade, Cathleen; Jarolim, Petr

    2013-06-25

    Reference laboratory testing can represent a significant component of the laboratory budget. Therefore, most laboratories continually reassess the feasibility of in-sourcing various tests. We describe the transfer of urine drug testing performed for monitoring medication compliance in pain management from a reference laboratory into an academic clinical laboratory. The process of implementing of both screening immunoassays and confirmatory LC-MS/MS testing and the associated cost savings is outlined. The initial proposal for in-sourcing this testing, which included the tests to be in-sourced, resources required, estimated cost savings and timeline for implementation, was approved in January 2009. All proposed testing was implemented by March 2011. Keys to the successful implementation included budgeting adequate resources and developing a realistic timeline, incorporating the changes with the highest budget impact first. We were able to in-source testing in 27 months and save the laboratory approximately $1 million in the first 3 year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Standardization: Hardware and Software Standardization Can Reduce Costs and Save Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Young, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Sadly, technical support doesn't come cheap. One money-saving strategy that's gained popularity among school technicians is equipment and software standardization. When it works, standardization can be very effective. However, standardization has its drawbacks. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of standardization.

  12. The Quit Benefits Model: a Markov model for assessing the health benefits and health care cost savings of quitting smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the lack of comprehensive information about the health and economic benefits of quitting smoking for Australians, we developed the Quit Benefits Model (QBM. Methods The QBM is a Markov model, programmed in TreeAge, that assesses the consequences of quitting in terms of cases avoided of the four most common smoking-associated diseases, deaths avoided, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs and health care costs saved (in Australian dollars, A$. Quitting outcomes can be assessed for males and females in 14 five year age-groups from 15–19 to 80–84 years. Exponential models, based on data from large case-control and cohort studies, were developed to estimate the decline over time after quitting in the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and death. Australian data for the year 2001 were sourced for disease incidence and mortality and health care costs. Utility of life estimates were sourced from an international registry and a meta analysis. In this paper, outcomes are reported for simulated subjects followed up for ten years after quitting smoking. Life-years, QALYs and costs were estimated with 0%, 3% and 5% per annum discount rates. Summary results are presented for a group of 1,000 simulated quitters chosen at random from the Australian population of smokers aged between 15 and 74. Results For every 1,000 males chosen at random from the reference population who quit smoking, there is a an average saving in the first ten years following quitting of A$408,000 in health care costs associated with AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke, and a corresponding saving of A$328,000 for every 1,000 female quitters. The average saving per 1,000 random quitters is A$373,000. Overall 40 of these quitters will be spared a diagnosis of AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke in the first ten years following quitting, with an estimated saving of 47 life-years and

  13. Offering Lung Cancer Screening to High-Risk Medicare Beneficiaries Saves Lives and Is Cost-Effective: An Actuarial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Yip, Rowena; Dec, Ellynne

    2014-01-01

    Background By a wide margin, lung cancer is the most significant cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, and Medicare beneficiaries are often at increased risk. Because of its demonstrated effectiveness in reducing mortality, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging will be covered without cost-sharing starting January 1, 2015, by nongrandfathered commercial plans. Medicare is considering coverage for lung cancer screening. Objective To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness (ie, cost per life-year saved) of LDCT lung cancer screening of the Medicare population at high risk for lung cancer. Methods Medicare costs, enrollment, and demographics were used for this study; they were derived from the 2012 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiary files and were forecast to 2014 based on CMS and US Census Bureau projections. Standard life and health actuarial techniques were used to calculate the cost and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. The cost, incidence rates, mortality rates, and other parameters chosen by the authors were taken from actual Medicare data, and the modeled screenings are consistent with Medicare processes and procedures. Results Approximately 4.9 million high-risk Medicare beneficiaries would meet criteria for lung cancer screening in 2014. Without screening, Medicare patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer have an average life expectancy of approximately 3 years. Based on our analysis, the average annual cost of LDCT lung cancer screening in Medicare is estimated to be $241 per person screened. LDCT screening for lung cancer in Medicare beneficiaries aged 55 to 80 years with a history of ≥30 pack-years of smoking and who had smoked within 15 years is low cost, at approximately $1 per member per month. This assumes that 50% of these patients were screened. Such screening is also highly cost-effective, at <$19,000 per life

  14. Spatially explicit estimates of forest carbon emissions, mitigation costs and REDD+ opportunities in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Victoria; Laurance, Susan G.; Grech, Alana; Venter, Oscar

    2017-04-01

    Carbon emissions from the conversion and degradation of tropical forests contribute to anthropogenic climate change. Implementing programs to reduce emissions from tropical forest loss in Southeast Asia are perceived to be expensive due to high opportunity costs of avoided deforestation. However, these costs are not representative of all REDD+ opportunities as they are typically based on average costs across large land areas and are primarily for reducing deforestation from oil palm or pulp concessions. As mitigation costs and carbon benefits can vary according to site characteristics, spatially-explicit information should be used to assess cost-effectiveness and to guide the allocation of scarce REDD+ resources. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the following REDD+ strategies in Indonesia, one of the world’s largest sources of carbon emissions from deforestation: halting additional deforestation in protected areas, timber and oil palm concessions, reforesting degraded land and employing reduced-impact logging techniques in logging concessions. We discover that when spatial variation in costs and benefits is considered, low-cost options emerged even for the two most expensive strategies: protecting forests from conversion to oil palm and timber plantations. To achieve a low emissions reduction target of 25%, we suggest funding should target deforestation in protected areas, and oil palm and timber concessions to maximize emissions reductions at the lowest cumulative cost. Low-cost opportunities for reducing emissions from oil palm are where concessions have been granted on deep peat deposits or unproductive land. To achieve a high emissions reduction target of 75%, funding is allocated across all strategies, emphasizing that no single strategy can reduce emissions cost-effectively across all of Indonesia. These findings demonstrate that by using a spatially-targeted approach to identify high priority locations for reducing emissions from deforestation and

  15. Energy Saving Potential, Costs and Uncertainties in the Industry: A Case Study of the Chemical Industry in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Guminski, Andrej; Gruber, Anna

    2017-01-01

    the uncertainties of the results and identifying the most influential input parameters. The identification of energy efficiency measures and the quantification of the associated technical potentials and costs are identified based on literature data and own assessments. Based on these findings, a cost curve...... to 1990. To achieve this ambitious goal, energy planners and industries alike require an overview of the existing energy efficiency measures, their technical potential as well as the costs for realizing this potential. Energy efficiency opportunities are commonly presented in marginal cost curves (MCCs......), which rank these measures according to specific implementation costs. Existing analyses, however, often do not take uncertainties in costs and potentials into account. The aim of this paper is to create a MCC of energy efficiency measures for the chemical industry in Germany, while quantifying...

  16. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  17. Cost-saving or Cost-enhancing Mergers: the Impact of the Distribution of Roles in Oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pape, Nicolas; Kai ZHAO

    2010-01-01

    We consider firms perfectly symmetrical on production costs in the pre-merger game but the cost of the merged entity may be amended due to the anti-competitive effects of the merger. The lack of empirical precision concerning the effect of the merger on production costs (Scherer, 1980 or Tichy, 2002) justifies our theoretical model in which we do not specify a priori the exact production cost in the post merger game. Two firms in Stackelberg oligopoly game take part in the merger. The aim of thi...

  18. ResStock - Targeting Energy and Cost Savings for U.S. Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The ResStock analysis tool is helping states, municipalities, utilities, and manufacturers identify which home upgrades save the most energy and money. Across the country there's a vast diversity in the age, size, construction practices, installed equipment, appliances, and resident behavior of the housing stock, not to mention the range of climates. These variations have hindered the accuracy of predicting savings for existing homes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed ResStock. It's a versatile tool that takes a new approach to large-scale residential energy analysis by combining: large public and private data sources, statistical sampling, detailed subhourly building simulations, high-performance computing. This combination achieves unprecedented granularity and most importantly - accuracy - in modeling the diversity of the single-family housing stock.

  19. Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schröter

    Full Text Available Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone or partially restricted (partial use zone. Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2% and the non-use zone (+3.2%. Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%, which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1% of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

  20. Costs of Lost opportunities: Applying Non-Market Valuation Techniques to Potential REDD+ Participants in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Y. Thompson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ has been systematically advanced within the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. However, implementing REDD+ in a populated landscape requires information on local costs and acceptability of changed practices. To supply such information, many studies have adopted approaches that explore the opportunity cost of maintaining land as forest rather than converting it to agricultural uses. These approaches typically assume that the costs to the smallholder are borne exclusively through the loss or gain of the production values associated with specific categories of land use. However, evaluating the value of land to smallholders in incomplete and messy institutional and economic contexts entails other considerations, such as varying portfolios of land holdings, tenure arrangements, restricted access to capital, and unreliable food markets. We suggest that contingent valuation (CV methods may provide a more complete reflection of the viability of REDD+ in multiple-use landscapes than do opportunity cost approaches. The CV approach eliminates the need to assume a homogenous smallholder, and instead assumes heterogeneity around social, economic and institutional contexts. We apply this approach in a southern rural Cameroonian context, through the lens of a hypothetical REDD+ contract. Our findings suggest local costs of REDD+ contracts to be higher and much more variable than opportunity cost estimates.

  1. The Race to Refinance Debt: Market Offers Opportunities to Reduce Interest Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Lorrie A.

    1992-01-01

    In this interest market, colleges and universities could benefit from careful evaluation of debt portfolios. Refinancing debt is an opportunity to lower debt service costs, ease cash flow, change security pledges, eliminate debt service reserves, update bond documents. Timing is important. Existing and new bonds can also be combined…

  2. Comments on "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination": A Case in Point of No Free Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Ferraro and Taylor (2005) and Potter and Sanders (2012) have sparked a debate about the definition of opportunity cost (OC). This is, of course, ostensibly a very basic term, but Ferraro and Taylor said that most economists do not readily know its correct definition, and Potter and Sanders argued that this can be explained by the fact that there…

  3. "That "Fuego," That Fire in Their Stomach": Academically Successful Latinas/os and "Racial Opportunity Cost"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; Locke, Leslie A.; Tagarao, Annel M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the racial opportunity cost of academic achievement for Latina/o students who graduated from urban high schools and participated in a larger study of 18 high-achieving students of color. The article focuses on the ways the school context influenced their success. Interviews with the seven Latina/o participants reveal that…

  4. "That "Fuego," That Fire in Their Stomach": Academically Successful Latinas/os and "Racial Opportunity Cost"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; Locke, Leslie A.; Tagarao, Annel M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the racial opportunity cost of academic achievement for Latina/o students who graduated from urban high schools and participated in a larger study of 18 high-achieving students of color. The article focuses on the ways the school context influenced their success. Interviews with the seven Latina/o participants reveal that…

  5. Estimating the opportunity costs of activities that cause degradation in tropical dry forest: Implications for REDD +

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrego, Armonia; Skutsch, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The viability of national REDD + programs will depend in part on whether funds generated from sales of carbon credits are sufficient to cover the opportunity costs (OC) of forgone uses of the forest. We present the results of a study in which OC were estimated in dry tropical forest, in western Mexi

  6. Estimating health care cost savings from an educational intervention to prevent bleeding-related complications: the outcomes impact analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravyn, Dana; Ravyn, Vipa; Lowney, Rob; Ferraris, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Investments in continuing medical education (CME) exceed $2 billion annually, but few studies report the economic impact of CME activities. Analysis of patient-level economic outcomes data is often not feasible. Accordingly, we developed a model to illustrate estimation of the potential economic impact associated with CME activity outcomes. Outcomes impact analysis demonstrated how costs averted from a CME symposium that promoted prevention of bleeding-related complications (BRC) and reoperation for bleeding (RFB) in cardiac and thoracic operations could be estimated. Model parameter estimates were from published studies of costs associated with BRC and RFB. Operative volume estimates came from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons workforce data. The base case predicted 3 in 10 participants preventing one BRC or RFB in 2% or 1.5% of annual operations, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) evaluated the effect of parameter uncertainty. 92% of participants (n = 133) self-reported commitment to change, a validated measure of behavior change. For BRC, estimates for costs averted were $1,502,769 (95% confidence interval [CI], $869,860-$2,359,068) for cardiac operations and $2,715,246 (95% CI, $1,590,308-$4,217,092) for thoracic operations. For RFB, the savings estimates were $2,233,988 (95% CI, $1,223,901-$3,648,719). Our economic model demonstrates that application of CME-related learning to prevent bleeding complications may yield substantial cost savings. Model prediction of averted costs associated with CME allows estimation of the economic impact on outcomes in the absence of patient-level outcomes data related to CME activities. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  7. Research of Logistics Cost Based on Saving Algorithm: A Case of A Certain Logistics Company’s Logistics Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Nie Jing; Zeng Wei Yuan; Jing Hong Lei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, logistics companies of different sizes has been considerably developed all over the country, with the intensified competitions. To stand out in the competitive market, a logistics company must improve its logistics situation, focus on the function of distribution center, reduce logistics costs for enhancing the impact of supply chain, and rapidly response to customer needs. Thus, how to better design or optimize the existing distribution route for reducing logistics costs bec...

  8. The cost of assisted outpatient treatment: can it save states money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Van Dorn, Richard A; Swartz, Marvin S; Robbins, Pamela Clark; Steadman, Henry J; McGuire, Thomas G; Monahan, John

    2013-12-01

    The authors assessed a state's net costs for assisted outpatient treatment, a controversial court-ordered program of community-based mental health services designed to improve outcomes for persons with serious mental illness and a history of repeated hospitalizations attributable to nonadherence with outpatient treatment. A comprehensive cost analysis was conducted using 36 months of observational data for 634 assisted outpatient treatment participants and 255 voluntary recipients of intensive community-based treatment in New York City and in five counties elsewhere in New York State. Administrative, budgetary, and service claims data were used to calculate and summarize costs for program administration, legal and court services, mental health and other medical treatment, and criminal justice involvement. Adjusted effects of assisted outpatient treatment and voluntary intensive services on total service costs were examined using multivariate time-series regression analysis. In the New York City sample, net costs declined 43% in the first year after assisted outpatient treatment began and an additional 13% in the second year. In the five-county sample, costs declined 49% in the first year and an additional 27% in the second year. Psychotropic drug costs increased during the first year after initiation of assisted outpatient treatment, by 40% and 44% in the city and five-county samples, respectively. Regression analyses revealed significant declines in costs associated with both assisted outpatient treatment and voluntary participation in intensive services, although the cost declines associated with assisted outpatient treatment were about twice as large as those seen for voluntary services. Assisted outpatient treatment requires a substantial investment of state resources but can reduce overall service costs for persons with serious mental illness. For those who do not qualify for assisted outpatient treatment, voluntary participation in intensive community

  9. Cost-Savings Achieved in Two Semesters through the Adoption of Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John Levi, III; Robinson, Jared; Wiley, David; Ackerman, J. Dale

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks represent a significant portion of the overall cost of higher education in the United States. The burden of these costs is typically shouldered by students, those who support them, and the taxpayers who fund the grants and student loans which pay for textbooks. Open educational resources (OER) provide students a way to receive…

  10. [Variability and opportunity costs among the surgical alternatives for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Pueyo, Ester; Ridao-López, Manuel; Martínez-Lizaga, Natalia; García-Armesto, Sandra; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    To analyze medical practice variation in breast cancer surgery (either inpatient-based or day-case surgery), by comparing conservative surgery (CS) plus radiotherapy vs. non-conservative surgery (NCS). We also analyzed the opportunity costs associated with CS and NCS. We performed an observational study of age- and sex-standardized rates of CS and NCS, performed in 199 Spanish healthcare areas in 2008-2009. Costs were calculated by using two techniques: indirectly, by using All-Patients Diagnosis Related Groups (AP-DRG) based on hospital admissions, and directly by using full costing from the Spanish Network of Hospital Costs (SNHC) data. Standardized surgery rates for CS and NCS were 6.84 and 4.35 per 10,000 women, with variation across areas ranging from 2.95 to 3.11 per 10,000 inhabitants. In 2009, 9% of CS was performed as day-case surgery, although a third of the health care areas did not perform this type of surgery. Taking the SNHC as a reference, the cost of CS was estimated at 7,078 € and that of NCS was 6,161 €. Using AP-DRG, costs amounted to 9,036 € and 8,526 €, respectively. However, CS had lower opportunity costs than NCS when day-case surgery was performed frequently-more than 46% of cases (following SNHC estimates) or 23% of cases (following AP-DRG estimates). Day-case CS for breast cancer was found to be the best option in terms of opportunity-costs beyond a specific threshold, when both CS and NCS are elective. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  12. Research of Logistics Cost Based on Saving Algorithm: A Case of A Certain Logistics Company’s Logistics Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, logistics companies of different sizes has been considerably developed all over the country, with the intensified competitions. To stand out in the competitive market, a logistics company must improve its logistics situation, focus on the function of distribution center, reduce logistics costs for enhancing the impact of supply chain, and rapidly response to customer needs. Thus, how to better design or optimize the existing distribution route for reducing logistics costs becomes a difficult problem, and this article will do some researches on it.

  13. Designing Rainwater Harvesting Systems Cost-Effectively in a Urban Water-Energy Saving Scheme by Using a GIS-Simulation Based Design System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yie-Ru Chiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current centralized urban water supply depends largely on energy consumption, creating critical water-energy challenge especially for many rapid growing Asian cities. In this context, harvesting rooftop rainwater for non-potable use has enormous potential to ease the worsening water-energy issue. For this, we propose a geographic information system (GIS-simulation-based design system (GSBDS to explore how rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs can be systematically and cost-effectively designed as an innovative water-energy conservation scheme on a city scale. This GSBDS integrated a rainfall data base, water balance model, spatial technologies, energy-saving investigation, and economic feasibility analysis based on a case study of eight communities in the Taipei metropolitan area, Taiwan. Addressing both the temporal and spatial variations in rainfall, the GSBDS enhanced the broad application of RWHS evaluations. The results indicate that the scheme is feasible based on the optimal design when both water and energy-savings are evaluated. RWHSs were observed to be cost-effective and facilitated 21.6% domestic water-use savings, and 138.6 (kWh/year-family energy-savings. Furthermore, the cost of per unit-energy-saving is lower than that from solar PV systems in 85% of the RWHS settings. Hence, RWHSs not only enable water-savings, but are also an alternative renewable energy-saving approach that can address the water-energy dilemma caused by rapid urbanization.

  14. Potential Cost Savings Associated with a Reduction of Stress Fractures among US Army Basic Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    ANEMIA 1 22 2953 SCHIZOPH~RENIA9 3 PARANOID TYPE 23 2954? ACUTE S:HIZDPHPE-N- 9 IC EPTS~jE 24 2956 RESIDUAL SC-lZ>D PHRENI A 25 2959 SCHIZO)Pw~RE-:%A NOS1...1-3 (Rec Sta). d. INDIRECT COSTS. Items 8-10 (ATC) and Items 5-7 (Rec Sta) are explained below. These costs consist of a pro rata share of base

  15. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due...... for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights reserved...

  16. The Cost of Medicaid Savings: The Potential Detrimental Public Health Impact of Neonatal Circumcision Defunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie L. Andrews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To project the increased incidence of HIV and subsequent costs resulting from the expected decreased rate of circumcision due to Medicaid defunding in one southeastern state. Methods. Using 2009 South Carolina (SC Medicaid birth cohort (n=29,316, we calculated expected heterosexually acquired HIV cases at current circumcision rates. To calculate age/race/gender specific HIV incidence rates, we used 2009 South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control reported gender and race specific HIV cases, CDC reported age distribution of HIV cases, and 2009 S.C. population data. Accounting for current circumcision rates, we calculated the change in incidence of heterosexually acquired HIV assuming circumcision provides 60% protection against HIV transmission to males and 46% protection against male to female transmission. Published lifetime cost of HIV was used to calculate the cost of additional HIV cases. Results. Assuming Medicaid circumcision rates decrease from current nationally reported levels to zero secondary to defunding, we project an additional 55 male cases of HIV and 47 female cases of HIV among this birth cohort. The total cost discounted to time of infection of these additional HIV cases is $20,924,400 for male cases and $17,711,400 for female cases. The cost to circumcise males in this birth cohort at currently reported rates is $4,856,000. Conclusions. For every year of decreased circumcision rates due to Medicaid defunding, we project over 100 additional HIV cases and $30,000,000 in net medical costs.

  17. Interactive internet-based clinical education: an efficient and cost-savings approach to point-of-care test training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Herschel; Chan, Kee; Anaya, Henry D; Goetz, Matthew B

    2011-06-01

    We successfully created and implemented an effective HIV rapid testing training and certification curriculum using traditional in-person training at multiple sites within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System. Considering the multitude of geographically remote facilities in the nationwide VA system, coupled with the expansion of HIV diagnostics, we developed an alternate training method that is affordable, efficient, and effective. Using materials initially developed for in-person HIV rapid test in-services, we used a distance learning model to offer this training via live audiovisual online technology to educate clinicians at a remote outpatient primary care VA facility. Participants' evaluation metrics showed that this form of remote education is equivalent to in-person training; additionally, HIV testing rates increased considerably in the months following this intervention. Although there is a one-time setup cost associated with this remote training protocol, there is potential cost savings associated with the point-of-care nurse manager's time productivity by using the Internet in-service learning module for teaching HIV rapid testing. If additional in-service training modules are developed into Internet-based format, there is the potential for additional cost savings. Our cost analysis demonstrates that the remote in-service method provides a more affordable and efficient alternative compared with in-person training. The online in-service provided training that was equivalent to in-person sessions based on first-hand supervisor observation, participant satisfaction surveys, and follow-up results. This method saves time and money, requires fewer personnel, and affords access to expert trainers regardless of geographic location. Further, it is generalizable to training beyond HIV rapid testing. Based on these consistent implementation successes, we plan to expand use of online training to include remote VA satellite facilities spanning

  18. Seatbelt use to save money: Impact on hospital costs of occupants who are involved in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Seatbelt use is the single most effective way to save lives in motor vehicle crashes (MVC). However, although safety belt laws have been enacted in many countries, seatbelt usage throughout the world remains below optimal levels, and educational interventions may be needed to further increase seatbelt use. In addition to reducing crash-related injuries and deaths, reduced medical expenditures resulting from seatbelt use are an additional benefit that could make such interventions cost-effective. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between seatbelt use and hospital costs of injuries involved in MVC. The data used in this study were from the Nebraska CODES database for motor vehicle crashes that occurred between 2004 and 2013. The hospital cost information and information about other factors were obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data. A multivariable regression model was performed for the association between seatbelt use and hospital costs. Mean hospital costs were significantly lower among motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt ($2909), lap-only seatbelt ($2289), children's seatbelt ($1132), or booster ($1473) when compared with those not using any type of seatbelt ($7099). After adjusting for relevant factors, there were still significantly decreased hospital costs for motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt (84.7%), lap-only seatbelt (74.1%), shoulder-only seatbelt (40.6%), children's seatbelt (95.9%), or booster (82.8%) compared to those not using a seatbelt. Seatbelt use is significantly associated with reduced hospital costs among injured MVC occupants. The findings in this study will provide important educational information for emergency department nurses who can encourage safety belt use for vehicle occupants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  20. The Effect of Tuition and Opportunity Cost on the Pursuit and Completion of a Graduate Management Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Mark; Powell, Irene

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used multivariate statistical analysis to examine the impact of cost on the likelihood that a person will both enroll in and complete a Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. They considered both the "explicit" cost of paying tuition and the "implicit" cost, or opportunity cost, of earnings foregone while in…

  1. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  2. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year.

  3. Adding a dietitian to a Danish Liaison-team after discharge of geriatric patients at nutritional risk may save health care costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohju, Anne; Belqaid, Kerstin; Brandt, Christopher Flintenborg

    2016-01-01

    Background: A previous study investigated the value of adding a dietitian to a geriatric discharge Liaison-Team. The scope of this study was to explore the possible economic savings of this. Methods: Patients, 70+ and at nutritional risk, were randomized to receive discharge Liaison-Team either......,416 compared to €1,150 (ONS only) in the CG. For hospitalizations, estimated cost was €92,020 in the IG and €220,025 in the CG. Cost savings added up to €3,048 per patient in the IG. Conclusion: Adding a dietitian to a Danish geriatric discharge Liaison-Team decreased health care costs...

  4. Cost-benefit of energy saving in bioclimatic designs; Costo-beneficio del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimatios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A. [Doble dos soluciones de Negocios (Mexico); Morillon G, David; Rdriguez V, Luis [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    Tools and criteria for Cost-Benefit Analysis (ACB) of energy saving in bioclimatic designs (DB) are presented, for which a reference project is established. Based on the traditional design of air conditioning of a building and with the support of this one, the estimation of costs and benefits of the same building is made; but with passive systems. The tools used consider related resources such as time and money. Criteria are used such as: Present value (VP), Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) and the Cost of the conserved Energy (CEC). The costs related to the construction, maintenance and operation of the design are taken into consideration. The differences between the design of reference and the Bioclimatic Design, established from the application of these criteria, allow evaluating the economic margin as far as operation and maintenance. Finally, the cost of the conserved energy of the bioclimatic measures is evaluated as an initiative for energy saving and calculates the present value from them in all of the period of useful life of the bioclimatic design. [Spanish] Se presentan herramientas y criterios para el analisis Costo-Beneficio (ACB) del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimaticos (DB), para lo cual se establece un proyecto de referencia. Basado en el diseno tradicional de la climatizacion de un edificio y con apoyo en este, se realiza la estimacion de costos y beneficios del mismo edificio; pero con sistema pasivos. Las herramientas usadas consideran recursos relacionados como son tiempo y dinero. Se usan criterios tales como: Valor Presente (VP), Costo Anual Equivalente (CAE) y el Costo de la Energia conservada (CEC). Se toman en consideracion los costos relacionados con la construccion, mantenimiento y operacion del diseno. Las diferencias entre el diseno de referencia y el Diseno Bioclimatico, establecidas a partir de la aplicacion de estos criterios, permiten evaluar el margen economico en cuanto a la operacion y el mantenimiento. Finalmente, se

  5. Pooling Ocular Swab Specimens from Tanzania for testing by Roche Amplicor and Aptima Combo 2 Assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis: Accuracy and Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dize, Laura; West, Sheila; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular swabs collected in Tanzania were evaluated by Amplicor CT and Aptima Combo2 assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) to determine if pooling could be used to reduce the cost of detection. Pooling would be an accurate method and so far resulted in a cost-savings of 62.2%. PMID:24079951

  6. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  7. Enrollment is driving Medicaid costs--but two targets can yield savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, John; Yemane, Alshadye

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines various reasons for the growth in Medicaid spending in the current decade. Although Medicaid spending has grown faster than the rate of increase in national health spending, much of this is explained by increased enrollment. Per enrollee, Medicaid spending actually compares favorably to increases in medical care prices and gross domestic product. The relative success in Medicaid cost containment seems to be attributable to limits on provider payment rates, expansion of managed care, limits on the use and pricing of prescription drugs, and expansion of community-based long-term care programs. We suggest two strategies for further cost containment.

  8. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed...... to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined...... within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics...

  9. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesban Kihuba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design: We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results: Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion: To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  10. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  11. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context. PMID:27357072

  12. The Potential Cost Savings of Establishing a Marine Corps Exercise Support Detachment in Yuma, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Thesis Advisor Don Summers Second Reader William Gates Dean, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy iv THIS PAGE...19 5. Temporary Additional Duty ( TAD ) Costs ........................................ 19 C. PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE...Operations............................ 17 Table 3 Annual and Daily Compensation Rates for Military Personnel ....................... 18 Table 4 TAD

  13. Personalised medicine: Priority setting and opportunity costs in European public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmann, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    “Personalised medicine” is currently attracting considerable attention and raising high hopes and expectations in modern medicine. The term “personalised medicine” denotes the use of genetic or other biomarker information, and it does not focus on a more personal patient-doctor relationship. Furthermore, personalised medicine is associated with ethical problems like priority setting and opportunity costs in solidarity-based public health care systems. Personalised medicine provides modern,...

  14. Costs for integrating wind into the future ERCOT system with related costs for savings in CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Sluzas, Nora A

    2011-04-01

    Wind power can make an important contribution to the goal of reducing emissions of CO2. The major problem relates to the intrinsic variability of the source and the difficulty of reconciling the supply of electricity with demand particularly at high levels of wind penetration. This challenge is explored for the case of the ERCOT system in Texas. Demand for electricity in Texas is projected to increase by approximately 60% by 2030. Considering hourly load data reported for 2006, assuming that the pattern of demand in 2030 should be similar to 2006, and adopting as a business as usual (BAU) reference an assumption that the anticipated additional electricity should be supplied by a combination of coal and gas with prices, discounted to 2007 dollars of $2 and $6 per MMBTU respectively, we conclude that the bus-bar price for electricity would increase by about 1.1 ¢/kWh at a wind penetration level of 30%, by about 3.4 ¢/kWh at a penetration level of 80%. Corresponding costs for reductions in CO2 range from $20/ton to $60/ton. A number of possibilities are discussed that could contribute to a reduction in these costs including the impact of an expanded future fleet of electrically driven vehicles.

  15. OPPORTUNITY COSTS OF REWARD DELAYS AND THE DISCOUNTING OF HYPOTHETICAL MONEY AND CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the “magnitude effect,” steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  16. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    comprehensive renovations in the coming years and in connection with this renovation process energy saving measures can be implemented relatively inexpensive and cost effective. This opportunity should be used to insure the buildings in the future as far as energy consumption is concerned. This paper gives...

  17. Low-Cost and Energy-Saving Wireless Sensor Network for Real-Time Urban Mobility Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyoung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost and energy-saving urban mobility monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The primary components of the proposed sensor unit are a Bluetooth sensor and a Zigbee transceiver. Within the WSN, the Bluetooth sensor captures the MAC addresses of Bluetooth units equipped in mobile devices and car navigation systems. The Zigbee transceiver transmits the collected MAC addresses to a data center without any major communications infrastructures (e.g., fiber optics and 3G/4G network. A total of seven prototype sensor units have been deployed on roadway segments in Newark, New Jersey, for a proof of concept (POC test. The results of the POC test show that the performance of the proposed sensor unit appears promising, resulting in 2% of data drop rates and an improved Bluetooth capturing rate.

  18. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  19. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  20. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  1. Low cost drip irrigation: Impact on sugarcane yield, water and energy saving in semiarid tropical agro ecosystem in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, U; Jayakumar, M; Marimuthu, S

    2016-12-15

    Low cost drip irrigation (LCDI) has been a recent introduction to India and it may be an inexpensive means of expanding irrigation into uncultivated areas, thereby increasing land productivity. This paper is structured into two phases. The first phase, presents an assessment of different irrigation methods (LCDI, conventional drip irrigation (CDI) with single row and paired row, siphon and flood irrigation) on sugarcane production. The results showed that cane yield and water productivity was significantly increased in both plant and ratoon crop of sugarcane owing to the methods of irrigation. Among the methods, LCDI recorded 118.6tha(-1) of cane yield and it was on par with the single row CDI, which recorded the highest mean yield of 120.4tha(-1) and both are found to be significantly superior to the rest of the treatments. The lowest yield was recorded in the treatment of flood irrigation (94.40tha(-1)). Benefit Cost Ratio analysis confirmed that LCDI performed better compared to other irrigation methods. The second phase deals with the farmer participatory research demonstrations at multi location on evaluation of LCDI with flood irrigation. LCDI out performed flood irrigation under all the locations in terms of sugarcane yield, soil moisture content, postharvest soil fertility, reduction in nutrient transport to surface and ground water, water and energy saving. These results suggest that LCDI is a feasible option to increase the sugarcane production in water scarcity areas of semiarid agro ecosystems, and have long-term sustained economic benefits than flood irrigation in terms of water productivity, energy saving and environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing Green Networks and Network Operations Saving Run-the-Engine Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the confluence of socio-political trends toward environmental responsibility and the pressing need to reduce Run-the-Engine (RTE) costs has given birth to a nascent discipline of Green IT. A clear and concise introduction to green networks and green network operations, this book examines analytical measures and discusses virtualization, network computing, and web services as approaches for green data centers and networks. It identifies some strategies for green appliance and end devices and examines the methodical steps that can be taken over time to achieve a seamless migratio

  3. Evaluating C-RAN Fronthaul Functional Splits in Terms of Network Level Energy and Cost Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2016-01-01

    The placement of the complete baseband processing in a centralized pool results in high data rate requirement and inflexibility of the fronthaul network, which challenges the energy and cost effectiveness of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN). Recently, redesign of the C-RAN through functional...... on designing an efficient fronthaul network.Based on the obtained results, we derive a principle for fronthaul dimensioning based on the traffic profile. This principle allows for efficient radio access network with respect to multiplexing gains while achieving the expected users' quality of service....

  4. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  5. [Examination of the opportunity costs and turnover situation in patients with deep sternal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennker, I C; Kojcici, B; Ennker, J; Vogt, P; Melichercik, J

    2012-06-01

    Each and every hospital of any kind is forced, due to increased cost pressure, to work as economically and as efficiently as possible. This even applies when the operational orientations of the hospitals institutions are different. In the present article an analysis of the repercussions of the treatment of postoperative complications in terms of entrepreneurial practice is given. Our focus is on the opportunity cost. A theoretical calculation of opportunity costs is made based on the example of postoperative infections following cardiac surgery and the resulting treatment. The bases of the examinations are the results collected at the hospital Mediclin Herzentrum Lahr / Baden in 2008. The wound healing disorders were recorded from November 2004 until November 2007 and include 3675 patients who were operated on using a median sternotomy. Out of the 3675 patients 45 (1.2 %) were affected. Various treatment options are at hand. The used therapy algorithm in our practice is dependent on the stage and the development of the infection. If the high trim point, the medial trim point and the low trim point of the mediastinitis patients, as well as the average revenue and the surcharge omission on exceeding the high trim point (these data can be found in the annual accounts) and knowledge of the actual length of stay of the mediastinitis patient are known, the opportunity cost, respectively potential turnover increases, can be calculated. Reducing the medial trim point from 48.43 to, for example, 36.37 days could potentially produce a turnover increase of as much as 10 633.41 €. Keeping patient safety in mind, significant turnover increases can be achieved with adequate planning. The considered sales situation, however, can only be achieved under the same terms: these being free operating room and bed capacities, available personnel, equal cost of materials as well as enough patients. The consideration of opportunity costs could be important for entrepreneurs

  6. Flow and rent-based opportunity costs of water ecosystem service provision in a complex farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia R. Rendon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable land uses present many challenges for securing ecosystem service provision. It is also difficult to estimate the cost of a transition to more sustainable land-management practices for individual landholders. The main cost to landholders is the opportunity costs, the income foregone when changing land use for continued or enhanced ecosystem service provision. Thus accurate estimation of opportunity costs and understanding their distribution are crucial starting points for determining the economic viability and design of any payment for ecosystem services (PES scheme. We compare two opportunity cost approaches and examine the distribution of these costs for improving drinking water quality in a complex farming system in a Honduran forest catchment. Data for both approaches was collected through a survey applied to upstream catchment landholders. Our results indicate that the direct flow approach and the proxy rent approach provide comparable and consistent opportunity cost estimates. The mean net flow return ha-1 was US$1410, but this estimate was skewed, mainly by exceptionally high coffee returns and negative returns of land uses making a loss. This estimate would imply spending over US$2 million per annum for water conservation, but a revised estimate comes to US$257,057 per annum. Opportunity costs were found to vary according to differences in land use and landholder characteristics. High value cash crops upholding the local economy, such as coffee, entail much higher opportunity costs than for example cattle grazing. These results suggest that discriminate PES payments, that vary according to opportunity costs and thus discriminate between land uses and landholders, are essential. Water quality at our case study site could be managed sustainably by a scheme focusing on high-impact land uses with lower opportunity costs and closer to water sources.

  7. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Liu, Bing

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to assess the relative energy and energy cost performance of commercial buildings designed to meet the requirements found in the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. As many states have historically adopted the IECC for both residential and commercial buildings, PNNL has evaluated the impacts of the commercial provisions of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 editions of the IECC. PNNL also compared energy performance with corresponding editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  8. Using efficiency analysis and targeted intervention to improve operational performance and achieve cost savings in the endoscopy center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Neal K; Chang, Kenneth; Lee, John G; Muthusamy, V Raman

    2014-04-01

    With an increasing demand for endoscopy services, there is a greater need for efficiency within the endoscopy center. A validated methodology is important for evaluating efficiency in the endoscopy unit. To use the principles of operations management to establish a validated methodology for evaluating and enhancing operational performance in the endoscopy center. Biphasic prospective study with pre-intervention and post-intervention efficiency data and analysis. Tertiary-care referral teaching hospital. Scheduled outpatients undergoing endoscopy. Determination of the rate-limiting step, or bottleneck, of the endoscopy unit and reducing inefficiencies. Staffing costs and a novel performance metric, True Completion Time (TCT). Data were prospectively recorded for 2248 patients undergoing a total of 2713 procedures (phase I: 255 EGD, 305 colonoscopy, 91 EGD/colonoscopy, 375 EUS, 44 ERCP, 75 EUS/ERCP; phase II: 243 EGD, 328 colonoscopy, 99 EGD/colonoscopy, 335 EUS, 38 ERCP, 109 EUS/ERCP). The bottleneck of the operation was identified as the 10-bed communal pre-procedure/recovery room. On-time procedure starts increased by 51% (P costs were reduced by 30%, whereas full-time employee staff was reduced by 0.85. Annual cost savings were calculated as $312,618 or 11.02% of total operating expenses. This study is not directly tied to quality outcomes, and inpatient procedures transported to the endoscopy unit were not directly studied. Room turnover time and room-to-endoscopist ratio are not necessarily the driving parameters behind endoscopy unit efficiency. A focus on developing a methodology for identifying factors constraining operational efficiency can improve performance and reduce costs in the endoscopy center. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prime focus architectures for large space telescopes: reduce surfaces to save cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Lillie, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Conceptual architectures are now being developed to identify future directions for post JWST large space telescope systems to operate in the UV Optical and near IR regions of the spectrum. Here we show that the cost of optical surfaces within large aperture telescope/instrument systems can exceed $100M/reflection when expressed in terms of the aperture increase needed to over come internal absorption loss. We recommend a program in innovative optical design to minimize the number of surfaces by considering multiple functions for mirrors. An example is given using the Rowland circle imaging spectrometer systems for UV space science. With few exceptions, current space telescope architectures are based on systems optimized for ground-based astronomy. Both HST and JWST are classical "Cassegrain" telescopes derived from the ground-based tradition to co-locate the massive primary mirror and the instruments at the same end of the metrology structure. This requirement derives from the dual need to minimize observatory dome size and cost in the presence of the Earth's 1-g gravitational field. Space telescopes, however function in the zero gravity of space and the 1- g constraint is relieved to the advantage of astronomers. Here we suggest that a prime focus large aperture telescope system in space may have potentially have higher transmittance, better pointing, improved thermal and structural control, less internal polarization and broader wavelength coverage than Cassegrain telescopes. An example is given showing how UV astronomy telescopes use single optical elements for multiple functions and therefore have a minimum number of reflections.

  10. The opportunity costs of informal elder-care in the United States: new estimates from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Amalavoyal V; Engberg, John; Ray, Kristin N; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2015-06-01

    To provide nationally representative estimates of the opportunity costs of informal elder-care in the United States. Data from the 2011 and 2012 American Time Use Survey. Wage is used as the measure of an individual's value of time (opportunity cost), with wages being imputed for nonworking individuals using a selection-corrected regression methodology. The total opportunity costs of informal elder-care amount to $522 billion annually, while the costs of replacing this care by unskilled and skilled paid care are $221 billion and $642 billion, respectively. Informal caregiving remains a significant phenomenon in the United States with a high opportunity cost, although it remains more economical (in the aggregate) than skilled paid care. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Can digital pathology result in cost savings? A financial projection for digital pathology implementation at a large integrated health care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Digital pathology offers potential improvements in workflow and interpretive accuracy. Although currently digital pathology is commonly used for research and education, its clinical use has been limited to niche applications such as frozen sections and remote second opinion consultations. This is mainly due to regulatory hurdles, but also to a dearth of data supporting a positive economic cost-benefit. Large scale adoption of digital pathology and the integration of digital slides into the routine anatomic/surgical pathology "slide less" clinical workflow will occur only if digital pathology will offer a quantifiable benefit, which could come in the form of more efficient and/or higher quality care. Aim: As a large academic-based health care organization expecting to adopt digital pathology for primary diagnosis upon its regulatory approval, our institution estimated potential operational cost savings offered by the implementation of an enterprise-wide digital pathology system (DPS. Methods: Projected cost savings were calculated for the first 5 years following implementation of a DPS based on operational data collected from the pathology department. Projected savings were based on two factors: (1 Productivity and lab consolidation savings; and (2 avoided treatment costs due to improvements in the accuracy of cancer diagnoses among nonsubspecialty pathologists. Detailed analyses of incremental treatment costs due to interpretive errors, resulting in either a false positive or false negative diagnosis, was performed for melanoma and breast cancer and extrapolated to 10 other common cancers. Results: When phased in over 5-years, total cost savings based on anticipated improvements in pathology productivity and histology lab consolidation were estimated at $12.4 million for an institution with 219,000 annual accessions. The main contributing factors to these savings were gains in pathologist clinical full-time equivalent capacity

  12. Can digital pathology result in cost savings? A financial projection for digital pathology implementation at a large integrated health care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jonhan; Ahlers, Stefan M; Stratman, Curtis; Aridor, Orly; Pantanowitz, Liron; Fine, Jeffrey L; Kuzmishin, John A; Montalto, Michael C; Parwani, Anil V

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology offers potential improvements in workflow and interpretive accuracy. Although currently digital pathology is commonly used for research and education, its clinical use has been limited to niche applications such as frozen sections and remote second opinion consultations. This is mainly due to regulatory hurdles, but also to a dearth of data supporting a positive economic cost-benefit. Large scale adoption of digital pathology and the integration of digital slides into the routine anatomic/surgical pathology "slide less" clinical workflow will occur only if digital pathology will offer a quantifiable benefit, which could come in the form of more efficient and/or higher quality care. As a large academic-based health care organization expecting to adopt digital pathology for primary diagnosis upon its regulatory approval, our institution estimated potential operational cost savings offered by the implementation of an enterprise-wide digital pathology system (DPS). Projected cost savings were calculated for the first 5 years following implementation of a DPS based on operational data collected from the pathology department. Projected savings were based on two factors: (1) Productivity and lab consolidation savings; and (2) avoided treatment costs due to improvements in the accuracy of cancer diagnoses among nonsubspecialty pathologists. Detailed analyses of incremental treatment costs due to interpretive errors, resulting in either a false positive or false negative diagnosis, was performed for melanoma and breast cancer and extrapolated to 10 other common cancers. When phased in over 5-years, total cost savings based on anticipated improvements in pathology productivity and histology lab consolidation were estimated at $12.4 million for an institution with 219,000 annual accessions. The main contributing factors to these savings were gains in pathologist clinical full-time equivalent capacity impacted by improved pathologist productivity and workload

  13. Shared energy savings (SES) contracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, D.R. Jr. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of a Shared Energy Savings (SES) contract as the procurement vehicle to provide, install, and maintain closed-loop ground-coupled heat pumps (CLGCHP`s) for 4,003 family-housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana. In addition to the requirement relative to heat pumps, the contract allows the energy service company (ESCO) to propose additional projects needed to take full advantage of energy cost-saving opportunities that may exist at Fort Polk. The paper traces the development of the SES contract from feasibility study through development of the request for proposal (RFP) to contract award and implementation. In tracing this development, technical aspects of the project are set forth and various benefits inherent in SES contracting are indicated. The paper concludes that, due to the positive motivation inherent in the shared-savings, as well as partnering aspects of SES contracts, SES contracting is well suited to use as a procurement vehicle.

  14. Solving the Sustainable Growth Rate formula conundrum continues steps toward cost savings and care improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, James D; Converse, Larisa; Rich, Eugene C

    2015-04-01

    Congress is again attempting to repeal the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula. The formula is a failed mechanism intended to constrain Medicare Part B physician spending by adjusting annual physician fee updates. Congress has averted formula-driven physician fee cuts each year beginning in 2003 by overriding the SGR, usually accompanied with last-minute disputes about how these overrides should be paid for. Last year Congress achieved bipartisan and bicameral agreement on legislation to replace the SGR—the SGR Repeal and Medicare Provider Payment Modernization Act of 2014, which we refer to as the "2014 SGR fix"—but was unable to find a way to pay for the legislation under current budget rules. Current congressional deliberations appear focused on how to pay for the fix, with wide consensus that the 2014 legislation should remain the basic model for reform. We describe key features of the 2014 SGR fix, place it in the context of both past and ongoing Medicare health policy, assess its strengths and weaknesses as a mechanism to foster improved care and lower costs in Medicare, and suggest further actions to ensure success in meeting these goals.

  15. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Schneider

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.

  16. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Richard R; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W L; Boutin, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.

  17. Compensating the opportunity cost of forest functional zoning - two alternative options for the Romanian forest policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Drăgoi,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge of the environmental policy is conceivingappropriate economic instruments able to account for the positive externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This issue is extremely important for implementing the provisions of the Romanian Forest Act, which states that forest owners shall be compensated for the opportunity costs of giving up harvesting operations due to various conservation purposes. The paper presents a statistical method based on analytical assessment of the effective forgone revenues brought about by banning the harvesting operations in 96 cases, each case being a distinctive forest management plan conceived for a large forest area, i.e. a production unit. Doing so, the scale effect has been taken into account because all legal provisions referring to forest management planning systems are focused on production units, considered the basic reference elements for sustainable forest management. The multiple regression function produced by the statistical analysis was turned into a simple formula allowing for a straightforward set up of the average compensation worth being paid per year and hectare. In order to better fetch the real opportunity cost paid for each hectare of protected forest, the algorithmwas further improved in order to account for the differences in stumpage residual value. Actually, the average compensation is differentiated onto five categories of hauling distances, using the same algorithm used by the National Forest Administration for differentiating the average reservation price established at national level on the ground of full-cost method stumpage pricing system.

  18. Cost savings realized by use of the PhaSeal(®) closed-system transfer device for preparation of antineoplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael S; Solimando, Dominic A; Grollman, Franklin R; Pang, Janet L; Chasick, Ashley H; Hightman, Charlene M; Johnson, Anthony D; Mickens, Maxine G; Preston, Lorenzo M

    2013-12-01

    Medication cost is a major factor associated with increasing health care costs in the United States. Expenditures for prescription drugs in 2013 are estimated to be $283.7 billion. Closed system transfer devices are widely used for preparation of hazardous drugs. Reports indicate the Phaseal(®) closed system transfer device maintains sterility in vials for 7 days, suggesting the unused portion of single-use vials could be salvaged. This study was done to determine whether using a closed system transfer device to extend the beyond-use date of single-use vials of antineoplastic medications would result in a measurable cost saving. A list of 25 drugs available in single-use vials, with a chemical stability of at least 48 hours, was compiled. Use of these agents was recorded during a 50-day period in April through June 2012. Use from a total of 296 vials of 21 antineoplastic agents was recorded. After allowing for the initial use of each vial, the mean potential percentage of drug waste was calculated to be 57.03%. Actual savings during the study period was $96,348.70. The pharmacy avoided nearly half of the potential waste and saved a mean of 29% of each vial. The cost-saving during the study period represents a $703,047.67 annual saving; which more than offsets the $106,556.55 the pharmacy spent for the Phaseal(®) system in 2012. In addition to being a protective measure to reduce exposure to hazardous agents, use of the Phaseal(®) system results in a reduction in drug waste, and a noticeable cost saving for antineoplastic agents.

  19. A stitch in time saves nine. The costs of postponing action in climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinshamn, Stein Ivar; Kvamsdal, Sturla F.; Sandal, Leif K.

    2011-07-01

    The main purpose of this report is to investigate the effects of postponing implementation of a carbon tax assuming that externalities associated with climate change and global warming is real. Failing to internalize these externalities will only lead to a suboptimal situation. The model applied to investigate these externalities starts with the basic relationships, namely supply and demand for fossil fuel, and an added damage term that accounts for the externality. The objective is then to maximize the sum of consumers' and producers' surplus adjusted for the externality. This must be done subject to the dynamic constraint derived from emissions of carbon associated with extraction and consumption of fossil fuel and the natural assimilation of carbon in the atmosphere. The model is solved as a closed loop feedback policy. First the optimal emission path is calculated, and then the corresponding tax path is found. As the externality dealt with here is a pure stock externality it turns out that the optimal tax is equal to the shadow cost of the pollutant. The dynamic equation for assimilation, or natural decay, of carbon is specified using a fairly sophisticated method, namely the ensemble Kalman filter. Given the relative simplicity of the model with only one type of production and one type of pollutant, this method is supposed to give a best possible estimate of the parameters in the assimilation function.The main message in this report is that it may possibly be very expensive to postpone implementation of a carbon tax as the tax rate may have to increase by up to 30 per cent and more for each year implementation is postponed in order to recover optimality in the most pessimistic cases. In the more optimistic cases an increase of down to 0.5 per cent per year may be sufficient.(eb)

  20. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics as a next frontier for offshore wind constituencies. This important area of the supply chain is ripe to academically and professionally cultivate and harvest in terms of offshore wind energy cost reductions. Our paper suggests that a focused organizational approach for logistics both horizontally and vertically within the company organizations could be the way forward, coupled with a long-term legislative environment to enable the necessary investments in logistics assets and transport equipment.

  1. Learning the opportunity cost of time in a patch-foraging task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Sara M; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-12-01

    Although most decision research concerns choice between simultaneously presented options, in many situations options are encountered serially, and the decision is whether to exploit an option or search for a better one. Such problems have a rich history in animal foraging, but we know little about the psychological processes involved. In particular, it is unknown whether learning in these problems is supported by the well-studied neurocomputational mechanisms involved in more conventional tasks. We investigated how humans learn in a foraging task, which requires deciding whether to harvest a depleting resource or switch to a replenished one. The optimal choice (given by the marginal value theorem; MVT) requires comparing the immediate return from harvesting to the opportunity cost of time, which is given by the long-run average reward. In two experiments, we varied opportunity cost across blocks, and subjects adjusted their behavior to blockwise changes in environmental characteristics. We examined how subjects learned their choice strategies by comparing choice adjustments to a learning rule suggested by the MVT (in which the opportunity cost threshold is estimated as an average over previous rewards) and to the predominant incremental-learning theory in neuroscience, temporal-difference learning (TD). Trial-by-trial decisions were explained better by the MVT threshold-learning rule. These findings expand on the foraging literature, which has focused on steady-state behavior, by elucidating a computational mechanism for learning in switching tasks that is distinct from those used in traditional tasks, and suggest connections to research on average reward rates in other domains of neuroscience.

  2. The political promotion of electricity saving in private households. Opportunities and challenges; Die politische Foerderung des Stromsparens in Privathaushalten. Herausforderungen und Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Doris (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration reports on the political promotion in electricity conservation in households based on the following contributions: (1) Private consumption of electricity in OECD countries - opportunities and challenges (Doris Fuchs); (2) Quantification and systematization of the technical and behavioural potentials of electricity conservation of German private households (Veit Buerger); (3) Impact of political measures on the reduction of the electricity consumption in private households: A macro-quantitative international comparison (Volker Schneider); (4) Diffusion of energy political measures in Swiss cantons (Felix Strebel); (5) Electricity price and electricity consumption. An experiment on purchase decisions at electricity saving household appliances (Ulrich Hamenstaedt); (6) Electricity and fuel consumption in Europe: A panel error correction model for residential demand elasticities (Jan Duerrinck); (7) Plug and Pull - Energy saving in private households. Results from a German study (Doerthe Kroemker); (8) Washing when the wind is blowing. Acceptance and restraints of intelligent households from the view of a consumer (Wilma Mert); (9) Smart metering and feed back systems: Suitable instruments for the increase of a sustainable power consumption? (Sebastian Goelz).

  3. Analysis of costs and scarce fuel savings associated with nine Eastern and North Central center city conversions to a district energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.A.; Santini, D.J.; Marder, S.M.; Bernow, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    This study considers the major urbanized areas of nine US cities to arrive at rough estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district energy systems (DES). Only those costs associated with heating and hot water are addressed here. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy-delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived. 49 references, 20 figures, 14 tables.

  4. Exemplary.... Nine examples to save energy and cost by intelligent engineering; Zur Nachahmung empfohlen.... Neun Faelle, in denen mit intelligenter Technik Energie und Kosten gespart werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Contents: Daylighting and energy management, light offices by daylight guidance, fresh air after demand by frequency converters, saving heating cost by intelligent control, optimized lighting systems in schools, fresh air from an external provider and compressed air monitoring in a mine. (GL)

  5. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fibre in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAbdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fibre-rich diets is associated with favourable impacts on type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD, two of the most costly ailments worldwide, however the economic value of altered fibre intakes remains poorly understood. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of adults expected to consume fibre-rich diets in Canada, estimate fibre intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reductions, and assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs with reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8-$1,295.7 million in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fibre was used to increase current intakes of dietary fibre to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fibre consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6-$51.1 and $4.6-$92.1 million savings for T2D and CVD, respectively. Conclusions: Strategies to increase consumers’ knowledge of the recommended dietary fibre intakes, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

  6. Evaluation of the operational cost savings potential from a D-CHP system based on a monthly power-to-heat ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Knizley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a combined heat and power (CHP system utilizing two power generation units operating simultaneously under differing operational strategies (D-CHP on the basis of operational cost savings. A cost optimization metric, based on the facility monthly power-to-heat ratio (PHR, is presented in this paper. The PHR is defined as the ratio between the facility electric load and thermal load. Previous work in this field has suggested that D-CHP system performance may be improved by limiting operation of the system to months in which the PHR is relatively low. The focus of this paper is to illustrate how the facility PHR parameter could be used to establish the potential of a D-CHP system to reduce operational cost with respect to traditional CHP systems and conventional systems with separate heating and power. This paper analyzes the relationship between the PHR and the operational cost savings of eight different benchmark buildings. Achieving operational cost savings through optimal operation based on monthly PHR for these building types can enhance the implementation potential of D-CHP and CHP systems. Results indicate that the PHR parameter can be used to predict the potential for a D-CHP system to reduce the operational cost.

  7. Solving the negative impact of congestion in the postanesthesia care unit: a cost of opportunity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Patiño, Alejandro; Acosta-Ospina, Laura Elena; Rueda, Juan-David

    2017-04-01

    Congestion in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) leads to the formation of waiting queues for patients being transferred after surgery, negatively affecting hospital resources. As patients recover in the operating room, incoming surgeries are delayed. The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of this phenomenon in multiple settings. An operational mathematical study based on the queuing theory was performed. Average queue length, average queue waiting time, and daily queue waiting time were evaluated. Calculations were based on the mean patient daily flow, PACU length of stay, occupation, and current number of beds. Data was prospectively collected during a period of 2 months, and the entry and exit time was recorded for each patient taken to the PACU. Data was imputed in a computational model made with MS Excel. To account for data uncertainty, deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for all dependent variables were performed. With a mean patient daily flow of 40.3 and an average PACU length of stay of 4 hours, average total lost surgical opportunity time was estimated at 2.36 hours (95% CI: 0.36-4.74 hours). Cost of opportunity was calculated at $1592 per lost hour. Sensitivity analysis showed that an increase of two beds is required to solve the queue formation. When congestion has a negative impact on cost of opportunity in the surgical setting, queuing analysis grants definitive actions to solve the problem, improving quality of service and resource utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sharing the opportunity cost among power companies to support hydropower-to-environment water transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Among the environmental impacts caused by dams, the alteration of flow regimes is one of the most critical to river ecosystems given its influence in long river reaches and its continuous pattern. Provided it is technically feasible, the reoperation of hydroelectric reservoir systems can, in principle, mitigate the impacts on degraded freshwater ecosystems by recovering some of the natural flow regime. The typical approach to implement hydropower-to-environment water transfers focuses on the reoperation of the dam located immediately upstream of the environmentally sensitive area, meaning that only one power station will bear the brunt of the benefits forgone for the power sector. By ignoring the contribution of upstream infrastructures to the alteration of the flow regime, the opportunity cost associated with the restoration of a flow regime is not equitably distributed among the power companies in the river basin, therefore slowing the establishment of environmental flow programs. Yet, there is no criterion, nor institutional mechanisms, to ensure a fair distribution of the opportunity cost among power stations. This paper addresses this issue by comparing four rules to redistribute the costs faced by the power sector when environmental flows must be implemented in a multireservoir system. The rules are based on the the installed capacity of the power plants, the live storage capacity of the reservoirs, the ratio between the incremental flows and the live storage capacity, and the extent of the storage services; that is, the volume of water effectively transferred by each reservoir. The analysis is carried out using the Parana River Basin (Brazil) as a case study.

  9. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  10. Road project opportunity costs subject to a regional constraint on greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Christophe; Point, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    France has constrained the Aquitaine region to set up a climate plan to avoid an emission of 2883 ktCO(2)eq for the period 2007-2013. In parallel, the region has decided to carry out the construction of road infrastructures in order to avoid very high congestion costs. Those road projects will involve an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during that period. In the present context of strong sustainability, all emissions (direct and indirect) generated by those projects should be offset. At the regional level, the offsetting of GHG emissions is usually carried out by implementing carbon sequestration projects or projects that reduce energy demand. This paper aims at determining the maximum budget for financing GHG emissions offsetting projects, with computation being based on the opportunity costs of projects, the minimum cost of economic activity reduction required to offset emissions from those projects. The maximum budget devoted to GHG emissions offsetting projects should not exceed €(2001) 1920 M to €(2001) 3592 M, according to low/high traffic growth assumptions.

  11. The use of generic drugs in prevention of chronic disease is far more cost-effective than thought, and may save money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Liberman, Joshua N; Brennan, Troyen A

    2011-07-01

    In this article we highlight the important role that medication therapy can play in preventing disease and controlling costs. Focusing on coronary artery disease, we demonstrate that prevention, with the appropriate use of generic medications, appears far more cost-effective than previously documented, and it may even save on costs. For example, an earlier study estimated that reducing blood pressure to widely established clinical guidelines in nondiabetic patients cost an estimated $52,983 per quality-adjusted life-year if a brand-name drug was used. However, we estimate that the cost is just $7,753 per quality-adjusted life-year at generic medication prices. As the nation attempts to find strategies to improve population health without adding to the unsustainably high cost of care, policy makers should focus on ensuring that patients have access to essential generic medications.

  12. Plant-wide assessment summary: $4.1 million in savings identified in Paramount Petroleum assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-08-01

    The Paramount Petroleum Corporation (PPC) and its partners conducted a systematic plant-wide assessment (PWA) to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities at the company's plant in Paramount, California. The assessment team identified $4.1 million in potential annual savings.

  13. Plant-wide assessment summary: $1.6 million in savings identified in Augusta Newsprint assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-08-01

    Augusta Newsprint and its partners conducted a systematic plant-wide assessment (PWA) to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities at the company's plant in Augusta, Georgia. The assessment team identified $1.6 million in potential annual savings.

  14. Adjusting patients streaming initiated by a wait time threshold in emergency department for minimizing opportunity cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungjoon B J; Delbridge, Theodore R; Kendrick, Dawn B

    2017-07-10

    Purpose Two different systems for streaming patients were considered to improve efficiency measures such as waiting times (WTs) and length of stay (LOS) for a current emergency department (ED). A typical fast track area (FTA) and a fast track with a wait time threshold (FTW) were designed and compared effectiveness measures from the perspective of total opportunity cost of all patients' WTs in the ED. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This retrospective case study used computerized ED patient arrival to discharge time logs (between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010) to build computer simulation models for the FTA and fast track with wait time threshold systems. Various wait time thresholds were applied to stream different acuity-level patients. National average wait time for each acuity level was considered as a threshold to stream patients. Findings The fast track with a wait time threshold (FTW) showed a statistically significant shorter total wait time than the current system or a typical FTA system. The patient streaming management would improve the service quality of the ED as well as patients' opportunity costs by reducing the total LOS in the ED. Research limitations/implications The results of this study were based on computer simulation models with some assumptions such as no transfer times between processes, an arrival distribution of patients, and no deviation of flow pattern. Practical implications When the streaming of patient flow can be managed based on the wait time before being seen by a physician, it is possible for patients to see a physician within a tolerable wait time, which would result in less crowded in the ED. Originality/value A new streaming scheme of patients' flow may improve the performance of fast track system.

  15. Feature Selection as a Time and Cost-Saving Approach for Land Suitability Classification (Case Study of Shavur Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hamzeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability classification is important in planning and managing sustainable land use. Most approaches to land suitability analysis combine a large number of land and soil parameters, and are time-consuming and costly. In this study, a potentially useful technique (combined feature selection and fuzzy-AHP method to increase the efficiency of land suitability analysis was presented. To this end, three different feature selection algorithms—random search, best search and genetic methods—were used to determine the most effective parameters for land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the Shavur Plain, southwest Iran. Next, land suitability classes were calculated for all methods by using the fuzzy-AHP approach. Salinity (electrical conductivity (EC, alkalinity (exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, wetness and soil texture were selected using the random search method. Gypsum, EC, ESP, and soil texture were selected using both the best search and genetic methods. The result shows a strong agreement between the standard fuzzy-AHP methods and methods presented in this study. The values of Kappa coefficients were 0.82, 0.79 and 0.79 for the random search, best search and genetic methods, respectively, compared with the standard fuzzy-AHP method. Our results indicate that EC, ESP, soil texture and wetness are the most effective features for evaluating land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the study area, and uses of these parameters, together with their appropriate weights as obtained from fuzzy-AHP, can perform good results for land suitability classification. So, the combined feature selection presented and the fuzzy-AHP approach has the potential to save time and money for land suitability classification.

  16. Partnerships in winter maintenance that achieve environmental and cost saving benefits : nomination for the 2000 TAC Environmental Achievement Award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilfillan, G.B. [Insurance Corp. of British Columbia, North Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Transportation agencies face the challenge of providing safe and efficient transportation systems while trying to maintain a balanced ecosystem. Long winters are an added challenge in Canada. The transportation industry has found an unlikely advocate in the field of auto insurance. The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) has taken the initiative to improve winter road maintenance practices that will have lasting positive effects on the environment and safety of the motoring public. Numerous agencies, associations, municipalities, businesses and individuals have expressed a commitment to initiatives such as the anti-icing/prewetting pilot project called the Winter Road Research project. The project includes the use of liquid magnesium chloride to prevent ice from forming a bond with the road surface. Pre-wetting was used with traditional solid winter maintenance materials. Salt or aggregate is pre-wet with the same anti-icing liquid just before they contact the roadway surface. The deicer enables the sand and salt granules to remain on the road surface for longer periods of time. Pre-wetting of salt with a liquid anti-icer reduces the amount of chemicals needed in winter maintenance operations while maintaining the same level of service. In addition, this program addresses the issue of heavy heavy metals which are an increasing environmental concern. The reduction in the amount of abrasives placed on the roads is beneficial to the environment in terms of reduced heavy metals to roadside vegetation, streams and city drains. The program was first launched in Kamloops, British Columbia but has now expanded throughout the province to include 43 municipalities. The ICBC has provided more than $3 million for the purchase of 125 anti-icing vehicles and 1100 prewet kits. The program has resulted in significant cost savings and a reduction in weather related accidents. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID

  18. Estimation of the cost savings resulting from the use of ursodiol for the prevention of gallstones in obese patients undergoing rapid weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoheiber, O; Biskupiak, J E; Nash, D B

    1997-11-01

    Morbidly obese patients enrolled in a rapid weight reduction program are at a high risk of developing gallstones. Two multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trials have demonstrated that the prophylactic use of ursodiol in males and females 18 to 70 years of age is effective for the prevention of gallstone formation in this patient population. This study examines the cost consequences associated with the prophylactic use of ursodiol. A medical decision analysis model for the prophylactic administration of ursodiol in morbidly obese patients undergoing rapid weight reduction by either gastric bypass surgery or very-low-calorie-diet, was developed through the use of data from two clinical trials and review of the related literature. The expert opinion of clinicians from the fields of internal medicine, gastroenterology and surgery were solicited. Financial data for the charges associated with cholecystectomies, physician fees and ursodiol were obtained from current financial databases. The model demonstrates that the prophylactic administration of ursodiol, in morbidly obese patients undergoing rapid weight reduction, results in cost savings. Sensitivity analysis was performed to illustrate that the cost savings achieved by the prophylactic use of ursodiol were valid over a realistic range of charges and assumptions. The decision model may allow health care decision makers to apply their own data to the model to determine the cost savings obtainable through the prophylactic use of ursodiol in patients undergoing rapid weight reduction.

  19. Integrated control of emission reductions, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying

    2015-03-17

    Reduction of water pollutant emissions and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission reductions and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) emission reductions, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking emission reductions, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended.

  20. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    To realise the full potential of modern low cost mini-micro-nano-satellite missions, regular and affordable launch opportunities are required. It is simply not economic to launch individual satellites of 5-300kg on single dedicated launchers costing typically 15-20M per launch. Whilst there have been periodic 'piggy-back' launches of small satellites on US launchers since the 1960's, these have been infrequent and often experienced significant delays due the vagaries of the main (paying!) payload. In 1989, Arianespace provided a critical catalyst to the microsatellite community when it imaginatively developed the ASAP platform on Ariane-4 providing, for the first time, a standard interface and affordable launch contracts for small payloads up to 50kg. During the 1990's, some 20 small satellites have been successfully launched on the Ariane-4 ASAP ring for international customers carrying out a range of operational, technology demonstration and training missions. However, most of these microsatellite missions seek low Earth orbit and especially sun-synchronous orbits, but the number of primary missions into these orbit has declined since 1996 and with it the availability of useful low cost launch opportunities for microsatellites. Whilst Ariane-5 has an enhanced capacity ASAP, it has yet to be widely used due both to the infrequent launches, higher costs, and the GTO orbit required by the majority of customers. China, Japan and India have also provided occasional secondary launches for small payloads, but not yet on a regular basis. Fortunately, the growing interest and demand for microsatellite missions coincided with the emergence of regular, low cost launch opportunities from the former Soviet Union (FSU) - both as secondary 'piggy-back' missions or as multiple microsatellite payloads on converted military ICBMs. Indeed, the FSU now supplies the only affordable means of launching minisatellites (200-500kg) into LEO as dedicated missions on converted missiles as

  1. The cost of implementing consumer financial regulations: an analysis of experience with the Truth in Savings Act

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory E. Elliehausen; Barbara R. Lowrey

    1997-01-01

    The Truth in Savings Act mandates that financial institutions disclose certain information about the terms of consumer deposit accounts in specific forms and at specific times. Although many depository institutions provided disclosures of account terms before the act was passed in 1991, most did not satisfy completely all the requirements of the regulation (Regulation DD) adopted by the Federal Reserve Board to implement the law. Thus, the Truth in Savings law likely caused every depository i...

  2. Measuring Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schreiner

    2001-01-01

    Development depends on saving. But what exactly is saving, and how is it measured? This paper defines saving and describes several measures of financial savings. The measures account for the passage of time and for the three stages of saving: putting in (depositing), keeping in (maintaining a balance), and taking out (withdrawing). Together, the different measures capture how people move financial resources through time.

  3. Potential cost saving of Epoetin alfa in elective hip or knee surgery due to reduction in blood transfusions and their side effects: a discrete-event simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Tomeczkowski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategyduring elective hip and knee replacement surgery. METHODS: Individual patients (N = 50,000 were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit, pneumonia treatment (€5,000, and length of stay (€300/day. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes. RESULTS: At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days. CONCLUSIONS: EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.

  4. [Opportunity cost for men who visit family medicine units in the city of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carranza, Edith Olimpia; Villarreal Ríos, Enrique; Vargas Daza, Emma Rosa; Galicia Rodríguez, Liliana; Martínez González, Lidia

    2010-12-01

    To determine the opportunity cost for men who seek care in the family medicine units (FMU) of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) in the city of Querétaro. A sample was selected of 807 men, ages 20 to 59 years, who sought care through the family medicine, laboratory, and pharmacy services provided by the FMU at the IMSS in Querétaro. Patients referred for emergency services and those who left the facilities without receiving care were excluded. The sample (n = 807) was calculated using the averages for an infinite population formula, with a confidence interval of 95% (CI95%) and an average opportunity cost of US$5.5 for family medicine, US$3.1 for laboratory services, and US$2.3 for pharmacy services. Estimates included the amount of time spent on travel, waiting, and receiving care; the number of people accompanying the patient, and the cost per minute of paid and unpaid job activities. The opportunity cost was calculated using the estimated cost per minute for travel, waiting, and receiving care for patients and their companions. The opportunity cost for the patient travel was estimated at US$0.97 (CI95%: 0.81-1.15), while wait time was US$5.03 (CI95%: 4.08-6.09) for family medicine, US$0.06 (CI95%: 0.05-0.08) for pharmacy services, and US$1.89 (CI95%: 1.56-2.25) for laboratory services. The average opportunity cost for an unaccompanied patient visit varied between US$1.10 for pharmacy services alone and US$8.64 for family medicine, pharmacy, and laboratory services. The weighted opportunity cost for family medicine was US$6.24. Given that the opportunity cost for men who seek services in FMU corresponds to more than half of a minimum salary, it should be examined from an institutional perspective whether this is the best alternative for care.

  5. Opportunity Cost and Sustainable Design%机会成本与可持续设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫浩钦

    2012-01-01

    It explored the connotation of sustainable design from the view of opportunity cost. It analyzed typical design cases, revealed the current misunderstandings of sustainable design recognition, pointed out that the only mode of thinking of seeking technical ways to tackle the ecological crisis must be broken through, and stated that the sustainable development of society ought to depend on well-run sustainable systems. Based on the above arguments, it gave advices that traditional oriental design wisdom should merit our attention and that building sustainable consuming ideas is able to raise the benefits.%从机会成本的视角阐述了持续设计的内涵。通过对几个典型设计案例的剖析,揭示了当下可持续设计认识上的几个误区,指出可持续设计必须突破单一的从技术上寻找解决生态危机的思维方式。论述了社会的健康发展必须依赖完善的可持续系统的建构,并在此基础上提出了借鉴东方传统设计智慧,以及建立可持续消费观念等系列重要举措。

  6. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS-MULTIPLE NETWORKS WITH BENEFITS,COSTS,OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas L. SAATY

    2004-01-01

    The general theory of the ANP enables one to deal with the benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (the BOCR merits) of a decision, by introducing the notion of negative priorities for C and R along with the rating (not comparison) of the top priority alternative synthesized for each of the four merits in terms of strategic criteria to enable one to combine the four B, O, C, and R values of each alternative into a single outcome. Strategic criteria are very basic criteria individuals and groups use to assess whether they should make any of the many decisions they face in their daily operations.They do not depend on any particular decision for their priorities but are assessed in terms of the goals and values of the individual or organization. Synthesis is made with two formulas, one multiplicative and one additive subtractive that can give rise to negative overall priorities. This paper summarizes and illustrates basic complex decisions involving several control criteria under each of the BOCR merits.

  7. The arduous quest for translating health care productivity gains into cost savings. Lessons from their evolution at economic scoring agencies in the Netherlands and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Ab; Schakel, H Christiaan; Visser, Sander; Jeurissen, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the assessments of recent health reforms by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in the United States and the Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) in the Netherlands. Both reforms aim to capitalize on productivity gains, which is appealing for policymakers because of the potential for cost savings while maintaining - or enhancing - quality and access. These measures however generally translate into more health care, rather than care that is affordable and appropriate. Scoring agencies therefore have rightfully been reluctant to assign significant savings to these measures. Thus with regard to cost savings, both agencies instead have favored more traditional policy measures in the past. They are however increasingly mapping out loose ends and dilemmas for payers, including information asymmetries, reputation issues and provider business models that contradict the goals of policymakers. This calls for further exploring this avenue and the development of more integrated agendas that might commit actors and the spread of best practices. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. 5 case studies : boiler system increases availability of hot water in CAP REIT apartment buildings while saving energy : electric-to-gas retrofit drives down energy costs and improves building performance : Novitherm heat reflector panels saves 28 per cent in heating costs for apartment building : Novitherm heat reflector panel installation with system adjustment saves 33.2 per cent in energy costs : natural gas conversion saves over $315,000 a year for condominium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    These 5 case studies presented the details of new systems and retrofits conducted by Enbridge Gas Distribution and its partners to improve the energy efficiency of various public and residential buildings. System retrofits included the installation of boiler system installed to address tenant demands on the domestic hot water systems of properties purchased purchased by the CAP REIT organization. The comprehensive program used to address the problems included replacement of the systems with high efficiency heating boilers designed to integrate space, hot water, ramp, and pool heat. A centralized controller included setback control, trend-following processors, and the isolation of heating equipment. The second case study described an electric-to-gas conversion of a make-up air unit and boiler system at an all-electric apartment building. The system was designed to address excessive air handling and water heating costs. The gas conversion included new heating and hot water boilers, as well as a number of efficiency upgrades. The third and fourth case study described the installation of Novitherm heat reflector panels at apartment buildings in Toronto. The fifth case study described a natural gas conversion project conducted at a luxury condominium. Energy savings for all 5 projects were presented. 9 figs.

  9. Cost-Benefit of the energy saving in the bioclimatic designs; Costo-Beneficio del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A. [Doble Dos Soluciones de Negocios, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morillon G, David; Rodriguez V, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Tools and criteria for the Cost-Benefit analysis from the energy saving in bioclimatic designs (BD) are presented, for which, a reference project is established and the costs and benefits of energy saving in BD with base in that project are evaluated. A case study is presented taking as reference the traditional design of the air conditioning of a building and with this base the estimation of cost-benefit of the same building is made, but with passive systems. The tools used are those that allow to consider related resources such as time and money; in that sense, are used criteria such as: Present value (PV), Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) and the Cost of the Conserved Energy (CCE). The costs related to the construction, maintenance and operation of the design are taken into account. The differences between the reference design and the BD, established from the application of these criteria, allow to evaluate the economic margin of the BD as far as operation and maintenance is concerned. Finally the CCE of the bioclimatic measures is evaluated as an initiative of energy saving and the present value is calculated of the energy saving in the entire useful life of a bioclimatic design. [Spanish] Se presentan herramientas y criterios para el analisis Costo-Beneficio del ahorro de energia en disenos bioclimaticos (DB), para lo cual, se establece un proyecto de referencia y se evaluan los costos y beneficios del ahorro de energia en DB con base en ese proyecto. Se presenta el estudio de un caso tomando como referencia el dise tradicional de la climatizacion de un edificio y con base en este, se realiza la estimacion de costos y beneficios del mismo edificio, pero con sistemas pasivos. Las herramientas usadas, son aquellas que permiten considerar recursos relacionados como son tiempo y dinero; en ese sentido, se usan criterios como: Valor Presente (VP), Costo Anual Equivalente (CAE) y el Costo de la Energia Conservada (CEC). Se toman en consideracion los costos relacionados

  10. Improved Safety and Cost Savings from Reductions in Cast-Saw Burns After Simulation-Based Education for Orthopaedic Surgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donald S; Lynch, Hayley; Jamieson, Katherine; Yu-Moe, C Winnie; Roussin, Christopher

    2017-09-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simulation training aimed at reducing cast-saw injuries. Third-year orthopaedic residents underwent simulation-based instruction on distal radial fracture reduction, casting, and cast removal using an oscillating saw. The analysis compared incidences of cast-saw injuries and associated costs before and after the implementation of the simulation curriculum. Actual and potential costs associated with cast-saw injuries included wound care, extra clinical visits, and potential total payment (indemnity and expense payments). Curriculum costs were calculated through time-derived, activity-based accounting methods. The researchers compared the costs of cast-saw injuries and the simulation curriculum to determine overall savings and return on investment. In the 2.5 years prior to simulation, cast-saw injuries occurred in approximately 4.3 per 100 casts cut by orthopaedic residents. For the 2.5-year period post-simulation, the injury rate decreased significantly to approximately 0.7 per 100 casts cut (p = 0.002). The total cost to implement the casting simulation was $2,465.31 per 6-month resident rotation. On the basis of historical data related to cast-saw burns (n = 6), total payments ranged from $2,995 to $25,000 per claim. The anticipated savings from averted cast-saw injuries and associated medicolegal payments in the 2.5 years post-simulation was $27,131, representing an 11-to-1 return on investment. Simulation-based training for orthopaedic surgical residents was effective in reducing cast-saw injuries and had a high theoretical return on investment. These results support further investment in simulation-based training as cost-effective means of improving patient safety and clinical outcomes. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Air conditioning in Lukas Hospital, Apeldoorn, Netherlands. Frequency controllers save energy and maintenance costs; Luchtbehandeling Lukas Ziekenhuis Apeldoorn. Frequentieregelaars drukken energie- en onderhoudskosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braakman, R. [Technische Dienst Lukas Ziekenhuis, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Verwey, G. [Verwey R.T.B., Utrecht (Netherlands); Waayman, E.W. [Motion Control Automation, Varsseveld (Netherlands)

    2002-10-01

    The use of frequency regulators is a good way to substantially reduce the energy consumption of fans in different types of buildings, including health care institutions and the Lukas Hospital in Apeldoorn, Netherlands. The whole air-conditioning installation has recently been retrofitted with 28 frequency regulators, which adjust fan capacity in each department. This government-subsidised investment in a higher level of comfort saves the hospital 28,000 euro on its annual energy bill, not including the saving of maintenance cost. [Dutch] Frequentieregelaars bieden goede mogelijkheden om, ook in zorginstellingen en ziekenhuizen, het energiegebruik van ventilatoren substantieel te verminderen. Zo werd onlangs de complete luchtbehandelingsinstolide von het Lukas Ziekenhuis in Apeldoorn voorzien van achtentwintig frequentieregelaars, die per afdeling de ventilatorcapaciteit afstemt op de vraag. Door deze comfortverhogende investering, waaraan de overheid meebetaalt, bespaart het ziekenhuis jaarlijks 28.000 euro op de energierekening. De kostenreductie in het onderhoud - onderdelen slijten minder snel - is dan nog niet meegerekend.

  12. Estimating the economic opportunity cost of water use with river basin simulators in a computationally efficient way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien J.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Matrosov, Evgenii S.

    2017-04-01

    The marginal opportunity cost of water refers to benefits forgone by not allocating an additional unit of water to its most economically productive use at a specific location in a river basin at a specific moment in time. Estimating the opportunity cost of water is an important contribution to water management as it can be used for better water allocation or better system operation, and can suggest where future water infrastructure could be most beneficial. Opportunity costs can be estimated using 'shadow values' provided by hydro-economic optimization models. Yet, such models' use of optimization means the models had difficulty accurately representing the impact of operating rules and regulatory and institutional mechanisms on actual water allocation. In this work we use more widely available river basin simulation models to estimate opportunity costs. This has been done before by adding in the model a small quantity of water at the place and time where the opportunity cost should be computed, then running a simulation and comparing the difference in system benefits. The added system benefits per unit of water added to the system then provide an approximation of the opportunity cost. This approximation can then be used to design efficient pricing policies that provide incentives for users to reduce their water consumption. Yet, this method requires one simulation run per node and per time step, which is demanding computationally for large-scale systems and short time steps (e.g., a day or a week). Besides, opportunity cost estimates are supposed to reflect the most productive use of an additional unit of water, yet the simulation rules do not necessarily use water that way. In this work, we propose an alternative approach, which computes the opportunity cost through a double backward induction, first recursively from outlet to headwaters within the river network at each time step, then recursively backwards in time. Both backward inductions only require linear

  13. Liaison neurologists facilitate accurate neurological diagnosis and management, resulting in substantial savings in the cost of inpatient care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costelloe, L

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite understaffing of neurology services in Ireland, the demand for liaison neurologist input into the care of hospital inpatients is increasing. This aspect of the workload of the neurologist is often under recognised. AIMS\\/METHODS: We prospectively recorded data on referral and service delivery patterns to a liaison neurology service, the neurological conditions encountered, and the impact of neurology input on patient care. RESULTS: Over a 13-month period, 669 consults were audited. Of these, 79% of patients were seen within 48 h and 86% of patients were assessed by a consultant neurologist before discharge. Management was changed in 69% cases, and discharge from hospital expedited in 50%. If adequate resources for neurological assessment had been available, 28% could have been seen as outpatients, with projected savings of 857 bed days. CONCLUSIONS: Investment in neurology services would facilitate early accurate diagnosis, efficient patient and bed management, with substantial savings.

  14. Effects of a computerized provider order entry and a clinical decision support system to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis: a cost saving analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura LM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS help practitioners to choose evidence-based decisions, regarding patients’ needs. Despite its use in developed countries, in Brazil, the impact of a CPOE/CDSS to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis was not assessed yet. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the impact of a CDSS to improve the use of prophylactic cefazolin and to assess the cost savings associated to inappropriate prescribing. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that compared two different scenarios: one prior CPOE/CDSS versus after software implementation. We conducted twelve years of data analysis (3 years prior and 9 years after CDSS implementation, where main outcomes from this study included: cefazolin Defined Daily Doses/100 bed-days (DDD, crude costs and product of costs-DDD (cost-DDD/100 bed-days. We applied a Spearman rho non-parametric test to assess the reduction of cefazolin consumption through the years. Results: In twelve years, 84,383 vials of cefazolin were dispensed and represented 38.89 DDD/100 bed-days or USD 44,722.99. Surgical wards were the largest drug prescribers and comprised >95% of our studied sample. While in 2002, there were 6.31 DDD/100 bed-days, 9 years later there was a reduction to 2.15 (p<0.05. In a scenario without CDSS, the hospital would have consumed 75.72 DDD/100 bed-days, which is equivalent to USD 116 998.07. It is estimated that CDSS provided USD 50,433.39 of cost savings. Conclusion: The implementation of a CPOE/CDSS helped to improve prophylactic cefazolin use by reducing its consumption and estimated direct costs.

  15. Evaluation of Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracting -- Methodology for Comparing Processes and Costs of ESPC and Appropriatins-Funded Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.

    2002-10-08

    Federal agencies have had performance contracting authority since 1985, when Congress first authorized agencies to enter into shared energy savings agreements with Public Law 99-272, the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. By the end of FY 2001, agencies had used energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) to attract private-sector investment of over $1 billion to improve the energy efficiency of federal buildings. Executive Order 13123 directs agencies to maximize their use of alternative financing contracting mechanisms such as ESPCs when life-cycle cost effective to reduce energy use and cost in their facilities and operations. Continuing support for ESPCs at the Administration and Congressional levels is evident in the pending comprehensive national energy legislation, which repeals the sunset provision on ESPC authority and extends ESPC authority to water savings projects. Despite the Congressional and Presidential directives to use ESPCs, some agencies have been reluctant to do so. Decision makers in these agencies see no reason to enter into long-term obligations to pay interest on borrowed money out of their own operating budgets if instead Congress will grant them appropriations to pay for the improvements up front. Questions frequently arise about whether pricing in ESPCs, which are negotiated for best value, is as favorable as prices obtained through competitive sourcing, and whether ESPC as a means of implementing energy conservation projects is as life-cycle cost effective as the standard practice of funding these projects through appropriations. The lack of any quantitative analysis to address these issues was the impetus for this study. ESPCs are by definition cost-effective because of their ''pay-from-savings'' requirement and guarantee, but do their interest costs and negotiated pricing extract an unreasonably high price? Appropriations seem to be the least-cost option, because the U.S. Treasury can borrow money at

  16. Helmet use among motorcyclists who died in crashes and economic cost savings associated with state motorcycle helmet laws--United States, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In 2010, the 4,502 motorcyclists (operators and passengers) killed in motorcycle crashes made up 14% of all road traffic deaths, yet motorcycles accounted for laws. Universal helmet laws require all motorcyclists to wear helmets whenever they ride. To examine the association between states' motorcycle helmet laws and helmet use or nonuse among fatally injured motorcyclists, CDC analyzed 2008-2010 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal traffic crashes in the United States. Additionally, economic cost data from NHTSA were obtained to compare the costs saved as a result of helmet use, by type of state motorcycle helmet law. The findings indicated that, on average, 12% of fatally injured motorcyclists were not wearing helmets in states with universal helmet laws, compared with 64% in partial helmet law states (laws that only required specific groups, usually young riders, to wear helmets) and 79% in states without a helmet law. Additionally, in 2010, economic costs saved from helmet use by society in states with a universal helmet law were, on average, $725 per registered motorcycle, nearly four times greater than in states without such a law ($198).

  17. Empirical Analysis on Cost and Energy Saving Benefits of Roof Greening%屋顶绿化成本及节能效益实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方眠; 张雁; 王幼松; 黄亚男

    2015-01-01

    既有屋顶适当绿化可增大城市绿化面积,也能起到室内隔热降温的作用,还具有改善城市空气质量、缓解热岛效应等功能.鉴于其绿化技术、维护成本、节能效益及经济效益方面存有争议,以广州为例,分析研究屋顶绿化的成本和效益,并指出其社会效益和环境效益显著,为大力推广提供依据.%Green roof can increase the green area of the city,can also play an important role in indoor heat insulation and cooling,as well as improve quality of the city air and reduce the greenhouse effect. But there is much debate about greening technology,the cost of maintenance and energy saving and economic benefits at present. This paper selects Guangzhou as an example,using the method of energy saving-benefit analysis and cost-benefit analysis to analyze the cost and benefits for roof greening. The results show that the social benefits and environmental benefits of roof greening is significant,and as a result it's worth promoting.

  18. The PrePex device is unlikely to achieve cost-savings compared to the forceps-guided method in male circumcision programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Obiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition in men by approximately 60%. MC programs for HIV prevention are currently being scaled-up in fourteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The current standard surgical technique for MC in many sub-Saharan African countries is the forceps-guided male circumcision (FGMC method. The PrePex male circumcision (PMC method could replace FGMC and potentially reduce MC programming costs. We compared the potential costs of introducing the PrePex device into MC programming to the cost of the forceps-guided method. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Nyanza Reproductive Health Society (NRHS, an MC service delivery organization in Kenya, and from the Kenya Ministry of Health. Analyses are based on 48,265 MC procedures performed in four Districts in western Kenya from 2009 through 2011. Data were entered into the WHO/UNAIDS Decision Makers Program Planning Tool. The tool assesses direct and indirect costs of MC programming. Various sensitivity analyses were performed. Costs were discounted at an annual rate of 6% and are presented in United States Dollars. RESULTS: Not including the costs of the PrePex device or referral costs for men with phimosis/tight foreskin, the costs of one MC surgery were $44.54-$49.02 and $54.52-$55.29 for PMC and FGMC, respectively. CONCLUSION: The PrePex device is unlikely to result in significant cost-savings in comparison to the forceps-guided method. MC programmers should target other aspects of the male circumcision minimum package for improved cost efficiency.

  19. Assessing costs and benefits of measures to achieve Good Environmental Status in European regional seas: Challenges, opportunities and lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Börger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires Member States to assess the costs and benefits of Programmes of Measures (PoMs put in place to ensure that European marine waters achieve Good Environmental Status by 2020. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to carry out such an assessment whereby economic analysis is used to evaluate the outputs from ecological analysis that determines the expected effects of such management measures. This paper applies and tests an existing six-step approach to assess costs and benefits of management measures with potential to support the overall goal of the MSFD and discusses a range of ecological and economic analytical tools applicable to this task. Environmental cost-benefit analyses are considered for selected PoMs in three European case studies: Baltic Sea (Finland, East Coast Marine Plan area (UK and the Bay of Biscay (Spain. These contrasting case studies are used to investigate the application of environmental cost-benefit analysis including the challenges, opportunities and lessons learnt from using this approach. This paper demonstrates that there are opportunities in applying the six-step environmental cost-benefit analysis framework presented to assess the impact of PoMs. However, given demonstrated limitations of knowledge and data availability, application of other economic techniques should also be considered (although not applied here to complement the more formal environmental cost-benefit analysis approach.

  20. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  1. Cost savings of home bortezomib injection in patients with multiple myeloma treated by a combination care in Outpatient Hospital and Hospital care at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Mohamed; Lamarsalle, Ludovic; Moreau, Stéphane; Vergnenègre, Françoise; Lefort, Sophie; Brillat, Catherine; Jeannet, Laetitia; Lagarde, Aline; Daulange, Annick; Jaccard, Arnaud; Vergnenègre, Alain; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    At home injectable chemotherapy for patients receiving treatment for hematological diseases is still in debate. Given the expense of new innovative medicines, at home treatment has been proposed as a suitable option for improving patient quality of life and decreasing treatment costs. We decided to assess the cost of bortezomib administration in France among multiple myeloma patients from an economic standpoint. Patients in this study were treated within a regional hematological network combining outpatient hospital care and Hospital care at Home administration. To make the cost comparison, our team simulated outpatient hospital care expenses. Fifty-four consecutive multiple myeloma patients who received at least one injection of bortezomib in Hospital care at Home from January 2009 to December 2011 were included in the study. The median number of injections was 12 (range 1-44) at home and 6 (range 0-30) in the outpatient care unit. When compared with the cost simulation of outpatient hospital care alone, bortezomib administration with combined care was significantly less expensive for the National Health Insurance (NHI) budget. The mean total cost per patient and per injection was 954.20 € for combined outpatient and Hospital care at Home vs 1143.42 € for outpatient hospital care alone. This resulted in an estimated 16.5 % cost saving (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p multiple myeloma patients treated with bortezomib in routine practice in a large rural area.

  2. In global health research, is it legitimate to stop clinical trials early on account of their opportunity costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Lavery

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: After the failure of three large clinical trials of vaginal microbicides, a Nature editorial stated that the microbicide field "requires a mechanism to help it make rational choices about the best candidates to move through trials" [1]. In this month's debate, James Lavery and colleagues propose a new mechanism, based on stopping trials early for "opportunity costs." They argue that microbicide trial sites could have been saturated with trials of scientifically less advanced products, while newer, and potentially more promising, products were being developed. They propose a mechanism to reallocate resources invested in existing trials of older products that might be better invested in more scientifically advanced products that are awaiting clinical testing. But David Buchanan argues that the early stopping of trials for such opportunity costs would face insurmountable practical barriers, and would risk causing harm to the participants in the trial that was stopped.

  3. Status and opportunities associated with product costing strategies in wood component manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Product costing systems are critically important for businesses because they help reduce costs, price products at competitive prices, and enable strategic decisionmaking. This article reports the results of a survey designed to collect information about practices used by the North American hardwood dimension and components industry to calculate the cost of their...

  4. Household opportunity costs of protecting and developing forest lands in Son La and Hoa Binh Provinces, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ngoc Lan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam has pilot-tested a payment for forest environmental services (PFES program in an effort to restore and protect forest areas, some of which have been severely degraded by the excessive cutting of trees by small-scale farmers planting annual crops on steep, sloping lands. The pilot program implemented in southern Vietnam seems to be successful, yet the program in northern Vietnam has not produced the desired rates of planting and maintaining forest areas. The reasons for these mixed results include differences in socio-economic characteristics and also the production and marketing opportunities available to rural households in the project areas. To gain insight regarding program participation, we examine the household-level opportunity costs of planting and ­maintaining small plots of forest trees in northern Vietnam. We find that small-scale farmers in Hoa Binh Province, with limited financial resources, prefer the annual revenue stream provided by crops such as maize and cassava, rather than waiting for 7 years to obtain revenue from a forest planting. Farmers in Son La Province, with limited access to markets, prefer annual crops because they are not able to sell bamboo shoots and other forest products harvested from their small plots. In both provinces, the payments offered for planting and maintaining forest trees are smaller than the opportunity costs of planting and harvesting annual crops. Thus, most households likely would choose not to participate in the PFES program, at current payment rates, if given the opportunity to decline.

  5. 节能建筑对工程造价的影响探讨%To Investigate the Effect of Energy Saving Building on Engineering Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2013-01-01

    Along with the increasing shortage of resources, al walks of life in the pursuit of energy-saving and environment-friendly mode of production, so is the construction industry. This paper introduces the reasons why current construction pr-oject cost is out of control, and analyses the energy saving bu-ilding materials used on the construction project cost, hopes to provide reference and help to workers.%随着资源紧缺状况的加重,各行各业都在追求节能环保的生产方式,建筑行业亦是如此。本文介绍了我国当前建筑工程造价失控的原因,并重点分析了节能建筑材料的运用对建筑工程造价的影响,希望对相关工作者有所借鉴和帮助。

  6. Cost-saving in waste and cleaning management. Final report; Kostensenkung in der kommunalen Abfallentsorgung und Stadtreinigung. Zusammenfassender Abschlussbericht mit wesentlichen Veroeffentlichungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallenkemper; Dornbusch; Woebbeking; Bilitewski; Saberi

    2002-07-01

    Nineteen municipalities have joined together for this BMBF-project in order to find cost-saving potentials in waste and town cleaning management. This project is based on an idea competition initiated by the BMBF which called for cost, price and fee reductions in drinking-water supply as well as municipal waste and waste water disposal. During the investigations within this project it was found out that considerable efforts had already been made for optimization and cost reduction by all project partners involved. Nonetheless, further saving potentials are available, even considerable ones in case of waste management and waste collection. The report finally presented includes suitable steps having already been realized by all project partners involved as well as supportive capacities within the fields of refuse disposal service, street cleaning, garage, cost accounting, economy control, controlling and optimization of administration and organisation. (orig.) [German] Um Kosteneinsparpotenziale in der Abfallwirtschaft und Stadtreinigung zu erschliessen, schlossen sich 19 Betriebe zu diesem BMBF-Verbundvorhaben zusammen. Das Projekt geht zurueck auf den BMBF-Ideenwettbewerb 'Kosten-, Preis- und Gebuehrensenkung bei der Trinkwasserversorgung sowie der kommunalen Abwasser- und Abfallentsorgung'. Im Rahmen dieses BMBF-Verbundvorhabens wurde festgestellt, dass die beteiligten Betriebe in den vergangenen Jahren z.T. bereits erhebliche Anstrengungen zur Optimierung und zur Kostensenkung durchgefuehrt haben. Trotzdem sind noch weitere, teilweise erhebliche Einsparpotenziale insbesondere in den Bereichen Entsorgungslogistik und Muellabfuhr vorhanden. Der vorgelegte Bericht zeigt die moeglichen Massnahmen am Beispiel der Umsetzung in den beteiligten Betrieben sowie die unterstuetzenden Leistungen in den Bereichen Entsorgungslogistik, Strassenreinigung, Werkstatt, Kostenrechnung, Wirtschaftlichkeitssteuerung, Controlling sowie die Optimierungen in der Verwaltung und

  7. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  8. New environment-friendly and cost-saving fertiliser recommendation system for supporting sustainable agriculture in Hungary and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor FODOR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic situation the former, intensive fertiliser recommendation system is unfit to help Hungarian farmers in their fertilising practice. The aim of the new system has been to apply the lowest possible NPK rates required to achieve safe and high yields as well as allowing minimal agricultural NP losses to surface and subsurface waters. The new system was developed by using the correlations revealed by analyzing the results of long-term fertilisation experiments set up in Hungary between 1960 and 2000. Several field experiments as well as comparative analyses confirmed the correctness of the basic principles as well as of the methods of calculating fertiliser rates of the new system. An estimated amount of 3,200,000 € was saved for the Hungarian farmers in 2007 alone by giving recommendations for more than 160,000 ha arable land applying the new system.

  9. IMPLICATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES REGARDING THE ORGANIZATION OF QUALITY COST MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION IONESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into considerations the obvious importance of the concept of quality, the inevitable question arises "What is the cost of quality?", clearly reaching the notion of "cost". It would seem absolutely logical and natural, that when we are referring to the total quality cost, from the professional point of view, to have an accountant that should take care of recording and supply of all the necessary data in terms of the inventory of this cost. The practical reality, however, shows that the accounting side of an economic entity does not provide comprehensive information regarding a complete definition of the quality cost. From this perspective, the present paper aims to consider a relevant discussion on the necessity and importance of the existence of the management accounting regarding the cost of quality

  10. Buy now, saved later? The critical impact of time-to-pandemic uncertainty on pandemic cost-effectiveness analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Tom; Chalabi, Zaid; Coker, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Investment in pandemic preparedness is a long-term gamble, with the return on investment coming at an unknown point in the future. Many countries have chosen to stockpile key resources, and the number of pandemic economic evaluations has risen sharply since 2009. We assess the importance of uncertainty in time-to-pandemic (and associated discounting) in pandemic economic evaluation, a factor frequently neglected in the literature to-date. We use a probability tree model and Monte Carlo parameter sampling to consider the cost effectiveness of antiviral stockpiling in Cambodia under parameter uncertainty. Mean elasticity and mutual information (MI) are used to assess the importance of time-to-pandemic compared with other parameters. We also consider the sensitivity to choice of sampling distribution used to model time-to-pandemic uncertainty. Time-to-pandemic and discount rate are the primary drivers of sensitivity and uncertainty in pandemic cost effectiveness models. Base case cost effectiveness of antiviral stockpiling ranged between is US$112 and US$3599 per DALY averted using historical pandemic intervals for time-to-pandemic. The mean elasticities for time-to-pandemic and discount rate were greater than all other parameters. Similarly, the MI scores for time to pandemic and discount rate were greater than other parameters. Time-to-pandemic and discount rate were key drivers of uncertainty in cost-effectiveness results regardless of time-to-pandemic sampling distribution choice. Time-to-pandemic assumptions can "substantially" affect cost-effectiveness results and, in our model, is a greater contributor to uncertainty in cost-effectiveness results than any other parameter. We strongly recommend that cost-effectiveness models include probabilistic analysis of time-to-pandemic uncertainty. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  11. Potential cost savings in waste incineration in grate furnaces; Kosteneinsparpotentiale bei der Verbrennung von Abfaellen in Rostfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, C.; Beckmann, R. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany). Abt. Abfall- und Kreislaufwirtschaft

    1998-09-01

    Shortage of public puts increased cost pressure on thermal treatment of waste. The specific operating cost of current projects is around 200 DM/t. The contribution outlines parameters that can help to reduce the operating and investment cost. This includes economic as well as technical parameters that directly influence plant operation. The analyses were carried out using the UMSICHT-owned calculation program GLOBUS which permits the conservative determination of the cost-determining plant cost as a function of sensitive influencing parameters. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Nicht zuletzt aufgrund leerer oeffentlicher Kassen hat in den letzten Jahren ein Umdenken stattgefunden, das durch die Forderung nach umweltvertraeglichen Entsorgungsverfahren bei gleichzeitig moderaten Abfallgebuehren gepraegt ist. Somit hat fuer die thermische Abfallbehandlung der Kostendruck stark zugenommen. Fuer aktuelle Projekte werden spezifische Betriebskosten von etwa 200 DM/t erreicht. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt kostenwirksame Einflussgroessen auf, durch die eine Reduzierung der Betriebs- und Investitionskosten ermoeglicht wird. Dazu gehoeren sowohl abfallwirtschaftlicher Parameter als auch technische Groessen, die einen direkten Einfluss auf den Betrieb der Anlage besitzen. Die Analysen wurden mit dem UMSICHT-eigenen Kalkulationsprogramm GLOBUS durchgefuehrt, das die belastbare Ermittlung der fuer die Kostenseite bestimmenden Apparatekosten in Abhaengigkeit sensitiver Einflussgroessen erlaubt. (orig./SR)

  12. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Reducing Idle Power Consumption in Office Spaces Saves U.S. Navy in Energy Costs (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    As part of a two-year project to demonstrate energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has identified advanced plug load controls as a promising technology for reducing energy use and related costs in the U.S. Navy's Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) office spaces.

  14. Saving money, saving lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliones, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, Duke Children's Hospital was in serious trouble. Its $11 million annual operating loss had forced administrators to make cutbacks. As a result, some caregivers felt that the quality of care had deteriorated. Parents' complaints were on the rise. Frustrated staff members were quitting. In this article, Jon Meliones, DCH's chief medical director, candidly describes how his debt-ridden hospital transformed itself into a vibrant and profitable one. The problem, he realized, was that each group in DCH was focusing only on its individual mission. Doctors and nurses wanted to restore their patients to health; they didn't want to have to think about costs. Hospital administrators, for their part, were focused only on controlling wildly escalating health care costs. To keep DCH afloat, clinicians and administrators needed to work together. By listening to staff concerns, turning reams of confusing data into useful information, taking a fresh approach to teamwork, and using the balanced scorecard method, Meliones and his colleagues brought DCH back to life. Developing and implementing the balanced scorecard approach wasn't easy: it took a pilot project, a top-down reorganization, development of a customized information system, and systematic work redesign. But their efforts paid off. Customer satisfaction ratings jumped 18%. Improvements to internal business processes reduced the average length of stay 21% while the readmission rate fell from 7% to 3%. The cost per patient dropped nearly $5,000. And DCH recorded profits of $4 million in 2000. This first-person account is required reading for any executive seeking to revitalize a sagging organization. Meliones shares the operating principles DCH followed to become a thriving business.

  15. COST ANALYSIS IN CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND MINING STRUCTURES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THEIR REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolinka Doneva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of underground mining facilities is of essential importance to the exploitation of mineral resources. Confirmation of this is the fact that the construction costs of main facilities occupy 40-60% of the underlying investments in the main construction and equipping. The main underground mining facilities are: shafts, drifts, raise, pump chambers, warehouses etc. This paper presents detailed analysis of underground mining facility - drift construction costs per individual working operations, following their change which depends on the rock type and profile size of underground mining facility, as well as possibilities of reducing these costs.

  16. Opportunity Cost for Early Treatment of Chagas Disease in Mexico: e2776

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janine M Ramsey; Miguel Elizondo-Cano; Gilberto Sanchez-González; Adriana Peña-Nieves; Alejandro Figueroa-Lara

    2014-01-01

      Background Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts...

  17. Examining Health Care Costs: Opportunities to Provide Value in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Beverly; Lorenzo, Javier; Macario, Alex

    2015-12-01

    As health care costs threaten the economic stability of American society, increasing pressures to focus on value-based health care have led to the development of protocols for fast-track cardiac surgery and for delirium management. Critical care services can be led by anesthesiologists with the goal of improving ICU outcomes and at the same time decreasing the rising cost of ICU medicine.

  18. Optimal DO Setpoint Decision and Electric Cost Saving in Aerobic Reactor Using Respirometer and Air Blower Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Su; Yoo, Changkyoo [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minhan [Pangaea21 Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongrack [UnUsoft Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Main objects for wastewater treatment operation are to maintain effluent water quality and minimize operation cost. However, the optimal operation is difficult because of the change of influent flow rate and concentrations, the nonlinear dynamics of microbiology growth rate and other environmental factors. Therefore, many wastewater treatment plants are operated for much more redundant oxygen or chemical dosing than the necessary. In this study, the optimal control scheme for dissolved oxygen (DO) is suggested to prevent over-aeration and the reduction of the electric cost in plant operation while maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration for the metabolism of microorganisms in oxic reactor. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) is real-time measured for the identification of influent characterization and the identification of microorganisms' oxygen requirement in oxic reactor. Optimal DO set-point needed for the micro-organism is suggested based on real-time measurement of oxygen uptake of micro-organism and the control of air blower. Therefore, both stable effluent quality and minimization of electric cost are satisfied with a suggested optimal set-point decision system by providing the necessary oxygen supply requirement to the micro-organisms coping with the variations of influent loading.

  19. Ownership, competition, and the adoption of new technologies and cost-saving practices in a fixed-price environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, R A; Chernew, M E; Orzol, S M

    2000-01-01

    Advances in medical technology have been implicated as the primary cause of rising health care expenditures. It is not yet known whether the increasing prevalence of managed care mechanisms, particularly capitation, will change substantially incentives for acquiring and using cost-increasing innovations. We examined the decisions of dialysis units (a set of providers that has faced capitation and real decreases in payment for several decades) with respect to use of cost-increasing technologies that enhance quality of care, cost-cutting practices that reduce quality of care, and amenities desired by patients that are unrelated to quality of care. We found that the dialysis payment system does not appear to have blocked access to a number of new, quality-enhancing technologies that were developed in the 1980s. However, facilities made adjustments along other valuable margins to facilitate adoption of these technologies; use of new technologies varied with numerous facility, regulatory, and case-mix characteristics including ownership, chain membership, size, market competition, and certificate of need programs. Interestingly, the trade-offs made by for-profit and nonprofit facilities when faced with fixed prices appeared quite different. For-profits tended to deliver lower technical quality of care but more amenities, while nonprofits favored technical quality of care over amenities. Our findings may have implications for the response of other types of health care providers to capitation and increasing economic constraints.

  20. RESEARCH ON FULL LIFE CYCLE COST OF ENERGY-SAVING BUILDING%节能建筑全寿命周期成本研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈苾文; 张英

    2012-01-01

    Service life economic benefit analysis model for cash flow is established through evaluation and analysis on energy consumption cost of building product in its life cycle. Based on practical engineering project, construction cost and economic principle are used to calculate and analyze the expense changes within building life cycle before and after energy saving technique is used. After analysis on technical, economic and management aspects, it is obtained that the present value of total cost is in inverse proportion to the discounting rate and annual value of total cost is in direct proportion to the discounting rate within the same life cycle; when the discounting rate is same, the present value of total cost is in direct proportion to the lift cycle. This verifies that life cycle benefit may be obtained through optimization of building energy consumption.%通过对建筑产品生命期能耗成本评估分析,建立现金流的寿命期经济效益分析模型.结合工程实例,运用造价和经济原理计算分析节能投入前后建筑物寿命期费用变化,从技术、经济和管理角度分析,得出同寿命期时,总成本现值随折现率的增大而减小,总成本年值随折现率的增大而增加;相同折现率时,总成本现值随寿命期的增大而增加,实证了优化建筑能耗带来的寿命期收益.

  1. Energy saving report; Energispareredegoerelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Making the energy consumption more efficient in Denmark by means of energy saving are connected to the Danish government's overall National Growth Strategy. A reduced consumption of energy as a result of economic attractive energy saving initiatives leads to reduced energy costs and consequently an improvement of Denmark's competitive power. Furthermore, reducing the energy consumption decreases the vulnerability towards rising energy prices, and the security of supplies is increased. Finally energy conservation serves as a means of reducing environmental impact from the energy sector. Energy consumption is not damaging to the environment in itself, however, to the extent that energy consumption causes negative impact on the environment, e.g. through discharge of environmentally damaging substances generated during energy production, a reduction of the energy consumption will benefit the environment. Energy saving in itself does not lead to a decrease in CO{sub 2} emission in Denmark unless it is accompanied by an adjustment of CO{sub 2} quotas on production of electricity. The Danish Government emphasizes that the energy saving efforts are cost-effective both for the society and for the consumers. The energy saving report contains an updated projection of the Danish energy consumption and an evaluation of the impacts of the energy saving efforts. The impacts of more effective end use of energy are described, and an account of the barriers preventing the realization of a number of potential economic attractive energy saving initiatives is made. Finally the energy saving report presents a number of proposals for new energy saving initiatives. (BA)

  2. Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

    2011-06-01

    The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected.

  3. The cost of prospecting for dispersal opportunities in a social bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Sjouke A.; Komdeur, Jan; Hammers, Martijn; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why individuals delay dispersal and become subordinates within a group is central to studying the evolution of sociality. Hypotheses predict that dispersal decisions are influenced by costs of extra-territorial prospecting that are often required to find a breeding vacancy. Little is k

  4. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

  5. Optimizing for confidence—costs and opportunities at the frontier between abstraction and reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2013-01-01

    Is there a relationship between computing costs and the confidence people place in the behavior of computing systems? What are the tuning knobs one can use to optimize systems for human confidence instead of correctness in purely abstract models? This report explores these questions by reviewing the

  6. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

  7. Net savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  8. Direct medical costs of adverse events in Dutch hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhout, L.H.F.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Wagner, C.; Zegers, M.; Waaijman, R.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Asscheman, H.; Wal, G. van der; Tulder, M.W. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Up to now, costs attributable to adverse events (AEs) and preventable AEs in the Netherlands were unknown. We assessed the total direct medical costs associated with AEs and preventable AEs in Dutch hospitals to gain insight in opportunities for cost savings. METHODS: Trained nurses and

  9. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  10. Economic valuation of informal care: lessons from the application of the opportunity costs and proxy good methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner; van Exel, Job; Koopmanschap, Marc; van den Bos, Geertrudis A M; Rutten, Frans

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports the results of the application of the opportunity costs and proxy good methods to determine a monetary value of informal care. We developed a survey in which we asked informal caregivers in The Netherlands to indicate the different types of time forgone (paid work, unpaid work and leisure) in order to be able to provide care. Moreover, we asked informal caregivers how much time they spent on a list of 16 informal care tasks during the week before the interview. Data were obtained from surveys in two different populations: informal caregivers and their care recipients with stroke and with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 218 care recipients with stroke and their primary informal caregivers completed a survey as well as 147 caregivers and their care recipients with RA. The measurement of care according to both methods is more problematic compared to the valuation. This is especially the case for the opportunity costs method and for the housework part in the proxy good method. More precise guidelines are necessary for the consistent application of both methods in order to ensure comparability of results and of economic evaluations of health care.

  11. Open Pit Mining & The Cost of Water Potential Opportunities Towards Sustainable Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien J.R. Fortin

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations require vast quantities of water to run ore processing facilities and thus have a responsibility to manage this critical resource. Operations are often located in areas of limited water supply, which may create a competitive climate for water consumption. Make-up water for mineral processing can represent a significant portion of production cost for mining companies. While necessary for mining, water in open pits is problematic for extraction activities and leads to increase...

  12. Concepts for Cost-Effective Enhanced Cryosat Continuity: Opportunity in the Iridium PRIME Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Y.; Caubet, E.; Silverstrin, P.; Legrand, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Iridium-PRIME offer, recently initiated by the Iridium company, consists in hosting payloads on customized low cost Iridium-NEXT platforms on which the main telecom mission antenna (L-band) is removed. This leaves significant resources in terms of mass, volume and power consumption to host up to three payloads on these customized platforms. The Iridium-PRIME satellites will be inserted in the Iridium-NEXT constellation to take benefit of the low cost operation service (command, control and data telemetry through the life time of the Iridium-PRIME mission). Given the synergy between schedules of the Iridium-PRIME program (launches starting around 2020) and of a possible CryoSat Follow-On (FO) mission (launch around 2022) and the adequacy of the available on-board resources for such a mission, ESA tasked Thales Alenia Space, as responsible for the SIRAL radar instrument of the currently in-orbit CryoSat mission, to study the feasibility of a concept for enhanced continuity of CryoSat on an Iridium- PRIME satellite as potential low-cost fast-track solution. The study aimed to define a cost-effective topographic payload including not only the SIRAL radar but also the necessary sub-systems to retrieve the SIRAL antenna baseline attitude (star trackers) with high accuracy and to perform a Precise Orbit Determination (POD). All these aspects are presented in this paper. In addition, possible evolutions/improvements of the Ku-band radar instrument were analysed and are presented: adding a Ka-band nadir measurement capability and a Ku-band or Ka-band wide swath mode measurement capability. The transmission issue for the SIRAL science data is also discussed in the paper.

  13. Root phenes that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration: opportunities for 21st century agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Crop genotypes with reduced metabolic costs of soil exploration would have improved water and nutrient acquisition. Three strategies to achieve this goal are (1) production of the optimum number of axial roots; (2) greater biomass allocation to root classes that are less metabolically demanding; and (3) reduction of the respiratory requirement of root tissue. An example of strategy 1 is the case of reduced crown root number in maize, which is associated with greater rooting depth, N capture and yield in low N soil. An example of strategy 2 is the case of increased hypocotyl-borne rooting in bean, which decreases root cost and increases P capture from low P soil. Examples of strategy 3 are the cases of increased formation of root cortical aerenchyma, decreased cortical cell file number and increased cortical cell size in maize, which decrease specific root respiration, increase rooting depth and increase water capture and yield under water stress. Root cortical aerenchyma also increases N capture and yield under N stress. Root phenes that reduce the metabolic cost of soil exploration are promising, underexploited avenues to the climate-resilient, resource-efficient crops that are urgently needed in global agriculture.

  14. An alternative perspective on how laboratory medicine can contribute to solve the health care crisis: a model to save costs by acquiring excellence in diagnostic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The rapid escalation in health care costs has led to the idea to deliver better care at lower costs, reshaping the responsibilities of the health care system to achieve the goal of creating value for the patient. The pressure for fiscal containment and the progressive reduction in available health care resources originated very short term strategies consisting of abrupt reductions in expenditure, specifically in the provision of clinical pathology laboratory medicine services. However, the impact of laboratory test results on diagnostic and therapeutic interventions has increased enormously in the past decade, due to advances in personalized medicine and to the strictly correlated requirement to use new biomarkers with increasing sensitivity and specificity in clinical practice. In order to create savings by delivering better care there is the need to invest financial resources in purchasing high technology and new sophisticated tests and to promote the expertise of clinical pathologists and laboratory medicine professionals. This approach to creating value in patient health care is more productive and sustainable ethically, morally and economically as a long-term strategy. It can be successfully achieved by applying defined rules that make public-private cooperation clearer, skipping incompatible solutions such as transforming clinical laboratories to 'industrially productive premises', outsourcing laboratory medicine services and using central acquisition of diagnostic systems.

  15. Telecardiology application in jordan: its impact on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life.

  16. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jungreuthmayer

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle.

  17. Expand Energy Saving Space, Grasp the Opportunity to Reduce Consumption%拓展节能空间,把握降耗机会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铁明

    2015-01-01

    In response to the industrial energy saving targets and measures of "12th five-year plan", analysis of the present situation of energy management has been carried out in Shanghai Honggang Power Station Equipment Casting & Forging Co., Ltd. New solutions and measures have been put forward. Using GB/T 23331-2012 energy management system requirements as the guiding principle, through equipment modiifcation and renewal, establishment of equipment maintenance and maintenance mechanism, and optimization of evaluation and assessment mechanism of the equipment, so that the desired objectives of Honggang company's energy saving work can be achieved.%为了响应我国“十二五”工业节能目标及举措,上海宏钢电站设备铸锻有限公司对目前能源管理工作的现状进行分析,提出了新的解决办法和措施。以《GB/T 23331-2012能源管理体系要求》为指导方针,通过设备改造与更新、建立设备的维护与保养机制、优化设备的评价与考核机制,使宏钢公司的节能降耗工作达到预期的目标。

  18. Road versus rail debate : logistics opportunity cost of using road transport in a mining company

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) Transport plays a pivotal role within the South African economy as it enables the country to achieve economic growth. The transport industry does not only facilitate the movement of freight and people, it also employs a great number of individuals and forms a major part of South Africa‟s GDP. The 8th Annual State of Logistics Survey for South Africa indicated that transport costs were accountable for 6.8 per cent of the country‟s GDP in 2010. The importance of ...

  19. Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Lu, Hongyou; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Yining, Qin; Yowargana, Ping

    2010-04-28

    During the period 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). The period 2002-2005 saw a dramatic reversal of the historic relationship between energy use and GDP growth: energy use per unit of GDP increased an average of 3.8% per year during this period (NBS, various years). China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), which covers the period 2006-2010, required all government divisions at different levels to reduce energy intensity by 20% in five years in order to regain the relationship between energy and GDP growth experienced during the 1980s and 1990s. This report provides an assessment of selected policies and programs that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal of a 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010. The report finds that China has made substantial progress toward its goal of achieving 20% energy intensity reduction from 2006 to 2010 and that many of the energy-efficiency programs implemented during the 11th FYP in support of China's 20% energy/GDP reduction goal appear to be on track to meet - or in some cases even exceed - their energy-saving targets. It appears that most of the Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program are on track to meet or surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program, which was established prior to the 11th FYP, has become very robust during the 11th FYP period. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energy standards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal of adjusting China's economic structure to reduce the share of energy consumed by industry, do not appear to be on track to meet the stated goals. With the implementation of the 11th FYP now bearing fruit, it is important to maintain and strengthen the existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising

  20. 48 CFR 1843.7101 - Shared Savings Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Shared Savings 1843.7101 Shared Savings Program. This..., significant cost reduction initiatives. NASA will benefit as the more efficient business practices that...

  1. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use

    2004-08-31

    The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President’s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation’s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation’s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

  2. The impact of unemployment insurance savings accounts on subsequent employment quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagler, P.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of unemployment insurance savings accounts (UISA) in Chile in October 2002 led to more comprehensive unemployment protection while decreasing the opportunity cost of job change. Using a difference-in-differences approach this paper examines whether the introduction of UISA had an im

  3. New Opportunities of Low-Cost Photogrammetry for Culture Heritage Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, R.

    2017-05-01

    In the paper, the questions of using the technologies of low-cost photogrammetry in combination with the additional capabilities of modern smartphones are considered. The research was carried out on the example of documenting the historical construction of the II World War - the Kiev Fortified Region. Brief historical information about the object of research is given. The possibilities of using modern smartphones as measuring instruments are considered. To get high-quality results, the camera of the smartphone was calibrated. The calibration results were used in the future to perform 3D modeling of defense facilities. Photographing of three defense structures in a different state: destroyed, partially destroyed and operating was carried out. Based on the results of photography using code targets, 3D object models were constructed. To verify the accuracy of the 3D modelling, control measurements of the lines between the code targets at the objects were performed. The obtained results are satisfying, and the technology considered in the paper can be recommended for use in performing archaeological and historical studies.

  4. lncremental Costs-benefits of Energy Saving Technology in Green Building%绿色建筑节能技术增量成本与效益研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 刘姗姗

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving technology makes the high cost that becomes an obstacle to the development of green building. It is necessary to analyze incremental costs and benefits of energy saving. The energy saving technology is introduced, and the incremental costs and benefit are analyzed. Then a model of incremental costs-benefits of green building is built and the processing of energy saving's economic results are quantified. The results show that the formula of incremental benefits and period of incremental cost recovery. All these provide a theory basis for the energy saving technology's choice.%由于绿色节能技术的运用使得绿色建筑的初期成本高于普通建筑,这成为了绿色建筑推广过程中的制约因素.所以有必要对节能技术的增量成本和效益进行分析.对绿色建筑中常用的节能技术,并基于费用效益理论对节能技术产生的各部分增量成本和效益进行分析,构建增量成本与效益模型.在此基础上对节能技术产生的增量效益进行量化处理,得出增量效益和增量成本回收期的计算公式.为人们能够合理选择绿色建筑节能技术提供理论依据.

  5. Challenges of Opportunity Cost Analysis in Planning REDD+: A Honduran Case Study of Social and Cultural Values Associated with Indigenous Forest Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer T. Plumb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The REDD Programme is predicated on the assumption that developed countries will provide sufficient funds to offset opportunity costs associated with avoiding deforestation. The role of non-market values in indigenous land management may challenge the efficacy of compensation schemes targeted at meeting opportunity costs as calculated in traditional opportunity cost analysis (OCA. Furthermore it is unclear how these economic incentives might affect social and cultural values linked to land-use norms, livelihoods, and local governance. This study explores the economic, social and cultural values of forest uses for a Miskito community in the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve in Honduras. Data were collected using household surveys, farm visits, and community workshops. OCA indicates potential for successful REDD+ payment schemes; however it is an inadequate method to account for subsistence and cultural opportunity costs associated with avoided deforestation. Compensation to change land-use practices may undermine governance institutions necessary to address deforestation in the region. Our results indicate that small-scale agriculture and other forest-based subsistence activities are important cultural practices for maintaining Miskito identity and forest management institutions. Recommendations are offered for using OCA to develop REDD+ projects that recognize the linkages between social and cultural values and forest management by focusing on approaches that consider a full range of economic, social and cultural opportunity costs.

  6. Use of several Cloud Computing approaches for climate modelling: performance, costs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Montes, Diego A.; Añel Cabanelas, Juan A.; Wallom, David C. H.; Arribas, Alberto; Uhe, Peter; Caderno, Pablo V.; Pena, Tomas F.

    2017-04-01

    Cloud Computing is a technological option that offers great possibilities for modelling in geosciences. We have studied how two different climate models, HadAM3P-HadRM3P and CESM-WACCM, can be adapted in two different ways to run on Cloud Computing Environments from three different vendors: Amazon, Google and Microsoft. Also, we have evaluated qualitatively how the use of Cloud Computing can affect the allocation of resources by funding bodies and issues related to computing security, including scientific reproducibility. Our first experiments were developed using the well known ClimatePrediction.net (CPDN), that uses BOINC, over the infrastructure from two cloud providers, namely Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Services (hereafter AWS). For this comparison we ran a set of thirteen month climate simulations for CPDN in Azure and AWS using a range of different virtual machines (VMs) for HadRM3P (50 km resolution over South America CORDEX region) nested in the global atmosphere-only model HadAM3P. These simulations were run on a single processor and took between 3 and 5 days to compute depending on the VM type. The last part of our simulation experiments was running WACCM over different VMS on the Google Compute Engine (GCE) and make a comparison with the supercomputer (SC) Finisterrae1 from the Centro de Supercomputacion de Galicia. It was shown that GCE gives better performance than the SC for smaller number of cores/MPI tasks but the model throughput shows clearly how the SC performance is better after approximately 100 cores (related with network speed and latency differences). From a cost point of view, Cloud Computing moves researchers from a traditional approach where experiments were limited by the available hardware resources to monetary resources (how many resources can be afforded). As there is an increasing movement and recommendation for budgeting HPC projects on this technology (budgets can be calculated in a more realistic way) we could see a shift on

  7. Energy savings using medium voltage softstarts on chip blowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. R. [E. B. Eddy Forest Products, Ltd., Espanola, ON (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    Wood chip blowers are used to pneumatically blow hardwood and softwood chips to storage piles, chip bins and batch digesters. In the past they were allowed to run continuously because it was believed that frequent stops and starts would damage the equipment. Excellent energy paybacks have been achieved with the 1994 installation of silicon controlled rectifier softstarts on the blowers, thus eliminating the cost of running the equipment under no load conditions. Installation and operation of these medium voltage softstarts on both induction and synchronous motors, the project costs and the savings realized, were described. The installation of softstarts is only one example of saving energy in the paper and pulp industry. With advances in silicon controlled rectifier technology , variable speed drives, etc., there are many other opportunities which could be implemented at relatively low cost.

  8. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  9. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  10. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  11. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S

    2015-08-25

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease--a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32, 201 ± $23,059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals' costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  13. The ability of land owners and their cooperatives to leverage payments greater than opportunity costs from conservation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Gareth D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2013-06-01

    In negotiations over land-right acquisitions, landowners have an informational advantage over conservation groups because they know more about the opportunity costs of conservation measures on their sites. This advantage creates the possibility that landowners will demand payments greater than the required minimum, where this minimum required payment is known as the landowner’s willingness to accept (WTA). However, in recent studies of conservation costs, researchers have assumed landowners will accept conservation with minimum payments. We investigated the ability of landowners to demand payments above their WTA when a conservation group has identified multiple sites for protection. First, we estimated the maximum payment landowners could potentially demand, which is set when groups of landowners act as a cooperative. Next, through the simulation of conservation auctions, we explored the amount of money above landowners’ WTA (i.e., surplus) that conservation groups could cede to secure conservation agreements, again investigating the influence of landowner cooperatives. The simulations showed the informational advantage landowners held could make conservation investments up to 42% more expensive than suggested by the site WTAs. Moreover, all auctions resulted in landowners obtaining payments greater than their WTA; thus, it may be unrealistic to assume landowners will accept conservation contracts with minimum payments. Of particular significance for species conservation, conservation objectives focused on overall species richness,which therefore recognize site complementarity, create an incentive for land owners to form cooperatives to capture surplus. To the contrary, objectives in which sites are substitutes, such as the maximization of species occurrences, create a disincentive for cooperative formation.

  14. Chimpanzees do not take advantage of very low cost opportunities to deliver food to unrelated group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Brosnan, Sarah F; Silk, Joan B; Henrich, Joseph; Richardson, Amanda S; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2008-05-01

    We conducted experiments on two populations of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, to determine whether they would take advantage of opportunities to provide food rewards to familiar group members at little cost to themselves. In both of the experiments described here, chimpanzees were able to deliver identical rewards to themselves and to other members of their social groups. We compared the chimpanzees' behaviour when they were paired with another chimpanzee and when they were alone. If chimpanzees are motivated to provide benefits to others, they are expected to consistently deliver rewards to others and to distinguish between the partner-present and partner-absent conditions. Results from both experiments indicate that our subjects were largely indifferent to the benefits they could provide to others. They were less likely to provide rewards to potential recipients as the experiment progressed, and all but one of the 18 subjects were as likely to deliver rewards to an empty enclosure as to an enclosure housing another chimpanzee. These results, in conjunction with similar results obtained in previous experiments, suggest that chimpanzees are not motivated by prosocial sentiments to provide food rewards to other group members.

  15. Opportunity for offshore wind to reduce future demand for coal-fired power plants in China with consequent savings in emissions of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Chen, Xinyu; Kang, Chongqing

    2014-12-16

    Although capacity credits for wind power have been embodied in power systems in the U.S. and Europe, the current planning framework for electricity in China continues to treat wind power as a nondispatchable source with zero contribution to firm capacity. This study adopts a rigorous reliability model for the electric power system evaluating capacity credits that should be recognized for offshore wind resources supplying power demands for Jiangsu, China. Jiangsu is an economic hub located in the Yangtze River delta accounting for 10% of the total electricity consumed in China. Demand for electricity in Jiangsu is projected to increase from 331 TWh in 2009 to 800 TWh by 2030. Given a wind penetration level of 60% for the future additional Jiangsu power supply, wind resources distributed along the offshore region of five coastal provinces in China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Fujian) should merit a capacity credit of 12.9%, the fraction of installed wind capacity that should be recognized to displace coal-fired systems without violating the reliability standard. In the high-coal-price scenario, with 60% wind penetration, reductions in CO2 emissions relative to a business as usual reference could be as large as 200.2 million tons of CO2 or 51.8% of the potential addition, with a cost for emissions avoided of $29.0 per ton.

  16. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  17. Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-30

    circumstances, increased management control and oversight of such work, modifications to the statement of work or changes to how services are performed...steps: 1. Qualitative management screening 2. Time-series and regression forecasting 3. Base case KVA and net present value analysis 4. Monte...Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings 30 January 2016 Dr. Tom J. Housel, Professor Dr. Johnathan Mun

  18. Opportunity cost based analysis of corporate eco-efficiency: a methodology and its application to the CO2-efficiency of German companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tobias; Figge, Frank; Liesen, Andrea; Barkemeyer, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we propose the return-to-cost-ratio (RCR) as an alternative approach to the analysis of operational eco-efficiency of companies based on the notion of opportunity costs. RCR helps to overcome two fundamental deficits of existing approaches to eco-efficiency. (1) It translates eco-efficiency into managerial terms by applying the well-established notion of opportunity costs to eco-efficiency analysis. (2) RCR allows to identify and quantify the drivers behind changes in corporate eco-efficiency. RCR is applied to the analysis of the CO(2)-efficiency of German companies in order to illustrate its usefulness for a detailed analysis of changes in corporate eco-efficiency as well as for the development of effective environmental strategies.

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: Right-click on the link, choose "Save link as…", save file in desired location. Safari: Right-click or command-click on the ...

  20. Portfolio Analysis of Renewable Energy Opportunities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Allison; Deprizio, Jodi; Anderson, Kate; DiOrio, Nick; Elgqvist, Emma; Simpkins, Travis

    2016-11-01

    Time Warner Cable (TWC), now Charter Communications (CC), partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the technical and economic potential for solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and ground-source heat-pump systems at 696 TWC facilities. NREL identified 306 sites where adding a renewable energy system would provide cost savings over the project life-cycle. In general, the top sites have some combination of high electricity rates ($0.16-$0.29/kWh), significant state incentives, and favorable net-metering policies. If all projects were implemented via third-party power purchase agreements, TWC/CC would save $37 million over 25 years and meet 10.5% of their energy consumption with renewable energy. This paper describes the portfolio screening methodology used to identify and prioritize renewable energy opportunities across the TWC sites, as well as a summary of the potential cost savings that may be realized by implementing these projects. This may provide a template for other companies interested in identifying and prioritizing renewable energy opportunities across a large number of geographically dispersed sites. Following this initial portfolio analysis, NREL will be conducting in-depth analysis of project development opportunities at ten sites and evaluating off-grid solutions that may enable carbon emission reduction and grid independence at select facilities.

  1. 78 FR 20097 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... savings projects where the up-front capital cost is financed by an Energy Services Company (ESCO), who is... capital costs. In an ESPC, a Federal agency contracts with an ESCO, following a comprehensive energy audit conducted by the ESCO of a Federal facility to identify improvements to save energy. In consultation...

  2. Saving energy from waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Pearce

    1999-03-01

    This paper gives details of energy savings from wastewater in the laundry industry by recycling the water from the last rinse to the first wash, and recovering heat from hot water that is too dirty to recycle. The cost savings achieved at the laundry operated by the Royal London Hospital, and improvements in the steam supply system with water from steam traps collected and returned to the boiler house are reported. Case studies are presented involving energy savings in the textile industry where effluent from the washing stage is recycled to the scouring stage, and in the distillery industry involving recovery of heat from hot water for process preheating. (uk)

  3. Components and Algorithm of Incremental Cost in Green Building Water-saving Project%绿色建筑节水项目增量成本的构成与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴宏祥; 曲凯; 赵芳

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at large difference in understanding the conception and elements of direct incremental cost in green building water-saving projects between the government and developers as well as lack of a unified calculation method in China, the definition, calculation principle, components and algorithm of incremental cost in green building water-saving project are proposed and verified through the water-saving demonstration project in a green building residential area in western China.%针对我国政府和开发商对绿色建筑节水项目直接增量成本的概念、构成要素等理解差异较大,缺乏统一的计算方法的现状,提出了绿色建筑节水项目直接增量成本定义、计算原则、构成内容及其计算方法,并以西部某绿色建筑小区节水示范项目为例进行验证.

  4. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    Internationalization offers enhanced opportunities for individuals to place savingsabroad and evade domestic saving taxation. This paper asks whether the concomi-tant loss of saving taxation necessarily is harmful. To this end we construct a modelof many symmetric countries in which public goods ...

  5. Modulation of habitat-based conservation plans by fishery opportunity costs: a New Caledonia case study using fine-scale catch data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Deas

    Full Text Available Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific, we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss considering i total catches, ii target fish families, iii local marine tenure, and iv gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50-60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15-25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data.

  6. Hospital renovation and expansion cost control and environment protection and energy saving study%医院改建扩建工程成本控制与环保节能工作探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元明; 刘欢

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Implementation of effective control, tracking, analysis and evaluation to the hospital renovation and expansion cost and achieve the objectives of cost reduction and efficiency, environmental protection and energy saving. Methods:In practical work, insisting on the direction of cost control and environmental protection, executing accurate management, to improve energy using efficiency and reduce costs. Results:Study the means of hospital renovation and expansion project cost control and environmental protection and energy saving, improve funds usability. Conclusion:Lean management produce effectiveness, hospital renovation and expansion project cost control and environmental protection and energy conservation work can gradually get people's attention.%目的:对医院改扩建工程项目成本实施有效地控制、跟踪、分析和考核,实现降低成本、增加效益及环保节能的工作目标。方法:在实际工作中,把握好成本控制与环保节能工作的正确导向,有的放矢地抓管理,节能增效降低成本。结果:研究适用于医院改建、扩建工程成本控制与环保节能工作措施,使医院有限的资金得到充分的发挥。结论:重视医院改建、扩建工程成本控制与环保节能工作,可使医院产生更大的社会效益和经济效益。

  7. Agribusiness Opportunity Costs and Environmental Legal Protection: Investigating Trade-Off on Hotspot Preservation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km2 covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  8. Study on the Life Cycle Cost of Energy-saving Residential Project Based on Value Engineering%基于价值工程的节能住宅项目全寿命周期费用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林永民; 朱卫东

    2013-01-01

    In the process of rapid development of China's city,there is a sharp increase of building energy consumption.Saving energy is the inevitable choice that will promote the continuouse development of our country.The residential building become the key field of saving energy.In this paper,based on Value Engineering,the optimization of life cycle cost is systematically researched.The conclusions are as follow:First of all,a dynamic and opening life cycle cost estimation model based on Value Engineering is put forward; Secondly,empirical research based on the life cycle cost is carried out in Tangshan City typical energy-efficient buildings.%随着经济的发展,城市化进程也在不断加快.建筑损耗不断增加.在对节能住宅和住宅的寿命进行了系统的分析之后,对于住宅的寿命周期和本论文基于全寿命周期和成本花费做了实际调查.调查后得出了基于价值工程的动态方面,开放的节能建筑全寿命周期费用估算模型,以及对唐山市典型的节能建筑的寿命周期费用进行了实地考察.

  9. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy; Glatt, Ms. Sandy [DOE Industrial Technologies Program; Orthwein, Mr. Bill [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to

  10. The opportunity cost of not utilising the woody invasive alien plant species in the Kouga, Krom and Baviaans catchments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulile Vundla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the opportunity costs of using woody invasive alien plants (IAPs for value-added products by estimating the net economic return from the value-added industries in South Africa. By 2008, IAPs were estimated at the national level to cover an area of 1 813 million condensed hectares in South Africa. A market has formed around their use for value-added products (VAP like charcoal, firewood and timber in the Kouga, Kromme and Baviaans River catchments in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The net economic return from these value-added industries was estimated for the purpose of several management scenarios, and was then used to estimate the opportunity costs if they were not used. A system dynamics model was used to value and analyse the Net Present Value of clearing in the study area and to estimate the opportunity cost of the non-use of VAP. The study showed that the inclusion of VAPs in the project would yield higher net present values for clearing. The findings from this study suggest that a cofinance option of the total economic returns from VAP for clearing costs is the best management scenario for reducing the costs of clearing and maximising the net economic returns from clearing. The net economic returns of VAPs by 2030 are estimated at R23 million without the co-finance option and R26 million with the option. The cumulative net income from VAPs with co-financing over the period of valuation is estimated to be R609 million.

  11. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  12. Life-cycle asset allocation with focus on retirement savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina

    for the long period are based on a classical continuous-time optimization based on the closed-form solution obtained by Richard (1975). This model is first simplified by removing the insurance policy, such that the focus is on the pension savings. In particular, fully funded contribution-defined pension...... such as the trading costs and uncertain labor income. The market returns uncertainties are modeled by discrete scenario trees, where a joint distribution is consistent with the specified values of the first four marginal moments and correlations, and the arbitrage opportunities are excluded....

  13. The Activity Based Costing method opportunity to assess and master the aircraft maintenance service cost for Third Party: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Rchid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates how to calculate accurate aircraft maintenance costs using Activity Based Costing (ABC. Comparing to traditional cost calculation, the proposed method is useful for aircrafts maintenance activity integrated to Airline Company and who wants to diversify its revenue by selling some available maintenance slots to third party clients for a competitive price. This paper takes base maintenance check process of a Moroccan airline aircrafts maintenance activity as a case study. The actual method used to calculate aircraft maintenance check cost cant not be applied to third party client pricing system. The ABC method shows substantial benefits if it is successfully implemented. Data collection through interviews and questionnaires are the main sources to this study.

  14. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbwe Chola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. Design: We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. Results: By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. Conclusions: The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority

  15. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chola, Lumbwe; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Kerber, Kate; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita) will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority setting tools and the potential for evidence-based decision

  16. Warm basements are state of the art. Significant cost savings for builder-owners; Der warme Keller gehoert dazu. Deutliche Kostenersparnis fuer Bauherren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleser, J.; Zauner, A.

    2002-06-28

    External thermal insulation of basement walls is an interesting strategy for energy saving, provided that suitable insulating materials are selected. The contribution recommends hard foamed polyurethanes. [German] Energiesparendes Bauen hat Konjunktur - nicht zuletzt durch das Inkrafttreten der neuen Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV) im Februar dieses Jahres. Besonders interessante Einsparpotenziale, die von vielen Bauherren noch unterschaetzt werden, bietet die so genannte Perimeterdaemmung, also die aussenseitige Waermedaemmung von Kellerwaenden. Die hier fuer benoetigten Daemmstoffe muessen allerdings besonders hohe Ansprueche erfuellen. Polyurethan-Hartschaumstoffe, die sich seit Jahrzehnten bereits als Hochleistungsdaemmstoffe am Bau bewaehrt haben, bieten auch beim Einsatz unter der Erde die besten Daemmwerte und sind auch wirtschaftlich eine Alternative zu herkoemmlichen Perimeter Daemmstoffen. (orig.)

  17. Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze? A Benefit/Cost Analysis of the District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Patrick J.; McShane, Michael

    2013-01-01

    School voucher programs have become a prominent aspect of the education policy landscape in the United States. The DC Opportunity Scholarship Program is the only federally funded voucher program in the United States. Since 2004 it has offered publicly funded private school vouchers to nearly four thousand students to attend any of seventy-three…

  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TV Contact and Feedback Form Download Instructions Explorer: Right-click on the link, choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: Right-click on the link, choose "Save link as…", ...

  2. Potential resource and cost saving analysis of subcutaneous versus intravenous administration for rituximab in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and for trastuzumab in breast cancer in 17 Italian hospitals based on a systematic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzetti C

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clemente Ponzetti,1 Monica Canciani,2 Massimo Farina,2 Sara Era,3 Stefan Walzer4,5 1Group Policlinic Monza, Alessandria, National Scientific Associazione Nazionale dei Medici delle Direzioni Ospedaliere (National Association of Hospital Physicians, Bologna, 2Studio EmmEffe S.r.l, Milan, 3Roche S.p.a., Monza, Italy; 4MArS Market Access and Pricing Strategy GmbH, Weil am Rhein, 5Health Care Management, State University Baden-Wuerttemberg, Loerrach, Germany Introduction: Subcutaneous versions of different oncology therapies have been available for patients for a few years, yet patient-relevant and hospital benefits have not been assessed in real life. Methods: In order to analyze the impact of subcutaneous administrations for rituximab or trastuzumab in comparison to the respective intravenous mode a primary research in Italy was executed. The study’s primary objectives were to analyze the resource and cost implications from different perspectives (patient, medical staff in the real world. The route of administration was discussed and aligned with the participating centers in order to capture all relevant therapy parts. After the successful execution of a pilot study 19 centers in six regions in Italy were recruited to participate. Results: Significant time savings might be achieved with the subcutaneous mode through significantly lower patient preparation time including less time preparing the actual dosing for each individual patient. The total time difference is 3.3 hours with rituximab in hematology (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which adds up to 23.55 hours for a full course of treatment per patient (overall preparation time: 40.1 hours intravenous [95% confidence interval (CI: ±0.47] vs 16.6 hours subcutaneous [95% CI: ±0.2]. In early breast cancer (trastuzumab, the time saving might be 3.3 hours for the first cycle and the total time saving for patient preparation might be 17.2 hours (overall preparation time: 38.8 hours intravenous [95% CI

  3. [Opportunity for development of laparoscopic procedures in the hospital setting: costs and benefits for the surgical unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vino, F; Trerotoli, P; Serio, G

    2002-01-01

    Physician are induced, by technical development, to demand new devices and instruments and to introduce new method for diagnosis and treatment. In order to do a right economic planning in public health, it's necessary to evaluate costs of technologies, because sometimes there isn't neither a right plan for acquisition nor an efficient control system. One the most stressed medical branch by innovative technologies is the surgery, in particular after the coming of laparoscopic surgery. The will to do, in every way laparoscopic approach, induces to evaluate costs of this surgery, specially cholecystectomy, that is identified by four specific DRGs. In this paper we compare laparotomic versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy in terms of costs and length of stay; the break-even analysis has been performed to determine the number of laparoscopic operations necessary to balance the costs.

  4. Shared savings gets realtor new water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, R.

    1983-08-08

    The Grenadier Realty Co. of New York is financing four energy-efficient water heaters for apartment buildings with a shared savings arrangement. The arrangement allows Grenadier to avoid front-end costs, which were paid by Independent Water Heaters Inc. in exchange for a decreasing share of the savings. Grenadier will own the heaters when the five-year contract expires. By allowing a shutdown of boilers during the summer months, the heaters will further increase energy savings. (DCK)

  5. An Analysis of the Romanian General Accounting Plan. Opportunities for Adaptation to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Alina Preda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the causes that have led to the improvement of the Romanian general accounting plan according to the Activity- Based Costing (ABC method. We explain the advantages presented by the dissociated organization of management accounting, in contrast with the tabular- statistical form. The article also describes the methodological steps to be taken in the process of recording book entries, according to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC method in Romania.

  6. Upward line with integrated circulation pipe. Cost saving in the field of warm drinking water supply; Steigestrang mit integrierter Zirkulationsleitung. Kosten bei der Trinkwarmwasserversorgung sparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arens, P. [Viega GmbH und Co. KG, Attendorn (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    When new buildings are constructed as well as in case of the re-construction of objects constructional measures for the permanent conservation of the drinking water hygiene are very often conflicting with possibly higher investment and operating costs. There is no reason for this concern. This is shown by a closer evaluation of the available installation systems on the market. The overall costs of the inliner system for drinking water grids are lower compared to conventional installation systems not only in terms of primary installation but also in terms of the later operating costs, (orig.)

  7. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  8. A Study on the Potential Cost Savings Associated with Implementing Airline Pilot Training Curricula into the Future P-8 MMA Fleet Replacement Squadron

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    winglets : 35.81m Length: 38.56m Height: 12.83m Fuselage length: 38.02m Tailplane: 14.35m Maximum taxi weight: 83,778kg Maximum fuel...Costs-Navy-Maintenance - This element reports the composite pay of Navy personnel assigned as maintenance personnel. 3. Org. FRS-MilPers Costs...Navy-Other - This element reports the composite pay of Navy personnel assigned to perform duties other than those assigned for mission and maintenance

  9. Allocation of dynamic timeslot for online order delivery with considering the opportunity cost%考虑机会成本的在线订单配送时隙动态分配策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景瑜; 陈淮莉

    2014-01-01

    在电子履约条件下,合理分配配送时间和节约配送成本是实现利润最大化的关键。由于B2 C环境的特殊性,使网络零售商可以根据顾客需求对配送时隙进行实时管理。基于收益管理理论,综合考虑机会成本、订货提前期、预分配时隙和顾客偏好时隙等因素,用Logit模型模拟真实环境下顾客的选择行为。此外,建立时隙分配模型,并分析此种模型下的总收益和总成本变化情况。最后,将时隙分配模型与传统的先到先服务的时隙分配模型进行对比,计算两种模型下的总收益和总成本,并分析相关参数对两者的影响。%Under the E-fulfillment constraint condition,rational distribution of delivery time and delivery cost saving are the key issues to maximize the profit.Due to the special environment of B2C,allocated slot can be managed in real time by online retailers according to customer needs.Opportunity cost,order lead time,pre-allocated slot and customer preferred time slot are considered based on the revenue management theory.The customers’selection behavior in the real world is simulated by the Logit model, the allocation of tie slot model is established,and the changes of the total revenue and cost are analyzed.At last,the different be-tween allocation of time slot model and traditional first-come-first-serve model is analyzed.The total revenue and cost in the two models mentioned above are calculated,and the impact of the related parameters to the two models is also analyzed.

  10. THE EFFECT OF ASEAN OPEN SKIES POLICY 2015 UPON OPPORTUNITIES FOR LOW-COST CARRIERS IN INDONESIA – A CASE STUDY OF PT.CITILINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nurhendiarni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Open Skies agreement is included in the ASEAN Economic Community’s blueprint and will be implemented in 2015. This study is intended to assist Citilink - an Indonesian low-cost carrier airline - in measuring its level of awareness and analyzing its SWOT towards the ASEAN Open Skies Policy 2015. This descriptive study utilizes quantitative and qualitative approaches and collected data from both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaires were distributed to Citilink Staff and analyzed using IBM SPSS and SPSS Amos. The awareness level of Citilink staff towards the ASEAN Open Skies Policy turned out to be high and the knowledge factor significantly influenced the awareness level. The study identified both benefits and drawbacks to the implementation of the ASEAN Open Skies Policy; however, Citilink already holds a good position as an Indonesian low-cost carrier and must pursue an aggressive strategy to maximize opportunities so that it can compete successfully at the regional level.

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explorer: Right-click on the link, choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: ... Explorer: Right-click on the link, choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: ...

  12. Shopping centers and refrigeration. Exploiting cost-saving potentials through consistent use of innovative plant concepts; Supermarktkuehlung. Realisierung von Kosten-Einsparpotentialen durch konsequente Anwendung innovativer Anlagenkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaremski, W. [Copeland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    Immense cost pressure has prompted major German chain stores in recent years to base their decisions on technical systems on the sole criterion of investment cost. Expenditure for current operation, maintenance and repair, which is by no means negligible, was left almost entirely out of consideration. (orig.) [Deutsch] Enormer Kostendruck hat in den vergangenen Jahren die grossen deutschen Handelsketten immer haeufiger dazu bewogen nur die Anlageninvestitionskosten als Entscheidungskriterium fuer die Technikauswahl zu sehen. Fast gaenzlich unbeachtet blieben die nicht unerheblichen Aufwendungen fuer den laufenden Betrieb, die Wartung und die Instandsetzung. (orig.)

  13. Energy modernisation guide. Saving cost - improving value of houses - conserving resources. 3. rev. ed.; Modernisierungsratgeber Energie. Kosten sparen - Wohnwert steigern - Umwelt schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    You are thinking of modernising your house and have a lot of questions? About what building measures to give priority? What technologies and materials to use? How to find a suitable craftsman or architect? What work you can as a DIY person? Where to obtain promotion funds for energy saving measures or innovative solar energy systems? For each of these questions the Energy Modernisation Guide has an answer. It provides you with detailed information and practical hints on everything concerning the modernisation of your house. We explain to you step by step what to look out for most - from planning to soliciting offers down to final acceptance. You will also learn what technical options there are for saving energy and how you can help to protect the climate and your own purse at the same time. We will advise on what work you can do yourself and what things are better left to a trained craftsperson. Last not least, we will provide you with detailed information on the many attractive promotional funds available for the energy refurbishment of buildings. (orig./GL) [German] Sie moechten Ihr Haus modernisieren und haben wahrscheinlich viele Fragen: Welche Baumassnahmen muessen vordringlich durchgefuehrt werden? Welche Technik und welche Materialien sollen verwendet werden? Wie finde ich geeignete Handwerker und Architekten? Welche Arbeiten kann ich als <> durchfuehren? Und von wem bekomme ich Foerdermittel fuer Energiesparmassnahmen oder innovative Solaranlagen? Auf all diese Fragen gibt Ihnen der Modernisierungsratgeber Energie Antwort. Er bietet Ihnen ausfuehrliche Informationen und praktische Hilfestellungen wenn es um die Modernisierung Ihres Hauses geht. Wir erlaeutern Ihnen Schritt fuer Schritt, worauf Sie besonders achten muessen - von der Planung ueber die Einholung von Angeboten bis zur Abnahme. Zudem erfahren Sie, welche technischen Moeglichkeiten es gibt, Energie einzusparen und wie Sie so das Klima schuetzen und Ihren Geldbeutel schonen koennen

  14. BGP Ltd Adopts Energy-saving Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ An exploration subsidiary of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), the country's largest oil company, has agreed to use energy-saving technology developed by a Beijing firm in an attempt to slash costs.

  15. 节能成本分析法在节能技术评价中的应用%Analytic Method of Energy Conservation Cost Applies in Energy Saving Technologies Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋习梅

    2012-01-01

    The economic evaluation of energy conservation technology is an important basis for the selection of energy saving technologies. The traditional evaluation indicators such as the payback period, internal rate of return, net present value are calculated on the base of cash flow, and cash flow calculation is closely related to energy price of the project site. Due to energy prices is totally different in different regions, the above mentioned indicators of energy saving do not have general applicability. This paper introduces the concept and calculation method of energy saving cost, and explains by examples.%节能技术经济性评价是节能技术选择的重要依据.传统的评价指标,如投资回收期、内部收益率、净现值等指标是基于现金流计算得出,而现金流的计算与项目所在地的能源价格紧密相关.由于各地能源价格的差异,同一类项目的上述指标因地而异,因此,采用以上指标对节能技术的评价不具备普遍适用性.本文介绍了一种不受项目所在地能源价格影响,并具有普遍适用性的指标——节能成本,并以案例说明.

  16. ESCOs: Helping Schools Save Money and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of energy savings performance contracts to help reduce costs and improve school infrastructure and the educational environment. Further discussed are how indoor air quality reduces health, productivity, and costs; and examples are provided of how other schools have achieved better school environments and reduced energy costs. (GR)

  17. Irbesartan is projected to be cost and life saving in a Spanish setting for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and microalbuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, AJ; Annemans, L; Roze, S; Lapuerta, P; Chen, R; Gabriel, S; Carita, P; Rodby, RA; de Zeeuw, D; Parving, HH; De Alvaro, F

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to project the cumulative incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), life expectancy, and costs in a Spanish setting of treating patients with diabetes, hypertension, and microalbuminuria with either standard hypertension treatment alone or standard

  18. Prevention program at construction worksites aimed at improving health and work ability is cost-saving to the employer: Results from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Dongen, J.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To prolong sustainable healthy working lives of construction workers, a prevention program was developed which aimed to improve the health and work ability of construction workers. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness and financial return from the employers'

  19. Irbesartan is projected to be cost and life saving in a Spanish setting for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and microalbuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, AJ; Annemans, L; Roze, S; Lapuerta, P; Chen, R; Gabriel, S; Carita, P; Rodby, RA; de Zeeuw, D; Parving, HH; De Alvaro, F

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to project the cumulative incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), life expectancy, and costs in a Spanish setting of treating patients with diabetes, hypertension, and microalbuminuria with either standard hypertension treatment alone or standard hypert

  20. Is there scope for cost savings and efficiency gains in HIV services? A systematic review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siapka, Mariana; Remme, Michelle; Obure, Carol Dayo; Maier, Claudia B; Dehne, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To synthesize the data available – on costs, efficiency and economies of scale and scope – for the six basic programmes of the UNAIDS Strategic Investment Framework, to inform those planning the scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in low- and middle-income countries. Methods The relevant peer-reviewed and “grey” literature from low- and middle-income countries was systematically reviewed. Search and analysis followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Findings Of the 82 empirical costing and efficiency studies identified, nine provided data on economies of scale. Scale explained much of the variation in the costs of several HIV services, particularly those of targeted HIV prevention for key populations and HIV testing and treatment. There is some evidence of economies of scope from integrating HIV counselling and testing services with several other services. Cost efficiency may also be improved by reducing input prices, task shifting and improving client adherence. Conclusion HIV programmes need to optimize the scale of service provision to achieve efficiency. Interventions that may enhance the potential for economies of scale include intensifying demand-creation activities, reducing the costs for service users, expanding existing programmes rather than creating new structures, and reducing attrition of existing service users. Models for integrated service delivery – which is, potentially, more efficient than the implementation of stand-alone services – should be investigated further. Further experimental evidence is required to understand how to best achieve efficiency gains in HIV programmes and assess the cost–effectiveness of each service-delivery model. PMID:25110375

  1. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  2. PERSPECTIVES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING SYSTEM IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Spaseska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic competitive conditions are characterized with increased business internationalization, augmented development of the information, communication and computerization production technologies, forcefully competency impact, flexibility organization structure and developed relations between the partners. Consequently, the contemporary enterprises confront with completely changed and new business environment with amplified management information requirements which impose need for credible information and information on time in function of quality decision making. It provids the activitiy-based costing system (ABC which is designed to provide more accurate information regarding the expenditures required by the management, allocating the costs based on the activities as their main carriers. ABC has become a challenge for implementation in Macedonian business entities too. Considering the above, the aim of the research in this paper is to provide information on costing system applied by Macedonian business entities, as well as how many of them are familiar with the system and how much they implement its. There was also an analysis conducted regarding the knowledge of the ABC system and the characteristics of the companies that were subject of the research. The data were obtained by means of a survey. Details of the results are discussed within the paper.

  3. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  4. Cost management and potential savings in composting. 56th information discussion, Magdeburg, November 1997; Kostenmanagement und Einsparpotentiale bei der Kompostierung. 56. Informationsgespraech in Magdeburg im November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangen, H.O. [comp.

    1997-12-31

    This workshop focussed on economic aspects of composting and danaerobic digestion of biological waste. Cost optimisation, methods, and ecological aspects are discussed for several facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany. (SR) [Deutsch] Thema dieses Workshops waren Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen auf dem Sektor der Kompostierung und Vergaerung von Bioabfall. Hierbei werden die Kostenoptimierung, verschiedene Verfahren und oekologische Gesichtpunkte am Beispiel verschiedener Anlagen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland betrachtet. (SR)

  5. Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC): FEMP Assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    An ESPC is a working relationship between a Federal agency and an energy service company (ESCO). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit for the Federal facility and identifies improvements to save energy. In consultation with the Federal agency, the ESCO designs and constructs a project that meets the agency’s needs and arranges the necessary funding. The ESCO guarantees the improvements will generate energy cost savings sufficient to pay for the project over the term of the contract. After the contract ends, all additional cost savings accrue to the agency.

  6. Current Status and Progress on the Development of Cost- Saving and High Performance Structural Steels%新一代节约型高性能结构钢的研究现状与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 刘振宇

    2011-01-01

    China's Iron and Steel industry is facing serious environmental and ecological problems, which can be mostly solved by developing and widely applying cost-saving and high performance structural steels with lower consumption of alloying elements, better mechanical properties and longer service life. In the present paper, the metallurgical principles of new- generation TMCP (thermal mechanical controlled processing) based on ultra fast cooling and "near net shape" forming technology including strip casting were described. The development of the newest cost-saving and high performance structural steels by applying these advanced technologies has been summarized.%我国钢铁产业目前正面临资源匮乏,环境和自然生态不堪重负等严重问题,开发合金元素用量更低、力学性能更高、使用寿命更长的节约型高性能结构钢是解决我国钢铁工业可持续发展问题的主要途径。综述了以超快速冷却为核心的新一代TMCP工艺和以薄带铸轧为代表的“近终成形”技术的相关冶金学原理,重点介绍了它们在开发新一代节约型高性能结构钢产品中的应用和进展,指出了这些新技术在我国的应用前景。

  7. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    A new instrument for measuring housing-related lifestyle (HRL) is introduced and employed for identifying national and cross-national HRL segments in 10 European countries (N = 3190). The identified HRL segments are profiled and the practical importance of HRL for everyday energy-saving efforts...... in the home and for the energy-consumer’s openness to new energy saving opportunities (i.e., energy saving innovativeness) is investigated. The HRL instrument’s 71 items load on 16 dimensions within five lifestyle elements. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the instrument possesses metric...... of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts...

  8. Saving electricity in a hurry - update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2011-06-15

    As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile. It draws on recent analysis to: reinforce well-established guidelines on diagnosing electricity shortfalls, identifying energy-saving opportunities and selecting a package of energy-saving measures; and highlight proven practice for implementing emergency energy-saving programmes. This paper will be valuable to government, academic, private-sector and civil-society stakeholders who inform, develop and implement electricity policy in general, and emergency energy-saving programmes in particular.

  9. The precautionary savings motive and household savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiacomo, Mauro; Alessie, Rob

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the relative importance of the precautionary motive in determining savings. Existing empirical evidence suggests that the impact of precautionary savings is small if one uses a subjective (based on self-reported expectations) measure of uncertainty about next year income. However, othe

  10. Columbus Saves: Saving Money in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The "Columbus Saves" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased savings through education and…

  11. Save a life--save the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruh, Sharon; Jezek, Kenda

    2010-01-01

    The ancient Hebrew principle of Pikuach Nephesh, "He who saves a life saves the world entire," took precedence in the healing ministry of Jesus. Today, when Christian nurses persist in serving others, striving to achieve compassion and professional excellence, they too uphold the law of "preserving life."

  12. Are Women Empowered to Save?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Woolley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female economic empowerment – rising earnings, increased opportunities, greater labour force participation – has given many women the means to save. The shifting of responsibility for retirement security from employers and governments onto individuals has given women a reason to save. But are women actually saving? In this paper, we explore the relationship between the gender dynamics within a family and the accumulation of wealth. We find that little evidence in support of the conventional wisdom that families with a female financial manager save more and repay their debts more often. We find some evidence that male financial management leads to greater savings, and other evidence suggesting that savings patterns have a complex relationship with intra-family gender dynamics. El empoderamiento económico de la mujer – el aumento de los ingresos, mayores oportunidades, mayor participación laboral – ha dado a muchas mujeres los medios para ahorrar. Al pasar la responsabilidad de los ingresos de la jubilación de los empleadores y el gobierno a los individuos ha dado a las mujeres un motivo para ahorrar. ¿Pero realmente ahorran las mujeres? En este artículo se analizan las relaciones entre las dinámicas de género en una familia, y la acumulación de riqueza. Se ha llegado a la conclusión de que hay poca evidencia que apoye la creencia convencional de que las familias en las que una mujer gestiona las financias ahorran más y devuelven sus créditos más frecuentemente. Se ha encontrado alguna evidencia de que la gestión financiera por varones acarrea mayores ahorros, y otras evidencias que sugieren que los patrones de ahorro tienen una relación compleja con las dinámicas de género dentro de la familia.

  13. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  14. Cured of Primary Bone Cancer, But at What Cost: A Qualitative Study of Functional Impairment and Lost Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Fauske

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our study aims to explore how former cancer patients experience physical and psychosocial late effects 3–7 years after they underwent treatment for primary bone sarcoma in the hip/pelvic region. A qualitative, phenomenological, and hermeneutic design was applied. Methods. Sarcoma survivors (n=10 previously treated at Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital were selected to participate. In-depth and semistructured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results. The participants reported that the late effects had three core spheres of impact: “their current daily life,” “their future opportunities,” and “their identity.” They expressed negative changes in activity, increased dependence on others, and exclusion from participation in different areas. Their daily life, work, sports activities, and social life were all affected. Several of their experiences are similar to those described by people with functional impairment or disability. Conclusion. Patients cured of bone cancer in the hip/pelvic region pay a significant price in terms of functional impairment, practical challenges, exclusion from important aspects of life, and loss of previous identity. It is important to appreciate this in order to help bone cancer survivors who struggle to reorient their life and build a secure new identity.

  15. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  16. Total cost of ownership: the role of clinical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockel, Dale; Kintner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Hospitals often incur substantial hidden costs associated with service agreements that they enter into with original equipment manufacturers at the time of equipment purchase. Hospitals should perform an analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their organizations' medical equipment to identify opportunities for performance improvement and savings. The findings of the TCO analysis can point to areas where clinical engineering service management can be improved through investments in technology, training, and teamwork.

  17. ARC Code TI: Save

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Save is a framework for implementing highly available network-accessible services. Save consists of a command-line utility and a small set of extensions for the...

  18. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings-to-investment ratio. 436.21 Section 436.21 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment...

  19. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  20. Hints on cost- and energy saving during lime-sand brick production; Hinweise zur Kosten- und Energieeinsparung bei der Kalksandstein-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, W.

    2001-05-01

    The publication contains hints for reduction of energy consumption and cost in lime-sand brick production. The information was compiled by Bundesverband Kalksandsteinindustrie e.V. and was derived from technical discussions of the master seminars on production technology of the years 1995 - 2000, consultations form member organizations, or from other sources. [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Zusammenstellung von Hinweisen zur Reduzierung des Energieverbrauchs und der Kostensenkung bei der KS-Produktion und soll eine Hilfestellung bei entsprechenden Rationalisierungsmassnahmen in den Mitgliedsunternehmen sein. Die hier aufgefuehrten Hinweise und Anregungen entstammen den Fachdiskussionen der Meisterseminare zur Produktionstechnik aus den Jahren 1995 bis 2000, Beratungsgespraechen fuer Mitgliedsunternehmen oder wurden dem Bundesverband Kalksandsteinindustrie eV freundlicherweise fuer die Gemeinschaftsarbeit zur Verfuegung gestellt. (orig.)

  1. Half dose sugammadex combined with neostigmine is non-inferior to full dose sugammadex for reversal of rocuronium-induced deep neuromuscular blockade: a cost-saving strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouad, Marie T; Alfahel, Waseem S; Kaddoum, Roland N; Siddik-Sayyid, Sahar M

    2017-04-11

    Sugammadex reverses the effect of rocuronium more rapidly and effectively than neostigmine, at all levels of neuromuscular blockade (NMB). However, its cost is prohibitive. The combination of half dose sugammadex with neostigmine would be non-inferior to full dose sugammadex for the reversal of deep NMB. This approach would reduce the cost of sugammadex while preserving its efficacy. Patients were randomly allocated to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg (Group S) or sugammadex 2 mg/kg with neostigmine 50 μg/kg and glycopyrrolate 10 μg/kg (Group NS) for reversal of rocuronium deep NMB. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who recovered to 90% Train of Four (TOF) ratio within 5 min. The non-inferiority margin was set at 10%. Twenty eight patients were enrolled in each group. The number of patients who reached 90% TOF ratio within 5 min was 27 out of 28 (96%) in group S versus 25 out of 28 (89%) in group NS by intention-to-treat (difference: 7%, 95% CI of the difference: -9% to 24%). The number of patients who reached 90% TOF ratio within 5 min was 26 out of 26 (100%) in group S versus 23 out of 25 (92%) in group NS by per-protocol (difference: 8%, 95% CI of the difference: -6% to 25%). Sugammadex 2 mg/kg with neostigmine 50 μg/kg was at worst 9% and 6% less effective than sugammadex 4 mg/kg by intention-to-treat and by per-protocol analysis respectively. Hence, the combination is non-inferior to the recommended dose of sugammadex. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 02375217 , registered on February 11, 2015.

  2. Reduction of Invasive Fungal Infections Among Cancer Patients With Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia After Protective Environment Implementation May Save Costs in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoll

    2015-11-01

    admission did not differ between groups (1.00 USD = 1.9 Brazilian Real, in May 2007. Considering all admissions with IFI, the median cost was significantly higher than recorded in admissions without IFI. Conclusions This study showed that preventive measures, including PE implementation, reduce IFI incidence in patients with CIN, admitted in a hospital in a developing country. This suggests that those strategies may overcome their costs on the long-term, by saving costs associated with fungal infections.

  3. Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  4. Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  5. Computation of Production Leadtime Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    cost in order to conform to SAMMS calculations. SAMMS uses the Presutti- Trepp formula, without significant modification, to compute safety levels...This formula was developed in 1970 by Messrs. Victor Presutti and Richard Trepp of Air Force Logistics Command. The Presutti- Trepp safety level formula...and the Presutti- Trepp safety level formula (Appendix D). B-3 4. Stated another way, PLT savings is the difference in TVC due to changed PLT and price

  6. Opportunities and challenges for cost-efficient implementation of new point-of-care diagnostics for HIV and tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schito, Marco; Peter, Trevor F; Cavanaugh, Sean; Piatek, Amy S; Young, Gloria J; Alexander, Heather; Coggin, William; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Ellenberger, Dennis; Ermantraut, Eugen; Jani, Ilesh V; Katamba, Achilles; Palamountain, Kara M; Essajee, Shaffiq; Dowdy, David W

    2012-05-15

    Stakeholders agree that supporting high-quality diagnostics is essential if we are to continue to make strides in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. Despite the need to strengthen existing laboratory infrastructure, which includes expanding and developing new laboratories, there are clear diagnostic needs where conventional laboratory support is insufficient. Regarding HIV, rapid point-of-care (POC) testing for initial HIV diagnosis has been successful, but several needs remain. For tuberculosis, several new diagnostic tests have recently been endorsed by the World Health Organization, but a POC test remains elusive. Human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis are coendemic in many high prevalence locations, making parallel diagnosis of these conditions an important consideration. Despite its clear advantages, POC testing has important limitations, and laboratory-based testing will continue to be an important component of future diagnostic networks. Ideally, a strategic deployment plan should be used to define where and how POC technologies can be most efficiently and cost effectively integrated into diagnostic algorithms and existing test networks prior to widespread scale-up. In this fashion, the global community can best harness the tremendous capacity of novel diagnostics in fighting these 2 scourges.

  7. Opportunities and Challenges for Cost-Efficient Implementation of New Point-of-Care Diagnostics for HIV and Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Trevor F.; Cavanaugh, Sean; Piatek, Amy S.; Young, Gloria J.; Alexander, Heather; Coggin, William; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Ellenberger, Dennis; Ermantraut, Eugen; Jani, Ilesh V.; Katamba, Achilles; Palamountain, Kara M.; Essajee, Shaffiq; Dowdy, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Stakeholders agree that supporting high-quality diagnostics is essential if we are to continue to make strides in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. Despite the need to strengthen existing laboratory infrastructure, which includes expanding and developing new laboratories, there are clear diagnostic needs where conventional laboratory support is insufficient. Regarding HIV, rapid point-of-care (POC) testing for initial HIV diagnosis has been successful, but several needs remain. For tuberculosis, several new diagnostic tests have recently been endorsed by the World Health Organization, but a POC test remains elusive. Human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis are coendemic in many high prevalence locations, making parallel diagnosis of these conditions an important consideration. Despite its clear advantages, POC testing has important limitations, and laboratory-based testing will continue to be an important component of future diagnostic networks. Ideally, a strategic deployment plan should be used to define where and how POC technologies can be most efficiently and cost effectively integrated into diagnostic algorithms and existing test networks prior to widespread scale-up. In this fashion, the global community can best harness the tremendous capacity of novel diagnostics in fighting these 2 scourges. PMID:22457286

  8. 'Pre-endoscopy point of care test (Simtomax- IgA/IgG-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide) for coeliac disease in iron deficiency anaemia: diagnostic accuracy and a cost saving economic model'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michelle Shui Yee; Mooney, Peter; White, William; Appleby, Victoria; Moreea, Sulleman; Haythem, Ismail; Elias, Joshua; Bundhoo, Kiran; Corbett, Gareth; Wong, Liam; Tsai, Her Hsin; Cross, Simon; Hebden, John; Hoque, Sami; Sanders, David

    2016-09-15

    International guidelines recommend coeliac serology in iron deficiency anaemia, and duodenal biopsy for those tested positive to detect coeliac disease. However, pre-endoscopy serology is often unavailable, thus committing endoscopists to take routine duodenal biopsies. Some endoscopists consider duodenal biopsy mandatory in anaemia to exclude other pathologies. We hypothesise that using a point of care test at endoscopy could fill this gap, by providing rapid results to target anaemic patients who require biopsies, and save costs by biopsy avoidance. We therefore assessed three key aspects to this hypothesis: 1) the availability of pre-endoscopy serology in anaemia; 2) the sensitivities and cost effectiveness of pre-endoscopy coeliac screening with Simtomax in anaemia; 3) whether other anaemia-related pathologies could be missed by this targeted-biopsy approach. Group 1: pre-endoscopy serology availability was retrospectively analysed in a multicentre cohort of 934 anaemic patients at 4 UK hospitals. Group 2: the sensitivities of Simtomax, endomysial and tissue-transglutaminase antibodies were compared in 133 prospectively recruited patients with iron deficiency anaemia attending for a gastroscopy. The sensitivities were measured against duodenal histology as the reference standard in all patients. The cost effectiveness of Simtomax was calculated based on the number of biopsies that could have been avoided compared to an all-biopsy approach. Group 3: the duodenal histology of 153 patients presenting to a separate iron deficiency anaemia clinic were retrospectively reviewed. In group 1, serology was available in 361 (33.8 %) patients. In group 2, the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) were 100 % and 100 % for Simtomax, 96.2 % and 98.9 % for IgA-TTG, and 84.6 % and 96.4 % for EMA respectively. In group 3, the duodenal histology found no causes for anaemia other than coeliac disease. Simtomax had excellent diagnostic accuracy in iron deficiency

  9. Final Report on the Fuel Saving Effectiveness of Various Driver Feedback Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2011-03-01

    This final report quantifies the fuel-savings opportunities from specific driving behavior changes, identifies factors that influence drivers' receptiveness to adopting fuel-saving behaviors, and assesses various driver feedback approaches.

  10. An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM based on local CD4 testing demands can improve turn-around times and save costs whilst ensuring accessible and scalable CD4 services across a national programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K Glencross

    Full Text Available The South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS responded to HIV treatment initiatives with two-tiered CD4 laboratory services in 2004. Increasing programmatic burden, as more patients access anti-retroviral therapy (ART, has demanded extending CD4 services to meet increasing clinical needs. The aim of this study was to review existing services and develop a service-model that integrated laboratory-based and point-of-care testing (POCT, to extend national coverage, improve local turn-around/(TAT and contain programmatic costs.NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse CD4 data, from 60-70 laboratories and 4756 referring health facilities was reviewed for referral laboratory workload, respective referring facility volumes and related TAT, from 2009-2012.An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM is proposed. Tier-1/POCT delivers CD4 testing at single health-clinics providing ART in hard-to-reach areas (350-1500 tests/day, serving ≥ 200 health-clinics. Tier-6 provides national support for standardisation, harmonization and quality across the organization.The ITSDM offers improved local TAT by extending CD4 services into rural/remote areas with new Tier-3 or Tier-2/POC-Hub services installed in existing community laboratories, most with developed infrastructure. The advantage of lower laboratory CD4 costs and use of existing infrastructure enables subsidization of delivery of more expensive POC services, into hard-to-reach districts without reasonable access to a local CD4 laboratory. Full ITSDM implementation across 5 service tiers (as opposed to widespread implementation of POC testing to extend service can facilitate sustainable 'full service coverage' across South Africa, and save>than R125 million in HIV/AIDS programmatic costs. ITSDM hierarchical parental-support also assures laboratory/POC management, equipment maintenance, quality control and on-going training between tiers.

  11. Energy saving in milk processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janzekovic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present the justification of replacement of the obsolete system for milk pasteurization and washing of the production line by the newer CIP system (cleaning in place in the dairy. The latter ensures reliable washing and sterilization of lines and machines, which is one of the principal prerequisites for the product quality.Design/methodology/approach: The measurements were performed with the installed equipment CIP Module 5111 - 5116. The cleaning equipment is an 8 line satellite system. The SPS control and the visualization take place through the RAS (Remote - Access network. The visualization data are archived and the visualization is connected to the PC network. The worn Alfa Laval pasteur has been replaced by the new Fischer equipment.Findings: The new CIP system assured 43% water saving, if compared with the old equipment. Saving of washing agents (caustic solution, acid amounted to 11.5%. Due to smaller need for energy (gas, electricity the energy costs were reduced by 19%.Research limitations/implications: The modern system for pasteurization and washing is closely connected with energy saving measures. It allows the production of safe milk products in accordance with HACCP (hazard analyses of critical control points and reduces the hazard of injuries with chemicals.Practical implications: For any company the investments are a decisive factor for its growth and development. Modernization of systems for washing of production lines in dairies assures the cost reduction at all levels and the milk processing into high-quality milk products.Originality/value: The new CIP energy saving system has an influence on the costs of the dairy business activities and the reduction of environment burdening. Owing to the use of new equipment allowing 20 second maintaining time of pasteurization the pasteurization temperature has been reduced from 78°C to 76°C and, thus, the profitability of the pasteurization process has

  12. 含交易成本和机会成本的极小极大多期投资组合选择模型%Multi-period minimax portfolio selection model with transaction costs and opportunity costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任大源; 徐玖平; 黄南京; 吴萌

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a multi-period portfolio selection problem in the frictional market. A multi-period minimax portfolio selection model with opportunity costs and transaction costs is proposed. By using the theory of nonlinear programming, we prove the existence of optimal solution of this model. Moreover, the method for solving this model is given by using the theory of convex programming and Kuhn-Tucker condition. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate our results.%本文考虑了摩擦市场下的多期证券投资组合选择问题,利用极小极大原理,建立了在含有机会成本和交易成本的多期极小极大投资组合选择模型.利用非线性规划相关理论,证明了该模型最优解的存在性,并利用凸规划相关理论与Kuhn-Tucker条件给出了求解该模型的一种方法,最后通过实例对结论进行了说明.

  13. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  14. Saving for Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文莎

    2009-01-01

    阅读下面的短文,并根据短文后的要求答题。(注意问题后的词数要求) Learning to save money when you're young is an important lesson. All good lessons and habits begin early, and saving is a skill that everyone needs. Many people--adults included--do not have a good sense of saving for the long run.

  15. Planning a Sabbatical? These Tips Can Save Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoney, Joseph P., Jr.; Weston, Marilyn

    1985-01-01

    Information on potential tax-saving opportunities when planning a sabbatical is provided for college personnel. Advice is offered about tax savings for: rental of the academician's personal residences while away from home, the home office deduction, use of an auto, and foreign income tax exclusion. The answer to what expenses are deductible…

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home ...

  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ...

  18. Saving Resources with Plagues in Genetic Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vega, F F; Cantu-Paz, E; Lopez, J I; Manzano, T

    2004-06-15

    The population size of genetic algorithms (GAs) affects the quality of the solutions and the time required to find them. While progress has been made in estimating the population sizes required to reach a desired solution quality for certain problems, in practice the sizing of populations is still usually performed by trial and error. These trials might lead to find a population that is large enough to reach a satisfactory solution, but there may still be opportunities to optimize the computational cost by reducing the size of the population. This paper presents a technique called plague that periodically removes a number of individuals from the population as the GA executes. Recently, the usefulness of the plague has been demonstrated for genetic programming. The objective of this paper is to extend the study of plagues to genetic algorithms. We experiment with deceptive trap functions, a tunable difficult problem for GAs, and the experiments show that plagues can save computational time while maintaining solution quality and reliability.

  19. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  20. The Illusory Effects of Saving Incentives on Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Eric M.; William G. Gale; John Karl Scholz

    1996-01-01

    The authors evaluate research on how tax-based saving incentives (IRAs and 401(k)s) affect saving. Previous research overstates the impact of the incentives on saving by failing to account for several issues: households with saving incentives have stronger tastes for saving than others; saving incentives have interacted with debt, nonfinancial assets, financial markets, and pensions; and saving incentives represent pretax balances, whereas taxable accounts represent posttax balances. Accounti...