WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost reduction study

  1. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  2. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  3. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  4. Report Tunneling Cost Reduction Study prepared for Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratories has a need to review the costs of constructing the very long tunnels which would be required for housing the equipment for the proposed Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) project. Current tunneling costs are high, and the identification of potential means of significantly reducing them, and thereby helping to keep overall project costs within an acceptable budget, has assumed great importance. Fermilab has contracted with The Robbins Company to provide an up-to-date appraisal of tunneling technology, and to review the potential for substantially improving currently the state-of-practice performance and construction costs in particular. The Robbins Company was chosen for this task because of its long and successful experience in hard rock mechanical tunnel boring. In the past 40 years, Robbins has manufactured over 250 tunneling machines, the vast majority for hard rock applications. In addition to also supplying back-up equipment, Robbins has recently established a division dedicated to the manufacture of continuous conveying equipment for the efficient support of tunneling operations. The study extends beyond the tunnel boring machine (TBM) itself, and into the critical area of the logistics of the support of the machine as it advances, including manpower. It is restricted to proven methods using conventional technology, and its potential for incremental but meaningful improvement, rather than examining exotic and undeveloped means of rock excavation that have been proposed from time to time by the technical community. This is the first phase of what is expected to be a number of studies in increasing depth of technical detail, and as such has been restricted to the issues connected with the initial 34 kilometer circumference booster tunnel, and not the proposed 500 kilometer circumference tunnel housing the VLHC itself. The booster tunnel is entirely sited within low to medium strength limestone and dolomite formations

  5. A capital cost reduction study on the fast breeder reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniyama, H.; Kamei, M.; Moriyama, M.

    1991-01-01

    A capital cost reduction study has been performed for large fast breeder reactor designs. The primary objective of this study is to show a trend of capital cost reduction between FBR plants at the prototype stage, the demonstration stage, and the future commercialization stage. For the FBR plant at the demonstration stage a construction cost comparison with a light water reactor has also been performed, and the target cost of FBR of below 1.5 times that of the light water reactor cost was achieved. To extend the capital cost reduction study, a feasibility study was made to achieve a capital cost of an FBR less than that of a light water reactor. The recommended design is shown as a future commercialization FBR design concept. (author)

  6. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Jensen, Christian Munk

    2017-01-01

    This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings...... contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost...... of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark...

  7. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  8. Total Ownership Cost Reduction Case Study: AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridger, Wray W; Ruiz, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    ...., consolidated purchasing, lean and six sigma, productivity improvement projects, etc. This case study was conducted with the sponsorship and assistance of the Acquisition Research Program, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.

  9. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost of energy is included on how to expand working hours from daytime to also work at night.

  10. Cost reduction study for the LANL KrF laser-driven LMF design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is in fulfillment of the deliverable requirements for the optical components portions of the LANL-KrF Laser-Driven LMF Design Cost Reduction Study. This report examines the future cost reductions that may accrue through the use of mass production, innovative manufacturing techniques, and new materials. Results are based on data collection and survey of optical component manufacturers, BDM experience, and existing cost models. These data provide a good representation of current methods and technologies from which future estimates can be made. From these data, a series of scaling relationships were developed to project future costs for a selected set of technologies. The scaling relationships are sensitive to cost driving parameters such as size and surface figure requirements as well as quantity requirements, production rate, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition to the scaling relationships, descriptions of the selected processes were developed along with graphical representations of the processes. This report provides a useful tool in projecting the costs of advanced laser concepts at the component level of detail. A mix of the most diverse yet comparable technologies was chosen for this study. This yielded a useful, yet manageable number of variables to examine. The study has resulted in a first-order cost model which predicts the relative cost behavior of optical components within different variable constraints

  11. Schedule and cost reduction of nuclear generating facilities in Ontario study overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, J.

    1991-01-01

    During the five year period 1985 to 1990, Ontario Hydro conducted a major study with the objective to reduce the cost and construction duration for future nuclear generating facilities in Ontario. This paper reports on the study called Major Projects: Schedule and Cost Reduction Study (SCRS). Ontario Hydro is a public utility with the responsibility for meeting electricity need for the province of Ontario with a population of 9.6 million. In order to adequately address future electricity needs, Ontario Hydro has developed and submitted a demand/supply plan which covers the next 25 years. The SCRS for major projects contributed to this demand/supply plan

  12. Reduction of LNG FOB cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1997-01-01

    To achieve a competitive LNG price for the consumers against other energy sources, reduction of LNG FOB (Free on Board) cost i.e. LNG cost at LNG ship flange, will be the key item. It is necessary to perform a many optimization studies (or value engineering) for each stage of the LNG project. These stages are: Feasibility study; Conceptual design - FEED (Front End Engineering and Design); EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction); Operation and maintenance. Since the LNG plant forms one part of the LNG chain, starting from gas production to LNG receiving, and requires several billion US dollar of investment, the consequences of a plant shut down on the LNG chain are clear, it is, therefore, important to get high availability which will also contribute the reduction of LNG FOB cost. (au) 25 refs

  13. Cost reduction through system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsing, P.

    1994-01-01

    In resent years cost reduction has been a key issue in the petroleum industry. Several findings are not economically attractive at the current cost level, and for this and other reasons some of the major oil companies require the suppliers to have implemented a cost reduction programme to prequalify for projects. The present paper addresses cost reduction through system design and integration in both product development and working methods. This is to be obtained by the combination of contracts by reducing unnecessary coordination and allow re-use of proven interface designs, improve subsystem integration by ''top down'' system design, and improve communication and exchange of experience. 3 figs

  14. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  15. Cost reduction in the production process using the ABC and Lean tools: Case Study in the refrigeration components industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi da Silva Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on production management with respect to operating costs that relate directly to the value of the product. For this study, three methods were used, ABC - Activity Based Costing, which provides accurate information about the knowledge of the real costs, VSM - Value Stream Mapping and Lean Manufacturing. The method adopted for this research was the case study. The study was conducted at a refrigeration components company in the Industrial Center of Manaus. The analyses and observations initially went through the process of mapping the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc.. After analysis it was possible to map the cost for each activity and finally calculate the cost of the product before and after the improvements resulting from the lean methodology. The results obtained in this study showed a 20% reduction in product costs resulting from operational improvements. The activity-based cost led to a discovery of the real costs of waste. The steps for this study include process mapping through the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc., establishing the cost driver for each activity, and finally calculating the cost of the product before and after the application of lean improvements. The paper was conducted through literature and descriptive review, and used a case study method. It describes the model that has been tested in a production line for a refrigeration components company from the Manaus Industrial Center, achieving a 20% reduction in product cost.

  16. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km 2 Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included

  17. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  18. The economics of gasoline subsidy cost reduction policy: Case study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaya, Muhammad I.

    only provides a subsidy for regular gasoline and in turn proposes an alternative policy that introduces a subsidy for premium gasoline at a lower rate to reduce the overall gasoline subsidy cost. There has yet to be any research that simulates price controls for gasoline with different grades. Simulations based on the calibrated demand are performed and the results confirm the existence of potential savings that are largely determined by the cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline. The benchmark scenario, based on a recent study of substitutability between gasoline by grades, results in an 11.5% reduction in subsidy cost of around 950 million USD with a subsidy rate of Rp 2,254/liter. Furthermore, the optimal rate of subsidy for premium gasoline results in a reduction of inefficiency as consumers' welfare increase by 6.8 trillion rupiahs (or 560 million USD).

  19. Reduction of mesqa improvement costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Saad ElFetyany

    2017-10-01

    Results show that using the revised approach brings down the cost of mesqa improvement from nearly 10,000LE/fed at present to about 6000LE/fed. These reductions based on the analyses of different mesqa modelling through the adoption of certain parameters such as feasibility of the revised design, effective application of continuous flow for water distribution, and downsizing of the capacity of improved mesqas.

  20. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report of the co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    1989-08-01

    This report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the coordinated research program on 'Comparison of Cost-effectiveness of Risk Reduction among different Energy Systems': Cost effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; Cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposures in underground uranium mines; Cost-effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF 6 by truck and trains

  1. A study on the reduction in the production cost of the long-running collieries and mechanization of coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Hong, Jee Sang; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and production cost. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies on mining technology have been carried out. Investigations and analyses on the technologies used in Hanbo Colliery which was designated one of the long term running mines were done and recommendations were made. And also a site test of plough were implemented at the KyungDong Colliery. The mechanization program of 1994 were analyzed and evaluated separately. (author). 38 refs.

  2. PV O&M Cost Model and Cost Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Andy

    2017-03-15

    This is a presentation on PV O&M cost model and cost reduction for the annual Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (2017), covering estimating PV O&M costs, polynomial expansion, and implementation of Net Present Value (NPV) and reserve account in cost models.

  3. Multiple cost criteria for occupational dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.Z.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, feasible procedure for deciding if a proposed dose reduction measure is justified under ALARA, based on engineering economic principles of project feasibility analysis. Particular attention is given to the fixing of cost criteria: the importance of melding disparate objectives into a single parameter, and the distinction between a cost criterion and a cost consideration. (author)

  4. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report of the co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, Jacques [ed.

    1989-08-01

    This report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the coordinated research program on 'Comparison of Cost-effectiveness of Risk Reduction among different Energy Systems': Cost effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; Cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposures in underground uranium mines; Cost-effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF{sub 6} by truck and trains.

  5. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report for the period 1 May 1982 - 20 February 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J [CEPN Centre d` Etude sur l` Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

    1989-08-01

    The report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the co-ordinated research programme on ``Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness of Risk Reduction Among Different Energy Systems``: cost-effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposure in underground uranium mines; cost effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF{sub 6} by truck and trains. Figs and tabs.

  6. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report for the period 1 May 1982 - 20 February 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1989-08-01

    The report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the co-ordinated research programme on ''Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness of Risk Reduction Among Different Energy Systems'': cost-effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposure in underground uranium mines; cost effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF 6 by truck and trains. Figs and tabs

  7. Complexity Management - A multiple case study analysis on control and reduction of complexity costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna

    of products, with features more custom-made to cover individual needs, both regarding characteristics of products and support services. This necessity leads to a considerable increase of the complexity in the company, which affects the product portfolio, production and supply chain, market segments......, IT systems, and business processes. In order to identify and eliminate complexity, several approaches are used, both by researchers and practitioners. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the existing knowledge of complexity management theory. This research focuses on the relationship between......Complexity tends to be arguably the biggest challenge of manufacturing companies. The motivation of further studying complexity is a combination between the existing literature and the practical experiences from the industry. Based on the latest trend companies are trying to supply a growing mix...

  8. Cost reduction of LWRs - The main features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, J.A.; Norman, D.

    1991-01-01

    For effective generation cost reductions to be achieved while maintaining safety levels, the impact of each of the above element and their interactions must be fully assessed, together with the effects of uncertainty on commercial risk. the amount of interest during construction which must be paid can be minimised by adopting designs, output ratings (unit size), and construction methods which minimise construction time. However this must be done without unduly increasing specific capital cost. Total capital costs can be reduced by sharing design and project launching costs and front-end design and licensing costs, across a series of identical plants. The paper is reviewing costs and performance factors such as those above with the aim of identifying the strategies which might be necessary within and between countries in order to create an environment which would enable cost reductions on LWRs to be made. (author)

  9. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  10. Spreadsheet tool for estimating noise reduction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.; Senden, V.; Leszczynski, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The Northeast Capital Industrial Association (NCIA) represents industry in Alberta's industrial heartland. The organization is in the process of developing a regional noise management plan (RNMP) for their member companies. The RNMP includes the development of a noise reduction cost spreadsheet tool to conduct reviews of practical noise control treatments available for individual plant equipment, inclusive of ranges of noise attenuation achievable, which produces a budgetary prediction of the installed cost of practical noise control treatments. This paper discussed the noise reduction cost spreadsheet tool, with particular reference to noise control best practices approaches and spreadsheet tool development such as prerequisite, assembling data required, approach, and unit pricing database. Use and optimization of the noise reduction cost spreadsheet tool was also discussed. It was concluded that the noise reduction cost spreadsheet tool is an easy interactive tool to estimate implementation costs related to different strategies and options of noise control mitigating measures and was very helpful in gaining insight for noise control planning purposes. 2 tabs.

  11. REDUCTION OF THE PRODUCTION COST. EXPERIENCE OF THE COSTS REDUCTION AT RUP “BMZ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Sereda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of the daily operative monitoring of the costs for reduction of net cost and reinforcement of control on the costs has been applied for the first time in 2003 in RB at RUP “BMZ”, that allowed for the enterprise to control the costs in regime of real time.

  12. Peer Review of “LDT Weight Reduction Study with Crash Model, Feasibility and Detailed Cost Analyses – Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Pickup”

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contractor will conduct an independent peer review of FEV’s light-duty truck (LDT) mass safety study, “Light-Duty Vehicle Weight Reduction Study with Crash Model, Feasibility and Detailed Cost Analysis – Silverado 1500”, and its corresponding computer-aided engineering (CAE) ...

  13. REVERSE LOGISTICS OF PACKAGING AS A SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY FOR COST REDUCTION: A STUDY IN A BOTTLER BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laryssa Guedes de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the possibility of reducing production costs with the implementation of a program of reverse logistics packaging. Therefore we conducted a literature review focusing on reverse logistics, sustainability, packaging and glass recycling. The research was conducted through a descriptive case study, conducted from a survey and a semi structured interview. The study was developed in a beverage bottler, the Engarrafamento Coroa, a company that adopts in its bottling system using bottles purchased from recycling cooperatives. The results indicate that by reverse logistics is possible to reduce costs and environmental impact associated with the pollution and waste of materials, and provides revenue generation.

  14. Cost reductions on a titanium dioxide plant identified by a process integration study at Tioxide UK Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of a process integration study is to determine the minimum practical amount of energy required to operate a process and to identify the most appropriate investment strategy which will realise the maximum energy cost savings consistent with a particular company's financial and operating criteria. The process integration method involves the rigorous application of thermodynamics and cost accounting, tempered by practical plant engineering and operability considerations. Tioxide UK Ltd is part of Tioxide Group plc and operates two UK sites for the production of titanium dioxide pigment. The site in question, Greatham works near Hartlepool, produces pigment via the chloride route. The energy costs at Greatham works can amount to pound5 - 6 million/year depending on production levels. (author).

  15. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  16. Fairness and cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reduction targets in the European Union member states. An analysis based on scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Ybema, J.R.; Vos, D.

    1997-06-01

    The Member States of the European Union (EU) have agreed upon a common position in the international negotiations on the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions. The total commitment of the EU is the result of differentiated emission targets for the individual Member States. In this study the results of 4 recent scenario studies on CO2 emission reduction are used to assess the fairness and the cost-effectiveness of the differentiated targets. Here, fairness is measured by the average cost per capita in a country to reach the emission target. Cost-effectiveness is based on the marginal cost of emission reduction. It is noted that there are limitations in the comparability of the country results. Further, the coverage of the EU Member States is not complete in all 4 studies. Robust conclusions could thus not be drawn for all countries. Nonetheless, there are strong indications that the efforts to achieve the emission reduction targets are not evenly distributed. Based on the results the countries can be divided into four groups with different burdens to achieve reduction of CO2 emissions: (a) countries that will probably be faced with above average burdens: Sweden, Italy and the Netherlands; (b) countries that will presumably be faced with above average burdens but for which limited information is available: Austria and Denmark; (c) countries that will probably be faced with average burdens or for which the relative efforts are indistinct: Germany, Portugal, Belgium, Finland and Luxembourg; and (d) countries that will probably be faced with below average burdens: United Kingdom, France, Spain, Ireland and Greece. 1 fig., 12 tabs., 6 refs

  17. Cost reductions on a food processing plant identified by a process integration study at Cadbury Typhoo Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, R.W. (Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (UK))

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of a process integration study is to determine the minimum practical amount of energy required to operate a process and to identify the minimum cost schemes to maximise savings consistent with planning and operating criteria. The British-led development of Pinch Technology provides a more systematic approach. This technique involves the rigorous application of thermodynamic principles and cost accounting whilst taking account of practical engineering and operability constraints. Cadbury Typhoo Ltd is part of the Cadbury Schweppes Group. The company produces and markets hot and cold beverage products. A process integration study was carried out at the company's Knighton manufacturing site where 'instant' powder beverage ingredients are made and packaged. The total energy bill at the site is in the region of Pound 0.5 million/year. The process energy bill is around Pound 300-350,000/year. The first significant opportunity involves changing the actual process by a different piping arrangement. For a capital expenditure of around Pound 1,000, savings worth Pound 25,000/year can be achieved with a payback of approximately two weeks. (author).

  18. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project

  19. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on

  20. Reduction in sick leave and costs to society of patients with Meniere's disease after treatment of temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders: a controlled six-year cost-benefit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorne, Assar; Agerberg, Göran

    2003-04-01

    This study compares the frequency of sick leave between the three-year period after and the three-year period before coordinated treatment of temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders in 24 patients (ten males and 14 females) diagnosed with Meniere's disease. The frequency of sick leave for the patients was also compared with the frequency of sick leave in a control group from the population. A cost-benefit analysis was made regarding the costs to society of sick leave related to the treatment costs of the patients. In a previous study the same patients were treated for their severe signs and symptoms of temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders, and they reported a substantial reduction in their vertigo, non-whirling dizziness, tinnitus, feeling of fullness in the ear, pain in the face and jaws, pain in the neck and shoulders, and headache. The number of days of sick leave and the year the patient began to receive disability pension due to the symptoms of Meniere's disease were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service in Sweden. Two of the patients received disability pension benefits due to Meniere's disease 17 years prior to their normal retirement pension. A third patient received disability pension for another reason and two were receiving a retirement pension. Data on the remaining 19 patients showed a considerable reduction in number of days of sick leave during the three-year period after coordinated treatment (270 days) compared with the three-year period before the treatment (1,536 days). The control subjects used a total of 14 days sick leave for the same symptoms during the same six-year period. Vertigo (nine days) was the dominant cause followed by pain in the neck and shoulders, and headache. The reduction in sick leave for the 19 nonretired patients and the treatment costs for the 24 patients can be used for a simple cost-benefit calculation for the subgroup of nonretired patients. During the first three years after treatment the

  1. Levelized cost-risk reduction prioritization of waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, V.K.; Young, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The prioritization of solid waste disposal options in terms of reduced risk to workers, the public, and the environment has recently generated considerable governmental and public interest. In this paper we address the development of a methodology to establish priorities for waste disposal options, such as incineration, landfills, long-term storage, waste minimization, etc. The study is one result of an overall project to develop methodologies for Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) of non-reactor nuclear facilities for the US Department of Energy. Option preferences are based on a levelized cost-risk reduction analysis. Option rankings are developed as functions of disposal option cost and timing, relative long- and short-term risks, and possible accident scenarios. We examine the annual costs and risks for each option over a large number of years. Risk, in this paper, is defined in terms of annual fatalities (both prompt and long-term) and environmental restoration costs that might result from either an accidental release or long-term exposure to both plant workers and the public near the site or facility. We use event timing to weigh both costs and risks; near-term costs and risks are discounted less than future expenditures and fatalities. This technique levels the timing of cash flows and benefits by converting future costs and benefits to present value costs and benefits. We give an example Levelized Cost-Benefit Analysis of incinerator location options to demonstrate the methodology and required data

  2. Cost-effectiveness of reduction of off-site dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.; Macphee, R.; Arbeau, N.; Miskin, J.; Scott, C.K.; Winters, E.

    1988-03-01

    Since the early 1970's, nuclear power plants have been designed and operated with a target of not releasing more than one percent of the licensed limits (derived emission limits) in liquid and gaseous effluents. The AECB initiated this study of the cost-effectiveness of the reduction of off-site doses as part of a review to determine if further measures to reduce off-site doses might be reasonably achievable. Atlantic Nuclear has estimated the cost of existing technology options that can be applied for a further reduction of radioactive effluents from future CANDU nuclear power plants. Detritiation, filtration, ion exchange and evaporation are included in the assessment. The costs are presented in 1987 Canadian dollars, and include capital and operating costs for a reference 50 year plant life. Darlington NGS and Point Lepreau NGS are the reference nuclear power plant types and locations. The effect resulting from the hypothetical application of each technology has been calculated as the resulting reduction in world collective radiation dose detriment. The CSA N288.1 procedure was used for local pathway analysis and the global dispersion model developed by the NEA (OECD) group of experts was used for dose calculations. The reduction in the 'collective effective dose equivalent commitment' was assumed to exist for 10,000 years, the expected life-span of solid waste repositories. No attempt was made to model world population dynamics. The collective dose reductions were calculated for a nominal world population of 10 billion persons. The estimated cost and effect of applying the technology options are summarized in a tabular form for input to further consideration of 'reasonably achievable off-site dose levels'

  3. Model reduction by weighted Component Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae H.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Component Cost Analysis considers any given system driven by a white noise process as an interconnection of different components, and assigns a metric called 'component cost' to each component. These component costs measure the contribution of each component to a predefined quadratic cost function. A reduced-order model of the given system may be obtained by deleting those components that have the smallest component costs. The theory of Component Cost Analysis is extended to include finite-bandwidth colored noises. The results also apply when actuators have dynamics of their own. Closed-form analytical expressions of component costs are also derived for a mechanical system described by its modal data. This is very useful to compute the modal costs of very high order systems. A numerical example for MINIMAST system is presented.

  4. A Model of Cost Reduction and Standardization: Improved Cost Savings While Maintaining the Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Michael J; Gitelis, Matthew E; Linn, John G; Ujiki, Michael B; Waskerwitz, Matthew; Umanskiy, Konstantin; Muldoon, Joseph P

    2015-11-01

    Surgeon instrument choices are influenced by training, previous experience, and established preferences. This causes variability in the cost of common operations, such as laparoscopic appendectomy. Many surgeons are unaware of the impact that this has on healthcare spending. We sought to educate surgeons on their instrument use and develop standardized strategies for operating room cost reduction. We collected the individual surgeon instrument cost for performing a laparoscopic appendectomy. Sixteen surgeons were educated about these costs and provided with cost-effective instruments and techniques. This study was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital system. Patients included those undergoing a laparoscopic appendectomy within the hospital system. Patient demographics, operating room costs, and short-term outcomes for the fiscal year before and after the education program were then compared. During fiscal year 2013, a total of 336 laparoscopic appendectomies were performed compared with 357 in 2014. Twelve surgeons had a ≥5% reduction in average cost per case. Overall, the average cost per case was reduced by 17% (p day readmissions, postoperative infections, operating time, or reoperations. This retrospective study is subject to the accuracy of the medical chart system. In addition, specific instrument costs are based on our institution contracts and vary compared with other institutions. In this study we demonstrate that operative instrument costs for laparoscopic appendectomy can be significantly reduced by informing the surgeons of their operating room costs compared with their peers and providing a low-cost standardized instrument tray. Importantly, this can be realized without any incentive or punitive measures and does not negatively impact outcomes. Additional work is needed to expand these results to more operations, hospital systems, and training programs.

  5. Cost reduction potentials of offshore wind power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobohm, Jens; Krampe, Leonard; Peter, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power is a major hope for the German energy turnaround. However, it will only be possible to tap its cost reduction potentials if industry, the political leadership and the administrative authorities join forces to create the necessary preconditions. An important requirement for this capital-intensive technology are stable legal and political framework conditions. A recent study on the future shows what needs to be done.

  6. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  7. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  8. Distributed Wind Cost Reduction: Learning from Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-02-23

    The distributed wind energy industry can learn several lessons from the solar industry regarding reducing soft costs. Suzanne Tegen presented this overview at the 2016 Distributed Wind Energy Association Business Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 23, 2016.

  9. Systemic cost-effectiveness analysis of food hazard reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    stage are considered. Cost analyses are conducted for different risk reduction targets and for three alternative scenarios concerning the acceptable range of interventions. Results demonstrate that using a system-wide policy approach to risk reduction can be more cost-effective than a policy focusing...

  10. Cost reduction at NSP using IPE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Operating nuclear power generating facilities are under increasing pressure to reduce costs to be able to compete successfully in the competitive electric sales market of today. With the completion of the individual plant evaluations (IPEs), numerous opportunities exist for application of probabilistic risk assessment methodology to reduce production costs. This paper presents two nontraditional methods in which IPE results can be used to help reduce nuclear insurance coverage limits and local property taxes. Significant savings can be realized through use of either of these two methods

  11. Achieving Cost Reduction Through Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, Betty Jo

    2016-10-01

    The reimbursement structure of the US health care system is shifting from a volume-based system to a value-based system. Adopting a comprehensive data analytics platform has become important to health care facilities, in part to navigate this shift. Hospitals generate plenty of data, but actionable analytics are necessary to help personnel interpret and apply data to improve practice. Perioperative services is an important revenue-generating department for hospitals, and each perioperative service line requires a tailored approach to be successful in managing outcomes and controlling costs. Perioperative leaders need to prepare to use data analytics to reduce variation in supplies, labor, and overhead. Mercy, based in Chesterfield, Missouri, adopted a perioperative dashboard that helped perioperative leaders collaborate with surgeons and perioperative staff members to organize and analyze health care data, which ultimately resulted in significant cost savings. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost reduction through improved seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.

    1984-01-01

    During the past decade, many significnt seismic technology developments have been accomplished by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) programs. Both base technology and major projects, such as the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant, have contributed to seismic technology development and validation. Improvements have come in the areas of ground motion definitions, soil-structure interaction, and structural analysis methods and criteria for piping, equipment, components, reactor core, and vessels. Examples of some of these lessons learned and technology developments are provided. Then, the highest priority seismic technology needs, achievable through DOE actions and sponsorship are identified and discussed. Satisfaction of these needs are expected to make important contributions toward cost avoidances and reduced capital costs of future liquid metal nuclear plants. 23 references, 12 figures

  13. Costs, emissions reductions, and vehicle repair: evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; McConnell, V; Harrington, W

    2000-04-01

    The Arizona inspection and maintenance (I/M) program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and repair costs, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles that failed the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of data on repair from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for the evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating repair costs when they are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass the test. Using a statistical analysis, we provide some information about the differences between the vehicles that pass and those that do not. Older, more polluting vehicles are much more likely never to pass the I/M test, and their expected repair costs are much higher than those for newer cars. This paper summarizes the evidence on costs and emission reductions in the Arizona program, comparing costs and emissions reductions between cars and trucks. Finally, we examine the potential for more cost-effective repair, first through an analysis of tightening I/M cut points and then by calculating the cost savings of achieving different emission reduction goals when the most cost-effective repairs are made first.

  14. Design features and cost reduction potential of JSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Atsushi; Hayafune, Hiroki; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Japan Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is designed to reduce plant commodity. • Cost reduction effectiveness by innovative designs is estimated by bottom up method. • JSFR achieves 76% construction cost reduction compared with Monju by design effort. • Commercial JSFR construction cost could be less than that of conventional LWR. - Abstract: To improve the economic competitiveness of the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), several innovative designs have been introduced, e.g. reduction of number of main cooling loop, shorter pipe arrangement by adopting thermally durable material, in fact high chromium ferrite steel, a compact reactor vessel (RV), integration of a primary pump and an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Since they had not been introduced in the past and existing reactors, a new approach for construction cost estimation has been introduced to handle innovative technologies, for example, concerning different kinds of material, fabrication processes of equipment etc. As results of JSFR construction cost estimations based on the new method and the latest conceptual JSFR design, economic goals of Generation IV nuclear energy systems can be achieved by expecting the following cost reduction effects: commodity reduction by adopting innovative design, an economy of scale by power generation increase, learning effect etc. It is well analyzed quantitatively that feasibility of innovative designs is essential for economic competitiveness of JSFR

  15. Design features and cost reduction potential of JSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Atsushi, E-mail: kato.atsushi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan); Hayafune, Hiroki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan); Kotake, Shoji [The Japan Atomic Power Company, 1-1 Kanda-midoricyo, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo-to 101-0053 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Japan Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is designed to reduce plant commodity. • Cost reduction effectiveness by innovative designs is estimated by bottom up method. • JSFR achieves 76% construction cost reduction compared with Monju by design effort. • Commercial JSFR construction cost could be less than that of conventional LWR. - Abstract: To improve the economic competitiveness of the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), several innovative designs have been introduced, e.g. reduction of number of main cooling loop, shorter pipe arrangement by adopting thermally durable material, in fact high chromium ferrite steel, a compact reactor vessel (RV), integration of a primary pump and an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Since they had not been introduced in the past and existing reactors, a new approach for construction cost estimation has been introduced to handle innovative technologies, for example, concerning different kinds of material, fabrication processes of equipment etc. As results of JSFR construction cost estimations based on the new method and the latest conceptual JSFR design, economic goals of Generation IV nuclear energy systems can be achieved by expecting the following cost reduction effects: commodity reduction by adopting innovative design, an economy of scale by power generation increase, learning effect etc. It is well analyzed quantitatively that feasibility of innovative designs is essential for economic competitiveness of JSFR.

  16. The Impact of Accounting Methods on Cost Reduction Rates in Defense Aerospace Weapons System Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    and adhered to in U.S. industry, allow some flexibility in accounting. Under GAAP , accounting areas such as depreciation , inventory, investment tax... depreciation , inventory and investment tax credit) in predicting cost reduction rates are studied. Of the three accounting variables, only inventory...RATES .. ................. ........... 5 1. Depreciation ........ ............... 6 2. Capitalizing or Expensing of Costs . . .. 6 3. Material Costs

  17. New approaches to cost reduction on the UK continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, M I

    1994-12-31

    The conference paper deals with cost reduction on the UK continental shelf. New approaches on the reduction of field development costs are compared with the cases if traditional approaches had been followed. Field developments where success in aligning the goals and objectives of the contractors and owners which led to projects being delivered on time but more than 20% below budget, are exemplified. The contractors in the alliance received 55% of the savings in addition to their normal profit. The procedure to follow in such cases, is discussed

  18. New approaches to cost reduction on the UK continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with cost reduction on the UK continental shelf. New approaches on the reduction of field development costs are compared with the cases if traditional approaches had been followed. Field developments where success in aligning the goals and objectives of the contractors and owners which led to projects being delivered on time but more than 20% below budget, are exemplified. The contractors in the alliance received 55% of the savings in addition to their normal profit. The procedure to follow in such cases, is discussed

  19. Vehicle Lightweighting: Mass Reduction Spectrum Analysis and Process Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, Anthony [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Hannibal, Ted [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ivanic, Ziga [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Clark, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. In the first two phases of this effort examined combinations of strategies aimed at achieving strategic targets of 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. These results have been reported in the Idaho National Laboratory report INL/EXT-14-33863 entitled Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting published in March 2015. The data for these strategies were drawn from many sources, including Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. lightweighting studies, U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc./Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses.

  20. Vehicle Lightweighting: Mass Reduction Spectrum Analysis and Process Cost Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarin, Anthony; Hannibal, Ted; Raghunathan, Anand; Ivanic, Ziga; Clark, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. In the first two phases of this effort examined combinations of strategies aimed at achieving strategic targets of 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. These results have been reported in the Idaho National Laboratory report INL/EXT-14-33863 entitled Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting published in March 2015. The data for these strategies were drawn from many sources, including Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. lightweighting studies, U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc./Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, many United States Council for Automotive Research's/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs, and IBIS Associates, Inc.'s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses.

  1. Cost and schedule reduction for next-generation Candu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Yu, S.; Pakan, M.; Soulard, M.

    2002-01-01

    AECL has developed a suite of technologies for Candu R reactors that enable the next step in the evolution of the Candu family of heavy-water-moderated fuel-channel reactors. These technologies have been combined in the design for the Advanced Candu Reactor TM1 (ACRTM), AECL's next generation Candu power plant. The ACR design builds extensively on the existing Candu experience base, but includes innovations, in design and in delivery technology, that provide very substantial reductions in capital cost and in project schedules. In this paper, main features of next generation design and delivery are summarized, to provide the background basis for the cost and schedule reductions that have been achieved. In particular the paper outlines the impact of the innovative design steps for ACR: - Selection of slightly enriched fuel bundle design; - Use of light water coolant in place of traditional Candu heavy water coolant; - Compact core design with unique reactor physics benefits; - Optimized coolant and turbine system conditions. In addition to the direct cost benefits arising from efficiency improvement, and from the reduction in heavy water, the next generation Candu configuration results in numerous additional indirect cost benefits, including: - Reduction in number and complexity of reactivity mechanisms; - Reduction in number of heavy water auxiliary systems; - Simplification in heat transport and its support systems; - Simplified human-machine interface. The paper also describes the ACR approach to design for constructability. The application of module assembly and open-top construction techniques, based on Candu and other worldwide experience, has been proven to generate savings in both schedule durations and overall project cost, by reducing premium on-site activities, and by improving efficiency of system and subsystem assembly. AECL's up-to-date experience in the use of 3-D CADDS and related engineering tools has also been proven to reduce both engineering and

  2. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Ulrich [Alencon LLC; Fishman, Oleg [Alencon LLC

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  3. Least cost planning for CO2-reduction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1990-01-01

    A first recommendation for the determination of the minimum costs for a carbon-dioxide reduction strategy is presented. For this, the tabulation of so-called, 'CO 2 -ranking-lists', containing the relationship between the costs of a distinct measure to avoid the emission of certain amount of CO 2 (in dollar/t CO 2 ) versus its potential (in t CO 2 /yr), is indispensable. Some basic aspects of this approach are discussed and a first guess of the costs of some measures to avoid CO 2 -emissions into the atmosphere is presented. (orig.) [de

  4. The ranking of negative-cost emissions reduction measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A flaw has been identified in the calculation of the cost-effectiveness in marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs). The problem affects “negative-cost” emissions reduction measures—those that produce a return on investment. The resulting ranking sometimes favours measures that produce low emissions savings and is therefore unreliable. The issue is important because incorrect ranking means a potential failure to achieve the best-value outcome. A simple mathematical analysis shows that not only is the standard cost-effectiveness calculation inadequate for ranking negative-cost measures, but there is no possible replacement that satisfies reasonable requirements. Furthermore, the concept of negative cost-effectiveness is found to be unsound and its use should be avoided. Among other things, this means that MACCs are unsuitable for ranking negative-cost measures. As a result, MACCs produced by a range of organizations including UK government departments may need to be revised. An alternative partial ranking method has been devised by making use of Pareto optimization. The outcome can be presented as a stacked bar chart that indicates both the preferred ordering and the total emissions saving available for each measure without specifying a cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: ► Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are used to rank emission reduction measures. ► There is a flaw in the standard ranking method for negative-cost measures. ► Negative values of cost-effectiveness (in £/tC or equivalent) are invalid. ► There may be errors in published MACCs. ► A method based on Pareto principles provides an alternative ranking method.

  5. Operation costs and pollutant emissions reduction by definition of new collection scheduling and optimization of MSW collection routes using GIS. The case study of Barreiro, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsigraiova, Zdena; Semiao, Viriato; Beijoco, Filipa

    2013-04-01

    This work proposes an innovative methodology for the reduction of the operation costs and pollutant emissions involved in the waste collection and transportation. Its innovative feature lies in combining vehicle route optimization with that of waste collection scheduling. The latter uses historical data of the filling rate of each container individually to establish the daily circuits of collection points to be visited, which is more realistic than the usual assumption of a single average fill-up rate common to all the system containers. Moreover, this allows for the ahead planning of the collection scheduling, which permits a better system management. The optimization process of the routes to be travelled makes recourse to Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and uses interchangeably two optimization criteria: total spent time and travelled distance. Furthermore, rather than using average values, the relevant parameters influencing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, such as vehicle speed in different roads and loading weight, are taken into consideration. The established methodology is applied to the glass-waste collection and transportation system of Amarsul S.A., in Barreiro. Moreover, to isolate the influence of the dynamic load on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions a sensitivity analysis of the vehicle loading process is performed. For that, two hypothetical scenarios are tested: one with the collected volume increasing exponentially along the collection path; the other assuming that the collected volume decreases exponentially along the same path. The results evidence unquestionable beneficial impacts of the optimization on both the operation costs (labor and vehicles maintenance and fuel consumption) and pollutant emissions, regardless the optimization criterion used. Nonetheless, such impact is particularly relevant when optimizing for time yielding substantial improvements to the existing system: potential reductions of 62% for the total

  6. Quantifying the emissions reduction effectiveness and costs of oxygenated gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    During the fall, winter, and spring of 1991-1992, a measurement program was conducted in Denver, Colorado to quantify the technical and economic effectiveness of oxygenated gasoline in reducing automobile carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Emissions from 80,000 vehicles under a variety of operating conditions were measured before, during, and after the seasonal introduction of oxygenated gasoline into the region. Gasoline samples were taken from several hundred vehicles to confirm the actual oxygen content of the fuel in use. Vehicle operating conditions, such as cold starts and warm operations, and ambient conditions were characterized. The variations in emissions attributable to fuel type and to operating conditions were then quantified. This paper describes the measurement program and its results. The 1991-1992 Colorado oxygenated gasoline program contributed to a reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. The measurement program demonstrated that most of the reduction is concentrated in a small percentage of the vehicles that use oxygenated gasoline. The remainder experience little or not reduction in emissions. The oxygenated gasoline program outlays are approximately $25 to $30 million per year in Colorado. These are directly measurable costs, incurred through increased government expenditures, higher costs to private industry, and losses in fuel economy. The measurement program determined the total costs of oxygenated gasoline as an air pollution control strategy for the region. Costs measured included government administration and enforcement, industry production and distribution, and consumer and other user costs. This paper describes the ability of the oxygenated gasoline program to reduce pollution; the overall cost of the program to government, industry, and consumers; and the effectiveness of the program in reducing pollution compared to its costs

  7. Cost reduction possibilities for a heavy-ion accelerator for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Sims, J.R.; Henke, M.D.; Harris, D.B.; Dudziak, D.J.; Phillips, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A design was produced for a single module in a cost-optimized accelerator appropriate for a commercial heavy-ion power plant. The goal of the study was to determine if the cost of the accelerator module could be reduced through design options, selection of materials, and manufacturing techniques. Independent cost estimates were obtained for the three main components of the module, and cost reductions of 20% from the cost calculated by the heavy-ion accelerator design/cost-minimization computer code LIACEP were identified. 3 refs., 23 figs

  8. Cost effective snubber reduction program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Antaki, G.A.; Chang, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the stringent seismic requirements imposed on nuclear power plants, piping engineers have resorted to the extensive use of snubbers to support nuclear piping systems. The advantage of snubbers is that they provide dynamic restraint while allowing free thermal growth of the pipe. Unfortunately, as more plants go into operation, utilities have to face the costs of strict in-service inspection requirements and risks of unscheduled or extended plant outages associated with snubber failures. The snubber inspection requirements, defined in plant Technical Specifications, require periodic visual inspections of all snubbers and functional tests of a percentage of the plant snubbers, during refueling outages. For a typical 1000 Mw unit this represents from 50 to several hundred snubbers to be functionally tested at each refueling outage. Should failures occur during testing, the sample size must be further increased. Very quickly the costs and risks of extended shutdowns have led the industry to consider, and in many cases implement, snubber reduction programs. At the same time several changes in seismic design criteria have greatly facilitated the reduction of snubbers, making snubber elimination economically and technically attractive. In this paper we examine the costs and benefits of snubber reduction programs and propose a method for evaluating their cost benefits

  9. Explaining the experience curve: Cost reductions of Brazilian ethanol from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Wall Bake, J.D.; Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Poot, T.; Walter, A.

    2009-01-01

    Production costs of bio-ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil have declined continuously over the last three decades. The aims of this study are to determine underlying reasons behind these cost reductions, and to assess whether the experience curve concept can be used to describe the development of feedstock costs and industrial production costs. The analysis was performed using average national costs data, a number of prices (as a proxy for production costs) and data on annual Brazilian production volumes. Results show that the progress ratio (PR) for feedstock costs is 0.68 and 0.81 for industrial costs (excluding feedstock costs). The experience curve of total production costs results in a PR of 0.80. Cost breakdowns of sugarcane production show that all sub-processes contributed to the total, but that increasing yields have been the main driving force. Industrial costs mainly decreased because of increasing scales of the ethanol plants. Total production costs at present are approximately 340 US$/m ethanol 3 (16 US$/GJ). Based on the experience curves for feedstock and industrial costs, total ethanol production costs in 2020 are estimated between US$ 200 and 260/m 3 (9.4-12.2 US$/GJ). We conclude that using disaggregated experience curves for feedstock and industrial processing costs provide more insights into the factors that lowered costs in the past, and allow more accurate estimations for future cost developments. (author)

  10. Cost reduction potentials in the German market for balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinkerbusch, Kai; Heuterkes, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article examines potential cost reductions in the market for balancing power by pooling all four German control areas. In a united control area both the procurement and the production of balancing power may be more efficient than in four separated control areas. Our data contain bids on energy procurement as well as balancing power flows in the period from December 2007 to November 2008. A reference scenario simulates the market results for secondary and tertiary balancing power. Subsequently, we simulate a united control area. We show that in the period under review the total costs of balancing power are reduced by 17%. (author)

  11. Cost reduction with maintenance ECT in refractory bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, C; Frye, M A; Coudreaut, M F; Cunningham, M; Spearing, M; McGuire, M; Guze, B

    1998-03-01

    A case report of outpatient maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is presented in a patient with bipolar disorder type I refractory to conventional medication treatment but responsive to ECT. A cost comparison is made showing substantial savings when outpatient maintenance ECT is used in lieu of inpatient hospitalization with ECT. A detailed life chart illustrating multiple medication trials that failed to stabilize the patient accompanies the financial summary. This case highlights the advantages of outpatient maintenance ECT for bipolar depression particularly with regard to safety, efficacy, and significant health care cost reduction.

  12. Seeking the competitive advantage: it's more than cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, S F

    1999-01-01

    Most organizations focus considerable time and energy on reducing operating costs as a way to attain marketplace advantage. This strategy was not inappropriate in the past. To be competitive in the future, however, focus must be placed on other issues, not just cost reduction. The near future will be dominated by service industries, knowledge management, and virtual partnerships, with production optimization and flexibility, innovation, and strong partnerships defining those organizations that attain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage will reside in clarifying the vision and strategic plan, reviewing and redesigning work processes to optimize resources and value-added work, and creating change-ready environments and empowered workforces.

  13. Feasibility of fractionating Myoview cold kits for cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Myoview is a freeze-dried ethylene diphosphine ligand that upon reconstitution with 99 Tc m -pertechnetate yields a preparation containing the lipophilic cationic myocardial imaging agent 99 Tc m -tetrofosmin (Tf). The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of fractionating Myoview kits to reduce the cost of the kit, currently A$350 per vial. Myoview vials were reconstituted with N 2 -flushed saline and split into 4 or 5 aliquots of 0.5 ml, then stored at -80 deg C in N 2 -filled vials for up to 3 months. 99 Tc m -Tf was prepared by the addition of varying volumes of 99 Tc m -pertechnetate (1.1 GBq.ml- 1 ) to give a final ligand concentration of 14.4 μg.ml- 1 , followed by a 15 min incubation at room temperature. Radiochemical purity (RCP) was examined at 0, 1, 2 and 3 months post-fractionation. At each time point, RCP was determined at 0,1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h post-reconstitution. RCP was measured using the thin layer chromatography method according to the manufacturer's instructions. Over the 3 month evaluation period, RCP was maintained at 96.4 ± 1.7% (n = 48) over 24 h at room temperature. Animal biodistribution studies were used to validate the final product from the full cold kit to that from the fractionated kits. In conclusion, these results show that Myoview kits can be successfully fractionated and stored for up to 3 months. The subsequent 99 Tc m -Tf can be used to provide significant cost reductions, especially when only 1 patient dose is required

  14. Time-driven activity-based costing to identify opportunities for cost reduction in pediatric appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang R; Abbas, Paulette I; Smith, Carolyn M; Carberry, Kathleen E; Ren, Hui; Patel, Binita; Nuchtern, Jed G; Lopez, Monica E

    2016-12-01

    As reimbursement programs shift to value-based payment models emphasizing quality and efficient healthcare delivery, there exists a need to better understand process management to unearth true costs of patient care. We sought to identify cost-reduction opportunities in simple appendicitis management by applying a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methodology to this high-volume surgical condition. Process maps were created using medical record time stamps. Labor capacity cost rates were calculated using national median physician salaries, weighted nurse-patient ratios, and hospital cost data. Consumable costs for supplies, pharmacy, laboratory, and food were derived from the hospital general ledger. Time-driven activity-based costing resulted in precise per-minute calculation of personnel costs. Highest costs were in the operating room ($747.07), hospital floor ($388.20), and emergency department ($296.21). Major contributors to length of stay were emergency department evaluation (270min), operating room availability (395min), and post-operative monitoring (1128min). The TDABC model led to $1712.16 in personnel costs and $1041.23 in consumable costs for a total appendicitis cost of $2753.39. Inefficiencies in healthcare delivery can be identified through TDABC. Triage-based standing delegation orders, advanced practice providers, and same day discharge protocols are proposed cost-reducing interventions to optimize value-based care for simple appendicitis. II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. US enrichment reduction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    A major national program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is currently under way in the U.S., centered at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), to reduce the potential of research and test reactor fuels for increasing the proliferation of nuclear explosive devices. The main objective of the program is to provide the technical means by which the uranium enrichment to be used in these reactors can be reduced to less than 20% without significant economic and performance penalties. The criteria, basis and goals of the program are consistent with the results of a number of case studies which have been performed as part of the program

  16. Does mitigation save? Reviewing cost-benefit analyses of disaster risk reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shreve, Cheney M.; Kelman, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    The benefit-cost-ratio (BCR), used in cost-benefit analysis (CBA), is an indicator that attempts to summarize the overall value for money of a project. Disaster costs continue to rise and the demand has increased to demonstrate the economic benefit of disaster risk reduction (DRR) to policy makers. This study compiles and compares original CBA case studies reporting DRR BCRs, without restrictions as to hazard type, location, scale, or other parameters. Many results were identified supporting ...

  17. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, W.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.; Hicks, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by

  18. Possibility of material cost reduction toward development of low-cost second-generation superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Ataru; Horii, Shigeru; Doi, Toshiya

    2017-10-01

    Two approaches to reducing the material cost of second-generation superconducting wires are proposed in this paper: (1) instead of the electrical stabilizing layers of silver and copper presently used on the superconducting layer, a Nb-doped SrTiO3 conductive buffer layer and cube-textured Cu are proposed as an advanced architecture, and (2) the use of an electromagnetic (EM) steel tape as a metal substrate of coated conductors in a conventional architecture. In structures fabricated without using electrical stabilizing layers on the superconducting layer, the critical current density achieved at 77 K in a self-field was approximately 2.6 MA/cm2. On the other hand, in the case of using EM steel tapes, although the critical current density was far from practical at the current stage, the biaxial alignment of YBa2Cu3O y (YBCO) and buffer layers was realized without oxidation on the metal surface. In this study, the possibility of material cost reduction has been strongly indicated toward the development of low-cost second-generation superconducting wires in the near future.

  19. Pipeline cost reduction through effective project management and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [TransCanada Pipeline Ltd., Alberta (Canada); Babuk, T. [Empress International Inc., Westwood, NJ (United States); Mohitpour, M. [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Murray, M.A. [National Energy Board of Canada (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pipelines are regarded by many as passive structures with the technology involved in their construction and operation being viewed as relatively simple and stable. If such is the case how can there be much room for cost improvement? In reality, there have been many technological and regulatory innovations required within the pipeline industry to meet the challenges posed by ever increasing consumer demand for hydrocarbons, the effects of aging infrastructure and a need to control operating and maintenance expenditures. The importance of technology management, as a subset of overall project management, is a key element of life cycle cost control. Assurance of public safety and the integrity of the system are other key elements in ensuring a successful pipeline project. The essentials of best practise project management from an owner/ operator's perspective are set out in the paper. Particular attention is paid to the appropriate introduction of new technology, strategic procurement practice and material selection, indicating that capital cost savings of up to 15% are achievable without harming life cycle cost. The value of partnering leading to technical innovation, cost savings and improved profitability for all the participants is described. Partnering also helps avoid duplicated effort through the use of common tools for design, planning schedule tracking and reporting. Investing in appropriate technology development has been a major source of cost reduction in recent years and the impact of a number of these recently introduced technologies in the areas of materials, construction processes and operation and maintenance are discussed in the paper. (author)

  20. Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemet, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    The extent and timing of cost-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general, rely heavily on learning curves to include technology dynamics. Historically, no energy technology has changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of which has declined by a factor of nearly 100 since the 1950s. Which changes were most important in accounting for the cost reductions that have occurred over the past three decades? Are these results consistent with the notion that learning from experience drove technical change? In this paper, empirical data are assembled to populate a simple model identifying the most important factors affecting the cost of PV. The results indicate that learning from experience, the theoretical mechanism used to explain learning curves, only weakly explains change in the most important factors-plant size, module efficiency, and the cost of silicon. Ways in which the consideration of a broader set of influences, such as technical barriers, industry structure, and characteristics of demand, might be used to inform energy technology policy are discussed

  1. Flying Lessons: Learning from Ryanair's Cost Reduction Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Through radically improving the value equation for airline customers, Ryanair has served to shake-up established norms and practices in European aviation. Underpinning its price leadership and market success is a vigorous and relentless cost reduction ethos and resultant low break-even load factor. Ryanair has lowered European airline cost structures considerably, shattering existing cost floors. Few competitors are able to follow, either because they do not know how or they are unable due to social settlement obligations or service commitments. At the same time, the company has maintained high average load factors on its flights. Taken in conjunction with its low break-even load factor, this results in consistently high overall profit margins. On this basis, Ryanair is likely to remain a significant competitor and increase its market presence and success across Europe.

  2. Reduction of cost of poor quality in nuclear fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, B.

    2000-01-01

    Within ABB reduction of Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) has become an important process to focus quality improvement initiatives on bottom-line results. The process leads to improved bottom-line results, through cost savings, but it also leads to quality improvements in our processes, products and services. The traditional way of measuring and controlling COPQ in the production workshops is not enough. It is of vital importance to include other non-value creating costs as well, both internally, e.g. in the engineering work, and externally, in delivered products and purchased goods. ABB Atom has since a number of years used the COPQ process in the various steps of nuclear fuel manufacturing. The definition has been expanded to cover, for instance: Scrap, rework and deviations; Margin slippage; Warranty costs; Lack of supplier performance; Excess and obsolete inventory. Each of the COPQ elements has a responsible 'owner' within the management of the Nuclear Fuel Division. The owners form a COPQ task force, which is responsible for analyzing results, setting goals and initiating improvement actions. The COPQ result is updated each month and is presented to all employees in several ways, such as Intranet. For the various COPQ elements improvement initiatives have been implemented. The presentation will describe some of them, such as reduction of: Scrap, rework and deviations through a process with zero defect meetings, high level of process automation, statistical methods; Margin slippage through business process re-engineering; Warranty costs through an improved design review process and expanded testing of new products; Costs for lack in supplier performance through a new concept for supplier QA/QC. It is our strong belief that both ABB Atom and our Customers will benefit from the COPQ process since it leads to a higher quality for nuclear fuel and control rods and facilitates lower product prices. (author)

  3. Proton pump inhibitors: potential cost reductions by applying prescribing guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahir, Caitriona

    2012-01-01

    There are concerns that proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are being over prescribed in both primary and secondary care. This study aims to establish potential cost savings in a community drug scheme for a one year period according to published clinical and cost-effective guidelines for PPI prescribing.

  4. The importance of capital cost reduction in improving nuclear economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmo, A.; Braun, C.

    1996-01-01

    In the developed countries having existing nuclear programs, the situation necessitates lower total power generation cost. The restructuring of utility industry due to the deregulation causes to reorganize the ownership of some nuclear plants, and the overall economics of nuclear plants in relation to their local competition is reexamined. The reluctance to make any new long term capital cost commitment arises, and it makes new plant construction less likely in near future, and plant upgrading and improvement to be put to intense scrutiny. The capital cost recovery in existing nuclear plants in USA is discussed. It is important to recognize that there is very little that can be done to affect already expended capital, and only that can be done is to improve plant capacity factors, besides write-off. The roles of architects and engineers in improved plant economics are now evaluated by the various organizations which are interested in the participation in new nuclear industry reorganization and restructuring. The reduction of operation and maintenance costs and capital investment, and the improvement of capacity factor are reported. In new ALWR construction program, architects and engineers can significantly support the control of plant capital costs by the selection of the plant design and the sites, and the strategies of procurement and contract, construction schedule and others. (K.I.)

  5. A supply chain cost reduction framework for the South African mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musenga F. Mpwanya

    2017-03-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to explore supply chain costs in the South African mobile phone industry, and to develop a supply chain cost-reduction framework for the South African mobile phone industry. Setting: This study explores supply chain costs in four mobile phone companies operating in the South African mobile phone industry, of which three mobile network operators and one mobile retailing group. It uses semi-structured interview data collected in 2011. Method: This study adopted a qualitative case study design to understand supply chain costs and develop a supply chain cost-reduction framework for the South African mobile phone industry. Eight semi-structured interviews with managers of mobile phone companies were conducted. The data were analysed with the help of Atlas.ti, using an adapted three-phased analytical framework as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994 and O’ Dwyer (2004. Results: The study found that consolidation of strategic relationships through collaboration and strategic alliances between MNOs and other supply chain players is one of the ways to drive costs down across the supply chain. Outsourcing of some of the support activities and retailers’ direct purchasing transactions from device manufacturers were also found to be other avenues for reducing supply chain costs in the industry. Conclusion: The study suggests that mobile network operators (MNOs need to consolidate their strategic relationships by increasing the share of the network infrastructure, and emphasising the need to strive for operational efficiencies. This combined effort should result in significant cost reductions across the supply chain. The findings of this study provided some avenues that managers of mobile-phone companies could consider to drive costs down supply chain-wide and service end-users at lower rates. The findings of this study could also help regulating authorities to get insights into supply chain cost reduction and develop appropriate

  6. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinga, W.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.J.; Hicks, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by using the experience curve approach, scrutinizing costs of dry grind ethanol production over the timeframe 1980-2005. Cost reductions are differentiated between feedstock (corn) production and industrial (ethanol) processing. Corn production costs in the US have declined by 62% over 30 years, down to 100$ 2005 /tonne in 2005, while corn production volumes almost doubled since 1975. A progress ratio (PR) of 0.55 is calculated indicating a 45% cost decline over each doubling in cumulative production. Higher corn yields and increasing farm sizes are the most important drivers behind this cost decline. Industrial processing costs of ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983, to below 130$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005 (excluding costs for corn and capital), equivalent to a PR of 0.87. Total ethanol production costs (including capital and net corn costs) have declined approximately 60% from 800$ 2005 /m 3 in the early 1980s, to 300$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005. Higher ethanol yields, lower energy use and the replacement of beverage alcohol-based production technologies have mostly contributed to this substantial cost decline. In addition, the average size of dry grind ethanol plants increased by 235% since 1990. For the future it is estimated that solely due to technological learning, production costs of ethanol may decline 28-44%, though this excludes effects of the current rising corn and fossil fuel costs. It is also concluded that experience curves are a valuable tool to describe both past and potential future cost reductions in US corn-based ethanol production

  7. Cost reduction has priority in solar cell research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zolingen, R.J.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    The main topic in the research and development of photovoltaic cells is cost reduction. Although new materials, improved techniques and increasing efficiency are promising aspects of the clean and sustainable option of a photovoltaic conversion of sunlight to produce electricity at a large scale, the high prices form an obstacle. Photovoltaic conversion is at least a factor three too expensive compared to the conventional power generation techniques by means of fossil fuels. Attention is paid to the theoretical maximum efficiency of photovoltaic conversion, the efficiencies realized sofar, the importance of thin film solar cells, the payback period of photovoltaic modules, the environmental impacts of using photovoltaic cells, and finally the costs. 2 figs., 1 ill., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  8. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-01-01

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO x emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO x . The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO x concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy

  9. Grouping eucalyptus species in kraft pulp process for cost reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiwan Pichayadecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the level of the important factors that can decrease total cost of pulp production. First of all, experts and experienced users identify the factors that affect the total production cost by applying the principle of 4M 1E cause and effect diagram. Then the primary factors were chosen based on 80% of their significance and tested by hypothesis for two population means. It was found that at the 95% confidence level the significant factors that have effects on the total production cost are amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. However, the proportion of easy delignification according to Eucalyptus species is considered as a significant factor based on various studies. Box-Behnken experiment is designed with respect to 3 mentioned factors and 3 levels of each factor. The response surface method (RSM is employed to determine the non-linear relation between the total cost as the response and the proportion of easy delignification, amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. To minimize the total cost, the optimal values of each factor are 75% of easy delignification, 112 grams per liter of Effective alkali in white liquor and 13.5 of kappa number. Under this optimal condition, the average total cost per ton of Eucalyptus is 13,393.91 Baht which is significantly less than the total cost of 15,517.06 Baht per ton before improvement.

  10. Cost-of-illness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderda, Gary M

    2003-01-01

    Cost-of-illness studies measure the overall economic impact of a disease on society. Such studies are important in setting public health priorities and for economic evaluation of new treatments. These studies should take the societal perspective and include both direct and indirect costs. Often indirect costs exceed direct costs. Comparison of cost-of-illness studies from different countries is difficult because of differences in population, currency, the way health care is provided, and other social and political factors.

  11. Redesign of an in-market food processor for manufacturing cost reduction using DFMA methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Harlalka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the time and cost involved in the product development is very important to stay competitive in the market. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA is a cost-reduction framework for designers to evaluate manufacturing aspects of a product design. A case study on an in-market food processor, this paper aims to demonstrate the significance of DFMA implementation on an Indian consumer product. Even though many DFMA case studies have been published till date, very few have dealt with the Indian consumer durables category. In this paper, various cost-reduction opportunities are identified in the design of a food processor manufactured by a reputed company in India. Using the DFMA study, design ideas are developed with an objective of reducing the overall manufacturing cost of the product. As a result of DFMA implementation, significant improvement in terms of the product’s architecture, assembly time and design efficiency is identified. Overall cost reduction of 0.25 USD (United States Dollar was achieved and an improvement in the Design for Assembly (DFA index from 15.99 to 19.93 is reported. This procedure utilized in this paper can be adopted for any consumer durable products of similar type and design improvements and cost reduction can be achieved.

  12. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  13. Perceptions of managers regarding supply chain cost reduction in the South African mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musenga F. Mpwanya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many industries, including the mobile phone industry, experience a surge in supply chain (SC costs in the provision of products and services to their customers. Despite this, only a few studies have been conducted on SC cost reduction in South Africa and globally. Objective: This study seeks to understand the perceptions of managers regarding cost reduction in the South African mobile phone SC. Method: A qualitative case study was conducted, involving eight willing managers and using semi-structured interviews, observation and documents. Interviews transcripts were analysed thematically with the help of Atlas.ti and a threefold process was followed, comprising data reduction, data display and data interpretation and conclusion drawing. Results: The findings suggest that mobile phone companies should consolidate their strategic relationships and be efficient, in order to effectively reduce costs in the South African mobile phone SC. To achieve this, whilst South African mobile network operators have to share more and more infrastructure and outsource their operations, other mobile phone companies should re-engineer their operational processes and their reduce costs across the SC. Conclusion: The knowledge generated from this study should assist South African mobile phone companies to reduce their SC costs and address high-priced mobile services. On the other hand, this study should assist regulating authorities (the Department of Communications and the Independent Communication Authority of South Africa to gain insights into the challenges faced by the mobile phone industry in South Africa and, therefore, to make appropriate and adequate mobile telecommunication policies.

  14. The Reduction of Faculty Reassigned Time as a Community College Cost Containment Initiative: A Case Study of the Maricopa County Community College District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Michael C.

    This paper argues that community colleges can contain costs by reducing faculty reassigned time, defined as a conscious or deliberate management action, either discretionary or mandated, that releases full-time faculty from teaching duties in order to perform other tasks. According to the paper, standard financial accounting systems have a…

  15. Major cost savings associated with biologic dose reduction in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, C L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether patients with Inflammatory Arthritis (IA) (Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) or Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)) would remain in remission following a reduction in biologic dosing frequency and to calculate the cost savings associated with dose reduction. This prospective non-blinded non-randomised study commenced in 2010. Patients with Inflammatory Arthritis being treated with a biologic agent were screened for disease activity. A cohort of those in remission according to standardized disease activity indices (DAS28 < 2.6, BASDAI < 4) was offered a reduction in dosing frequency of two commonly used biologic therapies (etanercept 50 mg once per fortnight instead of weekly, adalimumab 40 mg once per month instead of fortnightly). Patients were assessed for disease activity at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following reduction in dosing frequency. Cost saving was calculated. 79 patients with inflammatory arthritis in remission were recruited. 57% had rheumatoid arthritis (n = 45), 13% psoriatic arthritis (n = 10) and 30% ankylosing spondylitis (n = 24). 57% (n = 45) were taking etanercept and 43% (n = 34) adalimumab. The percentage of patients in remission at 24 months was 56% (n = 44). This resulted in an actual saving to the state of approximately 600,000 euro over two years. This study demonstrates the reduction in biologic dosing frequency is feasible in Inflammatory Arthritis. There was a considerable cost saving at two years. The potential for major cost savings in biologic usage should be pursued further.

  16. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  17. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  18. Disaster risk reduction in developing countries: costs, benefits and institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Some 60,000 people worldwide die annually in natural disasters, mostly due to the collapse of buildings in earthquakes, and primarily in the developing world. This is despite the fact that engineering solutions exist that can eliminate almost completely the risk of such deaths. Why is this? The solutions are expensive and technically demanding, so their cost-benefit ratio often is unfavourable as compared to other interventions. Nonetheless, there are various public disaster risk reduction interventions that are highly cost-effective. That such interventions frequently remain unimplemented or ineffectively executed points to a role for issues of political economy. Building regulations in developing countries appear to have limited impact in many cases, perhaps because of inadequate capacity and corruption. Public construction often is of low quality, perhaps for similar reasons. This suggests the need for approaches that emphasise simple and limited disaster risk regulation covering only the most at-risk structures-and that, preferably, non-experts can monitor-as well as numerous transparency and oversight mechanisms for public construction projects. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  19. Study of Potential Cost Reductions Resulting from Super-Large-Scale Manufacturing of PV Modules: Final Subcontract Report, 7 August 2003--30 September 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshner, M. S.; Arya, R.

    2004-10-01

    Hewlett Packard has created a design for a ''Solar City'' factory that will process 30 million sq. meters of glass panels per year and produce 2.1-3.6 GW of solar panels per year-100x the volume of a typical, thin-film, solar panel manufacturer in 2004. We have shown that with a reasonable selection of materials, and conservative assumptions, this ''Solar City'' can produce solar panels and hit the price target of $1.00 per peak watt (6.5x-8.5x lower than prices in 2004) as the total price for a complete and installed rooftop (or ground mounted) solar energy system. This breakthrough in the price of solar energy comes without the need for any significant new invention. It comes entirely from the manufacturing scale of a large plant and the cost savings inherent in operating at such a large manufacturing scale. We expect that further optimizations from these simple designs will lead to further improvements in cost. The manufacturing process and cost depend on the choice for the active layer that converts sunlight into electricity. The efficiency by which sunlight is converted into electricity can range from 7% to 15%. This parameter has a large effect on the overall price per watt. There are other impacts, as well, and we have attempted to capture them without creating undue distractions. Our primary purpose is to demonstrate the impact of large-scale manufacturing. This impact is largely independent of the choice of active layer. It is not our purpose to compare the pro's and con's for various types of active layers. Significant improvements in cost per watt can also come from scientific advances in active layers that lead to higher efficiency. But, again, our focus is on manufacturing gains and not on the potential advances in the basic technology.

  20. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF 6 , of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF 6 processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete

  1. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners

  2. Lean-Six Sigma: tools for rapid cycle cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Chip

    2006-10-01

    Organizational costs can be grouped as process cost, cost of quality, and cost of poor quality. Providers should train managers in the theory and application of Lean-Six Sigma, including the seven categories of waste and how to remove them. Healthcare financial executives should work with managers in eliminating waste to improve service and reduce costs.

  3. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Grohnheit, P.E.

    1992-04-01

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO 2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO 2 . The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO 2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  4. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Development cost is the Contractor cost of up-front planning, engineering, prototyping, and testing of a... contractual arrangement and the justification for its use; and (ii) A detailed cost/price estimate and...

  5. Cost reductions on a site producing soap and detergents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, R.W. (UKAEA Harwell Lab. (UK). Energy Technology Div.)

    1986-05-01

    The company, which is a subsidiary of the multinational Procter and Gamble Company, manufactures soap and detergent products at two UK sites. A process integration study of the West Thurrock site was undertaken with the help of the Energy and Process Integration Service (EPI). This organisation offers a specialist process integration consultancy service. The study cost around Pound 45,000, including consultancy fees and Procter and Gamble staff time. It was completed in 12 months. The study established that the consumption of process energy could be reduced by around 25% if the site was fully integrated. (author).

  6. Investigation of different modifications of the modular high temperature reactor for cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, A. van.

    1993-06-01

    Regarding the specific costs reactor with low power output have disadvantages compared to large reactors. In this study it was investigated for the HTR Module how to reduce the specific investment costs and consequently the electricity production costs by modification of the reactor and the power plant design. To reduce the investment costs different design changes were investigated, e.g. possible alternatives for the arrangement of the reactors and the steam generators and a different building layout. The cost reduction gained by a more compact type of construction and a reduction of the number of large components remains below 10%. The use of a gas turbine instead of a steam turbine with steam generator would result in a more efficient cost reduction. The increase in the power output has a much bigger potential to reduce the electricity production costs. The best way to realize this is the changing of the core geometry from cylindric to annular. A module concept with a power maximized under certain boundary conditions (limitation of the core temperatures in case of accident, use of proven technology) was worked out in detail. The optimum core geometry and power density, determined by tolerable accident temperatures and core pressure loss, make a thermal power of 350 MW possible. The physical properties and the accident behaviour in case of pressure release and water ingress were investigated. The specific investment costs and the electricity production costs of a 4-Modular Plant for pure electricity production are reduced about 28% resp. 19% compared with the 200 MWth-Module (KWU/Interatom). (orig.) [de

  7. Reduction in O and M costs in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1988, PSE and G undertook a major effort to identify methods to reduce O and M costs throughout the company. The Nuclear Training Department participated in this project by identifying three management level people to act as analysts. These analysts were responsible for breaking all portions of jobs performed at the training center down to their component parts, identifying tasks which were not essential to meeting the regulatory requirements and the company's business plan, and rolling these task back up into full-time equivalent positions. As a concurrent effort, brain-storming sessions were held with the staff to identify ways to reduce O and M costs, to separate wants from needs, and to work smarter. All these efforts were required to identify a stretch target of 40% savings in the current O and M budget. In addition, ideas from other units in the company which affected training were transmitted to the training department and were reviewed for potential savings. The ideas were assessed for risk, start-up cost and practicality. They were classified as Go, No-go or Further study and were then presented to the company executives. The final results for the Nuclear Training Department showed a total savings potential of 51.4%, of which 12.1% were Go and another 13.6% merited further study

  8. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  9. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed...... to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined...... within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics...

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Emissions Reduction through Vehicle Repair Compared to CNG Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Paul L; Lesko, Jon M; Stedman, Donald H

    1996-10-01

    In return for a temporary waiver from converting five vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) for the Denver Clean Fuels program, the University of Denver identified, tested, repaired, and retested nine employee commuter vehicles. The results of the study validated the concept that employer-based identification and repair programs can be carried out in a cost-effective way. On average, each repaired vehicle removed fifty times more carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from Denver air than each CNG conversion. The average cost of each repair was eight times less than the average cost of each conversion. The average fuel economy benefit from the repairs was enough to pay for the average cost of repairs in less than three years of normal driving. When the expected lifetimes of repairs and conversions are included, the targeted repair program appears to be over sixty times more cost-effective as a CO emissions reduction strategy than CNG conversion.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cochlear dose reduction by proton beam therapy for medulloblastoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Emi; Kawabuchi, Koichi; Fuji, Hiroshi; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Kumar, Vinay; Shirato, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of proton beam therapy with cochlear dose reduction compared with conventional X-ray radiotherapy for medulloblastoma in childhood. We developed a Markov model to describe health states of 6-year-old children with medulloblastoma after treatment with proton or X-ray radiotherapy. The risks of hearing loss were calculated on cochlear dose for each treatment. Three types of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of EQ-5D, HUI3 and SF-6D were used for estimation of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for proton beam therapy compared with X-ray radiotherapy was calculated for each HRQOL. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in these parameters. The ICER for EQ-5D, HUI3 and SF-6D were $21 716/QALY, $11 773/QALY, and $20 150/QALY, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses found that the results were sensitive to discount rate, the risk of hearing loss after proton therapy, and costs of proton irradiation. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 99% probability of proton therapy being cost effective at a societal willingness-to-pay value. Proton beam therapy with cochlear dose reduction improves health outcomes at a cost that is within the acceptable cost-effectiveness range from the payer's standpoint. (author)

  12. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  13. 207-nm UV Light-A Promising Tool for Safe Low-Cost Reduction of Surgical Site Infections. II: In-Vivo Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Manuela; Stanislauskas, Milda; Ponnaiya, Brian; Bigelow, Alan W; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, Yanping; Shuryak, Igor; Smilenov, Lubomir; Owens, David M; Brenner, David J

    2016-01-01

    UVC light generated by conventional germicidal lamps is a well-established anti-microbial modality, effective against both bacteria and viruses. However, it is a human health hazard, being both carcinogenic and cataractogenic. Earlier studies showed that single-wavelength far-UVC light (207 nm) generated by excimer lamps kills bacteria without apparent harm to human skin tissue in vitro. The biophysical explanation is that, due to its extremely short range in biological material, 207 nm UV light cannot penetrate the human stratum corneum (the outer dead-cell skin layer, thickness 5-20 μm) nor even the cytoplasm of individual human cells. By contrast, 207 nm UV light can penetrate bacteria and viruses because these cells are physically much smaller. To test the biophysically-based hypothesis that 207 nm UV light is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin in vivo. Hairless mice were exposed to a bactericidal UV fluence of 157 mJ/cm2 delivered by a filtered Kr-Br excimer lamp producing monoenergetic 207-nm UV light, or delivered by a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. Sham irradiations constituted the negative control. Eight relevant cellular and molecular damage endpoints including epidermal hyperplasia, pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, skin inflammation, and normal cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated in mice dorsal skin harvested 48 h after UV exposure. While conventional germicidal UV (254 nm) exposure produced significant effects for all the studied skin damage endpoints, the same fluence of 207 nm UV light produced results that were not statistically distinguishable from the zero exposure controls. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with earlier in vitro studies, 207-nm light does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic to mouse skin. These results suggest that excimer-based far-UVC light could potentially be used for its anti-microbial properties, but without the associated hazards to skin of conventional

  14. SWaP Reduction for Lost-Cost Star Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the last two years, a low-cost star tracker has been developed for suborbital applications. Currently the system weighs ~9 lbm, uses ~16W and has a parts cost of...

  15. Cost reduction in abdominal CT by weight-adjusted dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Tobarra, Eva; Sierra, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the influence of contrast dose adjusted by weight vs. fixed contrast dose in the attenuation and cost of abdominal computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: A randomised, consecutive, parallel group study was conducted in 151 patients (74 men and 77 women, age range 22-67 years), studied with the same CT helical protocol. A dose at 1.75 ml/kg was administered in 101 patients while 50 patients had a fixed dose of 120 ml of same non-ionic contrast material (320 mg/ml). Mean enhancements were measured at right hepatic lobe, superior abdominal aorta and inferior cava vein. Statistical analysis was weight-stratified ( 81 kg). Results: Aortic attenuation was significantly superior (p 61 kg in dose-adjusted group, presented higher hepatic attenuation, being statistically significant in those >81 kg (p 80 kg, there was an over cost of Euro 10.7 per patient. Conclusions: An injection volume of 1.75 ml/kg offers an optimal diagnostic quality with a global savings of Euro 1.34 per patient.

  16. Cost reduction in abdominal CT by weight-adjusted dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Tobarra, Eva; Sierra, Consuelo

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the influence of contrast dose adjusted by weight vs. fixed contrast dose in the attenuation and cost of abdominal computed tomography (CT). A randomised, consecutive, parallel group study was conducted in 151 patients (74 men and 77 women, age range 22-67 years), studied with the same CT helical protocol. A dose at 1.75 ml/kg was administered in 101 patients while 50 patients had a fixed dose of 120 ml of same non-ionic contrast material (320 mg/ml). Mean enhancements were measured at right hepatic lobe, superior abdominal aorta and inferior cava vein. Statistical analysis was weight-stratified (81 kg). Aortic attenuation was significantly superior (p61 kg in dose-adjusted group, presented higher hepatic attenuation, being statistically significant in those >81 kg (p80 kg, there was an over cost of euro 10.7 per patient. An injection volume of 1.75 ml/kg offers an optimal diagnostic quality with a global savings of euro 1.34 per patient.

  17. 207-nm UV Light—A Promising Tool for Safe Low-Cost Reduction of Surgical Site Infections. II: In-Vivo Safety Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Manuela; Stanislauskas, Milda; Ponnaiya, Brian; Bigelow, Alan W.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, Yanping; Shuryak, Igor; Smilenov, Lubomir; Owens, David M.; Brenner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background UVC light generated by conventional germicidal lamps is a well-established anti-microbial modality, effective against both bacteria and viruses. However, it is a human health hazard, being both carcinogenic and cataractogenic. Earlier studies showed that single-wavelength far-UVC light (207 nm) generated by excimer lamps kills bacteria without apparent harm to human skin tissue in vitro. The biophysical explanation is that, due to its extremely short range in biological material, 207 nm UV light cannot penetrate the human stratum corneum (the outer dead-cell skin layer, thickness 5–20 μm) nor even the cytoplasm of individual human cells. By contrast, 207 nm UV light can penetrate bacteria and viruses because these cells are physically much smaller. Aims To test the biophysically-based hypothesis that 207 nm UV light is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin in vivo. Methods Hairless mice were exposed to a bactericidal UV fluence of 157 mJ/cm2 delivered by a filtered Kr-Br excimer lamp producing monoenergetic 207-nm UV light, or delivered by a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. Sham irradiations constituted the negative control. Eight relevant cellular and molecular damage endpoints including epidermal hyperplasia, pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, skin inflammation, and normal cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated in mice dorsal skin harvested 48 h after UV exposure. Results While conventional germicidal UV (254 nm) exposure produced significant effects for all the studied skin damage endpoints, the same fluence of 207 nm UV light produced results that were not statistically distinguishable from the zero exposure controls. Conclusions As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with earlier in vitro studies, 207-nm light does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic to mouse skin. These results suggest that excimer-based far-UVC light could potentially be used for its anti-microbial properties, but without

  18. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying could influence system costs in key market segments. This report examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof

  19. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics as a next frontier for offshore wind constituencies. This important area of the supply chain is ripe to academically and professionally cultivate and harvest in terms of offshore wind energy cost reductions. Our paper suggests that a focused organizational approach for logistics both horizontally and vertically within the company organizations could be the way forward, coupled with a long-term legislative environment to enable the necessary investments in logistics assets and transport equipment.

  20. A cooperative reduction model for regional air pollution control in China that considers adverse health effects and pollutant reduction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujing; Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Hu, Qingmi; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-12-15

    How to effectively control severe regional air pollution has become a focus of global concern recently. The non-cooperative reduction model (NCRM) is still the main air pollution control pattern in China, but it is both ineffective and costly, because each province must independently fight air pollution. Thus, we proposed a cooperative reduction model (CRM), with the goal of maximizing the reduction in adverse health effects (AHEs) at the lowest cost by encouraging neighboring areas to jointly control air pollution. CRM has two parts: a model of optimal pollutant removal rates using two optimization objectives (maximizing the reduction in AHEs and minimizing pollutant reduction cost) while meeting the regional pollution control targets set by the central government, and a model that allocates the cooperation benefits (i.e., health improvement and cost reduction) among the participants according to their contributions using the Shapley value method. We applied CRM to the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) reduction in Yangtze River Delta region. Based on data from 2003 to 2013, and using mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as the health endpoints, CRM saves 437 more lives than NCRM, amounting to 12.1% of the reduction under NCRM. CRM also reduced costs by US $65.8×10 6 compared with NCRM, which is 5.2% of the total cost of NCRM. Thus, CRM performs significantly better than NCRM. Each province obtains significant benefits from cooperation, which can motivate them to actively cooperate in the long term. A sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter values on the cooperation benefits. Results shown that the CRM is not sensitive to the changes in each province's pollutant carrying capacity and the minimum pollutant removal capacity, but sensitive to the maximum pollutant reduction capacity. Moreover, higher cooperation benefits will be generated when a province's maximum pollutant reduction capacity increases. Copyright

  1. Reduction of capital costs of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The competitiveness of nuclear power plants depends largely on their capital costs represent some 60 per cent of their total generation costs. Reviewing and analysing ways and means to reduce capital costs of nuclear power plants are essential to enhance the economic viability of the nuclear option. The report is based upon cost information and data provided by experts from NEA Member countries. It investigates the efficiency of alternative methods for reducing capital costs of nuclear units. It will provide stakeholders from the industry and governmental agencies with relevant elements in support of policy making. (author)

  2. Aneurysm coil embolization: cost per volumetric filling analysis and strategy for cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charlie; Ching, Esteban Cheng; Hui, Ferdinand K

    2016-05-01

    One of the primary device expenditures associated with the endovascular treatment of aneurysms is that of detachable coils. Analyzing the cost efficiency of detachable coils is difficult, given the differences in design, implantable volume, and the presence of additives. However, applying a volume per cost metric may provide an index analogous to unit price found in grocery stores. The price information for 509 different coils belonging to 31 different coil lines, available as of September 2013, was obtained through the inventory management system at the study site, and normalized to the price of the least expensive coil. Values were used to calculate the logarithmic ratio of volume over cost. Operator choice among coil sizes can vary the material costs by five-fold in a hypothetical aneurysm. The difference in coil costs as a function of cost per volume of coil can vary tremendously. Using the present pricing algorithms, using the longest available length at a particular helical dimension and system yields improved efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  4. Blood pressure reduction, persistence and costs in the evaluation of antihypertensive drug treatment – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Joerg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure lowering drugs are usually evaluated in short term trials determining the absolute blood pressure reduction during trough and the duration of the antihypertensive effect after single or multiple dosing. A lack of persistence with treatment has however been shown to be linked to a worse cardiovascular prognosis. This review explores the blood pressure reduction and persistence with treatment of antihypertensive drugs and the cost consequences of poor persistence with pharmaceutical interventions in arterial hypertension. Methods We have searched the literature for data on blood pressure lowering effects of different antihypertensive drug classes and agents, on persistence with treatment, and on related costs. Persistence was measured as patients' medication possession rate. Results are presented in the form of a systematic review. Results Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs have a competitive blood pressure lowering efficacy compared with ACE-inhibitors (ACEi and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, beta-blockers (BBs and diuretics. 8 studies describing the persistence with treatment were identified. Patients were more persistent on ARBs than on ACEi and CCBs, BBs and diuretics. Thus the product of blood pressure lowering and persistence was higher on ARBs than on any other drug class. Although the price per tablet of more recently developed drugs (ACEi, ARBs is higher than that of older ones (diuretics and BBs, the newer drugs result in a more favourable cost to effect ratio when direct drug costs and indirect costs are also considered. Conclusion To evaluate drugs for the treatment of hypertension several key variables including the blood pressure lowering effect, side effects, compliance/persistence with treatment, as well as drug costs and direct and indirect costs of medical care have to be considered. ARBs, while nominally more expensive when drug costs are considered only, provide substantial cost savings

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in Syria, 2010-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Meredith L; Mason, Helen; Fouad, Fouad M; Rastam, Samer; al Ali, Radwan; Page, Timothy F; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to lower coronary heart disease in Syria. Costs and benefits of a health promotion campaign about salt reduction (HP); labeling of salt content on packaged foods (L); reformulation of salt content within packaged foods (R); and combinations of the three were estimated over a 10-year time frame. Policies were deemed cost-effective if their cost-effectiveness ratios were below the region's established threshold of $38,997 purchasing power parity (PPP). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to account for the uncertainty in the reduction of salt intake. HP, L, and R+HP+L were cost-saving using the best estimates. The remaining policies were cost-effective (CERs: R=$5,453 PPP/LYG; R+HP=$2,201 PPP/LYG; R+L=$2,125 PPP/LYG). R+HP+L provided the largest benefit with net savings using the best and maximum estimates, while R+L was cost-effective with the lowest marginal cost using the minimum estimates. This study demonstrated that all policies were cost-saving or cost effective, with the combination of reformulation plus labeling and a comprehensive policy involving all three approaches being the most promising salt reduction strategies to reduce CHD mortality in Syria.

  6. Introduction to cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction measures in energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The aim of this report is to introduce readers to methods of cost-effectiveness analysis and their application in risk reduction, especially in connection with the energy-producing industries. The background to the assessment of risk and the problems in estimating it quantitatively are outlined. The methodology of cost-effectiveness analysis is then described, particular attention being given to the way in which results are derived and the overall use that can be made of them. This is followed by a discussion of quantitative applications and an outline of the methods that may be used to derive estimates both of risk and the cost of reducing it. The use of cost-effectiveness analysis is illustrated in an appendix, which gives as a worked example a case study on the reduction of public risk associated with radioactive releases during normal operation of a PWR. After drawing some general conclusions the report recommends that such analyses should normally be used as an aid to risk management whenever several alternative risk reduction measures are under consideration

  7. Evaluation of cost reduction method for manufacturing ODS ferritic claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Mizuta, Shunji; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2000-04-01

    For evaluating the fast reactor system technology, it is important to evaluate the practical feasibility of ODS ferritic claddings, which is the most promising materials to attain the goal of high coolant temperature and more than 150 GWd/t. Based on the results of their technology development, mass production process with highly economically benefit as well as manufacturing cost estimation of ODS ferritic claddings were preliminarily conducted. From the view point of future utility scale, the cost for manufacturing mother tubes has a dominant factor in the total manufacturing cost. The method to reduce the cost of mother tube manufacturing was also preliminarily investigated. (author)

  8. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  9. Feasibility of fractionating MIBI cold kits for cost reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C. [Royal Adelaide Hospital. SA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recently {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI become the first 99mTc-labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent commercially available in Australia. After labelling each vial is sufficient for three to four patient doses. However, it becomes very expensive when only a single patient dose is required (up to $350 per dose). Our goal in this study was to subdivide the MIBI kit into fractions to establish the stability of these split kits. If successful, this would reduce the expense and make the product more cost-effective. After dissolving the Iyophilised ingredients of a MIBI vial with 5 mL of N2-purged normal saline, 1 mL aliquots of the resultant solution were dispensed into N2-filled vials under aseptic conditions. The vials were then stored frozen at -70 deg C. 99mTc-MIBI was prepared by the addition of 2 GBq of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in I mL of normal saline to the fractionated kit, followed by heating at 100 deg C for 10 minutes at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-fractionation. The product was allowed to cool before testing for radiochemical purity (RCP) for up to six hours post-labelling. The RCP of each vial was determined using aluminium oxide coated aluminium TLC strips (Merck) run in 100% ethanol. Over the eight-week evaluation period RCP was maintained at 94.2 + 1.3% over six hours (n = 16), which is greater than the minimum recommended RCP (90%) for patient use. These results show that fractionation of MIBI cold kits and sub-frozen storage under an N{sub 2} atmosphere provides a stable and economical multidose product. Using this method the cost of a single patient dose can be reduced considerably from $350, even allowing for the labour involved in the fractionation

  10. Feasibility of fractionating MIBI cold kits for cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recently 99m Tc-MIBI become the first 99mTc-labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent commercially available in Australia. After labelling each vial is sufficient for three to four patient doses. However, it becomes very expensive when only a single patient dose is required (up to $350 per dose). Our goal in this study was to subdivide the MIBI kit into fractions to establish the stability of these split kits. If successful, this would reduce the expense and make the product more cost-effective. After dissolving the Iyophilised ingredients of a MIBI vial with 5 mL of N2-purged normal saline, 1 mL aliquots of the resultant solution were dispensed into N2-filled vials under aseptic conditions. The vials were then stored frozen at -70 deg C. 99mTc-MIBI was prepared by the addition of 2 GBq of 99m Tc-pertechnetate in I mL of normal saline to the fractionated kit, followed by heating at 100 deg C for 10 minutes at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-fractionation. The product was allowed to cool before testing for radiochemical purity (RCP) for up to six hours post-labelling. The RCP of each vial was determined using aluminium oxide coated aluminium TLC strips (Merck) run in 100% ethanol. Over the eight-week evaluation period RCP was maintained at 94.2 + 1.3% over six hours (n = 16), which is greater than the minimum recommended RCP (90%) for patient use. These results show that fractionation of MIBI cold kits and sub-frozen storage under an N 2 atmosphere provides a stable and economical multidose product. Using this method the cost of a single patient dose can be reduced considerably from $350, even allowing for the labour involved in the fractionation

  11. Cost reduction potentials of offshore wind power in Germany; Kostensenkungspotenziale der Offshore-Windenergie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobohm, Jens; Krampe, Leonard; Peter, Frank [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Energiewirtschaft

    2014-01-15

    Offshore wind power is a major hope for the German energy turnaround. However, it will only be possible to tap its cost reduction potentials if industry, the political leadership and the administrative authorities join forces to create the necessary preconditions. An important requirement for this capital-intensive technology are stable legal and political framework conditions. A recent study on the future shows what needs to be done.

  12. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  13. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  14. Reduction of wind powered generator cost by use of a one bladed rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruyn, R R; Wiesner, W; Ljungstroem, O [ed.

    1976-01-01

    Cost analysis supported by preliminary design studies of one and two bladed wind powered generator units shows that a 30% reduction in acquisition cost can be achieved with a one bladed design. Designs studied were sized for an output power of 1000 kilowatts. The one bladed design has the potential for reducing acquisition cost to $680 per available kilowatt if the unit is located in a region with mean surface winds of 15 mph. Vibratory loads of the one bladed design are significant and will require considerable design attention. The one per rev Coriolis torque caused by blade flapping is the most significant problem. The major source of blade flapping will be the velocity gradient of the ground boundary layer. A torsional vibration isolating coupling may be required in the generator drive to reduce the loads due to this vibratory torque. An inclined flapping hinge also is desirable to cause pitch-flap coupling that will suppress blade flap motions.

  15. The cost reduction on the use of local productive arrangement on competitive supply logistic. Study about the case on APL milk and sun of the productive chain of milk in Ceará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Braga Carneiro

    2008-07-01

    milk in Ceará State. Here called like Milk and Sun. Searched to check if the enterprises that consist the sequence productive analyzed to reach a meaning cost reduction developing its activist inside the productive arrangement. Metodologicament done use, at principal, the deductive method, and, subsidiaryment the inductive method. The search can be classified the point of view about its nature like a search applied and described, looking for describe and to analyze the characteristics of the enterprises the belong Local Productive Arrangement analyzed. Key-words: Local productive arrangement. Cost. Supply logistic.

  16. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chukalla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the water footprint (WF of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce the WF need to support the decision making. MCCs enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a given WF permit (expressed in m3  ha−1 per season or to a certain WF benchmark (expressed in m3  t−1 of crop. This paper aims to develop MCCs for WF reduction for a range of selected cases. AquaCrop, a soil-water-balance and crop-growth model, is used to estimate the effect of different management packages on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus the WF of crop production. A management package is defined as a specific combination of management practices: irrigation technique (furrow, sprinkler, drip or subsurface drip; irrigation strategy (full or deficit irrigation; and mulching practice (no, organic or synthetic mulching. The annual average cost for each management package is estimated as the annualized capital cost plus the annual costs of maintenance and operations (i.e. costs of water, energy and labour. Different cases are considered, including three crops (maize, tomato and potato; four types of environment (humid in UK, sub-humid in Italy, semi-arid in Spain and arid in Israel; three hydrologic years (wet, normal and dry years and three soil types (loam, silty clay loam and sandy loam. For each crop, alternative WF reduction pathways were developed, after which the most cost-effective pathway was selected to develop the MCC for WF reduction. When aiming at WF reduction one can best improve the irrigation strategy first, next the mulching practice and finally the irrigation technique. Moving from a full to deficit irrigation strategy is found to be a no-regret measure: it reduces the WF

  17. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, Abebe D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-07-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs) that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce the WF need to support the decision making. MCCs enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a given WF permit (expressed in m3  ha-1 per season) or to a certain WF benchmark (expressed in m3  t-1 of crop). This paper aims to develop MCCs for WF reduction for a range of selected cases. AquaCrop, a soil-water-balance and crop-growth model, is used to estimate the effect of different management packages on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus the WF of crop production. A management package is defined as a specific combination of management practices: irrigation technique (furrow, sprinkler, drip or subsurface drip); irrigation strategy (full or deficit irrigation); and mulching practice (no, organic or synthetic mulching). The annual average cost for each management package is estimated as the annualized capital cost plus the annual costs of maintenance and operations (i.e. costs of water, energy and labour). Different cases are considered, including three crops (maize, tomato and potato); four types of environment (humid in UK, sub-humid in Italy, semi-arid in Spain and arid in Israel); three hydrologic years (wet, normal and dry years) and three soil types (loam, silty clay loam and sandy loam). For each crop, alternative WF reduction pathways were developed, after which the most cost-effective pathway was selected to develop the MCC for WF reduction. When aiming at WF reduction one can best improve the irrigation strategy first, next the mulching practice and finally the irrigation technique. Moving from a full to deficit irrigation strategy is found to be a no-regret measure: it reduces the WF by reducing water

  18. Cost reduction for large turbine generator Pedestal in high seismic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, P.S.; Irani, P.; Pusheck, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine Generator Pedestals have generally been designed using reinforced concrete. For present day large turbine generators (1100 MWe class and above) with tall (about 80 feet) pedestals, the amount of reinforcing steel becomes quite large, especially for plants in high seismic zones. With the prime objective of cost reduction, an approach using steel/concrete composite design has been studied for a large BWR Turbine Generator pedestal with 0.3g peak ground acceleration. Large prefabricated steel modules were adopted for composite design and simplified construction. Design was based on the ACI and AISC codes. Costs and schedules were developed and compared with those for a conventionally designed reinforced concrete pedestal. Composite design was found to give considerable cost and schedule advantage over the conventional reinforced concrete design

  19. Potential Cost Savings From Reduction of Regional Variation in Medicare Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential cost savings estimated from reduction of regional variation in Medicare spending are considerable but questioned. This article evaluates the validity of the principal methods that have been used in the estimations of the potential savings. Three estimation approaches were identified. The first approach uses adjusted expenditures to calculate avoidable costs, but adjusted expenditures can be independent of avoidable costs, and measurement errors are not controlled. The second approach uses an outcome variable to replace its causal factors, and is not acceptable because the association between the outcomes and the causes is untestable. The final approach uses surveys to directly measure physician beliefs and patient preferences, but the sole study using this approach is weakened by sample selection biases and incomplete controls. A development of reliable measures and a switch of observation from clinic settings to geographic contexts could make the estimations more convincing.

  20. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

    2012-07-10

    Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

  1. REDUCTION OF COST AND TIME CONSUMPTION IN WELL-CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A Contractor usually utilizes the available drilling equipment when constructing just one single well. Drilling cost and time consumption in constructing the well MB-1, using the percussion method, and the well MB-2, using the conventional rotary drilling method, call for a separate analysis in order to justify the investment cost for the acquisition of additional equipment for a single well only. The wells, located in a karst vrtača close to an estavelle near Tomislavgrad, with a diameter of 500 mm and approximately 80 m deep, have been accomplished with a low rate of penetration using the conventional Cable tool and resp. Rotary Drilling Method. In this paper results of analyses for the given circumstances are shown: both the efficiency and cost of the mentioned drilling methods performed by the crews of »Geotehnika d.d.« Zagreb, as well as the justifiability of investments in new equipment are evaluated.

  2. Cost reduction through combined solutions?; Kostensenkung durch Kombinationsloesungen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilitewski, B. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

    1998-09-01

    The implementation of material-specific residue treatment processes requires reconstruction measures both in the case of mechanical-biological and in that of thermal treatment plants. Such measures involves great uncertainties and wide variation in cost prediction. The present paper deals with various factors that influence the costs of residual waste treatment. [Deutsch] Zur Umsetzung der stoffspezifischen Restabfallbehandlung sind Anpassungen sowohl der derzeit betriebenen mechanisch-biologischen als auch der thermischen Anlagen erforderlich, was zu Unsicherheiten und grossen Schwankungsbreiten bei den Kostenprognosen fuehrt. Der Bericht beleuchtet verschiedene Einflussgroessen auf die Kosten der Behandlung des Restabfalls. (orig./SR)

  3. Launch vehicle operations cost reduction through artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tom C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has attempted to develop AI methods in order to reduce the cost of launch vehicle ground operations as well as to improve the reliability and safety of such operations. Attention is presently given to cost savings estimates for systems involving launch vehicle firing-room software and hardware real-time diagnostics, as well as the nature of configuration control and the real-time autonomous diagnostics of launch-processing systems by these means. Intelligent launch decisions and intelligent weather forecasting are additional applications of AI being considered.

  4. Fog-Assisted Operational Cost Reduction for Cloud Data Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Liang; Jiang, Tao; Zou, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to reduce the operational cost of cloud data centers with the help of fog devices, which can avoid the revenue loss due to wide-area network propagation delay and save network bandwidth cost by serving nearby cloud users. Since fog devices may not be owned by a cloud service provider, they should be compensated for serving the requests of cloud users. When taking economical compensation into consideration, the optimal number of requests processed locally by each fog d...

  5. GTHTR300 cost reduction through design upgrade and cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xing L., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency began design and development of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor of 300MWe nominal output (GTHTR300) in 2001. The reactor baseline design completed three years later was based on 850 °C core outlet temperature and a direct cycle gas turbine balance of plant. It attained 45.6% net power generation efficiency and 3.5 US¢/kW h cost of electricity. The cost was estimated 20% lower than LWR. The latest design upgrade has incorporated several major technological advances made in the past ten years to both reactor and balance of plant. As described in this paper, these advances have enabled raising the design basis reactor core outlet temperature to 950 °C and increasing power generating efficiency by nearly 5% point. Further implementation of seawater desalination cogeneration is made through employing a newly-proposed multi-stage flash process. Through efficient waste heat recovery of the reactor gas turbine power conversion cycle, a large cost credit is obtained against the conventionally produced water prices. Together, the design upgrade and the cogeneration are shown to reduce the GTHTR300 cost of electricity to under 2.7 US¢/kW h.

  6. GTHTR300 cost reduction through design upgrade and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency began design and development of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor of 300MWe nominal output (GTHTR300) in 2001. The reactor baseline design completed three years later was based on 850°C core outlet temperature and a direct cycle gas turbine balance of plant. It attained 45.6% net power generation efficiency and 3.5US¢/KWh cost of electricity. The cost was estimated 20% lower than LWR. The latest design upgrade has incorporated several major technological advances made in the past ten years to both reactor and balance of plant. As described in this paper, these advances have enabled raising the design basis reactor core outlet temperature to 950°C and increasing power generating efficiency by nearly 5% point. Further implementation of seawater desalination cogeneration is made through employing a newly-proposed multi-stage flash process. Through efficient waste heat recovery of the reactor gas turbine power conversion cycle, a large cost credit is obtained against the conventionally produced water prices. Together, the design upgrade and the cogeneration are shown to reduce the GTHTR300 cost of electricity to under 2.7 US¢/KWh. (author)

  7. Dynamics of Anthropomorphic Painting Robot: Quality Analysis and Cost Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potkonjak, V.; Djordjevic, G.; Kostic, D.; Rasic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of robots in spray-painting tasks results in low-cost production, persistent quality and protects humans from a hostile working environment. Automated planning of applicator’s trajectory requires a model of paint deposition onto the treated surface and formulation of an appropriate

  8. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  9. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  10. Marginal CO2 reduction cost in ENERGY 2000 development. A socio-economic evaluation of the marginal cost for the alternative reduction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, H.

    1995-01-01

    The official Danish environmental plan involves a reduction of CO 2 within the next 30-50 years. This report describes the analysis of socio-economic cost/consequences of marginal CO 2 reduction by means of various technical solution models. Calculations by means of the special program subroutine SAMFOKO are based on energy balance in annual, monthly, daily and hourly scale. Heat and power savings as well as the development of decentralized power plants are considered in the supply model. Socio-economic consequences in form of charges and cost are discussed. (EG)

  11. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  12. Reward Pays the Cost of Noise Reduction in Motor and Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Chong, Trevor T-J; Apps, Matthew A J; Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Jarman, Paul R; Bhatia, Kailash P; Husain, Masud

    2015-06-29

    Speed-accuracy trade-off is an intensively studied law governing almost all behavioral tasks across species. Here we show that motivation by reward breaks this law, by simultaneously invigorating movement and improving response precision. We devised a model to explain this paradoxical effect of reward by considering a new factor: the cost of control. Exerting control to improve response precision might itself come at a cost--a cost to attenuate a proportion of intrinsic neural noise. Applying a noise-reduction cost to optimal motor control predicted that reward can increase both velocity and accuracy. Similarly, application to decision-making predicted that reward reduces reaction times and errors in cognitive control. We used a novel saccadic distraction task to quantify the speed and accuracy of both movements and decisions under varying reward. Both faster speeds and smaller errors were observed with higher incentives, with the results best fitted by a model including a precision cost. Recent theories consider dopamine to be a key neuromodulator in mediating motivational effects of reward. We therefore examined how Parkinson's disease (PD), a condition associated with dopamine depletion, alters the effects of reward. Individuals with PD showed reduced reward sensitivity in their speed and accuracy, consistent in our model with higher noise-control costs. Including a cost of control over noise explains how reward may allow apparent performance limits to be surpassed. On this view, the pattern of reduced reward sensitivity in PD patients can specifically be accounted for by a higher cost for controlling noise. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  14. Cost reduction for web-based data imputation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhixu

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Data Imputation enables the completion of incomplete data sets by retrieving absent field values from the Web. In particular, complete fields can be used as keywords in imputation queries for absent fields. However, due to the ambiguity of these keywords and the data complexity on the Web, different queries may retrieve different answers to the same absent field value. To decide the most probable right answer to each absent filed value, existing method issues quite a few available imputation queries for each absent value, and then vote on deciding the most probable right answer. As a result, we have to issue a large number of imputation queries for filling all absent values in an incomplete data set, which brings a large overhead. In this paper, we work on reducing the cost of Web-based Data Imputation in two aspects: First, we propose a query execution scheme which can secure the most probable right answer to an absent field value by issuing as few imputation queries as possible. Second, we recognize and prune queries that probably will fail to return any answers a priori. Our extensive experimental evaluation shows that our proposed techniques substantially reduce the cost of Web-based Imputation without hurting its high imputation accuracy. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  15. Regulatory cost-risk study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  16. Regulatory cost-risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs

  17. A business perspective on environmental risk and cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, U.V.

    1998-01-01

    The ways in which the petrochemical industry can enjoy successful business partnerships with environmental service companies was discussed. The petrochemical industry has traditionally viewed environmental service companies as an inherent cost in the context of risk management, and not in the context of business opportunity. Today, as environmental issues are integrated into business operations, there is a new potential for creating business opportunities in a number of operational areas, among them : (1) energy efficiency, (2) process efficiency, (3) waste minimization, (4) waste recycling, and (5) operational pooling. As environmental service companies became more competitive, they have become more attractive business partners. They are providing more diversified services and are better aligned with core competencies required to exploit business opportunities that are too small for major players in the oil,natural gas and petro-chemical industry. They also offer public recognition and financial upside for industry. Some examples of successful business partnerships along these lines are briefly described

  18. Reduction of operations and maintenance costs at geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Stevens, C.G.; Rard, J.A.; Kasameyer, P.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    To reduce chemical costs at geothermal power plants, we are investigating: (a) improved chemical processes associated with H{sub 2}S abatement techniques, and (b) the use of cross dispersive infrared spectrometry to monitor accurately, reliably, and continuously H{sub 2}S emissions from cooling towers. The latter is a new type of infrared optical technology developed by LLNL for non-proliferation verification. Initial work is focused at The Geysers in cooperation with Pacific Gas and Electric. Methods for deploying the spectrometer on-site at The Geysers are being developed. Chemical analysis of solutions involved in H{sub 2}S abatement technologies is continuing to isolate the chemical forms of sulfur produced.

  19. A COST-REDUCTION OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE INCORPORATING RAW RICE HUSK ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher material cost of self-compacting concrete (SCC as compared to normal vibrated concrete is mainly due to its higher cement content. In order to produce economical SCC, a significant amount of cement should be replaced with cheaper material options, which are commonly found in byproduct materials such as limestone powder (LP, fly ash (FA and raw rice husk ash (RRHA. However, the use of these byproduct materials to replace the high volumes of cement in an SCC mixture will produce deleterious effects such as strength reduction. Thus, the objective of this paper is to investigate the optimum SCC mixture proportioning capable of minimizing SCC’s material cost. A total of fifteen mixes were prepared. This study showed that raw rice husk ash exhibited positive correlations with fly ash and fine limestone powder and were able to produce high compressive and comparable to normal concrete. The SCC-mix made with quaternary cement-blend comprising OPC/LP/FA/RRHA at 55/15/15/15 weight percentage ratio is found to be capable of maximizing SCC’s material-cost reduction to almost 19% as compared with the control mix

  20. Reduction of Total Ownership Costs (R-TOC) Best Practices Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Danny

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Reduction of Total Ownership Costs (R-TOC) program is to achieve readiness improvements in weapon systems by improving the reliability of the systems or the efficiency of the processes used to support...

  1. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  2. Coordinating a Supply Chain When Manufacturer Makes Cost Reduction Investment in Supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a supply chain consisting of an upstream supplier and a downstream manufacturer, in which the supplier provides a component to the manufacturer, facing a price-sensitive and uncertain demand. The manufacturer makes cost reduction investment in the supplier to improve the supplier’s production efficiency, which benefits the entire supply chain. We derive the optimal investment and operating decisions. Both the centralized and decentralized supply chains are studied. We show that the optimal investment and operating decisions in the decentralized setting may deviate from that in the centralized setting. To avoid the profit loss caused by such a deviation, we develop a coordination mechanism by introducing a combined policy of revenue-sharing policy and investment cost-sharing policy. We also show that the developed coordination mechanism can achieve Pareto improvement for the two players.

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Green Infrastructures on Community Stormwater Reduction and Utilization: A Case of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Weiping; Feng, Qi; Peng, Chi; Kang, Peng

    2016-12-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is demanded for guiding the plan, design and construction of green infrastructure practices in rapidly urbanized regions. We developed a framework to calculate the costs and benefits of different green infrastructures on stormwater reduction and utilization. A typical community of 54,783 m 2 in Beijing was selected for case study. For the four designed green infrastructure scenarios (green space depression, porous brick pavement, storage pond, and their combination), the average annual costs of green infrastructure facilities are ranged from 40.54 to 110.31 thousand yuan, and the average of the cost per m 3 stormwater reduction and utilization is 4.61 yuan. The total average annual benefits of stormwater reduction and utilization by green infrastructures of the community are ranged from 63.24 to 250.15 thousand yuan, and the benefit per m 3 stormwater reduction and utilization is ranged from 5.78 to 11.14 yuan. The average ratio of average annual benefit to cost of four green infrastructure facilities is 1.91. The integrated facilities had the highest economic feasibility with a benefit to cost ratio of 2.27, and followed by the storage pond construction with a benefit to cost ratio of 2.14. The results suggested that while the stormwater reduction and utilization by green infrastructures had higher construction and maintenance costs, their comprehensive benefits including source water replacements benefits, environmental benefits and avoided cost benefits are potentially interesting. The green infrastructure practices should be promoted for sustainable management of urban stormwater.

  4. Evaluation of potential cost reductions from improved amine-based CO2 capture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Anand B.; Rubin, Edward S.; Keith, David W.; Granger Morgan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Technological innovations in CO 2 capture and storage technologies are being pursued worldwide under a variety of private and government-sponsored R and D programs. While much of this R and D is directed at novel concepts and potential breakthrough technologies, there are also substantial efforts to improve CO 2 capture technologies already in use. In this paper, we focus on amine-based CO 2 capture systems for power plants and other combustion-based applications. The current performance and cost of such systems have been documented in several recent studies. In this paper we examine the potential for future cost reductions that may result from continued process development. We used the formal methods of expert elicitation to understand what experts in this field believe about possible improvements in some of the key underlying parameters that govern the performance and cost of this technology. A dozen leading experts from North America, Europe and Asia participated in this study, providing their probabilistic judgments via a detailed questionnaire coupled with individual interviews. Judgments about detailed technical parameters were then used in an integrated power plant modeling framework (IECM-CS) developed for USDOE to evaluate the performance and costs of alternative carbon capture and sequestration technologies for fossil-fueled power plants. The experts' responses have allowed us to build a picture of how the overall performance and cost of amine-based systems might improve over the next decade or two. Results show how much the cost of CO 2 capture could be reduced via targeted R and D in key areas

  5. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  6. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-10 Section 52.215-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data... or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) If any price, including profit or fee, negotiated in connection with...

  7. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The installed cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has fallen rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue declining in the future. In this report, we focus on the potential for continued PV cost reductions in the residential market. From 2010 to 2017, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for residential PV declined from 52 cents per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) to 16 cents/kWh (Fu et al. 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) recently set new LCOE targets for 2030, including a target of 5 cents/kWh for residential PV. We present a roadmap for achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV target. Because the 2030 target likely will not be achieved under business-as-usual trends (NREL 2017), we examine two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. Within both market segments, we identify four key cost-reduction opportunities: market maturation, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these cost reductions, we compare modeled residential PV system prices in 2030 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) quarter one 2017 (Q1 2017) residential PV system price benchmark (Fu et al. 2017). We use a bottom-up accounting framework to model all component and project-development costs incurred when installing a PV system. The result is a granular accounting for 11 direct and indirect costs associated with installing a residential PV system in 2030. All four modeled pathways demonstrate significant installed-system price savings over the Q1 2017 benchmark, with the visionary pathways yielding the greatest price benefits. The largest modeled cost savings are in the supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, and installation labor cost categories. When we translate these

  8. Food Mass Reduction Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stoklosa, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable, and nutritious while efficiently balancing appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, power, water, and crewtime. Often, this presents a challenge since maintaining the quality of the food system can result in a higher mass and volume. The Orion vehicle is significantly smaller than the Shuttle vehicle and the International Space Station and the mass and volume available for food is limited. Therefore, the food team has been challenged to reduce the mass of the packaged food from 1.82 kg per person per day to 1.14 kg per person per day. Past work has concentrated on how to reduce the mass of the packaging which contributes to about 15% of the total mass of the packaged food system. Designers have also focused on integrating and optimizing the Orion galley equipment as a system to reduce mass. To date, there has not been a significant effort to determine how to reduce the food itself. The objective of this project is to determine how the mass and volume of the packaged food can be reduced while maintaining caloric and hydration requirements. The following tasks are the key elements to this project: (1) Conduct further analysis of the ISS Standard Menu to determine moisture, protein, carbohydrate, and fat levels. (2) Conduct trade studies to determine how to bring the mass of the food system down. Trade studies may include removing the water of the total food system and/or increasing the fat content. (3) Determine the preferred method for delivery of the new food (e.g. bars, or beverages) and the degree of replacement. (4) Determine whether there are commercially available products that meet the requirements. By the end of this study, an estimate of the mass and volume savings will be provided to the Constellation Program. In addition, if new technologies need to be developed to achieve the mass savings, the technologies, timeline, and

  9. Soft-copy sonography: cost reduction sensitivity analysis in a pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, S; Albertina, M J; Ammann, D

    1998-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether interpreting sonograms of pediatric patients using soft-copy (computer workstation) instead of laser-printed film could reduce costs for a pediatric radiology department. We used theoretic models of growth to analyze costs. The costs of a sonographic picture archiving and communication system (three interface devices, two workstations, a network server, maintenance expenses, and storage media costs) were compared with the potential savings of eliminating film and increasing technologist efficiency or reducing the number of technologists. The model was based on historic trends and future capitation estimates that will reduce fee-for-service reimbursement. The effects of varying the study volume and reducing technologists' work hours were analyzed. By converting to soft-copy interpretation, we saved 6 min 32 sec per examination by eliminating film processing waiting time, thus reducing examination time from 30 min to 24 min. During an average day of 27 examinations, 176 min were saved. However, 33 min a day were spent retrieving prior studies from long-term storage; thus, 143 extra minutes a day were available for scanning. This improved efficiency could result in five more sonograms a day obtained by converting to soft-copy interpretation, using existing staff and equipment. Alternatively, five examinations a day would equate to one half of a full-time equivalent technologists position. Our analysis of costs considered that the hospital's anticipated growth of sonography and the depreciation of equipment during 5 years resulted in a savings of more than $606,000. Increasing the examinations by just 200 sonograms in the first year and no further growth resulted in a savings of more than $96,000. If the number of sonograms stayed constant, elimination of film printing alone resulted in a loss of approximately $157,000; reduction of one half of a full-time equivalent technologist's position would recuperate approximately $134

  10. Solar cost reduction through technical improvements: the concepts of learning and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Flaim, T.

    1979-10-01

    The concepts of learning and experience are reviewed and their usefulness for predicting the future costs of solar technologies are evaluated. The literature review indicated that the cost estimates for solar energy technologies are typically made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy systems. The concept of experience is too ambiguous to be useful for cost estimation. There is no logical reason to believe that costs will decline purely as a function of cumulative production, and experience curves do not allow the analyst to identify logical sources of cost reduction directly. The procedures for using learning and aggregated cost curves to estimate the costs of solar technologies are outlined. It is recommended that production histories of analogous products and processes are analyzed and the learning and cost curves for these surrogates are estimated. These curves, if judged applicable, can be used to predict the cost reductions in manufacturing solar energy technologies.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction at nuclear power plants: What have we learned from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Pages, P.

    1984-01-01

    Within the field of risk management techniques, cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction is now recognized as an adequate method for evaluating and defining the optimal allocation of protection and safety resources within large industrial systems. The paper considers some of the issues that arise in connection with cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction at nuclear power stations. Particular attention is called to both the interdependence between criteria that characterize risk reduction problems and the resulting aggregation and weighting procedures needed when the multidimensionality of criteria is explicitly taken into account. The discussion of these problems is illustrated with results of case studies on both public and occupational risk reduction at French PWRs during normal operation. (author)

  12. Cost decreases in environmental technology. Evidence from four case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, F. [Instituut for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The cost of a new technology tends to decrease as its uptake grows, and environmental technology is no exception to this general rule. Factors that can bring about such cost reductions include economies of scale, 'learning-by-doing', incremental technological improvements, and growing competition. In preparing environmental policies, the potential for future cost reductions is often disregarded. The present study aims to provide some additional empirical evidence on the cost decreases in environmental technology and the factors that lie behind them. To this end, four exemplary case studies have been selected. The first case (NOx emission abatement by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)), shows a wide variety in cost estimates, without a clear trend. This is even true for the costs of a fairly homogeneous type of investment (SCR in coal fired power plants). Nevertheless, it is clear that an important cost decrease has been achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the catalyst, which is one of the main cost components in SCR. In the second case (NH3 emission abatement by chemical air scrubbers in pig farming) there is not yet sufficient experience with the technology to draw conclusions on the development of costs. However, it is already clear that economizing on the capacity of the system can contribute to important cost savings. Three-way catalytic converters in cars have shown significant price decreases following their large scale introduction on the European market in the early 1990s. Probably economies of scale have played an important role in this case, as the size of the market made mass production possible. To some extent, cost reductions may also be attributed to improvements such as the need for less materials (e.g. platinum). Furthermore, the performance of catalytic converters has improved, implying that the cost per unit of emission reduction has decreased even more than the cost of the device itself. Market prices of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

  13. Cyclic voltammetry and reduction mechanistic studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    styrylpyrylium perchlorates have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, in comparison to their non-methylated derivatives values. The reduction peak of all studied compounds remained chemically irreversible. The presence of the ...

  14. Modeling Fuel Treatment Leverage: Encounter Rates, Risk Reduction, and Suppression Cost Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary theme of this study is the cost-effectiveness of fuel treatments at multiple scales of investment. We focused on the nexus of fuel management and suppression response planning, designing spatial fuel treatment strategies to incorporate landscape features that provide control opportunities that are relevant to fire operations. Our analysis explored the frequency and magnitude of fire-treatment encounters, which are critical determinants of treatment efficacy. Additionally, we examined avoided area burned, avoided suppression costs, and avoided damages, and combined all three under the umbrella of leverage to explore multiple dimensions with which to characterize return on investment. We chose the Sierra National Forest, California, USA, as our study site, due to previous work providing relevant data and analytical products, and because it has the potential for large, long-duration fires and corresponding potential for high suppression expenditures. Modeling results generally confirmed that fire-treatment encounters are rare, such that median suppression cost savings are zero, but in extreme years, savings can more than offset upfront investments. Further, reductions in risk can expand areas where moderated suppression response would be appropriate, and these areas can be mapped in relation to fire control opportunities.

  15. Carbon Emission Reduction with Capital Constraint under Greening Financing and Cost Sharing Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juanjuan; Zhao, Yuhui; Xia, Liangjie

    2018-04-13

    Motivated by the industrial practices, this work explores the carbon emission reductions for the manufacturer, while taking into account the capital constraint and the cap-and-trade regulation. To alleviate the capital constraint, two contracts are analyzed: greening financing and cost sharing. We use the Stackelberg game to model four cases as follows: (1) in Case A1, the manufacturer has no greening financing and no cost sharing; (2) in Case A2, the manufacturer has greening financing, but no cost sharing; (3) in Case B1, the manufacturer has no greening financing but has cost sharing; and, (4) in Case B2, the manufacturer has greening financing and cost sharing. Then, using the backward induction method, we derive and compare the equilibrium decisions and profits of the participants in the four cases. We find that the interest rate of green finance does not always negatively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. Meanwhile, the cost sharing from the retailer does not always positively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. When the cost sharing is low, both of the participants' profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are not less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). When the cost sharing is high, both of the participants' profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance).

  16. Carbon Emission Reduction with Capital Constraint under Greening Financing and Cost Sharing Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juanjuan; Zhao, Yuhui; Xia, Liangjie

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the industrial practices, this work explores the carbon emission reductions for the manufacturer, while taking into account the capital constraint and the cap-and-trade regulation. To alleviate the capital constraint, two contracts are analyzed: greening financing and cost sharing. We use the Stackelberg game to model four cases as follows: (1) in Case A1, the manufacturer has no greening financing and no cost sharing; (2) in Case A2, the manufacturer has greening financing, but no cost sharing; (3) in Case B1, the manufacturer has no greening financing but has cost sharing; and, (4) in Case B2, the manufacturer has greening financing and cost sharing. Then, using the backward induction method, we derive and compare the equilibrium decisions and profits of the participants in the four cases. We find that the interest rate of green finance does not always negatively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. Meanwhile, the cost sharing from the retailer does not always positively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. When the cost sharing is low, both of the participants’ profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are not less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). When the cost sharing is high, both of the participants’ profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). PMID:29652859

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  18. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  19. Cost-effective reduction of fine primary particulate matter emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Policies to reduce adverse health impacts of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) require information on costs of abatement and associated costs. This paper explores the potential for cost-efficient control of anthropogenic primary PM 2.5 emissions in Finland. Based on a Kyoto-compliant energy projection, two emission control scenarios for 2020 were developed. 'Baseline' assumes implementation of PM controls in compliance with existing legislation. 'Reduction' assumes ambitious further reductions. Emissions for 2020 were estimated at 26 and 18.6 Gg a -1 for 'Baseline' and 'Reduction', respectively. The largest abatement potential, 3.0 Gg a -1 , was calculated for power plants and industrial combustion. The largest potential with marginal costs below 5000 Euro MG(PM 2.5 ) -1 was for domestic wood combustion, 1.7 Gg a -1 . For traffic the potential was estimated at 1.0 Gg a -1 , but was associated with high costs. The results from this paper are used in the policy-driven national integrated assessment modeling that explores cost-efficient reductions of the health impacts of PM

  20. Ordering Cost Reduction in Inventory Model with Defective Items and Backorder Price Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppuchamy Annadurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real market, as unsatisfied demands occur, the longer the length of lead time is, the smaller the proportion of backorder would be. In order to make up for the inconvenience and even the losses of royal and patient customers, the supplier may offer a backorder price discount to secure orders during the shortage period. Also, ordering policies determined by conventional inventory models may be inappropriate for the situation in which an arrival lot contains some defective items. To compensate for the inconvenience of backordering and to secure orders, the supplier may offer a price discount on the stockout item. The purpose of this study is to explore a coordinated inventory model including defective arrivals by allowing the backorder price discount and ordering cost as decision variables. There are two inventory models proposed in this paper, one with normally distributed demand and another with distribution free demand. A computer code using the software Matlab 7.0 is developed to find the optimal solution and present numerical examples to illustrate the models. The results in the numerical examples indicate that the savings of the total cost are realized through ordering cost reduction and backorder price discount.

  1. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  2. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teagan, W P; Bentley, J; Barnett, B [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R and D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under $150/kW in stationary applications and $30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories. (orig.)

  3. Plant evaluation activities and O and M cost reduction in U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Although some nuclear power plants face the possibility of premature retirement, most nuclear power plants have achieved substantial reductions in costs, mainly in O and M costs, and appear to be competitive with new gas and coal fired power plants. Improving competitiveness of existing nuclear power plants in the United States has primarily been driven by the electric utility self assessment activities. However, the background of this activity has been provided by the activities of NRC, INPO, NEI, EUCG and other activities being conducted for improvement of the nuclear power industry as a whole. Utility companies that are in the forefront of this activity have already achieved the reductions in staffing and outage time that are generally known to be effective for reducing O and M costs and are moving forward with rationalization and cost reductions in other areas. However, these electric utility companies are also achieving high safety and reliability. The staff of these electric utility companies have a high degree of autonomy, self motivation and self critical attitude and the staffing of these companies is a numerically small elite. This culture is supported by the self evaluation activity established by each company and is nurtured and supported by the management system. This appears to be one of the major elements in cost reduction. As this is based on U.S. information, differences in the system, society and culture in other nations mean that these findings may not be directly applicable. However, from the point of view of the prospects of nuclear power, these findings have an important meaning. This meaning is that the achievements in the United States of cost reduction activities centering on O and M costs are an important experience for other countries including Japan in reestablishing the economic competitiveness of nuclear power. (author)

  4. Supplier’s Joint Investments in Cost Reduction and Quality Improvement in a Decentralized Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a decentralized supply chain with a downstream manufacturer and an upstream supplier. The upstream supplier sells a product to the manufacturer, who faces a quality and price sensitive demand. The supplier has a chance to invest in both cost reduction and quality improvement of its product. We derive the optimal investment and pricing decisions for the supply chain members. We do so in both the centralized and the decentralized supply chains. We show that the optimal investment and pricing decisions in the decentralized supply chain may deviate from that in the centralized supply chain. We develop a mechanism to coordinate the decentralized supply chain. The developed mechanism contains four policies: wholesale price, sharing of revenue, sharing of cost reduction investment cost, and sharing of quality improvement investment cost. We also show that the developed coordination mechanism can lead to Pareto improvement.

  5. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  6. Public risk-reduction measures: cost-effectiveness from a global point-of-view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Motta Barros, E.B. da; Fleming, P.V.; Rosa, L.P.

    1985-05-01

    A review of systemic or global approach to cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-reduction measures is presented, and its advantages and limitations are discussed. The method is applied for problem of the cost-effectiveness of increasing the Angra 3 reactor containment wall thickness from 60cm to 180cm thick, in case of a direct commercial aircraft crash on it. (Author) [pt

  7. UMTRA Project-Level Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program (CR/PIP) is to contribute to the UMTRA Project's environmental restoration mission by providing the means to achieve and recognize continuous improvements and cost savings. This manual includes program definition, description of UMTRA project organizational responsibilities and interfaces with existing project functions, guidance to contractors, and definition of project-level functions

  8. Endovascular aneurysm repair delivery redesign leads to quality improvement and cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Courtney J; Horvath, Alexander J; Powell, Richard J; Columbo, Jesse A; Walsh, Teri R; Goodney, Philip P; Walsh, Daniel B; Stone, David H

    2015-08-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is now a mainstay of therapy for abdominal aortic aneurysm, although it remains associated with significant expense. We performed a comprehensive analysis of EVAR delivery at an academic medical center to identify targets for quality improvement and cost reduction in light of impending health care reform. All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (N = 127). Procedures were included if they met standard commercial instructions for use guidelines, used a single manufacturer, and were billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group 238 (n = 49). By use of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) quality improvement methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, control), targets for EVAR quality improvement were identified and high-yield changes were implemented. Procedure technical costs were calculated before and after process redesign. Perioperative services and clinic visits were identified as targets for quality improvement efforts and cost reduction. Mean technical costs before the intervention were $31,672, with endograft implants accounting for 52%. Pricing redesign in collaboration with hospital purchasing reduced mean EVAR technical costs to $28,607, a 10% reduction in overall cost, with endograft implants now accounting for 46%. Perioperative implementation of instrument tray redesign reduced instrument use by 32% (184 vs 132 instruments), saving $50,000 annually. Unnecessary clinic visits were reduced by 39% (1.6 vs 1.1 clinic visits per patient) through implementation of a preclinic imaging protocol. There was no difference in mean length of stay after the intervention. Comprehensive EVAR delivery redesign leads to cost reduction and waste elimination while preserving quality. Future efforts to achieve more competitive and transparent device pricing will make EVAR more cost neutral and enhance its financial sustainability for health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Society for

  9. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: emissions, costs and employment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO 2 emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: (1) accurately models random outages of generating units, 'must-run' constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and (2) runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emission trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable

  10. Strategies for cost-effective carbon reductions: A sensitivity analysis of alternative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumerman, Etan; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Brown, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of alternative futures often present results for a limited set of scenarios, with little if any sensitivity analysis to identify the factors affecting the scenario results. This approach creates an artificial impression of certainty associated with the scenarios considered, and inhibits understanding of the underlying forces. This paper summarizes the economic and carbon savings sensitivity analysis completed for the Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future study (IWG, 2000). Its 19 sensitivity cases provide insight into the costs and carbon-reduction impacts of a carbon permit trading system, demand-side efficiency programs, and supply-side policies. Impacts under different natural gas and oil price trajectories are also examined. The results provide compelling evidence that policy opportunities exist to reduce carbon emissions and save society money

  11. Cost reduction from resolution/improvement of carcinoid syndrome symptoms following treatment with above-standard dose of octreotide LAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Lynn; Totev, Todor; Vekeman, Francis; Neary, Maureen P; Duh, Mei S; Benson, Al B

    2017-09-01

    To calculate the cost reduction associated with diarrhea/flushing symptom resolution/improvement following treatment with above-standard dose octreotide-LAR from the commercial payor's perspective. Diarrhea and flushing are two major carcinoid syndrome symptoms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Previously, a study of NET patients from three US tertiary oncology centers (NET 3-Center Study) demonstrated that dose escalation of octreotide LAR to above-standard dose resolved/improved diarrhea/flushing in 79% of the patients within 1 year. Time course of diarrhea/flushing symptom data were collected from the NET 3-Center Study. Daily healthcare costs were calculated from a commercial claims database analysis. For the patient cohort experiencing any diarrhea/flushing symptom resolution/improvement, their observation period was divided into days of symptom resolution/improvement or no improvement, which were then multiplied by the respective daily healthcare cost and summed over 1 year to yield the blended mean annual cost per patient. For patients who experienced no diarrhea/flushing symptom improvement, mean annual daily healthcare cost of diarrhea/flushing over a 1-year period was calculated. The economic model found that 108 NET patients who experienced diarrhea/flushing symptom resolution/improvement within 1 year had statistically significantly lower mean annual healthcare cost/patient than patients with no symptom improvement, by $14,766 (p = .03). For the sub-set of 85 patients experiencing resolution/improvement of diarrhea, their cost reduction was more pronounced, at $18,740 (p = .01), statistically significantly lower than those with no improvement; outpatient costs accounted for 56% of the cost reduction (p = .02); inpatient costs, emergency department costs, and pharmacy costs accounted for the remaining 44%. The economic model relied on two different sources of data, with some heterogeneity in the prior treatment and disease status of patients

  12. Review comments on Environmental Analysis Cost Reduction Proposals (WIPP-DOE-136), July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.

    1982-11-01

    The cost reduction proposals have the laudable goal of significantly reducing the total capital And operating cost connected with WIPP. Furthermore, since the proposed changes would reduce the size and operating rate of the project, they would be expected to have decreased environmental And socioeconomic impacts. However, some of these cost reduction proposals do decrease factors of safety in various components of the project or trade off one type of environmental detriment for another. The report does not contain sufficient detail to justify all of the conclusions reached; more discussion and quantitative information (including costs) is necessary in some cases. Also, there are places where the report is unclear or contradictory. Without a more detailed evaluation, EEG is unable to conclude that each of these cost reduction proposals either has a net environmental/health and safety benefit or a cost savings that justifies a net detriment. A revised Environmental Analysis (EA) should either include additional information or specifically reference backup documents where these conclusions have been justified. In addition, the EA needs to be revised to include the effect of the recently announced (11/18/82) decision by DOE to relocate the underground waste storage areas of the repository to the south

  13. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Active Travel Intervention with Health and Carbon Emission Reduction Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Mark; Witten, Karen; Woodward, Alistair

    2018-01-01

    Active travel (walking and cycling) is beneficial for people’s health and has many co-benefits, such as reducing motor vehicle congestion and pollution in urban areas. There have been few robust evaluations of active travel, and very few studies have valued health and emissions outcomes. The ACTIVE before-and-after quasi-experimental study estimated the net benefits of health and other outcomes from New Zealand’s Model Communities Programme using an empirical analysis comparing two intervention cities with two control cities. The Programme funded investment in cycle paths, other walking and cycling facilities, cycle parking, ‘shared spaces’, media campaigns and events, such as ‘Share the Road’, and cycle-skills training. Using the modified Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model, the Programme’s net economic benefits were estimated from the changes in use of active travel modes. Annual benefits for health in the intervention cities were estimated at 34.4 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and two lives saved due to reductions in cardiac disease, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease. Reductions in transport-related carbon emissions were also estimated and valued. Using a discount rate of 3.5%, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 11:1 and was robust to sensitivity testing. It is concluded that when concerted investment is made in active travel in a city, there is likely to be a measurable, positive return on investment. PMID:29751618

  14. Technology learning for fuel cells. An assessment of past and potential cost reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoots, K.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Kramer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells have gained considerable interest as a means to efficiently convert the energy stored in gases like hydrogen and methane into electricity. Further developing fuel cells in order to reach cost, safety and reliability levels at which their widespread use becomes feasible is an essential prerequisite for the potential establishment of a 'hydrogen economy'. A major factor currently obviating the extensive use of fuel cells is their relatively high costs. At present we estimate these at about 1100 EUR(2005)W for an 80 kW fuel cell system but notice that specific costs vary markedly with fuel cell system power capacity. We analyze past fuel cell cost reductions for both individual manufacturers and the global market. We determine learning curves, with fairly high uncertainty ranges, for three different types of fuel cell technology - AFC, PAFC and PEMFC - each manufactured by a different producer. For PEMFC technology we also calculate a global learning curve, characterised by a learning rate of 21% with an error margin of 4%. Given their respective uncertainties, this global learning rate value is in agreement with those we find for different manufacturers. In contrast to some other new energy technologies, R and D still plays a major role in today's fuel cell improvement process and hence probably explains a substantial part of our observed cost reductions. The remaining share of these cost reductions derives from learning-by-doing proper. Since learning-by-doing usually involves a learning rate of typically 20%, the residual value for pure learning we find for fuel cells is relatively low. In an ideal scenario for fuel cell technology we estimate a bottom-line for specific (80 kW system) manufacturing costs of 95 EUR(2005)W. Although learning curves observed in the past constitute no guarantee for sustained cost reductions in the future, when we assume global total learning at the pace calculated here as the only cost reduction mechanism, this ultimate cost

  15. A single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated inventory model with ordering cost reduction dependent on lead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayashree, M.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-09-01

    Lead time is one of the major limits that affect planning at every stage of the supply chain system. In this paper, we study a continuous review inventory model. This paper investigates the ordering cost reductions are dependent on lead time. This study addressed two-echelon supply chain problem consisting of a single vendor and a single buyer. The main contribution of this study is that the integrated total cost of the single vendor and the single buyer integrated system is analyzed by adopting two different (linear and logarithmic) types ordering cost reductions act dependent on lead time. In both cases, we develop effective solution procedures for finding the optimal solution and then illustrative numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The solution procedure is to determine the optimal solutions of order quantity, ordering cost, lead time and the number of deliveries from the single vendor and the single buyer in one production run, so that the integrated total cost incurred has the minimum value. Ordering cost reduction is the main aspect of the proposed model. A numerical example is given to validate the model. Numerical example solved by using Matlab software. The mathematical model is solved analytically by minimizing the integrated total cost. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is included and the numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples. The sensitivity of the proposed model has been checked with respect to the various major parameters of the system. Results reveal that the proposed integrated inventory model is more applicable for the supply chain manufacturing system. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed. Finally, the graphical representation is presented to illustrate the proposed model and also include the computer flowchart in each model.

  16. Consequent use of IT tools as a driver for cost reduction and quality improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Stefan; Rapp, Roberto; Feustel, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The semiconductor industry drives a lot of efforts in the field of cost reductions and quality improvements. The consequent use of IT tools is one possibility to support these goals. With the extensions of its 150mm Fab to 200mm Robert Bosch increased the systematic use of data analysis and Advanced Process Control (APC).

  17. A sensitivity analysis of timing and costs of greenhouse gas emission reductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.; van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal timing and macro-economic costs of carbon emission reductions that mitigate the global average atmospheric temperature increase. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy sources, fossil-fuelled and non-fossil-fuelled. Technological change

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Maccia, C.; Pages, P.

    1985-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction is now widely accepted as a rational analytical framework to consistently address the resource allocation problem underlying any risk management process. This paper presents how this technique can be usefully applied to complex systems such as the management of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants into the environment. (orig.) [de

  19. The Cost of Class Size Reduction: Advice for Policymakers. RAND Graduate School Dissertation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Robert E.

    This dissertation provides information to state-level policymakers that will help them avoid two implementation problems seen in the past in California's class-size-reduction (CSR) reform. The first problem was that flat, per student reimbursement did not adequately cover costs in districts with larger pre-CSR class-sizes or smaller schools. The…

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Emission Reduction for the Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handayani, Kamia; Krozer, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of research on the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction in the selected coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Indonesia. The background of this research is the trend of more stringent environmental regulation regarding air emission from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs)

  1. Thermoecological cost of electricity production in the natural gas pressure reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Usón, Sergio; Stanek, Wojciech; Bargiel, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel concept for thermodynamic evaluation of a selected energy system. The presented method has been developed by integration of the Thermo-Economic Analysis with the theory of Thermo-Ecological Cost. It can be applied as a thermodynamic evaluation method of rational resources management within any production system. It takes into account both the interrelation of irreversibility within the analyzed system and its influence on the global effects related to the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The proposed method has been applied to evaluate the production of electricity in the process of natural gas transmission at pressure reduction stations. The expansion system is based on an existing plant integrated with a CHP module, characterized by a performance ratio of 89.5% and exergy efficiency of 49.2%. Within the paper, this expansion plant is supplied with natural gas transported from a natural deposit through a case-study transmission system with 4 compressor stations. The TEC (thermoecological cost) method was applied in conjunction with thermoeconomic analysis. As a result, TEC of the electricity generated in the expanders was determined at 2.42 kJ/kJ, TEC of electricity from the CHP module is 1.77, and the TEC of medium-pressure natural gas distributed to consumers is 1.022. - Highlights: • The chain of NG transmission with an exergy recovery expansion plant was analyzed. • New methodology coupling the TEC (thermoecological cost) and thermoeconomics. • Decomposition of the TEC formation process. • Case-study transmission system yields TEC of natural gas = 1.0222. • Expansion plant yields TEC of electricity 2.42 (expanders) and 1.77 (CHP module)

  2. Report of study group 3.1 ''technological and economical developments for cost reduction of LNG facilities''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 3.1 ''developpements economiques et technologiques pour la reduction des couts dans les installations de GNL''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapallini, R.

    2000-07-01

    The design, engineering and operation of LNG base load liquefaction and re-gasification facilities is now considered a mature technology. However, process efficiency at these plants is limited by fundamental thermodynamic principles and no radical technology breakthroughs are expected in the near future. Three important aspects affecting the cost of production are the molecular weight of the gas, the amount of nitrogen in the feed and the acid gas composition. Variations in composition will also affect the design of the facilities and production rate. Previous projects have optimised economies of scale, using processes based on large industrial gas turbines, to achieve the minimum unit cost for LNG production. LNG producers have continued to focus on larger train designs to further capitalize on economies of scale as well as continued expansion of existing facilities. The latest plant designs expect the optimum integration with existing facilities to be a major factor in optimising specific capital costs. Whilst design codes and standards have not been discussed in many papers on LNG cost reduction, it is generally accepted that project specifications can significantly impact the project cost. The cost of equipment can be significantly inflated by onerous specifications with non standard requirements that vendors have trouble meeting. The possibility of developing gas projects will mainly be determined by the requirements of power generation and/or the industrial sector. As far as power generation is concerned, expansion will rely greatly on combined cycle plants. The competitiveness of LNG as regards power generation can be further improved by adopting integrated solutions. As in all other industrial projects, one of the first concerns for the investor when he envisages building an LNG liquefaction or re-gasification terminal is the selection of the site where the terminal will be located. (author)

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) for nutrient reduction in drainage discharge from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies......, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients...... reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW...

  4. Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and cost by shipping at lower speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstad, Haakon; Asbjornslett, Bjorn E.; Stromman, Anders H.

    2011-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from maritime transport represent a significant part of total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to the International Maritime Organization (), maritime transport emitted 1046 million tons (all tons are metric) of CO 2 in 2007, representing 3.3% of the world's total CO 2 emissions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is currently debating both technical and market-based measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping. This paper presents investigations on the effects of speed reductions on the direct emissions and costs of maritime transport, for which the selection of ship classes was made to facilitate an aggregated representation of the world fleet. The results show that there is a substantial potential for reducing CO 2 emissions in shipping. Emissions can be reduced by 19% with a negative abatement cost (cost minimization) and by 28% at a zero abatement cost. Since these emission reductions are based purely on lower speeds, they can in part be performed now. - Highlights: → We investigates the effects of speed reductions for maritime transport. → The selection of ship classes represent the words fleet. → The transport volumes are kept constant. → The model includes both cost and emissions as a function of speed. → The results show that there is a substantial potential for reducing CO 2 emissions from shipping.

  5. The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management on Transportation Cost Reduction in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet SARIDOGAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management (SCM has become an important competitive approach for organizations. The issue of green supply chain management is critical for the successful implementation of industrial ecosystems and industrial ecology. Organizations have a number of reasons for implementing these green supply chain policies, from reactive regulatory reasons, to proactive strategic and competitive advantage reasons. From an overall environmental and organizational perspective, it is important to understand the situation and what issues exist in this field. Many organizations worldwide have already experienced globalization and a shifting focus to competition among networks of companies in this environment. Multinational enterprises have established global networks of suppliers that take advantage of country-industry specific characteristics to build this competitive advantage. To success having this competitive advantage, logistics and supply chain managers have to balance efforts to reduce costs and innovate while maintaining good environmental (ecological performance (Pagell et al., 2004. Therefore, today, competition is not between companies, between supply chains. This study brings us the effect of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM on the Transportation Cost Reduction (TCR.

  6. Evaluating the CO 2 emissions reduction potential and cost of power sector re-dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Bielen, David A.; Townsend, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of 're-dispatch' was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S., power system operational constraints not often considered in power sector policy analyses, such as transmission congestion, generator ramping constraints, minimum generation constraints, planned and unplanned generator outages, and ancillary service requirements, could limit the potential and increase the cost of coal-to-gas re-dispatch. Using a highly detailed power system unit commitment and dispatch model, we estimate the maximum potential for re-dispatch in the Eastern Interconnection, which accounts for the majority of coal capacity and generation in the U.S. Under our reference assumptions, we find that maximizing coal-to-gas re-dispatch yields emissions reductions of 230 million metric tons (Mt), or 13% of power sector emissions in the Eastern Interconnection, with a corresponding average abatement cost of $15-$44 per metric ton of CO2, depending on the assumed supply elasticity of natural gas.

  7. Innovative Home Visit Models Associated With Reductions In Costs, Hospitalizations, And Emergency Department Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sarah; Snyder, Lynne Page; Rotondo, Christina; Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Colligan, Erin Murphy; Giuriceo, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    While studies of home-based care delivered by teams led by primary care providers have shown cost savings, little is known about outcomes when practice-extender teams-that is, teams led by registered nurses or lay health workers-provide home visits with similar components (for example, care coordination and education). We evaluated findings from five models funded by Health Care Innovation Awards of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Each model used a mix of different components to strengthen connections to primary care among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions; these connections included practice-extender home visits. Two models achieved significant reductions in Medicare expenditures, and three models reduced utilization in the form of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, or both for beneficiaries relative to comparators. These findings present a strong case for the potential value of home visits by practice-extender teams to reduce Medicare expenditures and service use in a particularly vulnerable and costly segment of the Medicare population. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Alternatives for operational cost reduction in oil pipelines; Alternativas para reducao de custos energeticos operacionais em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Philipe Barroso; Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Pires, Luis Fernando Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (SIMDUT/DEM/ PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecancia. Nucleo de Simulacao Termo-Hidraulica de Dutos

    2012-07-01

    This paper intends to give a brief overview of some cost reduction alternatives in oil pipelines, to optimize the pipeline operation. Four different alternatives are presented, based on previous studies made on existing pipelines, to demonstrate the response obtained with these solutions. Pipeline operation, especially on mature ones, tends to have a high operational cost, be by tradition, the aging of the installation, change of operational characteristics - such as nominal flow, product, or even flow direction - for which the pipeline wasn't originally designed. The alternatives showed allow for an increase survival time of the pipeline, without resorting to major changes, such as replacement of pipes or adding pumping stations to the system. The alternative studied varies from no implementation cost to high installation cost or operational cost increase, depending on the system and the alternative chosen. From changing the pump arrays during operation or changing the products viscosity with different blends, that represent virtually no cost to the pipeline operation, to the use of VFDs, with a high installation cost or DRA, which increase the operational cost. (author)

  9. Socio-economic and Engineering Assessments of Renewable Energy Cost Reduction Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Joachim

    This dissertation combines three perspectives on the potential of cost reductions of renewable energy--a relevant topic, as high energy costs have traditionally been cited as major reason to vindicate developments of fossil fuel and nuclear power plants, and to justify financial support mechanisms and special incentives for renewable energy generators. First, I highlight the role of market and policy drivers in an international comparison of upfront capital expenses of residential photovoltaic systems in Germany and the United States that result in price differences of a factor of two and suggest cost reduction opportunities. In a second article I examine engineering approaches and siting considerations of large-scale photovoltaic projects in the United States that enable substantial system performance increases and allow thus for lower energy costs on a levelized basis. Finally, I investigate future cost reduction options of wind energy, ranging from capital expenses, operating expenses, and performance over a project's lifetime to financing costs. The assessment shows both substantial further cost decline potential for mature technologies like land-based turbines, nascent technologies like fixed-bottom offshore turbines, and experimental technologies like floating offshore turbines. The following paragraphs summarize each analysis: International upfront capital cost comparison of residential solar systems: Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or "soft" costs between the two countries, of which only 35% be explained by differences in cumulative market size and associated learning. A survey of German PV installers was deployed to collect granular data on PV soft costs in Germany, and the results are compared to those of a similar survey of U.S. PV installers. Non-module hardware costs and all analyzed soft costs are lower in

  10. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of seismic risk reduction options in oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasserasadi, K.; Ghafory-Ashtiany, M.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated probabilistic methodology for cost-efficiency estimation of different sort of seismic risk management measures are introduced by adding Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) module to an integrated seismic risk assessment model. An oil refinery in Iran has been selected for case study and cost-efficiency of software and hardware mitigation measures are evaluated. The results have shown that: (1) software mitigation measures have more benefit than hardware ones, (2) considering indirect loss in CBA lead to more benefit-cost ratio and (3) although increase of discount ratio decreases the benefit-cost ratio, the arrangement of mitigation measures from benefit-cost viewpoint are constant. (authors)

  11. Cost analysis of soil-depressurization techniques for indoor radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The article discusses a parametric cost analysis to evaluate active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction in houses. The analysis determined the relative importance of 14 ASD design variables and 2 operating variables on the installation and operating costs of residential ASD systems in several types of houses. Knowledge of the most important variables would enable EPA's research and development efforts to be more effectively directed at ways to reduce ASD costs and thus to increase utilization of the technology. Parameters offering the greatest potential for reductions in installation costs included three dealing with houses with poor subslab communication: (1) reducing the number of subslab depressurization pipes; (2) eliminating excavation of large subslab pits beneath the suction pipes to improve suction field extension; and (3) improving the effectiveness of premitigation subslab communication diagnostic testing in achieving simpler, less expensive ASD system designs. In addition, determining acceptable conditions for discharging ASD exhaust at grade level would reduce installation costs. Better design guidance for crawl-space submembrane depressurization (SMD) systems could reduce installation costs, if difficult membrane sealing steps and complete coverage of the crawl-space floor by the membrane can be avoided

  12. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordingly and the contract shall be modified to reflect the reduction. This right to a price reduction is... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price Reduction for... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-11 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or...

  13. Compendium of cost-effectiveness evaluations of modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Matthews, G.R.

    1985-12-01

    This report summarizes available information on cost effectiveness of engineering modifications potentially valuable for dose reduction at nuclear power plants. Data were gathered from several US utilities, published literature, equipment and service suppliers, and recent technical meetings. Five simplified econometric models were employed to evaluate data and arrive at a value for cost effectiveness expressed in either (a) dollars/rem, or (b) total dollar savings calculated using a nominal value of $1000/rem. Models employed were: a basic model with no consideration given to the time value of money; two models in which discounting was used to evaluate costs and savings in terms of present values; and two models in which income taxes and revenue requirements were considered. Results from different models varied by as much as a factor of 10, and were generally lowest for the basic model and highest for the before-tax revenue requirements model. Results for 151 evaluations employing different assumptions concerning number of plants per site and outage impacts were tabulated in order of decreasing cost effectiveness. Twenty-five evaluations were identified as exceptionally cost effective since both costs and dose were saved. Forty evaluations indicated highly cost-effective changes based on costs below $1000/rem saved using results of the present-worth model that included discounting of future dose savings

  14. SUPPLIES COSTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY WITH APPLICATION OF MEASUREMENT MODEL OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for the difficulty in adopting an integrated method of calculation of logistics costs is still a lack of adequate information about costs. The management of the supply chain and identify its costs can provide information for their managers, with regard to decision making, generating competitive advantage. Some models of calculating logistics costs are proposed by Uelze (1974, Dias (1996, Goldratt (2002, Christopher (2007, Castiglioni (2009 and Borba & Gibbon (2009, with little disclosure of the results. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the costs of supplies, applying a measurement model of logistics costs. Methodologically, the study characterized as exploratory. The model applied pointed, in original condition, that about R$ 2.5 million were being applied in the process of management of supplies, with replacement costs and storage imbalance. Upgrading the company's data, it is possible obtain a 52% reduction in costs to replace and store supplies. Thus, the cost model applied to logistical supplies showed feasibility of implementation, as well as providing information to assist in management and decision-making in logistics supply.

  15. Analyses on Cost Reduction and CO2 Mitigation by Penetration of Fuel Cells to Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Hirohisa; Yamamoto, Shigeo; Kondoh, Junji; Murata, Akinobu; Ishii, Itaru; Maeda, Tetsuhiko

    This paper presents analyses on the penetration of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) into a group of 10 residential houses and its effects of CO2 emission mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction in next 30 years. The price is considered to be reduced as the penetration progress which is expected to begin in near future. An experimental curve is assumed to express the decrease of the price. Installation of energy interchange systems which involve electricity, gas and hydrogen between a house which has a FC and contiguous houses is assumed to utilize both electricity and heat more efficiently, and to avoid start-stop operation of fuel processor (reformer) as much as possible. A multi-objective model which considers CO2 mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction is constructed and provided a Pareto optimum solution. A solution which simultaneously realizes both CO2 mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction appeared in the Pareto optimum solution. Strategies to reduce CO2 emission and consumers’ cost are suggested from the results of the analyses. The analyses also revealed that the energy interchange systems are effective especially in the early stage of the penetration.

  16. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-10-28

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  17. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora; Park, Jeongim

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: → The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.→ Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.→ Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.→ Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.→ Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  18. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yeora, E-mail: yrchae@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 290 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-Gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeongim [Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: > The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.> Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.> Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.> Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.> Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level

  20. A perspective on cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction solutions in water distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Water distribution systems (WDSs) face great challenges as aging infrastructures require significant investments in rehabilitation, replacement, and expansion. Reducing environmental impacts as WDSs develop is essential for utility managers and policy makers. This study quantifies the existing greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of common WDS elements using life-cycle assessment (LCA) while identifying the greatest opportunities for emission reduction. This study addresses oversights of the related literature, which fails to capture several WDS elements and to provide detailed life-cycle inventories. The life-cycle inventory results for a US case study utility reveal that 81% of GHGs are from pumping energy, where a large portion of these emissions are a result of distribution leaks, which account for 270 billion l of water losses daily in the United States. Pipe replacement scheduling is analyzed from an environmental perspective where, through incorporating leak impacts, a tool reveals that optimal replacement is no more than 20 years, which is in contrast to the US average of 200 years. Carbon abatement costs (CACs) are calculated for different leak reduction scenarios for the case utility that range from −$130 to $35 t −1  CO 2(eq) . Including life-cycle modeling in evaluating pipe materials identified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cement-lined ductile iron (DICL) as the Pareto efficient options, however; utilizing PVC presents human health risks. The model developed for the case utility is applied to California and Texas to determine the CACs of reducing leaks to 5% of distributed water. For California, annual GHG savings from reducing leaks alone (3.4 million tons of CO 2(eq) ) are found to exceed California Air Resources Board’s estimate for energy efficiency improvements in the state’s water infrastructure. (paper)

  1. Cost reduction and safety design features of new nuclear power plants in India. Annex 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    2002-01-01

    Indian Nuclear Power Programme is designed to exploit limited reserves of uranium and extensive resource of thorium. Pressurised heavy water reactors are found most suitable and form the main stay of the first stage of the programme. Thorium utilisation is achieved in the second and third stages. Today India has total installed capacity of 2720 MWe of PHWRs which are operating with high plant load factors of over 80%. Rich experience of construction and operation of over 150 reactor years is being utilised in effecting cost reduction and safety improvements. Standardisation and reduction in gestation period by preproject activities, advance procurement and work packages of engineer, procure, construct and commission are some of the techniques being adopted for cost reduction in the new projects. But the cost of safety is rising. Design basis event of double ended guillotine rupture of primary pressure boundary needs a relook based on current knowledge of material behaviour. This event appears improbable. Similarly some of the safety related systems like closed loop cooling water operating at low temperature and pressure, and low usage factors may be designed as per standard codes without invoking special nuclear requirements. The paper will address these issues and highlight the possible areas for cost reduction both in operating and safety systems. Modern construction and project management techniques are being employed. Gestation period of 5 years and cost of less than US $1400 per KWe are the present targets. In Indian environment nuclear power is found to be competitive with thermal power plants at distances of about 800 Kms from the coal mines. (author)

  2. Explaining the reductions in US corn ethanol processing costs: Testing competing hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    The processing costs of US corn ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983 as production volumes have increased seventeen-fold. We investigate the role of various factors that could explain this, including economies of scale, cumulative experience, induced innovation in response to rising input prices, an autonomous technological change, and trade induced competition from imported ethanol. Using data on dry-mill ethanol processing costs over the 1983–2005 period, we find evidence to show that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale, that learning by doing played an important role in reducing these processing costs with a learning rate of 0.25, and that sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. Other factors such as the rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant. The inclusion of these competing explanations for the reduction in processing costs of US corn ethanol lead to a significantly higher learning rate than otherwise, and this learning rate is found to be robust across specifications. - Highlights: ► We investigate the role of various factors that could explain the reduction in US corn ethanol processing costs over the period 1983–2005. ► We find that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale. ► Learning by doing played an important role in reducing these costs with a learning rate of 0.25. ► Sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. ► Rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant.

  3. Cost reductions for offshore wind power. Exploring the balance between scaling, learning and R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zwaan, B.; Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Lensink, S.; Van den Oosterkamp, P.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind electricity generation is prospected to increase substantially in the near future at a number of locations, like in the Baltic, Irish and North Sea, and emerge at several others. The global growth of offshore wind technology is likely to be accompanied by reductions in wind park construction costs, both as a result of scaling and learning effects. Since 2005, however, significant cost increases have been observed. A recent surge in commodity prices proves to constitute one of the main drivers of these cost increases. This observation begs the question whether wind turbine manufacturers should return to the laboratory for undertaking R and D that explores the use of alternative materials and bring offshore wind energy closer to competitiveness. It is demonstrated that if one abstracts from material price fluctuations, in particular for metals such as copper and steel, turbine production plus installation cost data publicly available for a series of offshore wind park projects (realized in several European countries since the 1990's) show a cost reduction trend. Hence various other sources of cost increases, such as due to the progressively larger distances from the shore (and correspondingly greater depths at sea) at which wind parks have been (and will be) built, are outshadowed by cost reduction effects. When one expresses the overall cost development for offshore wind energy capacity as an experience curve, a learning rate is found of 3%, which reflects a mixture of economies-of-scale and learning-by-doing mechanisms. Also the impact is quantified on offshore wind power construction costs from the recent tightness in the market for turbine manufacturing and installation services: without the demand-supply response inertia at the origin of this tightness it is estimated that the learning rate would be 5%. Since these learning rates are relatively low - in comparison to those observed for other technologies, and in view of the high current capacity

  4. Costs of certified emission reductions under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Kirkman, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the cost structure of certified emission reductions (CERs) through various types of projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Using the CDM project data, the costs of CERs and their variation across technology and over time and space are estimated by applying alternative functional forms and specifications. Results show that the average cost of CERs decreases with the project scale and duration, scale and duration effects significantly vary across project types, and there is an upward trend in costs. The results also show that the distribution of the projects in the CDM portfolio or a given location does not strictly follow the relative cost structure, nor does the distribution of the CDM projects in different host countries follow the principle of comparative advantage. More than 84% of the CDM portfolio consists of various energy projects with substantially higher costs of CERs than afforestation and reforestation, industrial and landfill gas reduction, and methane avoidance projects, which are only 12% of all projects. While per unit cost of abatement plays an important role in the bottom-up and top-down models to evaluate emission reduction potential and analyze policy alternatives, the findings contradict the presumption of such models that project investors seek out low-cost opportunities. At the aggregate level, the cost of CER by the projects in Asia and Europe is similar but higher than those hosted in Africa, Americas, and Oceania. Yet more than 83% of the projects in the CDM portfolio are located in Asia; more than 69% of the projects are in China and India alone. China appears to have a comparative advantage (i.e., lowest opportunity cost) in energy efficiency projects, while India has a comparative advantage in hydro power projects and Brazil has a comparative advantage in wind power projects. In contrast, energy efficiency category accounts for only 8% of the CDM projects in China, hydro power

  5. An estimate of the cost of burnout on early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of practicing physicians in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the impact of burnout on physicians has been growing because of the possible burden this may have on health care systems. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of burnout on early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of practicing physicians in Canada. Methods Using an economic model, the costs related to early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of physicians were compared for those who were experiencing burnout against a scenario in which they did not experience burnout. The January 2012 Canadian Medical Association Masterfile was used to determine the number of practicing physicians. Transition probabilities were estimated using 2007–2008 Canadian Physician Health Survey and 2007 National Physician Survey data. Adjustments were also applied to outcome estimates based on ratio of actual to planned retirement and reduction in clinical hours. Results The total cost of burnout for all physicians practicing in Canada is estimated to be $213.1 million ($185.2 million due to early retirement and $27.9 million due to reduced clinical hours). Family physicians accounted for 58.8% of the burnout costs, followed by surgeons for 24.6% and other specialists for 16.6%. Conclusion The cost of burnout associated with early retirement and reduction in clinical hours is substantial and a significant proportion of practicing physicians experience symptoms of burnout. As health systems struggle with human resource shortages and expanding waiting times, this estimate sheds light on the extent to which the burden could be potentially decreased through prevention and promotion activities to address burnout among physicians. PMID:24927847

  6. Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 张强; 陈广武; 齐长青; 崔文谦; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2015-01-01

    To reduce carbon intensity, an improved management method balancing the reduction in costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required for Tianjin’s waste management system. Firstly, six objective functions, namely, cost minimization, GHG minimization, eco-efficiency minimization, cost maximization, GHG maximization and eco-efficiency maximization, are built and subjected to the same constraints with each objective function corresponding to one scenario. Secondly, GHG emissions and costs are derived from the waste flow of each scenario. Thirdly, the range of GHG emissions and costs of other potential scenarios are obtained and plotted through adjusting waste flow with infinitely possible step sizes according to the correlation among the above six scenarios. And the optimal scenario is determined based on this range. The results suggest the following conclusions. 1) The scenarios located on the border between scenario cost minimization and GHG minimization create an optimum curve, and scenario GHG minimization has the smallest eco-efficiency on the curve;2) Simple pursuit of eco-efficiency minimization using fractional programming may be unreasonable; 3) Balancing GHG emissions from incineration and landfills benefits Tianjin’s waste management system as it reduces GHG emissions and costs.

  7. Insourcing as a Stratagy for Cost Reduction: a Methodology to Identifiy and Mensurate the Supporting Decition Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magela Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2008, market crisis made the national siderurgy industry reconsider its cost structure in order to maintain its competitiveness. Among the adopted strategies, insourcing was used in order to reduce costs and improve its productive capacity from its people and equipments resulting from declining sales. This research has been developed within this context and has as its objective to quantify the results of this choice. In order to achieve this objective, an insourcing case study of mechanical maintenance at ArcelorMittal Tubarão (AMT was used. Among the main advantages of insourcing at AMT are: the reduction of 24, 41% in maintenance services costs; a reduction in the level of rework and the level of lost time injuries (LTI; increased productivity and the index for available time fulfillment on shutdown. The factors that most contributed for the services insourcing are: collective bargaining agreements of the contractors higher than those of contracting and the incidence of profit, management fees (rates administration and taxes on the cost of labor and benefits to employees. This research also concludes that if the service prices of third parties were only adjusted based upon the inflation index (INPC over the last ten years, the insourcing of services, if viewed from the costs standpoint, would have been unfeasible.

  8. Elimination of maintenance outage and cost reduction by development of outage-free maintenance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabe, Hideo; Maruyama, Yoshinaga

    1996-01-01

    The development program of KEPCO on outage-free maintenance techniques for distribution line work since 1984 is overviewed. It has succeeded in eliminating maintenance outages since 1989. The original aim was to improve customer satisfaction. However, in all, four benefits were realised through the development. These are cost reduction, securing of worker safety, improvement of customer service, and advancement of distribution techniques and morale in KEPCO. The introduction of robotic techniques for maintenance work and manipulator techniques for repair work is planned for further modernization. These new techniques are helping in both work safety and work efficiency improvement. Cost reduction and advancement of distribution line work techniques is also considered. (R.P.)

  9. A Review of Last Mile Logistics Innovations in an Externalities Cost Reduction Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ranieri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the recent scientific literature contributions on innovative strategies for last mile logistics, focusing on externalities cost reduction, is presented. Transport is causing problems in urban areas, in particular in freight transport: modern cities need solutions to reduce externalities costs such as congestion, pollution and others, which have increased in the last few years, especially due to the growth of goods delivery. Online sales and globalization lead to new trends in freight transport, and moreover, a larger quantity of goods is expected to be delivered in the next future. In this context, most of the delivered goods end up in the city centers. Last mile logistics is the least efficient stage of the supply chain and comprises up to 28% of the total delivery cost. Therefore, the improvement of last mile logistics and a significant externalities reduction are very important challenges for researchers. New technologies and transport means, innovative techniques and organizational strategies allow handling in a more effective way the last mile delivery in urban areas. Based on the Systematic Literature Review (SLR method, recent papers that significantly contributed, with original proposals, to the reduction of externalities in urban logistics are identified and analyzed in this work. Furthermore, a classification of the papers dealing with the externality reduction problem is presented. It is consistent with a general formulation proposed to evaluate external costs in urban area. The innovative contributions are classified into five main categories: innovative vehicles, proximity stations or points, collaborative and cooperative urban logistics, optimization of transport management and routing, innovations in public policies and infrastructures. The new paradigm of smart logistics is based on the combination of these concepts and on the proposed innovations.

  10. PowerFilm PowerShade Fixed Site Solar System Cost Reduction Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    system was designed which adds capability of grid tie connection to the standalone function. This battery operating system has built-in intelligence...goal concerning alternative conductive grid inks was to reduce the cost of the silver ink layer without a reduction in PV power with experimentation... system . To overcome this loss, a new BOS unit with higher power transfer efficiency has been developed. This system also has grid tie

  11. Modelled Cost-Effectiveness of a Package Size Cap and a Kilojoule Reduction Intervention to Reduce Energy Intake from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla Herrera, Ana Maria; Neal, Bruce; Zheng, Miaobing; Lal, Anita; Sacks, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Interventions targeting portion size and energy density of food and beverage products have been identified as a promising approach for obesity prevention. This study modelled the potential cost-effectiveness of: a package size cap on single-serve sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) >375 mL (package size cap), and product reformulation to reduce energy content of packaged SSBs (energy reduction). The cost-effectiveness of each intervention was modelled for the 2010 Australia population using a multi-state life table Markov model with a lifetime time horizon. Long-term health outcomes were modelled from calculated changes in body mass index to their impact on Health-Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). Intervention costs were estimated from a limited societal perspective. Cost and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. Total intervention costs estimated in AUD 2010 were AUD 210 million. Both interventions resulted in reduced mean body weight (package size cap: 0.12 kg; energy reduction: 0.23 kg); and HALYs gained (package size cap: 73,883; energy reduction: 144,621). Cost offsets were estimated at AUD 750.8 million (package size cap) and AUD 1.4 billion (energy reduction). Cost-effectiveness analyses showed that both interventions were “dominant”, and likely to result in long term cost savings and health benefits. A package size cap and kJ reduction of SSBs are likely to offer excellent “value for money” as obesity prevention measures in Australia. PMID:28878175

  12. Cost of elective percutaneous coronary intervention in Malaysia: a multicentre cross-sectional costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Yun; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Low, Ee Vien; Liow, Siow Yen; Anchah, Lawrence; Hamzah, Syuhada; Liew, Houng Bang; Ali, Rosli Mohd; Ismail, Omar; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Said, Mas Ayu; Dahlui, Maznah

    2017-05-28

    Limitations in the quality and access of cost data from low-income and middle-income countries constrain the implementation of economic evaluations. With the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease in Malaysia, cost information is vital for cardiac service expansion. We aim to calculate the hospitalisation cost of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), using a data collection method customised to local setting of limited data availability. This is a cross-sectional costing study from the perspective of healthcare providers, using top-down approach, from January to June 2014. Cost items under each unit of analysis involved in the provision of PCI service were identified, valuated and calculated to produce unit cost estimates. Five public cardiac centres participated. All the centres provide full-fledged cardiology services. They are also the tertiary referral centres of their respective regions. The cost was calculated for elective PCI procedure in each centre. PCI conducted for urgent/emergent indication or for patients with shock and haemodynamic instability were excluded. The outcome measures of interest were the unit costs at the two units of analysis, namely cardiac ward admission and cardiac catheterisation utilisation, which made up the total hospitalisation cost. The average hospitalisation cost ranged between RM11 471 (US$3186) and RM14 465 (US$4018). PCI consumables were the dominant cost item at all centres. The centre with daycare establishment recorded the lowest admission cost and total hospitalisation cost. Comprehensive results from all centres enable comparison at the levels of cost items, unit of analysis and total costs. This generates important information on cost variations between centres, thus providing valuable guidance for service planning. Alternative procurement practices for PCI consumables may deliver cost reduction. For countries with limited data availability, costing method tailored based on country setting can be used for

  13. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  14. AEMS implementation cost study for Boeing 727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Costs for airline operational implementation of a NASA-developed approach energy management system (AEMS) concept, as applied to the 727 airplane, were determined. Estimated costs are provided for airplane retrofit and for installation of the required DME ground stations. Operational costs and fuel cost savings are presented in a cost-of-ownership study. The potential return on the equipment investment is evaluated using a net present value method. Scheduled 727 traffic and existing VASI, ILS, and collocated DME ground station facilities are summarized for domestic airports used by 727 operators.

  15. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program

  16. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  17. The importance of marginal cost electricity pricing to the success of greenhouse gas reduction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    The efficient reduction of GHG emissions requires appropriate retail pricing of off-peak electricity. However, off-peak electricity for residential consumers is priced at 331% above its marginal cost in the United States as a whole (June 2009). Even for the 1% of residences that are on some form of time-of-use (TOU) rate schedule, the off-peak rate is almost three times higher than the marginal cost. A barrier to marginal-cost based TOU rates is that less than 9% of U.S. households have the 'smart' meters in place that can measure and record the time of consumption. Policies should be put in place to achieve full deployment. Another important barrier is consumer concern about TOU rate design. Two TOU rate designs (baseline and two-part tariff) are described that utilize marginal-cost based rates, ensure appropriate cost recovery, and minimize bill changes from current rate structures. A final barrier is to get residences on to these rates. Should a marginal-cost based TOU rate design remain an alternative for which residences could 'opt-in,' or become the default choice, or become mandatory? Time-invariant rates are a historical anachronism that subsidize very costly peak-period consumption and penalize off-peak usage to our environmental detriment. They should be phased out. - Highlights: → Off-peak electricity for residences is priced at 331% above marginal cost in the US. → This inefficiently deters vehicle electrification that could reduce GHG emissions. → 9% of U.S. households have the 'smart' meters necessary for time-of-use rates. → Time-invariant rates cause substantial environmental harm and should be phased out.

  18. What reductions in dependency costs result from treatment in an inpatient neurological rehabilitation unit for people with stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory J; Beden, Rushdy; Pilling, Andrew; Chamberlain, M Anne

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the reductions in care costs that result from inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation for younger people with acquired brain injury. Thirty-five consecutive patients admitted following a stroke over one year were recruited to this observational study. Physical ability, dependency and potential community care costs were measured on admission and discharge. Fifty-one community-dwelling patients were transferred to rehabilitation from acute medical wards in a large teaching hospital; 35 met the inclusion criteria. After a median of 59 days of rehabilitation, 29 patients were discharged home and six to nursing homes. Patients made highly significant gains in physical ability (median Barthel index 50 to 64; p rehabilitation costs was 21 weeks. Savings occurred in those with moderate and severe disability and they have the potential to continue to accrue for over 12 years. Similar results will probably be found for rehabilitation in other forms of acquired brain injury.

  19. XAS studies on selenite reduction by pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Liu Chunli; Chen Fanrong; Charlet, Laurnet

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of aqueous Se (IV) with pyrite were systematically investigated in light of thermodynamic calculations and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). The results from the speciation study reveal that the reduction product is Se (O) when natural pyrite reacts with Se (N) at pH≤5.65, while small amount of FeSeO 3 or iron selenides may be formed at pH 6.1. At pH≥6.94, due to the precipitation of Fe (Ⅲ) -oxyhydroxide, the formation of the thermodynamically most stable species, FeSe 2 , is inhibited. However, when the reactive nanopyrite-greigite was used for reaction, the thermodynamically most stable species, FeSe 2 , was found for the first time as the predominant product in the present study, suggesting that 79 Se can be immobilized in its most insoluble form, FeSe 2 , in Fe (Ⅱ) -sulfide containing environment. This study confirms that pyrite can significantly attenuate the mobility of Se by reductive precipitation, and that the reaction process does not produce protons under acidic or neutral condition when Se (O) is formed. (authors)

  20. Cooperation control strategies for China's cross-region pollution in a lake basin based on green reduction cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changmin; Sun, Dong; Xie, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The cross-region water pollution issue has always been the widespread concern around the world. It becomes especially critical for China due to the imbalance relates to environmental costs that have accompanied rapid growth of economy. Though the government makes great efforts to improve it, the potential for water pollution conflict is still great. We consider the problem of determining combined control strategies for China's cross-region lake pollution based on the environmental green costs. The problem is first formulated as a generalized bilevel mathematical program where the upper level consists in each region that reduces environmental green costs including three parts: the reduction cost, pollution permit trade cost and cost of environment damage, while the lower level is represented by pollution permit equilibrium market. Finally, we take an empirical analysis in Taihu lake. The numerical study shows that the minimum costs of both total and regional are obviously superior to the current processing costs, which provides theoretical basis for the price of emission permits. Today, China's rapid gross domestic product (GDP) growth has come at a very high cost, as real estate prices have skyrocketed, the wealth gap has widened, and environmental pollution has worsened. China's central government is urged to correct the GDP-oriented performance evaluation system that is used to judge administrative region leaders. The cross-region water pollution issue has become a troubling issue that urgently needs to be resolved in China. This paper will not only actively aid efforts to govern Lake Taihu and other cross-region valleys, but it will also provide a supplement for theoretical research on cross-region pollution issues.

  1. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

  2. Reduction of capital costs of nuclear power plants. NEA-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Since the the mid-1980s, the declining real prices of fossil fuels and the significant improvements in thermal efficiencies of combined cycle power plants have eroded the economic competitiveness of nuclear power plants in most OECD countries. In order for nuclear power to remain a viable option for the next millennium, the cost of electricity from nuclear power plant must be greatly reduced to be competitive with alternative sources. Of the three major components of nuclear generation cost - capital, O and M and fuel - the capital cost component makes up approximately 60 per cent of the total. Therefore, identification of the means to reduce the capital costs of nuclear power plants is a high priority activity toward keeping nuclear power competitive. Among a number of capital cost reduction measures, the principal ones were agreed by the expert group as follows: Increased plant size, improved construction methods, reduced construction schedule, design improvement, improved procurement, organisation and contractual aspects, standardisation and construction in series, multiple unit construction, regulatory and policy reform. (orig.)

  3. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  4. An Analysis of the IOM Cost Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1972-73 academic year, the National Institute of Medicine (IOM) undertook a study of the cost of education of those health professionals supported through federal capitation grants. The methodology of the study is described and the patterns of costs of pharmacy education are compared with those in another profession. (LBH)

  5. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-11-01

    Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as thyroid nodular disease and its associated morbidity (hyperthyroidism). For the estimation of direct, indirect, medical, and nonmedical costs related to thyroid nodular diseases in Belgium, data from the Federal Public Service of Public Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, the National Institute for Disease and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI), the Information Network about the prescription of reimbursable medicines (FARMANET), Intercontinental Marketing Services, and expert opinions were used. These costs translate into savings after implementation of the iodization program and are defined as costs due to thyroid nodular disease throughout the article. Costs related to the iodization program are referred to as program costs. Only figures dating from before the start of the intervention were exploited. Only adult and elderly people (≥18 years) were taken into account in this study because thyroid nodular diseases predominantly affect this age group. The yearly costs due to thyroid nodular diseases caused by mild iodine deficiency in the Belgian adult population are ∼€38 million. It is expected that the iodization program will result in additional costs of ∼€54,000 per year and decrease the prevalence of thyroid nodular diseases by 38% after a 4-5-year period. The net savings after establishment of the program are therefore estimated to be at least €14 million a year. Optimization of iodine intake in Belgium should be quite cost effective, if only considering its impact on

  6. The scope of costs in alcohol studies: Cost-of-illness studies differ from economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Luqman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol abuse results in problems on various levels in society. In terms of health, alcohol abuse is not only an important risk factor for chronic disease, but it is also related to injuries. Social harms which can be related to drinking include interpersonal problems, work problems, violent and other crimes. The scope of societal costs related to alcohol abuse in principle should be the same for both economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies. In general, economic evaluations report a small part of all societal costs. To determine the cost- effectiveness of an intervention it is necessary that all costs and benefits are included. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantify the difference in societal costs incorporated in economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies on alcohol abuse. Method To investigate the economic costs attributable to alcohol in cost-of-illness studies we used the results of a recent systematic review (June 2009. We performed a PubMed search to identify economic evaluations on alcohol interventions. Only economic evaluations in which two or more interventions were compared from a societal perspective were included. The proportion of health care costs and the proportion of societal costs were estimated in both type of studies. Results The proportion of healthcare costs in cost-of-illness studies was 17% and the proportion of societal costs 83%. In economic evaluations, the proportion of healthcare costs was 57%, and the proportion of societal costs was 43%. Conclusions The costs included in economic evaluations performed from a societal perspective do not correspond with those included in cost-of-illness studies. Economic evaluations on alcohol abuse underreport true societal cost of alcohol abuse. When considering implementation of alcohol abuse interventions, policy makers should take into account that economic evaluations from the societal perspective might underestimate the total

  7. The scope of costs in alcohol studies: Cost-of-illness studies differ from economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Paul F; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; van den Berg, Matthijs; Tariq, Luqman; de Wit, G Ardine

    2010-07-06

    Alcohol abuse results in problems on various levels in society. In terms of health, alcohol abuse is not only an important risk factor for chronic disease, but it is also related to injuries. Social harms which can be related to drinking include interpersonal problems, work problems, violent and other crimes. The scope of societal costs related to alcohol abuse in principle should be the same for both economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies. In general, economic evaluations report a small part of all societal costs. To determine the cost- effectiveness of an intervention it is necessary that all costs and benefits are included. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantify the difference in societal costs incorporated in economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies on alcohol abuse. To investigate the economic costs attributable to alcohol in cost-of-illness studies we used the results of a recent systematic review (June 2009). We performed a PubMed search to identify economic evaluations on alcohol interventions. Only economic evaluations in which two or more interventions were compared from a societal perspective were included. The proportion of health care costs and the proportion of societal costs were estimated in both type of studies. The proportion of healthcare costs in cost-of-illness studies was 17% and the proportion of societal costs 83%. In economic evaluations, the proportion of healthcare costs was 57%, and the proportion of societal costs was 43%. The costs included in economic evaluations performed from a societal perspective do not correspond with those included in cost-of-illness studies. Economic evaluations on alcohol abuse underreport true societal cost of alcohol abuse. When considering implementation of alcohol abuse interventions, policy makers should take into account that economic evaluations from the societal perspective might underestimate the total effects and costs of interventions.

  8. Cost effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, Jacques

    1989-08-01

    This case study, related to the design stage of a fuel fabrication facility, presents the evaluation of alternative options to manipulate mixed oxide fuel rods in a quality control shop. It is based on a study performed in the framework of the 'MELOX project' developed by COGEMA in France. The methodology for evaluating robotic actions is resulting from a research work part funded by the IAEA under the co-ordinated research programme on 'Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems', and by the commission of the European Communities under the research and training programme on radiation protection.

  9. Cost effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    1989-01-01

    This case study, related to the design stage of a fuel fabrication facility, presents the evaluation of alternative options to manipulate mixed oxide fuel rods in a quality control shop. It is based on a study performed in the framework of the 'MELOX project' developed by COGEMA in France. The methodology for evaluating robotic actions is resulting from a research work part funded by the IAEA under the co-ordinated research programme on 'Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems', and by the commission of the European Communities under the research and training programme on radiation protection

  10. A Sensitivity Analysis of Timing and Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, R.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal timing and macro-economic costs of carbon emission reductions that mitigate the global average atmospheric temperature increase. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy sources, fossil-fuelled and non-fossil-fuelled. Technological change is represented endogenously through learning curves, and niche markets exist implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-fossil-fuelled energy source. Under these conditions, with a temperature increase constraint of 2C, early abatement is found to be optimal, and, compared to the results of many existing top-down models, the costs of this strategy prove to be low. We perform an extensive sensitivity analysis of our results regarding the uncertainties that dominate various economic and technological modeling parameters. Uncertainties in the learning rate and the elasticity of substitution between the two different energy sources most significantly affect the robustness of our findings

  11. Multi-strategy based quantum cost reduction of linear nearest-neighbor quantum circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ying-ying; Cheng, Xue-yun; Guan, Zhi-jin; Liu, Yang; Ma, Haiying

    2018-03-01

    With the development of reversible and quantum computing, study of reversible and quantum circuits has also developed rapidly. Due to physical constraints, most quantum circuits require quantum gates to interact on adjacent quantum bits. However, many existing quantum circuits nearest-neighbor have large quantum cost. Therefore, how to effectively reduce quantum cost is becoming a popular research topic. In this paper, we proposed multiple optimization strategies to reduce the quantum cost of the circuit, that is, we reduce quantum cost from MCT gates decomposition, nearest neighbor and circuit simplification, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed strategies can effectively reduce the quantum cost, and the maximum optimization rate is 30.61% compared to the corresponding results.

  12. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  13. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists...... is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics...

  14. Reduction of the radioactive waste volume from Belgian NPP: Reality, costs and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, P.; Lemmens, A.; Mannaerts, K.

    2001-01-01

    The growing awareness of the existence of waste generated by human activities and its environmental impact is one of the critical events of the late twentieth century. All industrial activities produce waste and nuclear industry is no exception. But nuclear power plants produce smaller amount of waste that makes it possible to treat it with particular care. This paper describes the reduction in the amount of waste, the consequences this has had on the associated costs and the action taken to control the development of both objectives. (author)

  15. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project

  16. Renewables vs. energy efficiency: The cost of carbon emissions reduction in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Peña, Álvaro; Pérez-Arriaga, Ignacio; Linares, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    While support instruments have succeeded to largely deploy renewables during the 1996–2008 period, little attention has been paid to energy efficiency measures, resulting in a high energy intensity and large growth of energy demand. Energy-related CO 2 emissions have increased significantly. At the same time, important investments in combined cycle gas turbines have taken place. This paper analyses whether, from a cost minimization viewpoint, renewable support has been the best policy for reducing emissions, when compared to the promotion of energy efficiency in sectors such as transportation or buildings. We use a model of the Spanish energy sector to examine its evolution in the time period considered under different policies. It is a bottom-up, static, partial equilibrium, linear programming model of the complete Spanish energy system. We conclude that demand side management (DSM) clearly dominates renewable energy (RE) support if the reduction of emissions at minimum cost is the only concern. We also quantify the savings that could have been achieved: a total of €5 billion per year, mainly in RE subsidies and in smaller costs of meeting the reduced demand (net of DSM implementation cost). - Highlights: ► Energy efficiency is cheaper than renewables for reducing carbon emissions. ► Energy efficiency measures could have saved more than €5 billion per year in Spain. ► Savings could have been bigger without overcapacity in gas combined cycles.

  17. Cost reduction in PV manufacturing. Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    In the past three years there have been several key events or changes that can lead to fully economic, massive deployment to the grid-connected and central PV markets. The factors discussed in this report include: (1) significant cost reduction in single crystal and polycrystal silicon so that modules profitably priced at $3.10-$3.30 per peak watt and installed grid-connected systems with installed cost of $5.50 per watt are being offered; (2) several new thin film plants - amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium diselenide are being built for 1996, 1997 production with greatly reduced costs; (3) government subsidized volume orders for PV in grid-connected houses (Japan, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the United States) provide volume (2000+ units per year) that lead to reduced costs; (4) environmental benefits for PV are being applied in Europe and Japan permitting 'early adopters' to enter the market; and (5) government and commercial acceptance of PV building integrated products, especially in Europe, are expanding PV markets. The combination of these forces lead to the prediction that an 'accelerated' market mode could start in the year 2000

  18. Reduction of costs for anemia-management drugs associated with the use of ferric citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anila Thomas,1 Leif E Peterson2 1Clinical Pharmacy Services, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA; 2Center for Biostatistics, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA Background: Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder which has the potential to reduce usage of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs and intravenous (IV iron used for anemia management during hemodialysis (HD among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Currently, the potential health care cost savings on a national scale due to the use of ferric citrate in ESRD are undetermined. Methods: Per-patient-per-year costs of ESAs (Epogen® and Aranesp® [Amgen Inc., CA, USA] and IV iron (Venofer® [American Regent, Inc., NY, USA] and Ferrlecit® [Sanofi US, Bridgewater, NJ, USA] were based on RED BOOK™ (Truven Health Analytics New York, NY, USA costs combined with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS base rate and actual usage in 2011 for the four drugs. The annual number of outpatients undergoing HD in the US was based on frequencies reported by the USRDS (United States Renal Data System. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed to determine total annual costs and cost reduction based on ferric citrate usage. Results: Total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron for anemia management in ESRD determined by Monte Carlo analysis assuming CMS base rate value was 5.127 (3.664–6.260 billion USD. For actual utilization in 2011, total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron was 3.981 (2.780–4.930 billion USD. If ferric citrate usage reduced ESA utilization by 20% and IV iron by 40%, then total cost would be reduced by 21.2% to 4.038 (2.868–4.914 billion USD for the CMS base rate, and by 21.8% to 3.111 (2.148–3.845 billion USD, based on 2011 actual utilization. Conclusion: It is likely that US health care costs for anemia-management drugs associated with ESRD among HD patients can be reduced by using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder. Keywords

  19. Greenhouse gas abatement in Senegal. A case study of least-cost options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amous, S.; Revet, D.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The first stage of the study was to make a preliminary inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the base year 1988. Following this seven no regret technical options for emission reduction were investigated and the costs calculated, allowing the identification of three least-cost options. The three least-cost options must be implemented first because of their negative costs. The economic benefits of both abatement scenarios are characterized by a negative global cost whatever the discount rate is. (author)

  20. Reduction in energy consumption and operating cost in a dried corn warehouse using logistics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrakot Y. Tippayawong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the major economic crops in Thailand. Corn postharvest operation involves various practices that consume a large amount of energy. Different energy conservation measures have been implemented but logistics consideration is not normally employed. In this work, attempt has been made to demonstrate that logistics techniques can offer a significant reduction in energy and cost. The main objective of this work is to identify and demonstrate possible approaches to improving energy efficiency and reducing operating cost for a dried corn warehouse operator. Three main problems are identified: (i relatively high fuel consumption for internal transfer process, (ii low quality of dried corn, and (iii excess expenditure on outbound transportation. Solutions are proposed and implemented using logistics operations. Improvement is achieved using plant layout and shortest path techniques, resulting in a reduction of almost 50% in energy consumption for the internal transfer process. Installation of an air distributor in the grain storage unit results in a decrease in loss due to poor-quality dried corn from 17% to 10%. Excess expenditure on dried corn distribution is reduced by 6% with application of a global positioning system.

  1. Strategies for net cost reductions with the expanded role and expertise of anesthesiologists in the perioperative surgical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E

    2014-05-01

    The Perioperative Surgical Home is a model adopted by the American Society of Anesthesiologists to increase quality and patient safety and to decrease costs. This Special Article is about the latter topic. Using narrative review, we show that there are two principal opportunities for net cost reduction. One opportunity is to reduce unnecessary interventions that do not have potential to benefit patients (e.g., preoperative laboratory studies in healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery and use of substantial fresh gas flows with volatile anesthetics). The other opportunity is to optimize staff scheduling, case scheduling, and staff assignment. These two are the same as the principal ways that a positive return on investment can be achieved from use of an anesthesia information management system. Three other opportunities are much less likely to achieve as large (if any) net cost reduction among all patients but may at some hospitals. These are to reduce cancellations, operating room times, and/or hospital postoperative lengths of stay.

  2. Factory '82 - 30% reduction of operation cost at short term. Fabrik '82. Kurzzeitig 30% der Betriebskosten beeinflussen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The present-day situation of many companies is characterized by a decreasing production volume. Consequences and effects of this phenomenon on production and ancillary branches are presented and analysed under aspects of cost, measures are described for influencing operation cost in an effective and continuing way at short term: cost of energy and disposal, heat insulation and heat recovery, cost reduction by computer application, cost reduction with material flow, operational cost analyses with detection of weak spots. Replanning factories and subsections which frequently have shown to be necessary - new planning projects have become more or less rare these days - is accounted for by the range of problem-related topics. Next to issues of CAD in factory planning, another approach is demonstrated which is still underutilized when designing and using factory buildings in keeping with cost: value-analysis factory planning.

  3. Reduction of medication costs after detoxification for medication-overuse headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asif M; Bendtsen, Lars; Zeeberg, Peter; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether detoxifying patients with medication-overuse headache can reduce long-term medication costs. Direct costs of medications in medication-overuse headache have been reported to be very high but have never been calculated on the basis of exact register data. Long-term economic savings obtained by detoxification have never been investigated. We conducted a registry-based observational retrospective follow-up study on 336 medication-overuse headache patients treated and discharged from the Danish Headache Center over a 2-year period. By means of the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we collected information on the costs and use of prescription-only medication 1 year before admission and 1 year after discharge from Danish Headache Center. The average medication costs per patient per year decreased with 24%, from US$971 before treatment to US$737 after (P = .001), and the average medication use decreased with 14.4% (P = .02). Savings were most pronounced for patients overusing triptans. In this group, the average medication costs per patient per year decreased with 43% (P headache at a tertiary headache center has a long-lasting effect on the medication costs and use, in particular among patients overusing triptans. The results may not be generalizable to all countries and may be sensitive to the costs of triptans. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  4. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divided...... into three main categories: economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, cost-of-illness analyses, and other analyses such as assessments of healthcare productivity. Conclusion: We examined a number of studies using register-based data on healthcare costs. Use of register-based data renders...

  5. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  6. A systematic way for the cost reduction of density fitting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kállay, Mihály

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple approach for the reduction of the size of auxiliary basis sets used in methods exploiting the density fitting (resolution of identity) approximation for electron repulsion integrals. Starting out of the singular value decomposition of three-center two-electron integrals, new auxiliary functions are constructed as linear combinations of the original fitting functions. The new functions, which we term natural auxiliary functions (NAFs), are analogous to the natural orbitals widely used for the cost reduction of correlation methods. The use of the NAF basis enables the systematic truncation of the fitting basis, and thereby potentially the reduction of the computational expenses of the methods, though the scaling with the system size is not altered. The performance of the new approach has been tested for several quantum chemical methods. It is demonstrated that the most pronounced gain in computational efficiency can be expected for iterative models which scale quadratically with the size of the fitting basis set, such as the direct random phase approximation. The approach also has the promise of accelerating local correlation methods, for which the processing of three-center Coulomb integrals is a bottleneck

  7. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris; Kaufman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et el 1992; Bergman et al 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was USD 55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), USD 50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal - although the life cycle costs are themselves based on estimates dating from 1987-1990. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be USD 29.5 million using the same parameters that suggested the previously stated USD 55 million for the larger quantity. Within that cost estimate, USD 300 was the value given to the filter and USD 4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the USD 4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable) direct replacement of the traditional filter train, but this paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al work suggested that 1000 ft 3 /min stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for USD 5000 each after development (although the USD 70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors have estimated that development units able to be retro-fitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps USD 30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced

  8. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  9. Reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Gong, Chengzhu; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-15

    This paper analyses the reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China based on provincial panel data for 2001-2010. Using a parameterized quadratic form for the directional output distance function, we find that if agricultural sectors in all provinces were to produce on the production frontier, China could potentially reduce agricultural emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) by 16.0%, 16.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. Additionally, our results show that the shadow price of TN increased rapidly and continuously, while that of COD and TP fluctuated for the whole period. For the whole country, the average shadow price of COD, TN, and TP are 8266 Yuan/tonne, 25,560 Yuan/tonne, and 10,160 Yuan/tonne, respectively. The regional shadow prices of agricultural pollutants are unbalanced. Furthermore, we show that the pollution costs from emissions of COD, TN, and TP are 6.09% of the annual gross output value of the agricultural sector and are highest in the Western and lowest in the Eastern provinces. Our estimates suggest that there is scope for further pollution abatement and simultaneous output expansion for China's agriculture if farmers promote greater efficiency in their production process. Policymakers are required to dynamically adjust the pollution tax rates and ascertain the initial permit price in an emission trading system. Policymakers should also consider the different pollution costs for each province when making the reduction allocations within the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spacecraft COst REduction Team (SCORE): TQM/CI on a massive scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Jerry D.

    1992-01-01

    The business of building satellites and space systems has matured. Few missions require, or can afford, excellent performance at any price. The new paradigm is doing more with less, providing quality systems at lower cost--in other words, doing our job 'Faster-Better-Cheaper.' The TRW Spacecraft COst REduction (SCORE) initiative was launched in 1990 by Daniel S. Goldin, then general manager of TRW's Space & Technology Group. The SCORE mission is to apply continuous improvement (CI) techniques to effect major reductions in the cost (our primary goal) and span time (as a corollary) required for the production of spacecraft. SCORE is a multi-year initiative that is having a profound effect on both the procedural and the cultural aspects of how we do business. The objectives of this initiative are being realized. The focus of this paper is not on the results of SCORE per se, but rather on the things we have leaned about how to do continuous improvement on a massive scale, with multilevel (hierarchical) CI teams. The following sections summarize the chronology of the SCORE initiative, from team formation to development of the year-end report for 1991. Lessons learned, the core of this presentation, are discussed--with particular focus on the unique aspects of SCORE. The SCORE initiative is continuing and, as a part of our evolving culture, will never end. It has resulted in profound insights into the way we do work and (the topic at hand) how to do CI for large and complex multidisciplinary development activities.

  11. Manufacturing cost study on the ion sources for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the cost of manufacturing 48 ion sources for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility is described. The estimate is built up from individual part costs and assembly operation times for the 80 kV prototype source constructed by LLL and described by LLL drawings furnished during December 1978. Recommendations for cost reduction are made

  12. OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND SOFTWARE FOR FUEL COST REDUCTION IN CASE OF ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Kovács

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain and the fuel cost is the highest cost among the cost components of transportation. The goal of the research is to optimize the transport costs in case of a given transport task both by the selecting the optimal petrol station and by determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel. Recently, in practice, these two decisions have not been made centrally at the forwarding company, but they depend on the individual decision of the driver. The aim of this study is to elaborate a precise and reliable mathematical method for selecting the optimal refuelling stations and determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel to fulfil the transport demands. Based on the elaborated model, new decision-supporting software is developed for the economical fulfilment of transport trips.

  13. The use of 3D CADD (Computer Aided Design and Drafting) models in operation and maintenance cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didsbury, R.; Bains, N.; Cho, U.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The use of three dimensional(3D) computer-aided design and drafting(CADD) models, and the associated information technology and databases, in the engineering and construction phases of large projects is well established and yielding significant improvements in project cost, schedule and quality. The information contained in these models can also be extremely valuable to operating plants, particularly when the visual and spatial information contained in the 3D models is interfaced to other plant information databases. Indeed many plant owners and operators in the process and power industries are already using this technology to assist with such activities as plant configuration management, staff training, work planning and radiation protection. This paper will explore the application of 3D models and the associated databases in an operating plant environment and describe the resulting operational benefits and cost reduction benefits. Several industrial experience case studies will be presented along with suggestions for further future applications. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  14. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et al., 1992; Bergman et al., 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was $55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), $50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be $29.5 million using the same parameters that previously suggested the $55 million figure. Within that cost estimate, $300 each was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the $4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable), direct replacement of the traditional filter train. This paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'Metallic HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al., 1997 work suggested that 1000 cfm (cubic feet per minute) (1690 m 3 /hr) stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for $5000 each after development (although the $70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors own company have estimated development units able to be retrofitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps $30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced industrially in significant numbers may be closer to $15,000 each. That being the case, the

  15. Cost optimisation studies of high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R.; Nightingale, M.P.S.; Godden, D. [AEA Technology, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Cost optimisation studies are carried out for an accelerator based neutron source consisting of a series of linear accelerators. The characteristics of the lowest cost design for a given beam current and energy machine such as power and length are found to depend on the lifetime envisaged for it. For a fixed neutron yield it is preferable to have a low current, high energy machine. The benefits of superconducting technology are also investigated. A Separated Orbit Cyclotron (SOC) has the potential to reduce capital and operating costs and intial estimates for the transverse and longitudinal current limits of such machines are made.

  16. Cost-Sharing Contracts for Energy Saving and Emissions Reduction of a Supply Chain under the Conditions of Government Subsidies and a Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yuyin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level, and wholesale price successively. In the end, the retailer determines the retail price. As a regulation, the government provides subsidies for energy-saving products, while imposing a carbon tax on the carbon emitted. The results show that (1 both the energy-saving cost-sharing (ECS and the carbon emissions reduction cost-sharing (CCS contracts are not the dominant strategy of the two parties by which they can facilitate energy savings and emissions reductions; (2 compared with single cost-sharing contracts, the bivariate cost-sharing (BCS contract for energy saving and emissions reduction is superior, although it still cannot realise prefect coordination of the supply chain; (3 government subsidy and carbon tax policies can promote the cooperation of both the upstream and downstream enterprises of the supply chain—a subsidy policy can always drive energy saving and emissions reductions, while a carbon tax policy does not always exert positive effects, as it depends on the initial level of pollution and the level of carbon tax; and (4 the subsidy policy reduces the coordination efficiency of the supply chain, while the influences of carbon tax policy upon the coordination efficiency relies on the initial carbon-emission level.

  17. The impact of BPO on cost reduction in mid-sized health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andy; Kocakülâh, Mehmet C

    2010-01-01

    At the convergence of two politico-economic "hot topics" of the day--outsourcing and the cost of health care-lie opportunities for mid-sized health systems to innovate, collaborate, and reduce overhead. Competition in the retail health care market can serve as both an impetus and an inhibitor to such measures, though. Here we are going to address the motivations, influences, opportunities, and limitations facing mid-sized, US non-profit health systems in business process outsourcing (BPO). Advocates cite numerous benefits to BPO, particularly in cost reduction and strategy optimization. BPO can elicit cost savings due to specialization among provider firms, returns to scale and technology, standardization and automation, and gains in resource arbitrage (off-shoring capabilities). BPO can also free an organization of non-critical tasks and focus resources on core competencies (treating patients). The surge in BPO utilization has rarely extended to the back-office functions of many mid-sized health systems. Health care providers, still a largely fragmented bunch with many rural, independent non-profit systems, have not experienced the consolidation and organizational scale growth to make BPO as attractive as other industries. Smaller firms, spurning merger and acquisition pressure from large, tertiary health systems, often wish to retain their autonomy and identity; hence, they face a competitive cost disadvantage compared to their larger competitors. This article examines the functional areas for these health systems in which BPO is not currently utilized and dissects the various methods available in which to practice BPO. We assess the ongoing adoption of BPO in these areas as well as the barriers to adoption, and identify the key processes that best represent opportunity for success. An emphasis is placed on a collaborative model with other health systems compared to a single system, unilateral BPO arrangement.

  18. Study of China's coal supply cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Primary Industries and Energy is funding a joint research project between ABARE and the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission, China's leading organisation undertaking policy-related energy sector research. Together, the two organisations will analyse the economic costs and impacts of moving large quantities of coal from China's northern coal fields to, power stations in the rapidly growing south-eastern coastal provinces. The study will also compare the true economic costs of using domestic coal - including the costs of subsidies on coal production and transport - with the costs of using imported coal. ABARE will use its dynamic model, MEGABARE, to undertake ky parts of the study, taking into account the complex linkages between sectors in an economy and between different economies

  19. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. 1615.407-1 Section 1615.407-1 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.407-1 Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. The clause set forth in section 1652.215-70...

  20. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.215-70 Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall be...

  1. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  2. Results and assessment of participation of VUPEK in coordinated research project of the IAEA ''Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadlec, J.; Horacek, P.

    1989-01-01

    The results and conclusions are summarized of the research programme ''Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems'' co-ordinated in 1983 to 1988 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Institutes in 18 member states were involved which performed 33 case studies in the field of risk reduction in various power systems or their parts. A comparison with cost-effectiveness of risk reduction in other fields was made as well. The health risks (occupational, those of population) and the environmental risks were evaluated. The case studies cover various stages of the decision-making process and various decision makers. The solution resulted in 5 methodological studies and 16 models. 11 case studies and 1 methodological study were conducted by the Research Institute of the Fuel and Energy Complex. The experiences obtained, the questions so far unanswered and recommendations for those who will perform similar studies are given. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  3. Examples for cost reduction in the design of a WWER-1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    1991-01-01

    In a design project during recent years, a version for Finnish conditions has been and is being developed based on the Soviet WWER-1000 PWR plant with four horizontal steam generators. The plant will have a double containment. The inner containment will be a dry full pressure prestressed concrete containment with liner and the secondary containment will be made of ordinary concrete. Four train safety approach is adopted. It is supposed that the plant is to be designed according to the present Finnish safety requirements, e.g. severe reactor accidents are considered. When striving at an economic plant no compromises are made as far as safety is concerned. This paper describes possible cost reduction by redesigning the main technical equipment. (author). 1 ref

  4. Cost reduction and safety design features of ABWR-II. Annex 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, F.; Moriya, K.; Anegawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    The ABWR-II, which is aimed to be the next generation reactor following the latest BWR: Advanced Boiling Reactor (ABWR), is now under development jointly by the Japanese BWR utilities, General Electric Company, Hitachi Limited, and Toshiba Corporation. The key objectives of ABWR-II development include improvement in economics and further sophistication in safety for commercialization in the late 2010's and after. This paper summarizes the current status of ABWR-II development focusing on economics and safety. Plant power rating, fuel size, CRD rationalization and outage period are discussed from a cost reduction perspective. In terms of safety, the features such as diversification in emergency power sources and passive system application against severe accidents are being introduced. (author)

  5. Coupling of CORINAIR Data to Cost-effective Emission Reduction Strategies Based on Critical Thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, M.; Guardans, R.; Lindstrom, M.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop held by the participants in the EU/LIFE project: Coupling of CORINAIR data to cost-effective emission reduction strategies based on critical thresholds. The project participants include FEI, Filand, NERI, Denmark, CIEMAT, Spain, Lund Univ. Sweden. EMEP/MSC-W, UN/ECE/WGE/CCE and IIASA. The main objective of the project is to support national activities in assessing the spatial and temporal details of emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds and the impacts of acidification, eutrophication and ground level ozone. The reproject workshop enabled participants to report preliminary results of the two main tasks, emissions and impacts and to agree on common solutions for the final results. (Author) 11 refs

  6. Competition between biofuels. Modeling technological learning and cost reductions over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, M.; Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Lensink, S.M.; Londo, H.M.

    2009-10-01

    A key aspect in modeling the (future) competition between biofuels is the way in which production cost developments are computed. The objective of this study was threefold: (1) to construct a (endogenous) relation between cost development and cumulative production (2) to implement technological learning based on both engineering study insights and an experience curve approach, and (3) to investigate the impact of different technological learning assumptions on the market diffusion patterns of different biofuels. The analysis was executed with the European biofuel model BioTrans, which computes the least cost biofuel route. The model meets an increasing demand, reaching a 25% share of biofuels of the overall European transport fuel demand by 2030. Results show that 1st generation biodiesel is the most cost competitive fuel, dominating the early market. With increasing demand, modestly productive oilseed crops become more expensive rapidly, providing opportunities for advanced biofuels to enter the market. While biodiesel supply typically remains steady until 2030, almost all additional yearly demands are delivered by advanced biofuels, supplying up to 60% of the market by 2030. Sensitivity analysis shows that (a) overall increasing investment costs favour biodiesel production, (b) separate gasoline and diesel subtargets may diversify feedstock production and technology implementation, thus limiting the risk of failure and preventing lock-in and (c) the moment of an advanced technology's commercial market introduction determines, to a large degree, its future chances for increasing market share.

  7. The health gains and cost savings of dietary salt reduction interventions, with equity and age distributional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhung Nghiem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A “diet high in sodium” is the second most important dietary risk factor for health loss identified in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. We therefore aimed to model health gains and costs (savings of salt reduction interventions related to salt substitution and maximum levels in bread, including by ethnicity and age. We also ranked these four interventions compared to eight other modelled interventions. Methods A Markov macro-simulation model was used to estimate QALYs gained and net health system costs for four dietary sodium reduction interventions, discounted at 3 % per annum. The setting was New Zealand (NZ (2.3 million adults, aged 35+ years which has detailed individual-level administrative cost data. Results The health gain was greatest for an intervention where most (59 % of the sodium in processed foods was replaced by potassium and magnesium salts. This intervention gained 294,000 QALYs over the remaining lifetime of the cohort (95 % UI: 238,000 to 359,000; 0.13 QALY per 35+ year old. Such salt substitution also produced the highest net cost-savings of NZ$ 1.5 billion (US$ 1.0 billion (95 % UI: NZ$ 1.1 to 2.0 billion. All interventions generated relatively larger per capita QALYs for men vs women and for the indigenous Māori population vs non-Māori (e.g., 0.16 vs 0.12 QALYs per adult for the 59 % salt substitution intervention. Of relevance to workforce productivity, in the first 10 years post-intervention, 22 % of the QALY gain was among those aged <65 years (and 37 % for those aged <70. Conclusions The benefits are consistent with the international literature, with large health gains and cost savings possible from some, but not all, sodium reduction interventions. Health gain appears likely to occur among working-age adults and all interventions contributed to reducing health inequalities.

  8. Conference 'onshore and offshore wind energy cost reduction: challenges and opportunities for the industry in France and in Germany'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Hinsch, Thomas; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Giese, Norbert; Guyet, Quentin; Lenhardt, Edouard; Beinke, Thies; Bodenstab, Marc; Wolff, Nicolas; Burkhardt, Claus; Lessmeister, Andreas L.

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on cost reduction in onshore and offshore wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 140 participants exchanged views on the cost allocation in onshore wind energy projects, on their financing, and on the transport and logistics profitability challenges. Concrete examples of operating and maintenance cost reductions in offshore wind energy projects were presented as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of France's onshore and offshore wind support policies (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Keynote: Framework conditions for cost reductions in the German wind energy sector (Thomas Hinsch); 3 - Cost of onshore wind energy projects in Germany - Status and experience feedback (Anna-Kathrin Wallasch); 4 - Crown estate's Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Pathways Study: how to transpose the conclusions to the German case (Norbert Giese); 5 - Combined Forces for Reliable Supply Chain - French-German Convergence of expertise: strategic partnerships for offshore projects implementation (Quentin Guyet, Edouard Lenhardt); 6 - Reducing costs of onshore and offshore wind energy. Mon2Sea research project - Real-time monitoring of transport and cargo handling of components for the offshore installation of wind turbines (Thies Beinke, Marc Bodenstab); 7 - expertise, Innovation and reduction of cost of energy: Vestas experience (Nicolas Wolff); 8 - Far-Offshore-Wind projects. Results of the First German Offshore Windpark alpha ventus (Claus Burkhardt); 9 - Maintenance for Offshore-Wind parks: examples and good practices for the future (Andreas L. Lessmeister)

  9. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture : Guiding a cost-effective reduction of crop water consumption to a permit or benchmark level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of the process of growing irrigated crops is an indispensable element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, information on marginal cost curves (MCCs) that rank management packages according to their cost-effectiveness to reduce

  10. Carbon abatement potential of solar home systems in India and their cost reduction due to carbon finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    About 78 million rural households in India reportedly lack access to grid electricity. About 67 million of them use kerosene for lighting. Government of India is promoting the use of solar home systems (SHS) as one of the options for meeting lighting requirements in households in remote and less inhabited villages. About 363,399 SHS were reportedly disseminated across the country by December 2007. Apart from meeting the basic lighting need of the households, SHS also help in abating the emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by directly displacing the use of kerosene in households that currently use it for lighting. This study has attempted at estimating the CO 2 mitigation potential of SHS in India by studying the potential for their diffusion and the appropriate baseline. Subsequently, the scope for cost reduction to the user due to carbon finance, if received, is also studied. It is found that carbon finance could reduce the effective burden of SHS to the user by 19% if carbon prices were $10/tCO 2 and no transaction costs were involved in getting the carbon revenues. These benefits are also estimated for scenarios where transaction costs are incurred by the project proponent in getting the carbon benefits

  11. Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction - a mechanistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Klaas Jan Schouten

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents new insights into the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane and ethylene on copper electrodes. This electrochemical process has great potential for the storage of surplus renewable electrical energy in the form of hydrocarbons. The research described in this thesis focuses on

  12. Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    In situ reduction of an industrial NiO powder is performed under 1.3 mbar of H2 (2 mlN/min) in a differentially pumped FEI Titan 80-300 environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structura...

  13. 'EPRI tailored collaboration 2, Crystal River cost and volume reduction program'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoa, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    During the fall of 1993. Florida Power Corporation joined the EPRI tailored collaboration on the low-level radioactive waste cost and volume reduction. In conjunction with an existing Radwaste Task Force, the EPRI team reviewed past and current waste management practices and developed a prioritized list of opportunities for improvement. In the first quarter of 1994, these opportunities were converted into Action Plans with responsibilities and due dates assigned to support a 60-day refueling outage beginning on April 7, 1994. The Action Plans focussed on: (1) Visible management support in the form of specific plant, department, and worker level radwaste reduction goals. (2) Heightened worker awareness in the form of training (formal and informal), signs, bulletins, and a radwaste awareness video. (3) Material changes from disposable to recyclables, non-incinerables to incinerables, liquid waste processing media replacements and filter use criteria. (4) Work practice changes to reduce valve leaks, reduce contaminated areas, reduce entries to contaminated areas, further segregation of waste streams including 'green is clean' wastes

  14. Modeling fuel treatment leverage: Encounter rates, risk reduction, and suppression cost impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Karin L. Riley; Dan Loeffler; Jessica R. Haas

    2017-01-01

    The primary theme of this study is the cost-effectiveness of fuel treatments at multiple scales of investment. We focused on the nexus of fuel management and suppression response planning, designing spatial fuel treatment strategies to incorporate landscape features that provide control opportunities that are relevant to fire operations. Our analysis explored the...

  15. Development of an innovative PWR for low cost fuel recycle and waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Takashi; Onoue, Masaaki

    2001-01-01

    In order to bear long-term and stable energy supply, it is important for nuclear power generation to realize establishment of energy security controlling dependence on natural resources and reduction of long-life radioactive wastes such as minor actinide elements (MA) and so on. For this, establishment of fast breeder reproducible on its fuel and of fuel recycling is essential and construction of the fuel recycling capable of repeatedly recycling of plutonium (Pu) and MA with low cost is required. Here were proposed a fuel recycling system combining recycling type PWR with advanced recycling system under development for Na cooling fast breeder reactor as a candidate filling such conditions, to show its characteristics and effects after its introduction. By this system, some facilities to realize flexible and low cost fuel recycling, to reduce longer-life radioactive wastes due to recycling burning of Pu and MA, and to realize an electric power supplying system independent on natural resources due to fuel breeding feature, were shown. (G.K.)

  16. Cost reduction improvement for power generation system integrating WECS using harmony search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngonkham, S. [Khonkaen Univ., Amphur Muang (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Buasri, P. [Khonkaen Univ., Amphur Muang (Thailand). Embed System Research Group

    2009-03-11

    A harmony search (HS) algorithm was used to optimize economic dispatch (ED) in a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for power system integration. The HS algorithm was based on a stochastic random search method. System costs for the WECS system were estimated in relation to average wind speeds. The HS algorithm was implemented to optimize the ED with a simple programming procedure. The study showed that the initial parameters must be carefully selected to ensure the accuracy of the HS algorithm. The algorithm demonstrated that total costs of the WECS system were higher than costs associated with energy efficiency procedures that reduced the same amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 7 refs,. 10 tabs., 16 figs.

  17. Developing an optimal energy supply strategy for Syria in view of GHG reduction with least-cost climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Omar, H.; Almoustafa, A.; Seif Al-din, M.Kh.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the outcomes of a two years CRP project entitled (Developing an optimal energy supply strategy for Syria in view of GHG reduction with least-cost climate protection). The main activity deals with a case study concerning the assessment of optimal Syrian energy supply strategy taking into account the impact of environmental constraints related to GHG reduction on the cost and prospects of energy sources and technologies with special emphasis on renewable and nuclear options. In a previous activity the future long-term development of Syrian energy and electricity demand has been analyzed according to various scenarios of socio-economic and technological development of the country. The results indicate that energy demand will grow rapidly in the next decades as consequent of many socio-economic and technological factors given by Syria's high population growth, its current economic transition, and its expected economic and technological development, particularly in the industry sector. To meet the projected future energy demand up to 2030, an optimal reference energy supply strategy with minimal supply cost has been developed taking into account, in particular, the availability of national energy resources and diversity of supply options. The analysis has been performed using the IAEA's optimization tool MESSAGE. MESSAGE is suitable to formulate and evaluate alternative energy supply strategies consistent with pre-defined constraints including limits on new investment, fuel availability and trade, environmental regulations, and market penetration rates for new technologies. To evaluate the potential of GHG reduction in the Syrian power sector an alternative energy supply scenario - Mitigation Scenario (Ren S ce) has been introduced reflecting the most probable adaptation measures of this sector to mitigate GHG emission by more dependency on renewable options. Compatible with the Kyoto agreement for developing countries, the CDM is being considered

  18. Solar Energy Technology Office Portfolio Review: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    From 2016-2021, the installed solar capacity in South Carolina will mushroom from less than 20 megawatts to more than 300 megawatts. Concurrently, the number of customer-sited, load-centered solar generation is expected to grow from less than 500 statewide to as many as 10,000 by 2021. This growth is anticipated to be the direct result of a landmark state policy initiative, Act 236, passed by the South Carolina General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor in June of 2014. Local policy makers in South Carolina are ill-equipped to handle the onslaught of solar permitting and zoning requests expected over the next five years. Similarly, the state’s building inspectors, first responders, and tax assessors know little about photovoltaic (PV) technology and best practices. Finally, South Carolina’s workforce and workforce trainers are underprepared to benefit from the tremendous opportunity created by the passage of Act 236. Each of these deficits in knowledge of and preparedness for solar PV translates into higher “soft costs” of installed solar PV in South Carolina. Currently, we estimate that the installed costs of residential rooftop solar are as much as 25 percent higher than the national average. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), together with almost a dozen electricity stakeholders in the Southeast, proposes to create a replicable model for solar PV soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. The primary goal of this effort is to close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages. The secondary goal is to develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the Southeastern US.

  19. Long-term, low-level radwaste volume-reduction strategies. Volume 4. Waste disposal costs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Adam, J.A.; Rogers, V.C.; Merrell, G.B.

    1984-11-01

    Volume 4 establishes pricing levels at new shallow land burial grounds. The following conclusions can be drawn from the analyses described in the preceding chapters: Application of volume reduction techniques by utilities can have a significant impact on the volumes of wastes going to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Using the relative waste stream volumes in NRC81 and the maximum volume reduction ratios provided by Burns and Roe, Inc., it was calculated that if all utilities use maximum volume reduction the rate of waste receipt at disposal sites will be reduced by 40 percent. When a disposal site receives a lower volume of waste its total cost of operation does not decrease by the same proportion. Therefore the average cost for a unit volume of waste received goes up. Whether the disposal site operator knows in advance that he will receive a smaller amount of waste has little influence on the average unit cost ($/ft) of the waste disposed. For the pricing algorithm postulated, the average disposal cost to utilities that volume reduce is relatively independent of whether all utilities practice volume reduction or only a few volume reduce. The general effect of volume reduction by utilities is to reduce their average disposal site costs by a factor of between 1.5 to 2.5. This factor is generally independent of the size of the disposal site. The largest absolute savings in disposal site costs when utilities volume reduce occurs when small disposal sites are involved. This results from the fact that unit costs are higher at small sites. Including in the pricing algorithm a factor that penalizes waste generators who contribute larger amounts of the mobile nuclides 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 129 I, which may be the subject of site inventory limits, lowers unit disposal costs for utility wastes that contain only small amounts of the nuclides and raises unit costs for other utility wastes

  20. Cost effectiveness of a screen-and-treat program for asymptomatic vaginal infections in pregnancy: towards a significant reduction in the costs of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, H; Pichler, Eva; Petricevic, L; Husslein, P

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the cost-saving potential of a simple screen-and-treat program for vaginal infection, which has previously been shown to lead to a reduction of 50% in the rate of preterm births. To determine the potential cost savings, we compared the direct costs of preterm delivery of infants with a birth weight below 1900g with the costs of the screen-and-treat program. We used a cut-off birth weight of 1900g because, in our population, all infants with a birth weight below 1900g were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. The direct costs associated with preterm delivery were defined to include the costs of the initial hospitalization of both mother and infant and the costs of outpatient follow-up throughout the first 6 years of life of the former preterm infant. The costs of the screen-and-treat program were defined to include the costs of the screening examination and the resulting costs of antimicrobial treatment and follow-up. All calculations were based on health-economic data obtained in the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria. The number of preterm infants with a birth weight below 1900g was 12 (0.5%) in the intervention group (N=2058) and 29 (1.3%) in the control group (N=2097). The direct costs per preterm birth were found to amount to EUR (euro) 60262. Overall, the expected total savings in direct costs achieved by the screen-and-treat program and the ensuing 50% reduction in the number preterm births with a birth weight below 1900g amounted to more than euro 11 million. The costs of screening and treatment were found to amount to merely 7% of the direct costs saved as a result of the screen-and-treat program. A simple preterm prevention program, consisting of screening and antimicrobial treatment and follow-up of women with asymptomatic vaginal infection, leads not only to a significant reduction in the rate of preterm births but also to substantial savings in the direct costs associated with prematurity.

  1. Development of Manufacturing Technology to Accelerate Cost Reduction of Low Concentration and

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrick, Adam [The Solaria Corporation, Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The purpose of this project was to accelerate deployment of cost-effective US-based manufacturing of Solaria’s unique c-Si module technology. This effort successfully resulted in the development of US-based manufacturing technology to support two highly-differentiated, market leading product platforms. The project was initially predicated on developing Solaria’s low-concentration PV (LCPV) module technology which at the time of the award was uniquely positioned to exceed the SunShot price goal of $0.50/Wp for standard c-Si modules. The Solaria LCPV module is a 2.5x concentrator that leverages proven, high-reliability PV module materials and low silicon cell usage into a technology package that already had the lowest direct material cost and leading Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). With over 25 MW commercially deployed globally, the Solaria module was well positioned to continue to lead in PV module cost reduction. Throughout the term of the contract, market conditions changed dramatically and so to did Solaria’s product offerings to support this. However, the manufacturing technology developed for the LCPV module was successfully leveraged and optimized to support two new and different product platforms. BIPV “PowerVision” and High-efficiency “PowerXT” modules. The primary barrier to enabling high-volume PV module manufacturing in the US is the high manual labor component in certain unique aspects of our manufacturing process. The funding was used to develop unique manufacturing automation which makes the manual labor components of these key processes more efficient and increase throughput. At the core of Solaria’s product offerings are its unique and proprietary techniques for dicing and re-arranging solar cells into modules with highly-differentiated characteristics that address key gaps in the c-Si market. It is these techniques that were successfully evolved and deployed into US-based manufacturing site with SunShot funding. Today, Solaria

  2. Cost reduction of electric energy in pumping station of small and medium size water systems; Reducao do custo de energia eletrica em estacoes elevatorias de sistemas de abastecimento de agua de pequeno e medio portes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutiya, Milton Tomoyuki

    1989-12-31

    This work presents the main aspects concerning the electric energy cost reduction and includes since simple solutions of easy installation, usually without the need of great study or investment, until the more complex ones that lead to the cost diminution achieved through the energy consumption reduction. Aspects relating to cost abatement accomplished by modifying the pumping operation systems are considered as well. At last, it exposes the conclusions of the work. (author). 69 figs., 14 tabs., 110 refs

  3. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  4. Cost-effective reduction of eutrophication in the Gulf of Kalloni (Island of Lesvos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ZANOU

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a cost-effective analysis by comparing the costs of measures (options to improve the quality of bathing waters in the Gulf of Kalloni (island of Lesvos, Greece in order to reduce the anthropogenic eutrophication in the coastal water of the Kalloni Gulf. The Gulf of Kalloni is a semi-enclosed gulf (115 km2 which receives municipal wastewater, agricultural activity drainage, and at times sewage from olive oil plants processing the local olives harvest. The area of study consists of the coastal waters and the river basin of which water run-off drains into the gulf. Four options are comparable in their environmental effectiveness to reduce eurtophication damages which are: municipal wastewater treatment plant, construction of dams, organic farming plus training and olive oil wastewater treatment plant.

  5. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  6. Cost Reductions for Wastewater Treatment Utilizing Water Management at Holston Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    says that the granular carbon used is made from bituminous coal. As the waste stream pass through a bed of carbon granules, com- pounds are adsorbed to...findings of laboratory-scale reactor studies conducted at Purdue University for * Clark, Dietz and Associates. The original recommendations and cost...Pretreatment Denitrification by Submerged Anaerbbic I ilters I ~ Trickling Filters S F ,2al Clarification "•’i Pump - ~ Sludge ,Treatment Dual Media Filh:ration

  7. Cost Reduction and Business Strategy Matters to Human Resource Outsourcing? A Validation by HR Experts from Government Link Companies (GLC’s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor Mohd Fitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of outsourcing has spawned a rich body scholarly reseach in sveral decades. However, the answer to one of the pertinent question has remained elusive: Does cost reduction and business strategy really matters to the human resource outsourcing impacts. Looking at this question it is important for the organization to embark on the practice of human resource outsourcing to save operating cost and remain competitive. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cost reduction and business starategy towards human resource outsourcing impacts. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed and the top management in Malaysian Government Link Companies (GLC’ is the unit of analysis. The findings revelaved that, both variables are significant statistically and non statically i.e from the experts opinion. Finally, the study also provides useful directions for future research, HR Practitioners and policy maker particularly in managing and organizing human reseouce matters.

  8. A variation reduction allocation model for quality improvement to minimize investment and quality costs by considering suppliers’ learning curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Jauhari, WA; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    Quality improvement must be performed in a company to maintain its product competitiveness in the market. The goal of such improvement is to increase the customer satisfaction and the profitability of the company. In current practice, a company needs several suppliers to provide the components in assembly process of a final product. Hence quality improvement of the final product must involve the suppliers. In this paper, an optimization model to allocate the variance reduction is developed. Variation reduction is an important term in quality improvement for both manufacturer and suppliers. To improve suppliers’ components quality, the manufacturer must invest an amount of their financial resources in learning process of the suppliers. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consists of investment cost, and quality costs for both internal and external quality costs. The Learning curve will determine how the employee of the suppliers will respond to the learning processes in reducing the variance of the component.

  9. A cost effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in four Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mason

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy. All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30% resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. CONCLUSION: Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives.

  10. A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Salt Reduction Policies to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease in Four Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Helen; Shoaibi, Azza; Ghandour, Rula; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Khatib, Rana; Jabr, Samer; Unal, Belgin; Sözmen, Kaan; Arfa, Chokri; Aissi, Wafa; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Fouad, Fouad; Al-Ali, Radwan; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. Methods and Findings Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG) over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy). All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30%) resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. Conclusion Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives. PMID:24409297

  11. van Manen's method and reduction in a phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Kristiina

    2015-03-01

    To describe van Manen's method and concept of reduction in a study that used a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Nurse researchers have used van Manen's method in different ways. Participants' lifeworlds are described in depth, but descriptions of reduction have been brief. The literature and knowledge review and manual search of research articles. Databases Web Science, PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO, without applying a time period, to identify uses of van Manen's method. This paper shows how van Manen's method has been used in nursing research and gives some examples of van Manen's reduction. Reduction enables us to conduct in-depth phenomenological hermeneutic research and understand people's lifeworlds. As there are many variations in adapting reduction, it is complex and confusing. This paper contributes to the discussion of phenomenology, hermeneutic study and reduction. It opens up reduction as a method for researchers to exploit.

  12. EPRI tailored collaboration 3 Calvert Cliffs cost and volume reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsby, M.D.; Watson, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric's (BGE) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) is a two unit PWR located approximately 60 miles south of Baltimore, Maryland on the Chesapeake Bay. Both units are of Combustion Engineering design, Unit 1 began commercial operation is 1975 and Unit 2 in 1978. BGE contracted with EPRI to participate in the industry initiative to reduce low-level waste volumes with the expectation to: (1) Reduce O ampersand M costs through LLRW reduction by lowering the volume requiring processing, transportation, and storage/disposal. (2) Manage responsibility available resources; i.e., material, equipment, personnel, etc., through segregation. decontamination, recycling and worker awareness. (3) Improve Calvert Cliff's positive image in the community by minimizing the impact on the environment through generating less LLRW. Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric is committed to effective management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. Established Nuclear Program Policies and Procedures support CCNPP's commitment to minimizing generation of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Since the mid 1980's, CCNPP has made progress in reducing the volume of LLRW generated and disposed. EPRI's onsite assessment and subsequent assistance pointed out several areas for improvement

  13. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  14. The effects of utility cost reduction on residential energy consumption in Hungary – a decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekla Sebestyén Szép

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residential energy consumption is influenced by a lot of factors. Understanding and calculating these factors is essential to making conscious energy policy decisions and feedbacks. Since 2013 the energy prices for households have been controlled by the government in Hungary and as a result of the utility cost reduction program a sharp decline can be observed in residential electricity, district heating and natural gas prices. This paper applies the LMDI (~Logarithmic Mean Division Index method to decompose the absolute change of the residential energy consumption during the period of 2010-2015. We calculate the price, the intensive structure (it means the change of energy expenditure share on energy sources, the extensive structure (it is in connection with the change of energy expenditure share in total expenditure, expenditure (it is the change of per capita total expenditure and population effect. All of that shows the impact of the specific factor on the residential energy consumption by income deciles. Our results have verified the preliminary expectations: the decreasing energy prices for households have a positive impact on energy use and it has been strengthened by the expenditure effect as well. However, the intensive structure, the extensive structure and the population effect have largely offset it.

  15. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Dirk; Piet, Steve; Trickel, Timothy; Carter, Joe; Vienna, John; Ebert, Bill; Matthern, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE

  16. Estimate of the technological costs of CO{sub 2} emission reductions in passenger cars. Emission reduction potentials and their costs; Technikkostenschaetzung fuer die CO{sub 2}-Emissionsminderung bei Pkw. Emissionsminderungspotenziale und ihre Kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbener, Reinhard; Jahn, Helge; Wetzel, Frank [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany). Fachgebiet I 3.2 - Schadstoffminderung und Energieeinsparung im Verkehr

    2008-08-06

    The Federal Environmental Office intended to identify the current fuel consumption reduction potential and the cost of efficiency-enhancing measures on passenger cars. For this purpose, an extensive bibliographic search was carried out, and experts from research institutes and from the automobile supplier industry were asked for their opinion. The results are published in table form. (orig.)

  17. Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaoglu, Guzay; Honselaar, Michel; Thiel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The continuous rise in demand for road transportation has a significant effect on Europe's oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses power-train deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in EU-27 until 2050. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO 2 emissions, bio-energy mandates and reductions in the CO 2 footprint of the European energy mix and translates these into comprehensive scenarios for the road transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the potential impact of these scenarios on well-to-wheel (WtW) CO 2 emission reductions primary energy demand evolution, and cost aspects for the prospective vehicle owners. The study reveals that, under the deployed scenarios, the use of bio-fuel blends, technological learning and the deployment of hybrids, battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles can decrease WtW CO 2 emissions in EU-27 passenger road transport by 35–57% (compared to 2010 levels) and primary energy demand by 29–51 Mtoe as they would benefit from a future assumed decarbonised electricity and hydrogen mix in Europe. Learning effects can lead to acceptable payback periods for vehicle owners of electric drive vehicles. - Highlights: ► Power-train penetration scenarios for 2010–2050 passenger road transport in Europe. ► A dedicated tool is developed to analyse H 2 production and distribution mix till 2050. ► Alternative vehicles can drastically reduce CO 2 emissions and energy demand. ► Electric vehicles could become cost competitive to conventional vehicles by 2030. ► Policies needed to create adequate momentum and guarantee decarbonised transport.

  18. Lux level enhancement and reduction in electricity cost in commercial buildings by retrofitting with PMR luminaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariun, N.; Mohibullah; Jasni, J.; Lam, S.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Most of the existing commercial buildings are illuminated by luminaries systems during broad daylight and night which is provided by the renowned lighting industry. However, back in 1980s, the installed luminaries within the office compound were limited in choice of luminaire selection and cost factor impact. Some of the old commercial building are still using prismatic acrylic lens diffuser luminaries in order to brighten up the building for their business activities and a large number of luminaries are needed to illuminate equivalent illumination level as per requirement of the building bye-laws code. With the advancement in luminaries technology, the lighting industries have offered better solution to reduce energy costs by 50% or more, also able to improve the quality of light and reducing the quantity of luminaries requirement by introducing the parabolic mirror reflector (PMR) luminaries system. The selected commercial building as a case study to support this luminaries retrofitting program by comparing the existing luminaries with the retrofit luminaries in terms of the lux measurement and energy cost saving calculation is presented in this paper. Nevertheless, some general lighting design principle rules are also discussed

  19. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare Maya, R. (Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (Zimbabwe)); Muguti, E. (Ministry of Transport and Energy. Department of Energy (Zimbabwe)); Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E. (Risoe National Laboratory. Systems Analysis Department (Denmark))

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB).

  20. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare Maya, R.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  1. Innovation in technology for the least product price and cost - a new minimum cost relation for reductions during technological learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    By analogy with the concepts of human learning, we show and introduce a new method to obtain least product cost and price that includes the effect of innovation and technological learning in manufacturing and production. This key result is a new paradigm instead of the usual economic 'power law' formulation. The new analysis is based on extensive analysis of many technological systems, and is directly related to the presence of learning as experience is accumulated. The results agree with the observed data. By using a consistent basis, the method replaces previous empirical 'power law' descriptions of the technological learning curve with a new 'marginal minimum cost equation' (MCE). (author)

  2. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  3. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Leduc, Sylvain; Dotzauer, Erik; Schmid, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: → Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO 2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. → Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. → Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. → CO 2 tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. → Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO 2 emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  4. Cost and risk reduction using upfront licensing in Canada. Annex 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes the use of 'up-front' licensing in Canada - how licensing requirements are defined, and met - in advance of a project commitment. The approach to licensing in Canada has allowed flexibility in development of new designs. Since licensing was originally risk-based, and current regulatory policy allows cost-benefit considerations as part of the decision making, risk can be and should be used in novel circumstances as a licensing tool. Since the licensing framework is non-prescriptive, innovative approaches to design can be introduced and dispositioned without changing the legal structure. This flexibility has been used in several up-front licensing reviews: a small urban heating reactor, repeat CANDU 6 generating station units, and the single unit CANDU 9 generating station. In the future we expect to apply it to advanced designs, as an essential part of risk reduction and customer confidence in the product. The important lessons learned in Canada include: Up-front licensing is essential to reduce the risk of licensing-related delays once a project has been committed. It requires a significant investment in time and effort from both the designer and the regulator; The most effective scope for up-front licensing is for the regulator to thoroughly assess novel concepts, test the design against changed domestic requirements, and follow-up on known difficult areas; and for the designer to ensure foreign requirements are incorporated. There is little benefit in certifying the design in detail; Although it would be satisfying to have legally-binding certification, in the end there can be no legal obligation on the regulator, and agreement is pursued on the basis of good faith that the regulator will not make arbitrary decisions and that the designer will meet agreed targets or requirements; In almost all circumstances, issues will arise that are beyond the current 'rules', however expressed. Rather than rushing to create new rules, one reaches a

  5. Reduction of duration and cost of mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit by use of a ventilatory management team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I L; Bari, N; Strosberg, M A; Weinberg, P F; Wacksman, R M; Millstein, B H; Fein, I A

    1991-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that a formal interdisciplinary team approach to managing ICU patients requiring mechanical ventilation enhances ICU efficiency. Retrospective review with cost-effectiveness analysis. A 20-bed medical-surgical ICU in a 450-bed community referral teaching hospital with a critical care fellowship training program. All patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the ICU were included, comparing patients admitted 1 yr before the inception of the ventilatory management team (group 1) with those patients admitted for 1 yr after the inception of the team (group 2). Group 1 included 198 patients with 206 episodes of mechanical ventilation and group 2 included 165 patients with 183 episodes of mechanical ventilation. A team consisting of an ICU attending physician, nurse, and respiratory therapist was formed to conduct rounds regularly and supervise the ventilatory management of ICU patients who were referred to the critical care service. The two study groups were demographically comparable. However, there were significant reductions in resource use in group 2. The number of days on mechanical ventilation decreased (3.9 days per episode of mechanical ventilation [95% confidence interval 0.3 to 7.5 days]), as did days in the ICU (3.3 days per episode of mechanical ventilation [90% confidence interval 0.3 to 6.3 days]), numbers of arterial blood gases (23.2 per episode of mechanical ventilation; p less than .001), and number of indwelling arterial catheters (1 per episode of mechanical ventilation; p less than .001). The estimated cost savings from these reductions was $1,303 per episode of mechanical ventilation. We conclude that a ventilatory management team, or some component thereof, can significantly and safely expedite the process of "weaning" patients from mechanical ventilatory support in the ICU.

  6. Cost reduction in the cold: heat generated by terrestrial locomotion partly substitutes for thermoregulation costs in Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, L.W.; Piersma, T.

    1998-01-01

    To test whether heat generated during locomotion substitutes for the thermoregulation cost, oxygen consumption of four post-absorptive temperate-wintering Knot Calidris canutus was measured at air temperatures of 25 degrees C (thermoneutral) and 10 degrees C (c. 10 degrees below the lower critical

  7. Greenhouse gas reduction benefits and costs of a large-scale transition to hydrogen in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, William; Kartha, Sivan; Lazarus, Michael; Fencl, Amanda; Rajan, Chella; Bailie, Alison; Runkle, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen is an energy carrier able to be produced from domestic, zero-carbon sources and consumed by zero-pollution devices. A transition to a hydrogen-based economy could therefore potentially respond to climate, air quality, and energy security concerns. In a hydrogen economy, both mobile and stationary energy needs could be met through the reaction of hydrogen (H 2 ) with oxygen (O 2 ). This study applies a full fuel cycle approach to quantify the energy, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), and cost implications associated with a large transition to hydrogen in the United States. It explores a national and four metropolitan area transitions in two contrasting policy contexts: a 'business-as-usual' (BAU) context with continued reliance on fossil fuels, and a 'GHG-constrained' context with policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A transition in either policy context faces serious challenges, foremost among them from the highly inertial investments over the past century or so in technology and infrastructure based on petroleum, natural gas, and coal. A hydrogen transition in the USA could contribute to an effective response to climate change by helping to achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century across all sectors of the economy; however, these reductions depend on the use of hydrogen to exploit clean, zero-carbon energy supply options. (author)

  8. Greenhouse gas reduction benefits and costs of a large-scale transition to hydrogen in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, William; Kartha, Sivan; Lazarus, Michael; Fencl, Amanda [Stockholm Environment Institute - US Center, 11 Curtis Avenue, Somerville, MA 02143 (United States); Rajan, Chella [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, I.I.T. Post Office, Chennai 600 036 (India); Bailie, Alison [The Pembina Institute, 200, 608 - 7th Street, S.W. Calgary, AB (Canada); Runkle, Benjamin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Hydrogen is an energy carrier able to be produced from domestic, zero-carbon sources and consumed by zero-pollution devices. A transition to a hydrogen-based economy could therefore potentially respond to climate, air quality, and energy security concerns. In a hydrogen economy, both mobile and stationary energy needs could be met through the reaction of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) with oxygen (O{sub 2}). This study applies a full fuel cycle approach to quantify the energy, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), and cost implications associated with a large transition to hydrogen in the United States. It explores a national and four metropolitan area transitions in two contrasting policy contexts: a 'business-as-usual' (BAU) context with continued reliance on fossil fuels, and a 'GHG-constrained' context with policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A transition in either policy context faces serious challenges, foremost among them from the highly inertial investments over the past century or so in technology and infrastructure based on petroleum, natural gas, and coal. A hydrogen transition in the USA could contribute to an effective response to climate change by helping to achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century across all sectors of the economy; however, these reductions depend on the use of hydrogen to exploit clean, zero-carbon energy supply options. (author)

  9. Wind turbine noise reduction. An indicative cost estimation; Sanering windturbinegeluid. Een indicatieve raming van kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheijen, E.N.G.; Jabben, J.

    2011-11-15

    Since the 1st of January 2011 new rules apply for wind turbine noise. The rules include a different calculation method and different noise limits, intended for new wind turbines. In order to tackle noise annoyance from existing wind turbines the government is considering to set up a abatement operation, for which a cost estimate is given in this study. At an abatement limit of 47 decibel L{sub den} (Level day-evening-night) approximately 450 dwellings would be eligible for noise remediation. The costs of this operation are estimated at 4.9 million euro. However, in many of these cases the wind turbine is probably owned by the respective residents. It is possible that public funds for noise remediation will not be allocated to the owners of dwellings that directly profit from the turbines. If these cases are excluded, the abatement operation would cover 165 to 275 dwellings with estimated costs for remediation of 1.6 to 2.6 million euro. A tentative cost-benefit analysis suggests that noise remediation will be cost effective in most situations. This means that the benefits of reduced annoyance or sleep disturbance are in balance with the cost of remediation. Only for the small group of wind turbines that are in use for over fifteen years, remediation will not be cost effective. These wind turbines are nearing the end of their lifespan and are therefore ignored in the above estimates. [Dutch] Sinds 1 januari 2011 zijn nieuwe regels rond windturbinegeluid van kracht. Bij de nieuwe regelgeving hoort een andere berekeningsmethode en normstelling, bedoeld voor nieuw te plaatsen windturbines. Voor de aanpak van de geluidhinder door bestaande windturbines overweegt de overheid een saneringsoperatie op te zetten, waarvoor in dit onderzoek een kostenraming wordt gegeven. Bij een saneringsgrenswaarde van 47 decibel zouden ongeveer 450 woningen voor sanering in aanmerking komen. De kosten voor sanering daarvan worden geschat op 4,9 miljoen euro. Bij een groot deel van deze

  10. Power-to-heat in adiabatic compressed air energy storage power plants for cost reduction and increased flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreißigacker, Volker

    2018-04-01

    The development of new technologies for large-scale electricity storage is a key element in future flexible electricity transmission systems. Electricity storage in adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) power plants offers the prospect of making a substantial contribution to reach this goal. This concept allows efficient, local zero-emission electricity storage on the basis of compressed air in underground caverns. The compression and expansion of air in turbomachinery help to balance power generation peaks that are not demand-driven on the one hand and consumption-induced load peaks on the other. For further improvements in cost efficiencies and flexibility, system modifications are necessary. Therefore, a novel concept regarding the integration of an electrical heating component is investigated. This modification allows increased power plant flexibilities and decreasing component sizes due to the generated high temperature heat with simultaneously decreasing total round trip efficiencies. For an exemplarily A-CAES case simulation studies regarding the electrical heating power and thermal energy storage sizes were conducted to identify the potentials in cost reduction of the central power plant components and the loss in round trip efficiency.

  11. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Producibility Cost Reductions through Alternative Materials and Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr., Albert W; Johnson, Karl; Gans-Devney, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    This report describes research into the use of alternative materials and processes to reduce material and labor costs while also looking at the influence of these choices on the life cycle costs of the vessel...

  12. Mechanistic studies of carbon monoxide reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy, G.L.

    1990-06-12

    The progress made during the current grant period (1 January 1988--1 April 1990) in three different areas of research is summarized. The research areas are: (1) oxidatively-induced double carbonylation reactions to form {alpha}-ketoacyl complexes and studies of the reactivity of the resulting compounds, (2) mechanistic studies of the carbonylation of nitroaromatics to form isocyanates, carbamates, and ureas, and (3) studies of the formation and reactivity of unusual metallacycles and alkylidene ligands supported on binuclear iron carbonyl fragments. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Health economic studies: an introduction to cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevine, Peter D; Berven, Sigurd

    2014-10-15

    Narrative overview. To provide clinicians with a basic understanding of economic studies, including cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses. As decisions regarding public health policy, insurance reimbursement, and patient care incorporate factors other than traditional outcomes such as satisfaction or symptom resolution, health economic studies are increasingly prominent in the literature. This trend will likely continue, and it is therefore important for clinicians to have a fundamental understanding of the common types of economic studies and be able to read them critically. In this brief article, the basic concepts of economic studies and the differences between cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility studies are discussed. An overview of the field of health economic analysis is presented. Cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility studies all integrate cost and outcome data into a decision analysis model. These different types of studies are distinguished mainly by the way in which outcomes are valued. Obtaining accurate cost data is often difficult and can limit the generalizability of a study. With a basic understanding of health economic analysis, clinicians can be informed consumers of these important studies.

  14. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh

  15. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  16. Estimated medical cost reductions for paliperidone palmitate vs placebo in a randomized, double-blind relapse-prevention trial of patients with schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, K; Lin, J; Lingohr-Smith, M; Fu, D J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this economic model was to estimate the difference in medical costs among patients treated with paliperidone palmitate once-monthly injectable antipsychotic (PP1M) vs placebo, based on clinical event rates reported in the 15-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of paliperidone palmitate evaluating time to relapse in subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Rates of psychotic, depressive, and/or manic relapses and serious and non-serious treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were obtained from the long-term paliperidone palmitate vs placebo relapse prevention study. The total annual medical cost for a relapse from a US payer perspective was obtained from published literature and the costs for serious and non-serious TEAEs were based on Common Procedure Terminology codes. Total annual medical cost differences for patients treated with PP1M vs placebo were then estimated. Additionally, one-way and Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were conducted. Lower rates of relapse (-18.3%) and serious TEAEs (-3.9%) were associated with use of PP1M vs placebo as reported in the long-term paliperidone palmitate vs placebo relapse prevention study. As a result of the reduction in these clinical event rates, the total annual medical cost was reduced by $7140 per patient treated with PP1M vs placebo. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that variations in relapse rates had the greatest impact on the estimated medical cost differences (range: -$9786, -$4670). Of the 10,000 random cycles of Monte Carlo simulations, 100% showed a medical cost difference schizoaffective disorder was associated with a significantly lower rate of relapse and a reduction in medical costs compared to placebo. Further evaluation in the real-world setting is warranted.

  17. Cost reduction by using micro-fingers in thin film silicon modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Bosman, J.; Loffler, J.; Budel, T. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    A finite element electrical model is described that can be used to calculate the performance of monolithic thin film photovoltaic modules. The model is suitable for all type of thin film modules, like e.g. p-i-n a-Si:H, CIGS and polymer based modules and it includes losses due to interconnection. Using this model a parameter study is performed for a-Si:H cells with the aim to reduce metal consumption in the cell and interconnection. It is shown that a reduction in metal consumption by a factor 1.3 can be achieved with only marginal loss in performance if short cell are used with very short fingers.

  18. CO2 substitution potential and CO2 reduction costs of an energetic exploitation of solid biomasses in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, S.

    1995-01-01

    For the reduction of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, the CO 2 , emissions are clearly to be reduced in future, according to the resolution made by the Federal Republic. Against the background of this objective, possible contributions of the biogenous solid fuels for the reduction of the CO 2 release of fossil origin are presented and discussed. For that, first the existing potentials of biomass in Germany and their present use are shown. Based on this, the CO 2 emissions by the present use already avoided, as well as the existing unexploited potentials of the CO 2 reduction potentials still to be exploited are determined. In accordance with an 'integral' starting point, thereby all pre- and post-positioned processes are considered. Finally, the specific CO 2 reduction costs are analysed and compared with other options. (orig.) [de

  19. The scope of costs in alcohol studies: Cost-of-illness studies differ from economic evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    van Gils, Paul F; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; van den Berg, Matthijs; Tariq, Luqman; de Wit, G Ardine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol abuse results in problems on various levels in society. In terms of health, alcohol abuse is not only an important risk factor for chronic disease, but it is also related to injuries. Social harms which can be related to drinking include interpersonal problems, work problems, violent and other crimes. The scope of societal costs related to alcohol abuse in principle should be the same for both economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies. In general, economic e...

  20. The European Power System. Decarbonization and Cost Reduction: Lost in Transmissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite

    2012-01-01

    Europe's energy policy is commonly defined by three axes of equal importance: security of supplies, competitiveness and sustainable development. The European Commission is mandated to develop the policy tools that allow the implementation of this common policy. Early on, challenges arose from the trade-offs to be made not only between these three pillars but also between a common European policy and national approaches. The European Commission has always had to struggle in attempting to keep a balanced line. Over the past twenty years, the EU has been engaged in the liberalization of the electricity and gas sector. For a long time, liberalization was the main objective of European energy policy. Liberalization of the electricity sector was supposed to bring many benefits. Foremost, these included the more efficient allocation of generation and transmission capacities, and the enhancement of the competitiveness of the European economy as a whole, through lower energy costs. The trading of electricity output between countries was part of this strategy. Interconnections are vital to facilitating electricity trade between Member States. It is in this context that interest in cross-border interconnections has increased. However, new constraints have emerged and have put climate change at the top of European agenda. In December 2008, as part of the fight against climate change, the European Union adopted its Energy and Climate package endorsing three objectives for 2020: i) a 20% increase in energy efficiency, ii) a 20% reduction in GHG emissions (compared to 1990), and iii) a 20% share of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption. A direct consequence of the later objective is that renewable energy sources (RES) in electricity generation are expected to expand from 20.3% of electricity output in 2010, to around 33%, in order to meet the objective set by the European Commission. Hydroelectric power has limited additional potential due to geographical

  1. Remarks on the influence of enrichment reduction on fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1985-01-01

    The cost factors influencing the fuel cycle cost analysis for research reactors are discussed in detail with special emphasis on fuel element fabrication costs, burnup and reprocessing costs. Two different aspects for the conversion from HEU to LEU are considered: plus 14% U-235 weight per LEU fuel element and plus ca. 50 % U-235 weight per LEU fuel element. The cost factors and these conversion aspects were taken for calculating the changes in fuel cycle costs for the three different meat materials U 3 O 8 , U 3 Si 2 and U 3 Si. The results of these calculations can be summarized as following: - if in the HEU case the fuel loading and the burnup of a fuel element is low there will be some economic advantages in the LEU case; - if in the HEU case the fuel loading and the burnup of a fuel element is high there will be economic disadvantages in the LEU case. (author)

  2. Liberalised electricity markets, new bioenergy technologies, and GHG emission reductions: interactions and CO2 mitigation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Madlener, R.

    1999-01-01

    We contrast recent developments in power and heat production with bioenergy, and natural-gas-fired condensing plants with and without decarbonisation, in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Our main focus is on CO 2 mitigation costs and carbon tax sensitivity of production costs. We find that CO 2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems using IGCC technology than for natural gas system using decarbonisation. However, based on current fuel prices natural-gas fired co-generation plants have the lowest production costs. Hence energy policy measures will be needed to promote biomass technologies and decarbonisation options on a liberalised market. (author)

  3. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  4. Opportunities for cost reduction and improved environmental impact in the lead and lead/acid battery industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N.

    The opportunities for cost reduction through improved environmental performance exist in many companies, but often are not realized. This paper describes the efforts of a typical firm — Calder Industrial Materials (CIM) — that is experiencing ever-tighter environmental controls and profit erosion through the effects of new environmental legislation. At the same time, however, CIM sees opportunities to reduce its environmental burden and cut costs. As the story unfolds, readers may well discover many parallels with their own companies. It may even spur some into action, for remember, every £1000 saved requires ten times the turnover to generate the same profit.

  5. The economic perspective: demand and supply in the reduction of transaction costs in the ancient world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Kehoe, D.P.; Ratzan, D.M.; Yiftach, U.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I distill some elements of the demand and supply of institutions designed to reduce transaction costs in the ancient world. I some cases, contractual parties could reduce transaction cost by accurately designing contracts. In other cases, the failure of private coordination placed

  6. Ultramicroelectrode studies of oxygen reduction in polyelectrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdcroft, S.; Abdou, M.S.; Beattie, P.; Basura, V. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    A study on the oxygen reduction reaction in a solid state electrochemical cell was presented. The oxygen reduction reaction is a rate limiting reaction in the operation of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells which use H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Interest in the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum electrodes in contact with Nafion electrolytes stems from its role in fuel cell technology. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction in different polyelectrolyte membranes, such as Nafion and non-Nafion membranes, were compared. The electrode kinetics and mass transport parameters of the oxygen reduction reaction in polyelectrolyte membranes were measured by ultramicroelectrode techniques. The major difference found between these two classes of membrane was the percentage of water, which is suggestive of superior electrochemical mass transport properties of the non-Nafion membranes. 2 refs. 1 fig.

  7. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commerical electric power cost studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139-MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume includes in addition to the foreword and summary, the plant description and the detailed cost estimate

  8. Cost Analysis of Prenatal Care Using the Activity-Based Costing Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesse, Theresa; Golembeski, Susan; Potter, Jonell

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care. PMID:22945985

  9. Cost analysis of prenatal care using the activity-based costing model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesse, T; Golembeski, S; Potter, J

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care.

  10. Cost and Performance Report for Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT) Treatability Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alleman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced biological reductive dechlorination (EBRD) shows a great deal of promise for efficiently treating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, but demonstration sites around the country were reporting mixed results...

  11. Methodology and applications for the benefit cost analysis of the seismic risk reduction in building portfolios at broadscale

    OpenAIRE

    Valcarcel, Jairo A.; Mora, Miguel G.; Cardona, Omar D.; Pujades, Lluis G.; Barbat, Alex H.; Bernal, Gabriel A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a methodology for an estimate of the benefit cost ratio of the seismic risk reduction in buildings portfolio at broadscale, for a world region, allowing comparing the results obtained for the countries belonging to that region. This methodology encompasses (1) the generation of a set of random seismic events and the evaluation of the spectral accelerations at the buildings location; (2) the estimation of the buildings built area, the economic value, as well as the cla...

  12. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Gu

    2015-08-01

    cardiovascular disease for secondary prevention was projected to be cost saving in the main simulation and 100% of probabilistic simulation results. Treating all hypertension for primary and secondary prevention would prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually (95% uncertainty interval, 0.6 to 1.0 million and was borderline cost-effective incremental to treating only cardiovascular disease and stage two patients (2015 Int$13,000 per QALY gained [95% uncertainty interval, Int$10,000 to Int$18,000]. Of all one-way sensitivity analyses, assuming adherence to taking medications as low as 25%, high Shanghai drug costs, or low medication efficacy led to the most unfavorable results (treating all hypertension, about Int$47,000, Int$37,000, and Int$27,000 per QALY were gained, respectively. The strengths of this study were the use of a recent Chinese national health survey, vital statistics, health care costs, and cohort study outcomes data as model inputs and reliance on clinical-trial-based estimates of coronary heart disease and stroke risk reduction due to antihypertensive medication treatment. The limitations of the study were the use of several sources of data, limited clinical trial evidence for medication effectiveness and harms in the youngest and oldest age groups, lack of information about geographic and ethnic subgroups, lack of specific information about indirect costs borne by patients, and uncertainty about the future epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in China.Expanded hypertension treatment has the potential to prevent about 800,000 cardiovascular disease events annually and be borderline cost-effective in China, provided low-cost essential antihypertensive medicines programs can be implemented.

  13. REFUEL. Potential and realizable cost reduction of 2nd generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, H.M.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Lensink, S.M.; Junginer, H.M.; De Wit, M.

    2007-05-01

    In the REFUEL project steering possibilities for and impacts of a greater market penetration of biofuels are assessed. Several benefits are attributed to second generation biofuels, fuels made from lignocellulosic feedstock, such as higher productivity, less impacts on land use and food markets and improved greenhouse gas emission reductions. The chances of second generation biofuels entering the market autonomously are assessed and several policy measures enhancing those changes are evaluated. It shows that most second generation biofuels might become competitive in the biofuel market, if the production of biodiesel from oil crops becomes limited by land availability. Setting high biofuel targets, setting greenhouse gas emissions caps on biofuel and setting subtargets for second generation biofuels, all have a similar impact of stimulating second generation's entrance into the biofuel market. Contrary, low biofuel targets and high imports can have a discouraging impact on second generation biofuel development, and thereby on overall greenhouse gas performance. Since this paper shows preliminary results from the REFUEL study, one is advised to contact the authors before quantitatively referring to this paper

  14. Economic costs of obesity in Thailand: a retrospective cost-of-illness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitayatienanan, Paiboon; Butchon, Rukmanee; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Teerawattananon, Yot; Suksomboon, Naeti; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-04-02

    Over the last decade, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in Thailand has been rising rapidly and consistently. Estimating the cost of obesity to society is an essential step in setting priorities for research and resource use and helping improve public awareness of the negative economic impacts of obesity. This prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study aims to estimate the economic costs of obesity in Thailand. The estimated costs in this study included health care cost, cost of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and cost of productivity loss due to hospital-related absenteeism. The Obesity-Attributable Fraction (OAF) was used to estimate the extent to which the co-morbidities were attributable to obesity. The health care cost of obesity was further estimated by multiplying the number of patients in each disease category attributable to obesity by the unit cost of treatment. The cost of productivity loss was calculated using the human capital approach. The health care cost attributable to obesity was estimated at 5,584 million baht or 1.5% of national health expenditure. The cost of productivity loss attributable to obesity was estimated at 6,558 million baht - accounting for 54% of the total cost of obesity. The cost of hospital-related absenteeism was estimated at 694 million baht, while the cost of premature mortality was estimated at 5,864 million baht. The total cost of obesity was then estimated at 12,142 million baht (725.3 million US$PPP, 16.74 baht =1 US$PPP accounting for 0.13% of Thailand's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Obesity imposes a substantial economic burden on Thai society especially in term of health care costs. Large-scale comprehensive interventions focused on improving public awareness of the cost of and problems associated with obesity and promoting a healthy lifestyle should be regarded as a public health priority.

  15. Nursing Home Cost Studies and Reimbursement Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine E.

    1980-01-01

    This review of nursing home cost function research shows that certain provider and service characteristics are systematically associated with differences in the average cost of care. This information can be used to group providers for reasonable cost related rate-setting or to adjust their rates or rate ceilings. However, relationships between average cost and such service characteristics as patient mix, service intensity, and quality of care have not been fully delineated. Therefore, econometric cost functions cannot yet provide rate-setters with predictions about the cost of the efficient provision of nursing home care appropriate to patient needs. In any case, the design of reimbursement systems must be founded not only on technical information but also on public policy goals for long-term care. PMID:10309223

  16. Nursing home cost studies and reimbursement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, C E

    1980-01-01

    This review of nursing home cost function research shows that certain provider and service characteristics are systematically associated with differences in the average cost of care. This information can be used to group providers for reasonable cost related rate-setting or to adjust their rates or rate ceilings. However, relationships between average cost and such service characteristics as patient mix, service intensity, and quality of care have not been fully delineated. Therefore, econometric cost functions cannot yet provide rate-setters with predictions about the cost of the efficient provision of nursing home care appropriate to patient needs. In any case, the design of reimbursement systems must be founded not only on technical information but also on public policy goals for long-term care.

  17. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: a cost-of-illness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective: We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design: A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results: Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions: The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada.

  18. Study of transient burnout under flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1986-09-01

    Transient burnout characteristics of a fuel rod under a rapid flow reduction condition of a light water reactor were experimentally and analytically studied. The test sections were uniformly heated vertical tube and annulus with the heated length of 800 mm. Test pressures ranged 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa, heat fluxes 2,160 ∼ 3,860 KW/m 2 , and flow reduction rates 0.44 ∼ 770 %/s. The local flow condition during flow reduction transients were calculated with a separate flow model. The two-fluid/three-field thermal-hydraulic code, COBRA/TRAC, was also used to investigate the liquid film behavior on the heated surface. The major results obtained in the present study are as follows: The onset of burnout under a rapid flow reduction condition was caused by a liquid film dryout on the heated surface. With increasing flow reduction rate beyond a threshold, the burnout mass velocity at the inlet became lower than the steady-state burnout mass velocity. This is explained by the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase due to the delay of boiling boundary movement and the resultant high vapor velocity sustains the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. The ratio of inlet burnout mass velocities between flow reduction transient and steady-state became smaller with increasing system pressure because of the lower vapor velocity due to the lower vapor specific volume. Flow reduction burnout occurred when the outlet quality agreed with the steady-state burnout quality within 10 %, suggesting that the local condition burnout model can be used for flow reduction transients. Based on this model, a method to predict the time to burnout under a flow reduction condition in a uniformly heated tube was developed. The calculated times to burnout agreed well with some experimental results obtained by the Author, Cumo et al., and Moxon et al. (author)

  19. Regional disparity and cost-effective SO2 pollution control in China: A case study in 5 mega-cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanada, Momoe; Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Yujiro; Togawa, Takuya; Geng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    With rapid development, increasing sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission becomes a key environmental issue in China. To respond to this challenge, the Chinese government established a top-down scheme to reduce its SO 2 emissions. However, regional disparity and the associated cost differences brought uncertainties to the policy effectiveness and efficiency. Few studies focus on this field. Therefore, this study tries to fill such a gap by investigating the differences of SO 2 emissions, reduction potential, and cost-effectiveness through use of the GAINS-China model in five mega-cities in China, namely, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, and Hong Kong. A scenario analysis approach is employed, focusing on two technologies named flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and limestone injection (LINJ). Results demonstrated that a large SO 2 reduction potential exists, as well as a great disparity, among the five mega-cities. Chongqing had the largest reduction potential with lowest unit cost, while Beijng and Hong Kong showed the lowest reduction potential with higher unit cost. In Beijing and Shanghai, FGD and LINJ in the power generation sector had the larger reduction potential with the highest cost-effectiveness. However, in Chongqing, the industry sectors also had large reduction potentials. Finally, appropriate SO 2 control strategies and policies are raised by considering the local realities. - Highlights: • The cost-effectiveness of SO 2 control policy was analyzed in five mega-cities in China. • Reduction potential and cost-effectiveness were closely linked to regional disparity. • Beijing and Hong Kong showed lower reduction potential and higher marginal reduction cost. • Chongqing showed the largest reduction potential and the lowest marginal reduction cost

  20. U-AVLIS feed conversion using continuous metallothermic reduction of UF4: System description and cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here

  1. Summary Report of Advanced Hydropower Innovations and Cost Reduction Workshop at Arlington, VA, November 5 & 6, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rugani, Kelsey [Kearns & West, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); West, Anna [Kearns & West, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technology Office (WWPTO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosted a day and half long workshop on November 5 and 6, 2015 in the Washington, D.C. metro area to discuss cost reduction opportunities in the development of hydropower projects. The workshop had a further targeted focus on the costs of small, low-head1 facilities at both non-powered dams (NPDs) and along undeveloped stream reaches (also known as New Stream-Reach Development or “NSD”). Workshop participants included a cross-section of seasoned experts, including project owners and developers, engineering and construction experts, conventional and next-generation equipment manufacturers, and others to identify the most promising ways to reduce costs and achieve improvements for hydropower projects.

  2. U-AVLIS feed conversion using continuous metallothermic reduction of UF{sub 4}: System description and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here.

  3. Cost of allogeneic and autologous blood transfusion in Canada. Canadian Cost of Transfusion Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Tretiak, R; Laupacis, A; Rivière, M; McKerracher, K; Souêtre, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost, from a societal perspective, of blood transfusion in Canada. STUDY DESIGN: Cost-structure analysis. SETTING: Data were collected from eight hospitals and from six blood centres operated by the Canadian Red Cross Society in four provinces. OUTCOME MEASURES: Costs associated with four stages of transfusion-- collection, production, distribution and delivery--in 1933 were assessed. Costs were divided into the following categories; personnel, purchases, external ...

  4. Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) Study: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulden, Mike; Bergstrom, Nancy; Horn, Susan D; Rapp, Mary; Stern, Anita; Barrett, Ryan; Watkiss, Michael; Krahn, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) study was a multisite, randomized controlled trial that aimed to determine the optimal frequency of turning nursing facility residents with mobility limitations who are at moderate and high risk for pressure ulcer (PrU) development. Here we present data from the economic analysis. This economic analysis aims to estimate the economic consequences for Ontario of switching from a repositioning schedule of 2-hour intervals to a schedule of 3-hour or 4-hour intervals. Costs considered in the analysis included those associated with nursing staff time spent repositioning residents and with incontinent care supplies, which included briefs, barrier cream, and washcloths. The total economic benefit of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning is estimated to be $11.05 or $16.74 per day, respectively, for every resident at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs. For a typical facility with 123 residents, 41 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefit is estimated to be $453 daily for 3-hour or $686 daily for 4-hour repositioning. For Ontario as a whole, assuming that there are 77,933 residents at 634 LTC facilities, 25,927 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefits of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning are estimated to be $286,420 or $433,913 daily, respectively, equivalent to $104.5 million or $158.4 million per year. We did not consider the savings the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care might incur should less frequent repositioning reduce the incidence of work-related injury among nursing staff, so our findings are potentially conservative. A switch to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning appears likely to yield substantial economic benefits to Ontario without placing residents at greater risk of developing PrUs.

  5. Health costs in anthroposophic therapy users: a two-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich Stefan N

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic therapies (counselling, special medication, art, eurythmy movement, and rhythmical massage aim to stimulate long-term self-healing processes, which theoretically could lead to a reduction of healthcare use. In a prospective two-year cohort study, anthroposophic therapies were followed by a reduction of chronic disease symptoms and improvement of quality of life. The purpose of this analysis was to describe health costs in users of anthroposophic therapies. Methods 717 consecutive outpatients from 134 medical practices in Germany, starting anthroposophic therapies for chronic diseases, participated in a prospective cohort study. We analysed direct health costs (anthroposophic therapies, physician and dentist consultations, psychotherapy, medication, physiotherapy, ergotherapy, hospital treatment, rehabilitation and indirect costs (sick leave compensation in the pre-study year and the first two study years. Costs were calculated from resource utilisation, documented by patient self-reporting. Data were collected from January 1999 to April 2003. Results Total health costs in the first study year (bootstrap mean 3,297 Euro; 95% confidence interval 95%-CI 3,157 Euro to 3,923 Euro did not differ significantly from the pre-study year (3,186 Euro; 95%-CI 3,037 Euro to 3,711 Euro, whereas in the second year, costs (2,771 Euro; 95%-CI 2,647 Euro to 3,256 Euro were significantly reduced by 416 Euro (95%-CI 264 Euro to 960 Euro compared to the pre-study year. In each period hospitalisation and sick-leave together amounted to more than half of the total health costs. Anthroposophic therapies and medication amounted to 3%, 15%, and 8% of total health costs in the pre-study year, first year, and second study year, respectively. The cost reduction in the second year was largely accounted for by a decrease of inpatient hospitalisation, leading to a hospital cost reduction of 519 Euro (95%-CI 377 Euro to 904 Euro compared to the

  6. Implications of the international reduction pledges on long-term energy system changes and costs in China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Paul L.; Shukla, P.R.; Chen, Wenying; Ruijven, Bas J. van; Dhar, Subash; Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of postponing global mitigation action on abatement costs and energy systems changes in China and India. It compares energy-system changes and mitigation costs from a global and two national energy-system models under two global emission pathways with medium likelihood of meeting the 2 °C target: a least-cost pathway and a pathway that postpones ambitious mitigation action, starting from the Copenhagen Accord pledges. Both pathways have similar 2010–2050 cumulative greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that postponing mitigation action increases the lock-in in less energy efficient technologies and results in much higher cumulative mitigation costs. The models agree that carbon capture and storage (CCS) and nuclear energy are important mitigation technologies, while the shares of biofuels and other renewables vary largely over the models. Differences between India and China with respect to the timing of emission reductions and the choice of mitigation measures relate to differences in projections of rapid economic change, capital stock turnover and technological development. Furthermore, depending on the way it is implemented, climate policy could increase indoor air pollution, but it is likely to provide synergies for energy security. These relations should be taken into account when designing national climate policies. - highlights: • We analyze long-term impacts of the international pledges for China and India. • We compare a least-cost pathway with a pathway starting from the Copenhagen pledges. • Postponing mitigation action implies much higher cumulative mitigation costs. • Postponing increases fossil fuel dependence and requires deeper long-term reductions. • Countries differ mainly due to different periods of rapid economic change

  7. Cost Study Manual 1965-66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    Procedures are presented for use in reporting costs for institutions of higher education in Illinois. Following the definition of various accounting functions, the scope of the cost and statistical report is delimited, and specifications are presented for the collection of data on students, courses, academic faculty records, and academic faculty…

  8. Operating cost reduction by optimization of I and C backfitting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Heinz-U.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant requires a large scope of automation systems to act properly in combination. The associated maintenance costs, necessary to test these systems periodically and to repair or to replace them partly or completely, are one important factor in the overall operating costs of a nuclear power plant. Reducing these costs by reducing the maintenance effort could decrease the availability of the power plant and by this way increase the operating costs significantly. The minimization of the overall operating costs requires a well-balanced maintenance strategy taking into account all these opposite influences. The replacement of an existing I and C system by a new one reduces the maintenance cost in the long term and increases the plant availability. However, it requires some investments in the short term. On the other hand the repair of an I and C system avoids investments, but it doesn't solve the aging problems. That means maintenance costs will increase in the long term and the plant availability could be decreased. An optimized maintenance strategy can be elaborated on a plant specific base taking into account the residual lifetime of the plant, the properties of the installed I and C systems as well as their influence on the plant availability. As a general result of such an optimization performed by FANP it has been found as a rule that the replacement of I and C systems becomes the most economic way the longer the expected lifetime is and the stronger the I and C system influences, the availability of the plant. (author)

  9. A low-cost multichannel analyzer with data reduction assembly for continuous air monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghi, B.; Lee, Y.; Nelson, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a microcontroller-based multichannel analyzer (MCA) with a data reduction assembly (DRA) for a plutonium continuous air monitor (CAM) system. The MCA is capable of detecting the airborne alpha emitters in the presence of radon daughter products. The pulse output from the preamplifier has been stretched to allow the peak detector sufficient time to capture the pulse height. The pulse amplitude conversion, the data acquisition, and the output functions are carried out fully by software. The DRA consists of a data reduction unit (DRU) and its operator interface panel. The data reduction assembly has the ability to be networked to a single PC with up to 332 different CAM's remotely connected to it

  10. Does consideration of GHG reductions change local decision making? A Case Study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L. A.; Blumel, G.

    2003-12-01

    While local air pollution has been a public concern in developing countries for some time, climate change is looked upon as a non-urgent, developed world problem. In this work we present a case study of the interaction of measures to abate air pollution and measures to mitigate GHG emissions in Santiago, Chile, with the purpose of determining if the consideration of reductions in GHG affects the decisions taken to mitigate local air pollution. The emissions reductions of both GHG and local air pollutants were estimated from emission factors (some derived locally) and changes in activity levels. Health benefits due to air pollution abatement were computed using figures derived previously for the cost benefit analysis of Santiago's Decontamination Plan, transferred to the different cities taking into consideration local demographic and income data. The Santiago estimates were obtained using the damage function approach, based on some local epidemiological studies, and on local health and demographic data. Unit social values for the effects were estimated locally (for cost of treatment and lost productivity values) or extrapolated from US values (mainly for WTP values) using the ratio of per-capita income and an income elasticity of 1. The average benefits of emission abatement (in 1997 US\\ per ton) are 1,800 (1,200-2300) for NOx, 3,000 (2,100-3900) for SO2, 31,900 (21,900 - 41,900) for PM, and 630 (430 - 830) for resuspended dust. Economic benefits due to carbon reduction were considered at 3.5, 10 and 20 UStCO2. Marginal abatement cost curves were constructed considering private and net costs (private less the potential sales of carbon credits) Due to the bottom-up approach to constructing the marginal cost curve, many abatement measures (like congestion tolls and CNG instead of diesel buses) amounting to 8% reduction of PM2.5 concentration, exhibit a negative private cost. If the health benefits are considered for the decision, a maximum reduction of 22% in PM2

  11. [Clinical study using activity-based costing to assess cost-effectiveness of a wound management system utilizing modern dressings in comparison with traditional wound care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Takehiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Mino, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of cost-effectiveness, including medical delivery and health service fee systems, has become widespread in Japanese health care. In the field of pressure ulcer management, the recent introduction of penalty subtraction in the care fee system emphasizes the need for prevention and cost-effective care of pressure ulcer. Previous cost-effectiveness research on pressure ulcer management tended to focus only on "hardware" costs such as those for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, while neglecting other cost aspects, particularly those involving the cost of labor. Thus, cost-effectiveness in pressure ulcer care has not yet been fully established. To provide true cost effectiveness data, a comparative prospective study was initiated in patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Considering the potential impact of the pressure reduction mattress on clinical outcome, in particular, the same type of pressure reduction mattresses are utilized in all the cases in the study. The cost analysis method used was Activity-Based Costing, which measures material and labor cost aspects on a daily basis. A reduction in the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) score was used to measure clinical effectiveness. Patients were divided into three groups based on the treatment method and on the use of a consistent algorithm of wound care: 1. MC/A group, modern dressings with a treatment algorithm (control cohort). 2. TC/A group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) with a treatment algorithm. 3. TC/NA group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) without a treatment algorithm. The results revealed that MC/A is more cost-effective than both TC/A and TC/NA. This suggests that appropriate utilization of modern dressing materials and a pressure ulcer care algorithm would contribute to reducing health care costs, improved clinical results, and, ultimately, greater cost-effectiveness.

  12. Experimental study of drag reduction in flumes and spillway tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-kui Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in an open flume model and spillway tunnel model were carried out using drag reduction techniques. Two drag reduction techniques were adopted in the experiments: polymer addition and coating. The drag reduction effect of a polyacrylamide (PAM solution and dimethyl silicone oil coating were studied in the flume model experiments, and the results were analyzed. Experiments were then carried out with a model of the Xiluodu Hydropower Station, the second largest dam in China. In order to reduce the resistance, the spillway tunnels were internally coated with dimethyl silicone oil. This is the first time that these drag reduction techniques have been applied to so large a hydraulic model. The experimental results show that the coating technique can effectively increase flood discharge. The outlet velocity and the jet trajectory distance are also increased, which enhances the energy dissipation of the spillway tunnel.

  13. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  14. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2015-01-01

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles

  15. Determining the economic cost of ICU treatment: a prospective "micro-costing" study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Anne Marie

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the cost of patients in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) using bottom-up costing methodology and evaluate the usefulness of "severity of illness" scores in estimating ICU cost. METHODS AND DESIGN: A prospective study costing 64 consecutive admissions over a 2-month period in a mixed medical\\/surgical ICU. RESULTS: The median daily ICU cost (interquartile range, IQR) was 2,205 euro (1,932 euro-3,073 euro), and the median total ICU cost (IQR) was 10,916 euro (4,294 euro-24,091 euro). ICU survivors had a lower median daily ICU cost at 2,164 per day, compared with 3,496 euro per day for ICU non-survivors (P = 0.08). The requirements for continuous haemodiafiltration, blood products and anti-fungal agents were associated with higher daily and overall ICU costs (P = 0.002). Each point increase in SAPS3 was associated with a 305 euro (95% CI 31 euro-579 euro) increase in total ICU cost (P = 0.029). However, SAPS3 accounted for a small proportion of the variance in this model (R (2) = 0.08), limiting its usefulness as a stand-alone predictor of cost in clinical practice. A model including haemodiafiltration, blood products and anti-fungal agents explained 54% of the variance in total ICU cost. CONCLUSION: This bottom-up costing study highlighted the considerable individual variation in costs between ICU patients and identified the major factors contributing to cost. As the requirement for expensive interventions was the main driver for ICU cost, "severity of illness" scores may not be useful as stand-alone predictors of cost in the ICU.

  16. Study of transient burnout characteristics under flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki

    1984-03-01

    As part of a study of the thermal behavior of fuel rods during Power-Cooling-Mismatch (PCM) accidents in light water reactors, burnout characteristics in a uniformly heated, vertically oriented tube or annulus, under flow reduction condition, were experimentally studied. Test pressures ranged 0.1--3.9 MPa and flow reduction rates 0.44--1100%/s. An analytical method is developed to obtain the local mass velocity during a transient condition. The major results are as follows: With increasing flow reduction rate beyond a threshold, transient burnout mass velocity at the inlet was lower than that in steady state tests under the experimental pressures. The higher system pressure resulted in the less transient effects. At pressures higher than 2.0 MPa and flow reduction rates lower than 20%/s, the local burnout mass velocity agreed with the steady state burnout mass velocity, whereas the local burnout mass velocity became higher than the steady state burnout mass velocity at flow reduction rates higher than 20%/s. At pressures lower than 1 MPa, with increasing flow reduction rate beyond the threshold value of 2%/s, the local burnout mass velocity was lower than the steady state burnout mass velocity. An empirical correlation is presented to give the ratio of the transient to the steady state burnout mass velocities at the burnout location as a function of the steam-water density ratio and the flow reduction rate. The experimental results by Cumo et al. agree with the correlation. The correlation, however, cannot predict the experimental results at higher flow reduction rates beyond 40%/s. (author)

  17. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as th...

  18. Costs of cardiovascular disease prevention care and scenarios for cost saving: a micro-costing study from rural Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Marleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Nelissen, Heleen E.; Boers, Alexander C.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Tan, Siok Swan; Redekop, William; Adenusi, Peju; Lange, Joep M. A.; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    To assess the costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention care according to international guidelines, in a primary healthcare clinic in rural Nigeria, participating in a health insurance programme. A micro-costing study was conducted from a healthcare provider perspective. Activities per

  19. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  20. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs

  1. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  2. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  3. Practical approach to lung health in Nepal: better prescribing and reduction of cost.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, N.; Samir, K.C.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Kafle, K.K.; Bishai, D.; Niessen, L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL) guidelines on prescription behaviour and the total cost of prescription for patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. METHODS: Pre- and post-intervention comparison in a cluster randomized

  4. Fusion reactor cost reductions by employing non-nuclear grade components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.; Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Sonn, D.L.; Wise, R.K.

    1987-09-01

    The Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor fits the requirements of low radioactive inventories and inherent safety and is therefore a candidate for non-nuclear construction throughout. This reactor consists of a rotating blanket of ceramic granules that absorb the energy from D-T target explosions occurring along the rotational axis. Laser energy is beamed in axially from both ends. Two cost estimates were made for an 815 MWe Cascade power plant. One was based on an ''all conventional'' plant, which is constructed and costed using well-established, conventional fossil power plant methods. The second was a ''nuclear plus conventional'' design, constructed and costed using a combination of fossil and fission reactor plant methods and standards that would be typical of advanced fission reactors. The total capital requirements for the ''all conventional'' construction plant were estimated in 1985 dollars at $1490 M, including indirect costs. Similarly, the ''nuclear plus conventional'' construction plant was estimated at $1940 M. The savings of $450 M (23%) represents strictly the difference between Cascade ICF power plants designed and constructed to nuclear safety-related requirements versus all non-nuclear. This example clearly shows that, if fusion plants can take advantage of low activation materials and inherent safety features to eliminate the need for nuclear-related expenses, then such plants may have economic advantages over nuclear-grade systems. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. Reducing Operating Room Costs Through Real-Time Cost Information Feedback: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Christian H; Bahler, Clinton D; Hardacker, Thomas J; Ball, Kevin M; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2015-08-01

    To create a protocol for providing real-time operating room (OR) cost feedback to surgeons. We hypothesize that this protocol will reduce costs in a responsible way without sacrificing quality of care. All OR costs were obtained and recorded for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Before the beginning of this project, costs pertaining to the 20 most recent cases were analyzed. Items were identified from previous cases as modifiable for replacement or omission. Timely feedback of total OR costs and cost of each item used was provided to the surgeon after each case, and costs were analyzed. A cost analysis of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy before the washout period indicates expenditures of $5243.04 per case. Ten recommended modifiable items were found to have an average per case cost of $1229.33 representing 23.4% of the total cost. A postwashout period cost analysis found the total OR cost decreased by $899.67 (17.2%) because of changes directly related to the modifiable items. Therefore, 73.2% of the possible identified savings was realized. The same stepwise approach was applied to laparoscopic donor nephrectomies. The average total cost per case before the washout period was $3530.05 with $457.54 attributed to modifiable items. After the washout period, modifiable items costs were reduced by $289.73 (8.0%). No complications occurred in the donor nephrectomy cases while one postoperative complication occurred in the partial nephrectomy group. Providing surgeons with feedback related to OR costs may lead to a change in surgeon behavior and decreased overall costs. Further studies are needed to show equivalence in patient outcomes.

  6. Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Chitty, Lyn S; Morris, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. questionnaire-based costing study. eight maternity clinics across the UK. pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To measure reduction in exposure to smoke in two population-based studies of self-reported smoking reduction not using nicotine replacement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of biomarkers and smoking. SETTING: Data from two time-points in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), 1981....../83 and 1991/94, and the Copenhagen Male Study (CMS) in 1976 and 1985/86, respectively. PARTICIPANTS: There were 3026 adults who were smokers at both time-points in the CCHS and 1319 men smoking at both time-points in the CMS. MEASUREMENTS: Smoking status and tobacco consumption were assessed by self...... a reduction in cigarettes per day of 50% or more without quitting were compared with continuing medium, heavy and light smokers (1-14 g/day) using linear regression. Sex (CCHS only), age, self-reported inhalation of smoke, duration of smoking, type of tobacco and amount smoked were included as covariates...

  8. SOFC anode reduction studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising part of future energy approaches due to a relatively high energy conversion efficiency and low environmental pollution. SOFCs are typically composed of ceramic materials which are highly complex at the nanoscale. TEM is routinely applied ex situ...... for studying these nanoscale structures, but only few SOFC studies have applied in situ TEM to observe the ceramic nanostructures in a reactive gas environment at elevated temperatures. The present contribution focuses on the reduction of an SOFC anode which is a necessary process to form the catalytically...... active Ni surface before operating the fuel cells. The reduction process was followed in the TEM while exposing a NiO/YSZ (YSZ = Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) model anode to H2 at T = 250-1000⁰C. Pure NiO was used in reference experiments. Previous studies have shown that the reduction of pure Ni...

  9. Low cost and thin metasurface for ultra wide band and wide angle polarization insensitive radar cross section reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Edris; Esmaeli, Seyed Hassan; Sedighy, Seyed Hassan

    2018-05-01

    A planar low cost and thin metasurface is proposed to achieve ultra-wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction with stable performance with respect to polarization and incident angles. This metasurface is composed of two different artificial magnetic conductor unit cells arranged in a chessboard like configuration. These unit cells have a Jerusalem cross pattern with different thicknesses, which results in wideband out-phase reflection and RCS reduction, consequently. The designed metasurface reduces RCS more than 10-dB from 13.6 GHz to 45.5 GHz (108% bandwidth) and more than 20-dB RCS from 15.2 GHz to 43.6 GHz (96.6%). Moreover, the 10-dB RCS reduction bandwidth is very stable (more than 107%) for both TE and TM polarizations. The good agreement between simulations and measurement results proves the design, properly. The ultra-wide bandwidth, low cost, low profile, and stable performance of this metasurface prove its high capability compared with the state-of-the-art references.

  10. Low-cost optical fabrication of flexible copper electrode via laser-induced reductive sintering and adhesive transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seunghyun; Kang, Bongchul

    2018-02-01

    Fabricating copper electrodes on heat-sensitive polymer films in air is highly challenging owing to the need of expensive copper nanoparticles, rapid oxidation of precursor during sintering, and limitation of sintering temperature to prevent the thermal damage of the polymer film. A laser-induced hybrid process of reductive sintering and adhesive transfer is demonstrated to cost-effectively fabricate copper electrode on a polyethylene film with a thermal resistance below 100 °C. A laser-induced reductive sintering process directly fabricates a high-conductive copper electrode onto a glass donor from copper oxide nanoparticle solution via photo-thermochemical reduction and agglomeration of copper oxide nanoparticles. The sintered copper patterns were transferred in parallel to a heat-sensitive polyethylene film through self-selective surface adhesion of the film, which was generated by the selective laser absorption of the copper pattern. The method reported here could become one of the most important manufacturing technologies for fabricating low-cost wearable and disposable electronics.

  11. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  12. Dose reduction and cost-benefit analysis at Japan's Tokai No. 2 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humamoto, Hisao; Suzuki, Seishiro; Taniguchi, Kazufumi

    1995-01-01

    In the Tokai No. 2 power plant of the Japan Atomic Power Company, about 80% of the annual dose equivalent is received during periodic maintenance outages. A project group for dose reduction was organized at the company's headquarters in 1986; in 1988, they proposed a five-year program to reduce by half the collective dose of 4 person-Sv per normal outage work. To achieve the target dose value, some dose-reduction measures were undertaken, namely, permanent radiation shielding, decontamination, automatic, operating machines, and ALARA organization. As the result, the collective dose from normal outage work was 1.6 person-Sv in 1992, which was less than the initial target value

  13. Dose reduction and cost-benefit analysis at Japan`s Tokai No. 2 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humamoto, Hisao; Suzuki, Seishiro; Taniguchi, Kazufumi [Japan Atomic Power Co., Otemachi (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    In the Tokai No. 2 power plant of the Japan Atomic Power Company, about 80% of the annual dose equivalent is received during periodic maintenance outages. A project group for dose reduction was organized at the company`s headquarters in 1986; in 1988, they proposed a five-year program to reduce by half the collective dose of 4 person-Sv per normal outage work. To achieve the target dose value, some dose-reduction measures were undertaken, namely, permanent radiation shielding, decontamination, automatic, operating machines, and ALARA organization. As the result, the collective dose from normal outage work was 1.6 person-Sv in 1992, which was less than the initial target value.

  14. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID

  15. Cost and value of pathogen reduction for land application of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, H.D.; Morris, M.E.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses the general pressures that are forcing sewage sludge managers to reconsider land application of sludges where it is not already used; presents the cost of using gamma-radiation from the isotope cesium-137 for sludge disinfection; and documents the economic and social pressures that could compel a city such as Washington, D.C. to disinfect its compost before sale. Washington was chosen as an example because it is a city for which suitable compost marketing data are readily available. With these data it is reasonably straightforward to document the costs and benefits of radiation processing. The economic and social pressures that affect Washington are probably similar to those in many other areas where the radiation disinfection of dried sludge could provide the same disposal options

  16. The Welfare Costs of GHG Reduction with Renewable Energy Policies in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Madhu; Oliver, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A range of policies have been implemented in the agricultural, transportation, and electric power sectors, which comprise the majority of GHG emissions in the US. Two prominent policy sets are the national RFS and state-level RPSs. The purpose of this research is to examine the GHG implications of the state RPSs and their welfare costs of mitigating GHG emissions. We also analyze the interactions between the RFS and state RPS policies and the extent to which these policies create competition ...

  17. Central Plant Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER). ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    meet all demands, and not necessarily for fuel economy or energy efficiency. Plant operators run the equipment according to a pre-set, fixed strategy ...exchanger, based on the site protocol. Thermal Energy Storage Tank Site-specific optimal operating strategies were developed for the chilled water...being served by the central plant Hypothesis The hypothesis tested that the optimized operation reduces wasted energy and energy costs by smart

  18. Cyclic voltammetry and reduction mechanistic studies of styrylpyrylium perchlorates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Bonzi-Coulibaly

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reduction and oxidation potentials of methylated 4-styrylpyrylium and 6-styrylpyrylium perchlorates have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, in comparison to their non-methylated derivatives values. The reduction peak of all studied compounds remained chemically irreversible. The presence of the electron-donating methyl group on pyrylium ring leads to a shift of the styrylpyrylium perchlorates reduction potential towards cathodic values. Kinetic studies on platinum electrodes based on the variation of the peak potential at different scan rates and upon substrate concentrations confirm, in another way, the mechanism of electron transfer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i1.12

  19. Microfluidic platform for studying the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Devin Talmage

    Diminishing supplies of conventional energy sources and growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions present significant challenges to supplying the world's rapidly increasing demand for energy. The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has the potential to address many of these issues by providing a means of storing electricity in chemical form. Storing electrical energy as chemicals is beneficial for leveling the output of clean, but intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. Electrical energy stored as chemicals can also be used as carbon neutral fuels for portable applications allowing petroleum derived fuels in the transportation sector to be replaced by more environmentally friendly energy sources. However, to be a viable technology, the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide needs to have both high current densities and energetic efficiencies (Chapter 1). Although many researchers have studied the electrochemical reduction of CO2 including parameters such as catalysts, electrolytes and temperature, further investigation is needed to improve the understanding of this process and optimize the performance (Chapter 2). This dissertation reports the development and validation of a microfluidic reactor for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (Chapter 3). The design uses a flowing liquid electrolyte instead of the typical polymer electrolyte membrane. In addition to other benefits, this flowing electrolyte gives the reactor great flexibility, allowing independent analysis of each electrode and the testing of a wide variety of conditions. In this work, the microfluidic reactor has been used in the following areas: • Comparison of different metal catalysts for the reduction of CO2 to formic acid and carbon monoxide (Chapter 4). • Investigation of the effects of the electrolyte pH on the reduction of CO2 to formic acid and carbon monoxide (Chapter 5). • Study of amine based electrolytes for lowering the overpotentials for CO2

  20. The cost-effectiveness of household photovoltaic systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Linking subsidies with emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, D.; Dargusch, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Payback period for Australian household PV fell to four years in 2011 and 2012. • PV became attractive due to high feed-in tariffs and declining PV costs. • Cost was AU$200/t CO 2 e in 2010, expected to be AU$65 to AU$100/t CO 2 e by 2020. • PV resulted in greenhouse gas emissions reducing by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013. • PV expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8 million t CO 2 e in 2020. - Abstract: This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of subsidies (feed-in tariffs and renewable energy credits) paid for by electricity consumers to support the uptake of roof top photovoltaic (PV) systems by households in Australia. We estimate annual payback periods, and then regress these against the actual uptake of household PV and associated emission reductions, creating a relationship not apparent in other research. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the declining cost of PV panels had most impact on PV uptake followed by feed-in tariffs, renewable energy credits and the increasing cost of household electricity tariffs. Our modelling shows that feed-in tariffs were higher than necessary to achieve the resultant levels of PV uptake and that the low cost of PV panels and comparatively high electricity tariffs are likely to result in a continuing strong uptake of household PV in Australia. Our modelling shows that subsidies peaked in 2011 and 2012, with payback periods of three to four years, having since increased to five to six years. Emission reduction costs are expected to reduce from over AU$200 per t CO 2 e in 2013 to between AU$65 and AU$100 per t CO 2 e in 2020. Household PV reduced Australia’s emissions by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013 (1.7% of Australia’s total emissions) and is expected to reach eight million tonnes (3.7% of Australia’s total emissions) by 2020

  1. Jet Noise Reduction by Microjets - A Parametric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of injecting tiny secondary jets (microjets ) on the radiated noise from a subsonic primary jet is studied experimentally. The microjets are injected on to the primary jet near the nozzle exit with variable port geometry, working fluid and driving pressure. A clear noise reduction is observed that improves with increasing jet pressure. It is found that smaller diameter ports with higher driving pressure, but involving less thrust and mass fraction, can produce better noise reduction. A collection of data from the present as well as past experiments is examined in an attempt to correlate the noise reduction with the operating parameters. The results indicate that turbulent mixing noise reduction, as monitored by OASPL at a shallow angle, correlates with the ratio of jet to primary jet driving pressures normalized by the ratio of corresponding diameters (p d /pjD). With gaseous injection, the spectral amplitudes decrease at lower frequencies while an increase is noted at higher frequencies. It is apparent that this amplitude crossover is at least partly due to shock-associated noise from the underexpanded jets themselves. Such crossover is not seen with water injection since the flow in that case is incompressible and there is no shock-associated noise. Centerline velocity data show that larger noise reduction is accompanied by faster jet decay as well as significant reduction in turbulence intensities. While a physical understanding of the dependence of noise reduction on p d /pjD remains unclear, given this correlation, an analysis explains the observed dependence of the effect on various other parameters.

  2. A decade of cost-reduction in very large telescopes - The SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1989-10-01

    Many design and technical innovations over the past ten or fifteen years have reduced the costs of very large telescopes by nearly an order of magnitude over those of classical designs. Still a further order of magnitude reduction is possible if the telescope is specialized for on-axis spectroscopy, giving up especially the luxuries of wide field, multiple focal positions, and access to all the sky at will. The SST (Spectroscopic Survey Telescope) will use eighty-five 1-m circular mirrors mounted in a steel frame composed of hundreds of interlocking tetrahedrons, keeping a fixed elevation angle of 60 deg with rotation only in azimuth. Using an optical fiber it will feed as much light to spectrographs as can be done by a conventional 8-m telescope, yet has a target basic completion cost of only $6 million.

  3. The reduction of oil pollutants of petroleum products storage-tanks sludge using low-cost adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari-Hosseini Zahra Beagom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of storage tank sludge in oil depots is a major environmental concern due to the high concentration of hydrocarbons involved. This paper investigates the reduction of the sludge oil pollutants with initial oil and grease concentration of about 50 mass% using low cost adsorbents. Among the examined adsorbents, sawdust indicated the maximum removal of oil and grease. The screening and optimizing of process parameters were evaluated employing Plackett-Burman design and response surface method. For the optimized conditions, more than 60 mass% of oil and grease from the sludge was removed. Moreover, it was found that sawdust adsorption of the oil and grease approximately followed the Freundlich isotherm. The results indicated that oil pollutants of sludge could be reduced using sawdust as a low-cost, available and flammable adsorbent so that thus saturated adsorbents could be used as fuel in certain industries.

  4. A Stackelberg Game Approach in an Integrated Inventory Model with Carbon-Emission and Setup Cost Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated inventory model that allows Stackelberg game policy for optimizing joint total cost of a vendor and buyer system. After receiving the lot, the buyer commences an inspection process to determine the defective items. All defective items the buyer sends to vendor during the receiving of the next lot. Due to increasing number of shipments fixed and variable transportation, as well as carbon emissions, are considered, which makes the model sustainable integrated model forever. To reduce the setup cost for the vendor, a discrete setup reduction is considered for maximization more profit. The players of the integrated model are with unequal power (as leader and follower and the Stackelberg game strategy is utilized to solve this model for obtaining global optimum solution over the finite planning horizon. An illustrative numerical example is given to understand this model clearly.

  5. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-01-01

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups

  6. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  7. A protocol for sustained reduction of Total Parenteral Nutrition and cost savings by improvement of nutritional care in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Rian; Van den Abeele, Kurt; Melsens, Glenn; Schepens, Peter; Lanssens, Truus; Vlaemynck, Bernadette; Devisch, Maria; Niewold, Theo A

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition and the use of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) contribute considerably to hospital costs. Recently, we reported on the introduction of malnutrition screening and monitoring of TPN use in our hospital, which resulted in a large (40%) reduction in TPN and improved quality of nutritional care in two years (2011/12). Here, we aimed to assure continuation of improved care by developing a detailed malnutrition screening and TPN use protocol involving instruction tools for hospital staff, while monitoring the results in the following two years (2013/14). A TPN decision tree for follow up of TPN in patients and a TP-EN instruction card for caregivers was introduced, showing TPN/EN introduction schedules based on the energy needs of patients according to EB guidelines, also addressing the risk of refeeding syndrome. TPN patients were monitored by dietitians and TPN usage and costs were presented to the (medical) staff. Screening and treatment of malnourished patients by dietitians is simultaneously ongoing. In 2014 48% of patients, hospitalized for at least 48 h, were screened on malnutrition, 17% of them were diagnosed at risk, 7.9% malnourished and treated by dietitians. TPN usage dropped by 53% and cost savings of 51% were obtained due to 50% decrease of TPN users in 2014 versus 2010. TPN over EN ratio dropped from 2.4 in 2010 to 1.2 in 2014. Sustained improvement of nutritional care and reduction of TPN usage and costs is possible by introduction of procedures embedded in the existing structures. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nash and integrated solutions in a just-in-time seller-buyer supply chain with buyer's ordering cost reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.

  9. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Hans-Christian; Butenschoen, Vicki Marie; Tran, Hien Tinh; Gozzer, Ernesto; Skewes, Ronald; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Farlow, Andrew

    2013-11-06

    Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save--through early response activities--resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control

  10. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  11. Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology. Near implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the low cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Equipment developed for the manufacture of over 100 kg of silicon ingot from one crucible by rechanging from another crucible is described. Attempts were made to eliminate the cost of raising the furnace temperature to 250 C above the melting point of silicon by using an RF coil to melt polycrystalline silicon rod as a means of rechanging the crucible. Microprocessor control of the straight growth process was developed and domonstrated for both 4 inch and 6 inch diameter. Both meltdown and melt stabilization processes were achieved using operator prompting through the microprocessor. The use of the RF work coil in poly rod melting as a heat sink in the accelerated growth process was unsuccessful. The total design concept for fabrication and interfacing of the total cold crucible system was completed.

  12. Cost Reduction of Taxi Enterprises at the Expense of Automobile Fleet Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novytskyi А.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of taxi service operation using techniques of queuing system theory have been demonstrated. It has been shown that probability of service denial is the key quality criterion of transport services for taxi services. It is expedient to use total expenditures of queuing system as target function to estimate the efficiency of taxi service. It has been determined that application of queuing theory techniques makes it possible to identify optimum value of the number of operating motor vehicles for specific environment. The value is optimum according to minimum-cost criterion.

  13. Methods and technologies for cost reduction in the design of water cooled reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Specialists Meeting was organized in the framework of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors. Its purpose was to provide an international forum for review and discussion on recent results in research and development on different methods and technologies of current and advanced water-cooled reactor power plants, which can lead to reduced investment and operation, maintenance and fuel-cycle costs of the plants. 27 specialists representing 10 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting. 10 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Telecommuting and health care: a potential for cost reductions and productivity gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S M; Pelfrey, S; Van Sell, M

    1995-12-01

    Health care administrators are striving to maintain positive operating margins while remaining responsive to community needs. As they look for ways to reduce costs and improve productivity, they may consider the benefits associated with telecommuting. Telecommuting refers to the work performed by organizational employees who use computers and telecommunication equipment to work at home or at remote sites one or more days a week. Benefits to the health care industry include release of valuable hospital space, reduced employee turnover, and increased productivity. The time away from the institution may provide administrators with valuable planning time, free from interruptions.

  15. Benzene degradation coupled with chlorate reduction in soil column study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate and chlorate are electron acceptors that during reduction result in the formation of molecular oxygen. The produced oxygen can be used for activation of anaerobic persistent pollutants, like benzene. In this study chlorate was tested as potential electron acceptor to stimulate benzene

  16. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  17. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira; Rasul, Shahid; Patole, Shashikant P.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  18. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  19. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqubi, Morteza, E-mail: yaqubi@pgs.usb.ac.ir [Faculty of Management and Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraki, Javad, E-mail: j.shahraki@eco.usb.ac.ir [Faculty of Management and Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood, E-mail: sabouhi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. - Highlights: • To evaluate agricultural pollution costs, a combination of two DNDC and DEA models was introduced. • The shadow values of three main agricultural pollutants in paddy fields were evaluated. • In the study area, a high potential for pollution reduction is feasible. • The pollution cost of pesticides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gases. • From the farmers' viewpoint, a positive shadow value of undesirable outputs also is feasible. • To deal with the pollution costs, market-based instruments are preferred to command-and-control regulation.

  20. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. - Highlights: • To evaluate agricultural pollution costs, a combination of two DNDC and DEA models was introduced. • The shadow values of three main agricultural pollutants in paddy fields were evaluated. • In the study area, a high potential for pollution reduction is feasible. • The pollution cost of pesticides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gases. • From the farmers' viewpoint, a positive shadow value of undesirable outputs also is feasible. • To deal with the pollution costs, market-based instruments are preferred to command-and-control regulation.

  1. Palliative healthcare: cost reduction and quality enhancement using end-of-life survey methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Christopher Edward

    2008-01-01

    American medical institutions throughout the 20th century prescribed high customer satisfaction, but when it came to death, largely ignored it. An accelerated accumulation of esoteric medical information and the application of this knowledge to affect new cures and longer lives instilled an unquestioning reverence for the medical community among the patient population. Diminishing marginal gains in life expectancy, escalating costs related to life sustaining technologies, and a psychographic shift in the dominant consumer base have challenged this traditional reverence. Armed with unprecedented access to medical information, a more knowledgeable and assertive patient population has emerged in the 21st century to institute its own standards of what constitutes quality health care. In terms of end of life care, this has meant recognition that the emotional needs of the dying have been largely underserved by the current American medical model. Patients and their families are no longer willing to accept the traditional medical perspective of death as failure and have numerous international palliative care models that serve as benchmarks of success when it comes to quality of dying. When cure is a possibility, Americans will pursue it at all costs, but when it is not a possibility, they want honest communication and the opportunity to say good-bye to their loved ones. In the context of these emergent needs, life review is offered as a solution. The value proposition targets not only dying patients and their families, but also society as a whole.

  2. Socio-economic costs of osteoarthritis: a systematic review of cost-of-illness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Ruiz Zamora, Alba

    2015-04-01

    The burden of illness that can be attributed to osteoarthritis is considerable and ever increasing. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze currently available data derived from cost-of-illness studies on the healthcare and non-healthcare costs of osteoarthritis. PubMed, Index Medicus Español (IME), and the Spanish Database of Health Sciences [Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)] were searched up to the end of April 2013. This study adhered to the PRISMA guidelines. Articles were reviewed and the study quality assessed by two independent investigators with consensus resolution of discrepancies. We identified 39 studies that investigated the socio-economic cost of osteoarthritis. Only nine studies took a social perspective. Rather than estimating the incremental cost of osteoarthritis, nine studies estimated the total cost of treating patients with osteoarthritis without a control for comorbidity. The other 30 studies determined the incremental cost with or without a control group. Only nine studies assessed a comprehensive list of healthcare resources. The annual incremental healthcare costs of generalized osteoarthritis ranged from €705 to €19,715. The annual incremental non-healthcare-related costs of generalized osteoarthritis ranged from €432 to €11,956. The study concludes that the social cost of osteoarthritis could be between 0.25% and 0.50% of a country׳s GDP. This should be considered in order to foster studies that take into account both healthcare and non-healthcare costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of travel cost models in planning: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan Marsinko; William T. Zawacki; J. Michael Bowker

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the use of the travel cost, method in tourism-related decision making in the area of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation. A travel cost model of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation, developed by Zawacki, Maninko, and Bowker, is used as a case study for this analysis. The travel cost model estimates the demand for the activity...

  4. Unit costs in international economic evaluations: resource costing of the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdahl, H; Knapp, M; Edgell, E T; Ghandi, G; Haro, J M

    2003-01-01

    We present unit costs corresponding to resource information collected in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) Study. The SOHO study is a 3-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment in out-patients treated for schizophrenia. The study is being conducted across 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK) and includes over 10,800 patients and over 1000 investigators. To identify the best available unit costs of hospital admissions, day care and psychiatrist out-patient visits, a tariff-based approach was used. Unit costs were obtained for nine of the 10 countries and were adjusted to 2000 price levels by consumer price indices and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parity rates (and on to Euro). The paper illustrates the need to balance the search for sound unit costs with pragmatic solutions in the costing of international economic evaluations.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO2 emission reduction in the U.S, China, and India’s iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO2 emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO2 emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

  6. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  7. Study on the High Volume Reduction of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Sik, Kang Il; Seok, Hong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Jeon Gil [RADIN Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The solidification of radioactive wastes by the mixing method always increases their volume due to the limitation of incorporation ratio (waste/solidification agent). But if the powdered wastes can be compacted as the high density pellets and also the pellets can be filled up in a waste drum as much as possible while solidifying them with a very sticky solidification agent including a void formed in the filling step of pellets, it might be more desirable to reduce the waste volume as compared with the mixing method. So in this study, we designed and manufactured a high volume reduction machine which has the special size and shape of a pellet pocket, which the pellets can be extracted from easily and filled up in a large amount in drum, a pressurizing device to press 2 rolls, and the uniform feeding device of powder to the roll tyre. Some operational parameters which affect the formation of pellets from a powder were investigated, and then the volume reduction of a powder was evaluated. The briquetting machine, popular in general industry, was modified to apply for the volume reduction of the powered radioactive wastes (dried concentrate, sludge, spent ion-exchange resin, ash, depleted uranium powder, and etc.). In this developed high volume reduction machine, the capacity was 25 ∼ 62.5 kg/h at the optimum conditions, and the estimated volume reduction was about 2.95 (2.74/0.93) on the basis of between a powder (bulk density = 0.93 g/cm{sup 3}) and the pellet (2.74 g/cm{sup 3}). But on the basis of 200L drum, the calculated volume reduction was about 1.34 in consideration of a void volume originated in the filling step of the pellets.

  8. Operating cost estimate low-level radioactive waste volume reduction and packaging options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.; Collins, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The projected operating cost data examine the differences in compaction and incineration for DAW. Two commonly achieved densities for compaction are presented, while a third case approaching the theoretical density of the cloth and paper materials shows the interesting possibilities of improved compaction. Incineration at two benchmarks for the chlorinated plastic component of typical DAW illustrates the impact waste stream make-up has on economics. Evaporator concentrates are considered as a liquid at four concentrations (6%, 12%, 25% and 50%) and after all water has been removed for the cement and polymer cases. Five separate processing schemes are presented for bead resins. These range from dewatering and packaging in high integrity containers to incineration with solidification

  9. Probabilistic studies for safety at optimum cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, P.

    1999-01-01

    By definition, the risk of failure of very reliable components is difficult to evaluate. How can the best strategies for in service inspection and maintenance be defined to limit this risk to an acceptable level at optimum cost? It is not sufficient to design structures with margins, it is also essential to understand how they age. The probabilistic approach has made it possible to develop well proven concepts. (author)

  10. Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menche, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance

  11. Cost-of-illness studies and cost-effectiveness analyses in anxiety disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnopka, Alexander; Leichsenring, Falk; Leibing, Eric; König, Hans-Helmut

    2009-04-01

    To review cost-of-illness studies (COI) and cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) conducted for anxiety disorders. Based on a database search in Pubmed, PsychINFO and NHS EED, studies were classified according to various criteria. Cost data were inflated and converted to 2005 US-$ purchasing power parities (PPP). We finally identified 20 COI and 11 CEA of which most concentrated on panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Differing inclusion of cost categories limited comparability of COI. PD and GAD tended to show higher direct costs per case, but lower direct cost per inhabitant than social and specific phobias. Different measures of effectiveness severely limited comparability of CEA. Overall CEA analysed 26 therapeutic or interventional strategies mostly compared to standard treatment, 8 of them resulting in lower better effectiveness and costs than the comparator. Anxiety disorders cause considerable costs. More research on phobias, more standardised inclusion of cost categories in COI and a wider use of comparable effectiveness measures (like QALYs) in CEA is needed.

  12. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Neumann

    Full Text Available Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution.We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases "disability-adjusted" or "DALY". Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000-2009 and 2010-2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low to 7 (high, and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions.We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%, followed by non-communicable diseases (28%. A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%. Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32% followed by immunizations (28%. Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied considerably. Studies mainly included

  13. [Quality management (TQM) in public health-care (PHC): principles for cost-performance calculations and cost reductions with better quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, W

    2008-11-01

    In many high-tech industries, quality management (QM) has enabled improvements of quality by a factor of 100 or more, in combination with significant cost reductions. Compared to this, the application of QM methods in health care is in its initial stages. It is anticipated that stringent process management, embedded in an effective QM system will lead to significant improvements in health care in general and in the German public health service in particular. Process management is an ideal platform for controlling in the health care sector, and it will significantly improve the leverage of controlling to bring down costs. Best practice sharing in industry has led to quantum leap improvements. Process management will enable best practice sharing also in the public health service, in spite of the highly diverse portfolio of services that the public health service offers in different German regions. Finally, it is emphasised that "technical" QM, e.g., on the basis of the ISO 9001 standard is not sufficient to reach excellence. It is necessary to integrate soft factors, such as patient or employee satisfaction, and leadership quality into the system. The EFQM model for excellence can serve as proven tool to reach this goal.

  14. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Ho Park, Xin Zhang, Seon-Yong Hwang, Sang Hyun Jung, Semin Kang, Hyun-Beom Shin, Ho Kwan Kang, Hyung-Ho Park, Ross H Hill and Chul Ki Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL. The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm−2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  15. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Seon-Yong; Jung, Sang Hyun; Kang, Semin; Shin, Hyun-Beom; Kang, Ho Kwan; Ko, Chul Ki; Zhang Xin; Hill, Ross H; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO) architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm −2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  16. A review of costing methodologies in critical care studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Jesse M; Fager, Samuel S; Milzman, David P

    2002-09-01

    Clinical decision making in critical care has traditionally been based on clinical outcome measures such as mortality and morbidity. Over the past few decades, however, increasing competition in the health care marketplace has made it necessary to consider costs when making clinical and managerial decisions in critical care. Sophisticated costing methodologies have been developed to aid this decision-making process. We performed a narrative review of published costing studies in critical care during the past 6 years. A total of 282 articles were found, of which 68 met our search criteria. They involved a mean of 508 patients (range, 20-13,907). A total of 92.6% of the studies (63 of 68) used traditional cost analysis, whereas the remaining 7.4% (5 of 68) used cost-effectiveness analysis. None (0 of 68) used cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. A total of 36.7% (25 of 68) used hospital charges as a surrogate for actual costs. Of the 43 articles that actually counted costs, 37.2% (16 of 43) counted physician costs, 27.9% (12 of 43) counted facility costs, 34.9% (15 of 43) counted nursing costs, 9.3% (4 of 43) counted societal costs, and 90.7% (39 of 43) counted laboratory, equipment, and pharmacy costs. Our conclusion is that despite considerable progress in costing methodologies, critical care studies have not adequately implemented these techniques. Given the importance of financial implications in medicine, it would be prudent for critical care studies to use these more advanced techniques. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical Feynman integrals with physically inspired interpolation: Faster convergence and significant reduction of computational cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikesh S. Dattani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most successful methods for calculating reduced density operator dynamics in open quantum systems, that can give numerically exact results, uses Feynman integrals. However, when simulating the dynamics for a given amount of time, the number of time steps that can realistically be used with this method is always limited, therefore one often obtains an approximation of the reduced density operator at a sparse grid of points in time. Instead of relying only on ad hoc interpolation methods (such as splines to estimate the system density operator in between these points, I propose a method that uses physical information to assist with this interpolation. This method is tested on a physically significant system, on which its use allows important qualitative features of the density operator dynamics to be captured with as little as two time steps in the Feynman integral. This method allows for an enormous reduction in the amount of memory and CPU time required for approximating density operator dynamics within a desired accuracy. Since this method does not change the way the Feynman integral itself is calculated, the value of the density operator approximation at the points in time used to discretize the Feynamn integral will be the same whether or not this method is used, but its approximation in between these points in time is considerably improved by this method. A list of ways in which this proposed method can be further improved is presented in the last section of the article.

  18. [Emissions trading potential : achieving emission reductions in a cost-effective manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, K.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of emissions trading as a viable tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by developed countries was discussed. The essence of this author's argument was that emissions trading alone will not solve the climate change problem and that the details of the program are hazy at best. In order to have any hope of meeting the emission reductions, it is essential to begin working out the details now, and to coordinate them with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) plan since all three of these flexibility mechanisms will be working in and among themselves, therefore they need to be consistent. Work on a general set of draft principles by the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP), a coalition headquartered in Washington, DC, was summarized. Essentially, ICCP favors voluntary programs, incentives for participation, no quantitative limits on trading, no limits on sources and sinks. ICCP believes that trading should be allowed at the company level, and liability should not devolve on the buyer alone, rather, it should be negotiated between buyers and sellers. Credits for early action should also be tradable and most of all, the trading program should be simple to allow active participation by industry, and be free of bureaucratic impediments

  19. Bilateral Breast Reduction Without Opioid Analgesics: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Fereydoun Don; Cheng, Justin; Stephan, Brad; Castel, Nikki; Kim, Leslie; Murariu, Daniel; Parsa, Alan A

    2017-09-01

    Breast reduction has traditionally been performed under general anesthesia with adjunct opioid use. However, opioids are associated with a wide variety of adverse effects, including nausea, vomiting, constipation, postoperative sedation, dizziness, and addiction. This study compares bilateral breast reduction using a multimodal opioid-free pain management regimen vs traditional general anesthesia with adjunct opioids. A total of 83 female patients were enrolled in this study. Group 1 includes a retrospective series of 39 patients that underwent breast reduction via general anesthesia with adjunct opioid use. This series was compared to 2 prospective groups of patients who did not receive opioids either preoperatively or intraoperatively. In group 2, twenty-six patients underwent surgery under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia. In group 3, eighteen patients underwent surgery with general anesthesia. All patients in groups 2 and 3 received preoperative gabapentin and celecoxib along with infiltration of local anesthetics during the operation and prior to discharge to the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU). Primary outcome measures included the duration of surgery, time from end of operation to discharge home, postoperative opioid and antiemetic use, and unplanned postoperative hospitalizations. When compared to group 1, groups 2 and 3 experienced a shorter time from end of operation to discharge home (P opioid use (P opioid-free bilateral breast reduction either under local or general anesthesia as an outpatient. This method resulted in significantly less morbidity, use of opioids postoperatively, as well as unplanned hospital admissions compared to "traditional" breast reduction under general anesthesia with the use of opioids. 3. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. A potentiodynamic study of the reduction of oxygen on copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Litke, C.D.

    1994-07-01

    The reduction of oxygen on copper has been studied in 0.1 mol·dm -3 NaCl solutions using potentiodynamic techniques. Experiments were carried out in unbuffered and phosphate-buffered solutions at pH 7. Additional experiments in NaCl solution were performed at pH 10, with the bulk pH adjusted by adding NaOH. Some voltammetric studies in deaerated electrolytes were carried out to examine the nature of the surface films formed on the electrode. The reduction of oxygen on copper is dominated by the 4-electron reduction to OH - . Limited quantities of peroxide were detected by the ring electrode at disc potentials in the joint- and kinetic-control regions. No peroxide was detected in the transport-limiting region. The rate of reduction of oxygen is influenced by the nature of the surface film on the electrode. At interfacial pH values of ∼10, a catalytic surface film forms, thought to be submonolayer Cu(OH) ads or submonolayer Cu 2 O. simultaneously, a peak is observed on the current-potential curve. This peak is observed in neutral solutions with atmospheres of 50% O 2 /N 2 and 100% O 2 and in pH 10 solution with atmospheres >∼10% O 2 /N 2 . The peak is not observed in phosphate-buffered solution because of the buffering action on the interfacial pH. At potentials positive of the peak potential, a thin Cu 2 O layer forms in unbuffered solutions on which the rate of oxygen reduction is partially inhibited. (author). 44 refs., 17 figs

  1. Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels. This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays and Porous Asphalt (9 bays surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone.

  2. Reduction of electricity comsumption during 'high cost' periods in winter 2005 - 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2005-01-01

    In previous years CERN was able to limit its electricity consumption during the winter months sufficiently to be supplied from the Swiss grid. In order to make enough power available for the LHC machine and experiments at the lowest possible cost during the coming winter 2005 / 2006 CERN is supplied from the French grid by EDF (Electricité de France). As a consequence, when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP) in France, the energy price is at least four times as high as for the usual winter period. From 1st November until 31st March these increased prices are applicable during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Infrastructure Control Room (TI) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons. During these days of EJP CERN has a strong fina...

  3. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emissions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC are performed with five geometry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8% in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8% in greenhouse gases.

  4. Prescription copay reduction program for diabetic employees: impact on medication compliance and healthcare costs and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Kavita V; Miller, Kerri; Saseen, Joseph; Wolfe, Pamela; Allen, Richard Read; Park, Jinhee

    2009-01-01

    To examine the impact of a value-based benefit design on utilization and expenditures. This benefit design involved all diabetes-related drugs and testing supplies placed on the lowest copay tier for 1 employer group. The sample of diabetic members were enrolled from a 9-month preperiod and for 2 years after the benefit design was implemented. Measured outcomes included prescription drug utilization for diabetes and medical utilization. Generalized measures were used to estimate differences between years 1 and 2 and the preperiod adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidity risk. Diabetes prescription drug use increased by 9.5% in year 1 and by 5.5% in year 2, and mean adherence increased by 7% to 8% in year 1 and fell slightly in year 2 compared with the preperiod. Pharmacy expenditures increased by 47% and 53% and expenditures for diabetes services increased by 16% and 32% in years 1 and 2, respectively. Increases in adherence and use of diabetes medications were observed. There were no compensatory cost-savings for the employer through lower utilization of medical expenditures in the first 2 years. Adherent patients had fewer emergency department visits than nonadherent patients after the implementation of this benefit design.

  5. Reduction of electricity comsumption during 'high cost' periods in winter 2005 - 2006

    CERN Document Server

    Mario Batz

    2005-01-01

    In previous years CERN was able to sufficiently limit its electricity consumption during the winter months to be supplied from the Swiss grid. In order to make enough power available for the LHC machine and experiments at the lowest possible cost during the coming winter 2005 / 2006, CERN will be supplied from the French grid by EDF (Electricité de France). As a consequence, when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP) in France, the energy price is at least four times higher than for the usual winter period. From 1st November until 31st March these increased prices are applicable during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Infrastructure Control Room (TI) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons. During these days of EJP CERN has a stro...

  6. Comparisons of hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C Daniel; Sikirica, Mirko; Seneviratne, Viran; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Akhras, Kasem S

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and compares the individual cost components of hospital and ambulatory services that manage the care of hypertensive patients in eight countries: the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Canada and Australia. Hypertension-related costs are classified according to four major cardiovascular events: (i) acute myocardial infarction; (ii) congestive heart failure; (iii) stroke; and (iv) renal failure, which was subdivided into renal failure treated by dialysis and renal failure treated by kidney transplantation. To make cross-country costs comparisons, we used the DRG codes used in the US and DRG-like codes from each country. US cost information was obtained from hypertension data available from the literature and health economics researchers. For costs in other countries, we consulted with national health economics experts in each country, used analyses by the Research Triangle Institute, and performed Medline and international literature searches. When available, we obtained information from the countries' public and private nationally representative data sources. For cross-country currency adjustments, all currencies were converted using the Purchasing Power Parities from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and then converted into inflation-adjusted year 2000 US dollars. There exists considerable variation in hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies. This study documents that costs are generally higher in the US than in other countries; however, this is not always true. In particular, costs of treating heart failure in France and the costs of renal failure without transplantation in Germany and the UK are relatively high. While analysing multinational hypertensive cost data, this study also addresses the impact of cross-country cost variations on cost analyses. During the last decade, drug-development researchers have drawn extensively upon multinational trials to resolve enrollment problems and

  7. Gestão de custos florestais: um estudo de caso utilizando o Activity-Based Costing Forest management costs: a case study utilizing Activity-Based Costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir Ribeiro Carneiro de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No atual cenário de industrialização globalizada, tornou-se fundamental a eficácia no gerenciamento dos custos considerados inevitavelmente necessários. Programas convencionais de redução dos custos não consideram o grau de agregação de valor das atividades de rotina pela distorção dos sistemas contábeis atuais. No presente estudo, apresentam-se os principais motivos da falta de relevância das informações de custo, comenta-se sobre o problema da redução de desperdícios florestais e suas conseqüências. A partir de um estudo de caso em uma empresa do setor florestal, demonstra-se uma simulação do Activity Based Costing (ABC em uma determinada área da empresa, concluindo-se que a adoção de sistemas de custeio mais aprimorados, tal como o ABC, devem fazer parte de programas que busquem o aumento da competitividade do setor florestal.In the current view of globalized industrialization, it has become fundamental to manage essential costs effectively. Conventional programs for reducing costs, do no consider the value agregation grade of routine activities because of the distortion of current accounting systems. This study, presents the main reasons for the lack of relevance of the cost information, commenting on the problem of the reduction of forest waste and its consequences. Using a case study in a company from the forest sector, a simulation of Activity Based Costing (ABC is demonstrated in a determined area of the company it is concluded that the adoption of a more refined cost system, such as the ABC, should be included in programs, that seek to increase the competitiveness of the forest sector.

  8. Comparative study of cost models for tokamak DEMO fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Tetsutarou; Yamazaki, Kozo; Arimoto, Hideki; Ban, Kanae; Kondo, Takuya; Tobita, Kenji; Goto, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Cost evaluation analysis of the tokamak-type demonstration reactor DEMO using the PEC (physics-engineering-cost) system code is underway to establish a cost evaluation model for the DEMO reactor design. As a reference case, a DEMO reactor with reference to the SSTR (steady state tokamak reactor) was designed using PEC code. The calculated total capital cost was in the same order of that proposed previously in cost evaluation studies for the SSTR. Design parameter scanning analysis and multi regression analysis illustrated the effect of parameters on the total capital cost. The capital cost was predicted to be inside the range of several thousands of M$s in this study. (author)

  9. Silicene Catalyzed Reduction of Nitrobenzene to Aniline: a Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christopher; He, Haiying

    The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline has a broad range of applications in the production of rubbers, dyes, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Currently, use of metal catalysts is the most popular method of performing this reaction on a large scale. These metal catalysts usually require high-temperature and/or high-pressure reaction conditions, and produce hazardous chemicals. This has led to a call for more environmentally friendly nonmetal catalysts. Recent studies suggest that silicene, the recently discovered silicon counterpart of graphene, could potentially work as a nonmetal catalyst due to its unique electronic property and strong interactions with molecules containing nitrogen and oxygen. In this computational study, we have investigated the plausibility of using silicene as a catalyst for the reduction of nitrobenzene. Possible reaction mechanisms will be discussed with a highlight of the difference between silicene and metal catalysts. . All calculations were performed in the framework of density functional theory.

  10. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douskova, I.; Doucha, J.; Livansky, K.; Umysova, D.; Zachleder, V.; Vitova, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae; Machat, J. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Novak, P. [Termizo Inc., Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO{sub 2} for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO{sub 2} simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10-13% ({nu}/{nu}) CO2 and 8-10% ({nu}/{nu}) O{sub 2} for the photobioreactor agitation and CO{sub 2} supply was proven to be convenient. The growth rate of algal cultures on the flue gas was even higher when compared with the control culture supplied by a mixture of pure CO{sub 2} and air (11% ({nu}/{nu}) CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, the CO{sub 2} fixation rate was also higher when using the flue gas (4.4 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}) than using the control gas (3.0 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}). The toxicological analysis of the biomass produced using untreated flue gas showed only a slight excess of mercury while all the other compounds (other heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls) were below the limits required by the European Union foodstuff legislation. Fortunately, extending the flue gas treatment prior to the cultivation unit by a simple granulated activated carbon column led to an efficient absorption of gaseous mercury and to the algal biomass composition compliant with all the foodstuff legislation requirements. (orig.)

  11. A study of low cost approaches to scientific experiment implementation for shuttle launched and serviced automated spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost reductions that can be obtained in experiment instrumentation by the use of standardized electronics and by the relaxation of instrument reliability requirements are studied. The feasibility of using standardized equipment for experiment instrumentation is assessed and a system design approach that most effectively incorporates standardized equipment is developed. The level and form of modularization that is appropriate for the standardized equipment is determined. Mission assurance aspects of instrument development are examined to determine the cost reductions that might be derived from the relaxation of reliability requirements and to formulate a systematic approach to the optimization of mission assurance cost reductions. The results of the analyses are applied to a representative model HEAO payload in order to provide a concrete example of the cost reductions that can be achieved by a standardized approach to the instrument electronics.

  12. Quantifying the uncertainty of wave energy conversion device cost for policy appraisal: An Irish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Niall; Donoghue, Cathal O’; Morrissey, Karyn

    2015-01-01

    Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices are at a pre-commercial stage of development with feasibility studies sensitive to uncertainties surrounding assumed input costs. This may affect decision making. This paper analyses the impact these uncertainties may have on investor, developer and policymaker decisions using an Irish case study. Calibrated to data present in the literature, a probabilistic methodology is shown to be an effective means to carry this out. Value at Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) metrics are used to quantify the certainty of achieving a given cost or return on investment. We analyse the certainty of financial return provided by the proposed Irish Feed-in Tariff (FiT) policy. The influence of cost reduction through bulk discount is also discussed, with cost reduction targets for developers identified. Uncertainty is found to have a greater impact on the profitability of smaller installations and those subject to lower rates of cost reduction. This paper emphasises that a premium is required to account for cost uncertainty when setting FiT rates. By quantifying uncertainty, a means to specify an efficient premium is presented. - Highlights: • Probabilistic model quantifies uncertainty for wave energy feasibility analyses. • Methodology presented and applied to an Irish case study. • A feed-in tariff premium of 3–4 c/kWh required to account for cost uncertainty. • Sensitivity of uncertainty and cost to rates of technological change analysed. • Use of probabilistic model for investors and developers also demonstrated

  13. Data synchronisation and cost reduction using API in customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Željko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that 51% of all ERP implementations involve some kind of problems in business operations during the 'go live' phase. Despite all the efforts to increase efficiency and improve business processes, many organizations come to a conclusion that once they move to the new ERP system they are not able to perform some of the basic business processes (both in the data migration phase and operational procedures, such as issuing goods from the warehouse. The ERP implementations are too often accompanied by technical and organizational issues that may cause problems in the functioning of a business system. As organizational issues are more frequently the cause of the problem, it is crucial to accurately perform the business processes analysis phase, as well as the final testing. Based on the analysis of the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, CRM (Customer Relationship Management and SCM (Supply Chain Management e-business models of the largest producers of software applications, the bottlenecks and shortcomings typical of the implementation of these models were identified in a select sample of clients and it has been established that there are certain inconsistencies and programme problems between the company information system (IS and the implemented ERP/CRM or SCM models. The identified problems served as the basis for designing and programming an application programming interface (API aimed at addressing certain application needs of the companies, i.e. the inadequate synchronization of databases and other IT resources. The API has been designed and programmed with a view to resolving the problems with inconsistencies and synchronization and reducing business operations costs. It has been tested as a pilot application on ISs of selected companies that apply the ERP/CRM business support systems. This work describes the ERP/CRM database synchronization process and tests the quality of the API solution based on a programmed web survey, i

  14. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description.

  15. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description

  16. The cost of making wine: A Tuscan case study based on a full cost approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Marone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article׳s aim is to identify and quantify the connection between a winery business typology and its production cost per bottle to create benchmarks for managerial and organisational choices. Accounting data from wineries in representative areas of the Tuscan wine sector were collected with direct, face-to-face interviews. The data were processed using a cost accounting model elaborated by UniCeSV (Centre for the Strategic Development of the Wine Sector, University of Florence to classify costs according to production phases and production factors. The study was completed using a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA approach to investigate the relation between cost structures and business typologies. The implementation of the cost accounting model and the HCA showed a strong relationship between how wineries are organised and how costs are structured. Moreover, the weight of geographical localisation (i.e., belonging to a specific denomination of origin has proved to be a key determinant in the shape of the cost structures of wineries. Keywords: Wine production, Full cost analysis, Clustering

  17. A cost-effectiveness analysis to illustrate the impact of cost definitions on results, interpretations and comparability of pharmacoeconomic studies in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Sandra L

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of a uniform proxy for defining direct medical costs in the US. This potentially important source of variation in modelling and other types of economic studies is often overlooked. The extent to which increased expenditures for an intervention can be offset by reductions in subsequent service costs can be directly related to the choice of cost definitions. To demonstrate how different cost definitions for direct medical costs can impact results and interpretations of a cost-effectiveness analysis. The IMS-CORE Diabetes Model was used to project the lifetime (35-year) cost effectiveness in the US of one pharmacological intervention 'medication A' compared with a second 'medication B' (both unspecified) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The complications modelled included cardiovascular disease, renal disease, eye disease and neuropathy. The model had a Markov structure with Monte Carlo simulations. Utility values were derived from the published literature. Complication costs were obtained from a retrospective database study that extracted anonymous patient-level data from (primarily private payer) adjudicated medical and pharmaceutical claims. Costs for pharmacy services, outpatient services and inpatient hospitalizations were included. Cost definitions for complications included charged, allowed and paid amounts, and for medications included both wholesale acquisition cost (WAC) and average wholesale price (AWP). Costs were reported in year 2007 values. The cost-effectiveness results differed according to the particular combination of cost definitions employed. The use of charges greatly increased costs for complications. When the analysis incorporated WAC medication prices with charged amounts for complication costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for medication A versus medication B was $US6337 per QALY. When AWP prices were used with charged amounts, medication A became a dominant treatment strategy, i.e. lower costs with greater

  18. Silicene catalyzed reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline: A mechanistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christopher; He, Haiying

    2018-03-01

    The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline has broad applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The high reaction temperatures and pressures and unavoidable hazardous chemicals of current metal catalysts call for more environmentally friendly non-metal catalysts. In this study, the plausibility of silicene as a potential catalyst for nitrobenzene reduction is investigated with a focus on the distinct reaction mechanism based on the density functional theory. The direct reaction pathway was shown to be distinctly different from the Haber mechanism following PhNO2∗ → PhNO∗ → PhNHO∗ → PhNH2O∗ → PhNH2∗. The hydroxyl groups remain bound to silicene after aniline is formed and acquire a high activation barrier to remove.

  19. Annual Direct Medical Costs of Diabetic Foot Disease in Brazil: A Cost of Illness Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana M. Toscano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1 peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2 non-infected foot ulcer, (3 infected foot ulcer, and (4 clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL. We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13% was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87% for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients

  20. Annual Direct Medical Costs of Diabetic Foot Disease in Brazil: A Cost of Illness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cristiana M; Sugita, Tatiana H; Rosa, Michelle Q M; Pedrosa, Hermelinda C; Rosa, Roger Dos S; Bahia, Luciana R

    2018-01-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD) in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS) perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1) peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2) non-infected foot ulcer, (3) infected foot ulcer, and (4) clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP) (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL). We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13%) was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87%) for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients. Although we

  1. The synthesis of a high quality, low cost silicon nitride powder by the carbothermal reduction of silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, G.A.; Conner, C.L.; Eisman, G.A.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Dunmead, S.D.; Hwang, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The development and emergence of silicon nitride in the marketplace depends on the availability of a high quality, low cost powder which meets or exceeds the requirements for the customer's part application. The Dow Chemical Company, funded by the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is engaged in developing a process which will economically synthesize commercial quantities of such a high quality powder. The Dow Chemical Company's approach is based on the carbothermal reduction of silica and has been shown to produce a sub-micron, equi-axed powder with high alpha content (> 95%), low oxygen (< 2%), and minimal carbon and impurities. This paper will review The Dow Chemical Company program and present preliminary results of the synthesis and powder processing efforts. (orig.)

  2. New techniques for cutting and decontamination for decommissioning of nuclear research reactors with consideration of cost reduction. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.; Redeker, C.F.; Versemann, R.

    2003-06-01

    In decommissioning of research reactors, specific boundary conditions, such as special materials, nuclides, geometries, spatial circumstances exist. This project aims on the development and adaptation of progressive procedures for decommissioning tasks with respect to economical aspects (cost reduction). Explored are Laser Cutting techniques, especially the cutting of aluminium in atmosphere and under water, remote- and manually controlled; decontamination and removal of concrete and ceramics by a combined diodelaser / cryogenic carbon dioxide thermal shock treatment (dry ice blasting) as well as cutting with the water-abrasive-suspension-jet and the plasma beam. The project will lead to application in the decommissioning of PTB's FRMB (research reactor of Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany). (orig.) [de

  3. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  4. Cost reduction analysis in the online retail as compared to the classic retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Camelia BABA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The industry of retail was segmented by new technologies, but the financial performance of every segment is far to explain the market share. An exploratory study is necessary in order to explain the appeal for entrepreneurs. A comparison between two new forms of retail is used to understand the business models in this industry. Due to the fact that the maturity of the new segment of retail are different in various countries, the study cases focused on the some leaders firms from USA, China and Romania are important to design a probable trend the online commerce. General theoretical benchmarks, validated by current practice are used in case studies, as well as innovative approaches and well-known examples of successful retail companies.

  5. Cost reduction analysis in the online retail as compared to the classic retail

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Camelia BABA

    2015-01-01

    The industry of retail was segmented by new technologies, but the financial performance of every segment is far to explain the market share. An exploratory study is necessary in order to explain the appeal for entrepreneurs. A comparison between two new forms of retail is used to understand the business models in this industry. Due to the fact that the maturity of the new segment of retail are different in various countries, the study cases focused on the some leaders firms from USA, China an...

  6. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.; Nziramasanga, N.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  7. An epidemiological study for the reduction of population radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamo, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    The correlation of tube voltage with patient exposure was studied using effective dose as an indicator of dose reduction in intraoral radiography. The results were as follows: l. The salivary gland tissues contributed the most to the effective dose of intraoral radiography. 2. In the 50 to 90 kV range, there was no appreciable correlation between tube voltage and effective dose. 3. Therefore, it was suggested that adjusting the tube voltage for maximum image quality does not effect radiation protection. 4. This study reconfirmed the fact that increases in voltages up to 90 kV reduce skin doses. (author)

  8. Preventing pressure ulcers on the heel: a Canadian cost study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torra I Bou, Joan-Enric; Rueda López, Justo; Camañes, Gemma; Herrero Narváez, Elias; Blanco Blanco, Joan; Ballesté Torralba, Jordi; Martinez-Esparza, Elvira Hernández; García, Lorena San Miguel; Soriano, José Verdú

    2009-01-01

    An adaptation of a clinical study of 130 patients at risk of developing a pressure ulcer on the heels was performed using Canadian costs. The aim of the study was to compare the cost effectiveness of a specially shaped hydrocellular dressing (Allevyn Heel) versus that of a protective heel bandage (Soffban and gauze) in pressure ulcer prevention over an 8-week period.

  9. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  10. Financial cost of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, M; Lyon, M

    2015-03-01

    There are only a few recently published reports of the cost of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care in the United States. Our objectives were to: 1) report annual and disease-duration costs; 2) provide costs related to specific care and services; 3) present costs by payor; and 4) identify strategies and resources that can be offered to patients to assist with the financial burden of ALS. Over a 10-year period (2001-2010), all expenses related to the cost of care for an individual patient were collected concurrently and then analyzed in 2012. Results showed that total disease-duration costs were $1,433,992 (85% paid by insurance, 9% paid by family, 6% paid by charities). The highest costs were for in-home caregivers ($669,150), ventilation ($212,430) and hospital care ($114,558). In conclusion, this case study illustrates costs of care for ALS as a burden for patients that may impact treatment decisions. Charity organizations and insurance case-managers provide services to patients that can help reduce this burden. Costs for specific services as well as resources identified by this study offer physicians and other healthcare providers data-based cost of care information and strategies to share with their patients.

  11. Study of noise reduction characteristics of double-wall panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, R.; Quayle, B.; Stevenson, S.; Graham, M.

    1983-05-01

    The noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type, flat, double-wall structures were investigated. The experimental study was carried out on 20-by-20 inch panels with an exposed area of 18 by 18 inches. A frequency range from 20 to 5000 Hz was covered. The experimental results, in general, follow the expected trends. At low frequencies the double-wall structures are no better than the single-wall structures. However, for depths normally used in the general aviation industry, the double-wall panels are very attractive. The graphite-spoxy skin panels have higher noise reduction at very low frequencies ( 100 Hz) than the Kevlar skin panels. But the aluminum panels have higher noise reduction in the high frequency region, due to their greater mass. Use of fiberglass insulation is not effective in the low frequency region, and at times it is even negative. But the insulation is effective in the high-frequency region. The theoretical model for predicting the transmission loss of these multilayered panels is also discussed.

  12. Standardized Elemental Basis for Gas-Turbine Engine Heat Exchangers is the Key Factor for Their Cost Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soudarev A.V; Soudarev B.V; Kondratiev V.V; Lazarev M.V

    2001-01-01

    The competitiveness of the small gas turbine units (GTUs) (Ne<300 kW) in the world power market is dependent on both the maintenance expenses and the capital costs of production. Reduction in the maintenance expenditures could be achieved by increasing the plant efficiency. This task could be solved by some methods: increasing the cycle inlet temperature TIT, getting the cycle more complex (use of heat regeneration and compressed air intermediate cooling), cutting the power consumption on heat-stressed parts cooling. Putting the above into effect is linked with introduction of novel structural materials, a sharp increase in the mass-size values and the plant manufacture expenditures, in particular, at provision of its self-regulation.In connection with the above, the development of the combined metal-ceramic airheaters and standardization of the elemental basis of the metal gas-gas heat exchangers will promote reduction in the expenditures of the maintenance and the manufacture of the small-size independent power GTEs.

  13. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changik Jo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis.

  14. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis. PMID:25548737

  15. Estimate of the benefits of a population-based reduction in dietary sodium additives on hypertension and its related health care costs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Michel R; Campbell, Norm R C; Manns, Braden; Tu, Karen

    2007-05-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. One-quarter of the adult Canadian population has hypertension, and more than 90% of the population is estimated to develop hypertension if they live an average lifespan. Reductions in dietary sodium additives significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and population reductions in dietary sodium are recommended by major scientific and public health organizations. To estimate the reduction in hypertension prevalence and specific hypertension management cost savings associated with a population-wide reduction in dietary sodium additives. Based on data from clinical trials, reducing dietary sodium additives by 1840 mg/day would result in a decrease of 5.06 mmHg (systolic) and 2.7 mmHg (diastolic) blood pressures. Using Canadian Heart Health Survey data, the resulting reduction in hypertension was estimated. Costs of laboratory testing and physician visits were based on 2001 to 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan data, and the number of physician visits and costs of medications for patients with hypertension were taken from 2003 IMS Canada. To estimate the reduction in total physician visits and laboratory costs, current estimates of aware hypertensive patients in Canada were used from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Reducing dietary sodium additives may decrease hypertension prevalence by 30%, resulting in one million fewer hypertensive patients in Canada, and almost double the treatment and control rate. Direct cost savings related to fewer physician visits, laboratory tests and lower medication use are estimated to be approximately $430 million per year. Physician visits and laboratory costs would decrease by 6.5%, and 23% fewer treated hypertensive patients would require medications for control of blood pressure. Based on these estimates, lowering dietary sodium additives would lead to a large reduction in hypertension prevalence and result in health care cost savings in Canada.

  16. When renewable energy met sustainable growth. Regulation, cost reduction, and the rise of renewable energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Historically and famously fossil-fuel dependent, the U.S. energy and electricity mixes are evolving quickly as costs fall for renewables, regulations mandate their implementation, and fiscal policy incentivizes their installation. The investment and production tax credits (ITC and PTC) as well as power purchase agreements (PPAs) are well-known for their contributions to the development of solar and wind capacity, and the recent extensions of these credits has led to a positive outlook for continued growth in installations and generation. In addition, the green power market is experiencing record participation, as tracking the positive environmental externalities of renewable power has become important to meet renewable portfolio standards, which mandate implementation of renewable energy by state. Cost reduction is further taking place globally due to technological advances and economies of scale, which serves as another key driver for development. Of course, challenges are still present, particularly due to a plentiful and inexpensive domestic fossil fuel supply, uneven application of regulation and incentives state-by-state, and the uncertainty of continued political support. Even so, a progressive lowering of traditional barriers is leading to the potential for widespread deployment of renewables across the American landscape. (author)

  17. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-01-01

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models

  18. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  19. Development of a module for Cost-Benefit analysis of risk reduction measures for natural hazards for the CHANGES-SDSS platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Julian; Bogaard, Thom; Van Westen, Cees; Bakker, Wim; Mostert, Eric; Dopheide, Emile

    2014-05-01

    Cost benefit analysis (CBA) is a well know method used widely for the assessment of investments either in the private and public sector. In the context of risk mitigation and the evaluation of risk reduction alternatives for natural hazards its use is very important to evaluate the effectiveness of such efforts in terms of avoided monetary losses. However the current method has some disadvantages related to the spatial distribution of the costs and benefits, the geographical distribution of the avoided damage and losses, the variation in areas that are benefited in terms of invested money and avoided monetary risk. Decision-makers are often interested in how the costs and benefits are distributed among different administrative units of a large area or region, so they will be able to compare and analyse the cost and benefits per administrative unit as a result of the implementation of the risk reduction projects. In this work we first examined the Cost benefit procedure for natural hazards, how the costs are assessed for several structural and non-structural risk reduction alternatives, we also examined the current problems of the method such as the inclusion of cultural and social considerations that are complex to monetize , the problem of discounting future values using a defined interest rate and the spatial distribution of cost and benefits. We also examined the additional benefits and the indirect costs associated with the implementation of the risk reduction alternatives such as the cost of having a ugly landscape (also called negative benefits). In the last part we examined the current tools and software used in natural hazards assessment with support to conduct CBA and we propose design considerations for the implementation of the CBA module for the CHANGES-SDSS Platform an initiative of the ongoing 7th Framework Programme "CHANGES of the European commission. Keywords: Risk management, Economics of risk mitigation, EU Flood Directive, resilience, prevention

  20. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  1. Study and optimization of the carbothermic reduction process for obtaining boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de.

    1989-01-01

    Boron carbide - B sub(4)C - is a ceramic material of technological importance due to its hardness and high chemical and thermal stabilities. Moreover, its high neutron capture cross section makes it suitable for application as neutron absorber in nuclear technology. The process for obtaining carbothermally derived boron carbide has been studied in two steps: firstly, the parameters of the boric acid → boron oxide dehydration reaction have been defined; secondly, the optimization of the carbothermal reduction reaction using boron oxide has been undertaken looking for boron carbide having low level of free carbon. The starting materials as well as the main products have been studied by chemical and spectrographic analyses, X-ray diffractometry, granulometric classification and scanning electron microscopy. The optimization of the carbothermic reduction process allowed for the development and set up of a fabrication procedure yielding high quality B sub(4) C powders, starting from low cost and easily available (in the Brazilian market) raw materials. (author)

  2. Improved InGaN LED System Efficacy and Cost via Droop Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildeson, Isaac [Lumileds LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    Efficiency droop is a non-thermal process intrinsic to indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) in which the external quantum efficiency (EQE) decreases with increasing drive current density. Mitigating droop would allow one to reduce the size of LEDs driven at a given current or to drive LEDs of given size at higher current while maintaining high efficiencies. In other words, droop mitigation can lead to significant gains in light output per dollar and/or light output per watt of input power. This project set an EQE improvement goal at high drive current density which was to be attained by improving the LED active region design and growth process following a droop mitigation strategy. The interactions between LED active region design parameters and efficiency droop were studied by modeling and experiments. The crystal defects that tend to form in more complex LED designs intended to mitigate droop were studied with advanced characterization methods that provided insight into the structural and electronic properties of the material. This insight was applied to improve the epitaxy process both in terms of active region design and optimization of growth parameters. The final project goals were achieved on schedule and an epitaxy process leading to LEDs with EQE exceeding the project target was demonstrated.

  3. Cost effectiveness of drug eluting coronary artery stenting in a UK setting: cost-utility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, A; Grayson, A D; Palmer, N D; Perry, R A; Walley, T

    2006-01-01

    To assess the cost effectiveness of drug eluting stents (DES) compared with conventional stents for treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease in the UK. Cost-utility analysis of audit based patient subgroups by means of a simple economic model. Tertiary care. 12 month audit data for 2884 patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting at the Cardiothoracic Centre Liverpool between January 2000 and December 2002. Risk of repeat revascularisation within 12 months of index procedure and reduction in risk from use of DES. Economic modelling was used to estimate the cost-utility ratio and threshold price premium. Four factors were identified for patients undergoing elective surgery (n = 1951) and two for non-elective surgery (n = 933) to predict risk of repeat revascularisation within 12 months. Most patients fell within the subgroup with lowest risk (57% of the elective surgery group with 5.6% risk and 91% of the non-elective surgery group with 9.9% risk). Modelled cost-utility ratios were acceptable for only one group of high risk patients undergoing non-elective surgery (only one patient in audit data). Restricting the number of DES for each patient improved results marginally: 4% of stents could then be drug eluting on economic grounds. The threshold price premium justifying 90% substitution of conventional stents was estimated to be 112 pound sterling (212 USD, 162 pound sterling) (sirolimus stents) or 89 pound sterling (167 USD, 130 pound sterling) (paclitaxel stents). At current UK prices, DES are not cost effective compared with conventional stents except for a small minority of patients. Although the technology is clearly effective, general substitution is not justified unless the price premium falls substantially.

  4. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of evolocumab in the FOURIER study: a Canadian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Todd C; Kaouache, Mohammed; Grover, Steven A

    2018-04-03

    Evolocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein levels by up to 60%. Despite the absence of a reduction in overall or cardiovascular mortality in the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial, some believe that, with longer treatment, such a benefit might eventually be realized. Our aim was to estimate the potential mortality benefit over a patient's lifetime and the cost per year of life saved (YOLS) for an average Canadian with established coronary artery disease. We also sought to estimate the price threshold at which evolocumab might be considered cost-effective for secondary prevention in Canada. We calibrated the Cardio-metabolic Model, a well-validated tool for predicting cardiovascular events and life expectancy, to the reduction in nonfatal events seen in the FOURIER trial. Assuming that long-term treatment will eventually result in mortality benefits, we estimated YOLSs and cost per YOLS with evolocumab treatment plus a statin compared to a statin alone. We then estimated the annual drug costs that would provide a 50% chance of being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay values of $50 000 and $100 000. In secondary prevention in patients similar to those in the FOURIER study, evolocumab treatment would save an average of 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.41) life-years at a cost of $101 899 (95% CI $97 325-$106 473), yielding a cost per YOLS of $299 482. We estimate that to have a 50% probability of achieving a cost per YOLS below $50 000 and $100 000 would require annual drug costs below $1200 and $2300, respectively. At current pricing, the use of evolocumab for secondary prevention is unlikely to be cost-effective in Canada. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  5. Petroleum product refining: plant level analysis of costs and competitiveness. Implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions. Vol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.J.; Crandall, G.R.; Houlton, G.A.; Kromm, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Implications on the Canadian refining industry of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Canada's Kyoto commitment are assessed, based on a plant-level analysis of costs, benefits and economic and competitive impacts. It was determined on the basis of demand estimates prepared by Natural Resources Canada that refining industry carbon dioxide emissions could be as much a 38 per cent higher than 1990 levels in 2010. Achieving a six per cent reduction below 1990 levels from this business-as-usual case is considered a very difficult target to achieve, unless refinery shutdowns occur. This would require higher imports to meet Canada's petroleum products demand, leaving total carbon dioxide emissions virtually unchanged. A range of options, classified as (1) low capital, operating efficiency projects, (2) medium capital, process/utility optimization projects, (3) high capital, refinery specific projects, and (4) high operating cost GHG projects, were evaluated. Of these four alternatives, the low capital or operating efficiency projects were the only ones judged to have the potential to be economically viable. Energy efficiency projects in these four groups were evaluated under several policy initiatives including accelerated depreciation and a $200 per tonne of carbon tax. Result showed that an accelerated depreciation policy would lower the hurdle rate for refinery investments, and could achieve a four per cent reduction in GHG emissions below 1990 levels, assuming no further shutdown of refinery capacity. The carbon tax was judged to be potentially damaging to the Canadian refinery industry since it would penalize cracking refineries (most Canadian refineries are of this type); it would provide further uncertainty and risk, such that industry might not be able to justify investments to reduce emissions. The overall assessment is that the Canadian refinery industry could not meet the pro-rata Kyoto GHG reduction target through implementation of economically

  6. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  7. Comparative evaluation of activity-based costing and variable costing: a case study at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Josefina Maria da Silva SILVA

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to compare the results with the application of Activity Based Costing and Variable Costing methods in an administrative unit of the Brazilian Federal Government: the Radiopharmacy Facility of IPEN (Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research), which produces radiopharmaceuticals products and develops R and D activities. Faced with the need to adopt a more economical and managerial public administration, this research has provided information to assess which of the two costing methods proves more suitable for cost management in that unit. The research is exploratory and a single-case study. We traced about 80% of material costs by observation 'in loco' of the entire manufacturing process of technetium generator, which represents the main product in terms of production volume and revenues. The results show that the Contribution Margin Variable Costing of 29.12% is very close to the operating income of 28.86%, ahead of support activities, obtained by ABC. It is also noted that the operational result of the product does not change by using either one or another costing method. In the two costing methods the end result is 24.20%. This occurs because the production is on demand. There is no inventory of finished product because it is radioactive. The research has revealed that both methods provide useful information for the management and optimization of costs and results of processes/activities, and that the two methods, in this case, may be used in an integrated and complementary approach, enabling to use the best information content of both. (author)

  8. Study to establish cost projections for production of Redox chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, J. F.; Greco, C. C.; Rusinko, R. N.; Wadsworth, A. L., III

    1982-01-01

    A cost study of four proposed manufacturing processes for redox chemicals for the NASA REDOX Energy Storage System yielded favorable selling prices in the range $0.99 to $1.91/kg of chromic chloride, anhydrous basis, including ferrous chloride. The prices corresponded to specific energy storage costs from under $9 to $17/kWh. A refined and expanded cost analysis of the most favored process yielded a price estimate corresponding to a storage cost of $11/kWh. The findings supported the potential economic viability of the NASA REDOX system.

  9. Cost Model Comparison: A Study of Internally and Commercially Developed Cost Models in Use by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima

    2011-01-01

    NASA makes use of numerous cost models to accurately estimate the cost of various components of a mission - hardware, software, mission/ground operations - during the different stages of a mission's lifecycle. The purpose of this project was to survey these models and determine in which respects they are similar and in which they are different. The initial survey included a study of the cost drivers for each model, the form of each model (linear/exponential/other CER, range/point output, capable of risk/sensitivity analysis), and for what types of missions and for what phases of a mission lifecycle each model is capable of estimating cost. The models taken into consideration consisted of both those that were developed by NASA and those that were commercially developed: GSECT, NAFCOM, SCAT, QuickCost, PRICE, and SEER. Once the initial survey was completed, the next step in the project was to compare the cost models' capabilities in terms of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements. This final comparison was then portrayed in a visual manner with Venn diagrams. All of the materials produced in the process of this study were then posted on the Ground Segment Team (GST) Wiki.

  10. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly…

  11. A comparative study of electrochemical reduction of isatin and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    hibit a single irreversible two-electron reduction wave in contrast with the two discrete one-electron transfer reduction ... experiments. The working electrode was a Static Mercury Drop Elec- ..... Women Scientist Scheme (WOS-A), is gratefully.

  12. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States); Caldwell, James H. [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The California 2030 Low Carbon Grid Study (LCGS) analyzes the grid impacts of a variety of scenarios that achieve 50% carbon emission reductions from California's electric power sector. Impacts are characterized based on several key operational and economic metrics, including production costs, emissions, curtailment, and impacts on the operation of gas generation and imports. The modeling results indicate that achieving a low-carbon grid (with emissions 50% below 2012 levels) is possible by 2030 with relatively limited curtailment (less than 1%) if institutional frameworks are flexible. Less flexible institutional frameworks and a less diverse generation portfolio could lead to higher curtailment (up to 10%), operational costs (up to $800 million higher), and carbon emissions (up to 14% higher).