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Sample records for cost reduction study

  1. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  2. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  3. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  4. COST REDUCTION STUDIES OF DECORATIVE LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Barrier paper, which is made of bleached absorbent kraft pulp, is a significant layer of decorative laminates, since it controls the see-through of brown color of saturating kraft paper and its opacifying effect usually is achieved by a heavy loading of TiO2. The TiO2, due to its very small particle size, passes between the cellulosic fibers and drains into the white water. To overcome this problem, papermakers try to use various retention aids for improving overall retention of TiO2, but agglomeration of TiO2 causes a decrease in light scattering efficiency of TiO2. During the subsequent saturation operation, the air in the voids is replaced by melamine formaldehyde, which has a refractive index close to that of cellulose. As a result, the sheet becomes translucent and poses 'see through' problem. Keeping this in view, anhydrous magnesium silicate is used as an extender with TiO2 because it effectively increases the overall filler retention, sheet brightness, opacity. The dispersed aqueous slurry of anhydrous magnesium silicate forms fine gel that entraps TiO2 in the wet web and prevents removal of fines and fillers. The addition of 25% TiO2, 7% micronized soapstone powder, 8% anhydrous magnesium silicate, 1% melamine formaldehyde, and 0.1% sodium hexameta-phosphate was found to improve the overall retention by 65.25% and to cut the manufacturing cost by US$ 546.00 per tonne of pulp without affecting the product quality.

  5. Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Total Ownership Cost Reduction Case Study: AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridger, Wray W; Ruiz, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research is to provide a case study that captures the production and design processes and program management solutions used to reduce total ownership costs of AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters...

  7. Report Tunneling Cost Reduction Study prepared for Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-16

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratories has a need to review the costs of constructing the very long tunnels which would be required for housing the equipment for the proposed Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) project. Current tunneling costs are high, and the identification of potential means of significantly reducing them, and thereby helping to keep overall project costs within an acceptable budget, has assumed great importance. Fermilab has contracted with The Robbins Company to provide an up-to-date appraisal of tunneling technology, and to review the potential for substantially improving currently the state-of-practice performance and construction costs in particular. The Robbins Company was chosen for this task because of its long and successful experience in hard rock mechanical tunnel boring. In the past 40 years, Robbins has manufactured over 250 tunneling machines, the vast majority for hard rock applications. In addition to also supplying back-up equipment, Robbins has recently established a division dedicated to the manufacture of continuous conveying equipment for the efficient support of tunneling operations. The study extends beyond the tunnel boring machine (TBM) itself, and into the critical area of the logistics of the support of the machine as it advances, including manpower. It is restricted to proven methods using conventional technology, and its potential for incremental but meaningful improvement, rather than examining exotic and undeveloped means of rock excavation that have been proposed from time to time by the technical community. This is the first phase of what is expected to be a number of studies in increasing depth of technical detail, and as such has been restricted to the issues connected with the initial 34 kilometer circumference booster tunnel, and not the proposed 500 kilometer circumference tunnel housing the VLHC itself. The booster tunnel is entirely sited within low to medium strength limestone and dolomite formations

  8. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Jensen, Christian Munk

    2017-01-01

    This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings...... contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost...... of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark...

  9. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  10. Manufacturing cost reductions and ecoefficiency: a relationship based on a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Maria Vanalle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the search for higher profits or competitiveness, firms have frequently used structured procedures to reduce their costs and expenses. However, the environmental consequences associated to those processes have hardly been considered. Hence, the central purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to obtain relevant environmental gains even not considering the environmental issues as part of the operational cost reduction efforts. This particular point was verified through a single case study where value analysis was used to obtain manufacturing cost reductions in a company belonging to the Brazilian textile sector. Even not considering environmental aspects as part of the value analysis procedures, when the cost reduction actions were implemented it was possible to confirm that they also brought significant improvements to the environmental conditions, which were measured by the firm ecoefficiency levels before and after the cost reduction implementations. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  11. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost of energy is included on how to expand working hours from daytime to also work at night.

  12. Cost reduction study for the LANL KrF laser-driven LMF design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-27

    This report is in fulfillment of the deliverable requirements for the optical components portions of the LANL-KrF Laser-Driven LMF Design Cost Reduction Study. This report examines the future cost reductions that may accrue through the use of mass production, innovative manufacturing techniques, and new materials. Results are based on data collection and survey of optical component manufacturers, BDM experience, and existing cost models. These data provide a good representation of current methods and technologies from which future estimates can be made. From these data, a series of scaling relationships were developed to project future costs for a selected set of technologies. The scaling relationships are sensitive to cost driving parameters such as size and surface figure requirements as well as quantity requirements, production rate, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition to the scaling relationships, descriptions of the selected processes were developed along with graphical representations of the processes. This report provides a useful tool in projecting the costs of advanced laser concepts at the component level of detail. A mix of the most diverse yet comparable technologies was chosen for this study. This yielded a useful, yet manageable number of variables to examine. The study has resulted in a first-order cost model which predicts the relative cost behavior of optical components within different variable constraints.

  13. Regression Testing Cost Reduction Suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alaa El-Din

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimated cost of software maintenance exceeds 70 percent of total software costs [1], and large portion of this maintenance expenses is devoted to regression testing. Regression testing is an expensive and frequently executed maintenance activity used to revalidate the modified software. Any reduction in the cost of regression testing would help to reduce the software maintenance cost. Test suites once developed are reused and updated frequently as the software evolves. As a result, some test cases in the test suite may become redundant when the software is modified over time since the requirements covered by them are also covered by other test cases. Due to the resource and time constraints for re-executing large test suites, it is important to develop techniques to minimize available test suites by removing redundant test cases. In general, the test suite minimization problem is NP complete. This paper focuses on proposing an effective approach for reducing the cost of regression testing process. The proposed approach is applied on real-time case study. It was found that the reduction in cost of regression testing for each regression testing cycle is ranging highly improved in the case of programs containing high number of selected statements which in turn maximize the benefits of using it in regression testing of complex software systems. The reduction in the regression test suite size will reduce the effort and time required by the testing teams to execute the regression test suite. Since regression testing is done more frequently in software maintenance phase, the overall software maintenance cost can be reduced considerably by applying the proposed approach.

  14. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  15. A study on effect of outsourcing on cost reduction: A case study of tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Shirzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, many organizations have attempted to reduce their costs through outsourcing of non-value added activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors on reducing production expenses through outsourcing activities. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 19 questions and distributes it among some experts. Using structural equation modeling, the study investigates different variables and the results indicate that outsourcing could reduce the production cost through time, inventory and human resources. The implementation of Freedman for ranking these factors indicate that time played the most influential factor followed by inventory and human resources. The results of structural equation modeling indicate that there are some positive and meaningful relationship between human capital and cost (β=0.78, t-value = 9.38, a positive and meaningful relationship between inventory and cost (β=0.81, t-value=10.54 and a positive and meaningful relationship between time and cost (β=0.89, t-value = 11.26.

  16. Cost reduction in the production process using the ABC and Lean tools: Case Study in the refrigeration components industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi da Silva Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on production management with respect to operating costs that relate directly to the value of the product. For this study, three methods were used, ABC - Activity Based Costing, which provides accurate information about the knowledge of the real costs, VSM - Value Stream Mapping and Lean Manufacturing. The method adopted for this research was the case study. The study was conducted at a refrigeration components company in the Industrial Center of Manaus. The analyses and observations initially went through the process of mapping the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc.. After analysis it was possible to map the cost for each activity and finally calculate the cost of the product before and after the improvements resulting from the lean methodology. The results obtained in this study showed a 20% reduction in product costs resulting from operational improvements. The activity-based cost led to a discovery of the real costs of waste. The steps for this study include process mapping through the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc., establishing the cost driver for each activity, and finally calculating the cost of the product before and after the application of lean improvements. The paper was conducted through literature and descriptive review, and used a case study method. It describes the model that has been tested in a production line for a refrigeration components company from the Manaus Industrial Center, achieving a 20% reduction in product cost.

  17. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  18. The economics of gasoline subsidy cost reduction policy: Case study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaya, Muhammad I.

    only provides a subsidy for regular gasoline and in turn proposes an alternative policy that introduces a subsidy for premium gasoline at a lower rate to reduce the overall gasoline subsidy cost. There has yet to be any research that simulates price controls for gasoline with different grades. Simulations based on the calibrated demand are performed and the results confirm the existence of potential savings that are largely determined by the cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline. The benchmark scenario, based on a recent study of substitutability between gasoline by grades, results in an 11.5% reduction in subsidy cost of around 950 million USD with a subsidy rate of Rp 2,254/liter. Furthermore, the optimal rate of subsidy for premium gasoline results in a reduction of inefficiency as consumers' welfare increase by 6.8 trillion rupiahs (or 560 million USD).

  19. Managing Hotel’s Operation in Viet Nam in Global Economic Crisis : A case study on cost reduction in hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Son

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research for this thesis is to find out the costs which can be reduced in hotels in Vietnam to copes with difficulties and challenges from the global economic crisis. The idea is to find out what kinds of cost can be reduced and how they are reduced to minimize expenditures of hotel, how the costs reduction affect quality of hotel’s products and services. In order to achieve goals of the research, two structure telephone interviews were conducted in a case study in the Huu Ngh...

  20. A study on the reduction in the production cost of the long-running collieries and mechanization of coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. This report consists of 3 articles. 1) Mining method, 2) Mechanization of cutting and loading using plough, 3) Analysis and evaluation of the result of 1995`s the mechanization program. (author). 24 refs., tabs., 54 figs.

  1. PV O&M Cost Model and Cost Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Andy

    2017-03-15

    This is a presentation on PV O&M cost model and cost reduction for the annual Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (2017), covering estimating PV O&M costs, polynomial expansion, and implementation of Net Present Value (NPV) and reserve account in cost models.

  2. Complexity Management - A multiple case study analysis on control and reduction of complexity costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna

    of products, with features more custom-made to cover individual needs, both regarding characteristics of products and support services. This necessity leads to a considerable increase of the complexity in the company, which affects the product portfolio, production and supply chain, market segments...... product and process complexity. The possible factors for describing this correlation are identified and defined as complexity cost factors (CCFs). By identifying the CCFs this research intends to analyze the most relevant processes where the complexity and cost are directly related to the complexity...

  3. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  4. REVERSE LOGISTICS OF PACKAGING AS A SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY FOR COST REDUCTION: A STUDY IN A BOTTLER BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laryssa Guedes de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the possibility of reducing production costs with the implementation of a program of reverse logistics packaging. Therefore we conducted a literature review focusing on reverse logistics, sustainability, packaging and glass recycling. The research was conducted through a descriptive case study, conducted from a survey and a semi structured interview. The study was developed in a beverage bottler, the Engarrafamento Coroa, a company that adopts in its bottling system using bottles purchased from recycling cooperatives. The results indicate that by reverse logistics is possible to reduce costs and environmental impact associated with the pollution and waste of materials, and provides revenue generation.

  5. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  6. Optical Networks for Cost Monitoring and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Buvanesvari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on cost reduction and monitoring in optical networks. Optical mesh networks are cost savings with switching systems that are interconnected by point-to-point networks. Transponders play a major role in it. All-optical packet switching has been intensively investigated in recent years as an alternative to static, cross connect based networks. Several switch architectures have been proposed, all of them using buffers made of fiber delay lines. We consider the problem of minimizing the congestion in wireless optical (FSO backbone networks by placing controllable relay nodes. We propose algorithms for placement of relays in the network under node interface constraints. Further reduction in cost is done by the conversion of optical to electrical at the intermediate nodes. Optical transport networks offer a new level of flexibility in the optical layer allowing various services and thereby improving the efficiency, performance and robustness. An optical path with a transparent feature allows the transmission of signals that are optical and also independent of data rate and modulation format. Client layer protocol provides transparency for the transport layer in optical networks. Thus there is a significant challenge in terms of function, flexibility and monitoring cost.

  7. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  8. Fine particle emissions, emission reduction potential and reduction costs in Finland in 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the atmosphere have been associated with severe human health effects. This report explores future emissions of primary PM2.5, their reduction potential and related reduction costs in Finland. One activity pathway of 2020 of the Finnish Climate Strategy was studied with two different PM emission control utilization scenarios: (1) "Baseline" which involves PM control technology utilization complying with current legislation, and (2) "Reduction" which assumes t...

  9. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction effort which is negotiated on a cost-plus-incentive-fee, fixed-price incentive, or firm-fixed... savings which result from— (1) A specific cost reduction effort which is negotiated on a cost-plus... establishment of cost-plus-incentive-fee, fixed-price incentive, or firm-fixed-price efforts or for design...

  10. Health economic impacts and cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin reduction strategies in Africa: Case studies in biocontrol and postharvest interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Khlangwiset, Pornsri

    2010-01-01

    Advances in health economics have proven useful in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions, where the benefit usually takes the form of improved health outcomes rather than market outcomes. We perform health-based cost-effectiveness analyses of two potential aflatoxin control strategies in Africa: 1) pre-harvest biocontrol, using atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to competitively exclude toxigenic strains from colonizing maize in Nigeria, and 2) postharvest interventions in a package to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in groundnuts in Guinea. We describe how health benefits gained from each intervention, in terms of fewer aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, can be compared with costs of implementing the interventions. We find that both interventions would be extremely cost-effective if applied widely in African agriculture. That is, the monetized value of lives saved and quality of life gained by reducing aflatoxin-induced HCC far exceeds the cost of either biocontrol or the postharvest intervention package to achieve those health benefits. The estimated cost-effectiveness ratio (CER; gross domestic product multiplied by disability-adjusted life years saved per unit cost) for biocontrol in Nigerian maize ranges from 5.10 to 24.8; while the estimated CER for the postharvest intervention package in Guinean groundnuts ranges from 0.21 to 2.08. Any intervention with a CER greater than 1 is considered by the World Health Organization to be “very cost-effective,” while an intervention with a CER greater than 0.33 is considered “cost-effective.” Aside from cost-effectiveness, public health interventions must be readily accepted by the public, and must have financial and infrastructural support to be feasible in the parts of the world where they are most needed. PMID:20234965

  11. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on

  12. Cost reductions in the nickel—hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1988-04-01

    For the past several years, Johnson Controls, Inc. has been working with COMSAT Laboratories and Sandia National Laboratories on the development of the The major emphasis of the program was on reduction of the manufacturing cost of the aerospace cell. The intent of the developmental effort was to redes The approach was to adapt JCI's experience in the high-volume production of lead—acid automotive batteries to the manufacture of the nickel—hydroge A significant reduction in cost was achieved through several technical developments, component changes, and process improvements. Two technical develop As an integral part of the program, the details of the manufacturing costs were carefully studied. One purpose was to highlight those raw material and

  13. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  14. Energy cost reduction in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Information is presented on methods for saving fuel and electric power in the baking industry; the cost of specific retrofits to bakery equipment and of modifications to processes; ways to reduce transportation costs and energy; and reducing energy demand for lighting, cooling, and heating bakeries. (LCL)

  15. Systemic cost-effectiveness analysis of food hazard reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    stage are considered. Cost analyses are conducted for different risk reduction targets and for three alternative scenarios concerning the acceptable range of interventions. Results demonstrate that using a system-wide policy approach to risk reduction can be more cost-effective than a policy focusing...

  16. Distributed Wind Cost Reduction: Learning from Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-02-23

    The distributed wind energy industry can learn several lessons from the solar industry regarding reducing soft costs. Suzanne Tegen presented this overview at the 2016 Distributed Wind Energy Association Business Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 23, 2016.

  17. Achieving Cost Reduction Through Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, Betty Jo

    2016-10-01

    The reimbursement structure of the US health care system is shifting from a volume-based system to a value-based system. Adopting a comprehensive data analytics platform has become important to health care facilities, in part to navigate this shift. Hospitals generate plenty of data, but actionable analytics are necessary to help personnel interpret and apply data to improve practice. Perioperative services is an important revenue-generating department for hospitals, and each perioperative service line requires a tailored approach to be successful in managing outcomes and controlling costs. Perioperative leaders need to prepare to use data analytics to reduce variation in supplies, labor, and overhead. Mercy, based in Chesterfield, Missouri, adopted a perioperative dashboard that helped perioperative leaders collaborate with surgeons and perioperative staff members to organize and analyze health care data, which ultimately resulted in significant cost savings. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heliostat cost optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.

  19. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Launcher Systems Development Cost: Behavior, Uncertainty, Influences, Barriers and Strategies for Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will report on the activities of the IAA Launcher Systems Economics Working Group in preparations for its Launcher Systems Development Cost Behavior Study. The Study goals include: improve launcher system and other space system parametric cost analysis accuracy; improve launcher system and other space system cost analysis credibility; and provide launcher system and technology development program managers and other decisionmakers with useful information on development cost impacts of their decisions. The Working Group plans to explore at least the following five areas in the Study: define and explain development cost behavior terms and concepts for use in the Study; identify and quantify sources of development cost and cost estimating uncertainty; identify and quantify significant influences on development cost behavior; identify common barriers to development cost understanding and reduction; and recommend practical, realistic strategies to accomplish reductions in launcher system development cost.

  1. Analytical trade study of the STS payload environment. [design analysis and cost estimates for noise reduction devices for space shuttle orbiter payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, W. P.; Barrett, S.; Raratono, J.; Payne, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    The current predicted acoustic environment for the shuttle orbiter payload bay will produce random vibration environments for payload components and subsystems which potentially will result in design, weight and cost penalties if means of protecting the payloads are not developed. Results are presented of a study to develop, through design and cost effectiveness trade studies, conceptual noise suppression device designs for space shuttle payloads. The impact of noise suppression on environmental levels and associated test costs, and on test philosophy for the various payload classes is considered with the ultimate goal of reducing payload test costs. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  2. Cost reductions from a smoking policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J C; West, J F

    1989-03-01

    The health of its workforce is of paramount importance to a business. The loss of even one key person to heart and lung disease can have a detrimental effect on organizational efficiency. Provided strides similar to those made in the last five years continue, perhaps within the next five years major employers will have all work areas smoke free. In large cities considerable help in implementing a nonsmoking policy is available to employers. Individual companies need to consider the merits of each type of program and then decide which best fits the organization. Compared with a nonsmoker, the average employed smoker in the United States 1. Takes approximately 50% more sick leave 2. Uses the health care system at least 50% more 3. Suffers over twice the mortality rate during working years 4. Spends 6% of working hours smoking 5. Causes indoor work facilities to expend six times the capital and operating outlays to maintain air circulation rates that meet building code specifications 6. Imposes a much greater maintenance burden for cleaning, repairing, repainting and replacing furnishings and equipment 7. Imposes unnecessary costly liability on employers for damages sustained by co-workers who are forced to work in a smoky environment 8. Exacts a high price in employee morale because of the irritation and discomfort suffered by fellow workers.

  3. A top-down approach to heliostat cost reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuth, James N.; Landamn, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The Technology Innovation Agency (TIA) has funded a South African central receiver collector technology development project, called Helio100. The project aims to provide South Africa's first commercially viable heliostat technology, which is both low in cost and offers high local content potential. A top-down approach is employed for heliostat cost reduction. This approach incorporates interlinked tools which move from high level cost analyses based on qualitative data during early stages of conceptual design, to detailed quantitative analyses in the final stages of design. Low cost heliostat designs are realized by the incorporation of both a top-down and bottom-up method. The current H100 design results in heliostat costs of 155/m2 at 20 000 units p.a. while further industrialisation results in heliostat costs of 126/m2 at 20 000 units.

  4. Vehicle Lightweighting: Mass Reduction Spectrum Analysis and Process Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, Anthony [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Hannibal, Ted [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ivanic, Ziga [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Clark, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. In the first two phases of this effort examined combinations of strategies aimed at achieving strategic targets of 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. These results have been reported in the Idaho National Laboratory report INL/EXT-14-33863 entitled Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting published in March 2015. The data for these strategies were drawn from many sources, including Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. lightweighting studies, U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc./Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses.

  5. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Ulrich [Alencon LLC; Fishman, Oleg [Alencon LLC

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  6. Cost-effective Sulphur Emission Reduction under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, A; Ruszczynski, A.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of reducing SO2 emissions in Europe is considered. The costs of reduction are assumed to be uncertain and are modeled by a set of possible scenarios. A mean-variance model of the problem is formulated and a specialized computational procedure developed. The approach is applied to the transboundary air pollution model with real-world data.

  7. Low-cost carbon pellets for NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Soriano-Mora; A. Bueno-Lopez; A. Garcia-Garcia; R. Perry; C.E. Snape [University of Alicante (Spain). Department of Inorganic Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Carbonaceous materials have been proposed as potential inexpensive reducing agents for NOx reduction under suitable operating conditions. Potassium has been found to be an effective catalyst in the C-NOx reaction at sufficiently high concentration. In the current work it was decided to explore low-cost carbon precursors for their suitability for NOx reduction, and to incorporate them in pellets rather than briquettes. The much greater surface area afforded by pellets should allow them to be used to better effect in removing NOx from flue gases passing through a fixed bed. The feedstocks selected included bituminous coal, high- and medium-temperature cokes, petroleum coke, anthracite, scrap tyre pyrolysis char and power station PFA. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was used as a binder, as it can be heat-cured per se at ca. 275{sup o}C, with little loss in volatile matter. To test their propensity to reduce NOx in flue gas, 10g samples of pellets were heated in a reactor at 325 - 350{sup o}C in a 2 dm{sup 3}/min flow of gas comprising 2000 ppmv NO, 5% oxygen with nitrogen as the balance. A selectivity factor was then calculated for each pellet sample and test condition, which defines the proportion of carbon consumed in reducing NOx relative to its combustion with oxygen. The results show that constant levels of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction, being the consumption of O{sub 2} hardly appreciable, leading to satisfactory values of selectivity factor. This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples following all stages of heat treatment. The highest selectivity of ca. 0.4 was obtained for the carbonised bituminous coal and this was comparable to that achieved for briquettes from earlier studies. (Abstract only).

  8. Time-driven activity-based costing to identify opportunities for cost reduction in pediatric appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang R; Abbas, Paulette I; Smith, Carolyn M; Carberry, Kathleen E; Ren, Hui; Patel, Binita; Nuchtern, Jed G; Lopez, Monica E

    2016-12-01

    As reimbursement programs shift to value-based payment models emphasizing quality and efficient healthcare delivery, there exists a need to better understand process management to unearth true costs of patient care. We sought to identify cost-reduction opportunities in simple appendicitis management by applying a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methodology to this high-volume surgical condition. Process maps were created using medical record time stamps. Labor capacity cost rates were calculated using national median physician salaries, weighted nurse-patient ratios, and hospital cost data. Consumable costs for supplies, pharmacy, laboratory, and food were derived from the hospital general ledger. Time-driven activity-based costing resulted in precise per-minute calculation of personnel costs. Highest costs were in the operating room ($747.07), hospital floor ($388.20), and emergency department ($296.21). Major contributors to length of stay were emergency department evaluation (270min), operating room availability (395min), and post-operative monitoring (1128min). The TDABC model led to $1712.16 in personnel costs and $1041.23 in consumable costs for a total appendicitis cost of $2753.39. Inefficiencies in healthcare delivery can be identified through TDABC. Triage-based standing delegation orders, advanced practice providers, and same day discharge protocols are proposed cost-reducing interventions to optimize value-based care for simple appendicitis. II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, W.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.; Hicks, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by us

  10. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its cost competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by usi...

  11. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, W.; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Dekker, S.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203449827; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.; Hicks, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by

  12. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Todorut; L. Paliu-Popa; V. S. Tselentis; D. Cirnu

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM) tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main L...

  13. Pipeline cost reduction through effective project management and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [TransCanada Pipeline Ltd., Alberta (Canada); Babuk, T. [Empress International Inc., Westwood, NJ (United States); Mohitpour, M. [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Murray, M.A. [National Energy Board of Canada (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pipelines are regarded by many as passive structures with the technology involved in their construction and operation being viewed as relatively simple and stable. If such is the case how can there be much room for cost improvement? In reality, there have been many technological and regulatory innovations required within the pipeline industry to meet the challenges posed by ever increasing consumer demand for hydrocarbons, the effects of aging infrastructure and a need to control operating and maintenance expenditures. The importance of technology management, as a subset of overall project management, is a key element of life cycle cost control. Assurance of public safety and the integrity of the system are other key elements in ensuring a successful pipeline project. The essentials of best practise project management from an owner/ operator's perspective are set out in the paper. Particular attention is paid to the appropriate introduction of new technology, strategic procurement practice and material selection, indicating that capital cost savings of up to 15% are achievable without harming life cycle cost. The value of partnering leading to technical innovation, cost savings and improved profitability for all the participants is described. Partnering also helps avoid duplicated effort through the use of common tools for design, planning schedule tracking and reporting. Investing in appropriate technology development has been a major source of cost reduction in recent years and the impact of a number of these recently introduced technologies in the areas of materials, construction processes and operation and maintenance are discussed in the paper. (author)

  14. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  15. Proton pump inhibitors: potential cost reductions by applying prescribing guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahir, Caitriona

    2012-01-01

    There are concerns that proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are being over prescribed in both primary and secondary care. This study aims to establish potential cost savings in a community drug scheme for a one year period according to published clinical and cost-effective guidelines for PPI prescribing.

  16. A supply chain cost reduction framework for the South African mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musenga F. Mpwanya

    2017-03-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to explore supply chain costs in the South African mobile phone industry, and to develop a supply chain cost-reduction framework for the South African mobile phone industry. Setting: This study explores supply chain costs in four mobile phone companies operating in the South African mobile phone industry, of which three mobile network operators and one mobile retailing group. It uses semi-structured interview data collected in 2011. Method: This study adopted a qualitative case study design to understand supply chain costs and develop a supply chain cost-reduction framework for the South African mobile phone industry. Eight semi-structured interviews with managers of mobile phone companies were conducted. The data were analysed with the help of Atlas.ti, using an adapted three-phased analytical framework as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994 and O’ Dwyer (2004. Results: The study found that consolidation of strategic relationships through collaboration and strategic alliances between MNOs and other supply chain players is one of the ways to drive costs down across the supply chain. Outsourcing of some of the support activities and retailers’ direct purchasing transactions from device manufacturers were also found to be other avenues for reducing supply chain costs in the industry. Conclusion: The study suggests that mobile network operators (MNOs need to consolidate their strategic relationships by increasing the share of the network infrastructure, and emphasising the need to strive for operational efficiencies. This combined effort should result in significant cost reductions across the supply chain. The findings of this study provided some avenues that managers of mobile-phone companies could consider to drive costs down supply chain-wide and service end-users at lower rates. The findings of this study could also help regulating authorities to get insights into supply chain cost reduction and develop appropriate

  17. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbonmarket, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex,dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. Themodeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared.Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reductionrequirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA' s withdrawal. Totalcosts vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs wouldsharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigationstrategies drops to only 0-16%.

  18. Cost reduction potential of the DSN data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1977-01-01

    The cost of the DSN data base can be reduced by computerizing and unifying the current multiplicity of separate manual, computer, and hybrid data bases. Savings would accrue from eliminating all manual system costs, increasing efficiency in data base implementation and maintenance-and-operation, and increasing data accuracy. By applying a simple mathematical savings model to current data base costs, this study estimates the probable range of net ten-year savings. The minimum net savings, under the assumptions of the study, are calculated as $7.5 million.

  19. The economic cost of using restraint and the value added by restraint reduction or elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Janice; Goldstein, Robert

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the economic cost of using restraint on one adolescent inpatient service and to examine the effect of an initiative to reduce or eliminate the use of restraint after it was implemented. A detailed process-task analysis of mechanical, physical, and medication-based restraint was conducted in accordance with state and federal restraint requirements. Facility restraint data were collected, verified, and analyzed. A model was developed to determine the cost and duration of an average episode for each type of restraint. Staff time allocated to restraint activities and medication costs were computed. Calculation of the cost of restraint was restricted to staff and medication costs. Aggregate costs of restraint use and staff-related costs for one full year before the restraint reduction initiative (FY 2000) and one full year after the initiative (FY 2003) were calculated. Outcome, discharge, and recidivism data were analyzed. A comparison of the FY 2000 data with the FY 2003 data showed that the adolescent inpatient service's aggregate use of restraint decreased from 3,991 episodes to 373 episodes (91 percent), which was associated with a reduction in the cost of restraint from $1,446,740 to $117,036 (a 92 percent reduction). In addition, sick time, staff turnover and replacement costs, workers' compensation, injuries to adolescents and staff, and recidivism decreased. Adolescent Global Assessment of Functioning scores at discharge significantly improved. Implementation of a restraint reduction initiative was associated with a reduction in the use of restraint, staff time devoted to restraint, and staff-related costs. This shift appears to have contributed to better outcomes for adolescents, fewer injuries to adolescents and staff, and lower staff turnover. The initiative may have enhanced adolescent treatment and work conditions for staff.

  20. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barrera-Roldan, A. [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy.

  1. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  2. Major cost savings associated with biologic dose reduction in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, C L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether patients with Inflammatory Arthritis (IA) (Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) or Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)) would remain in remission following a reduction in biologic dosing frequency and to calculate the cost savings associated with dose reduction. This prospective non-blinded non-randomised study commenced in 2010. Patients with Inflammatory Arthritis being treated with a biologic agent were screened for disease activity. A cohort of those in remission according to standardized disease activity indices (DAS28 < 2.6, BASDAI < 4) was offered a reduction in dosing frequency of two commonly used biologic therapies (etanercept 50 mg once per fortnight instead of weekly, adalimumab 40 mg once per month instead of fortnightly). Patients were assessed for disease activity at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following reduction in dosing frequency. Cost saving was calculated. 79 patients with inflammatory arthritis in remission were recruited. 57% had rheumatoid arthritis (n = 45), 13% psoriatic arthritis (n = 10) and 30% ankylosing spondylitis (n = 24). 57% (n = 45) were taking etanercept and 43% (n = 34) adalimumab. The percentage of patients in remission at 24 months was 56% (n = 44). This resulted in an actual saving to the state of approximately 600,000 euro over two years. This study demonstrates the reduction in biologic dosing frequency is feasible in Inflammatory Arthritis. There was a considerable cost saving at two years. The potential for major cost savings in biologic usage should be pursued further.

  3. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  4. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  5. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  6. Low-cost carbon pellets for NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano-Mora, J.M.; Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Perry, R.; Snape, C.E. [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Various low-cost carbon precursors were examined for their suitability and selectivity towards NOx reduction. The carbon feedstocks selected included bituminous coal, high- and medium-temperature cokes, petroleum coke, anthracite, scrap tyre pyrolysis char and power station PFA. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was the binder. Pellets were prepared from a solid mixture containing 65 mass % of air-dried carbon feedstock crushed to {lt} 0.5 mm, 30% potassium hydroxide milled to {lt}0.2 mm and 5% CNSL. To test their propensity to reduce NOx in flue gas, 10 g samples of pellets were heated in a reactor at 325-350{sup o}C in a 2 dm{sup 3}/min flow of gas comprising 2000 ppmv NO, 5% oxygen with nitrogen as the balance. The reduction in NOx and O{sub 2} conversion were measured on-line together with CO{sub 2} and CO evolution. A selectivity factor was then calculated for each pellet sample and test condition, which defines the proportion of carbon consumed in reducing NOx relative to its combustion with oxygen. The results show that constant values of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction leading to satisfactory values of selectivity factor. This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples following all stages of heat treatment. Final potassium content is itself obviously dependent on the loss in mass experienced by the pellets during heat treatment, but measured potassium contents were without exception higher than those attributable to volatile losses alone, suggesting that there was alkali-induced activation occurring resulting in some of the carbon being consumed during carbonisation. The highest selectivity of around 0.4 was obtained for the carbonised bituminous coal. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Redesigning of Shopping Cart for Cost Reduction Using DFMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiju C. D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Product Design is a way of creating new designs for various products to be sold by a business to customers. It is very efficient as certain new designs and ideas can lead to products with less cost. The two methodologies of design for manufacture and assembly (DFMA include design for manufacture (DFM which is concentrated on reducing the number of redundant parts for the ease of manufacturing and also design for assembly (DFA which is concentrated on reducing the assembly time of the parts included in the design of the product. It also helps to reduce the inefficiency and waste in the product design. This paper includes a case study of manufacture and assembly costs estimation of a shopping cart which is widely used in supermarkets, department stores all around the world. The main aim of this paper is to reduce the overall manufacturing cost of the shopping cart. The CAD model of the different parts of the shopping cart was generated using solid works and then analysed using the DFMA software. The outcomes were studied and the re-design is done. The final assembly cost of the re-designed product was compared to that of the existing design and the results are discussed.

  8. Lean-Six Sigma: tools for rapid cycle cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Chip

    2006-10-01

    Organizational costs can be grouped as process cost, cost of quality, and cost of poor quality. Providers should train managers in the theory and application of Lean-Six Sigma, including the seven categories of waste and how to remove them. Healthcare financial executives should work with managers in eliminating waste to improve service and reduce costs.

  9. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed...... to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined...... within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics...

  10. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  11. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Roslizar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school’s usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of salt reduction to prevent hypertension and CVD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorling, Elisabeth; Niebuhr, Dea; Kroke, Anja

    2017-08-01

    To analyse and compare the cost-effectiveness of different interventions to reduce salt consumption. A systematic review of published cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) and cost-utility analyses (CUA) was undertaken in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane and others until July 2016. Study selection was limited to CEA and CUA conducted in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in English, German or French, without time limit. Outcomes measures were life years gained (LYG), disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Relevant aspects in modelling were analysed and compared. Quality assessments were conducted using the Drummond and Jefferson/British Medical Journal checklist. OECD member countries. Mainly adults. Fourteen CEA and CUA were included in the review which analysed different strategies: salt reduction or substitution in processed foods, taxes, labelling, awareness campaigns and targeted dietary advice. Fifty-nine out of sixty-two scenarios were cost-saving. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in international dollars (Intl.$; 2015) was particularly low for taxes, a salt reduction by food manufacturers and labelling (303 900 Intl.$/DALY). However, only six studies analysed cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective and quality assessments showed flaws in conducting and a lack of transparency in reporting. A population-wide salt reduction could be cost-effective in prevention of hypertension and CVD in OECD member countries. However, comparability between study results is limited due to differences in modelling, applied perspectives and considered data.

  13. Multicentre study of haemodialysis costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Moncasi, E; Arenas Jiménez, M D; Alonso, M; Martínez, M F; Gámen Pardo, A; Rebollo, P; Ortega Montoliú, T; Martínez Terrer, T; Alvarez-Ude, F

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies to determine the cost of haemodialysis (HD) in Spain have significant limitations: they are outdated or used indirect methods. There is also a lack of analysis performed simultaneously on Public centres (PC), with direct HD services, and partially state-subsidised centres (SC). This is an important issue since the two systems coexist in Spain. To estimate the cost of HD replacement therapy for chronic renal failure in several centres. This is a prospective and publicly-funded study, which estimates the costs for 2008 using a cost accounting system with specific allocation criteria. We collected demographic and comorbidity data for each centre. Six centres participated, two PC and four SC. There were no significant differences between centres in terms of patient demographics, time on haemodialysis and the Charlson comorbidity index. The total cost per patient per year ranged between € 46, 254 and € 33,130. The cost per patient per year (excluding vascular access and hospital admission) for PC was € 42, 547 and € 39, 289 and for SC € 32 872, € 29, 786, € 35, 461 and € 35, 294 (23% more in PC than SC). Costs related to staff/patient/year and consumables/patient/year were 67% and 83% respectively, higher for PC than SC. The highest percentage cost was for staff (average 30.9%), which showed significant variability between centres, both in absolute numbers (staff cost per patient per year between € 18,151 and € 8504) and as a percentage (between 42.6 % and 25.4%). Cost variability exists among different HD centres, and this can be attributed primarily to staff and consumables costs, which is higher for PC than SC.

  14. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics as a next frontier for offshore wind constituencies. This important area of the supply chain is ripe to academically and professionally cultivate and harvest in terms of offshore wind energy cost reductions. Our paper suggests that a focused organizational approach for logistics both horizontally and vertically within the company organizations could be the way forward, coupled with a long-term legislative environment to enable the necessary investments in logistics assets and transport equipment.

  15. Perceptions of managers regarding supply chain cost reduction in the South African mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musenga F. Mpwanya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many industries, including the mobile phone industry, experience a surge in supply chain (SC costs in the provision of products and services to their customers. Despite this, only a few studies have been conducted on SC cost reduction in South Africa and globally.Objective: This study seeks to understand the perceptions of managers regarding cost reduction in the South African mobile phone SC.Method: A qualitative case study was conducted, involving eight willing managers and using semi-structured interviews, observation and documents. Interviews transcripts were analysed thematically with the help of Atlas.ti and a threefold process was followed, comprising data reduction, data display and data interpretation and conclusion drawing.Results: The findings suggest that mobile phone companies should consolidate their strategic relationships and be efficient, in order to effectively reduce costs in the South African mobile phone SC. To achieve this, whilst South African mobile network operators have to share more and more infrastructure and outsource their operations, other mobile phone companies should re-engineer their operational processes and their reduce costs across the SC.Conclusion: The knowledge generated from this study should assist South African mobile phone companies to reduce their SC costs and address high-priced mobile services. On the other hand, this study should assist regulating authorities (the Department of Communications and the Independent Communication Authority of South Africa to gain insights into the challenges faced by the mobile phone industry in South Africa and, therefore, to make appropriate and adequate mobile telecommunication policies.

  16. Blood pressure reduction, persistence and costs in the evaluation of antihypertensive drug treatment – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Joerg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure lowering drugs are usually evaluated in short term trials determining the absolute blood pressure reduction during trough and the duration of the antihypertensive effect after single or multiple dosing. A lack of persistence with treatment has however been shown to be linked to a worse cardiovascular prognosis. This review explores the blood pressure reduction and persistence with treatment of antihypertensive drugs and the cost consequences of poor persistence with pharmaceutical interventions in arterial hypertension. Methods We have searched the literature for data on blood pressure lowering effects of different antihypertensive drug classes and agents, on persistence with treatment, and on related costs. Persistence was measured as patients' medication possession rate. Results are presented in the form of a systematic review. Results Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs have a competitive blood pressure lowering efficacy compared with ACE-inhibitors (ACEi and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, beta-blockers (BBs and diuretics. 8 studies describing the persistence with treatment were identified. Patients were more persistent on ARBs than on ACEi and CCBs, BBs and diuretics. Thus the product of blood pressure lowering and persistence was higher on ARBs than on any other drug class. Although the price per tablet of more recently developed drugs (ACEi, ARBs is higher than that of older ones (diuretics and BBs, the newer drugs result in a more favourable cost to effect ratio when direct drug costs and indirect costs are also considered. Conclusion To evaluate drugs for the treatment of hypertension several key variables including the blood pressure lowering effect, side effects, compliance/persistence with treatment, as well as drug costs and direct and indirect costs of medical care have to be considered. ARBs, while nominally more expensive when drug costs are considered only, provide substantial cost savings

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in Syria, 2010-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Meredith L; Mason, Helen; Fouad, Fouad M; Rastam, Samer; al Ali, Radwan; Page, Timothy F; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to lower coronary heart disease in Syria. Costs and benefits of a health promotion campaign about salt reduction (HP); labeling of salt content on packaged foods (L); reformulation of salt content within packaged foods (R); and combinations of the three were estimated over a 10-year time frame. Policies were deemed cost-effective if their cost-effectiveness ratios were below the region's established threshold of $38,997 purchasing power parity (PPP). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to account for the uncertainty in the reduction of salt intake. HP, L, and R+HP+L were cost-saving using the best estimates. The remaining policies were cost-effective (CERs: R=$5,453 PPP/LYG; R+HP=$2,201 PPP/LYG; R+L=$2,125 PPP/LYG). R+HP+L provided the largest benefit with net savings using the best and maximum estimates, while R+L was cost-effective with the lowest marginal cost using the minimum estimates. This study demonstrated that all policies were cost-saving or cost effective, with the combination of reformulation plus labeling and a comprehensive policy involving all three approaches being the most promising salt reduction strategies to reduce CHD mortality in Syria.

  18. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  19. A cooperative reduction model for regional air pollution control in China that considers adverse health effects and pollutant reduction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujing; Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Hu, Qingmi; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-12-15

    How to effectively control severe regional air pollution has become a focus of global concern recently. The non-cooperative reduction model (NCRM) is still the main air pollution control pattern in China, but it is both ineffective and costly, because each province must independently fight air pollution. Thus, we proposed a cooperative reduction model (CRM), with the goal of maximizing the reduction in adverse health effects (AHEs) at the lowest cost by encouraging neighboring areas to jointly control air pollution. CRM has two parts: a model of optimal pollutant removal rates using two optimization objectives (maximizing the reduction in AHEs and minimizing pollutant reduction cost) while meeting the regional pollution control targets set by the central government, and a model that allocates the cooperation benefits (i.e., health improvement and cost reduction) among the participants according to their contributions using the Shapley value method. We applied CRM to the case of sulfur dioxide (SO2) reduction in Yangtze River Delta region. Based on data from 2003 to 2013, and using mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as the health endpoints, CRM saves 437 more lives than NCRM, amounting to 12.1% of the reduction under NCRM. CRM also reduced costs by US $65.8×10(6) compared with NCRM, which is 5.2% of the total cost of NCRM. Thus, CRM performs significantly better than NCRM. Each province obtains significant benefits from cooperation, which can motivate them to actively cooperate in the long term. A sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter values on the cooperation benefits. Results shown that the CRM is not sensitive to the changes in each province's pollutant carrying capacity and the minimum pollutant removal capacity, but sensitive to the maximum pollutant reduction capacity. Moreover, higher cooperation benefits will be generated when a province's maximum pollutant reduction capacity increases.

  20. Energy cost reduction in the pulp and paper industry - an energy benchmarking perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, D.W.; Towers, M.T.; Browne, T.C. [Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    With the increasing cost of energy and the rising concerns over the environment, interest in energy saving methods is growing in the industry sector. In the pulp and paper sector, energy represents a significant part of costs and the aims of this paper are first, to demonstrate that there is a potential for energy use reduction in the pulp and paper industry and secondly, to show how it can be achieved. Benchmarking studies have been carried out for both the kraft market pulp and newsprint sectors; in both cases the energy consumption of existing Canadian mills was compared to that of a modern mill using the best current technologies. Results showed that in both sectors, the application of best practices could result in significant savings. This study demonstrated that the application of current technologies in existing mills would yield significant energy use reductions.

  1. Productivity improvement through cost reduction of a manufacturing line of electrical harnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Perea, Karlos Gerardo; Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro; Reyes López, Octavio; Universidad Virtual del Estado de Guanajuato

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays due to the great variety of automotive suppliers, the companies have adopted a cost reduction system which allow them to remain competitive for the main automotive OEM´s (Original Equipment Manufacturers). In this particular case, the studied company established as a mid-term objective the improvement of the productivity in one of its production lines that produced automotive electrical harnesses of the Clutch Jumper family during two work shifts, using thirty five direct operators p...

  2. COST REDUCTION STUDIES OF DECORATIVE LAMINATES

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; Jain, R.K.; Anuj Maheshwari; Harjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Barrier paper, which is made of bleached absorbent kraft pulp, is a significant layer of decorative laminates, since it controls the see-through of brown color of saturating kraft paper and its opacifying effect usually is achieved by a heavy loading of TiO2. The TiO2, due to its very small particle size, passes between the cellulosic fibers and drains into the white water. To overcome this problem, papermakers try to use various retention aids for improving overall retention of TiO2, but agg...

  3. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  4. The value of supply security The cost of power interruptions: Economic input for damage reduction and investment in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; Koopmans, C.C.; Bijvoet, C.

    2007-01-01

    Most research into the reliability of electricity supply focuses on the suppliers. Reductions in the number of power interruptions will often be possible, but are often very costly. These costs will eventually be borne by electricity users. This paper studies the value of supply security in order to

  5. The cost reduction in hospitalization associated with paliperidone palmitate in the People's Republic of China, Korea, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Wang, Bruce Cm; Caldwell, Ronald; Furnback, Wesley; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kothandaraman, Nathan; Lee, SunKyoung; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia results in substantial health care utilization costs. Much of these costs can be attributed to health care use resulting from nonadherence to treatment, relapse, and hospitalization. The objective of this research is to further estimate the health care resource utilization costs of patients with schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China, Korea, and Malaysia with a specific focus on the reduction in hospitalization costs associated with the use of long-acting, injectable paliperidone palmitate (PP) relative to alternative treatment medications. The study focuses exclusively on the estimated reduction in hospitalization days following treatment with PP and the potential associated cost savings. Cost analysis was done using a payer's perspective and only includes direct health care costs associated with hospitalization. Localized cost data were taken from published sources, and health care utilization was estimated based on a clinical study conducted in countries in the Asia-Pacific region. People's Republic of China, Korea, and Malaysia had the highest number of patients enrolled in the clinical study, and thus were chosen for this research. Analysis looked at 12-month and 18-month periods following initial treatment with PP relative to a retrospective 12-month period utilizing alternative treatment medications. Results suggest that reductions in hospital utilization cost over 12 months may occur through the use of PP relative to alternatives-ranging from $1,991 for the People's Republic of China to $6,698 for Korea and $6,716 for Malaysia. Given the substantial costs associated with the treatment of schizophrenia both worldwide and in Asia, it is important to fully understand the costs and outcomes associated with various treatment options. In this research, we have specifically analyzed the direct health care cost savings associated with hospital utilization for patients taking PP relative to alternative treatment methods. The results suggest

  6. Modelling cost-effectiveness of interrelated emission reduction strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:Environmental pollution; Acidification; Global warming; Agriculture; Abatement cost; Environmental policy interrelations; Ammonia; Nitrous Oxide; MethaneAgriculture is an important source of ammonia, contributing to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse

  7. Effect of Cost-Sharing Reductions on Preventive Service Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4104 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act waives previous cost-sharing requirements for many Medicare-covered preventive services. In 1997,...

  8. Modelling cost-effectiveness of interrelated emission reduction strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:Environmental pollution; Acidification; Global warming; Agriculture; Abatement cost; Environmental policy interrelations; Ammonia; Nitrous Oxide; MethaneAgriculture is an important source of ammonia, contributing to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse ga

  9. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, Abebe D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-07-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs) that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce the WF need to support the decision making. MCCs enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a given WF permit (expressed in m3  ha-1 per season) or to a certain WF benchmark (expressed in m3  t-1 of crop). This paper aims to develop MCCs for WF reduction for a range of selected cases. AquaCrop, a soil-water-balance and crop-growth model, is used to estimate the effect of different management packages on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus the WF of crop production. A management package is defined as a specific combination of management practices: irrigation technique (furrow, sprinkler, drip or subsurface drip); irrigation strategy (full or deficit irrigation); and mulching practice (no, organic or synthetic mulching). The annual average cost for each management package is estimated as the annualized capital cost plus the annual costs of maintenance and operations (i.e. costs of water, energy and labour). Different cases are considered, including three crops (maize, tomato and potato); four types of environment (humid in UK, sub-humid in Italy, semi-arid in Spain and arid in Israel); three hydrologic years (wet, normal and dry years) and three soil types (loam, silty clay loam and sandy loam). For each crop, alternative WF reduction pathways were developed, after which the most cost-effective pathway was selected to develop the MCC for WF reduction. When aiming at WF reduction one can best improve the irrigation strategy first, next the mulching practice and finally the irrigation technique. Moving from a full to deficit irrigation strategy is found to be a no-regret measure: it reduces the WF by reducing water

  10. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chukalla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the water footprint (WF of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce the WF need to support the decision making. MCCs enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a given WF permit (expressed in m3  ha−1 per season or to a certain WF benchmark (expressed in m3  t−1 of crop. This paper aims to develop MCCs for WF reduction for a range of selected cases. AquaCrop, a soil-water-balance and crop-growth model, is used to estimate the effect of different management packages on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus the WF of crop production. A management package is defined as a specific combination of management practices: irrigation technique (furrow, sprinkler, drip or subsurface drip; irrigation strategy (full or deficit irrigation; and mulching practice (no, organic or synthetic mulching. The annual average cost for each management package is estimated as the annualized capital cost plus the annual costs of maintenance and operations (i.e. costs of water, energy and labour. Different cases are considered, including three crops (maize, tomato and potato; four types of environment (humid in UK, sub-humid in Italy, semi-arid in Spain and arid in Israel; three hydrologic years (wet, normal and dry years and three soil types (loam, silty clay loam and sandy loam. For each crop, alternative WF reduction pathways were developed, after which the most cost-effective pathway was selected to develop the MCC for WF reduction. When aiming at WF reduction one can best improve the irrigation strategy first, next the mulching practice and finally the irrigation technique. Moving from a full to deficit irrigation strategy is found to be a no-regret measure: it reduces the WF

  11. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  12. The cost reduction on the use of local productive arrangement on competitive supply logistic. Study about the case on APL milk and sun of the productive chain of milk in Ceará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Braga Carneiro

    2008-07-01

    milk in Ceará State. Here called like Milk and Sun. Searched to check if the enterprises that consist the sequence productive analyzed to reach a meaning cost reduction developing its activist inside the productive arrangement. Metodologicament done use, at principal, the deductive method, and, subsidiaryment the inductive method. The search can be classified the point of view about its nature like a search applied and described, looking for describe and to analyze the characteristics of the enterprises the belong Local Productive Arrangement analyzed. Key-words: Local productive arrangement. Cost. Supply logistic.

  13. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

    2012-07-10

    Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

  14. REDUCTION OF COST AND TIME CONSUMPTION IN WELL-CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A Contractor usually utilizes the available drilling equipment when constructing just one single well. Drilling cost and time consumption in constructing the well MB-1, using the percussion method, and the well MB-2, using the conventional rotary drilling method, call for a separate analysis in order to justify the investment cost for the acquisition of additional equipment for a single well only. The wells, located in a karst vrtača close to an estavelle near Tomislavgrad, with a diameter of 500 mm and approximately 80 m deep, have been accomplished with a low rate of penetration using the conventional Cable tool and resp. Rotary Drilling Method. In this paper results of analyses for the given circumstances are shown: both the efficiency and cost of the mentioned drilling methods performed by the crews of »Geotehnika d.d.« Zagreb, as well as the justifiability of investments in new equipment are evaluated.

  15. Inefficiency of the anti-doping system: cost reduction proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maennig, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    The anti-doping system, under the guidance of WADA, costs at least $228 million per year, mostly to cover the cost of performing about 270,000 doping tests. However, "testing has not proven to be particularly effective in detecting dopers/cheats" (WADA). It is suggested, competitions of doping-endangered disciplines be redesigned. Sports with numerous doping cases should be temporarily excluded from the Olympic program and not be televised. Pecuniary fines should be higher and collection guaranteed by a deferred compensation model. Sports with multiple doping offenses should bear most of the anti-doping costs. Finally, appropriate tenders should guarantee fees of anti-doping laboratories develop more competitively.

  16. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  17. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  18. Cost reduction through combined solutions?; Kostensenkung durch Kombinationsloesungen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilitewski, B. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

    1998-09-01

    The implementation of material-specific residue treatment processes requires reconstruction measures both in the case of mechanical-biological and in that of thermal treatment plants. Such measures involves great uncertainties and wide variation in cost prediction. The present paper deals with various factors that influence the costs of residual waste treatment. [Deutsch] Zur Umsetzung der stoffspezifischen Restabfallbehandlung sind Anpassungen sowohl der derzeit betriebenen mechanisch-biologischen als auch der thermischen Anlagen erforderlich, was zu Unsicherheiten und grossen Schwankungsbreiten bei den Kostenprognosen fuehrt. Der Bericht beleuchtet verschiedene Einflussgroessen auf die Kosten der Behandlung des Restabfalls. (orig./SR)

  19. GTHTR300 cost reduction through design upgrade and cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xing L., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency began design and development of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor of 300MWe nominal output (GTHTR300) in 2001. The reactor baseline design completed three years later was based on 850 °C core outlet temperature and a direct cycle gas turbine balance of plant. It attained 45.6% net power generation efficiency and 3.5 US¢/kW h cost of electricity. The cost was estimated 20% lower than LWR. The latest design upgrade has incorporated several major technological advances made in the past ten years to both reactor and balance of plant. As described in this paper, these advances have enabled raising the design basis reactor core outlet temperature to 950 °C and increasing power generating efficiency by nearly 5% point. Further implementation of seawater desalination cogeneration is made through employing a newly-proposed multi-stage flash process. Through efficient waste heat recovery of the reactor gas turbine power conversion cycle, a large cost credit is obtained against the conventionally produced water prices. Together, the design upgrade and the cogeneration are shown to reduce the GTHTR300 cost of electricity to under 2.7 US¢/kW h.

  20. Achieving cost reductions in EOSDIS operations through technology evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Penny; Moe, Karen; Harberts, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) data information system (EOSDIS) mission includes the cost-effective management and distribution of large amounts of data to the earth science community. The effect of the introduction of new information system technologies on the evolution of EOSDIS is considered. One of the steps taken by NASA to enable the introduction of new information system technologies into the EOSDIS is the funding of technology development through prototyping. Recent and ongoing prototyping efforts and their potential impact on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the EOSDIS are discussed. The technology evolution process as it related to the effective operation of EOSDIS is described, and methods are identified for the support of the transfer of relevant technology to EOSDIS components.

  1. Inventory Reduction Without Regret: Balancing Storage and Rebuy Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    savings. Unfortunately, some managers view the Army’s currently high (relative to current demand) parts inventory as an inherent source of waste...which has led to a push within the Army to dispose of inventory . This push is unlikely to save money. The primary metric now used to assess the cost of... inventory is its total dollar value, calculated as purchase price times the quantity on hand. Setting a goal to reduce the dollar value of parts

  2. Osteopathic manipulative treatment showed reduction of length of stay and costs in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaro, Diego; Ruffini, Nuria; Manzotti, Andrea; Lista, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Osteopathic medicine is an emerging and complementary method used in neonatology. Methods: Outcomes were the mean difference in length of stay (LOS) and costs between osteopathy and alternative treatment group. A comprehensive literature search of (quasi)- randomized controlled trials (RCTs), was conducted from journal inception to May, 2015. Eligible studies must have treated preterm infants directly in the crib or bed and Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) must have been performed by osteopaths. A rigorous Cochrane-like method was used for study screening and selection, risk of bias assessment and data reporting. Fixed effect meta-analysis was performed to synthesize data. Results: 5 trials enrolling 1306 infants met our inclusion criteria. Although the heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 61%, P = 0.03), meta-analysis of all five studies showed that preterm infants treated with OMT had a significant reduction of LOS by 2.71 days (95% CI −3.99, −1.43; P < 0.001). Considering costs, meta-analysis showed reduction in the OMT group (−1,545.66€, −1,888.03€, −1,203.29€, P < 0.0001). All studies reported no adverse events associated to OMT. Subgroup analysis showed that the benefit of OMT is inversely associated to gestational age. Conclusions: The present systematic review showed the clinical effectiveness of OMT on the reduction of LOS and costs in a large population of preterm infants. PMID:28328840

  3. Cost reduction for web-based data imputation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhixu

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Data Imputation enables the completion of incomplete data sets by retrieving absent field values from the Web. In particular, complete fields can be used as keywords in imputation queries for absent fields. However, due to the ambiguity of these keywords and the data complexity on the Web, different queries may retrieve different answers to the same absent field value. To decide the most probable right answer to each absent filed value, existing method issues quite a few available imputation queries for each absent value, and then vote on deciding the most probable right answer. As a result, we have to issue a large number of imputation queries for filling all absent values in an incomplete data set, which brings a large overhead. In this paper, we work on reducing the cost of Web-based Data Imputation in two aspects: First, we propose a query execution scheme which can secure the most probable right answer to an absent field value by issuing as few imputation queries as possible. Second, we recognize and prune queries that probably will fail to return any answers a priori. Our extensive experimental evaluation shows that our proposed techniques substantially reduce the cost of Web-based Imputation without hurting its high imputation accuracy. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  4. Reward Pays the Cost of Noise Reduction in Motor and Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G.; Chong, Trevor T.-J.; Apps, Matthew A.J.; Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Jarman, Paul R.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Summary Speed-accuracy trade-off is an intensively studied law governing almost all behavioral tasks across species. Here we show that motivation by reward breaks this law, by simultaneously invigorating movement and improving response precision. We devised a model to explain this paradoxical effect of reward by considering a new factor: the cost of control. Exerting control to improve response precision might itself come at a cost—a cost to attenuate a proportion of intrinsic neural noise. Applying a noise-reduction cost to optimal motor control predicted that reward can increase both velocity and accuracy. Similarly, application to decision-making predicted that reward reduces reaction times and errors in cognitive control. We used a novel saccadic distraction task to quantify the speed and accuracy of both movements and decisions under varying reward. Both faster speeds and smaller errors were observed with higher incentives, with the results best fitted by a model including a precision cost. Recent theories consider dopamine to be a key neuromodulator in mediating motivational effects of reward. We therefore examined how Parkinson’s disease (PD), a condition associated with dopamine depletion, alters the effects of reward. Individuals with PD showed reduced reward sensitivity in their speed and accuracy, consistent in our model with higher noise-control costs. Including a cost of control over noise explains how reward may allow apparent performance limits to be surpassed. On this view, the pattern of reduced reward sensitivity in PD patients can specifically be accounted for by a higher cost for controlling noise. PMID:26096975

  5. Reduction of operations and maintenance costs at geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Stevens, C.G.; Rard, J.A.; Kasameyer, P.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    To reduce chemical costs at geothermal power plants, we are investigating: (a) improved chemical processes associated with H{sub 2}S abatement techniques, and (b) the use of cross dispersive infrared spectrometry to monitor accurately, reliably, and continuously H{sub 2}S emissions from cooling towers. The latter is a new type of infrared optical technology developed by LLNL for non-proliferation verification. Initial work is focused at The Geysers in cooperation with Pacific Gas and Electric. Methods for deploying the spectrometer on-site at The Geysers are being developed. Chemical analysis of solutions involved in H{sub 2}S abatement technologies is continuing to isolate the chemical forms of sulfur produced.

  6. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed lymphoma results in accelerated haematopoietic reconstitution, improved quality of life and cost reduction compared with bone marrow transplantation : the Hovon 22 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellenga, E; van Agthoven, M; Croockewit, AJ; Verdonck, LF; Wijermans, PJ; van Oers, MHJ; Volkers, CP; van Imhoff, GW; Kingma, T; Uyl-de Groot, CA; Fibbe, WE

    2001-01-01

    The present study analysed whether autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PSCT) improves engraftment, quality of life and cost-effectiveness when compared with autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Relapsing progressive lymphoma patients (n = 204; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma n =

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Green Infrastructures on Community Stormwater Reduction and Utilization: A Case of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Weiping; Feng, Qi; Peng, Chi; Kang, Peng

    2016-12-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is demanded for guiding the plan, design and construction of green infrastructure practices in rapidly urbanized regions. We developed a framework to calculate the costs and benefits of different green infrastructures on stormwater reduction and utilization. A typical community of 54,783 m2 in Beijing was selected for case study. For the four designed green infrastructure scenarios (green space depression, porous brick pavement, storage pond, and their combination), the average annual costs of green infrastructure facilities are ranged from 40.54 to 110.31 thousand yuan, and the average of the cost per m3 stormwater reduction and utilization is 4.61 yuan. The total average annual benefits of stormwater reduction and utilization by green infrastructures of the community are ranged from 63.24 to 250.15 thousand yuan, and the benefit per m3 stormwater reduction and utilization is ranged from 5.78 to 11.14 yuan. The average ratio of average annual benefit to cost of four green infrastructure facilities is 1.91. The integrated facilities had the highest economic feasibility with a benefit to cost ratio of 2.27, and followed by the storage pond construction with a benefit to cost ratio of 2.14. The results suggested that while the stormwater reduction and utilization by green infrastructures had higher construction and maintenance costs, their comprehensive benefits including source water replacements benefits, environmental benefits and avoided cost benefits are potentially interesting. The green infrastructure practices should be promoted for sustainable management of urban stormwater.

  8. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  9. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  10. IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel€ٳ Manufacturing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Subirana, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Intel manufacturing relies heavily on IT and Factory Automation during the manufacturing processes. At Intel, everything from scheduling products on the floor and product delivery systems to statistical process control is done through automation systems. Shortly after an Intel meeting described in the case, a new position Computing Cost Reduction Manager - was created to lead a team within Factory Automation to drive cost reduction efforts which was a top priority for Intel in 2003. The compu...

  11. Investigations into Cost Reductions of X-band Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Winkle, D.; Dolgashev, V.A.; Fox, J.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2009-05-15

    The prohibitive costs of commercial test equipment for making fast and accurate pulsed phase and amplitude measurements at X-Band result in decreased productivity due to shortages of shared equipment across the test laboratory. In addition, most current set-ups rely on the use of pulsed power heads which do not allow for the measurement of phase thereby limiting the flexibility of available measurements. In this paper, we investigate less expensive in-house designed instrumentation based upon commercial satellite down converters and widely available logarithmic detector amplifiers and phase detectors. The techniques are used to measure X-Band pulses with widths of 50 ns to 10's of usec. We expect a dynamic range of 30-40 dB with accuracies of better than +/- 0.1 dB and +/- 1 degree of phase. We show preliminary results of the built and tested modules. Block diagrams of the down conversion scheme, and the architecture of a multi-signal X-band RF monitor and measurement system is illustrated. Measured results, and possible modifications and upgrades are presented.

  12. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  13. Jail Removal Cost Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    This second volume of the jail removal cost study provides a detailed report of the study findings which examine the costs, experiences, and ramifications of removing children from adult jails and lockups. The foreword supplies background information and hypothetical removal cost estimates. The approach used to conduct the jail removal cost study…

  14. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial.

  15. Solar cost reduction through technical improvements: the concepts of learning and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Flaim, T.

    1979-10-01

    The concepts of learning and experience are reviewed and their usefulness for predicting the future costs of solar technologies are evaluated. The literature review indicated that the cost estimates for solar energy technologies are typically made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy systems. The concept of experience is too ambiguous to be useful for cost estimation. There is no logical reason to believe that costs will decline purely as a function of cumulative production, and experience curves do not allow the analyst to identify logical sources of cost reduction directly. The procedures for using learning and aggregated cost curves to estimate the costs of solar technologies are outlined. It is recommended that production histories of analogous products and processes are analyzed and the learning and cost curves for these surrogates are estimated. These curves, if judged applicable, can be used to predict the cost reductions in manufacturing solar energy technologies.

  16. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  17. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  19. Electricity from geothermal energy: Costs and cost reduction potentials; Strom aus Geothermie. Kosten und Kostensenkungspotenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelbel, Thomas; Eggeling, Lena [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Forschung und Innovation; Kruck, Christoph [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Weimann, Thorsten [gec-co Global Engineering and Consulting-Company GmbH, Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of geothermal energy for power generation in low-enthalpy devices is a young technology. The first German plant was taken in operation in 2004 at Neustadt-Glewe (Federal Republic of Germany). Three more plants came up by the end of 2009. Although the demonstration stage just was left, investigations provided prime costs similar to those of other renewable energies.

  20. Estimation of cost reduction and increase for the final disposal associated with the categorization of inert waste landfills in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirofumi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the overall cost savings that have been realized due to disposal of inert wastes in Japan because this material has been deposited in inert waste landfills (IWLs) that are designed exclusively for this purpose, instead of being co-dipsosed with organic wastes in more costly in sanitary landfills (SLs). The total realized cost savings were based on the disposed volume of inert waste and the actual disposal fees for IWLs and SLs for the period 1977-2006. The estimated reduction in expense is 4748 billion JPY for the period. On the other hand, if organic wastes had been deposited in IWLs along with inert wastes, costs would be incurred to clean up the sites because the surrounding environment may be polluted by the decomposition of the non-inert wastes and considerable efforts probably would be required to restore the polluted environment to its normal condition (this is because IWLs typically do not have a barrier system.) The potential cleanup cost was estimated to be 616 to 1226 billion JPY. These estimated costs were compared and it was found that the net reduction in expense was 3522 billion to 4122 billion JPY. Although the expense was reduced substantially, it was noted that a considerable cleanup cost would be generated. In particular, it was found that the increase in cleanup costs becomes most significant after the late 1990s.

  1. Ordering Cost Reduction in Inventory Model with Defective Items and Backorder Price Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppuchamy Annadurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real market, as unsatisfied demands occur, the longer the length of lead time is, the smaller the proportion of backorder would be. In order to make up for the inconvenience and even the losses of royal and patient customers, the supplier may offer a backorder price discount to secure orders during the shortage period. Also, ordering policies determined by conventional inventory models may be inappropriate for the situation in which an arrival lot contains some defective items. To compensate for the inconvenience of backordering and to secure orders, the supplier may offer a price discount on the stockout item. The purpose of this study is to explore a coordinated inventory model including defective arrivals by allowing the backorder price discount and ordering cost as decision variables. There are two inventory models proposed in this paper, one with normally distributed demand and another with distribution free demand. A computer code using the software Matlab 7.0 is developed to find the optimal solution and present numerical examples to illustrate the models. The results in the numerical examples indicate that the savings of the total cost are realized through ordering cost reduction and backorder price discount.

  2. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Bentley, J.; Barnett, B.

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R&D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice, operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under 150/kW in stationary applications and 30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories.

  3. Economic Rationality of On-Orbit Servicing by Reduction of Transportation Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    The costs of transportation from the Earth to the orbit are very high. Decreasing the transportation costs should increase the launch market significantly. However, the objective of transportation costs is ambiguous and few studies have examined the relationship between transportation costs and commercial profits of businesses. On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) is a business that could profit from lower transportation costs, and we quantified the relationship between costs and profitability for this business. Real-coded Adaptive Range Genetic Algorithm optimized the OOS method. The results showed that the revenues generated by OOS would support the outlay required to decrease transportation costs.

  4. SUPPLIES COSTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY WITH APPLICATION OF MEASUREMENT MODEL OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for the difficulty in adopting an integrated method of calculation of logistics costs is still a lack of adequate information about costs. The management of the supply chain and identify its costs can provide information for their managers, with regard to decision making, generating competitive advantage. Some models of calculating logistics costs are proposed by Uelze (1974, Dias (1996, Goldratt (2002, Christopher (2007, Castiglioni (2009 and Borba & Gibbon (2009, with little disclosure of the results. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the costs of supplies, applying a measurement model of logistics costs. Methodologically, the study characterized as exploratory. The model applied pointed, in original condition, that about R$ 2.5 million were being applied in the process of management of supplies, with replacement costs and storage imbalance. Upgrading the company's data, it is possible obtain a 52% reduction in costs to replace and store supplies. Thus, the cost model applied to logistical supplies showed feasibility of implementation, as well as providing information to assist in management and decision-making in logistics supply.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-reduction measures to reach water safety targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Andreas; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the most suitable risk-reduction measures in drinking water systems requires a thorough analysis of possible alternatives. In addition to the effects on the risk level, also the economic aspects of the risk-reduction alternatives are commonly considered important. Drinking water supplies are complex systems and to avoid sub-optimisation of risk-reduction measures, the entire system from source to tap needs to be considered. There is a lack of methods for quantification of water supply risk reduction in an economic context for entire drinking water systems. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach for risk assessment in combination with economic analysis to evaluate risk-reduction measures based on a source-to-tap approach. The approach combines a probabilistic and dynamic fault tree method with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). The developed approach comprises the following main parts: (1) quantification of risk reduction of alternatives using a probabilistic fault tree model of the entire system; (2) combination of the modelling results with CEA; and (3) evaluation of the alternatives with respect to the risk reduction, the probability of not reaching water safety targets and the cost-effectiveness. The fault tree method and CEA enable comparison of risk-reduction measures in the same quantitative unit and consider costs and uncertainties. The approach provides a structured and thorough analysis of risk-reduction measures that facilitates transparency and long-term planning of drinking water systems in order to avoid sub-optimisation of available resources for risk reduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An attempt of reduction of optimization costs of complex industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztangret, Łukasz; Kusiak, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Reduction of computational costs of optimization of real industrial processes is crucial, because the models of these processes are often complex and demand time consuming numerical computations. Iterative optimization procedures have to run the simulations many times and therefore the computational costs of the optimization may be unacceptable high. This is why a new optimization methods and strategies which need less simulation runs are searched. The paper is focused on the problem of reduction of computational costs of optimization procedure. The main goal is the presentation of developed by the Authors new, efficient Approximation Based Optimization (ABO) and Modified Approximation Based Optimization (MABO) methods which allow finding the global minimum in smaller number of objective function calls. Detailed algorithm of the MABO method as well as the results of tests using several benchmark functions are presented. The efficiency of MABO method was compared with heuristic methods and the results show that MABO method reduces the computational costs and improve the optimization accuracy.

  7. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  8. Strategies for cost-effective carbon reductions: A sensitivity analysis of alternative scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerman, Etan; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Brown, Marilyn

    2001-07-11

    Analyses of alternative futures often present results for a limited set of scenarios, with little if any sensitivity analysis to identify the factors affecting the scenario results. This approach creates an artificial impression of certainty associated with the scenarios considered, and inhibits understanding of the underlying forces. This paper summarizes the economic and carbon savings sensitivity analysis completed for the Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future study (IWG, 2000). Its 19 sensitivity cases provide insight into the costs and carbon-reduction impacts of a carbon permit trading system, demand-side efficiency programs, and supply-side policies. Impacts under different natural gas and oil price trajectories are also examined. The results provide compelling evidence that policy opportunities exist to reduce carbon emissions and save society money.

  9. Reduction of Invasive Fungal Infections Among Cancer Patients With Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia After Protective Environment Implementation May Save Costs in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoll

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Invasive fungal infections (IFI represent a serious threat for severely immunocompromised patients. Infection control interventions, including protective environment (PE implementation, are essential to reduce IFI incidence, mortality and burden of hospitalization, among high-risk patients. Information about the impact of these strategies in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN, in developing countries, is insufficient. Objectives To assess the impact of PE implementation on IFI incidence, consumption and cost of antifungal treatment, in a general, tertiary teaching hospital, in Southern Brazil. Patients and Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental study to evaluate an institutional intervention, in a hospital ward, for patients with CIN, which consisted in renovation of the ward and measures involving air-quality technologies installation, the main one being high efficiency particulate air (HEPA filters. Simultaneously, infection control routines were implemented. Neutropenic patients, admitted to any other hospital ward, prior to the renovation, were included in the historical control group. The IFI incidence was defined, according to the criteria proposed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Direct costs of antifungal drugs were recorded, for all neutropenic patients. Results A total of 190 and 181 hospital admissions were included in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Total IFI incidence was reduced in the PE group (7.4% vs. 18.2%; P = 0.002 and the same was observed when considering only proven and probable IFI (1.6% vs. 8.3%; P = 0.003. This benefit persisted even after adjusting for antifungal prophylaxis (OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.05 ‒ 0.60. We observed a decreasing trend in molds and yeasts IFI incidence, in the intervention group. Although the final cost of antifungal agents was lower, after intervention (78347.37 USD vs. 154176.60 USD, the median cost per

  10. A NOVEL OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR SIMULTANEOUS COST-RISK REDUCTION IN MULTI-SUPPLIERS JUST-IN-TIME SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraj El Dabee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive global markets, Just-in-Time (JIT is one of the main lean manufacturing approaches. It is used in organizations to improve performance and reduce costs and as a strategic core capability to ensure their market position. However, using JIT tightly couples various functions of the Supply Chain and increases the risk of propagating disruptions through the entire system. This study presents an ordering strategy for the supply of raw materials to the production system to meet customer satisfaction. A general model for cost-risk reduction is developed embracing multiple external and local backup suppliers. The outcomes from this model will be used to obtimise the simultaneous cost/risk reduction within JIT systems. The effectiveness of the developed model will be validated using a simplified example.

  11. A single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated inventory model with ordering cost reduction dependent on lead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayashree, M.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-03-01

    Lead time is one of the major limits that affect planning at every stage of the supply chain system. In this paper, we study a continuous review inventory model. This paper investigates the ordering cost reductions are dependent on lead time. This study addressed two-echelon supply chain problem consisting of a single vendor and a single buyer. The main contribution of this study is that the integrated total cost of the single vendor and the single buyer integrated system is analyzed by adopting two different (linear and logarithmic) types ordering cost reductions act dependent on lead time. In both cases, we develop effective solution procedures for finding the optimal solution and then illustrative numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The solution procedure is to determine the optimal solutions of order quantity, ordering cost, lead time and the number of deliveries from the single vendor and the single buyer in one production run, so that the integrated total cost incurred has the minimum value. Ordering cost reduction is the main aspect of the proposed model. A numerical example is given to validate the model. Numerical example solved by using Matlab software. The mathematical model is solved analytically by minimizing the integrated total cost. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is included and the numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples. The sensitivity of the proposed model has been checked with respect to the various major parameters of the system. Results reveal that the proposed integrated inventory model is more applicable for the supply chain manufacturing system. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed. Finally, the graphical representation is presented to illustrate the proposed model and also include the computer flowchart in each model.

  12. Alternatives for operational cost reduction in oil pipelines; Alternativas para reducao de custos energeticos operacionais em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Philipe Barroso; Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Pires, Luis Fernando Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (SIMDUT/DEM/ PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecancia. Nucleo de Simulacao Termo-Hidraulica de Dutos

    2012-07-01

    This paper intends to give a brief overview of some cost reduction alternatives in oil pipelines, to optimize the pipeline operation. Four different alternatives are presented, based on previous studies made on existing pipelines, to demonstrate the response obtained with these solutions. Pipeline operation, especially on mature ones, tends to have a high operational cost, be by tradition, the aging of the installation, change of operational characteristics - such as nominal flow, product, or even flow direction - for which the pipeline wasn't originally designed. The alternatives showed allow for an increase survival time of the pipeline, without resorting to major changes, such as replacement of pipes or adding pumping stations to the system. The alternative studied varies from no implementation cost to high installation cost or operational cost increase, depending on the system and the alternative chosen. From changing the pump arrays during operation or changing the products viscosity with different blends, that represent virtually no cost to the pipeline operation, to the use of VFDs, with a high installation cost or DRA, which increase the operational cost. (author)

  13. NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System and the Purdue University Cost Study: A Comparison of Narrowly Defined Direct Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, F. L.; Gleason, W. M.

    One critical aspect of costing system methodologies is examined: the effects of average costing by course level on program unit cost. The direct costing methodologies used in two costing systems are compared. One is the internally developed Purdue University Cost Study; the other, the NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System. The comparison…

  14. Guidelines for process development and future cost reduction of CO 2 post-combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, M.R.M.; Fernandez, E.S.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a perspective is given on the development lines for CO 2 post-combustion capture technology. Guidelines for cost reductions and suggestions for future research on solvent and process development are presented. By analyzing the post-combustion capture process in this work, it is evident

  15. Costs and benefits of bacterial culturing and pathogen reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.P.; van der Poel, C.L.; Buskens, E.; Bonneux, L.; Bonsel, G.J.; van Hout, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination is a life-threatening risk of blood transfusion, especially with platelet (PLT) transfusions. Bacterial culturing (BCU) of PLTs as well as pathogen reduction (PRT) reduce the likelihood of such contamination. The cost-effectiveness (CE) of these interventions was

  16. The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management on Transportation Cost Reduction in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet SARIDOGAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management (SCM has become an important competitive approach for organizations. The issue of green supply chain management is critical for the successful implementation of industrial ecosystems and industrial ecology. Organizations have a number of reasons for implementing these green supply chain policies, from reactive regulatory reasons, to proactive strategic and competitive advantage reasons. From an overall environmental and organizational perspective, it is important to understand the situation and what issues exist in this field. Many organizations worldwide have already experienced globalization and a shifting focus to competition among networks of companies in this environment. Multinational enterprises have established global networks of suppliers that take advantage of country-industry specific characteristics to build this competitive advantage. To success having this competitive advantage, logistics and supply chain managers have to balance efforts to reduce costs and innovate while maintaining good environmental (ecological performance (Pagell et al., 2004. Therefore, today, competition is not between companies, between supply chains. This study brings us the effect of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM on the Transportation Cost Reduction (TCR.

  17. Food Mass Reduction Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stoklosa, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable, and nutritious while efficiently balancing appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, power, water, and crewtime. Often, this presents a challenge since maintaining the quality of the food system can result in a higher mass and volume. The Orion vehicle is significantly smaller than the Shuttle vehicle and the International Space Station and the mass and volume available for food is limited. Therefore, the food team has been challenged to reduce the mass of the packaged food from 1.82 kg per person per day to 1.14 kg per person per day. Past work has concentrated on how to reduce the mass of the packaging which contributes to about 15% of the total mass of the packaged food system. Designers have also focused on integrating and optimizing the Orion galley equipment as a system to reduce mass. To date, there has not been a significant effort to determine how to reduce the food itself. The objective of this project is to determine how the mass and volume of the packaged food can be reduced while maintaining caloric and hydration requirements. The following tasks are the key elements to this project: (1) Conduct further analysis of the ISS Standard Menu to determine moisture, protein, carbohydrate, and fat levels. (2) Conduct trade studies to determine how to bring the mass of the food system down. Trade studies may include removing the water of the total food system and/or increasing the fat content. (3) Determine the preferred method for delivery of the new food (e.g. bars, or beverages) and the degree of replacement. (4) Determine whether there are commercially available products that meet the requirements. By the end of this study, an estimate of the mass and volume savings will be provided to the Constellation Program. In addition, if new technologies need to be developed to achieve the mass savings, the technologies, timeline, and

  18. Cardiovascular disease and impoverishment averted due to a salt reduction policy in South Africa: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David A; Olson, Zachary D; Verguet, Stéphane; Nugent, Rachel A; Jamison, Dean T

    2016-02-01

    The South African Government recently set targets to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) by lowering salt consumption. We conducted an extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to model the potential health and economic impacts of this salt policy. We used surveys and epidemiologic studies to estimate reductions in CVD resulting from lower salt intake. We calculated the average out-of-pocket (OOP) cost of CVD care, using facility fee schedules and drug prices. We estimated the reduction in OOP expenditures and government subsidies due to the policy. We estimated public and private sector costs of policy implementation. We estimated financial risk protection (FRP) from the policy as (1) cases of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) averted or (2) cases of poverty averted. We also performed a sensitivity analysis. We found that the salt policy could reduce CVD deaths by 11%, with similar health gains across income quintiles. The policy could save households US$ 4.06 million (2012) in OOP expenditures (US$ 0.29 per capita) and save the government US$ 51.25 million in healthcare subsidies (US$ 2.52 per capita) each year. The cost to the government would be only US$ 0.01 per capita; hence, the policy would be cost saving. If the private sector food reformulation costs were passed on to consumers, food expenditures would increase by policy could also provide large government savings on health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  19. The Application of High Density Electronic Packaging for Spacecraft Cost and Mass Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Lynn E.; Prokop, Jon S.; Sandborn, Peter; Evans, Kristan

    1995-01-01

    It has become clear over the past few years that packaging of spacecraft electronic systems must be improved. Not only have the weight and volume taken up by conventional packaging and interconnect systems become excessive, but active devices have advanced to the point where system performance is often limited by the packaging. Since electronic systems account for up to 30% of the size and weight budgets of a spacecraft, the utilization of high density electronic packaging will be a very important path to overall spacecraft miniaturization. In the late 1970's high density interconnection technologies were being introduced into mainframe computer applications. Subsequently, these technologies have been applied to avionics, telecommunication, biomedical and automotive systems. In each application the driving forces behind the adoption of these technologies were; improved electrical performance, miniaturization, reduced power consumption, increased reliability and reduced manufacturing costs. The application of these technologies to planetary missions could provide significant benefits by way of reduced cost and design time if commercial technology and best commercial manufacturing practices are accepted. A mixed signal telecommunication function has been used as an example to illustrate the potential mass, volume and power reduction achievable with the implementation of high density packaging technologies. The tradeoff analysis which was performed demonstrated that packaging technology selection is application specific, and system level impact must be considered early on in the design process. The results of this study which compare size, performance, cost, risk and system level impact are given. Finally, the technical and cultural obstacles which have inhibited the implementation of these technologies is discussed. Specifically, the issues of space qualified hardware and technology availability is addressed. Space qualification is perceived by industry as being the

  20. Report of study group 3.1 ''technological and economical developments for cost reduction of LNG facilities''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 3.1 ''developpements economiques et technologiques pour la reduction des couts dans les installations de GNL''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapallini, R.

    2000-07-01

    The design, engineering and operation of LNG base load liquefaction and re-gasification facilities is now considered a mature technology. However, process efficiency at these plants is limited by fundamental thermodynamic principles and no radical technology breakthroughs are expected in the near future. Three important aspects affecting the cost of production are the molecular weight of the gas, the amount of nitrogen in the feed and the acid gas composition. Variations in composition will also affect the design of the facilities and production rate. Previous projects have optimised economies of scale, using processes based on large industrial gas turbines, to achieve the minimum unit cost for LNG production. LNG producers have continued to focus on larger train designs to further capitalize on economies of scale as well as continued expansion of existing facilities. The latest plant designs expect the optimum integration with existing facilities to be a major factor in optimising specific capital costs. Whilst design codes and standards have not been discussed in many papers on LNG cost reduction, it is generally accepted that project specifications can significantly impact the project cost. The cost of equipment can be significantly inflated by onerous specifications with non standard requirements that vendors have trouble meeting. The possibility of developing gas projects will mainly be determined by the requirements of power generation and/or the industrial sector. As far as power generation is concerned, expansion will rely greatly on combined cycle plants. The competitiveness of LNG as regards power generation can be further improved by adopting integrated solutions. As in all other industrial projects, one of the first concerns for the investor when he envisages building an LNG liquefaction or re-gasification terminal is the selection of the site where the terminal will be located. (author)

  1. The Comparison of Mode Choice Sensitivity to the Reduction of Travel Time and Cost in Multimodal Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ganji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the extension of travel distances and accessibility to the various commuting options, multimodal trip proposes as the most competent travelling strategy. However, with increasing in demand by using these options as well as metro, subway, buses, cycles and sidewalk, some problems arose. The import of this quantitative study is to sympathize with the significance of the multimodal as a novel factor in the transportation. In this study, we discussed about cost and time as two significant factors, which affect everybody's life. While improving these two factors have a meaningful effect on encouraging/discouraging private vehicle commuters to switch to public transport. The methodology of this study is an empirical research in which a survey was conducted among the students at The National University of Malaysia with a numeric sample. Hence, a case study based on areas around UKM campus is used to demonstrate the results. What were investigated in this study were the attributes of a reduction in either travel cost or time to promote people who use their own vehicles to shift toward public transportation. The results show that the two factors: time and cost made a significant contribution in motivating private vehicle users to switch public transport. However, the most important purpose of this study was determining the most effective factor (at least based on our condition since it's not practically possible to have the travel time and cost reduction together.

  2. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-10-28

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  3. A perspective on cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction solutions in water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Water distribution systems (WDSs) face great challenges as aging infrastructures require significant investments in rehabilitation, replacement, and expansion. Reducing environmental impacts as WDSs develop is essential for utility managers and policy makers. This study quantifies the existing greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of common WDS elements using life-cycle assessment (LCA) while identifying the greatest opportunities for emission reduction. This study addresses oversights of the related literature, which fails to capture several WDS elements and to provide detailed life-cycle inventories. The life-cycle inventory results for a US case study utility reveal that 81% of GHGs are from pumping energy, where a large portion of these emissions are a result of distribution leaks, which account for 270 billion l of water losses daily in the United States. Pipe replacement scheduling is analyzed from an environmental perspective where, through incorporating leak impacts, a tool reveals that optimal replacement is no more than 20 years, which is in contrast to the US average of 200 years. Carbon abatement costs (CACs) are calculated for different leak reduction scenarios for the case utility that range from -130 to 35 t-1 CO2(eq). Including life-cycle modeling in evaluating pipe materials identified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cement-lined ductile iron (DICL) as the Pareto efficient options, however; utilizing PVC presents human health risks. The model developed for the case utility is applied to California and Texas to determine the CACs of reducing leaks to 5% of distributed water. For California, annual GHG savings from reducing leaks alone (3.4 million tons of CO2(eq)) are found to exceed California Air Resources Board’s estimate for energy efficiency improvements in the state’s water infrastructure.

  4. Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 张强; 陈广武; 齐长青; 崔文谦; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2015-01-01

    To reduce carbon intensity, an improved management method balancing the reduction in costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required for Tianjin’s waste management system. Firstly, six objective functions, namely, cost minimization, GHG minimization, eco-efficiency minimization, cost maximization, GHG maximization and eco-efficiency maximization, are built and subjected to the same constraints with each objective function corresponding to one scenario. Secondly, GHG emissions and costs are derived from the waste flow of each scenario. Thirdly, the range of GHG emissions and costs of other potential scenarios are obtained and plotted through adjusting waste flow with infinitely possible step sizes according to the correlation among the above six scenarios. And the optimal scenario is determined based on this range. The results suggest the following conclusions. 1) The scenarios located on the border between scenario cost minimization and GHG minimization create an optimum curve, and scenario GHG minimization has the smallest eco-efficiency on the curve;2) Simple pursuit of eco-efficiency minimization using fractional programming may be unreasonable; 3) Balancing GHG emissions from incineration and landfills benefits Tianjin’s waste management system as it reduces GHG emissions and costs.

  5. Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey Chopra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities.

  6. Insourcing as a Stratagy for Cost Reduction: a Methodology to Identifiy and Mensurate the Supporting Decition Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magela Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2008, market crisis made the national siderurgy industry reconsider its cost structure in order to maintain its competitiveness. Among the adopted strategies, insourcing was used in order to reduce costs and improve its productive capacity from its people and equipments resulting from declining sales. This research has been developed within this context and has as its objective to quantify the results of this choice. In order to achieve this objective, an insourcing case study of mechanical maintenance at ArcelorMittal Tubarão (AMT was used. Among the main advantages of insourcing at AMT are: the reduction of 24, 41% in maintenance services costs; a reduction in the level of rework and the level of lost time injuries (LTI; increased productivity and the index for available time fulfillment on shutdown. The factors that most contributed for the services insourcing are: collective bargaining agreements of the contractors higher than those of contracting and the incidence of profit, management fees (rates administration and taxes on the cost of labor and benefits to employees. This research also concludes that if the service prices of third parties were only adjusted based upon the inflation index (INPC over the last ten years, the insourcing of services, if viewed from the costs standpoint, would have been unfeasible.

  7. Modelled Cost-Effectiveness of a Package Size Cap and a Kilojoule Reduction Intervention to Reduce Energy Intake from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Michelle; Herrera, Ana Maria Mantilla; Ananthapavan, Jaithri; Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Lee, Yong Yi; Zheng, Miaobing; Lal, Anita; Sacks, Gary

    2017-09-06

    Interventions targeting portion size and energy density of food and beverage products have been identified as a promising approach for obesity prevention. This study modelled the potential cost-effectiveness of: a package size cap on single-serve sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) >375 mL ( package size cap ), and product reformulation to reduce energy content of packaged SSBs ( energy reduction ). The cost-effectiveness of each intervention was modelled for the 2010 Australia population using a multi-state life table Markov model with a lifetime time horizon. Long-term health outcomes were modelled from calculated changes in body mass index to their impact on Health-Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). Intervention costs were estimated from a limited societal perspective. Cost and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. Total intervention costs estimated in AUD 2010 were AUD 210 million. Both interventions resulted in reduced mean body weight ( package size cap : 0.12 kg; energy reduction : 0.23 kg); and HALYs gained ( package size cap : 73,883; energy reduction : 144,621). Cost offsets were estimated at AUD 750.8 million ( package size cap ) and AUD 1.4 billion ( energy reduction ). Cost-effectiveness analyses showed that both interventions were "dominant", and likely to result in long term cost savings and health benefits. A package size cap and kJ reduction of SSBs are likely to offer excellent "value for money" as obesity prevention measures in Australia.

  8. Cost of breast cancer treatment. A 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, A P; Brooks, R J; Leibowitz, A N; Solin, L J

    1996-10-28

    To determine the longitudinal cost of the treatment of patients with breast cancer. An analysis was performed of 200 women with 205 newly diagnosed breast cancers during 1989 in a health maintenance organization population (US Healthcare, Blue Bell, Pa). Medical records and claims data were analyzed for the total costs of medical care during the 4-year period after diagnosis. The costs over time were analyzed for clinical stage and use of mammography screening. The total costs of medical care during the 4-year period after diagnosis were strongly related to clinical stage at diagnosis, with higher total costs for patients with stages III to IV at diagnosis compared with patients with stages 0 to II at diagnosis. The cost for all stages of disease declined after years 1 to 2, with the exception of stage II, which increased slightly in years 3 to 4. The use of screening mammography was associated with a significant decrease in the cost of medical care during the 4-year study period. The goal of mammography screening programs should be to achieve downstaging to stages 0 to 1 to achieve reduction in breast cancer mortality and to reduce the overall consumption of health care resources for the treatment of breast cancer. These cost data should be considered within the framework of future cost-effective analysis for screening mammography programs.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, S M; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies...... could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads....

  10. Four-State Cost Study. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Sharmila Basu; Bell, Alli; Stanley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    As part of Lumina Foundation's state productivity initiative in higher education, the State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) hosted a discussion of state level higher education cost studies in May 2008. After subsequent conversations with Jane Wellman, Executive Director of the Delta Cost Project, and SHEEO representatives from four…

  11. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  12. Evaluation of costs associated with tolvaptan-mediated length-of-stay reduction among heart failure patients with hyponatremia in the US, based on the EVEREST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, Jun R; Kim, Sonnie; Lin, Jay; Christian, Rudell; Dasta, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    The Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial showed that tolvaptan use improved heart failure (HF) signs and symptoms without serious adverse events. To evaluate the potential cost savings associated with tolvaptan usage among hospitalized hyponatremic HF patients. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to estimate hospital cost and length of stay (LOS), for diagnosis-related group (DRG) hospitalizations of adult (age ≥18 years) HF patients with complications and comorbidities or major complications and comorbidities. EVEREST trial data for patients with hyponatremia were used to estimate tolvaptan-associated LOS reductions. A cost offset model was constructed to evaluate the impact of tolvaptan on hospital cost and LOS, with univariate and multivariate Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses. Tolvaptan use among hyponatremic EVEREST trial HF patients was associated with shorter hospital LOS than placebo patients (9.72 vs 11.44 days, respectively); 688,336 hospitalizations for HF DRGs were identified from the HCUP NIS database, with a mean LOS of 5.4 days and mean total hospital costs of $8415. Using an inpatient tolvaptan treatment duration of 4 days with a wholesale acquisition cost of $250 per day, the cost offset model estimated a LOS reduction among HF hospitalizations of 0.81 days and an estimated total cost saving of $265 per admission. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analysis demonstrated that cost reduction associated with tolvaptan usage is consistent among variations of model variables. The estimated LOS reduction and cost savings projected by the cost offset model suggest a clinical and economic benefit to tolvaptan use in hyponatremic HF patients. The EVEREST trial data may not generalize well to the US population. Clinical trial patient profiles and relative LOS reductions may not be applicable to real-world patient

  13. Minimum Cost Design of Distributed Energy Resources with Studying the Effect of Capital Cost and Replacement Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nafar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an optimized design of HPS in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, Diesel generator and battery bank.In this research, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization HPS. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for HPS and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of HPS construction. This study tested on case study network on Mardasht city in Iran.

  14. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    a comprehensive data material, often in the form of time series, which is very useful in health economic analyses. The disadvantage of register-based data is the use of tariffs, charges, or market prices as proxies for costs in the computation of healthcare costs.......Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divided...... into three main categories: economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, cost-of-illness analyses, and other analyses such as assessments of healthcare productivity. Conclusion: We examined a number of studies using register-based data on healthcare costs. Use of register-based data renders...

  15. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

  16. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  17. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divide...... a comprehensive data material, often in the form of time series, which is very useful in health economic analyses. The disadvantage of register-based data is the use of tariffs, charges, or market prices as proxies for costs in the computation of healthcare costs....

  18. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners.

  19. Photovoltaic Electricity for Sustainable Building. Efficiency and Energy Cost Reduction for Isolated DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sechilariu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable buildings, this paper investigates power flow management for an isolated DC microgrid and focuses on efficiency and energy cost reduction by optimal scheduling. Aiming at high efficiency, the local produced power has to be used where, when, and how it is generated. Thus, based on photovoltaic sources, storage, and a biofuel generator, the proposed DC microgrid is coupled with the DC distribution network of the building. The DC bus distribution maximizes the efficiency of the overall production-consumption system by avoiding some energy conversion losses and absence of reactive power. The isolated DC microgrid aims to minimize the total energy cost and thus, based on forecasting data, a cost function is formulated. Using a mixed integer linear programming optimization, the optimal power flow scheduling is obtained which leads to an optimization-based strategy for real-time power balancing. Three experimental tests, operated under different meteorological conditions, validate the feasibility of the proposed control and demonstrate the problem formulation of minimizing total energy cost.

  20. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  1. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists...... is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics...

  2. Cost Reduction Key Drivers Within a Small Batch Aerospace Manufacturing Line

    OpenAIRE

    Delamare, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    This report details my work at the endpoint of the internship I spent within the Composite Manufacturing Unit of Airbus Defence & Space in Les Mureaux, France. It is as well the conclusion of the master’s program in aerospace engineering that I attended at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.This document gives an overview of the cost reduction key drivers within a small batch aerospace manufacturing line. Some of the suggested leads developed in the paper have been set up in the pa...

  3. [Evaluation of drug cost reduction resulting from the free supply of investigational drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvaisier, Stéphane; Ferry, Serge; Rochefort, Françoise

    2003-01-01

    Excluding all other costs or benefits of participation in clinical trials, the objective of this study was to evaluate and analyse the cost avoidance represented by the free supply of the investigational drug in place of paying for a marketed drug. The cost avoided was defined as money that would most likely have been spent, but not because of inclusion of the patient in the clinical study. Only studies for which a marketed alternative drug was available with a standard dosage have been analysed. The numbers of delivered doses or the treatment durations were tabulated from pharmacy dispensing records for each study, and were used to calculate the medication cost avoided. No marketed alternative drug was available for 10 of 56 clinical studies. In total, in 2000, the cost avoidance was estimated between [symbol: see text] 585,492 and [symbol: see text] 603,674, with a wide variability between studies or between patients (CV: 120-520%). The two disease categories associated with the largest cost avoidance were multiple sclerosis and growth hormone deficiency. The cost avoidance was essentially of benefit to the medical insurance or the patient (98%) and was lower than [symbol: see text] 10,000 for the hospital, because 91% of patients are not hospitalised. So, why are clinical studies involving ambulatory patients performed in hospital? Of the 56 studies analysed, 46 could be shown to be non-innovative, because a marketed alternative drug was available. Few studies appeared to permit free access to treatment with non-reimbursable marketed drugs.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  5. Interventional CT and MRI: a challenge for safety and cost reduction in the health care system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenemeyer, Dietrich H.; Seibel, Rainer M.

    1995-10-01

    For increasing safety in guidance techniques of endoscopes and instruments, fast radiologic imaging should be integrated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computer tomography (CT) and electron beam tomography (EBT) scanners permit transparency of the operative field; CT and EBT can be combined with fluoroscopy and ultrasound units. MRI avoids x ray exposure, but entails the possibility for 3 D localization. Open access and keyhole imaging allows nearly real time guidance of instruments. Combining minimally invasive techniques using endoscopes and tomographic guidance these technologies improve surgical access and reduce complications. This offers a safe access into the body and leads to the new field of interventional and surgical tomography. Important cost reduction for health care systems is possible, especially in the outpatient treatment of common diseases like disk herniation, back and tumor pain, metastasis, or arteriosclerosis. For realizing a long term cost reduction effect, these techniques have to be integrated in a quality management combining prevention, modern diagnosis, minimal access techniques and, if necessary, hospital stay with maximal access treatments as well as rehabilitation and secondary/tertiary prevention.

  6. Reduction in energy consumption and operating cost in a dried corn warehouse using logistics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrakot Y. Tippayawong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the major economic crops in Thailand. Corn postharvest operation involves various practices that consume a large amount of energy. Different energy conservation measures have been implemented but logistics consideration is not normally employed. In this work, attempt has been made to demonstrate that logistics techniques can offer a significant reduction in energy and cost. The main objective of this work is to identify and demonstrate possible approaches to improving energy efficiency and reducing operating cost for a dried corn warehouse operator. Three main problems are identified: (i relatively high fuel consumption for internal transfer process, (ii low quality of dried corn, and (iii excess expenditure on outbound transportation. Solutions are proposed and implemented using logistics operations. Improvement is achieved using plant layout and shortest path techniques, resulting in a reduction of almost 50% in energy consumption for the internal transfer process. Installation of an air distributor in the grain storage unit results in a decrease in loss due to poor-quality dried corn from 17% to 10%. Excess expenditure on dried corn distribution is reduced by 6% with application of a global positioning system.

  7. OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND SOFTWARE FOR FUEL COST REDUCTION IN CASE OF ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Kovács

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain and the fuel cost is the highest cost among the cost components of transportation. The goal of the research is to optimize the transport costs in case of a given transport task both by the selecting the optimal petrol station and by determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel. Recently, in practice, these two decisions have not been made centrally at the forwarding company, but they depend on the individual decision of the driver. The aim of this study is to elaborate a precise and reliable mathematical method for selecting the optimal refuelling stations and determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel to fulfil the transport demands. Based on the elaborated model, new decision-supporting software is developed for the economical fulfilment of transport trips.

  8. Spacecraft COst REduction Team (SCORE): TQM/CI on a massive scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Jerry D.

    The business of building satellites and space systems has matured. Few missions require, or can afford, excellent performance at any price. The new paradigm is doing more with less, providing quality systems at lower cost--in other words, doing our job 'Faster-Better-Cheaper.' The TRW Spacecraft COst REduction (SCORE) initiative was launched in 1990 by Daniel S. Goldin, then general manager of TRW's Space & Technology Group. The SCORE mission is to apply continuous improvement (CI) techniques to effect major reductions in the cost (our primary goal) and span time (as a corollary) required for the production of spacecraft. SCORE is a multi-year initiative that is having a profound effect on both the procedural and the cultural aspects of how we do business. The objectives of this initiative are being realized. The focus of this paper is not on the results of SCORE per se, but rather on the things we have leaned about how to do continuous improvement on a massive scale, with multilevel (hierarchical) CI teams. The following sections summarize the chronology of the SCORE initiative, from team formation to development of the year-end report for 1991. Lessons learned, the core of this presentation, are discussed--with particular focus on the unique aspects of SCORE. The SCORE initiative is continuing and, as a part of our evolving culture, will never end. It has resulted in profound insights into the way we do work and (the topic at hand) how to do CI for large and complex multidisciplinary development activities.

  9. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  10. A least cost energy analysis of US CO sub 2 reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Solomon, B.D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Hill, D. (Hill (Douglas), Huntington, NY (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Public policy debate on global climate change is increasingly focused on the cost of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Discussion in the US has centered on national energy policy and the desirability and cost of increased energy conversion efficiency and end-use conservation, and on shifting from high greenhouse gas emitting fuels to natural gas, renewable and nuclear-based energy sources. This paper overviews the US MARKAL model, a dynamic linear programming (LP) model of US energy supply and demand. Useful energy projections are specified exogenously to the model, which then determines the optimal energy supply that can meet the demand. We have updated MARKAL with currently available energy technology cost and market penetration data and have applied it to the CO{sub 2} reduction problem for the US. In addition, we have varied some key inputs to the model to test the sensitivity of the energy system to alternative assumptions and to overcome some of the key limitations of the input data. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Estimates of associated outdoor particulate matter health risk and costs reductions from alternative building, ventilation and filtration scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Zuraimi M

    2007-05-01

    Although many studies have reported calculations of outdoor particulate matter (PM) associated externalities using ambient data, there is little information on the role buildings, their ventilation and filtration play. This study provides the framework to evaluate the health risk and cost reduction of building, ventilation and filtration strategies from outdoor PM pollution on a nationwide level and applied it to a case study in Singapore. Combining Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and time weighted exposure models, with established concentration-response functions and monetary valuation methods, mortality and morbidity effects of outdoor PM on the population of Singapore under different building, ventilation and filtration strategies were estimated. Different interventions were made to compare the effects from the current building conditions. The findings demonstrate that building protection effect reduced approximately half the attributable health cases amounting to US$17.7 billion due to PM pollution when compared to levels computed using outdoor data alone. For residential buildings, nationwide adoption of natural ventilation from current state is associated with 28% higher cases of mortality and 13 to 38% higher cases for different morbidities, amounting to US$6.7 billion. The incurred cost is negligible compared to energy costs of air-conditioning. However, nationwide adoption of closed residence and air-conditioning are associated with outcomes including fewer mortality (10 and 6% respectively), fewer morbidities (8 and 4% respectively) and economic savings of US$1.5 and 0.9 billion respectively. The related savings were about a factor of 9 the energy cost for air-conditioning. Nationwide adoption of mechanical ventilation and filtration from current natural ventilation in schools is associated with fewer asthma hospital admissions and exacerbations; although the economic impact is not substantial. Enhanced workplace filtration reduces the mortality and morbidity

  12. The impact of BPO on cost reduction in mid-sized health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andy; Kocakülâh, Mehmet C

    2010-01-01

    At the convergence of two politico-economic "hot topics" of the day--outsourcing and the cost of health care-lie opportunities for mid-sized health systems to innovate, collaborate, and reduce overhead. Competition in the retail health care market can serve as both an impetus and an inhibitor to such measures, though. Here we are going to address the motivations, influences, opportunities, and limitations facing mid-sized, US non-profit health systems in business process outsourcing (BPO). Advocates cite numerous benefits to BPO, particularly in cost reduction and strategy optimization. BPO can elicit cost savings due to specialization among provider firms, returns to scale and technology, standardization and automation, and gains in resource arbitrage (off-shoring capabilities). BPO can also free an organization of non-critical tasks and focus resources on core competencies (treating patients). The surge in BPO utilization has rarely extended to the back-office functions of many mid-sized health systems. Health care providers, still a largely fragmented bunch with many rural, independent non-profit systems, have not experienced the consolidation and organizational scale growth to make BPO as attractive as other industries. Smaller firms, spurning merger and acquisition pressure from large, tertiary health systems, often wish to retain their autonomy and identity; hence, they face a competitive cost disadvantage compared to their larger competitors. This article examines the functional areas for these health systems in which BPO is not currently utilized and dissects the various methods available in which to practice BPO. We assess the ongoing adoption of BPO in these areas as well as the barriers to adoption, and identify the key processes that best represent opportunity for success. An emphasis is placed on a collaborative model with other health systems compared to a single system, unilateral BPO arrangement.

  13. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  14. Does carbon reduction increase sustainability? A study in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates the relationships between carbon reduction and sustainability in the context of wastewater treatment, focussing on the impacts of control adjustments, and demonstrates that reducing energy use and/or increasing energy recovery to reduce net energy can be detrimental to sustainability. Factorial sampling is used to derive 315 control options, containing two different control strategies and a range of sludge wastage flow rates and dissolved oxygen setpoints, for evaluation. For each, sustainability indicators including operational costs, net energy and multiple environmental performance measures are calculated. This enables identification of trade-offs between different components of sustainability which must be considered before implementing energy reduction measures. In particular, it is found that the impacts of energy reduction measures on sludge production and nitrogen removal must be considered, as these are worsened in the lowest energy solutions. It also demonstrates that a sufficiently large range of indicators need to be assessed to capture trade-offs present within the environmental component of sustainability. This is because no solutions provided a move towards sustainability with respect to every indicator. Lastly, it is highlighted that improving the energy balance (as may be considered an approach to achieving carbon reduction) is not a reliable means of reducing total greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Carbon abatement potential of solar home systems in India and their cost reduction due to carbon finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A. [TERI, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, T.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2009-01-15

    About 78 million rural households in India reportedly lack access to grid electricity. About 67 million of them use kerosene for lighting. Government of India is promoting the use of solar home systems (SHS) as one of the options for meeting lighting requirements in households in remote and less inhabited villages. About 363,399 SHS were reportedly disseminated across the country by December 2007. Apart from meeting the basic lighting need of the households, SHS also help in abating the emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by directly displacing the use of kerosene in households that currently use it for lighting. This study has attempted at estimating the CO{sub 2} mitigation potential of SHS in India by studying the potential for their diffusion and the appropriate baseline. Subsequently, the scope for cost reduction to the user due to carbon finance, if received, is also studied. It is found that carbon finance could reduce the effective burden of SHS to the user by 19% if carbon prices were $10/tCO{sub 2} and no transaction costs were involved in getting the carbon revenues. These benefits are also estimated for scenarios where transaction costs are incurred by the project proponent in getting the carbon benefits. (author)

  16. [Rational prescribing and cost reduction in the treatment of arterial hypertension: a simulation exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, A; Gosalbes, V; Fito, M; Navarro, J

    2001-01-01

    Cost of antihypertensive drugs in Spain raises 100.000 millions of pesetas. The utilization of new drugs more expensive than classics diuretics and beta blockers is the main reason of this cost increase.The Joint National Commission on Hypertension 6th Report supports the utilization of diuretics and beta blockers as the first choice in patients without any special condition, based in their best efficience. Other professional group don't point out any therapeutic drugs because each of them have their indication. Health authorities have implemented measures intended more to achieve savings than to improve prescriptions. There are not any studies which demonstrate that the second type of measures are more efficient than first one. To realize an economic evaluation, of a program of blood hypertension treatment taking and not taking into account the The Joint National Commission on Hypertension 6th Report. Descriptive, prescription-indication study. Cost minimization. Health center from Valencia (Spain). Three hundred and thirteen patients were studied, randomly selected. Three strategy of cost decrease were considered: a) same prescription profile using the cheapest drugs, b) change of profile taken into account JNC-VI recommendations using the original drugs, and c) second option, but using the cheapest drugs. Ninety seven percent of diuretics had specific indications, 84% of beta blockers, 64.5% of IECAS, 31.6% of alfa blockers and 13% de calcium channel blockers. Diuretics were counter-indicated in 3.5% of patients, beta blockers in 10.5%, and both in 3.1%. Total cost of the unmodifed prescription was 12.412.839 pesetas, cost of the first strategy was 10.067.107, of the second 5.311.783 pesetas and of the third 1.999.094 pesetas. Our prescription profile don't follow JNC VI recommendations and this is not justified on indications or counterindications of diuretics and beta blockers. Following JNC VI is more efficient than looking only for the cheapest drug.

  17. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture : Guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs) that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce

  18. Savings plan of transportation energy: Automobile running and cost reduction at the age of austerity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, T.J. [Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Kwachon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The effect that appears due to driving small compact cars can be largely divided into national and territorial levels and another at personal level. As the use of small cars is activated, the effects at the national and territorial levels are as follows: energy savings, reduction of environmental pollution, capacity increase of transportation facilities, improvements in residential area environments. The benefits given to small car users are savings in automobile operating costs, solution of parking problems due to the decrease of required parking space, savings in fuel costs. The effects at the national and territorial levels can be the indispensable but not the sufficient condition of the use of small cars. That is, when the effect at the national and territorial levels following the use of small cars is transferred to persons and the effect is ensured, then running small compact cars will be more activated. There are a few tasks to overcome for activating the operation of small compact cars even though they have a lot of benefits. First, there should be the change of perception toward the size of cars, and second, legal and systematic supports are needed to activate the running small compact cars. 6 tabs.

  19. Reduction from cost-sensitive ordinal ranking to weighted binary classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Tien; Li, Ling

    2012-05-01

    We present a reduction framework from ordinal ranking to binary classification. The framework consists of three steps: extracting extended examples from the original examples, learning a binary classifier on the extended examples with any binary classification algorithm, and constructing a ranker from the binary classifier. Based on the framework, we show that a weighted 0/1 loss of the binary classifier upper-bounds the mislabeling cost of the ranker, both error-wise and regret-wise. Our framework allows not only the design of good ordinal ranking algorithms based on well-tuned binary classification approaches, but also the derivation of new generalization bounds for ordinal ranking from known bounds for binary classification. In addition, our framework unifies many existing ordinal ranking algorithms, such as perceptron ranking and support vector ordinal regression. When compared empirically on benchmark data sets, some of our newly designed algorithms enjoy advantages in terms of both training speed and generalization performance over existing algorithms. In addition, the newly designed algorithms lead to better cost-sensitive ordinal ranking performance, as well as improved listwise ranking performance.

  20. Key parameters influencing the NOx reduction process by low-cost char pellets: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Soriano-Mora; A. Bueno-Lopez; A. Garcia-Garcia; R. Perry; C.E. Snape [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    High potassium content char briquettes prepared from a bituminous coal have shown to be remarkably selective towards NOx reduction by the carbon contained within them. For the present work, it was decided to pursue the preparation of a number of pelletised formulations as well as testing reaction temperatures and lifetime tests. Low-cost carbon feedstocks were selected for pellet preparation (a metallurgical coke breeze, petroleum coke fines and a medium temperature domestic coke), two coals (an anthracite and a high volatile bituminous coal), a scrap tyre pyrolysis char and a carbon concentrate from PFA. Pellets were prepared from a solid mixture containing 65% of air-dried carbon, 30% potassium hydroxide and 5% of cashew nut shell liquid as binder. The results show that good and constant values of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction as well as satisfactory selectivity factors (up to 0.45). This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples and on reaction temperature. The most efficient pellets in terms of high selectivity and high amount of NOx reduced were analysed under lifetime tests at 400{sup o}C. Very encouraging results were obtained showing that high values of NOx conversions (well above O{sub 2} conversions), long lifetimes, no uncontrolled increase in sample temperature and very low CO emissions, (leading to an optimum sample efficiency) were observed throughout lifetime tests. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Technical and cost assessment of energy efficiency improvement and greenhouse gas emission reduction potentials in Thai cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, A. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-uthit Rd, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand); Menke, C. [Department of Building Engineering Services, Energy Technology Division, University of Applied Sciences, Schneidershof, 54293 Trier (Germany); Therdyothin, A. [The School of Energy, Environment, and Material, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-01-15

    The cement industry is one of the most energy-consuming industries in Thailand, with high associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The cement sector accounted for about 20.6 million tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2005. The fuel intensity of the Thai cement industry was about 3.11 gigajoules (GJ)/tonne cement; the electricity intensity was about 94.3 kWh/tonne cement, and the total primary energy intensity was about 4.09 GJ/tonne cement in 2005 with the clinker to cement ratio of around 82%. In this study, the potential application of 47 energy-efficiency measures is assessed for the Thai cement industry. Using a bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency improvement potential for the Thai cement industry is estimated to be about 265 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 8% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 1,697 GWh, which accounts for 51% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. The CO2 emission reduction potential associated with the cost-effective electricity savings is 159 kilotonne (kt) CO2, while the total technical potential for CO2 emission reductions is 902 ktonne CO2. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows a cost-effective fuel-efficiency improvement potential of 17,214 terajoules (TJ) and a total technical fuel efficiency improvement potential equal to 21,202 TJ, accounting for 16% and 19% of the total fuel use in the cement industry in 2005, respectively. CO2 emission reduction potentials associated with cost-effective and technical fuel-saving measures are 2,229 ktonne and 2,603 ktonne, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for discount rate, electricity and fuel prices, and exchange rate that showed the significant influence of these parameters on the results. Hence, the results of the study should be interpreted with caution.

  2. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  3. BACKORDER AND LOST SALES CONTINUOUS REVIEW RAW MATERIAL INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM WITH LEAD TIME AND ORDERING COST REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiena Gustina Amran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to suggest the optimal raw material inventory system alternatives synchronized with the stock out characteristics and the condition can be occurred, the backorder raw material inventory control, beside that it also can reduce lead time and raw material ordering cost. In this case, the inventory models also extent (Q, R Inventory Model Under lead Time and Ordering Cost Reduction with lead time and ordering cost can be reduced. After the calculation, the optimal solution of inventory models can be obtained; those are with backorder condition which produced the annual inventory total cost for the company.

  4. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of predicting rotary wing operation maintenance costs by using several aircraft design factors for the aircraft dynamic systems. The dynamic systems considered were engines, drives and transmissions, rotors, and flight controls. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate aircraft design and operational factors with manhours per flight hour, and equations for each dynamic system were developed. Results of labor predictions using the equations compare favorably with actual values.

  5. Cost-effective reduction of eutrophication in the Gulf of Kalloni (Island of Lesvos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ZANOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a cost-effective analysis by comparing the costs of measures (options to improve the quality of bathing waters in the Gulf of Kalloni (island of Lesvos, Greece in order to reduce the anthropogenic eutrophication in the coastal water of the Kalloni Gulf.The Gulf of Kalloni is a semi-enclosed gulf (115 km2 which receives municipal wastewater, agricultural activity drainage, and at times sewage from olive oil plants processing the local olives harvest. The area of study consists of the coastal waters and the river basin of which water run-off drains into the gulf. Four options are comparable in their environmental effectiveness to reduce eurtophication damages which are: municipal wastewater treatment plant, construction of dams, organic farming plus training and olive oil wastewater treatment plant.

  6. Prospective validation of a blood ordering protocol for elective spine arthrodesis and its impact on cost reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On the basis of an institutional audit, the authors published an individual patient-based protocol for preoperative arrangement of blood products in patients undergoing elective spine arthrodesis. The present study was conducted for the prospective validation of the proposed protocol in reducing cross match to transfusion ratio, and its implications on overall cost. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over 1 year (2012. All adult patients who underwent elective spinal arthrodesis were included and prospectively observed. The actual transfusion index was calculated for individual patients with the formula C1/T, where C1 is the number of units of packed RBCs cross matched and T is the number of actual transfusions. C1/T was then compared with a theoretical transfusion index C2/T for the same group of patients, C2 being the number derived from calculating the number of units of packed RBCs that would have been ordered for individual patient according to the protocol. The cost difference between C1/T and C2/T was analyzed. Results: A total of 125 patients were included. A total of 435 units of packed RBCs were ordered (C1, out of which only 108 units were transfused (T, yielding a C1/T of 4.02. The C2 for the same group of patients was 188 units of packed RBCs and the C2/T was thus calculated to be 1.74. Implementation of the protocol would reduce per patient cost from Pakistani Rupees (PKR 6676.8 ± 4125.8 to 4700.8 ± 1712.86, with a P < 0.001 and an overall reduction of 30%. Conclusion: Cross match to transfusion ratio and blood ordering related cost are both significantly reduced with the application of institutional cross-match protocol.

  7. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  8. Coherence and health care cost--RCA actuarial study: a cost-effectiveness cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Woody; Kaszkin-Bettag, Marietta

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress is among the most costly health problems in terms of direct health costs, absenteeism, disability, and performance standards. The Reformed Church in America (RCA) identified stress among its clergy as a major cause of higher-than-average health claims and implemented HeartMath (HM) to help its participants manage stress and increase physiological resilience. The 6-week HM program Revitalize You! was selected for the intervention including the emWave Personal Stress Reliever technology. From 2006 to 2007, completion of a health risk assessment (HRA) provided eligible clergy with the opportunity to participate in the HM program or a lifestyle management program (LSM). Outcomes for that year were assessed with the Stress and Well-being Survey. Of 313 participants who completed the survey, 149 completed the Revitalize You! Program, and 164 completed the LSM. Well-being, stress management, resilience, and emotional vitality were significantly improved in the HM group as compared to the LSM group. In an analysis of the claims costs data for 2007 and 2008, 144 pastors who had participated in the HM program were compared to 343 non-participants (control group). Adjusted medical costs were reduced by 3.8% for HM participants in comparison with an increase of 9.0% for the control group. For the adjusted pharmacy costs, an increase of 7.9% was found compared with an increase of 13.3% for the control group. Total 2008 savings as a result of the HM program are estimated at $585 per participant, yielding a return on investment of 1.95:1. These findings show that HM stress-reduction and coherence-building techniques can reduce health care costs.

  9. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh

  10. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh f

  11. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh f

  12. A cost effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in four Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mason

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy. All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30% resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. CONCLUSION: Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives.

  13. A cost effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in four Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Helen; Shoaibi, Azza; Ghandour, Rula; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Khatib, Rana; Jabr, Samer; Unal, Belgin; Sözmen, Kaan; Arfa, Chokri; Aissi, Wafa; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Al-Ali, Radwan; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2014-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG) over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy). All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30%) resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives.

  14. A variation reduction allocation model for quality improvement to minimize investment and quality costs by considering suppliers’ learning curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Jauhari, WA; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    Quality improvement must be performed in a company to maintain its product competitiveness in the market. The goal of such improvement is to increase the customer satisfaction and the profitability of the company. In current practice, a company needs several suppliers to provide the components in assembly process of a final product. Hence quality improvement of the final product must involve the suppliers. In this paper, an optimization model to allocate the variance reduction is developed. Variation reduction is an important term in quality improvement for both manufacturer and suppliers. To improve suppliers’ components quality, the manufacturer must invest an amount of their financial resources in learning process of the suppliers. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consists of investment cost, and quality costs for both internal and external quality costs. The Learning curve will determine how the employee of the suppliers will respond to the learning processes in reducing the variance of the component.

  15. Reliability improvements and cost reductions through the innovative use of materials and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.; Reid, D.; Chiovelli, S. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Syncrude has an annual maintenance budget of about $350 million. Most repairs are driven by material degradation which in most cases is predictable. One way to reduce repair costs is to address the damage mechanisms which result in the required maintenance. This can be done through emerging technologies such as: (1) bi-metallic and composite castings for wear resistance in double roll crushers and feeder breaker wear components, (2) new manufacturing processes for hydrotransport screens, (3) structural repairs through the use of fiber composite materials, (4) improved pump life through surface modifications and coatings, and (5) a user friendly materials database. A series of case studies are described to show how maintenance costs can be reduced and reliability improved through the innovative use of materials and processes. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 19 figs.

  16. 2014 U.S. Offshore Wind Market Report: Industry Trends, Technology Advancement, and Cost Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Walter Musial

    2015-09-29

    2015 has been an exciting year for the U.S. offshore wind market. After more than 15 years of development work, the U.S. has finally hit a crucial milestone; Deepwater Wind began construction on the 30 MW Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) in April. A number of other promising projects, however, have run into economic, legal, and political headwinds, generating much speculation about the future of the industry. This slow, and somewhat painful, start to the industry is not without precedent; each country in northern Europe began with pilot-scale, proof-of-concept projects before eventually moving to larger commercial scale installations. Now, after more than a decade of commercial experience, the European industry is set to achieve a new deployment record, with more than 4 GW expected to be commissioned in 2015, with demonstrable progress towards industry-wide cost reduction goals. DWW is leveraging 25 years of European deployment experience; the BIWF combines state-of-the-art technologies such as the Alstom 6 MW turbine with U.S. fabrication and installation competencies. The successful deployment of the BIWF will provide a concrete showcase that will illustrate the potential of offshore wind to contribute to state, regional, and federal goals for clean, reliable power and lasting economic development. It is expected that this initial project will launch the U.S. industry into a phase of commercial development that will position offshore wind to contribute significantly to the electric systems in coastal states by 2030.

  17. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  18. Estimate of the technological costs of CO{sub 2} emission reductions in passenger cars. Emission reduction potentials and their costs; Technikkostenschaetzung fuer die CO{sub 2}-Emissionsminderung bei Pkw. Emissionsminderungspotenziale und ihre Kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbener, Reinhard; Jahn, Helge; Wetzel, Frank [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany). Fachgebiet I 3.2 - Schadstoffminderung und Energieeinsparung im Verkehr

    2008-08-06

    The Federal Environmental Office intended to identify the current fuel consumption reduction potential and the cost of efficiency-enhancing measures on passenger cars. For this purpose, an extensive bibliographic search was carried out, and experts from research institutes and from the automobile supplier industry were asked for their opinion. The results are published in table form. (orig.)

  19. Estimation of the cost savings resulting from the use of ursodiol for the prevention of gallstones in obese patients undergoing rapid weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoheiber, O; Biskupiak, J E; Nash, D B

    1997-11-01

    Morbidly obese patients enrolled in a rapid weight reduction program are at a high risk of developing gallstones. Two multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trials have demonstrated that the prophylactic use of ursodiol in males and females 18 to 70 years of age is effective for the prevention of gallstone formation in this patient population. This study examines the cost consequences associated with the prophylactic use of ursodiol. A medical decision analysis model for the prophylactic administration of ursodiol in morbidly obese patients undergoing rapid weight reduction by either gastric bypass surgery or very-low-calorie-diet, was developed through the use of data from two clinical trials and review of the related literature. The expert opinion of clinicians from the fields of internal medicine, gastroenterology and surgery were solicited. Financial data for the charges associated with cholecystectomies, physician fees and ursodiol were obtained from current financial databases. The model demonstrates that the prophylactic administration of ursodiol, in morbidly obese patients undergoing rapid weight reduction, results in cost savings. Sensitivity analysis was performed to illustrate that the cost savings achieved by the prophylactic use of ursodiol were valid over a realistic range of charges and assumptions. The decision model may allow health care decision makers to apply their own data to the model to determine the cost savings obtainable through the prophylactic use of ursodiol in patients undergoing rapid weight reduction.

  20. Cost reduction in the cold: heat generated by terrestrial locomotion partly substitutes for thermoregulation costs in Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, L.W.; Piersma, T.

    1998-01-01

    To test whether heat generated during locomotion substitutes for the thermoregulation cost, oxygen consumption of four post-absorptive temperate-wintering Knot Calidris canutus was measured at air temperatures of 25 degrees C (thermoneutral) and 10 degrees C (c. 10 degrees below the lower critical

  1. Cost reduction in the cold : heat generated by terrestrial locomotion partly substitutes for thermoregulation costs in Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Piersma, T

    To test whether heat generated during locomotion substitutes for the thermoregulation cost, oxygen consumption of four post-absorptive temperate-wintering Knot Calidris canutus was measured at air temperatures of 25 degrees C (thermoneutral) and 10 degrees C (c. 10 degrees below the lower critical

  2. A RELATIVE STUDY ON COST ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Jayapratha; M. Muthamizharasan

    2017-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation is one of the most important part in software development. It involves in estimating the effort and cost in terms of money to complete the software development. Software Cost Estimation is very important when lines of code for the particular project exceeds certain limit, also when the software deployed with too many bugs and uncovered requirements the project will go incomplete. Software cost estimation of a project plays a vital role in acceptance or rejection of it...

  3. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  4. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schmidt@boku.ac.at [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Leduc, Sylvain [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Dotzauer, Erik [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-72123 Vaesteras (Sweden); Schmid, Erwin [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: > Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and fossil fuel consumption. > Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. > Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. > CO{sub 2} tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. > Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  5. Cost Models: A Study in Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauley, Franz E.

    1975-01-01

    The article defines the major elements (fundamental questions, basic assumptions, anticipated costs, projected savings, and return on investment) of a cost model, discusses the function and importance of each of these elements, and illustrates the development and construction of a cost model through an analysis of a hypothetical speed reading…

  6. Cost analysis of prenatal care using the activity-based costing model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesse, T; Golembeski, S; Potter, J

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care.

  7. Energy cost reduction in the synchronization of a pair of nonidentical coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons

    CERN Document Server

    Moujahid, A; Torrealdea, F J; Sarasola, C; 10.1007/978-3-642-12433-4_77

    2012-01-01

    Many biological processes involve synchronization between nonequivalent systems, i.e, systems where the difference is limited to a rather small parameter mismatch. The maintenance of the synchronized regime in this cases is energetically costly \\cite{1}. This work studies the energy implications of synchronization phenomena in a pair of structurally flexible coupled neurons that interact through electrical coupling. We show that the forced synchronization between two nonidentical neurons creates appropriate conditions for an efficient actuation of adaptive laws able to make the neurons structurally approach their behaviours in order to decrease the flow of energy required to maintain the synchronization regime.

  8. An exploratory study of the cost-effectiveness of orthodontic care in seven European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Jamie; Playle, Rebecca; Durning, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the orthodontic treatment of 429 consecutive patients [172 male (40.1 per cent) and 257 female (59.9 per cent)] carried out by 10 orthodontic specialist practitioners in seven European countries [two in the Czech Republic (A and B), two in Germany (A and B), Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, and Netherlands, and two in Slovenia (A and B)]. The median age of the patients at the start of treatment was 13.0 years (minimum 7.3 years maximum 50.3 years). The patients had a range of malocclusions and the majority (97 per cent) were treated with upper and lower fixed appliances. Real exchange rates were calculated using purchasing power parity (PPP) indicators to allow cross-border comparisons of costs. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) was used to measure the effectiveness of treatment and cost per ICON point reduction to compare cost-effectiveness of orthodontic treatment between practitioners in different European countries. The median cost per ICON point reduction for all the cases treated was €57.69. The median cost per ICON point reduction varied greatly between practitioners from €21.70 (Lithuania) to €116.62 (Slovenia A). Analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests showed the differences in cost-effectiveness between the practitioners to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The cost per ICON point reduction is a simple and effective method of comparing cost-effectiveness between orthodontic practitioners in different countries. PMID:18854553

  9. High-Energy-Density Fuel Blending Strategies and Drop Dispersion for Fuel Cost Reduction and Soot Propensity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1998-01-01

    The idea that low soot propensity of high-energy-density (HED) liquid sooting fuels and cost reduction of a multicomponent energetic fuel can be achieved by doping a less expensive, less sooting liquid fuel with HED is tested through numerical simulations.

  10. Wind turbine noise reduction. An indicative cost estimation; Sanering windturbinegeluid. Een indicatieve raming van kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheijen, E.N.G.; Jabben, J.

    2011-11-15

    Since the 1st of January 2011 new rules apply for wind turbine noise. The rules include a different calculation method and different noise limits, intended for new wind turbines. In order to tackle noise annoyance from existing wind turbines the government is considering to set up a abatement operation, for which a cost estimate is given in this study. At an abatement limit of 47 decibel L{sub den} (Level day-evening-night) approximately 450 dwellings would be eligible for noise remediation. The costs of this operation are estimated at 4.9 million euro. However, in many of these cases the wind turbine is probably owned by the respective residents. It is possible that public funds for noise remediation will not be allocated to the owners of dwellings that directly profit from the turbines. If these cases are excluded, the abatement operation would cover 165 to 275 dwellings with estimated costs for remediation of 1.6 to 2.6 million euro. A tentative cost-benefit analysis suggests that noise remediation will be cost effective in most situations. This means that the benefits of reduced annoyance or sleep disturbance are in balance with the cost of remediation. Only for the small group of wind turbines that are in use for over fifteen years, remediation will not be cost effective. These wind turbines are nearing the end of their lifespan and are therefore ignored in the above estimates. [Dutch] Sinds 1 januari 2011 zijn nieuwe regels rond windturbinegeluid van kracht. Bij de nieuwe regelgeving hoort een andere berekeningsmethode en normstelling, bedoeld voor nieuw te plaatsen windturbines. Voor de aanpak van de geluidhinder door bestaande windturbines overweegt de overheid een saneringsoperatie op te zetten, waarvoor in dit onderzoek een kostenraming wordt gegeven. Bij een saneringsgrenswaarde van 47 decibel zouden ongeveer 450 woningen voor sanering in aanmerking komen. De kosten voor sanering daarvan worden geschat op 4,9 miljoen euro. Bij een groot deel van deze

  11. Performance evaluation of low cost adsorbents in reduction of COD in sugar industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parande, Anand K; Sivashanmugam, A; Beulah, H; Palaniswamy, N

    2009-09-15

    Studies on reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in effluent from sugar industry have been carried out by employing different absorbents optimizing various parameters, such as initial concentration of adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental studies were carried out in batches using metakaolin, tamarind nut carbon and dates nut carbon as adsorbents by keeping initial adsorbent dosage at 1 g l(-1), agitation time over a range of 30-240 min, adsorbent dosage at 100-800 mg l(-1) by varying the pH range from 4 to 10. Characterization of there adsorbents were done using techniques such as Fourier transforms infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherms of the adsorbents indicate appreciable adsorption capacity. Higher COD removal was observed at neutral pH conditions. Studies reveal that maximum reduction efficiency of COD takes place using metakaolin as an absorbent at a dosage of 500 mg l(-1) in a contact time of 180 min at pH 7 and it could be used as an efficient absorbent for treating sugar industrial effluent.

  12. Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2012-01-01

    In situ reduction of an industrial NiO powder is performed under 1.3 mbar of H2 (2 mlN/min) in a differentially pumped FEI Titan 80-300 environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structura...

  13. Studies in the carbothermic reduction of phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Bharat B.; Pande, Anita R.; Gokarn, Ashok N.

    1992-10-01

    Phosphogypsum has been reduced in the solid state by active charcoal both in the presence and absence of catalysts. Kinetic data could be fitted to the modified volume reaction model. Mixed catalysts like potassium dichromate were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily. This result could be fruitfully employed during reduction with industrial coke also.

  14. Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction - a mechanistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Klaas Jan Schouten

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents new insights into the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane and ethylene on copper electrodes. This electrochemical process has great potential for the storage of surplus renewable electrical energy in the form of hydrocarbons. The research described in this thesis focuses on t

  15. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... complete, accurate, and current as certified in its Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data; (2) A... complete, accurate, and current as certified in the Contractor's Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing... been modified even if accurate, complete, and current certified cost or pricing data had been...

  16. Reduction of computer usage costs in predicting unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by control surface motions: Analysis and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, W. S.; Sebastian, J. D.; Petrarca, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Results of theoretical and numerical investigations conducted to develop economical computing procedures were applied to an existing computer program that predicts unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by leading and trailing edge control surface motions in subsonic compressible flow. Large reductions in computing costs were achieved by removing the spanwise singularity of the downwash integrand and evaluating its effect separately in closed form. Additional reductions were obtained by modifying the incremental pressure term that account for downwash singularities at control surface edges. Accuracy of theoretical predictions of unsteady loading at high reduced frequencies was increased by applying new pressure expressions that exactly satisified the high frequency boundary conditions of an oscillating control surface. Comparative computer result indicated that the revised procedures provide more accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reduction of 50 to 80 percent in computer usage costs.

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Gu

    2015-08-01

    cardiovascular disease for secondary prevention was projected to be cost saving in the main simulation and 100% of probabilistic simulation results. Treating all hypertension for primary and secondary prevention would prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually (95% uncertainty interval, 0.6 to 1.0 million and was borderline cost-effective incremental to treating only cardiovascular disease and stage two patients (2015 Int$13,000 per QALY gained [95% uncertainty interval, Int$10,000 to Int$18,000]. Of all one-way sensitivity analyses, assuming adherence to taking medications as low as 25%, high Shanghai drug costs, or low medication efficacy led to the most unfavorable results (treating all hypertension, about Int$47,000, Int$37,000, and Int$27,000 per QALY were gained, respectively. The strengths of this study were the use of a recent Chinese national health survey, vital statistics, health care costs, and cohort study outcomes data as model inputs and reliance on clinical-trial-based estimates of coronary heart disease and stroke risk reduction due to antihypertensive medication treatment. The limitations of the study were the use of several sources of data, limited clinical trial evidence for medication effectiveness and harms in the youngest and oldest age groups, lack of information about geographic and ethnic subgroups, lack of specific information about indirect costs borne by patients, and uncertainty about the future epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in China.Expanded hypertension treatment has the potential to prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually and be borderline cost-effective in China, provided low-cost essential antihypertensive medicines programs can be implemented.

  18. Central Plant Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER). ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    EW-201349) Central Plant Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER) December 2016 This document has been cleared for public release...Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER) Girija Parthasarathy Honeywell Honeywell - 1985 Douglas Drive North, Golden Valley, MN 55422 ERDC...technology that commands all equipment in a central plant. Central Plant Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER), Building Automation System (BAS

  19. An optimal policy for a single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated system with setup cost reduction and process-quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hui; Zhou, Xideng

    2014-05-01

    The single-vendor single-buyer integrated production inventory system has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing setup cost reduction and process-quality improvement for an integrated inventory system in which the products are sold with free minimal repair warranty. The purpose of this article is to minimise the integrated cost by optimising simultaneously the number of shipments and the shipment quantity, the setup cost, and the process quality. An efficient algorithm procedure is proposed for determining the optimal decision variables. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the results of the proposed models graphically. Sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to key parameters of the system is carried out. The paper shows that the proposed integrated model can result in significant savings in the integrated cost.

  20. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  1. RECYCLING OF CATHETER FOR EMBRYO RECOVERY: A TOOL FOR COSTS REDUCTION IN EQUINE EMBRYO TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lopes Gusmao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is becoming a widespread practice.Most embryos are collected from spontaneous single ovulatingmares and result in 50% of embryo recovery, increasing the costsof production. To illustrate, the price of a catheter for embryosrecovery range from US$ 194.00 to US$ 250.00 (R$ 350.00 to R$450.00. Therefore, the aim of this work was to verify if catheterwith damaged balloon can be recuperated and reused withoutaltering its efficiency. For this study, two groups were used: acontrol group (GI, n=10, on which the nonsurgical recovery of theembryos of mares was performed with the catheter with originalballoon; and another group (GII, n=20, in which a restored catheterwas utilized. The mares of GI had an embryo recovery rate of60%, and GII mares had an embryo recovery rate of 55%. Therewas not statistical difference between groups I and II (P>0.05.Considering that the material used to restore the catheter costsUS$16.66 (R$30.00, this data show that the recuperation of thecatheters for embryo recovery in mares may reduce costs withoutcompromising the rates of embryo recovery.

  2. Cost variation study of antidepressant drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Shukla

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: There is wide price variation of different brands of the same generic antidepressant drug in Indian market. Cost of a drug plays an important role in treatment of depression as it follows a long course and adherence to the treatment is related with drug cost. To decrease the wide cost variation among different brands of antidepressant drugs; it is high time to generate physician awareness about impact of cost effectiveness of drug regimen and for regulation of drug prices by the concerned agencies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1816-1821

  3. Determining the economic cost of ICU treatment: a prospective "micro-costing" study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Anne Marie

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the cost of patients in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) using bottom-up costing methodology and evaluate the usefulness of "severity of illness" scores in estimating ICU cost. METHODS AND DESIGN: A prospective study costing 64 consecutive admissions over a 2-month period in a mixed medical\\/surgical ICU. RESULTS: The median daily ICU cost (interquartile range, IQR) was 2,205 euro (1,932 euro-3,073 euro), and the median total ICU cost (IQR) was 10,916 euro (4,294 euro-24,091 euro). ICU survivors had a lower median daily ICU cost at 2,164 per day, compared with 3,496 euro per day for ICU non-survivors (P = 0.08). The requirements for continuous haemodiafiltration, blood products and anti-fungal agents were associated with higher daily and overall ICU costs (P = 0.002). Each point increase in SAPS3 was associated with a 305 euro (95% CI 31 euro-579 euro) increase in total ICU cost (P = 0.029). However, SAPS3 accounted for a small proportion of the variance in this model (R (2) = 0.08), limiting its usefulness as a stand-alone predictor of cost in clinical practice. A model including haemodiafiltration, blood products and anti-fungal agents explained 54% of the variance in total ICU cost. CONCLUSION: This bottom-up costing study highlighted the considerable individual variation in costs between ICU patients and identified the major factors contributing to cost. As the requirement for expensive interventions was the main driver for ICU cost, "severity of illness" scores may not be useful as stand-alone predictors of cost in the ICU.

  4. [Clinical study using activity-based costing to assess cost-effectiveness of a wound management system utilizing modern dressings in comparison with traditional wound care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Takehiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Mino, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of cost-effectiveness, including medical delivery and health service fee systems, has become widespread in Japanese health care. In the field of pressure ulcer management, the recent introduction of penalty subtraction in the care fee system emphasizes the need for prevention and cost-effective care of pressure ulcer. Previous cost-effectiveness research on pressure ulcer management tended to focus only on "hardware" costs such as those for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, while neglecting other cost aspects, particularly those involving the cost of labor. Thus, cost-effectiveness in pressure ulcer care has not yet been fully established. To provide true cost effectiveness data, a comparative prospective study was initiated in patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Considering the potential impact of the pressure reduction mattress on clinical outcome, in particular, the same type of pressure reduction mattresses are utilized in all the cases in the study. The cost analysis method used was Activity-Based Costing, which measures material and labor cost aspects on a daily basis. A reduction in the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) score was used to measure clinical effectiveness. Patients were divided into three groups based on the treatment method and on the use of a consistent algorithm of wound care: 1. MC/A group, modern dressings with a treatment algorithm (control cohort). 2. TC/A group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) with a treatment algorithm. 3. TC/NA group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) without a treatment algorithm. The results revealed that MC/A is more cost-effective than both TC/A and TC/NA. This suggests that appropriate utilization of modern dressing materials and a pressure ulcer care algorithm would contribute to reducing health care costs, improved clinical results, and, ultimately, greater cost-effectiveness.

  5. Cost reduction by using micro-fingers in thin film silicon modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Bosman, J.; Loffler, J.; Budel, T. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    A finite element electrical model is described that can be used to calculate the performance of monolithic thin film photovoltaic modules. The model is suitable for all type of thin film modules, like e.g. p-i-n a-Si:H, CIGS and polymer based modules and it includes losses due to interconnection. Using this model a parameter study is performed for a-Si:H cells with the aim to reduce metal consumption in the cell and interconnection. It is shown that a reduction in metal consumption by a factor 1.3 can be achieved with only marginal loss in performance if short cell are used with very short fingers.

  6. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  7. Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Chitty, Lyn S; Morris, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. questionnaire-based costing study. eight maternity clinics across the UK. pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on Rural Poverty Reduction Effect of Traffic Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping; GUO; Bin; ZHANG; Xiyan; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    To systematically comb and explore the rural poverty reduction effect of traffic infrastructure,the author analyzed the mechanism,main channels and actual effect of rural traffic infrastructure on poverty reduction.It revealed that rural traffic infrastructure exerts positive or negative effect on poverty reduction directly or indirectly.The positive channel includes increasing non-agricultural employment opportunities,reducing costs for agricultural production,transportation and labor transfer,increasing availability of social service,and promoting adjustment of agricultural industrial structure and development of rural tourism resources.On the whole,traffic infrastructure has significant positive influence on rural poverty reduction.Finally,it summarized policy recommendations for building pro-poor traffic infrastructure,and came up with vacancy of related research field and future exploration direction.

  9. Evidence for cost reduction based on pre-admission MRSA screening in general surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diller, Ricarda; Sonntag, Anne K; Mellmann, Alexander; Grevener, Knut; Senninger, Norbert; Kipp, Frank; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2008-01-01

    Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a risk factor for MRSA infection causing increased costs in patient's care and treatment. To evaluate cost efficiency, pre-admission MRSA screening and subsequent MRSA decolonization of patients admitted to the Department of Gen

  10. Reverse Auction: A Potential Strategy for Reduction of Pharmacological Therapy Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Michelly Gonçalves Brandão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polypharmacy is a significant economic burden. Objective: We tested whether using reverse auction (RA as compared with commercial pharmacy (CP to purchase medicine results in lower pharmaceutical costs for heart failure (HF and heart transplantation (HT outpatients. Methods: We compared the costs via RA versus CP in 808 HF and 147 HT patients followed from 2009 through 2011, and evaluated the influence of clinical and demographic variables on cost. Results: The monthly cost per patient for HF drugs acquired via RA was $10.15 (IQ 3.51-40.22 versus $161.76 (IQ 86.05‑340.15 via CP; for HT, those costs were $393.08 (IQ 124.74-774.76 and $1,207.70 (IQ 604.48-2,499.97, respectively. Conclusion: RA may reduce the cost of prescription drugs for HF and HT, potentially making HF treatment more accessible. Clinical characteristics can influence the cost and benefits of RA. RA may be a new health policy strategy to reduce costs of prescribed medications for HF and HT patients, reducing the economic burden of treatment.

  11. Pollen viability reduction as a potential cost of ant association for Acacia constricta (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D

    2000-05-01

    Field studies investigating the impact of ants on the reproduction of plants bearing extrafloral nectaries have traditionally focused on seed production, a component of female fitness. The purpose of this study was to test whether ants can affect the pollen viability, a component of male fitness, when they visit flowers of the shrub Acacia constricta. Acacia constricta inflorescences hand-pollinated with flowers over which Formica perpilosa ants had crawled set significantly fewer seed pods than inflorescences hand-pollinated by control flowers that had no contact with ants. Many ant species secrete antibiotic substances onto the integument that render pollen inviable, and these secretions are probably the mechanism for reduced pollen viability in this study. The ratio of seed pods produced by self-pollinated inflorescences to those produced by cross-pollinated inflorescences was 0.16, indicating that A. constricta is largely self-incompatible. Because F. perpilosa workers forage primarily on the acacia tree under which they nest, they are unlikely to serve as efficient vectors of outcrossing. Previous work showed that A. constricta shrubs with F. perpilosa ants produce approximately twice as many seeds as similarly sized plants not so associated. The results indicate that association with F. perpilosa could cause a reproductive trade-off for A. constricta: benefits to female function may be accompanied by costs to male function. Selection to discourage ant visitation to flowers may have affected the pollination biology of this and other ant-associated plant species.

  12. Compression and model reduction: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LoFaro, T. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Kopell, N. [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We discuss a method by which the dynamics of a network of coupled neurons can be captured in a one-dimensional map. The network used as an example of this technique consists of a pair of neurons, one of which is an endogenous burster and the other excitable, but not bursting in the absence of phasic input. The reduction is accomplished by decomposing the flow into fast and slow subsystems, each operating on a distinct time scale. A {open_quotes}map of knees{close_quotes} is constructed using singular perturbation techniques. A concise expression for this map is developed by introducing time coordinates to each stable branch of the slow manifold. The compression associated with the fast subsystem is used to determine the qualitative properties of the map.

  13. Reduction study of oxidized two-dimensional graphene-based materials by chemical and thermal reduction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Amber M.

    Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) sp2-hybridized carbon-based material possessing properties which include high electrical conductivity, ballistic thermal conductivity, tensile strength exceeding that of steel, high flexural strength, optical transparency, and the ability to adsorb and desorb atoms and molecules. Due to the characteristics of said material, graphene is a candidate for applications in integrated circuits, electrochromic devices, transparent conducting electrodes, desalination, solar cells, thermal management materials, polymer nanocomposites, and biosensors. Despite the above mentioned properties and possible applications, very few technologies have been commercialized utilizing graphene due to the high cost associated with the production of graphene. Therefore, a great deal of effort and research has been performed to produce a material that provides similar properties, reduced graphene oxide due (RGO) to the ease of commercial scaling of the production processes. This material is typically prepared through the oxidation of graphite in an aqueous media to graphene oxide (GO) followed by reduction to yield RGO. Although this material has been extensively studied, there is a lack of consistency in the scientific community regarding the analysis of the resulting RGO material. In this dissertation, a study of the reduction methods for GO and an alternate 2D carbon-based material, humic acid (HA), followed by analysis of the materials using Raman spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Means of reduction will include chemical and thermal methods. Characterization of the material has been carried out on both before and after reduction.

  14. COST ANALYSIS IN CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND MINING STRUCTURES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THEIR REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolinka Doneva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of underground mining facilities is of essential importance to the exploitation of mineral resources. Confirmation of this is the fact that the construction costs of main facilities occupy 40-60% of the underlying investments in the main construction and equipping. The main underground mining facilities are: shafts, drifts, raise, pump chambers, warehouses etc. This paper presents detailed analysis of underground mining facility - drift construction costs per individual working operations, following their change which depends on the rock type and profile size of underground mining facility, as well as possibilities of reducing these costs.

  15. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: a cost-of-illness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective: We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design: A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results: Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions: The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada.

  16. Study of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility antihypertensive drugs used in hiperdia peaked - PI

    OpenAIRE

    NapoleÃo Moura Dias Neto

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and study the costeffectiveness and cost-utility of anti-hypertensive drugs are rare in Brazil. This paper is a study of type pharmacoeconomic cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of patients enrolled in the program HiperDia the municipality of Picos â PI in the period 20/8/2009 to 30/10/2009. We analyzed the direct costs of treatment, considering only the price of antiretroviral drugs, the effectiveness as measured by mean re...

  17. Cost Reduction of IMM Solar Cells by Recycling Substrates using Wet Chemical Etching Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program focuses on reducing the cost of substrate reclaim for high-efficiency solar cells fabricated via an epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process, while increasing...

  18. Cost Reduction of IMM Solar Cells by Recycling Substrates Using Wet Chemical Etching Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the program is to reduce the cost of substrate reclaim for high-efficiency solar cells fabricated by an epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process, and to increase...

  19. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  20. Potential Cost Savings Associated with a Reduction of Stress Fractures among US Army Basic Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    ANEMIA 1 22 2953 SCHIZOPH~RENIA9 3 PARANOID TYPE 23 2954? ACUTE S:HIZDPHPE-N- 9 IC EPTS~jE 24 2956 RESIDUAL SC-lZ>D PHRENI A 25 2959 SCHIZO)Pw~RE-:%A NOS1...1-3 (Rec Sta). d. INDIRECT COSTS. Items 8-10 (ATC) and Items 5-7 (Rec Sta) are explained below. These costs consist of a pro rata share of base

  1. Use of Aggregate Emission Reduction Cost Functions in Designing Optimal Regional SO2 Abatement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam, Yohannes; Barre, Mike; Molburg, John

    1997-01-01

    The 1990 Canadian long-range transport of air pollutants and acid deposition report divided North America into 40 sources of emission and 15 sensitive receptor sites. For the purpose of national policy making and international negotiation, the use of these large sources and few receptors may prove adequate. Due to inadequate information regarding cost of reducing emissions from each point source, it was felt necessary to design a method to generate cost functions for emission regions. T...

  2. Effects of Integration on the Cost Reduction in Distribution Network Design for Perishable Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Firoozi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perishable products, which include medical and pharmaceutical items as well as food products, are quite common in commerce and industries. Developing efficient network designs for storage and distribution of perishable products plays a prominent role in the cost and quality of these products. This paper aims to investigate and analyze the impact of applying an integrated approach for network design of perishable products. For this purpose, the problem has been formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear mathematical model that integrates inventory control and facility location decisions. To solve the integrated model, a memetic algorithm (MA is developed in this study. For verification of the proposed algorithm, its results are compared with the results of an adapted Lagrangian relaxation heuristic algorithm from the literature. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the main parameters of the model is conducted to compare the results of the integrated approach with a decoupled method. The results show that as the products become more perishable, application of an integrated method becomes more reasonable in comparison with the decoupled one.

  3. Cost-effective reductions of PM2.5 concentrations and exposure in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, A.; D'Elia, I.; Wagner, F.; Sander, R.; Ciancarella, L.; Zanini, G.; Schöpp, W.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years several European air pollution policies have been based on a cost-effectiveness approach. In the European Union, the European Commission starts using the multi-pollutant, multi-effect GAINS (Greenhouse Gas Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model to identify cost-effective National Emission Ceilings and specific emission control measures for each Member State to reach these targets. In this paper, we apply the GAINS methodology to the case of Italy with 20 subnational regions. We present regional results for different approaches to environmental target setting for PM2.5 pollution in the year 2030. We have obtained these results using optimization techniques consistent with those of GAINS-Europe, but at a higher resolution. Our results show that an overall health-impact oriented approach is more cost-effective than setting a nation-wide limit value on ambient air quality, such as the one set for the year 2030 by the European Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe. The health-impact oriented approach implies additional emission control costs of 153 million €/yr on top of the baseline costs, compared to 322 million €/yr for attaining the nation-wide air quality limit. We provide insights into the distribution of costs and benefits for regions within Italy and identify the main beneficiaries of a health-impact approach over a limit-value approach.

  4. Reduction of fuel side costs due to biomass co-combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wils, Andrea; Calmano, Wolfgang; Dettmann, Peter; Kaltschmitt, Martin; Ecke, Holger

    2012-03-15

    The feasibility and influence of co-combustion of woody biomass on the fuel side costs is discussed for three hard coal power plants located in Berlin, Germany. Fuel side costs are defined as the costs resulting from flue gas cleaning and by-products. To have reliable data, co-firing tests were conducted in two power plants (i.e., slag tap furnace and circulating fluidising bed combustion). The amount of wood which was co-fired varied at levels below 11% of the fuel heat input. Wood chips originating from landscape management were used. The analyses show that co-combustion of woody biomass can lower the fuel side costs and that the co-combustion at a level below 10% of the thermal capacity is technically feasible without major problems. Furthermore, a flexible spreadsheet tool was developed for the calculation of fuel side costs and suggestions for operational improvements were made. For example, the adaptation of the Ca/S ratio (mass ratio of calcium in limestone to sulphur in the fuel) in one plant could reduce the fuel side costs up to 135 k€ yr(-1) (0.09 €M Wh(-1)).

  5. Summary Report of Advanced Hydropower Innovations and Cost Reduction Workshop at Arlington, VA, November 5 & 6, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rugani, Kelsey [Kearns & West, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); West, Anna [Kearns & West, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technology Office (WWPTO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosted a day and half long workshop on November 5 and 6, 2015 in the Washington, D.C. metro area to discuss cost reduction opportunities in the development of hydropower projects. The workshop had a further targeted focus on the costs of small, low-head1 facilities at both non-powered dams (NPDs) and along undeveloped stream reaches (also known as New Stream-Reach Development or “NSD”). Workshop participants included a cross-section of seasoned experts, including project owners and developers, engineering and construction experts, conventional and next-generation equipment manufacturers, and others to identify the most promising ways to reduce costs and achieve improvements for hydropower projects.

  6. U-AVLIS feed conversion using continuous metallothermic reduction of UF{sub 4}: System description and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here.

  7. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  8. Experimental study on Cr(Ⅵ) reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-guo; XU Wei-hua; ZENG Guang-ming; TANG Chun-fang; LI Cheng-feng

    2004-01-01

    Investigation on Cr(Ⅵ) reduction was conducted using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study demonstrated that the Cr(Ⅵ) can be effectively reduced to Cr(Ⅲ) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effects of the factors affecting Cr(Ⅵ) reduction rate including carbon source type, pH, initial Cr(Ⅵ) concentration and amount of cells inoculum were thoroughly studied. Malate was found to yield maximum biotransformation, followed by succinate and glucose, with the reduction rate of 60.86%, 43.76% and 28.86% respectively. The optimum pH for Cr(Ⅵ) reduction was 7.0, with reduction efficiency of 61.71% being achieved. With the increase of initial Cr(Ⅵ) concentration, the rate of Cr(Ⅵ) reduction decreased. The reduction was inhibited strongly when the initial Cr(Ⅵ) concentration increased to 157 mg/L. As the amount of cells inoculum increased, the rate of Cr(Ⅵ) reduction also increased. The mechanism of Cr(Ⅵ) reduction and final products were also analysed. The results suggested that the soluble enzymes appear to be responsible for Cr(Ⅵ) reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the reduced Cr(Ⅲ) was not precipitated in the form of Cr(OH)3.

  9. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter J.; Thorat, Teja; Zhong, Yue; Anderson, Jordan; Farquhar, Megan; Salem, Mark; Sandberg, Eileen; Saret, Cayla J.; Wilkinson, Colby; Cohen, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. Methods We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases “disability-adjusted” or “DALY”. Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000–2009 and 2010–2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high), and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions. Results We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%), followed by non-communicable diseases (28%). A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%). Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32%) followed by immunizations (28%). Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied

  10. Study on safety cost and insurance degree of coal enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, M.; Han, C.; Yang, G. [Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, Yantai (China)

    2007-06-15

    The study confirmed the safety insurance degree of coal enterprises based on the various components of safety cost and analysed the connection between safety cost of component parts and safety insurance degree. Using Matlab software, a functional relationship was derived between mimesis curves of safety losing expenses, safety assets and management expenses, safety cost and safety insurance degree. The cost of a safety programme was forecast on the basis of this functional relationship. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqubi, Morteza, E-mail: yaqubi@pgs.usb.ac.ir [Faculty of Management and Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraki, Javad, E-mail: j.shahraki@eco.usb.ac.ir [Faculty of Management and Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood, E-mail: sabouhi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. - Highlights: • To evaluate agricultural pollution costs, a combination of two DNDC and DEA models was introduced. • The shadow values of three main agricultural pollutants in paddy fields were evaluated. • In the study area, a high potential for pollution reduction is feasible. • The pollution cost of pesticides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gases. • From the farmers' viewpoint, a positive shadow value of undesirable outputs also is feasible. • To deal with the pollution costs, market-based instruments are preferred to command-and-control regulation.

  12. Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

    1993-02-01

    The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration`s 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO{sub 2} emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO{sub 2} emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

  13. Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

    1993-02-01

    The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration's 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO[sub 2] emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO[sub 2] emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO[sub 2] emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO[sub 2] emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

  14. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  15. Mechanistic studies of carbon monoxide reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy, G.L.

    1990-06-12

    The progress made during the current grant period (1 January 1988--1 April 1990) in three different areas of research is summarized. The research areas are: (1) oxidatively-induced double carbonylation reactions to form {alpha}-ketoacyl complexes and studies of the reactivity of the resulting compounds, (2) mechanistic studies of the carbonylation of nitroaromatics to form isocyanates, carbamates, and ureas, and (3) studies of the formation and reactivity of unusual metallacycles and alkylidene ligands supported on binuclear iron carbonyl fragments. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID

  17. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Slager, R.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such addit

  18. The hidden costs of fossil power generation in Indonesia: A reduction approach through low carbon society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ery Wijaya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production and consumption is always accompanied with environmental and societal issues. Electricity as onefinal energy form plays an important role in people’s activities. However, the electric utilities have focused on producingelectricity in abundance and with an affordable price. The production of electricity results in undesirable emissions and environmental effects called externalities. This paper assesses the externality cost of electricity production in Indonesia by using the life cycle inventory analysis approach. In 2025, the results show that the total external costs according to the government plan are 42 billion US$. In addition, low carbon society behavior will be introduced into the Indonesian society to reducethe externality cost in the long term Indonesian electricity expansion planning. The results of low carbon society actionsshow that in the long term the Indonesian electricity expansion planning of 34.6 TWh of electricity demand and 7.3 GW of installed capacity can be reduced from these actions. Finally, at the end of the period, these actions are successful, and reducing the total external cost by 2 billion US$.

  19. Aiming for cost reduction at Tepco's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahito, T.; Seko, T. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Company's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa units 2 and 5 will be the first BWRs fully to incorporate all the benefits of the second phase of Japan's systematic reactor improvement programme. A large number of technical innovations are being implemented to reduce construction times, increase productivity and lower costs.

  20. Cost variation study of antidepressant drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar Shukla; Parag Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses, each affecting in excess of 10-15% of the population at some time in their lives. Approximately 10-15% of those with severe depression attempt suicide at some point of time. Thus, it is important that symptoms of depression be recognized and treated appropriately. Methods: The prices of 15 antidepressant drugs, available in 43 different formulations were analyzed. Costs of different brands of a particular ge...

  1. Health-care cost of diabetes in South India: A cost of illness study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akari, Sadanandam; Mateti, Uday Venkat; Kunduru, Buchi Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the health-care cost by calculating the direct and indirect costs of diabetes with co-morbidities in south India. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at Rohini super specialty hospital (India). Patient data as well as cost details were collected from the patients for a period of 6 months. The study was approved by the hospital committee prior to the study. The diabetic patients of age >18 years, either gender were included in the study. The collected data was analyzed for the average cost incurred in treating the diabetic patients and was calculated based on the total amount spent by the patients to that of total number of patients. Findings: A total of 150 patients were enrolled during the study period. The average costs per diabetic patient with and without co-morbidities were found to be United States dollar (USD) 314.15 and USD 29.91, respectively. The average cost for those with diabetic complications was USD 125.01 for macrovascular complications, USD 90.43 for microvascular complications and USD 142.01 for other infections. Out of USD 314.15, the average total direct medical cost was USD 290.04, the average direct non-medical cost was USD 3.75 and the average total indirect cost was USD 20.34. Conclusion: Our study results revealed that more economic burden was found in male patients (USD 332.06), age group of 51-60 years (USD 353.55) and the patients bearing macrovascular complications (USD 142.01). This information can be a model for future studies of economic evaluations and outcomes research. PMID:24991617

  2. Cost of Poor Quality Analysis for Automobile Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teli, S. N.; Majali, V. S.; Bhushi, U. M.; Gaikwad, L. M.; Surange, V. G.

    2013-10-01

    The high competitiveness makes the quest for production cost reduction a constant in the market, but it is necessary to reduce costs without compromising quality. When a product is in the manufacturing and this has to be scraped, we have more cost than the raw material used, it is necessary to consider the manpower and operations, thus to calculate the cost added to the product. Continuous quality improvement is a key factor in the strategy for competitiveness. Quality cost is one tool, among many others, that can help in continuous quality improvement. Properly applying quality cost techniques is critical to these efforts. Initially, a complete quality cost study could provide awareness and guidance to a steering committee on what cross-discipline teams and improvement projects should be started. The cross discipline teams also can use quality cost special studies to help in focusing efforts. In this paper cost of poor quality analysis has been done using different techniques which are currently applying in automobile industry to assess quality cost.

  3. Study on the Electro-reduction of Perfluorodecalin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reduction ofperfluorodecalin was studied by the method of electrochemistry. The results indicated that the electrochemical reduction of perfluorodecalin was a multi-step reaction.The mechanism of the first consecutive reaction showed that it is to diffusion controlling step.

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of a preventive intervention for divorced families: reduction in mental health and justice system service use costs 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Patricia M; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Porter, Michele M; Jones, Sarah; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-05-01

    This cost-benefit analysis compared the costs of implementing the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a preventive intervention for divorced families to monetary benefits saved in mental healthcare service use and criminal justice system costs. NBP was delivered when the offspring were 9-12 years old. Benefits were assessed 15 years later when the offspring were young adults (ages 24-27). This study estimated the costs of delivering two versions of NBP, a single-component parenting-after-divorce program (Mother Program, MP) and a two-component parenting-after-divorce and child-coping program (Mother-Plus-Child Program, MPCP), to costs of a literature control (LC). Long-term monetary benefits were determined from actual expenditures from past-year mental healthcare service use for mothers and their young adult (YA) offspring and criminal justice system involvement for YAs. Data were gathered from 202 YAs and 194 mothers (75.4 % of families randomly assigned to condition). The benefits, as assessed in the 15th year after program completion, were $1630/family (discounted benefits $1077/family). These 1-year benefits, based on conservative assumptions, more than paid for the cost of MP and covered the majority of the cost of MPCP. Because the effects of MP versus MPCP on mental health and substance use problems have not been significantly different at short-term or long-term follow-up assessments, program managers would likely choose the lower-cost option. Given that this evaluation only calculated economic benefit at year 15 and not the previous 14 (nor future years), these findings suggest that, from a societal perspective, NBP more than pays for itself in future benefits.

  5. Gestão de custos florestais: um estudo de caso utilizando o Activity-Based Costing Forest management costs: a case study utilizing Activity-Based Costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir Ribeiro Carneiro de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No atual cenário de industrialização globalizada, tornou-se fundamental a eficácia no gerenciamento dos custos considerados inevitavelmente necessários. Programas convencionais de redução dos custos não consideram o grau de agregação de valor das atividades de rotina pela distorção dos sistemas contábeis atuais. No presente estudo, apresentam-se os principais motivos da falta de relevância das informações de custo, comenta-se sobre o problema da redução de desperdícios florestais e suas conseqüências. A partir de um estudo de caso em uma empresa do setor florestal, demonstra-se uma simulação do Activity Based Costing (ABC em uma determinada área da empresa, concluindo-se que a adoção de sistemas de custeio mais aprimorados, tal como o ABC, devem fazer parte de programas que busquem o aumento da competitividade do setor florestal.In the current view of globalized industrialization, it has become fundamental to manage essential costs effectively. Conventional programs for reducing costs, do no consider the value agregation grade of routine activities because of the distortion of current accounting systems. This study, presents the main reasons for the lack of relevance of the cost information, commenting on the problem of the reduction of forest waste and its consequences. Using a case study in a company from the forest sector, a simulation of Activity Based Costing (ABC is demonstrated in a determined area of the company it is concluded that the adoption of a more refined cost system, such as the ABC, should be included in programs, that seek to increase the competitiveness of the forest sector.

  6. Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology. Near implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the low cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Equipment developed for the manufacture of over 100 kg of silicon ingot from one crucible by rechanging from another crucible is described. Attempts were made to eliminate the cost of raising the furnace temperature to 250 C above the melting point of silicon by using an RF coil to melt polycrystalline silicon rod as a means of rechanging the crucible. Microprocessor control of the straight growth process was developed and domonstrated for both 4 inch and 6 inch diameter. Both meltdown and melt stabilization processes were achieved using operator prompting through the microprocessor. The use of the RF work coil in poly rod melting as a heat sink in the accelerated growth process was unsuccessful. The total design concept for fabrication and interfacing of the total cold crucible system was completed.

  7. Cost and value of pathogen reduction for land application of sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivinski, H.D.; Morris, M.E.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses the general pressures that are forcing sewage sludge managers to reconsider land application of sludges where it is not already used; presents the cost of using gamma-radiation from the isotope cesium-137 for sludge disinfection; and documents the economic and social pressures that could compel a city such as Washington, D.C. to disinfect its compost before sale. Washington was chosen as an example because it is a city for which suitable compost marketing data are readily available. With these data it is reasonably straightforward to document the costs and benefits of radiation processing. The economic and social pressures that affect Washington are probably similar to those in many other areas where the radiation disinfection of dried sludge could provide the same disposal options.

  8. CNS development of health maintenance programs: quality improvement and cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, M H; Opperwall, B C; White, S L

    1995-01-01

    Several outpatient health maintenance programs were developed by CNSs that resulted in quality improvement and cost savings. Common implementation strategies, barriers to implementation, marketing issues and techniques, and revenue generation issues were found. An outpatient consultation model was used to expand enterostomal therapy and diabetic teaching services. Education and support programs include a cardiac support group and community education classes on aging. Preadmission programs include physical therapy consultation for patients scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery. Outpatient programs facilitate continuity of care in a managed care format, promote cost savings, and provide unique services that encourage patients to return to our hospital, thereby increasing market share. Key barriers encountered include inconsistent or ambiguous administrative support, budgetary constraints, lack of collaboration, communication problems, facility limitations, funding considerations, resource allocation, and territoriality. The programs are consistent with the change in focus of health care from treatment to prevention.

  9. SOFC anode reduction studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum;

    active Ni surface before operating the fuel cells. The reduction process was followed in the TEM while exposing a NiO/YSZ (YSZ = Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) model anode to H2 at T = 250-1000⁰C. Pure NiO was used in reference experiments. Previous studies have shown that the reduction of pure NiO...... is a relatively rapid autocatalytic process. On the contrary, the reduction of NiO/YSZ is significantly slower, which indicates that the presence of YSZ inhibits the reduction of NiO. This study aims to obtain fundamental insight into this reduction mechanism and to explain the inhibitive influence of YSZ...

  10. PowerFilm PowerShade Fixed Site Solar System Cost Reduction Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    years lifetime in the field. The life-cycle costs could be reduced significantly when this lifetime is increased to ten years. The photovoltaic ...design and improved manufacturing processes and flows. Improving the performance of the photovoltaic has the same impact by effectively increasing...elements of the PowerShade were fully redesigned for Generation II. This includes moving to double wide panels , 24 V operating voltages which

  11. Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Fred; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikolaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Humborg, Christoph; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viestur; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Thodsen, Hans; Smart, James C. R.; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, wh...

  12. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description.

  13. A cost-effectiveness analysis to illustrate the impact of cost definitions on results, interpretations and comparability of pharmacoeconomic studies in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Sandra L

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of a uniform proxy for defining direct medical costs in the US. This potentially important source of variation in modelling and other types of economic studies is often overlooked. The extent to which increased expenditures for an intervention can be offset by reductions in subsequent service costs can be directly related to the choice of cost definitions. To demonstrate how different cost definitions for direct medical costs can impact results and interpretations of a cost-effectiveness analysis. The IMS-CORE Diabetes Model was used to project the lifetime (35-year) cost effectiveness in the US of one pharmacological intervention 'medication A' compared with a second 'medication B' (both unspecified) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The complications modelled included cardiovascular disease, renal disease, eye disease and neuropathy. The model had a Markov structure with Monte Carlo simulations. Utility values were derived from the published literature. Complication costs were obtained from a retrospective database study that extracted anonymous patient-level data from (primarily private payer) adjudicated medical and pharmaceutical claims. Costs for pharmacy services, outpatient services and inpatient hospitalizations were included. Cost definitions for complications included charged, allowed and paid amounts, and for medications included both wholesale acquisition cost (WAC) and average wholesale price (AWP). Costs were reported in year 2007 values. The cost-effectiveness results differed according to the particular combination of cost definitions employed. The use of charges greatly increased costs for complications. When the analysis incorporated WAC medication prices with charged amounts for complication costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for medication A versus medication B was $US6337 per QALY. When AWP prices were used with charged amounts, medication A became a dominant treatment strategy, i.e. lower costs with greater

  14. Study of turboprop systems reliability and maintenance costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The overall reliability and maintenance costs (R&MC's) of past and current turboprop systems were examined. Maintenance cost drivers were found to be scheduled overhaul (40%), lack of modularity particularly in the propeller and reduction gearbox, and lack of inherent durability (reliability) of some parts. Comparisons were made between the 501-D13/54H60 turboprop system and the widely used JT8D turbofan. It was found that the total maintenance cost per flight hour of the turboprop was 75% higher than that of the JT8D turbofan. Part of this difference was due to propeller and gearbox costs being higher than those of the fan and reverser, but most of the difference was in the engine core where the older technology turboprop core maintenance costs were nearly 70 percent higher than for the turbofan. The estimated maintenance cost of both the advanced turboprop and advanced turbofan were less than the JT8D. The conclusion was that an advanced turboprop and an advanced turbofan, using similar cores, will have very competitive maintenance costs per flight hour.

  15. A Stackelberg Game Approach in an Integrated Inventory Model with Carbon-Emission and Setup Cost Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated inventory model that allows Stackelberg game policy for optimizing joint total cost of a vendor and buyer system. After receiving the lot, the buyer commences an inspection process to determine the defective items. All defective items the buyer sends to vendor during the receiving of the next lot. Due to increasing number of shipments fixed and variable transportation, as well as carbon emissions, are considered, which makes the model sustainable integrated model forever. To reduce the setup cost for the vendor, a discrete setup reduction is considered for maximization more profit. The players of the integrated model are with unequal power (as leader and follower and the Stackelberg game strategy is utilized to solve this model for obtaining global optimum solution over the finite planning horizon. An illustrative numerical example is given to understand this model clearly.

  16. Mobile app self-care versus in-office care for stress reduction: a cost minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Hansen, Ryan N; Stanfill, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    We calculated the cost of providing stress reduction care with a mobile phone app (Breathe2Relax) in comparison with normal in-person care, the standard method for managing stress in military and civilian populations. We conducted a cost-minimization analysis. The total cost to the military healthcare system of treating 1000 patients with the app was $106,397. Treating 1000 patients with in-office care cost $68,820. Treatment using the app became less expensive than in-office treatment at approximately 1600 users. From the perspective of the civilian healthcare system, treatment using the app became less expensive than in-office treatment at approximately 1500 users. An online tool was used to obtain data about the number of app downloads and usage sessions. A total of 47,000 users had accessed the app for 10-30 min sessions in the 2.5 years since the release of the app. Assuming that all 47,000 users were military beneficiaries, the savings to the military healthcare system would be $2.7 million; if the 47,000 users were civilian, the savings to the civilian healthcare system would be $2.9 million. Because of the large number of potential users, the total societal savings resulting from self-care using the app may be considerable.

  17. Nash and integrated solutions in a just-in-time seller-buyer supply chain with buyer's ordering cost reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.

  18. Implications of the international reduction pledges on long-term energy system changes and costs in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Paul L.; Shukla, P.R.; Chen, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of postponing global mitigation action on abatement costs and energy systems changes in China and India. It compares energy-system changes and mitigation costs from a global and two national energy-system models under two global emission pathways with medium likelih...... indoor air pollution, but it is likely to provide synergies for energy security. These relations should be taken into account when designing national climate policies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... India and China with respect to the timing of emission reductions and the choice of mitigation measures relate to differences in projections of rapid economic change, capital stock turnover and technological development. Furthermore, depending on the way it is implemented, climate policy could increase......This paper analyses the impact of postponing global mitigation action on abatement costs and energy systems changes in China and India. It compares energy-system changes and mitigation costs from a global and two national energy-system models under two global emission pathways with medium...

  19. Analysis of the Data From a Technical Processing Cost Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Hans Joachim

    This study was conducted to analyze and summarize raw data obtained from a 1972 study: "Report on a Cost Study of Specific Technical Processing Activities of the California State University and College Libraries" with the hypothesis that the cost of technical processes increases as the production volume both rises above and falls below…

  20. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  1. Ultramicroelectrode studies of oxygen reduction in polyelectrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdcroft, S.; Abdou, M.S.; Beattie, P.; Basura, V. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    A study on the oxygen reduction reaction in a solid state electrochemical cell was presented. The oxygen reduction reaction is a rate limiting reaction in the operation of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells which use H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Interest in the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum electrodes in contact with Nafion electrolytes stems from its role in fuel cell technology. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction in different polyelectrolyte membranes, such as Nafion and non-Nafion membranes, were compared. The electrode kinetics and mass transport parameters of the oxygen reduction reaction in polyelectrolyte membranes were measured by ultramicroelectrode techniques. The major difference found between these two classes of membrane was the percentage of water, which is suggestive of superior electrochemical mass transport properties of the non-Nafion membranes. 2 refs. 1 fig.

  2. Telecommuting and health care: a potential for cost reductions and productivity gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S M; Pelfrey, S; Van Sell, M

    1995-12-01

    Health care administrators are striving to maintain positive operating margins while remaining responsive to community needs. As they look for ways to reduce costs and improve productivity, they may consider the benefits associated with telecommuting. Telecommuting refers to the work performed by organizational employees who use computers and telecommunication equipment to work at home or at remote sites one or more days a week. Benefits to the health care industry include release of valuable hospital space, reduced employee turnover, and increased productivity. The time away from the institution may provide administrators with valuable planning time, free from interruptions.

  3. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation.

  4. Propensity score modelling in observational studies using dimension reduction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis

    2011-07-01

    Conditional independence assumptions are very important in causal inference modelling as well as in dimension reduction methodologies. These are two very strikingly different statistical literatures, and we study links between the two in this article. The concept of covariate sufficiency plays an important role, and we provide theoretical justification when dimension reduction and partial least squares methods will allow for valid causal inference to be performed. The methods are illustrated with application to a medical study and to simulated data.

  5. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan (Milestone Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Glatzmaier, G.; Moss, T.

    2010-12-01

    Line-focus solar collectors, in particular parabolic trough collectors, are the most mature and proven technology available for producing central electricity from concentrated solar energy. Because this technology has over 25 years of successful operational experience, resulting in a low perceived risk, it is likely that it will continue to be a favorite of investors for some time. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry is developing parabolic trough projects that will cost billions of dollars, and it is supporting these projects with hundreds of millions of dollars of research and development funding. While this technology offers many advantages over conventional electricity generation -- such as utilizing plentiful domestic renewable fuel and having very low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants -- it provides electricity in the intermediate power market at about twice the cost of its conventional competitor, combined cycle natural gas. The purpose of this document is to define a set of activities from fiscal year 2011 to fiscal year 2016 that will make this technology economically competitive with conventional means.

  6. The costs in provision of haemodialysis in a developing country: A multi-centered study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijesinghe Aruna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Kidney Disease is a major public health problem worldwide with enormous cost burdens on health care systems in developing countries. We aimed to provide a detailed analysis of the processes and costs of haemodialysis in Sri Lanka and provide a framework for modeling similar financial audits. Methods This prospective study was conducted at haemodialysis units of three public and two private hospitals in Sri Lanka for two months in June and July 2010. Cost of drugs and consumables for the three public hospitals were obtained from the price list issued by the Medical Supplies Division of the Department of Health Services, while for the two private hospitals they were obtained from financial departments of the respective hospitals. Staff wages were obtained from the hospital chief accountant/chief financial officers. The cost of electricity and water per month was calculated directly with the assistance of expert engineers. An apportion was done from the total hospital costs of administration, cleaning services, security, waste disposal and, laundry and sterilization for each unit. Results The total number of dialysis sessions (hours at the five hospitals for June and July were 3341 (12959 and 3386 (13301 respectively. Drug and consumables costs accounted for 70.4-84.9% of the total costs, followed by the wages of the nursing staff at each unit (7.8-19.7%. The mean cost of a dialysis session in Sri Lanka was LKR 6,377 (US$ 56. The annual cost of haemodialysis for a patient with chronic renal failure undergoing 2-3 dialysis session of four hours duration per week was LKR 663,208-994,812 (US$ 5,869-8,804. At one hospital where facilities are available for the re-use of dialyzers (although not done during study period the cost of consumables would have come down from LKR 5,940,705 to LKR 3,368,785 (43% reduction if the method was adopted, reducing costs of haemodialysis per hour from LKR 1,327 at present to LKR 892 (33

  7. [Quality management (TQM) in public health-care (PHC): principles for cost-performance calculations and cost reductions with better quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, W

    2008-11-01

    In many high-tech industries, quality management (QM) has enabled improvements of quality by a factor of 100 or more, in combination with significant cost reductions. Compared to this, the application of QM methods in health care is in its initial stages. It is anticipated that stringent process management, embedded in an effective QM system will lead to significant improvements in health care in general and in the German public health service in particular. Process management is an ideal platform for controlling in the health care sector, and it will significantly improve the leverage of controlling to bring down costs. Best practice sharing in industry has led to quantum leap improvements. Process management will enable best practice sharing also in the public health service, in spite of the highly diverse portfolio of services that the public health service offers in different German regions. Finally, it is emphasised that "technical" QM, e.g., on the basis of the ISO 9001 standard is not sufficient to reach excellence. It is necessary to integrate soft factors, such as patient or employee satisfaction, and leadership quality into the system. The EFQM model for excellence can serve as proven tool to reach this goal.

  8. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the second in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies are presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or to get the best value existing…

  9. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the third in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies have been presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, and to get the best value from…

  10. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the first in a series of three documents, which together contains 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies have been presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or how to get the best value from…

  11. Quality management as a resource of transaction costs reduction: empirical inputs from the international fruit trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Márcio Carvalho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruit is a highly perishable product, susceptible to biological, physical and chemical hazards. All these risks are higher when fruit are transacted in international trade. In this case fruit suppliers and fruit buyers are exposed to elevated transaction costs, since both sides need to deal with questions like product specifications, post-harvest processing and logistics. Quality management can be employed in order to organize all production, processing and logistics operations. Our aim in this paper was to verify if producers, exporters and importers of fruit are making use of quality management concepts in order to reduce risks and transaction costs. As investigation method, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Brazil and the UK. The content of the semi-structured interview questions was chosen based on the literature review of TCE, the international fruit trade and quality management. The questions were carefully chosen to reveal the factors which are determinant for the configuration of transaction arrangements in the fruit trade. The topics investigated were: the technical activities performed by the organisations operating in the fruit commerce; the main types of commercial clients (partners of the firm; the nature of the market type relations maintained by the firm; the level of quality problems perceived by the firm; and the quality management strategies adopted by the firm. These topics served as the foundation for the elaboration of the main questions and the probe questions. They also gave the direction for possible follow-up questions. The results of the interviews support the idea that quality consciousness is fundamental in the fruit trade. The majority of companies approached in the research were shown not to perceive as a problem the several parameters that affect the quality of the final product. In other words, the results suggest that firms that are incapable of handling quality issues satisfactorily find little place

  12. Why do cost-benefit studies of PACS disagree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gennip, Elisabeth M.; Ottes, Fenno P.; van Poppel, Bas M.; Andriessen, J. H. T. H.

    1990-08-01

    Once the technical difficulties of PACS have been solved, the main obstacle for its introductionwill be its costs. Even though PACS is still under development, it is clear that the equipment for PACS will be much more expensive than the equipment used in the conventional situation. PACS may, however, pay itself back by allowing savings of film, space and personnel. The conclusions of some recent cost-benefit studies disagree on the costs and benefits of PACS. Some conclude that PACS would pay for itself, whereas according to others PACS would be (much) more expensive. We analyzed the latest cost-benefit studies, to find out why their outcomes diverge. The comparison of the results revealed striking differences. The calculations of the annual costs of a hospital wide PACS varied between 2 and 4 million dollars. These differences could not be explained by differences in the size of the hospitals, as indicated by the number of examinations. They were, in part, caused by the fact that the costs per piece of equipment, material or space varied per study. For instance the costs of 1 square foot of (archive) space varied from 10 to 140 per year. The variation in the given costs of the film based system, depended on the fact whether the time spent by medical personnel on film management was taken into account. The differences among these studies demonstrate clearly the need for uniform, well-defined criteria for the calculation of the costs and savings of PACS.

  13. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changik Jo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO2 emission reduction in the U.S, China, and India’s iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO2 emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO2 emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

  15. Comparative study on classification power of the attributes and reducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Mahajan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In rough set theory, reduct are those attributes which are important and are able to represent the whole range of attributes. They show up the important features of database. In the present study of educational data mining, we have used the reduct of the rough set theory to find out the important features of a particular course work. The features of course work are the subjects taught in that course work. We conclude in this paper that if all the subjects are taken, the classificatory power remains same as in case where only the reduct is taken.

  16. Two-photon reduction: a cost-effective method for fabrication of functional metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sahar; Cao, YaoYu; Lin, Han; Jia, BaoHua

    2017-03-01

    Metallic nanostructures have underpinned plasmonic-based advanced photonic devices in a broad range of research fields over the last decade including physics, engineering, material science and bioscience. The key to realizing functional plasmonic resonances that can manipulate light at the optical frequencies relies on the creation of conductive metallic structures at the nanoscale with low structural defects. Currently, most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated either by electron beam lithography (EBL) or by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, which are expensive, complicated and time-consuming. In comparison, the direct laser writing (DLW) technique has demonstrated its high spatial resolution and cost-effectiveness in three-dimensional fabrication of micro/nanostructures. Furthermore, the recent breakthroughs in superresolution nanofabrication and parallel writing have significantly advanced the fabrication resolution and throughput of the DLW method and made it one of the promising future nanofabrication technologies with low-cost and scalability. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art DLW fabrication technology for nanometer scale metallic structures. The fabrication mechanisms, different material choices, fabrication capability, including resolution, conductivity and structure surface smoothness, as well as the characterization methods and achievable devices for different applications are presented. In particular, the development trends of the field and the perspectives for future opportunities and challenges are provided at the end of the review. It has been demonstrated that the quality of the metallic structures fabricated using the DLW method is excellent compared with other methods providing a new and enabling platform for functional nanophotonic device fabrication.

  17. Two-photon reduction: a cost-effective method for fabrication of functional metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sahar; Cao, YaoYu; Lin, Han; Jia, BaoHua

    2017-03-01

    Metallic nanostructures have underpinned plasmonic-based advanced photonic devices in a broad range of research fields over the last decade including physics, engineering, material science and bioscience. The key to realizing functional plasmonic resonances that can manipulate light at the optical frequencies relies on the creation of conductive metallic structures at the nanoscale with low structural defects. Currently, most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated either by electron beam lithography (EBL) or by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, which are expensive, complicated and time-consuming. In comparison, the direct laser writing (DLW) technique has demonstrated its high spatial resolution and cost-effectiveness in three-dimensional fabrication of micro/nanostructures. Furthermore, the recent breakthroughs in superresolution nanofabrication and parallel writing have significantly advanced the fabrication resolution and throughput of the DLW method and made it one of the promising future nanofabrication technologies with low-cost and scalability. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art DLW fabrication technology for nanometer scale metallic structures. The fabrication mechanisms, different material choices, fabrication capability, including resolution, conductivity and structure surface smoothness, as well as the characterization methods and achievable devices for different applications are presented. In particular, the development trends of the field and the perspectives for future opportunities and challenges are provided at the end of the review. It has been demonstrated that the quality of the metallic structures fabricated using the DLW method is excellent compared with other methods providing a new and enabling platform for functional nanophotonic device fabrication.

  18. Composite propellant tank study for very low cost space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. J.; Keith, E. L.

    1992-01-01

    A study of life-cycle cost is conducted to determine acceptable options for composite propellant tanks at low cost and weight and for use at moderate pressures. The review examines all cost issues relevant to the production, mass, applications, and reliability of the tanks for pressure-fed rockets. Specific attention is given to the manufacturing and life-cycle issues relevant to the use of composite materials in this application since composites are effective materials for liquid propellant tanks. Specific costs and parametric considerations are given for several tank candidates with 62,303-lb capacities. The mass sensitivity of the fourth stage for the concept vehicle is shown to be high, and the use of a 325-psi fourth-stage tank is shown to yield the minimum cost/lb for the stage. Wound S-glass/epoxy composites can be employed as cost-effective replacements for steel in the design of liquid-propellant tanks.

  19. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Ho Park, Xin Zhang, Seon-Yong Hwang, Sang Hyun Jung, Semin Kang, Hyun-Beom Shin, Ho Kwan Kang, Hyung-Ho Park, Ross H Hill and Chul Ki Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL. The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm−2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  20. A Study on Labor Cost of Enterprises in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeyuanZhang

    2004-01-01

    Increasing labor costs have become a focus of concern for enterprises and government since China's entry into the WTO. Based on recent statistics and case studies of enterprises in Shanghai, changes in labor costs in Shanghai are examined in this paper and compared with other areas around Shanghai. Some factors contributing to recent increases in laborcosts in Shanghai are analyzed. It highlights that labor costs in Shanghai will continue to increase due to the city's rapid economic development and intensive use of human capital. It points out, however, that some room still exists to reduce the labor cost, and several practical measures are suggested.

  1. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Yin Hailian; Zhang Shuai; Yu Xiongqing

    2014-01-01

    Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environ-ment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emis-sion in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Orga-nization (ICAO) aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent) per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emis-sions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC) are performed with five geom-etry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8%in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8%in greenhouse gases.

  2. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emissions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC are performed with five geometry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8% in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8% in greenhouse gases.

  3. Reduction of electricity comsumption during 'high cost' periods in winter 2005 - 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2005-01-01

    In previous years CERN was able to limit its electricity consumption during the winter months sufficiently to be supplied from the Swiss grid. In order to make enough power available for the LHC machine and experiments at the lowest possible cost during the coming winter 2005 / 2006 CERN is supplied from the French grid by EDF (Electricité de France). As a consequence, when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP) in France, the energy price is at least four times as high as for the usual winter period. From 1st November until 31st March these increased prices are applicable during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Infrastructure Control Room (TI) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons. During these days of EJP CERN has a strong fina...

  4. Reduction of electricity comsumption during 'high cost' periods in winter 2005 - 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2005-01-01

    In previous years CERN was able to sufficiently limit its electricity consumption during the winter months to be supplied from the Swiss grid. In order to make enough power available for the LHC machine and experiments at the lowest possible cost during the coming winter 2005 / 2006, CERN will be supplied from the French grid by EDF (Electricité de France). As a consequence, when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP) in France, the energy price is at least four times higher than for the usual winter period. From 1st November until 31st March these increased prices are applicable during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Infrastructure Control Room (TI) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons. During these days of EJP CERN has a stro...

  5. Numerical Feynman integrals with physically inspired interpolation: Faster convergence and significant reduction of computational cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikesh S. Dattani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most successful methods for calculating reduced density operator dynamics in open quantum systems, that can give numerically exact results, uses Feynman integrals. However, when simulating the dynamics for a given amount of time, the number of time steps that can realistically be used with this method is always limited, therefore one often obtains an approximation of the reduced density operator at a sparse grid of points in time. Instead of relying only on ad hoc interpolation methods (such as splines to estimate the system density operator in between these points, I propose a method that uses physical information to assist with this interpolation. This method is tested on a physically significant system, on which its use allows important qualitative features of the density operator dynamics to be captured with as little as two time steps in the Feynman integral. This method allows for an enormous reduction in the amount of memory and CPU time required for approximating density operator dynamics within a desired accuracy. Since this method does not change the way the Feynman integral itself is calculated, the value of the density operator approximation at the points in time used to discretize the Feynamn integral will be the same whether or not this method is used, but its approximation in between these points in time is considerably improved by this method. A list of ways in which this proposed method can be further improved is presented in the last section of the article.

  6. Experimental study of drag reduction in flumes and spillway tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-kui WANG; Chun-bo JIANG

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in an open flume model and spillway tunnel model were carried out using drag reduction techniques.Two drag reduction techniques were adopted in the experiments:polymer addition and coating.The drag reduction effect of a polyacrylamide(PAM)solution and dimethyl silicone oil coating were studied in the flume model experiments,and the results were analyzed.Experiments were then carried out with a model of the Xiluodu Hydropower Station,the second largest dam in China.In order to reduce the resistance,the spillway tunnels were internally coated with dimethyl silicone oil.This is the first time that these drag reduction techniques have been applied to so large a hydraulic model.The experimental results show that the coating technique can effectively increase flood discharge.The outlet velocity and the jet trajectory distance are also increased,which enhances the energy dissipation of the spillway tunnel.

  7. Intraarticular lidocaine versus intravenous analgesic for reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocations. A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D E; Roberts, T

    1995-01-01

    We performed a prospective, randomized study to evaluate the use of injected lidocaine as an anesthetic for closed reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocations. Thirty consecutive patients who presented at the emergency department with acute anterior shoulder dislocations were randomly placed in one of two groups. One group received an intraarticular injection of 20 ml of 1% lidocaine and the other group, intravenous injections of morphine sulfate and midazolam. The groups were compared regarding time of reduction maneuver, difficulty of reduction, subjective pain, complications, and total time spent in the emergency department. The lidocaine provided adequate anesthesia and secondary relief of muscle spasm in 15 of 15 (100%) patients. When compared with the intravenous sedation group, the lidocaine group showed no statistically significant difference in time for reduction maneuver, difficulty of reduction, or subjective pain. The lidocaine group had no complications and had a statistically significant shorter emergency department visit when compared with the intravenous sedation group (mean, 78 minutes versus 186 minutes; P = 0.004). Lidocaine provides excellent anesthesia for patients with uncomplicated anterior shoulder dislocations and can be very beneficial when sedation is contraindicated. Lidocaine injections also proved to be cost effective in our institution, reducing total costs by as much as 62%.

  8. Study of nonlinear behaviors and modal reductions for friction destabilized systems. Application to an elastic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyer, A.; Sinou, J.-J.; Chiello, O.; Lorang, X.

    2012-02-01

    As noise reduction tends to be part of environmental directives, predicting squeal noise generated by disc brakes is an important industrial issue. It involves both the transient and stationary nonlinear dynamics of self-excited systems with frictional contact. Time simulation of the phenomenon is an attractive option for reducing experiment costs. However, since such computations using full finite element models of industrial disc brake systems is time-consuming, model reduction has to be performed. In this paper, both the transient and stationary nonlinear behaviors of the friction destabilized system and the effect of dynamical reduction on the nonlinear response of a simple friction destabilized system are carried out. The first part provides a description of the general modeling retained for friction destabilized systems. Then, discretization and solving processes for the stability analysis and the temporal evolution are presented. The third part presents an analysis of a sliding elastic layer for different operating conditions, in order to better understand the nonlinear behavior of such systems. Finally, spatial model reduction is performed with different kinds of reduction bases in order to analyze the different effects of modal reductions. This clearly shows the necessity of including static modes in the reduction basis and that nonlinear interactions between unstable modes are very difficult to represent with reduced bases. Finally, the proposed model and the associated studies are intended to be the benchmark cases for future comparison.

  9. Integrated control of emission reductions, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying

    2015-03-17

    Reduction of water pollutant emissions and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission reductions and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) emission reductions, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking emission reductions, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended.

  10. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douskova, I.; Doucha, J.; Livansky, K.; Umysova, D.; Zachleder, V.; Vitova, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae; Machat, J. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Novak, P. [Termizo Inc., Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO{sub 2} for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO{sub 2} simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10-13% ({nu}/{nu}) CO2 and 8-10% ({nu}/{nu}) O{sub 2} for the photobioreactor agitation and CO{sub 2} supply was proven to be convenient. The growth rate of algal cultures on the flue gas was even higher when compared with the control culture supplied by a mixture of pure CO{sub 2} and air (11% ({nu}/{nu}) CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, the CO{sub 2} fixation rate was also higher when using the flue gas (4.4 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}) than using the control gas (3.0 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}). The toxicological analysis of the biomass produced using untreated flue gas showed only a slight excess of mercury while all the other compounds (other heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls) were below the limits required by the European Union foodstuff legislation. Fortunately, extending the flue gas treatment prior to the cultivation unit by a simple granulated activated carbon column led to an efficient absorption of gaseous mercury and to the algal biomass composition compliant with all the foodstuff legislation requirements. (orig.)

  11. Technology commercialization cost model and component case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Fuel cells seem poised to emerge as a clean, efficient, and cost competitive source of fossil fuel based electric power and thermal energy. Sponsors of fuel cell technology development need to determine the validity and the attractiveness of a technology to the market in terms of meeting requirements and providing value which exceeds the total cost of ownership. Sponsors of fuel cell development have addressed this issue by requiring the developers to prepare projections of the future production cost of their fuel cells in commercial quantities. These projected costs, together with performance and life projections, provide a preliminary measure of the total value and cost of the product to the customer. Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. and Michael A. Cobb & Company have been retained in several assignments over the years to audit these cost projections. The audits have gone well beyond a simple review of the numbers. They have probed the underlying technical and financial assumptions, the sources of data on material and equipment costs, and explored issues such as the realistic manufacturing yields which can be expected in various processes. Based on the experience gained from these audits, DOE gave Booz-Allen and Michael A. Cobb & company the task to develop a criteria to be used in the execution of future fuel cell manufacturing cost studies. It was thought that such a criteria would make it easier to execute such studies in the future as well as to cause such studies to be more understandable and comparable.

  12. Data synchronisation and cost reduction using API in customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Željko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that 51% of all ERP implementations involve some kind of problems in business operations during the 'go live' phase. Despite all the efforts to increase efficiency and improve business processes, many organizations come to a conclusion that once they move to the new ERP system they are not able to perform some of the basic business processes (both in the data migration phase and operational procedures, such as issuing goods from the warehouse. The ERP implementations are too often accompanied by technical and organizational issues that may cause problems in the functioning of a business system. As organizational issues are more frequently the cause of the problem, it is crucial to accurately perform the business processes analysis phase, as well as the final testing. Based on the analysis of the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, CRM (Customer Relationship Management and SCM (Supply Chain Management e-business models of the largest producers of software applications, the bottlenecks and shortcomings typical of the implementation of these models were identified in a select sample of clients and it has been established that there are certain inconsistencies and programme problems between the company information system (IS and the implemented ERP/CRM or SCM models. The identified problems served as the basis for designing and programming an application programming interface (API aimed at addressing certain application needs of the companies, i.e. the inadequate synchronization of databases and other IT resources. The API has been designed and programmed with a view to resolving the problems with inconsistencies and synchronization and reducing business operations costs. It has been tested as a pilot application on ISs of selected companies that apply the ERP/CRM business support systems. This work describes the ERP/CRM database synchronization process and tests the quality of the API solution based on a programmed web survey, i

  13. Preliminary Study on Causative Factors Leading to Construction Cost Overrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the fundamental component for any construction project. However, cost overrun is observed as one of the most frequently occurring issues in construction projects worldwide and need to be studied more to alleviate this issue in the future. This trend is more severe in developing countries where these overruns sometimes exceeds 100% of the anticipated cost of the project.   Like other countries, construction industry in Malaysia is also facing a lot of challenges such as the delay to complete the project in time, the expenditure exceeding the budget, the building defects and over dependent of foreign workers. The ultimate effects of project delay also results in exceeding cost. This leads to serious need of addressing the critical issue of construction cost overrun. To avoid construction cost overrun, very first and most important step is to identify and understand the causes and factors responsible for that. Hence, this paper is aimed to identify various factors responsible for construction cost overrun. Through a comprehensive study of literature review, common factors causing cost overrun resulting in identification of 78 factors were mapped in frequency table. A questionnaire survey and interviews were carried out amongst selected experienced personnel for expert opinion to identify the significant factors causing cost overrun in Malaysia. Five respondents were selected from each of the respondents groups including client, consultant and contractor. The questionnaire responses were analyzed by average index method, which resulted in identification of 59 common factors causing construction cost overrun in Malaysia. Results show that poor design & delays in Design, unrealistic contract duration & requirements imposed, lack of experience, late delivery of materials & equipment, relationship between management & labour, delay preparation & approval of drawings, inadequate planning & scheduling, poor site management & supervision and

  14. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  15. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  16. Reduction of computer usage costs in predicting unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by control surface motion. Addendum to computer program description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, W. S.; Petrarca, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Changes to be made that provide increased accuracy and increased user flexibility in prediction of unsteady loadings caused by control surface motions are described. Analysis flexibility is increased by reducing the restrictions on the location of the downwash stations relative to the leading edge and the edges of the control surface boundaries. Analysis accuracy is increased in predicting unsteady loading for high Mach number analysis conditions through use of additional chordwise downwash stations. User guideline are presented to enlarge analysis capabilities of unusual wing control surface configurations. Comparative results indicate that the revised procedures provide accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reductions of 40 to 75 percent in computer usage cost required by previous versions of this program.

  17. Development of a module for Cost-Benefit analysis of risk reduction measures for natural hazards for the CHANGES-SDSS platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Julian; Bogaard, Thom; Van Westen, Cees; Bakker, Wim; Mostert, Eric; Dopheide, Emile

    2014-05-01

    Cost benefit analysis (CBA) is a well know method used widely for the assessment of investments either in the private and public sector. In the context of risk mitigation and the evaluation of risk reduction alternatives for natural hazards its use is very important to evaluate the effectiveness of such efforts in terms of avoided monetary losses. However the current method has some disadvantages related to the spatial distribution of the costs and benefits, the geographical distribution of the avoided damage and losses, the variation in areas that are benefited in terms of invested money and avoided monetary risk. Decision-makers are often interested in how the costs and benefits are distributed among different administrative units of a large area or region, so they will be able to compare and analyse the cost and benefits per administrative unit as a result of the implementation of the risk reduction projects. In this work we first examined the Cost benefit procedure for natural hazards, how the costs are assessed for several structural and non-structural risk reduction alternatives, we also examined the current problems of the method such as the inclusion of cultural and social considerations that are complex to monetize , the problem of discounting future values using a defined interest rate and the spatial distribution of cost and benefits. We also examined the additional benefits and the indirect costs associated with the implementation of the risk reduction alternatives such as the cost of having a ugly landscape (also called negative benefits). In the last part we examined the current tools and software used in natural hazards assessment with support to conduct CBA and we propose design considerations for the implementation of the CBA module for the CHANGES-SDSS Platform an initiative of the ongoing 7th Framework Programme "CHANGES of the European commission. Keywords: Risk management, Economics of risk mitigation, EU Flood Directive, resilience, prevention

  18. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  19. Rising Price of Opioid OD Antidote Could Cost Lives: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162410.html Rising Price of Opioid OD Antidote Could Cost Lives: Study Investigators identify strategies for ... called attention to skyrocketing prices for the lifesaving antidote, noting: Hospira (a Pfizer Inc. company) charges $142 ...

  20. Evaluation of costs associated with tolvaptan-mediated hospital length of stay reduction among US patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, based on SALT-1 and SALT-2 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasta, Joseph F; Chiong, Jun R; Christian, Rudell; Lin, Jay

    2012-02-01

    Two randomized clinical trials, the Study of Ascending Levels of Tolvaptan in Hyponatremia 1 and 2 (SALT-1 and SALT-2), showed that tolvaptan was an efficacious and safe therapy for the treatment of hyponatremic patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This study evaluated the potential cost savings associated with tolvaptan usage based on the SALT-1 and SALT-2 trials. Hospital length of stay (LOS) reduction associated with tolvaptan versus placebo was evaluated among hyponatremic patients with the SIADH (serum sodium adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients with the SIADH. A cost-offset model was constructed to evaluate the impact of tolvaptan on hospital cost and LOS, with univariate and multivariate Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses. In the SALT-1 and SALT-2 trials, patients with the SIADH receiving tolvaptan had a shorter hospital LOS than patients receiving placebo (4.98 vs 6.19 days, respectively). There were 21 718 hospitalizations for the SIADH identified from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide 2009 Inpatient Sample database, with a mean LOS of 5.7 days and mean total hospital costs of $8667. Using an inpatient tolvaptan treatment duration of 4 days, with a daily wholesale acquisition cost of $250, the cost-offset model estimated an LOS reduction among SIADH hospitalizations of 1.11 days. The total cost offset, including tolvaptan drug cost, was estimated to be $694 per admission. The cost-neutral break-even duration of tolvaptan therapy is 6.78 days. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses demonstrated consistent cost reduction associated with tolvaptan usage. Ten thousand cycles of Monte Carlo simulation showed the 95% CI for cost offset to be $73 to $1405. Based on the SALT-1 and SALT-2 trials, tolvaptan usage is associated with a shorter hospital LOS than placebo among patients with the SIADH. Including the drug cost for 4 days of inpatient tolvaptan therapy, tolvaptan is associated with an

  1. Cost reduction analysis in the online retail as compared to the classic retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Camelia BABA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The industry of retail was segmented by new technologies, but the financial performance of every segment is far to explain the market share. An exploratory study is necessary in order to explain the appeal for entrepreneurs. A comparison between two new forms of retail is used to understand the business models in this industry. Due to the fact that the maturity of the new segment of retail are different in various countries, the study cases focused on the some leaders firms from USA, China and Romania are important to design a probable trend the online commerce. General theoretical benchmarks, validated by current practice are used in case studies, as well as innovative approaches and well-known examples of successful retail companies.

  2. Microfluidic platform for studying the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Devin Talmage

    Diminishing supplies of conventional energy sources and growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions present significant challenges to supplying the world's rapidly increasing demand for energy. The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has the potential to address many of these issues by providing a means of storing electricity in chemical form. Storing electrical energy as chemicals is beneficial for leveling the output of clean, but intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. Electrical energy stored as chemicals can also be used as carbon neutral fuels for portable applications allowing petroleum derived fuels in the transportation sector to be replaced by more environmentally friendly energy sources. However, to be a viable technology, the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide needs to have both high current densities and energetic efficiencies (Chapter 1). Although many researchers have studied the electrochemical reduction of CO2 including parameters such as catalysts, electrolytes and temperature, further investigation is needed to improve the understanding of this process and optimize the performance (Chapter 2). This dissertation reports the development and validation of a microfluidic reactor for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (Chapter 3). The design uses a flowing liquid electrolyte instead of the typical polymer electrolyte membrane. In addition to other benefits, this flowing electrolyte gives the reactor great flexibility, allowing independent analysis of each electrode and the testing of a wide variety of conditions. In this work, the microfluidic reactor has been used in the following areas: • Comparison of different metal catalysts for the reduction of CO2 to formic acid and carbon monoxide (Chapter 4). • Investigation of the effects of the electrolyte pH on the reduction of CO2 to formic acid and carbon monoxide (Chapter 5). • Study of amine based electrolytes for lowering the overpotentials for CO2

  3. Cost-of-Illness Studies: A Review of Current Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere Akobundu; Jing Ju; Lisa Blatt; C Daniel Mullins

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods...

  4. Standardized Elemental Basis for Gas-Turbine Engine Heat Exchangers is the Key Factor for Their Cost Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soudarev A.V; Soudarev B.V; Kondratiev V.V; Lazarev M.V

    2001-01-01

    The competitiveness of the small gas turbine units (GTUs) (Ne<300 kW) in the world power market is dependent on both the maintenance expenses and the capital costs of production. Reduction in the maintenance expenditures could be achieved by increasing the plant efficiency. This task could be solved by some methods: increasing the cycle inlet temperature TIT, getting the cycle more complex (use of heat regeneration and compressed air intermediate cooling), cutting the power consumption on heat-stressed parts cooling. Putting the above into effect is linked with introduction of novel structural materials, a sharp increase in the mass-size values and the plant manufacture expenditures, in particular, at provision of its self-regulation.In connection with the above, the development of the combined metal-ceramic airheaters and standardization of the elemental basis of the metal gas-gas heat exchangers will promote reduction in the expenditures of the maintenance and the manufacture of the small-size independent power GTEs.

  5. SEARCH COST REDUCTION INCREASES VARIATION IN HOTELS OCCUPANCY RATE: A THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Succurro; Federico Boffa

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how direct online booking affects the variation in hotel bed-places occupancy rate between peak and off-peak periods, thereby contributing to three strands of literature, respectively the determinants of seasonality, the tourist information acquisition process and the impact of the internet on tourism. The empirical analysis, covering 18 countries over the 1997-2007 period, investigates the impact of an increase in the use of the internet by consumers on the seasonal varia...

  6. Turbulent Drag Reduction: Studies of Feedback Control and Flow Over Riblets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    The objective of this study is to explore concepts for control of turbulent boundary layers leading to skin -friction reduction using the direct numerical simulation technique. This report is divided into three parts where three different control methods are investigated; a passive control by longitudinal riblets, an active control by sensing and perturbing structures near the wall, and a feedback control procedure guided by control theory. In PART I significant drag reduction is achieved when the surface boundary condition is modified to suppress the dynamically significant coherent structures present in the wall region. The drag reduction is accompanied with significant reduction in the intensity of the wall -layer structures and reductions in the magnitude of Reynolds shear stress throughout the flow. Two essential drag reduction mechanisms are presented. In PART II mathematical methods of control theory are applied to the problem of control of fluid flow. The procedure of how to cast the problem of controlling turbulence into a problem in optimal control theory is presented through the formalism and language of control theory. Then a suboptimal control and feedback procedure are presented using methods of calculus of variations through the adjoint state and gradient algorithms. This suboptimal feedback control procedure is applied to the distributed and boundary controls of the stochastic Burgers equation. Most cases considered show significant reductions of the costs. In PART III direct numerical simulation is performed to analyze turbulent flow over longitudinal riblets, and to educe the mechanism of drag reduction by riblets. The computed drags on the riblet surfaces are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. Differences in the mean-velocity profile and turbulence quantities are found to be limited to the inner region of the boundary layer. Velocity and vorticity fluctuations as well as the Reynolds shear stresses above the riblets are

  7. Early discharge and home intervention reduces unit costs after total hip replacement: results of a cost analysis in a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Eyjolfur; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Jonsson, Halldor; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Matthiasson, Thorolfur; Jonsson, Brynjolfur Y

    2008-09-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) is a common and costly procedure. The number of THR is expected to increase over the coming years. Two pathways of postoperative treatment were compared in a randomized study. Fifty patients from two hospitals were randomized into a study group (SG) of 27 patients receiving preoperative and postoperative education programs, as well as home visits from an outpatient team. A control group (CG) of 23 patients received "conventional" rehabilitation augmented by a stay at a rehabilitation center if needed. All costs for the two groups both in hospitals and after discharge were collected and analyzed. On average total costs for the SG were $8,550 and $11,952 for the CG, a 28% cost reduction. Total inpatient costs were $5,225 for the SG and $6,515 for the CG. In a regression analysis the group difference is statistically significant. Adjusting for changes in the Oxford Hip Score gives effective costs (C/E). The ratio of the SGs C/E to the CGs is 0.60. That is a cost-effectiveness gain of 40%. A shorter hospital stay augmented with better preoperative education and home treatment appears to be more effective and costs less than the traditional in hospital pathway of treatment.

  8. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  9. Interaction between Total Cost and Fill Rate: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Ferbar Tratar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting plays a central role in the efficient operation of a supply chain – i.e., the total costs and fill rate. As forecasts of demand are required on a regular basis for a very large number of products, the methods developed should be fast, flexible, user-friendly, and able to produce results that are reliable and easy to interpret by a manager. In this paper we show that the supply chain costs cannot be optimal if the forecasting method is treated separately from the inventory model. We analyse the performance of the joint optimization of the modified Holt-Winters forecasting method and a stock control policy and investigate the effect of different penalties for unsatisfied demand on the total cost and fill rate of the supply chain. From the results obtained with 1,428 real time series from M3-Competition we show that an essential reduction of supply chain costs and an increase of fill rate can be achieved if we use the joint model with the modified Holt-Winters method.

  10. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  11. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  12. Quantum chemical study on asymmetric catalysis reduction of imine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ming; (李明); TIAN; Anmin; (田安民)

    2003-01-01

    The quantum chemical method is employed to study the enantioselective reduction of imine with borane catalyzed by chiral oxazaborolidine. All the structures are optimized completely at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The catalysis property of oxazaborolidine is notable. The reduction goes mainly through the formations of the catalyst-borane adduct, the catalyst-borane-imine adduct, and the catalyst-amidoborane adduct and the dissociation of the catalyst-amidoborane adduct with the regeneration of the catalyst. The controlling step for the reduction is the dissociation of the catalyst-amidoborane adduct. The main reduced product predicted theoretically is (R )-sec- ondary amine, which is in agreement with the experiment.

  13. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  14. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  15. A fuzzy discrete harmony search algorithm applied to annual cost reduction in radial distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Kazem; Alfi, Alireza; Aghaebrahimi, Mohammadreza

    2016-09-01

    Similarly to other optimization algorithms, harmony search (HS) is quite sensitive to the tuning parameters. Several variants of the HS algorithm have been developed to decrease the parameter-dependency character of HS. This article proposes a novel version of the discrete harmony search (DHS) algorithm, namely fuzzy discrete harmony search (FDHS), for optimizing capacitor placement in distribution systems. In the FDHS, a fuzzy system is employed to dynamically adjust two parameter values, i.e. harmony memory considering rate and pitch adjusting rate, with respect to normalized mean fitness of the harmony memory. The key aspect of FDHS is that it needs substantially fewer iterations to reach convergence in comparison with classical discrete harmony search (CDHS). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first application of DHS to specify appropriate capacitor locations and their best amounts in the distribution systems. Simulations are provided for 10-, 34-, 85- and 141-bus distribution systems using CDHS and FDHS. The results show the effectiveness of FDHS over previous related studies.

  16. Use of microbes for cost reduction of metal removal from metals and mining industry waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.R.H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Division for Environmental Science & Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Acid-rock drainage (ARD) - also known as acid-mine drainage (AMD) - results from the exposure of sulfide minerals, particularly pyritic and pyrrhotitic minerals, to atmospheric oxygen and water. Recent developments and improvements have resulted in construction of bioreactors that have a smaller footprint, and treat the metals and acidity more effectively. Many studies have demonstrated that the primary removal mechanisms for the metals are sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These microbes facilitate the conversion of sulphate to sulphide. The sulphides react with metals to precipitate them as metal sulfides, many of which are stable in the anaerobic conditions of the treatment system. Plants have been shown to remove metals by uptake or oxidative precipitation near the roots. Plants seem to account for only a small percentage of the metal removal capacity of the wetland treatment systems. Adsorption of metals to the organic substrates of the treatment systems can result in metal removal, but adsorption capacity is saturated in short periods of time. The SRB are obligate anaerobes which prefer conditions between pH 5 and 8. Thus, the input water characteristics could impact the efficiency and life expectancy of the treatment systems. The most important characteristic of input waters seems to be pH. Oxyanions such as chromate and arsenate can be removed using the wetland treatment system (passive bioreactor) technology. Arsenic is removed as an arsenic sulfide compound and chromate is reduced to Cr(III) and precipitated as a hydroxide. The passive bioreactor - wetland treatment system offers a less expensive alternative to the conventional chemical precipitation technologies. There still are problems of system hydraulics and useful life to be addressed.

  17. Estimating study costs for use in VOI, a study of dutch publicly funded drug related research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asselt, A.D.; Ramaekers, B.L.; Corro Ramos, I.; Joore, M.A.; Al, M.J.; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Postma, M.J.; Vemer, P.; Feenstra, T.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform value of information (VOI) analyses, an estimate of research costs is needed. However, reference values for such costs are not available. This study aimed to analyze empirical data on research budgets and, by means of a cost tool, provide an overview of costs of several types

  18. The costs of reducing the excess CO{sub 2} emissions. Reduction potential and costs in certain sector; Hvad koster det at reducere CO{sup 2}-mankoen? - Reduktionspotentiale og omkostninger i udvalgte sektorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The report presents the results from the project 'The costs of reducing the excess CO{sub 2} emissions - reduction potential and costs in certain sectors'. The aim of the project has been to elucidate the full extent of the reduction potentials and the costs for certain CO{sub 2} reducing initiatives, which are not included in the present projections of the excess CO{sub 2} emissions. The initiatives included in this report are: Accumulation of methane from Danish disposal facilities; Accumulation of methane from disposal facilities in Russia; Reduction in the use of industrial greenhouse gases; Aquifer disposal of CO{sub 2} in the underground; Offshore CO{sub 2} disposal in oil fields in the North Sea. Furthermore, the report presents a general evaluation of the potential of methane accumulation from wastewater treatment. (ba)

  19. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleu, Josefa; Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-27

    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates.

  20. Determining the economic cost of ICU treatment: a prospective "micro-costing" study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Anne Marie

    2009-12-01

    To prospectively assess the cost of patients in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) using bottom-up costing methodology and evaluate the usefulness of "severity of illness" scores in estimating ICU cost.

  1. Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels. This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays and Porous Asphalt (9 bays surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone.

  2. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 4: Low cost management approach and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of low cost management approaches for the development of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The factors of the program which tend to increase costs are identified. The NASA/Industry interface is stressed to show how the interface can be improved to produce reduced program costs. Techniques and examples of cost reduction which can be applied to the EOS program are tabulated. Specific recommendations for actions to be taken to reduce costs in prescribed areas are submitted.

  3. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016; Pruefung der Kostenstudie 2016 von swissnuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  4. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  5. Determinants of higher education students’ willingness to pay for violent crime reduction: a contingent valuation study

    OpenAIRE

    Mafalda Soeiro; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    By eliciting an individual’s Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a reduction in crime risks, the contingent valuation method is one of the most solid methodologies in use to estimate the intangible costs of crime. However, very few studies have applied contingent valuation methods to random samples of the population located in high crime rate areas. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to apply the contingent valuation method to estimate how much a specific group of society...

  6. CO{sub 2} reduction cost for bio-diesel, Danish produced bio-diesel based on rape seed; CO{sub 2} reduktionsomkostninger ved biodiesel. Dansk produceret biodiesel pae raps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Kjellingbro, M.; Mogensen, Martin Frank; Kohl, M.

    2006-12-15

    Bio-diesel based on rape seed (RME, Rape Methyl Esther), often referred to as first generation bio-diesel, is a renewable fuel with CO{sub 2} reduction potential. Mixed with conventional diesel it can be used directly in existing diesel engines. The EU target for the use of bio-fuels in the transport sector was 2 % by 2005 and is 5.75 % by 2010. In Denmark, the use of bio-fuels in the transport sector is not viewed as a cost-effective CO{sub 2} reduction measure. This conclusion concerning the cost-effectiveness of bio-fuels was partly based on calculations of the CO2 reduction cost for Danish-produced RME made by the Danish Energy Authority in 2003. At that time the cost was estimated at 360 DKK/tonne CO{sub 2}. Since then some of the assumptions behind the calculations have changed. The overall objective of this report is to update the Danish Energy Authority's study from 2003, taking into account revised assumptions. The report also attempts to examine the uncertainties associated with the calculations by including extended sensitivity analyses. The report draws the following conclusions: 1) The CO{sub 2} reduction cost for Danish produced RME is estimated at 860 DKK/tonne CO{sub 2}, which is significantly higher than the result obtained by the Danish Energy Authority in 2003. 2) The difference from the Danish Energy Authority's original calculations is principally due to a higher rape seed price based on the market price on rape seed. 3) The uncertainty in both estimates is substantial, and there is about 15 % probability of the reduction costs being lower than the target of 180 DKK/tonne CO2 set by the government. (au)

  7. Costs and prices of single dental fillings in Europe: a micro-costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siok Swan; Ken Redekop, W; Rutten, Frans F H

    2008-01-01

    Dental fillings represent an established procedure to treat tooth decay. The present paper provides a cost comparison of dental filling procedures across nine European countries. More specifically, the paper aims to estimate the costs and prices (i.e. reimbursement fees) of a single dental filling procedure in an approximately 12-year-old child with a toothache in a lower molar who presents at a dental practice, as described in a case vignette. Both amalgam and composite fillings were examined. Total costs were determined by identifying resource use and unit costs for the following cost components: diagnostic procedures, labour, materials, drugs, and overheads. Altogether, 49 practices provided data for the cost calculations. Mean total costs per country varied considerably, ranging from 8 euros to 156 euros. Labour costs were the most important cost driver in all practices, comprising 58% of total costs. Overhead costs were the second-most important cost component in the majority of countries. Actual cost differences across practices within countries were relatively small. Cost variations between countries were primarily due to differences in unit costs, especially for labour and overheads, and only to a lesser extent to differences in resource use. Finally, cost estimates for a single dental filling procedure based on reimbursement fees led to an underestimation of the total costs by approximately 50%. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Exploring paradigms of crime reduction: An empirical longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 24 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child-rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  9. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe : A patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. Aims: To investigate the health service cost for food-

  10. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe : a patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. AIMS: To investigate the health service cost for food-

  11. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe : A patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. Aims: To investigate the health service cost for

  12. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe: a patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugford, M.; Fox, M.; Voordouw, J.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Antonides, G.; Hoz Caballer, de la B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. Aims: To investigate the health service cost for

  13. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level - e.g., dynamic causal models - and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction.

  14. Dissecting Costs of CT Study: Application of TDABC (Time-driven Activity-based Costing) in a Tertiary Academic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Yoshimi; Heilbrun, Marta E; Haas, Derek; Boi, Luca; Moshre, Kirk; Minoshima, Satoshi; Kaplan, Robert; Lee, Vivian S

    2017-02-01

    The lack of understanding of the real costs (not charge) of delivering healthcare services poses tremendous challenges in the containment of healthcare costs. In this study, we applied an established cost accounting method, the time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC), to assess the costs of performing an abdomen and pelvis computed tomography (AP CT) in an academic radiology department and identified opportunities for improved efficiency in the delivery of this service. The study was exempt from an institutional review board approval. TDABC utilizes process mapping tools from industrial engineering and activity-based costing. The process map outlines every step of discrete activity and duration of use of clinical resources, personnel, and equipment. By multiplying the cost per unit of capacity by the required task time for each step, and summing each component cost, the overall costs of AP CT is determined for patients in three settings, inpatient (IP), outpatient (OP), and emergency departments (ED). The component costs to deliver an AP CT study were as follows: radiologist interpretation: 40.1%; other personnel (scheduler, technologist, nurse, pharmacist, and transporter): 39.6%; materials: 13.9%; and space and equipment: 6.4%. The cost of performing CT was 13% higher for ED patients and 31% higher for inpatients (IP), as compared to that for OP. The difference in cost was mostly due to non-radiologist personnel costs. Approximately 80% of the direct costs of AP CT to the academic medical center are related to labor. Potential opportunities to reduce the costs include increasing the efficiency of utilization of CT, substituting lower cost resources when appropriate, and streamlining the ordering system to clarify medical necessity and clinical indications. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 工业产品包装降低成本的几种方法%Several Methods for Industrial Product Package Cost Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雁

    2012-01-01

    Introduce several methods for industrial product packaging cost reduction based on some real cases. And point out the importance of packing cost in the enterprise cost management.%通过实例,介绍了从包装设计、包装材料、集合方式、包装物流等方面进行工业产品包装降低成本的若干方法,并指出包装成本在企业成本管理中的重要性.

  16. The hospital cost of road traffic accidents at a South African regional trauma centre: a micro-costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, F; Kent, S J W; Aldous, C; Oosthuizen, G; Clarke, D

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic crashes are responsible for a vast amount of death and disability in developing countries. This study uses a bottom up, micro-costing approach to determine the cost of road traffic related crashes in South Africa. Using the data from one hundred consecutive RTC related admissions to a regional hospital in South Africa we performed a bottom up costing study. To calculate costs patients were reviewed every 48 h and all interventions were recorded for each individual patient. Prices of interventions were obtained from hospital pricelists. A total cost was calculated on an individual basis. The total cost of in-patient care for these patients was US $6,98,850. Upper limb injuries were the most expensive, and the total cost increased with the number of body regions injured. The biggest expenditure was on ward overheads ($2,81,681). Ninety operations were performed - the total cost of theatre time was $1,48,230 and the cost of orthopaedic implants was $1,26,487. The cost of care of a RTC victim is significant. In light of the high numbers of RTC victims admitted over the course of the year this is a significant cost burden for a regional hospital to bear. This cost must be taken into account when allocating hospital budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Possibilities of implementing modern philosophy of cost accounting: The case study of costs in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient cost management is one of the key tasks in modern management, primarily because of causal connection of costs, profitability and competitive advantage on the market. As a market-based concept, Target Costing represents modern accounting philosophy of cost accounting and profit planning. In modern business, efficient cost planning and management is provided by accounting information system as an integrated accounting and information solution which supplies enterprises with accounting data processing necessary for making business decisions related to the efficient management in accordance with the declared mission and goals of an enterprise. Basic information support in the process of planning and cost management is carried out by the cost accounting module which is a very important part of the accounting information system in every enterprise. The cost monitoring is provided according to the type, place and bearer within the cost accounting module as a segment of an integral accounting information system.

  18. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  19. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Electrolyzer Capital Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, G.

    2008-12-01

    This study is being performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy and Xcel Energy's Wind-to-Hydrogen Project (Wind2H2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The general aim of the project is to identify areas for improving the production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources. These areas include both technical development and cost analysis of systems that convert renewable energy to hydrogen via water electrolysis. Increased efficiency and reduced cost will bring about greater market penetration for hydrogen production and application. There are different issues for isolated versus grid-connected systems, however, and these issues must be considered. The manner in which hydrogen production is integrated in the larger energy system will determine its cost feasibility and energy efficiency.

  20. Gas recombination device design and cost study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Under a contract with Argonne National Laboratory, VARTA Batterie AG. conducted a design and cost study of hydrogen-oxygen recombination devices (HORD) for use with utility load-leveling lead-acid cells. Design specifications for the devices, through extensive calculation of the heat-flow conditions of the unit, were developed. Catalyst and condenser surface areas were specified. The exact dimensions can, however, be adjusted to the cell dimension and the space available above the cell. Design specifications were also developed for additional components required to ensure proper function of the recombination device, including metal hydride compound decomposer, aerosol retainer, and gas storage component. Costs for HORD were estimated to range from $4 to $10/kWh cell capacity for the production of a large number of units (greater than or equal to 10,000 units). The cost is a function of cell size and positive grid design. 21 figures, 2 tables.

  1. The impact of transport- and transaction-cost reductions on food markets in developing countries: evidence for tempered expectations for Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Schweigman, C.; Lutz, C.

    2004-01-01

    Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For Burkina Faso, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium

  2. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States); Caldwell, James H. [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The California 2030 Low Carbon Grid Study (LCGS) analyzes the grid impacts of a variety of scenarios that achieve 50% carbon emission reductions from California's electric power sector. Impacts are characterized based on several key operational and economic metrics, including production costs, emissions, curtailment, and impacts on the operation of gas generation and imports. The modeling results indicate that achieving a low-carbon grid (with emissions 50% below 2012 levels) is possible by 2030 with relatively limited curtailment (less than 1%) if institutional frameworks are flexible. Less flexible institutional frameworks and a less diverse generation portfolio could lead to higher curtailment (up to 10%), operational costs (up to $800 million higher), and carbon emissions (up to 14% higher).

  3. A low-cost cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon electrocatalyst for efficient oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianxing; Zhang, Haimin; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, chitosan whiskers (CWs) were first extracted using low-cost and earth-abundant crab shells as materials by a series of chemical processes, and then assembled into chitosan whisker microspheres (CWMs) via a simple photochemical polymerization approach. Subsequently, a cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon (Fe3C@NGC) nanocomposite was successfully fabricated by high temperature pyrolysis of CWMs adsorbed with ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) at 900 °C. It was found that a suitable growth atmosphere generated inside CWMs during high temperature pyrolysis is critically important to form Fe3C nanocrystal cores, concurrently accompanying a structural transformation from chitosan whiskers to mesoporous graphitic carbon shells with natural nitrogen (N) doping properties, resulting in the formation of a core-shell structure Fe3C@NGC nanocomposite. The resulting samples were evaluated as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In comparison with sole N-doped graphitic carbon without Fe3C nanocrystals obtained by direct pyrolysis of chitosan whisker microspheres at 900 °C (CWMs-900), Fe3C@NGC showed significantly improved ORR catalytic activity. The tolerance to fuel cell molecules (e.g., methanol) and the durability of Fe3C@NGC are obviously superior to commercial Pt/C catalysts in alkaline media. The high ORR performance of Fe3C@NGC could be due to its large surface area (313.7 m(2) g(-1)), a synergistic role of Fe3C nanocrystals, N doping in graphitic carbon creating more catalytic active sites, and a porous structure of the nanocomposite facilitating mass transfer to efficiently improve the utilization of these catalytic active sites.

  4. A study on macroeconomic cost of CCS in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Whan; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2015-04-01

    CCS is an important measure for mitigating the problem of World Climate Change and already several projects are entered the step of commercialization. The benefits of CCS implementation ultimately depends on the alleviation level of CO2 on earth because it is caused by the mitigation of the World Climate Change problem. Thus it is possible not to coincide at same time between starting the CCS and getting the benefits. Considering the high costs of CCS, the time mismatch between imposing the costs and getting the benefits is apt to impose some heavy burden on the individual national economy. For this reason, at the political decision-making, the policy makers should consider the macroeconomic effects. Meanwhile, Korean electricity market's supply side is comprised of competitive production and a sole distributor(public enterprise) and then electricity is supplied by a single price structure(administered pricing). Under this condition, if CCS is introduced to power setor, electric charges must be increased and production costs will go high. High production costs will have unfavourable effects on disposable income, price level, purchasing power and so on. In order to minimize these effects, policy makers have to consider the economic effects of introducing CCS. This study estimates the microscopic cost of CCS using ICCSEM 2.0 methodology made by CO2CRC and after that, the macroeconomic effects of introducing CCS is estimated on the basis of microscopic cost estimating results. The macroeconomic effects of CCS applied to Power Generation sector are estimated using macroeconometrics model and Input-Output analysis. A macroeconometrics model is an analytical tool designed to describe the operation of the national economy. This model is usually applied to examine the dynamics of aggregate quantities such as the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, the level of prices and so forth. Introducing

  5. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. 1615.407-1 Section 1615.407-1 Federal Acquisition... for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. The clause set forth in section 1652.215-70... based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community-rated). ...

  6. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor furnished certified cost or pricing data that were not complete, accurate, and current as certified in its Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data, (2) a subcontractor or prospective... current as certified in the Contractor's Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data, or (3) any of...

  7. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... were not complete, accurate, and current as certified in its Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing... Current Cost or Pricing Data, or (3) any of these parties furnished data of any description that were not... accurate, complete, and current certified cost or pricing data had been submitted; (ii) The...

  8. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that were not complete, accurate, or current as certified in the Certificate of Accurate Cost or... accurate, complete, and current cost or pricing data had been submitted or maintained and identified. (ii... submit or keep in its files a Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data. (2)(i) Except as prohibited...

  9. Exploring paradigms of crime reduction: An empirical longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    on offenders with first-time convictions for shoplifting (n=1,778), for violence (n=1,585) and for burglary (n=1,208), all four paradigms made a contribution to risk of first time offending for all three crimes. The counter factual analysis indicated that a focus on structural issues within a society may have......Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 24 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child-rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...

  10. SUPPLIES COSTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY WITH APPLICATION OF MEASUREMENT MODEL OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Ferreira Alves; José Vanderlei Silva Borba; Gilberto Tavares dos Santos; Artur Roberto Gibbon

    2013-01-01

    One of the main reasons for the difficulty in adopting an integrated method of calculation of logistics costs is still a lack of adequate information about costs. The management of the supply chain and identify its costs can provide information for their managers, with regard to decision making, generating competitive advantage. Some models of calculating logistics costs are proposed by Uelze (1974), Dias (1996), Goldratt (2002), Christopher (2007), Castiglioni (2009) and Borba & Gibbon (2009...

  11. Life support system cost study: Addendum to cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    New cost data are presented for the Hydrogen-Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (HDC), based on modifying the concentrator to delete the quick disconnect valves and filters included in the system model defined in MDC-G4631. System description, cost data and a comparison between CO2 concentrator costs are presented.

  12. Drug utilization and cost in a Medicaid population: A simulation study of community vs. mail order pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoane-Vazquez Enrique

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outpatient drugs are dispensed through both community and mail order pharmacies. There is no empirical evidence that substitution of community pharmacy with mail order reduces overall drug expenditures. The need for evaluating the potential effects on utilization and costs of the possible extension of mail order services in Medicaid provides the rationale for conducting this study. This study compares drug utilization and drug product cost in community vs. mail order pharmacy dispensing services in a Medicaid population. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study comparing utilization and cost patterns in community vs. mail order pharmacy. A simulation model was employed to assess drug utilization and cost in mail order pharmacy using community pharmacy claim data. The model assumed that courses of drug therapy (CDT in mail order pharmacy would have utilization patterns similar to those found in community pharmacy. A 95% confidence interval surrounding changes in average utilization and average cost were estimated using bootstrap analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying drug selection criteria and supply, fill point, and medication possession ratio (MPR. Sub-analyses were performed to address differences between mail order and community pharmacy related to therapeutic class and dual-eligible patients. Data for the study derived from pharmacy claims database of Ohio Medicaid State program for the period January 2000-September 2004. Drug claims were aggregated to obtain a set of CDTs representing unique patient IDs and unique drug products. Drug product cost estimates excluded dispensing fees and were used to estimate the cost reduction required in mail order to become cost neutral in comparison with community pharmacy. Results The baseline model revealed that the use of mail order vs. community pharmacy would result in a 5.5% increase in drug utilization and a 5.4% cost reduction required in mail order

  13. Costs of shoulder pain and resource use in primary health care: a cost-of-illness study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virta Lena

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful shoulders pose a substantial socioeconomic burden. A prospective cost-of-illness study was performed to assess the costs associated with healthcare use and loss of productivity in patients with shoulder pain in primary health care in Sweden. Methods The study was performed in western Sweden, in a region with 24 000 inhabitants. Data were collected during six months from electronic patient records at three primary healthcare centres in two municipalities. All patients between 20 and 64 years of age who presented with shoulder pain to a general practitioner or a physiotherapist were included. Diagnostic codes were used for selection, and the cases were manually controlled. The cost for sick leave was calculated according to the human capital approach. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainty in various factors used in the model. Results 204 (103 women patients, mean age 48 (SD 11 years, were registered. Half of the cases were closed within six weeks, whereas 32 patients (16% remained in the system for more than six months. A fifth of the patients were responsible for 91% of the total costs, and for 44% of the healthcare costs. The mean healthcare cost per patient was €326 (SD 389 during six months. Physiotherapy treatments accounted for 60%. The costs for sick leave contributed to 84% of the total costs. The mean annual total cost was €4139 per patient. Estimated costs for secondary care increased the total costs by one third. Conclusions The model applied in this study provides valuable information that can be used in cost evaluations. Costs for secondary care and particularly for sick leave have a major influence on total costs and interventions that can reduce long periods of sick leave are warranted.

  14. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fibre in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAbdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fibre-rich diets is associated with favourable impacts on type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD, two of the most costly ailments worldwide, however the economic value of altered fibre intakes remains poorly understood. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of adults expected to consume fibre-rich diets in Canada, estimate fibre intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reductions, and assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs with reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8-$1,295.7 million in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fibre was used to increase current intakes of dietary fibre to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fibre consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6-$51.1 and $4.6-$92.1 million savings for T2D and CVD, respectively. Conclusions: Strategies to increase consumers’ knowledge of the recommended dietary fibre intakes, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

  15. In the field of energy cost reduction, what is the potential?; En matiere de reduction des depenses d`energie: quel est le gisement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, B. [Departement Industrie, CEREN (France)

    1996-12-31

    Through a segmentation of the fuel and electric power consumptions in the various industrial sectors and energy consumption process types in France in 1990, the energy conservation potential in the French metalworking and mechanical industry is analyzed and its evolution up to 2005 is assessed. It is shown that the reduction potential amounts to 450 kTep or 20 percent of the metalworking and metallic construction industry energy consumption, with an important part for the out-of-process sector (space heating, compressed air production, lighting). In the process sector, important reductions could be realized in thermal treatments and metal heating prior forming

  16. The cost-effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Results from a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bullying affects around 3-5 percent of adolescents in secondary school and is related to various mental health problems. Many different anti-bullying programmes are currently available, but economic evaluations are lacking. The aim of this study is to identify the cost effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). We constructed a decision-tree model for a Swedish secondary school, using a public payer perspective, and retrieved data on costs and effects from the published literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainty in the model was conducted. The base-case analysis showed that using the OBPP to reduce the number of victims of bullying costs 131,250 Swedish kronor (€14,470) per victim spared. Compared to a relevant threshold of the societal value of bullying reduction, this indicates that the programme is cost-effective. Using a relevant willingness-to-pay threshold shows that the OBPP is a cost-effective intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe: a patient-based cost of illness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-10-01

    Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. To investigate the health service cost for food-allergic Europeans and the relationship between severity and cost of illness. Participants recruited through EuroPrevall studies in a case-control study in four countries, and cases only in five countries, completed a validated economics questionnaire. Individuals with possible food allergy were identified by clinical history, and those with food-specific immunoglobulin E were defined as having probable allergy. Data on resource use were used to estimate total health care costs of illness. Mean costs were compared in the case-control cohorts. Regression analysis was conducted on cases from all 9 countries to assess impact of country, severity and age group. Food-allergic individuals had higher health care costs than controls. The mean annual cost of health care was international dollars (I$)2016 for food-allergic adults and I$1089 for controls, a difference of I$927 (95% confidence interval I$324-I$1530). A similar result was found for adults in each country, and for children, and was not sensitive to baseline demographic differences. Cost was significantly related to severity of illness in cases in nine countries. Food allergy is associated with higher health care costs. Severity of allergic symptoms is a key explanatory factor.

  18. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of powered wheelchairs: findings of a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Renzo; Salatino, Claudia; Converti, Rosa Maria; Saruggia, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed a sample of 79 wheelchair users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from the National Health Service in an Italian Region in the period 2008-2013. The wheelchair prescriptions had been done on the basis of an assessment protocol agreed with the Local Health Authority. Follow-up interviews were carried out at the users' homes, in order to collect information about the wheelchair use and its effectiveness, usefulness and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire (describing the wheelchair use), the QUEST (measuring the user's satisfaction), the PIADS (measuring the psychosocial impact, in terms of perceived changes in ability, adaptability and self-esteem), the FABS/M (detecting environmental facilitators and barriers) and the SCAI (estimating the economic impact). Overall, positive outcomes were detected for most users, especially in relation to their satisfaction and the psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings (at home, in public places, in natural spaces, in public transportation) that sometimes restrict the user mobility and thus may claim for corrective actions. Several environmental factors acting as facilitators were also identified. In relation to the economic impact, the provision of a powered wheelchair generated remarkable savings in social costs for most of the users, on average about 36.000 Euros per person on a projected 5-years span. This estimate results from the comparison between the social cost of the intervention (sum of the costs of all material and human resources involved in the provision and usage of the wheelchair) and the cost of non-intervention (the presumed social cost incurred in case no powered wheelchair had been provided and the user had to carry on with just a manual wheelchair). The study was also an opportunity to develop and try out a follow-up method that proved applicable within service delivery practice.

  20. Thermogravimetric study of the dehydration and reduction of red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplov, O. A.; Korenovskii, N. L.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of drying and reduction of red mud in the pure state and with coal additions in vacuum or in gaseous media (helium, hydrogen) have been experimentally studied by thermogravimetry using a Setaram TAG24 thermogravimetric analyzer. The minimum total weight loss (˜20%) is observed for red mud samples without additives in forevacuum, and the maximum loss (˜38%) is detected in samples with coal. It is demonstrated that, for this type of red mud with iron oxide Fe2O3, water molecules are bonded in the form of iron hydroxide Fe2O3 · 3H2O rather than goethite FeOOH. The peak of magnetite formation is observed in differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve in the range 270-400°C. The simulation of the magnetite dehydration and formation rates under experimental conditions in the relevant temperature ranges agrees with the experimental data. A peak of wustite formation in hydrogen above ˜600°C is recorded in a DTG curve, and the removal of one-third of sodium oxide, which is likely not to be fixed into strong sodium alumosilicate, is observed in the range 800-1000°C. The peak detected in the DTG curve of the mud with charcoal in helium in the range 350-450°C is similar to the peak of hematite reduction in magnetite in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most probable source of hydrogen-containing gases in this temperature range consists of the residual hydrocarbons of charcoal. The reduction reactions of disperse iron oxides with coal proceed only at temperatures above 600°C. These processes occur in the same temperature range (600-900°C) both in forevacuum and in a helium atmosphere. It is experimentally demonstrated that sintering process occurs in the mud in the temperature range 450-850°C.

  1. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  2. Documentation for calculating CO{sub 2} reduction costs of using bio diesel; Dokumentation for beregning af CO{sub 2}-reduktionsomkostningen ved anvendelse af biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    In connection to the European Commission's proposal for a directive on the promotion of biofuels for transport and the new climate strategy for Denmark, the Danish Energy Authority has evaluated the potential for and economics of production of biodiesel in Denmark. This note is documentation for the Danish Energy Authority's socio-economic analysis regarding rape-based biodiesel. The analysis consists of two parts: 1. Costs of producing biodiesel, 2. Costs of cultivating rape. The main conclusion is that the socio-economic CO{sub 2} reduction costs of producing biodiesel in Denmark are subject to some uncertainty. The uncertainty is primarily linked to difficulty in determining central parameters, e.g. stating the socio-economic costs of producing rape-seed, including stating prices of production factors and by-products. (ba)

  3. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Domröse, Sascha; Mahnken, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 € to 294 €, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 € to 500 €, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 €. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 €. With increased revenue of 10,000 € in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 €. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. • Improving quality in terms of safety, outcome, efficiency and timeliness reduces cost. • Mismatch of demand and capacity is detrimental to quality and cost. • Full system utilization with random demand results in long waiting periods and increased cost.

  4. Costing the distribution of insecticide-treated nets: a review of cost and cost-effectiveness studies to provide guidance on standardization of costing methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are an effective and cost-effective means of malaria control. Scaling-up coverage of ITNs is challenging. It requires substantial resources and there are a number of strategies to choose from. Information on the cost of different strategies is still scarce. To guide the choice of a delivery strategy (or combination of strategies, reliable and standardized cost information for the different options is required. Methods The electronic online database PubMed was used for a systematic search of the published English literature on costing and economic evaluations of ITN distribution programmes. The keywords used were: net, bednet, insecticide, treated, ITN, cost, effectiveness, economic and evaluation. Identified papers were analysed to determine and evaluate the costing methods used. Methods were judged against existing standards of cost analysis to arrive at proposed standards for undertaking and presenting cost analyses. Results Cost estimates were often not readily comparable or could not be adjusted to a different context. This resulted from the wide range of methods applied and measures of output chosen. Most common shortcomings were the omission of certain costs and failure to adjust financial costs to generate economic costs. Generalisability was hampered by authors not reporting quantities and prices of resources separately and not examining the sensitivity of their results to variations in underlying assumptions. Conclusion The observed shortcomings have arisen despite the abundance of literature and guidelines on costing of health care interventions. This paper provides ITN specific recommendations in the hope that these will help to standardize future cost estimates.

  5. A CASE STUDY OF BRAIN VOLUME REDUCTION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan N. Dimitrov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging techniques and software for medical imaging processing and analysis has led to a significant progress in multiple sclerosis research and clinical care. The measurement of brain volumes provides a quantitative representation of damage, thus facilitating the objective follow-up process. The parameters obtained, though not being used routinely in clinical practice, are more and more often applied in clinical studies. The amount of whole brain and regional atrophy, estimated from serial scans, is considered important not only for disease progression, but also for cognitive dysfunction which is common in multiple sclerosis. In this paper we describe a volumetric study of two magnetic resonance scans of a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, performed 16 months one after the other, and analyzed using FSL SIENA software. Analysis demonstrated brain volume reduction of 1.7% between the two scans. We discuss the advantages of the method and its possible clinical applications.

  6. Wilder Bancroft's Study of Oxidant-Reductant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.

    1998-07-01

    Wilder Dwight Bancroft (1867 -1953), a Harvard graduate, entered Ostwald's Leipzig laboratory in 1890. Bancroft made a systematic study of potentiometric cells in which one half contained an oxidant solution, the other half a reductant solution. He stressed the importance of the equilibration of the platinum electrodes, examined the effects of acidity and of concentration on the emf of a cell, and demonstrated that this emf was the algebraic sum of the potentials of the half-cells. After receipt of his Ph.D. in 1892, Bancroft continued his potentiometric studies in Amsterdam. Following a brief return to Harvard, Bancroft moved to Cornell, and remained there until his retirement in 1937. He founded and edited the Journal of Physical Chemistry, and was President of the American Chemical Society in 1910. He was also twice President of the Electrochemical Society.

  7. Removal efficiency and economic cost comparison of hydrated electron-mediated reductive pathways for treatment of bromate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Shah; Shah, Noor S.; Khan, Javed Ali

    2017-01-01

    based pathways. The high second-order rate constant of 5.3×109M−1s−1 determined proved high reactivity of aqueous electron with bromate. The kinetic and removal efficiency of bromate showed linear relationship with the rate of aqueous electron formation. An increase in kinetic and removal efficiency...... of bromate was observed with increasing initial sulfite concentration and decreasing bromate concentration. The impacts of different initial concentrations of the typical ions commonly found in water were studied in detail to extend the UV-254/sulfite-based process for potential practical applications....... The lower molar absorptivity of bromate at 254nm determined proved insignificant removal of bromate under direct photolysis. The impacts of initial sulfite concentration on removal of bromate in UV-254/sulfite-based process also minimized role of direct photolysis. The cost evaluation and rapid...

  8. The ACA’s Cost-Sharing Reduction Plans: A Key to Affordable Health Coverage for Millions of U.S. Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Call, Adrienne; Stromberg, Sam; Oran, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Issue: Without the cost-sharing reductions (CSRs) made available by the Affordable Care Act, health plans sold in the marketplaces may be unaffordable for many low-income people. CSRs are available to households earning between 100 percent and 250 percent of the federal poverty level that choose a silver-level marketplace plan. In 2016, about 7 million people received cost-sharing reductions that substantially lowered their deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and out-of-pocket limits. Goal: To examine variations in consumer cost-sharing reductions between silver-level plans with CSRs to traditional marketplace plans and to employer-based insurance. Methods: Data analysis of 1,209 CSR-eligible plans sold in individual marketplaces in all 50 states and Washington, D.C. Key findings and conclusions: Cost-sharing amounts in silver plans with CSRs are much less than those in non-CSR base silver plans; silver plans with CSRs generally offer far better financial protection than those without. General annual deductibles range from $246 for CSR silver plans with a platinum-level actuarial value (94%) to as much as $3,063 for non-CSR silver plans. Out-of-pocket limits vary from $6,223 in base silver plans to $1,102 in silver plans with CSRs and a platinum-level actuarial level.

  9. Does smoking reduction result in reduction of biomarkers associated with harm? A pilot study using a nicotine inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, R D; Croghan, G A; Wolter, T D; Croghan, I T; Offord, K P; Williams, G M; Djordjevic, M V; Richie, J P; Jeffrey, A M

    2000-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if smoking reduction using a nicotine inhaler in heavy cigarette smokers who wanted to reduce but not stop smoking results in decreased levels of known biomarkers of harm. The study design was a one-sample within-subject comparative open-label study of 23 (10 male and 13 female) subjects using a nicotine inhaler to reduce smoking, with follow-up at 24 weeks. A structured protocol was used with a smoking-reduction schedule from 40 or more cigarettes per day to 10 cigarettes per day by week 9. Behavioral counseling was provided by a research assistant and ad lib use of the nicotine inhaler for 12 weeks was permitted. Blood thiocyanate, cotinine, 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adducts; urine NNAL and NNAL-glucuronide; and expired air carbon monoxide were measured. On average, the subjects were able to reduce their smoking by over 50% at week 12, but only two were able to reduce to 10 cigarettes per day. The reported reduction in smoking was not associated with a consistent reduction in the biomarkers. There was no reduction in the NNAL, 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adducts nor carbon monoxide levels of expired air. There was a significant reduction of NNAL-glucuronide and the sum of NNAL and NNAL-glucuronide but only at week 24. Thiocyanate levels increased. Before widely promoting harm reduction as a treatment strategy for heavy smokers, more research needs to be performed to prove conclusively that such smokers who want to reduce but not stop can actually reduce and maintain their smoking rate at a level which is likely to reduce harm. It also needs to be determined whether a reduction in the smoking rate translates into reduction of harm. At the present, for heavy smokers, an abstinence approach seems to be more scientifically sound.

  10. Comparative studies on single-layer reduced graphene oxide films obtained by electrochemical reduction and hydrazine vapor reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijuan; Wu, Shixin; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Peng; Yang, Guocheng; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Zhang, Qichun; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2012-02-01

    The comparison between two kinds of single-layer reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets, obtained by reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with the electrochemical method and hydrazine vapor reduction, referred to as E-rGO and C-rGO, respectively, is systematically studied. Although there is no morphology difference between the E-rGO and C-rGO films adsorbed on solid substrates observed by AFM, the reduction process to obtain the E-rGO and C-rGO films is quite different. In the hydrazine vapor reduction, the nitrogen element is incorporated into the obtained C-rGO film, while no additional element is introduced to the E-rGO film during the electrochemical reduction. Moreover, Raman spectra show that the electrochemical method is more effective than the hydrazine vapor reduction method to reduce the GO films. In addition, E-rGO shows better electrocatalysis towards dopamine than does C-rGO. This study is helpful for researchers to understand these two different reduction methods and choose a suitable one to reduce GO based on their experimental requirements.

  11. The cost of segregating GM canola: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hatwell, Bronwyn; Pluske, Johanna M.

    2004-01-01

    The Gene Technology Regulator's approval of Bayer CropScience's genetically modified (GM) canola variety, InVigor, and Monsanto's Roundup Ready, means that the commercial planting of Australia's first GM food crop is imminent. Under such circumstances, for Australia to continue marketing non-GM canola and comply with worldwide labelling requirements segregation must be implemented. This study investigates the cost effectiveness of three possible segregation methods. In considering each of the...

  12. Male Circumcision at Different Ages in Rwanda: A Cost-Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Muita, Jane; Bertozzi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    -effectiveness ratio is negative), even though savings from infant circumcision will be realized later in time. The cost per infection averted is US$3,932 for adolescent MC and US$4,949 for adult MC. Results for infant MC appear robust. Infant MC remains highly cost-effective across a reasonable range of variation in the base case scenario. Adolescent MC is highly cost-effective for the base case scenario but this high cost-effectiveness is not robust to small changes in the input variables. Adult MC is neither cost-saving nor highly cost-effective when considering only the direct benefit for the circumcised man. Conclusions The study suggests that Rwanda should be simultaneously scaling up circumcision across a broad range of age groups, with high priority to the very young. Infant MC can be integrated into existing health services (i.e., neonatal visits and vaccination sessions) and over time has better potential than adolescent and adult circumcision to achieve the very high coverage of the population required for maximal reduction of HIV incidence. In the presence of infant MC, adolescent and adult MC would evolve into a “catch-up” campaign that would be needed at the start of the program but would eventually become superfluous. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20098721

  13. Male circumcision at different ages in Rwanda: a cost-effectiveness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2010-01-01

    -saving (the cost-effectiveness ratio is negative, even though savings from infant circumcision will be realized later in time. The cost per infection averted is US$3,932 for adolescent MC and US$4,949 for adult MC. Results for infant MC appear robust. Infant MC remains highly cost-effective across a reasonable range of variation in the base case scenario. Adolescent MC is highly cost-effective for the base case scenario but this high cost-effectiveness is not robust to small changes in the input variables. Adult MC is neither cost-saving nor highly cost-effective when considering only the direct benefit for the circumcised man. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that Rwanda should be simultaneously scaling up circumcision across a broad range of age groups, with high priority to the very young. Infant MC can be integrated into existing health services (i.e., neonatal visits and vaccination sessions and over time has better potential than adolescent and adult circumcision to achieve the very high coverage of the population required for maximal reduction of HIV incidence. In the presence of infant MC, adolescent and adult MC would evolve into a "catch-up" campaign that would be needed at the start of the program but would eventually become superfluous. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  14. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  15. Dramatic inspection cost reduction of spherical storage tanks; Reduction importante des couts d'inspection des reservoires de stockage spheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoyuki, Ohkawa [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To ensure the safety of spherical gas holders and LPG storage tanks (hereafter called spherical storage tanks), both daily and periodic inspections are performed after the tanks become operational. One such periodic inspection involves opening the tank to check the integrity of weld lines on the inner and outer walls, but this is a costly and time-consuming task. A more suitable and efficient alternative is prescribed by standards like the Guidelines for Spherical Gas Holders published by the Japan Gas Association (hereafter called JGA Guidelines) which stipulate operational tank inspections that are conducted on the weld lines of inner and outer walls from outside the tank (i.e., external defect detection) without actually opening the tank. External defect detection technologies are widely available today, but Osaka Gas, Tokyo Gas and Toho Gas have jointly developed a high-speed TOFD (time of flight diffraction) mode that is quite different from the pulse reflection mode of ultrasonic defect detection testing prescribed by JGA Guidelines. Along these same lines, Osaka Gas also developed an inspection robot that travels along the weld line in an effort to reduce the cost of inspections still further. This paper will show that applying this newly developed inspection mode and robot to operational tank inspections will significantly reduce inspection costs, cut inspection time and improve the work environment. (authors)

  16. Study on Reduction of Sulfur Content in FCC Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Dianguo

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of sulfur content in FCC gasoline was studied in a fixed fluid bed (FFB) unit by using metal-modified LV-23 FCC catalyst. The results showed that the sulfur content in FCC gasoline could be reduced with LV-23 catalyst modified with zinc, palladium, zinc-palladium, zinc-cobalt, and zinc-nickel. Among these metals or metal combinations, palladium-containing catalyst was the most effective. Desulfurization of the heavy fraction of FCC gasoline was more effective than full-range gasoline under the same conditions with palladium-containing catalysts. A high reaction temperature was favorable to desulfurization, but it would reduce the yield of liquid product. After desulfurization reaction, the olefin content of product gasoline decreased while the aromatic and iso-alkane contents increased. Removal of thiophene and benzothiophene is higher.

  17. Pilot-scale study of biomass reduction in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qunhui; Ai, Hengyu; Li, Xuesong; Liu, Haitao; Xie, Weimin

    2007-05-01

    Pilot-scale experiments were continuously carried out for more than 9 months to study the excess biomass reduction effect using a biophase-separation bioreactor, which was designed based on food-chain theory. By separating the biophase in the wastewater treatment system, bacteria, protozoa, and metazoa could be separated from each other and dominated in different microbial communities. After degrading organic matter, bacteria were consumed by protozoa or metazoa in the following process in such a reactor. Thus, both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biomass were reduced. During the process of treating restaurant wastewater, the excess biomass yield in this biophase-separation technique varied from 0.13 to 0.22 kg/kg COD removed, 50% lower than that from the reference system. Apart from low biomass production, this biophase-separation technique can simultaneously achieve a high COD removal efficiency and improve settleability of biosolids at a hydraulic retention time of 6 to 13 hours.

  18. Traditional Technology and Cost-reduction As a Major Driver in Business: Can Outsourcing Relations be Redirected by Smart Manufacturing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Enserink, B.; Van Geenhuizen, M.S.; Berben, W.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional technologies can have an extended lifetime if companies use various cost-reducing strategies. One of these strategies employed in Western European countries in the past decades has been low-cost outsourcing in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), mainly derived from low wages. Specifically,

  19. Implications of the international reduction pledges on long-term energy system changes and costs in China and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, P.L.; Shukla, P.R.; Chen, W.; van Ruijven, B.J.; Dhar, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.; van Vuuren, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of postponing global mitigation action on abatement costs and energy systems changes in China and India. It compares energy-system changes and mitigation costs from a global and two national energy-system models under two global emission pathways with medium likelihood

  20. Traditional Technology and Cost-reduction As a Major Driver in Business: Can Outsourcing Relations be Redirected by Smart Manufacturing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Enserink, B.; Van Geenhuizen, M.S.; Berben, W.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional technologies can have an extended lifetime if companies use various cost-reducing strategies. One of these strategies employed in Western European countries in the past decades has been low-cost outsourcing in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), mainly derived from low wages. Specifically,

  1. PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS DAN EFISIENSI BIAYA MELALUI INTEGRASI TIME & MOTION STUDY DAN ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kussetya Ciptani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations today have many activities that increase continuously. There are some activities that companies have to do to meet customers' need. Some companies try to increase efficiency in performing their activities and try to measure activities they do although the difficulties in measuring each activities are very high. In this case, time & motion study method is one of the solutions to help the company measuring their activity. The company's activity consume time and resources, that is why time & motion study provides many techniques to measure activity in the company, for example: work sampling method, work-unit activity, time standard method, etc. Using these techniques, company can measure the productivity of resources used for every activity. In order to get better performance in cost reduction, the company should assign their cost to the product resulted. The method used is Activity-Based Costing method (ABC method. ABC method gives better result in assigning indirect costs to the product because it assigns costs to the product according to their activity. ABC method is the most appropriate method to be integrated with time & motion study method. The integration of the two methods could increase the ability of a company to measure and to control their productivity and cost efficiency in order to satisfy customers' demand. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kemajuan perusahaan sebagai organisasi bisnis, membuat aktivitas yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan semakin meningkat. Berbagai macam aktivitas dilakukan oleh perusahaan dalam rangka memenuhi apa yang menjadi kebutuhan dan keinginan customer. Perusahaan berusaha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi aktivitas dan melakukan pengukuran tingkat aktivitas yang dilakukan, padahal tingkat kesulitan yang dihadapi perusahaan untuk melakukan pengukuran setiap aktivitas yang dilakukan cukup tinggi. Metode time & motion study memberikan solusi bagi perusahaan untuk melakukan pengukuran tingkat aktivitas yang

  2. Reaction Engineering of Biocatalytic Enantioselective Reduction: A Case Study for Aliphatic Ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuchs, Susanne; Lima-Ramos, Joana; Greiner, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it could be demonstrated, that the monophasic, enzymatic reduction of aliphatic 2-ketones into the corresponding (R)-2-alcohols is an adequate and viable method as carried out in a cascade of two enzyme–membrane reactors (Leuchs, S.; Na’amnieh, S. N.; Greiner, L. Green Chemistry 2013......, 15, 167–176.). In the present work, the process metrics of the ketone reduction were calculated. A cost analysis revealed that the enzyme costs are negligible, but the cost for nicotinamide cofactor NADP+ is dominating the overall cost of the chemical raw material followed by the ionic liquid (TEGO...... IL K5) used as solubiliser and the buffer. The overall cost of chemicals was €148/kgproduct. To assess the environmental impact of the process, the E-factor (kgwaste/kgproduct) 132 and the process mass intensity 133 (PMI, kgsubstrate/kgproduct) were calculated. A process model based on initial rate...

  3. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Kanudia, A. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Groupe d' etudes et de recherche en analyse des decisions; Loulou, R. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Groupe d' etudes et de recherche en analyse des decisions]|[McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-05-01

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Development of a national system for prevention and mitigation of earthquake damages to people and properties, and the reduction of costs related to earthquakes for the Italian Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Console, R.; Greco, M.; Colangelo, A.; Cioè, A.; Trivigno, L.; Chiappini, M.; Ponzo, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recognizing that the Italian territory is prone to disasters in connection with seismic and hydro-geological risk, it has become necessary to define novel regulations and viable solutions aimed at conveying the economical resources of the Italian Government, too often utilized for the management of post-event situations, towards prevention activities. The work synthetically presents the project developed by the CGIAM together with the INGV, and open to collaboration with other Italian and International partners. This project is aimed at the development of a National System for prevention and mitigation of the earthquakes damages, through the definition of a model that achieves the mitigation of the building collapsing risk and the consequent reduction of casualties. Such a model is based on two main issues a) a correct evaluation of risk, defined as a reliable assessment of the hazard expected at a given site and of the vulnerability of civil and industrial buildings, b) setting up of novel strategies for the safety of buildings. The hazard assessment is pursued through the application of innovative multidisciplinary geophysical methodologies and the application of a physically based earthquake simulator. The structural vulnerability of buildings is estimated by means of simplified techniques based on few representative parameters (such as different structural typologies, dynamic soil-structure interaction, etc.) and, for detailed studies, standard protocols for model updating techniques. We analyze, through numerical and experimental approaches, new solutions for the use of innovative materials, and new techniques for the reduction of seismic vulnerability of structural, non-structural and accessorial elements, including low cost type. The project activities are initially implemented on a study area in Southern Italy (Calabria) selected because of its tectonic complexity. The results are expected to be applicable for other hazardous seismic areas of Italy.

  5. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdullahi Dyadya; Isah, Abubakar Garba; Umaru, Musa; Ahmed, Shehu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna (Nigeria); Abdullahi, Yababa Nma [National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos (Nigeria)

    2012-07-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  6. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Dyadya Mohammed, Abubakar Garba Isah, Musa Umaru, Shehu Ahmed, Yababa Nma Abdullahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  7. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany); Domroese, Sascha [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Division of Controlling, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  8. Measuring the Cost of a College Degree: A Case Study of a SUNY Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Richard M.; Losinger, Regina; Millard, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by a white paper produced by the Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity, and Accountability, this study uses different measures of calculating the cost of a college degree at an upstate community college in New York. Departmental cost per credit hour, direct instructional costs, and full costs are all explained. A…

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction vs Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Usual Care among Adults with Chronic Low-Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Patricia M; Anderson, Melissa L; Sherman, Karen J; Balderson, Benjamin H; Turner, Judith A; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2017-07-24

    Economic evaluation alongside a randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) versus usual care alone (UC) for chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Determine the one-year cost-effectiveness of CBT and MBSR compared to UC. CLBP is expensive in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Mind-body interventions have been found effective for back pain, but their cost-effectiveness is unexplored. 342 adults in an integrated healthcare system with CLBP were randomized to receive MBSR (n = 116), CBT (n = 113), or UC (n = 113). CBT and MBSR were offered in 8 weekly 2-hour group sessions. Cost-effectiveness from the societal perspective was calculated as the incremental sum of healthcare costs and productivity losses over change in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The payer perspective only included healthcare costs. This economic evaluation was limited to the 301 health plan members enrolled >=180 days in the years pre-and post-randomization. Compared to UC, the mean incremental cost per participant to society of CBT was $125 (95% CI: -4103, 4307) and of MBSR was -$724 (CI: -4386, 2778)-i.e., a net saving of $724. Incremental costs per participant to the health plan were $495 for CBT over UC and -$982 for MBSR, and incremental back-related costs per participant were $984 for CBT over UC and -$127 for MBSR. These costs (and cost savings) were associated with statistically significant gains in QALYs over UC: 0.041 (0.015, 0.067) for CBT and 0.034 (0.008, 0.060) for MBSR. In this setting CBT and MBSR have high probabilities of being cost-effective, and MBSR may be cost saving, as compared to UC for adults with CLBP. These findings suggest that MBSR, and to a lesser extent CBT, may provide cost-effective treatment for CLBP for payers and society. 2.

  10. Cost reduction and manufacture of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC module: Phase I Annual Report : 21 April 1998 -- 31 October 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.; Kern, G.

    2000-03-06

    This report summarizes the progress made by Ascension Technology in Phase 1 of the cost reduction and manufacturing improvements of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module. This work, conducted under NREL subcontract, is a two-phase effort consisting of investigations into improving inverter packaging, soft switching, circuit optimization, design for manufacturing, manufacturing processes, and pilot production manufacturing. The objective of this subcontract is to significantly reduce the cost of the SunSine{reg_sign} inverter, enhance its performance, and streamline and expand the manufacturing process. During Phase 1, the soft-switching topology was designed, then refined to meet stringent cost and performance goals. This design resulted in improved performance, smaller overall footprint, and reduced costs. The aluminum inverter housing was redesigned, and the decision was made to conformal coat the circuit boards, which was verified through the HAST (Highly Accelerated Stress Testing) method. Potential international markets were identified, and the inverter is designed to be easily modified to meet the requirements of other countries. Significant cost reduction and performance improvements have been achieved in Phase I, and accomplishments during Phase I include: (1) SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module costs have been reduced enough to be able to reduce the suggested list price; (2) successful implementation of soft-switching; (3) power circuit-board size reduced 53{percent}; (4) power circuit-board component count reduced 34{percent}; (5) total inverter parts count reduced 49{percent}; (6) anticipated inverter manufacturing cost reduced 57{percent} on a $/Wp rating; (7) transformer efficiency improved 1.4{percent}; and (8) inverter efficiency improved 4.7{percent} to 91.0{percent} at 275 Wac.

  11. Ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets: a low-cost, green, and highly efficient electrocatalyst toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and its glucose biosensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jingqi; Liu, Qian; Ge, Chenjiao; Xing, Zhicai; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O.; Sun, Xuping

    2013-09-01

    In this communication, we demonstrate for the first time that ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets can serve as a low-cost, green, and highly efficient electrocatalyst toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. We further demonstrate its application for electrochemical glucose biosensing in both buffer solution and human serum medium with a detection limit of 11 μM and 45 μM, respectively.In this communication, we demonstrate for the first time that ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets can serve as a low-cost, green, and highly efficient electrocatalyst toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. We further demonstrate its application for electrochemical glucose biosensing in both buffer solution and human serum medium with a detection limit of 11 μM and 45 μM, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02031b

  12. Potential cost saving of Epoetin alfa in elective hip or knee surgery due to reduction in blood transfusions and their side effects: a discrete-event simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Tomeczkowski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategyduring elective hip and knee replacement surgery. METHODS: Individual patients (N = 50,000 were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit, pneumonia treatment (€5,000, and length of stay (€300/day. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes. RESULTS: At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days. CONCLUSIONS: EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.

  13. Solid Waste Reduction--A Hands-on Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessinger, Diane

    1991-01-01

    This lesson plan uses grocery shopping to demonstrate the importance of source reduction in the handling of solid waste problems. Students consider different priorities in shopping (convenience, packaging, and waste reduction) and draw conclusions about the relationship between packaging techniques and solid waste problems. (MCO)

  14. A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Timothy B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR (with minor modifications as a smoking intervention. Methods MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. Results 18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56% achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. Discussions and conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial.

  15. Experimental Study on Tsunami Risk Reduction on Coastal Building Fronted by Sea Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study was conducted to idealize the efficacy of sea wall in controlling the tsunami forces on onshore structures. Different types of sea walls were placed in front of the building model. The tsunami forces and the wave heights were measured with and without the sea wall conditions. Types of sea wall, wall height, and wall positions were varied simultaneously to quantify the force reductions. Maximum of 41% forces was reduced by higher sea wall, positioned closer proximity to the model whereas this reduction was about 27% when the wall height was half of the high wall. Experimental investigations revealed that wall with adequate height and placed closer to the structures enables a satisfactory predictor of the force reduction on onshore structures. Another set of tests were performed with perforated wall placing near the building model. Less construction cost makes the provision of perforated sea wall interesting. The overall results showed that the efficacy of perforated wall is almost similar to solid wall. Hence, it can be efficiently used instead of solid wall. Moreover, overtopped water that is stuck behind the wall is readily gone back to the sea through perforations releasing additional forces on the nearby structures.

  16. Cost-effective cloud computing: a case study using the comparative genomics tool, roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudtarkar, Parul; Deluca, Todd F; Fusaro, Vincent A; Tonellato, Peter J; Wall, Dennis P

    2010-12-22

    Comparative genomics resources, such as ortholog detection tools and repositories are rapidly increasing in scale and complexity. Cloud computing is an emerging technological paradigm that enables researchers to dynamically build a dedicated virtual cluster and may represent a valuable alternative for large computational tools in bioinformatics. In the present manuscript, we optimize the computation of a large-scale comparative genomics resource-Roundup-using cloud computing, describe the proper operating principles required to achieve computational efficiency on the cloud, and detail important procedures for improving cost-effectiveness to ensure maximal computation at minimal costs. Utilizing the comparative genomics tool, Roundup, as a case study, we computed orthologs among 902 fully sequenced genomes on Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. For managing the ortholog processes, we designed a strategy to deploy the web service, Elastic MapReduce, and maximize the use of the cloud while simultaneously minimizing costs. Specifically, we created a model to estimate cloud runtime based on the size and complexity of the genomes being compared that determines in advance the optimal order of the jobs to be submitted. We computed orthologous relationships for 245,323 genome-to-genome comparisons on Amazon's computing cloud, a computation that required just over 200 hours and cost $8,000 USD, at least 40% less than expected under a strategy in which genome comparisons were submitted to the cloud randomly with respect to runtime. Our cost savings projections were based on a model that not only demonstrates the optimal strategy for deploying RSD to the cloud, but also finds the optimal cluster size to minimize waste and maximize usage. Our cost-reduction model is readily adaptable for other comparative genomics tools and potentially of significant benefit to labs seeking to take advantage of the cloud as an alternative to local computing infrastructure.

  17. The cost of CO{sub 2} reduction. An application of the Global 2100 model to Germany and France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports on an application of the global 2100 model by Manne und Richels to Germany and France. The model is a five region world model which allows to simulate economic growth scenarios under different restrictions regarding the output of CO{sub 2}. The benefits of restricting carbondioxyd production in the form of better environmental quality or reduced cost of environmental protection or reduced cost of international conflict are not contained in the model. (orig.)

  18. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    /83 and 1991/94, and the Copenhagen Male Study (CMS) in 1976 and 1985/86, respectively. PARTICIPANTS: There were 3026 adults who were smokers at both time-points in the CCHS and 1319 men smoking at both time-points in the CMS. MEASUREMENTS: Smoking status and tobacco consumption were assessed by self......-completion questionnaire. Measurements of biomarkers of smoke intake were taken at the second time-point in the two studies: expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) in the CCHS and serum cotinine in the CMS. Biomarker levels in medium (15-29 g tobacco/day) and heavy (> 30 g/day) smokers at the first time-point who later reported...... a reduction in cigarettes per day of 50% or more without quitting were compared with continuing medium, heavy and light smokers (1-14 g/day) using linear regression. Sex (CCHS only), age, self-reported inhalation of smoke, duration of smoking, type of tobacco and amount smoked were included as covariates...

  19. Open reduction and internal fixation: Screw injury - Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF is a standard surgical procedure in jaw trauma and in orthognathic surgery. Insertion of screws is a significant risk for accidental tooth root injury with varying outcomes. Contrary evidences are found in literature due to a variety of study designs. This study was undertaken to address the lacunae and possibly estimate the difference in occurrence of tooth damage during or after ORIF between trauma and planned osteotomies. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the data of ORIF in either trauma or orthognathic surgery fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were collected and analyzed. Results: There were 1632 patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria and formed the study group, of which 663 were in orthognathic surgery, of whom 210 had bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. In the trauma group, 358 patients had fractures involving both jaws whereas 272 had maxilla alone and 339 had mandibular fractures alone. On comparing the outcome, of the 9073 screws studied, 93.40% were not involved in any contact with the teeth, 6.3% were in category of potential hits (near apices or the root surfaces, and only 0.28% had evidence of root damage with the screws. It is observed that molar and premolar had a significant difference in terms of the type of surgery (P ≤ 0.05 whereas canine (P = 0.75 and incisor (P = 0.67 showed no statistical difference. Conclusion: ORIF when used as mentioned is a safe way for the management of fractures. The incidence of root injury is not uncommon but can be avoided with careful planning and execution.

  20. The TRINITY Study: distribution of systolic blood pressure reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto DH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Danny H Sugimoto,1 Steven G Chrysant,2 Michael Melino,3 James Lee,3 Victor Fernandez,3 Reinilde Heyrman41Cedar-Crosse Research Center and Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Oklahoma Cardiovascular and Hypertension Center and Department of Cardiology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 3Department of Clinical Development, Daiichi Sankyo, Inc, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 4Formerly of the Department of Clinical Development, Daiichi Sankyo, Inc, Parsippany, NJ, USABackground: Elevated systolic blood pressure is more difficult to control than elevated diastolic blood pressure. The objective of this prespecified analysis of the Triple Therapy with Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertensive Patients Study (TRINITY was to compare the efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil (OM 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 25 mg triple-combination treatment with the component dual-combination treatments in reducing elevated seated systolic blood pressure (SeSBP.Methods: The 12-week TRINITY study randomized participants to either one of the three component dual-combination treatments (OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg or the triple-combination treatment. The primary outcome of this analysis was the categorical distribution of SeSBP reductions at week 12 from baseline with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg versus the dual-combination treatments.Results: SeSBP reductions >50 mmHg were seen in 24.4% of participants receiving triple-combination treatment versus 8.1%–15.8% receiving dual-combination treatment. More participants receiving triple-combination treatment achieved the SeSBP target of <140 mmHg (73.6% versus 51.3%–58.8%; P < 0.001 and the seated blood pressure target of <140/90 mmHg (69.9% versus 41.1%–53.4%; P < 0.001. Prevalence and severity of adverse events were similar in all treatment groups.Conclusion: Treatment with OM 40 mg/AML 10

  1. Cost-of-illness studies: a guide to critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larg, Allison; Moss, John R

    2011-08-01

    Cost-of-illness (COI) studies aim to assess the economic burden of health problems on the population overall, and they are conducted for an ever widening range of health conditions and geographical settings. While they attract much interest from public health advocates and healthcare policy makers, inconsistencies in the way in which they are conducted and a lack of transparency in reporting have made interpretation difficult, and have ostensibly limited their usefulness. Yet there is surprisingly little in the literature to assist the non-expert in critically evaluating these studies. This article aims to provide non-expert readers with a straightforward guide to understanding and evaluating traditional COI studies. The intention is to equip a general audience with an understanding of the most important issues that influence the validity of a COI study, and the ability to recognize the most common limitations in such work.

  2. An fMRI study on sunk cost effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianmin; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Changming; Yu, Rongjun; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-06-26

    Sunk cost effect (also called escalation of commitment, etc) is a pervasive, interesting and famous decision bias, which has been intensively discussed in psychology, economics, management, political science, zoology, etc. To date, little has been known about the neural basis of this phenomenon. We investigated it by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor healthy subjects' brain activities when they made decisions in a task wherein sunk cost and incremental cost were systematically manipulated. Higher sunk cost only increased activity of some brain areas (mainly lateral frontal and parietal cortices, which are involved in risk-taking), whereas lower incremental cost mainly increased activity of some brain areas (including striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, which are sensitive to rewards). No overlapping brain areas were found to respond to both sunk cost and incremental cost. These results favor certainty effect over self-justification or diminishing sensitivity as account of sunk cost effect.

  3. Private costs almost equal health care costs when intervening in mild Alzheimer's: a cohort study alongside the DAISY trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia and affects about 25 million people worldwide. Recent studies have evaluated the effect of early interventions for dementia, but few studies have considered private time and transportation costs associated with the intervention....... This study assessed the total economic costs associated with a multifaceted intervention for mild Alzheimer's disease, including an estimate of the ratio of public to private costs. METHODS: The study sample comprised 163 dyads of patients and caregivers who received a multifaceted intervention...... of counselling sessions, courses and informational packages. The typical duration of the intervention was 7 months. A micro-costing approach was applied using prospectively collected data on resource utilisation that included estimates of participant time and transportation. Precision estimates were calculated...

  4. Reduction of persistent organic pollutants in fishmeal: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterhals, Age; Nygård, Einar

    2008-03-26

    The dioxin, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB), fat, and dry matter partitioning during fishmeal production have been studied in pilot scale. Most of the dry matter and lipid content in the fishmeal could be ascribed to the press cake intermediate product. Dioxins and DL-PCBs are fat-soluble compounds, and the process partitioning is reflected by the fat partitioning data. Enzyme and heat treatment of the press cake and stickwater concentrate did not improve fat separation. Soybean oil extraction of the press cake reduced the dioxin and DL-PCB content by 97%. Less exchange of fatty acids was observed (56-72%). Combined with fat separation of the stickwater concentrate, the applied process conditions were able to give a fishmeal decontamination rate higher than hexane and isopropanol extraction of the fishmeal. Quantification of fat content based on chloroform/methanol extraction was found to be the best protocol to estimate fat partitioning and decontamination effects. The oil extraction process requires further optimization, but has several advantages compared to organic solvent extraction. These include easy implementation in an existing fishmeal processing line, use of a safe and nonflammable extraction medium, and expected lower investment and operation costs. A new integrated fishmeal and fish oil production and decontamination process line is proposed.

  5. Allocation of Operations and Support Cost Targets Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Logistics Technology Dept P.O. Box 225907, Dallas TX 75265 Sa. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING ORGANIZATION AF Business Research Mgt Center AFBRMC/RDCB Sb...REPORT (Yr., Mo.. Day) 84 Apr 5 15. PAGE COUNT 42 COSAT1 CODES FIELD 05 GROUP 01 SUB. GR. 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if...necessary and identify by block number) Allocation of 0&S Cost Targets, Guarantees Life Cycle Cost, Costs, Cost Targets 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  6. Global Obesity Study on Drivers for Weight Reduction Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Grebitus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess factors determining the reaction of individuals to the threats of overweight and obesity and to examine the interdependencies between weight-reducing strategies. Methods: Cross-country survey covering 19 countries and 13,155 interviews. Data were analysed using a bivariate probit model that allows simultaneously analysing two weight-reducing strategies. Results: Results show that weight-reducing strategies chosen are not independent from each other. Findings also reveal that different strategies are chosen by different population segments. Women are more likely to change their dietary patterns and less likely to become physically active after surpassing a weight threshold. In addition, the probability of a dietary change in case of overweight differs considerably between countries. The study also reveals that attitudes are an important factor for the strategy choice. Conclusions: It is vital for public health policies to understand determinants of citizens' engagement in weight reduction strategies once a certain threshold is reached. Thus, results can support the design of public health campaigns and programmes that aim to change community or national health behaviour trends taking into account, e.g., national differences.

  7. Studies on biological reduction of chromate by Streptomyces griseus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poopal, Ashwini C. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India); Laxman, R. Seeta, E-mail: rseetalaxman@yahoo.co.in [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India)

    2009-09-30

    Chromium is a toxic heavy metal used in various industries and leads to environmental pollution due to improper handling. The most toxic form of chromium Cr(VI) can be converted to less toxic Cr(III) by reduction. Among the actinomycetes tested for chromate reduction, thirteen strains reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), of which one strain of Streptomyces griseus (NCIM 2020) was most efficient showing complete reduction within 24 h. The organism was able to use a number of carbon sources as electron donors. Sulphate, nitrate, chloride and carbonate had no effect on chromate reduction during growth while cations such as Cd, Ni, Co and Cu were inhibitory to varying degrees. Chromate reduction was associated with the bacterial cells and sonication was the best method of cell breakage to release the enzyme. The enzyme was constitutive and did not require presence of chromate during growth for expression of activity. Chromate reduction with cell free extract (CFE) was observed without added NADH. However, addition of NAD(P)H resulted in 2-3-fold increase in activity. Chromate reductase showed optimum activity at 28 deg. C and pH 7.

  8. Reduction of Carbon Dioxide by a Molybdenum-Containing Formate Dehydrogenase: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Luisa B; Fonseca, Luis; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G

    2016-07-20

    Carbon dioxide accumulation is a major concern for the ecosystems, but its abundance and low cost make it an interesting source for the production of chemical feedstocks and fuels. However, the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the carbon dioxide molecule makes its activation a challenging task. Studying the chemistry used by nature to functionalize carbon dioxide should be helpful for the development of new efficient (bio)catalysts for atmospheric carbon dioxide utilization. In this work, the ability of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans formate dehydrogenase (Dd FDH) to reduce carbon dioxide was kinetically and mechanistically characterized. The Dd FDH is suggested to be purified in an inactive form that has to be activated through a reduction-dependent mechanism. A kinetic model of a hysteretic enzyme is proposed to interpret and predict the progress curves of the Dd FDH-catalyzed reactions (initial lag phase and subsequent faster phase). Once activated, Dd FDH is able to efficiently catalyze, not only the formate oxidation (kcat of 543 s(-1), Km of 57.1 μM), but also the carbon dioxide reduction (kcat of 46.6 s(-1), Km of 15.7 μM), in an overall reaction that is thermodynamically and kinetically reversible. Noteworthy, both Dd FDH-catalyzed formate oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction are completely inactivated by cyanide. Current FDH reaction mechanistic proposals are discussed and a different mechanism is here suggested: formate oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction are proposed to proceed through hydride transfer and the sulfo group of the oxidized and reduced molybdenum center, Mo(6+)═S and Mo(4+)-SH, are suggested to be the direct hydride acceptor and donor, respectively.

  9. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios.

  10. Six Sigma. Quality initiatives for cost reduction and process optimisation; Six Sigma. Qualitaetsinitiative zur Kostenreduzierung und Prozessoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerkircher, Mikko [Rheinkalk GmbH, Flandersbach (Germany). Bereich Brennen und Verdeln

    2010-06-15

    Six Sigma occupies an important position in management practice. An increasing number of companies have recognised that this quality approach is not only an effective lever in order to reduce the costs of errors. In addition Six Sigma imparts important momentum to customer satisfaction and commitment, which is likewise reflected in increasing income and turnover. (orig.)

  11. Improved Safety and Cost Savings from Reductions in Cast-Saw Burns After Simulation-Based Education for Orthopaedic Surgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donald S; Lynch, Hayley; Jamieson, Katherine; Yu-Moe, C Winnie; Roussin, Christopher

    2017-09-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simulation training aimed at reducing cast-saw injuries. Third-year orthopaedic residents underwent simulation-based instruction on distal radial fracture reduction, casting, and cast removal using an oscillating saw. The analysis compared incidences of cast-saw injuries and associated costs before and after the implementation of the simulation curriculum. Actual and potential costs associated with cast-saw injuries included wound care, extra clinical visits, and potential total payment (indemnity and expense payments). Curriculum costs were calculated through time-derived, activity-based accounting methods. The researchers compared the costs of cast-saw injuries and the simulation curriculum to determine overall savings and return on investment. In the 2.5 years prior to simulation, cast-saw injuries occurred in approximately 4.3 per 100 casts cut by orthopaedic residents. For the 2.5-year period post-simulation, the injury rate decreased significantly to approximately 0.7 per 100 casts cut (p = 0.002). The total cost to implement the casting simulation was $2,465.31 per 6-month resident rotation. On the basis of historical data related to cast-saw burns (n = 6), total payments ranged from $2,995 to $25,000 per claim. The anticipated savings from averted cast-saw injuries and associated medicolegal payments in the 2.5 years post-simulation was $27,131, representing an 11-to-1 return on investment. Simulation-based training for orthopaedic surgical residents was effective in reducing cast-saw injuries and had a high theoretical return on investment. These results support further investment in simulation-based training as cost-effective means of improving patient safety and clinical outcomes. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? An explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, M P M René; Akhtar, Juned

    2013-03-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for decades in many countries, but new legislation and testing of drivers for drug use have recently been implemented in some countries. In this article we present a methodology for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of increased law enforcement of roadside drug screening. This is an analysis of the profitability for society, where costs of control are weighed against the reduction in injuries expected from fewer drugged drivers on the roads. We specify assumptions regarding costs and the effect of the specificity of the drug screening device, and quantify a deterrence effect related to sensitivity of the device yielding the benefit estimates. Three European countries with different current enforcement levels were studied, yielding benefit-cost ratios in the approximate range of 0.5-5 for a tripling of current levels of enforcement, with costs of about 4000 EUR per convicted and in the range of 1.5 and 13 million EUR per prevented fatality. The applied methodology for CBA has involved a simplistic behavioural response to enforcement increase and control efficiency. Although this methodology should be developed further, it is clearly indicated that the cost-efficiency of increased law enforcement of drug driving offences is dependent on the baseline situation of drug-use in traffic and on the current level of enforcement, as well as the RR and prevalence of drugs in road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Time-driven activity based costing: a comparative study with the activity based costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Battistella Luna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity-based costing (ABC emerged in the 1980s to meet the new necessities of cost information facing companies, the result of continuous changes in the business environment. In the 2000s, a new costing method, known as time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC was introduced in order to simplify the ABC. This paper compares these methods in order to provide information to assist managers to decide which of these methods better suits the reality of their companies. Therefore, they were analyzed based on information obtained through a systematic search in the Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases, as well as papers from the annals of the Congresso Brasileiro de Custos, Congresso de Controladoria e Contabilidade da USP and Encontro Nacional de Engenharia de Produção (considering scientific papers published between 2004 and 2016. From this analysis, in most cases it was concluded that TDABC is a simpler and more practical option than ABC. However, it was also apparent that managers, before choosing a particular method, must verify whether the conditions that enable its applicability exist.

  14. An economic evaluation of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in England: a policy modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Marissa; Mason, Helen; O'Flaherty, Martin; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Dietary salt intake has been causally linked to high blood pressure and increased risk of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular disease causes approximately 35% of total UK deaths, at an estimated annual cost of £30 billion. The World Health Organization and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence have recommended a reduction in the intake of salt in people's diets. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of four population health policies to reduce dietary salt intake on an English population to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). The validated IMPACT CHD model was used to quantify and compare four policies: 1) Change4Life health promotion campaign, 2) front-of-pack traffic light labeling to display salt content, 3) Food Standards Agency working with the food industry to reduce salt (voluntary), and 4) mandatory reformulation to reduce salt in processed foods. The effectiveness of these policies in reducing salt intake, and hence blood pressure, was determined by systematic literature review. The model calculated the reduction in mortality associated with each policy, quantified as life-years gained over 10 years. Policy costs were calculated using evidence from published sources. Health care costs for specific CHD patient groups were estimated. Costs were compared against a "do nothing" baseline. All policies resulted in a life-year gain over the baseline. Change4life and labeling each gained approximately 1960 life-years, voluntary reformulation 14,560 life-years, and mandatory reformulation 19,320 life-years. Each policy appeared cost saving, with mandatory reformulation offering the largest cost saving, more than £660 million. All policies to reduce dietary salt intake could gain life-years and reduce health care expenditure on coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A STUDY ON THE ABC APPROACH IN COST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC, an alternative approach to traditional accounting, represents a costing methodology that identifies the main cost drivers, or the main activities in an organization, thus assigning the cost of the products and services according to the number of specific activities or transactions used in the development process of a product or service. This system is based on the measurement of all the activities performed within an organization and provides the companies with the opportunity to efficiently improve their activity or to reduce the costs with no quality loss for their customers. The primary aim of ABC method was to implement a logical system of additional allocation with a better information and improvement in the field of managerial policies, a real cost structure on the basis of which strategic managerial decisions could be further adopted. Under the terms of a continuous growth of fixed cost weighting, we will become more interested in the calculation system of process costing. This costs calculation method can bring on important benefits, especially for service provider companies, considering the high share of common- indirect costs (overhead, in their unit.

  16. Vermicomposting toilets, an alternative to latrine style microbial composting toilets, prove far superior in mass reduction, pathogen destruction, compost quality, and operational cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey B; Baldwin, Susan A

    2012-10-01

    Composting toilets aim to recycle excrement into safe, stable humus. Preceding this, low costs, low risks, and mass reduction should be ensured. Source separating vermicomposting toilets (SSVCs) outperformed mixed latrine microbial composting toilets (MLMCs) in all categories. MLMCs: incurred ten times greater operational costs; created 10x more operator exposure; employed no proven pathogen reduction mechanism since solid end-products averaged 71,000±230,000CFU/g (fecal-origin) Escherichia coli and 24±5% total solids, consistently failed NSF/ANSI Standard 41; failed to reduce volatile solids compared to raw fecal matter; increased total contaminated dry mass by 274%, and produced alkaline end-product (8.0±0.7) high in toxic free ammonia (Solvita® 2.6±1.5). SSVCs have low maintenance costs and risks; adequate worm density for pathogen destruction (0.03±0.04g-worm/g-material); reduced E. coli 200±244CFU/g in neutral (7.4±0.3), stable (60±10% volatile solids), and mature (4±0 Solvita® NH(3)) end-product.

  17. A LARGE-SCALE CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF COMMUNITY-BASED DIETARY SODIUM REDUCTION – THE CHINA RURAL HEALTH INITIATIVE SODIUM REDUCTION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing L.; Niu, Wenyi; Labarthe, Darwin; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Chu, Hongling; Neiman, Andrea; Engelgau, Michael; Elliott, Paul; Wu, Yangfeng; Neal, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in China. High blood pressure caused by excess intake of dietary sodium is widespread and an effective sodium reduction program has potential to improve cardiovascular health. Design This study is a large-scale, cluster-randomized, trial done in five Northern Chinese provinces. Two counties have been selected from each province and 12 townships in each county making a total of 120 clusters. Within each township one village has been selected for participation with 1:1 randomization stratified by county. The sodium reduction intervention comprises community health education and a food supply strategy based upon providing access to salt substitute. Subsidization of the price of salt substitute was done in 30 intervention villages selected at random. Control villages continued usual practices. The primary outcome for the study is dietary sodium intake level estimated from assays of 24 hour urine. Trial status The trial recruited and randomized 120 townships in April 2011. The sodium reduction program was commenced in the 60 intervention villages between May and June of that year with outcome surveys scheduled for October to December 2012. Baseline data collection shows that randomisation achieved good balance across groups. Discussion The establishment of the China Rural Health Initiative has enabled the launch of this large-scale trial designed to identify a novel, scalable strategy for reduction of dietary sodium and control of blood pressure. If proved effective, the intervention could plausibly be implemented at low cost in large parts of China and other countries worldwide. PMID:24176436

  18. Post2012 climate regime options for global GHG emission reduction. Analysis and evaluation of regime options and reduction potential for achieving the 2 degree target with respect to environmental effectiveness, costs and institutional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord and provides an in-depth comparison with results arrived at in other model analyses. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO2 emissions by 30 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target, i.e. where the EU adopts a 30 % emission reduction target in 2020 (rather than a 20 % reduction target), while all other countries stick with their ''weak'' pledges. Not included in the calculations is possible financial support for developing countries from industrialized countries as currently discussed in the climate change negotiations and laid out in the Copenhagen Accord. (orig.)

  19. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The Navy's maintenance and materials management data base was used in a study to determine the feasibility of predicting unscheduled maintenance costs for the dynamic systems of military rotary wing aircraft. The major operational and design variables were identified and the direct maintenance man hours per flight hour were obtained by step-wise multiple regression analysis. Five nonmilitary helicopter users were contacted to supply data on which variables were important factors in civil applications. These uses included offshore oil exploration and support, police and fire department rescue and enforcement, logging and heavy equipment movement, and U.S. Army military operations. The equations developed were highly effective in predicting unscheduled direct maintenance man hours per flying hours for military aircraft, but less effective for commercial or public service helicopters, probably because of the longer mission durations and the much higher utilization of civil users.

  20. Will joint regional air pollution control be more cost-effective? An empirical study of China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2015-02-01

    By following an empirical approach, this study proves that joint regional air pollution control (JRAPC) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will save the expense on air pollution control compared with a locally-based pollution control strategy. The evidences below were found. (A) Local pollutant concentration in some of the cities is significantly affected by emissions from their surrounding areas. (B) There is heterogeneity in the marginal pollutant concentration reduction cost among various districts as a result of the cities' varying contribution of unit emission reduction to the pollutant concentration reduction, and their diverse unit cost of emission reduction brought about by their different industry composition. The results imply that the cost-efficiency of air pollution control will be improved in China if the conventional locally based regime of air pollution control can shift to a regionally based one.

  1. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Irela

  2. Health gain by salt reduction in europe: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke A H Hendriksen

    Full Text Available Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom. Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9% in France, and 191,300 (2.3% in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries.

  3. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Irela

  4. A study on limb reduction defects in six European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoll, C; Calzolari, E; Cornel, M; GarciaMinaur, S; Garne, E; Nevin, N

    1996-01-01

    Limb reduction defects (LRD) gained especial attention after the thalidomide tragedy in 1962, LRD are common congenital malformations which present as obvious congenital anomalies recognized at birth, Therefore it might be assumed that they are well documented, However classification of LRDs is disp

  5. Biomimetic Drag Reduction Study on Herringbone Riblets of Bird Feather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huawei Chen; Fugang Rao; Xiaopeng Shang; Deyuan Zhang; Ichiro Hagiwara

    2013-01-01

    Birds have gradually formed various excellent structures such as streamlined shape and hollow shaft of feather to improve their flying performance by millions of years of natural selection.As typical property of bird feather,herringbone riblets align along the shaft of each feather,which is caused by perfect link of barbs,especially for the primary and secondary feathers of wings.Such herringbone riblets of feather are assumed to have great impact on drag reduction.In this paper,microstructures of secondary feathers of adult pigeons are investigated by SEM,and their structural parameters are statistically obtained.Based on quantitative analysis of feather structure,novel biomimetic herringbone riblets with narrow smooth edge are proposed to reduce surface drag.In comparison with traditional microgroove riblets and other drag reduction structures,the drag reduction rate of the proposed biomimetic herringbone riblets is experimentally clarified up to 16%,much higher than others.Moreover,the drag reduction mechanism of herringbone riblets are also confirmed and exploited by CFD.

  6. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    a reduction in cigarettes per day of 50% or more without quitting were compared with continuing medium, heavy and light smokers (1-14 g/day) using linear regression. Sex (CCHS only), age, self-reported inhalation of smoke, duration of smoking, type of tobacco and amount smoked were included as covariates...

  7. A study on limb reduction defects in six European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoll, C; Calzolari, E; Cornel, M; GarciaMinaur, S; Garne, E; Nevin, N

    1996-01-01

    Limb reduction defects (LRD) gained especial attention after the thalidomide tragedy in 1962, LRD are common congenital malformations which present as obvious congenital anomalies recognized at birth, Therefore it might be assumed that they are well documented, However classification of LRDs is disp

  8. Health gain by salt reduction in europe: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke A H; van Raaij, Joop M A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Breda, Joao; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9%) in France, and 191,300 (2.3%) in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries.

  9. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France,

  10. Process improvement and cost reduction utilizing a fully automated CD SEM for thin film head pole 2 resist measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutrud, Paul C.; Newcomb, Robert M.

    1996-05-01

    Thin film head (TFH) manufacturers are constantly striving to improve process control, eliminate scrap material and reduce the total cost of manufacturing their devices. Successful measurement and control of the Pole 2 Resist structure is a critical component of the TFH process which directly impacts disk drive performance, reliability and final product cost. Until recently, white light optical metrology systems have been the only option for measuring the Pole 2 structures. However, recent advances in TFH process technology have resulted in aspect ratios up to 10:1 which has limited the ability of the white light optical metrology systems. IVS has developed a unique metrology solution to image and measure these high aspect ratio structures utilizing the IVS-200TM CD SEM. This technology provides state of the art measurement performance for repeatability and stability which in turn has provided manufacturers with the ability to monitor the Pole 2 process and reap both technical and financial benefits.

  11. Post-bariatric surgery body contouring treatment in the public health system: cost study and perception by patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Jordi; Balibrea, José María; Oller, Benjamí; Alastrué, Antonio; Poyatos, Jordi Vilà; Balibrea del Castillo, José María; Sales, Benjamí Oller; Vidal, Antonio Alastrué

    2014-09-01

    Post-bariatric, body contouring surgery to treat the sequelae of massive weight loss is an undervalued topic by patients and in most of the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the mean cost per patient of this treatment in a public morbid obesity unit, and compare it with the perception by the patients. Costs were estimated using a specific Diagnosis-Related Group-based method and a questionnaire in a sample of 100 patients who had completed body contouring treatment. This study included 23 men and 77 women with a mean age of 48.5 years, a mean reduction of body mass index of 20.77 kg/m, and a median follow-up of 58 months. These patients had undergone surgery, as needed, as follows: on the lower part of the trunk (109 operations; mean cost, &OV0556;6348.6), cruroplasty (43 operations; mean cost, &OV0556;3490), brachioplasty (28 operations; mean cost &OV0556;3150), and the upper part of the trunk (10 operations; mean cost, &OV0556;4290). The rate of complications has been high (up to 50 percent) and, although the more severe complications are rare (10.5 percent Clavien grade IIIb), these represent high costs (mean, &OV0556;24462.6). Forty-five patients answered the questionnaire. Although they think that this surgery improves their quality of life, they have undervalued its total cost (17.58 percent; &OV0556;2034) (p = 0.16). The average cost of post-bariatric surgery body contouring treatment in this unit is &OV0556;8263.95 (1.66 operations per patient). The severe complications increase by 2.96 times the average cost per patient.

  12. Contracting for communal sports facilities - strategies for climate protection and cost reduction guidelines; Contracting fuer kommunale Sportstaetten - Strategien zu Klimaschutz und Kostensenkung. Leitfaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, V.; Cames, M.; Bruene, F.

    2002-07-01

    The report demonstrates the potentials for energy savings and cost reduction in sports facilities and explains the possibilities of the realisation through contracting process. High investment costs often impede the development of these potentials, which could be a significant contribution to climate protection. The potentials of a win-win situation for both parties could be realized by a contracting agreement between the public authorities respectively the owner of the sports facilities and the contractor. The procedure of the contracting projects is explained in detail. In addition, the report includes practical references and resources for the realisation, as well as 50 realised examples. The report wants to give an incentive for the implementation of the contracting process to the players in sports facilities and provide a source of information. (orig.)

  13. Setup Time Reduction On Solder Paste Printing Machine – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Dhake

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing envisages the reduction of the seven deadly wastes referred to as MUDA. Setup time forms a major component of the equipment downtime. It leads to lower machine utilization and restricts the output and product variety. This necessitates the requirement for quick setups. Single Minute Exchange of Die philosophy (a lean manufacturing tool here after referred as “SMED” is one of the important tool which aims at quick setups driving smaller lot sizes, lower production costs, improve productivity in terms of increased output, increased utilization of machine and labor hours, make additional capacity available (often at bottleneck resources, reduce scrap and rework, and increase flexibility[3]. This paper focuses on the application of Single Minute Exchange of Die[1] and Quick Changeover Philosophy[2] for reducing setup time on Solder Past Printing Machine (bottleneck machine in a electronic speedo-cluster manufacturing company. The four step SMED philosophy was adopted to effect reduction in setup time. The initial step was gathering information about the present setup times and its proportion to the total productive time. A detailed video based time study of setup activities was done to classify them into external and internal setup activities in terms of their need (i.e. preparation, replacement or adjustment, time taken and the way these could be reduced, simplified or eliminated. The improvements effected were of three categories viz., mechanical, procedural and organizational. The paper concludes by comparing the present and proposed (implemented methods of setup procedures.

  14. Justifying Environmental Cost Allocation in a Multiple Product Firm: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the effect of environmental cost allocation on production cost and the outcome for environmental management decisions. Using a revised cost allocation – referred to in this paper as environmental cost allocation – the paper contrasts overhead allocation between traditional cost allocation and environmental cost allocation. In addition, production cost derived from the traditional allocation of waste cost is compared with the revised environmental cost allocation. Findings indicate that a revised environmental cost allocation discloses more accurate overhead cost and hence production cost; and that management is motivated to make informed environmental management decisions if a product related environmental cost is made to reflect in the production cost of the polluting product. The paper highlights the practical significance of objective environmental cost allocation on corporate waste management, which thus creates a valuable awareness on the part of the management and accountants of firms in developing countries for the need to fine-tune the dominant traditional costing system. It also suggests avenues for further research to examine the impact of costing systems on environmental investments.

  15. A cost benefit study of milk-borne salmonellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, D. R.; Porter, I. A.; Reid, T M; Sharp, J. C.; Forbes, G I; Paterson, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    An estimate of the benefits which would result from a ban on the sale of non-pasteurized milk in Scotland has been assessed by costing a recent outbreak of milk-borne salmonellosis in the Grampian Region. The cost of such a ban would not exceed the benefits under any but the most severe assumptions about the values attached to intangible benefits.

  16. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, Marieke A. H.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Joao Breda; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The populati...

  17. Iron Corrosion Observations: Pu(VI)-Fe Reduction Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean-Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-11

    Iron and Pu Reduction: (1) Very different appearances in iron reaction products were noted depending on pH, brine and initial iron phase; (2) Plutonium was associated with the Fe phases; (3) Green rust was often noted at the higher pH; (4) XANES established the green rust to be an Fe2/3 phase with a bromide center; and (5) This green rust phase was linked to Pu as Pu(IV).

  18. Naval Survivability and Susceptibility Reduction Study-Surface Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    magnetic steels  High- alloy steel  Corrosion resistant alloys 32  Titanium alloys  Aluminum alloys  Metal-based composite materials...the ferromagnetic signature. As ships are built under the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field [133], the ferrous materials used in the...techniques, the magnetic field of a ship can be reduced by passive and active means. The passive reduction could be achieved by using less ferrous

  19. Bayesian modeling of cost-effectiveness studies with unmeasured confounding: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, James D; Beavers, Daniel P; Faries, Douglas; Price, Karen L; Seaman, John W

    2014-01-01

    Unmeasured confounding is a common problem in observational studies. Failing to account for unmeasured confounding can result in biased point estimators and poor performance of hypothesis tests and interval estimators. We provide examples of the impacts of unmeasured confounding on cost-effectiveness analyses using observational data along with a Bayesian approach to correct estimation. Assuming validation data are available, we propose a Bayesian approach to correct cost-effectiveness studies for unmeasured confounding. We consider the cases where both cost and effectiveness are assumed to have a normal distribution and when costs are gamma distributed and effectiveness is normally distributed. Simulation studies were conducted to determine the impact of ignoring the unmeasured confounder and to determine the size of the validation data required to obtain valid inferences.

  20. Reductions in Sepsis Mortality and Costs After Design and Implementation of a Nurse-Based Early Recognition and Response Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen L; Ashton, Carol M; Kiehne, Lisa; Gigliotti, Elizabeth; Bell-Gordon, Charyl; Disbot, Maureen; Masud, Faisal; Shirkey, Beverly A; Wray, Nelda P

    2015-11-01

    Sepsis is a leading cause of death, but evidence suggests that early recognition and prompt intervention can save lives. In 2005 Houston Methodist Hospital prioritized sepsis detection and management in its ICU. In late 2007, because of marginal effects on sepsis death rates, the focus shifted to designing a program that would be readily used by nurses and ensure early recognition of patients showing signs suspicious for sepsis, as well as the institution of prompt, evidence-based interventions to diagnose and treat it. The intervention had four components: organizational commitment and data-based leadership; development and integration of an early sepsis screening tool into the electronic health record; creation of screening and response protocols; and education and training of nurses. Twice-daily screening of patients on targeted units was conducted by bedside nurses; nurse practitioners initiated definitive treatment as indicated. Evaluation focused on extent of implementation, trends in inpatient mortality, and, for Medicare beneficiaries, a before-after (2008-2011) comparison of outcomes and costs. A federal grant in 2012 enabled expansion of the program. By year 3 (2011) 33% of inpatients were screened (56,190 screens in 9,718 unique patients), up from 10% in year 1 (2009). Inpatient sepsis-associated death rates decreased from 29.7% in the preimplementation period (2006-2008) to 21.1% after implementation (2009-2014). Death rates and hospital costs for Medicare beneficiaries decreased from preimplementation levels without a compensatory increase in discharges to postacute care. This program has been associated with lower inpatient death rates and costs. Further testing of the robustness and exportability of the program is under way.

  1. Studies on catalytic reduction of nitrate in groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Bing; ZHU Yanfang; JIN Zhaohui; LI Tielong; KANG Haiyan; WANG Shuaima

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic reduction of nitrate in groundwater by sodium formate over the catalyst was investigated.Pd-Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by impregnation and characterized by brunauer-emmett-teller (BET),inductive coupled plasma (ICP),X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX).It was found that total nitrogen was effectively removed from the nitrate solution (100 mg/L) and the removal efficiency was 87%.The catalytic activity was affected by pH,catalyst amount used,concentration of sodium formate,and initial concentration of nitrate.As sodium formate was used as reductant,precise control in the initial pH was needed.Excessively high or low initial pH (7.0 or 3.0) reduced catalytic activity.At initial pH of 4.5,catalytic activity was enhanced by reducing the amount of catalyst,while concentrations of sodium formate increased with a considerable decrease in N2 selectivity.In which case,catalytic reduction followed the first order kinetics.

  2. Optimal Inventory Policy Involving Ordering Cost Reduction, Back-Order Discounts, and Variable Lead Time Demand by Minimax Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wuu Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper allows the backorder rate as a control variable to widen applications of a continuous review inventory model. Moreover, we also consider the backorder rate that is proposed by combining Ouyang and Chuang (2001 (or Lee (2005 with Pan and Hsiao (2001 to present a new form. Thus, the backorder rate is dependent on the amount of shortages and backorder price discounts. Besides, we also treat the ordering cost as a decision variable. Hence, we develop an algorithmic procedure to find the optimal inventory policy by minimax criterion. Finally, a numerical example is also given to illustrate the results.

  3. A randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a contingency management intervention compared to treatment as usual for reduction of cannabis use and of relapse in early psychosis (CIRCLE): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sonia; Sheridan Rains, Luke; Marwaha, Steven; Strang, John; Craig, Thomas; Weaver, Tim; McCrone, Paul; King, Michael; Fowler, David; Pilling, Stephen; Marston, Louise; Omar, Rumana Z; Craig, Meghan; Hinton, Mark

    2016-10-22

    Around 35-45 % of people in contact with services for a first episode of psychosis are using cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with delays in remission, poorer clinical outcomes, significant increases in the risk of relapse, and lower engagement in work or education. While there is a clear need for effective interventions, so far only very limited benefits have been achieved from psychological interventions. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention in which specified desired behavioural change is reinforced through financial rewards. CM is now recognised to have a substantial evidence base in some contexts and its adoption in the UK is advocated by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance as a treatment for substance or alcohol misuse. However, there is currently little published data testing its effectiveness for reducing cannabis use in early psychosis. CIRCLE is a two-arm, rater-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a CM intervention for reducing cannabis use among young people receiving treatment from UK Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) services. EIP service users (n = 544) with a recent history of cannabis use will be recruited. The experimental group will receive 12 once-weekly CM sessions, and a voucher reward if urinalysis shows that they have not used cannabis in the previous week. Both the experimental and the control groups will be offered an Optimised Treatment as Usual (OTAU) psychoeducational package targeting cannabis use. Assessment interviews will be performed at consent, at 3 months, and at 18 months. The primary outcome is time to relapse, defined as admission to an acute mental health service. Secondary outcomes include proportion of cannabis-free urine samples during the intervention period, severity of positive psychotic symptoms, quality-adjusted life years, and engagement in work or education. CIRCLE is a RCT of CM for

  4. The anatomical study of transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fu-zhi; YIN Qing-shui; WANG Zhi-yun; XIA Hong; CHANG Yun-bing; WU Zeng-hui; LIU Jing-fa

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study relevant anatomical features of the structures involved in transoral atlanto-axial reduction plate (TARP) internal fixation through transoral approach for treating irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation and providing anatomical basis for the clinical application of TARP.Methods: Ten fresh craniocervical specimens were microsurgically dissected layer by layer through transoral approach. The stratification of the posterior pharyngeal wall, the course of the vertebral artery, anatomical relationships of the adjacent structures of the atlas and axis, and the closely relevant anatomical parameters for TARP internal fixation were measured.Results: The posterior pharyngeal wall consisted of two layers and two interspaces: the mucosa, prevertebral fascia, retropharyngeal space, and prevertebral space. The range from the anterior edge of the foramen magnum to C3could be exposed by this approach. The thickness of the posterior pharyngeal wall was (3.6 ± 0.3) mm (ranging2.9-4.3 mm) at the anterior tubercle of C1,(6.1 ± 0.4) mm ( ranging 5.2-7.1 mm) at the lateral mass of C1 and (5.5±0.4) mm (ranging4.3-6.5 mm) at the central part of C2, respectively. The distance from the incisor tooth to the anterior tubercle of C1, C1 screw entry point, and C2 screw entry point was ( 82. 5 ± 7. 8 ) mm ( ranging 71.4-96. 2 mm), ( 90. 1 ± 3. 8 ) mm ( ranging82.2-96. 3 mm), and ( 89.0 ± 4.1 ) mm ( ranging 81.3-95.3 mm), respectively. The distance between the vertebral artery at the atlas and the midline was (25.2 ±2.3) mm (ranging 20.4-29.7 mm) and that between the vertebral artery at the axis and the midline was ( 18.4 ±2.6) mm ( ranging 13. 1-23.0 mm). The allowed width of the atlas and axis for exposure was (39. 4 ± 2. 2 ) mm( ranging 36.2-42.7 mm) and ( 39.0 ± 2. 1 ) mm ( ranging35.8-42. 3 mm), respectively. The distance (a) between the two atlas screw insertion points (center of anterior aspect of C1 lateral mass) was (31.4 ± 3.3 ) mm ( ranging25.4-36.6 mm

  5. Experimental Study on Noise Reduction of Punch Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; MA Xiang-ping; SUN Chang-qing

    2005-01-01

    To reduce the noise of punch press during the punching process, the polyurethane elastomer is used as the damping material. The experiments of reducing noise were made by means of adding the polyurethane elastomer at different positions of 100 kN and 1 000 kN punch press. The better effect of reducing the noise was obtained. With the research and analysis of a large number of test data, the "equivalent damping hypothesis" is put forward. The hypothesis makes the experiment of reducing noise be more simple and cost effective. This method would be exploited in area of vibration control and reducing noise.

  6. A Theoretical Study on Reductive Debromination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Fei Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress has been made in the reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI. To better understand the mechanism of this reaction, seven selected BDE congeners and their anions were investigated at the density functional theory (DFT level using four different methods, including B3LYP/6-31G(d, B3LYP/6-31+G(d, B3LYP/6-31G(d,p and B3LYP/6-311G(d,p. The cleaved C–Br bonds observed in the equilibrium structures of anionic PBDEs were adopted as the probe of the susceptible debromination position of PBDEs in the presence of nZVI, and the proposed major reaction pathways based on our calculations can satisfactorily conform to the reported experimental results. The debromination preference is theoretically evaluated as meta-Br > ortho-Br > para-Br. In addition, both the calculated frontier orbital energies and adiabatic electronic affinities were found to be highly related to their experimental reductive debromination rate constants. The highest linear regression coefficient was observed in the case using the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital as the molecular descriptor obtained from B3LYP/6-31G(d (R2 = 0.961, n = 7 or B3LYP/6-31G(d,p (R2 = 0.961, n = 7. The results clearly showed the evidence of an electron transfer mechanism associated with this reductive debromination reaction.

  7. Reductive nitrosylation of Methanosarcina acetivorans protoglobin: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto di Biochimica delle Proteine, CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Pesce, Alessandra [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino [Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 26, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ciaccio, Chiara; Coletta, Massimo [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Medicina Traslazionale, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario di Ricerca in Chimica dei Metalli nei Sistemi Biologici, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-70121 Bari (Italy); Dewilde, Sylvia [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin binds preferentially O{sub 2} rather than CO. ► Reductive nitrosylation of ferric M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► Nitrosylation of ferrious M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin is a scavenger of RNS and ROS. -- Abstract: Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea expressing protoglobin (Pgb) which might either facilitate O{sub 2} detoxification or act as a CO sensor/supplier in methanogenesis. Unusually, M. acetivorans Pgb (MaPgb) binds preferentially O{sub 2} rather than CO and displays anticooperativity in ligand binding. Here, kinetics and/or thermodynamics of ferric and ferrous MaPgb (MaPgb(III) and MaPgb(II), respectively) nitrosylation are reported. Data were obtained between pH 7.2 and 9.5, at 22.0 °C. Addition of NO to MaPgb(III) leads to the transient formation of MaPgb(III)–NO in equilibrium with MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +}. In turn, MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +} is converted to MaPgb(II) by OH{sup −}-based catalysis. Then, MaPgb(II) binds NO very rapidly leading to MaPgb(II)–NO. The rate-limiting step for reductive nitrosylation of MaPgb(III) is represented by the OH{sup −}-mediated reduction of MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +} to MaPgb(II). Present results highlight the potential role of MaPgb in scavenging of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species.

  8. Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1981-04-01

    Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.

  9. Reduction reactions in doped ceria ceramics studied by dilatometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, G.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1993-01-01

    Reduction of pure and doped CeO2 to CeO2-x is associated with an expansion. The behaviour of pure CeO2, Ce0.9Ca0.1O1.9, Ce0.8Ca0.2O1.8 and Ce0.6Gd0.4O1.8 at 1000-degrees-C in the oxygen partial pressure range from 0.21 atm to 10(-18) atm is described. The results show that even though the nominal...

  10. Solid phase studies and geochemical modelling of low-cost permeable reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzas, Georgios, E-mail: gbartzas@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Komnitsas, Kostas [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    A continuous column experiment was carried out under dynamic flow conditions in order to study the efficiency of low-cost permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove several inorganic contaminants from acidic solutions. A 50:50 w/w waste iron/sand mixture was used as candidate reactive media in order to activate precipitation and promote sorption and reduction-oxidation mechanisms. Solid phase studies of the exhausted reactive products after column shutdown, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), confirmed that the principal Fe corrosion products identified in the reactive zone are amorphous iron (hydr)oxides (maghemite/magnetite and goethite), intermediate products (sulfate green rust), and amorphous metal sulfides such as amFeS and/or mackinawite. Geochemical modelling of the metal removal processes, including interactions between reactive media, heavy metal ions and sulfates, and interpretation of the ionic profiles was also carried out by using the speciation/mass transfer computer code PHREEQC-2 and the WATEQ4F database. Mineralogical characterization studies as well as geochemical modelling calculations also indicate that the effect of sulfate and silica sand on the efficiency of the reactive zone should be considered carefully during design and operation of low-cost field PRBs.

  11. A low-cost, goal-oriented ‘compact proper orthogonal decomposition’ basis for model reduction of static systems

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin

    2010-12-10

    A novel model reduction technique for static systems is presented. The method is developed using a goal-oriented framework, and it extends the concept of snapshots for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to include (sensitivity) derivatives of the state with respect to system input parameters. The resulting reduced-order model generates accurate approximations due to its goal-oriented construction and the explicit \\'training\\' of the model for parameter changes. The model is less computationally expensive to construct than typical POD approaches, since efficient multiple right-hand side solvers can be used to compute the sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on a parameterized aerospace structure problem. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Energy Management in Public Buildings: Four Italian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency in public buildings is one of the main challenges for a sustainable requalification of energy issues and a consequent reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. This paper aims to provide preliminary information about economic costs and energy consumption reductions (benefits of some considered interventions in existing public buildings. Methods include an analysis of some feasible interventions in four selected public buildings. Energy efficiency improvements have been assessed for each feasible intervention. The difference of the building global energy performance index (EPgl has been assessed before and after each intervention. Economic costs of each intervention have been estimated by averaging the amount demanded by different companies for the same intervention. Results obtained show economic costs and the EPgl percentage improvement for each intervention, highlighting and allowing for the comparison of energy consumption reduction and relative economic costs. The research results come from data gathered from four public buildings, and as such they could not be used to generically identify cost-beneficial energy efficiency interventions for every context or building type. However, the data reveals useful cost based considerations for selecting energy efficiency interventions in other public buildings.

  13. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

  14. A cost study of a general practitioner hospital in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkart-van Roijen, L.; Moll van Charante, E.P.; Bindels, P.J.E.; Yzermans, C.J.; Rutten, F.F.H.

    2004-01-01

    To perform a cost study of the first general practitioner (GP) hospital in the Netherlands. We conducted a cost study in a GP hospital in the Netherlands. Data on healthcare utilisation from 218 patients were collected for a period of one year. The costs of admission to the GP hosptial were compared

  15. [Studies of the cost effectiveness of MALDI-TOF and clinical impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Gimeno, Concepción; Soriano, Alex; Cantón, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    In general, new technologies usually increase laboratory costs due to the need for an initial investment. However, as occurred with MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry, this increase is subsequently offset by the discontinued use of traditional technologies and by the benefits to patients of the new information generated. In the clinical microbiology laboratory, the identification time is reduced with the use of MALDI-TOF (by at least 24 hours) and turnaround is improved, allowing faster production of the microbiological report. This beneficial effect has mainly been studied with blood cultures in patients with bacteraemia. In these patients, the length of hospital stay has been reduced by 1.6-6.6 days, depending on the type of patient and the appropriateness of treatment. This leads to better antimicrobial use and a reduction in total hospital cost of up to 43% per patient. Another factor that has been analysed is the decrease in mortality due to better management of antimicrobial therapy. Future multicentre studies should include other factors such as hospital organisation changes and clinical activity arising in response to the efforts of the clinical microbiology laboratory to rapidly obtain information of clinical value.

  16. Experimental study on solid state reduction of chromite with rising temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekkonen, M.; Syynimaa, A.; Holappa, L.

    1998-07-01

    The solid state reduction of preoxidized sintered chromite pellets, raw pellets, process pellets and lumpy ores have been studied with rising temperature 700-1520 deg C under CO-atmosphere in order to better simulate the conditions in the upper part of a real submerged arc furnace. According to the reduction degree curves the reduction behaviour of chromite pellets seems to be similar. The reduction rate was slow at the beginning but increased rapidly when the temperature reached about 1000 deg C. The final reduction degree was highest in the case of process pellets and lowest in the case of raw pellet. In the case of preoxidized pellets there was not much difference of the reduction rate and final reduction degree between different oxidation states. In the case of lumpy ores the reduction rate and the final reduction degree was much lower compared to the pellets. Optical photographs, phase and microanalysis show that the reduction has proceeded further in the surface of the samples and confirmed also that the reduction degree remained lower in the case of raw pellet and lumpy ores which was also seen from the reduction degree curves. According to the experiments in the case of preoxidized pellets the effect of oxidation state on the reduction rate was not observed due to small difference in the oxidation state of the samples. But when comparing the reduction of preoxidized pellets and unoxidised raw pellet we can say that preoxidation promotes the reduction. The final reduction degree of the raw pellet remained lower than in the case of preoxidized pellets. (orig.)

  17. Field study of heavy oil viscosity reduction for production transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, J.; Annichiariccom, G.; Montanez, M. [Ecopetrol S.A. (Venezuela); Faust, M.; Weathers, T. [Nalco Energy Services (Colombia); Parra, R. [Nalco de Colombia Ltda. (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, production and transportation are expensive processes requiring complex equipment and procedures. The main issue with heavy crude oil is its high viscosity. A method using naphtha injection was developed to dilute the fluids and aid in water separation, but this method is expensive and raises safety issues. To reduce naphtha consumption, Ecopetrol and Nalco Energy Services developed a new dispersion technology. This paper presents this technology and the results of its field trial in the Chichimene oil field. Key production indicators were monitored to determine how effective the emulsion method was in enhancing production. Results showed no negative effect on the separation facility or oil and water quality while reducing by 75% the injection of diluent. This paper presents a dispersion technology which successfully reduced the need for naphtha and thus reduced production costs.

  18. Kinetic Study of Np(Ⅵ) Reduction With Tert-butyl Hydrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tert-butyl hydrazine(TBH) is a new salt free reductant, it can effectively reduce Np(Ⅵ) to Np(Ⅴ) but reduce Pu(Ⅳ)very slowly. Further more, it has the highest ratio of rate constant for Np(Ⅵ) reduction to the rate constant for Pu(Ⅳ) reduction in hydrazine derivatives, so it’s a promising reductant to separate Np, Pu effectively,Reduction kinetic study of the reaction in nitric acid is performed by spectrophotometry. The effect of some factors such as concentration of TBH, HNO3, Np(Ⅵ) and temperature on the redox

  19. Healthcare Costs for Treating Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis and the Risk of Progression: A Retrospective Italian Cohort Study from 2001 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Raffaele; Lanzillo, Roberta; Carotenuto, Antonio; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease modifying treatments (DMTs) are the main responsible for direct medical costs in multiple sclerosis (MS). The current investigation aims at evaluating possible associations between healthcare costs for treating relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and disease evolution. Methods The present cohort study retrospectively included 544 newly diagnosed RRMS patients, prospectively followed up for 10.1±3.3 years. Costs for DMT administration and management were calculated for each year of observation. Following clinical endpoints were recorded: time to first relapse, 1-point EDSS progression, reaching of EDSS 4.0, reaching of EDSS 6.0, and conversion to secondary progressive MS (SP). Covariates for statistical analyses were age, gender, disease duration and EDSS at diagnosis. Results At time varying Cox regression models, 10% increase in annual healthcare costs was associated with 1.1% reduction in 1-point EDSS progression (HR = 0.897; p = 0.018), with 0.7% reduction in reaching EDSS 6.0 (HR = 0.925; p = 0.030), and with 1.0% reduction in SP conversion (HR = 0.902; p = 0.006). Conclusion Higher healthcare costs for treating MS have been associated with a milder disease evolution after 10 years, with possible reduction of long-term non-medical direct and indirect costs. PMID:28056103

  20. A Spatial-Economic Cost-Reduction Pathway Analysis for U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Development from 2015–2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes a comprehensive effort undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to understand the cost of offshore wind energy for markets in the United States. The study models the cost impacts of a range of offshore wind locational cost variables for more than 7,000 potential coastal sites in U.S. offshore wind resource areas. It also assesses the impact of more than 50 technology innovations on potential future costs for both fixed-bottom and floating wind systems. Comparing these costs to an initial site-specific assessment of local avoided generating costs, the analysis provides a framework for estimating the economic potential for offshore wind. The analysis is intended to inform a broad set of stakeholders and enable an assessment of offshore wind as part of energy development and energy portfolio planning. It provides information that federal and state agencies and planning commissions could use to inform initial strategic decisions about offshore wind developments in the United States.

  1. The economic burden of pediatric gastroenteritis to Bolivian families: a cross-sectional study of correlates of catastrophic cost and overall cost burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children less than five years of age. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, 16% of child deaths can be attributed to diarrhea, and the costs associated with diarrhea can weigh heavily on patient families. To address this need, the study goal was to identify predictors of cost burden (diarrhea-related costs incurred as a percentage of annual income) and catastrophic cost (cost burd...

  2. A societal cost-of-illness study of hemodialysis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Salameh, Pascale; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-12-01

    Renal failure is a growing public health problem, and is mainly treated by hemodialysis. This study aims to estimate the societal costs of hemodialysis in Lebanon. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional cost-of-illness study conducted alongside the Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy trial. Costs were assessed with a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach, for the period of June-December 2011. The data of 114 patients recruited from six hospital-based units were collected through a questionnaire measuring healthcare costs, costs to patients and family, and costs in other sectors. Recall data were used for the base-case analysis. Sensitivity analyses employing various sources of resources use and costs were performed. Costs were uprated to 2015US$. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the predictors of societal costs. The mean 6-month societal costs were estimated at $9,258.39. The larger part was attributable to healthcare costs (91.7%), while costs to patient and family and costs in other sectors poorly contributed to the total costs (4.2% and 4.1%, respectively). In general, results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Using the maximum value for hospitalization resulted in the biggest difference (+15.5% of the base-case result). Female gender, being widowed/divorced, having hypertension comorbidity, and higher weekly time on dialysis were significantly associated with greater societal costs. Information regarding resource consumption and cost were not readily available. Rather, they were obtained from a variety of sources, with each having its own strengths and limitations. Hemodialysis represents a high societal burden in Lebanon. Using extrapolation, its total annual cost for the Lebanese society is estimated at $61,105,374 and the mean total annual cost ($18,516.7) is 43.70% higher than the gross domestic product per capita forecast for 2015. Measures to reduce the economic burden of hemodialysis should be taken, by promoting

  3. Strategies of Successful Poverty Reduction: Case Studies of Tanzania and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    SUCCESSFUL POVERTY REDUCTION: CASE STUDIES OF TANZANIA AND ZAMBIA by Jacqueline A. Natter March 2015 Thesis Co-Advisors: Robert E. Looney...March 2015 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS S1RA 1EGIES OF SUCCESSF1JL POVERTY REDUCTION: CASE STUDIES OF TANZANIA AND...growth in the 21st century, Tanzania has been able to translate that growth into poverty reduction while Zambia has not. A contextual picture of the two

  4. Costs associated with implementation of computer-assisted clinical decision support system for antenatal and delivery care: case study of Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed cost of implementing computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS in selected health care centres in Ghana. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Kassena-Nankana district (KND. CDSS was deployed in selected health centres in KND as an intervention to manage patients attending antenatal clinics and the labour ward. The CDSS users were mainly nurses who were trained. Activities and associated costs involved in the implementation of CDSS (pre-intervention and intervention were collected for the period between 2009-2013 from the provider perspective. The ingredients approach was used for the cost analysis. Costs were grouped into personnel, trainings, overheads (recurrent costs and equipment costs (capital cost. We calculated cost without annualizing capital cost to represent financial cost and cost with annualizing capital costs to represent economic cost. RESULTS: Twenty-two trained CDSS users (at least 2 users per health centre participated in the study. Between April 2012 and March 2013, users managed 5,595 antenatal clients and 872 labour clients using the CDSS. We observed a decrease in the proportion of complications during delivery (pre-intervention 10.74% versus post-intervention 9.64% and a reduction in the number of maternal deaths (pre-intervention 4 deaths versus post-intervention 1 death. The overall financial cost of CDSS implementation was US$23,316, approximately US$1,060 per CDSS user trained. Of the total cost of implementation, 48% (US$11,272 was pre-intervention cost and intervention cost was 52% (US$12,044. Equipment costs accounted for the largest proportion of financial cost: 34% (US$7,917. When economic cost was considered, total cost of implementation was US$17,128-lower than the financial cost by 26.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides useful information in the implementation of CDSS at health facilities to enhance health workers' adherence to practice

  5. Analysis of Modeling Assumptions used in Production Cost Models for Renewable Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy integration studies have been published for many different regions exploring the question of how higher penetration of renewable energy will impact the electric grid. These studies each make assumptions about the systems they are analyzing; however the effect of many of these assumptions has not been yet been examined and published. In this paper we analyze the impact of modeling assumptions in renewable integration studies, including the optimization method used (linear or mixed-integer programming) and the temporal resolution of the dispatch stage (hourly or sub-hourly). We analyze each of these assumptions on a large and a small system and determine the impact of each assumption on key metrics including the total production cost, curtailment of renewables, CO2 emissions, and generator starts and ramps. Additionally, we identified the impact on these metrics if a four-hour ahead commitment step is included before the dispatch step and the impact of retiring generators to reduce the degree to which the system is overbuilt. We find that the largest effect of these assumptions is at the unit level on starts and ramps, particularly for the temporal resolution, and saw a smaller impact at the aggregate level on system costs and emissions. For each fossil fuel generator type we measured the average capacity started, average run-time per start, and average number of ramps. Linear programming results saw up to a 20% difference in number of starts and average run time of traditional generators, and up to a 4% difference in the number of ramps, when compared to mixed-integer programming. Utilizing hourly dispatch instead of sub-hourly dispatch saw no difference in coal or gas CC units for either start metric, while gas CT units had a 5% increase in the number of starts and 2% increase in the average on-time per start. The number of ramps decreased up to 44%. The smallest effect seen was on the CO2 emissions and total production cost, with a 0.8% and 0

  6. Helicopter Noise Reduction Design Trade-Off Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    L t~t tn fV ;; rlurCr.Le rtt tw-, 5. rý, riot .t t.E.t x j Q~ wt~%~ W, r-~ so cv, r ~ it I alic: -rit rGu 1 1t~t ’DJar .. CY a~r lru a-Ct1 aId ,- ’.L...qai-Cfmn AID liec:t Co.,’ rae to tk*- waseý -. r* coust , v-t~L f.rt &CC una ge if. life Cycie Cost 4,, e a l slencln; I XCf rn;ge S, Irwe i lr.,svIt...tted. CA.: Ca:-a -¶v of tt Sse r - Ca -9rns Par rr t’ LI& CH -37 tUl4 l- ID ~~; AAE S102 3L3 VIH -I (C P; 71I~a rut _____________I.t VI-1hE C00CI-Ti ; W

  7. Single crystal studies of platinum alloys for oxygen reduction electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrikkeholm, Elisabeth Therese

    In this thesis the discovery, characterization and testing of new catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is investigated. Experiments on sputter cleaned, polycrystalline Pt5Y and Pt5Gd crystals have shown that these alloys are excelent candidates for catalysts for the ORR. To mimic...... was performed on the samples as prepared, and after electrochemical cycling between 0.05 V and 1.0 V VS. RHE. and between 0.05 V and 1.2 V VS. RHE. Diffraction experiments carried out after the cycling to 1.0 V showed that an overlayer with crystalline order had been formed on the Y/Pt(111) sample and the Gd....../Pt(111) samples. These overlayers were slightly compressed compared to pure platinum and had a 6-fold symmetry. After cycling to 1.2 V VS. RHE. the correlation length of the overlayer on the Gd/Pt(111) sample had decreased significantly, and the overlayer on the Y/Pt(111) had disappeared completely...

  8. The Real Cost of "Cosmetic Tourism" Cost Analysis Study of "Cosmetic Tourism" Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Ryan; Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    "Cosmetic Tourism," the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from "cosmetic tourism" and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve "cosmetic tourism" patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The "cosmetic tourism" model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider.

  9. Sarbanes Oxley section 404 costs of compliance : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, A.C.W.(L.); Langendijk, H.P.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The Europea

  10. Sarbanes Oxely Section 404 costs of compliance: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, L.; Langendijk, H.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The Europea

  11. Sarbanes Oxely Section 404 costs of compliance: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, L.; Langendijk, H.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The Europea

  12. Sarbanes Oxley section 404 costs of compliance : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, A.C.W.(L.); Langendijk, H.P.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The Europea

  13. Cost-effectiveness of genetic studies in inherited heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sabater-Molina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to evidence the cost of genetic testing and know their profitability in order to establish criteria for priorizing access to genetic testing for these diseases. We determinated the cost per positive genotyping in 234 index cases with diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC, long-QT syndrome (LQTS, or Brugada syndrome (BS. The genetic tests of the most prevalent genes and the estimation of the costs of periodical screening in wildtype relatives (WT were calculated. A total of 738 individuals (517 HCM, 76 ARVC, 71 LQTS and 74 BS from 234 probands were genotyped. The savings made by not having to perform the clinical testing of WT relatives exceeded the cost of genotyping for HCM families € +220,710, ARVC families € +9405 and LQTS families € +8362. The balance in BS was negative (€ –25,112. Our data suggests that individuals with conclusive clinical diagnostic of HCM should have a priority to access genetic testing. A positive overall benefit was also demonstrated in ARVC and LQTS.

  14. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Asselt (Thea); B.L.T. Ramaekers (Bram); I. Corro Ramos (Isaac); M.A. Joore (Manuela); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); Lesman-Leegte, I. (Ivonne); M.J. Postma (Maarten); P. Vemer (Pepijn); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses;

  15. The costs and cost-effectiveness of a school-based comprehensive intervention study on childhood obesity in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention. METHODS: And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its' control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, 'nutrition and health classes' were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m(2 (SE 0.09 and 0.01 (SE 0.11 in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its' control group (0.82 ± 0.09 for BMI, 0.10 ± 0.11 for BAZ. No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its' control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The school-based integrated obesity

  16. The costs and cost-effectiveness of a school-based comprehensive intervention study on childhood obesity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liping; Xu, Haiquan; Liu, Ailing; van Raaij, Joop; Bemelmans, Wanda; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Du, Songming; Fang, Hongyun; Ma, Jun; Xu, Guifa; Li, Ying; Guo, Hongwei; Du, Lin; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA) is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention. And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its' control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, 'nutrition and health classes' were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m(2) (SE 0.09) and 0.01 (SE 0.11) in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its' control group (0.82 ± 0.09 for BMI, 0.10 ± 0.11 for BAZ). No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its' control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively. The school-based integrated obesity intervention program was cost-effectiveness for

  17. [Direct and indirect costs associated with respiratory allergic diseases in Italy. A probabilistic cost of illness study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellusi, Andrea; Viti, Raffaella; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mennini, Francesco Saverio

    2015-10-01

    The respiratory allergies, including allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, represent a substantial medical and economic burden worldwide. Despite their dimension and huge economic-social burden, no data are available on the costs associated with the management of respiratory allergic diseases in Italy. The objective of this study was to estimate the average annual cost incurred by the National Health Service (NHS), as well as society, due to respiratory allergies and their main co-morbidities in Italy. A probabilistic prevalence-based cost of illness model was developed to estimate an aggregate measure of the economic burden associated with respiratory allergies and their main co-morbidities in terms of direct and indirect costs. A systematic literature review was performed in order to identify both the cost per case (expressed in present value) and the number of affected patients, by applying an incidence-based estimation method. Direct costs were estimated multiplying the hospitalization, drugs and management costs derived by the literature with the Italian epidemiological data. Indirect costs were calculated based on lost productivity according to the human capital approach. Furthermore, a one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis with 5,000 Monte Carlo simulations were performed, in order to test the robustness of the results and define the proper 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Overall, the total economic burden associated with respiratory allergies and their main co-morbidities was € 7.33 billion (95% CI: € 5.99-€ 8.82). A percentage of 27.5% was associated with indirect costs (€ 2.02; 95% CI: € 1.72-€ 2.34 billion) and 72.5% with direct costs (€ 5.32; 95% CI: € 4.04-€ 6.77 billion). In allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, combined allergic rhinitis and asthma, turbinate hypertrophy and allergic conjunctivitis, the model estimate an average annual economic burden of € 1,35 (95% CI: € 1,14-€ 1,58) billion, € 1,72 (95% CI: € 1

  18. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  19. Systematic review of cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politiek, Klaziena; Oosterhaven, Jart A F; Vermeulen, Karin M; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2016-08-01

    The individual burden of disease in hand eczema patients is considerable. However, little is known about the socio-economic impact of this disease. The aims of this review were to evaluate the literature on cost-of-illness in hand eczema, and to compose a checklist for future use. The literature was retrieved from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to October 2015. Quality evaluation was based on seven relevant items in cost-of-illness studies. Cost data (direct and indirect) were extracted and converted into euros (2014 price level) by use of the Dutch Consumer Price Index. Six articles were included. The mean annual total cost per patient ranged from €1712 to €9792 (direct cost per patient, €521 to €3829; and indirect cost per patient, €100 to €6846). Occupational hand eczema patients showed indirect costs up to 70% of total costs, mainly because of absenteeism. A large diversity in hand eczema severity was found between studies. The socio-economic burden of hand eczema is considerable, especially for more severe and/or occupational hand eczema. Absenteeism from paid work leads to a high total cost-of-illness, although disregard of presenteeism often leads to underestimation of indirect costs. Differences in included cost components, the occupational status of patients and hand eczema severity make international comparison difficult. A checklist was added to standardize the approach to cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema.

  20. Public Low-Cost Housing in Malaysia: Case Studies on PPR Low-Cost Flats in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh, Ai Tee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the design quality of People's Housing Project (Program Perumahan Rakyat or PPR low cost high rise flats developed by the National Housing Department (Jabatan Perumahan Negara or JPN in Kuala Lumpur since the 1998. Quality Function Deployment method is used as a tool to analyze the current status and to prioritize the demanded quality from the selected PPR low-cost high rise flats' users. The study revealed that factors in determining a quality low-cost high-rise flat arranged in descending degrees of importance are house safety, provision of public amenities, unit internal environment, maintenance and surrounding environment, location, sanitary fittings, unit size, type of house, material used, unit internal layout, quality of workmanship, structure of the house and appearance. A Quality Chart for PPR low-cost high-rise flats in Kuala Lumpur was presented. Authority (47 per cent has the highest relative degree of importance in determining the quality of PPR flats, followed by Design Element (34 per cent and Quality of Living (19 per cent. Accordingly, the success of the schemes relies strongly on effective control and enforcement by the authorities. However, it can be improved by tackling on the Design Element (Architectural, whereby a revised typical unit layout plan and typical details have been proposed at the last section of the paper.