WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost competitive option

  1. Economical competitiveness of biofuels. Costs of selected options of biofuels; Wirtschaftliche Konkurrenzfaehigkeit von Biokraftstoffen. Kosten ausgewaehlter Biokraftstoffoptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeymer, Martin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    One important advantage of biofuels is essentially the ease of integration into the present infrastructure of the transport sector. From a technical point of view both liquid and gaseous fossil fuels can be replaced completely without expenditure on infrastructure or technological change. However, the sustainable use of bioenergy crops producing biofuels is limited and therefore the exploitation of residues for biofuels, must also be considered. To estimate the economic impact of biofuels the levelized costs of five concepts with different biomass input were calculated and compared to fossil references. According to the calculations, the production costs of biofuels add up to between 14 and 36 EUR/GJ, which is twice as much as fossil substitutes (between 9 and 17 EUR/GJ). Based on this, biofuels will not be commercial in the near future, but the German biofuel quota and associated penalty, if the obligations will not be fulfilled, leads to competitive position. Our results show the importance of low biomass prices, even if the biomass quality is worse and the conversion processes have to be more complex. There is a possibility to reduce the production costs consist by increasing the overall efficiency. Even small but highly integrated plants (Bioethanol (Triticale)) with a lack of economies of scale achieve a high biofuel output and by this comparatively low production costs. (orig.)

  2. Cournot Competition, Financial Option Markets, and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Allaz and Vila (1993) show that the existence of futures markets increases the efficiency of markets in a Cournot setting. This paper looks at the efficiency effect of financial options in a similar framework. It shows that the existence of financial options also makes markets more efficient; though to a smaller extent than futures. This is particularly relevant for markets with market power and costly storage, like electricity markets.

  3. Designing Cost-Competitive Technology Products through Cost Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, T.; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: As manufacturing innovations spread throughout leading organizations, product development becomes a more important source of competitive advantage. Within product development, cost management receives increasing attention. To date, cost management in new product development focuses

  4. Quality, Sunk Costs and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the link between quality, cost and concentration. Using concentration and cost data and product quality indicators for 2,244 products in over eighty industries in 1997 and 2002 in the US, a two-stage, ordered probit, random effects estimation explores the impact of concentration and cost on quality. The results demonstrate that overall market concentration and high fixed costs are both positively correlated with product quality across most industries. Generally, when eithe...

  5. Least cost options for life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  6. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should b

  7. Real options and asset valuation in competitive energy markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduntan, Adekunle Richard

    The focus of this work is to develop a robust valuation framework for physical power assets operating in competitive markets such as peaking or mid-merit thermal power plants and baseload power plants. The goal is to develop a modeling framework that can be adapted to different energy assets with different types of operating flexibilities and technical constraints and which can be employed for various purposes such as capital budgeting, business planning, risk management and strategic bidding planning among others. The valuation framework must also be able to capture the reality of power market rules and opportunities, as well as technical constraints of different assets. The modeling framework developed conceptualizes operating flexibilities of power assets as "switching options' whereby the asset operator decides at every decision point whether to switch from one operating mode to another mutually exclusive mode, within the limits of the equipment constraints of the asset. As a current decision to switch operating modes may affect future operating flexibilities of the asset and hence cash flows, a dynamic optimization framework is employed. The developed framework accounts for the uncertain nature of key value drivers by representing them with appropriate stochastic processes. Specifically, the framework developed conceptualizes the operation of a power asset as a multi-stage decision making problem where the operator has to make a decision at every stage to alter operating mode given currently available information about key value drivers. The problem is then solved dynamically by decomposing it into a series of two-stage sub-problems according to Bellman's optimality principle. The solution algorithm employed is the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. The developed valuation framework was adapted for a gas-fired thermal power plant, a peaking hydroelectric power plant and a baseload power plant. This work built on previously published real options valuation

  8. Kyrgyz Republic - The Garment Sector : Impact of Joining the Customs Union and Options to Increase Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This note analyzes the impact that joining the Eurasian Customs Union will have on the Kyrgyz Republic s garment sector and options for improving the sector s competitiveness. The paper finds that joining the Eurasian Customs Union will lead to higher prices for the textiles and cloth used in garment production. This will increase the cost of producing garments in the Kyrgyz Republic and w...

  9. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  10. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  11. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  12. The COST IC0701 verification competition 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bormer, T.; Brockschmidt, M.; Distefano, D.; Ernst, G.; Filliatre, J.-C.; Grigore, R.; Huisman, M.; Klebanov, V.; Marche, C.; Monahan, R.; Mostowski, W.I.; Poiikarpova, N.; Scheben, C.; Schellhorn, G.; Tofan, B.; Tschannen, J.; Ulbrich, M.; Beckert, B.; Damiani, F.; Gurov, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the experiences with the program verification competition held during the FoVeOOS conference in October 2011. There were 6 teams participating in this competition. We discuss the three different challenges that were posed and the solutions developed by the teams. We conclude wi

  13. Can Increasing Fuel Costs Make Locally Produced Food More Competitive?

    OpenAIRE

    Grigsby, Chuck; Hellwinckel, Chad; Lambert, Dayton; Yu, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce in the United States often travels thousands of miles in diesel operated semi-trucks before arriving to market. Under a high fuel cost scenario, the current low cost, efficient supply chain could become a high cost organizational structure for US food distribution. Rising transportation costs of food sourced from distant locations may provide competitive opportunities for small- and mid-sized local producers if transportation costs are a smaller portion of their total costs. Far...

  14. Option pricing with transaction costs and stochastic volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Florescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a realistic market with transaction costs, the option pricing problem is known to lead to solving nonlinear partial differential equations even in the simplest model. The nonlinear term in these partial differential equations (PDE reflects the presence of transaction costs. In this article we consider an underlying general stochastic volatility model. In this case the market is incomplete and the option price is not unique. Under a particular market completion assumption where we use a traded proxy for the volatility, we obtain a non-linear PDE whose solution provides the option price in the presence of transaction costs. This PDE is studied and under suitable regularity conditions, we prove the existence of strong solutions of the problem.

  15. Investigating load management technology options: a survey of technologies and issues. Final report. [Competitive interrelationships of LM, conservation, and renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Load-management-technology options are commercially available and may be desirable in many utility-service areas. Energy-conservation and renewable-energy-supply technologies are also cost-effective in many applications and, where installed, may reduce the effectiveness and attractiveness of load-management options. Recent energy legislation has not addressed these competitive interrelationships; future legislation is unlikely to do so unless a coordinated task-force effort among relevant DOE offices is pursued to derive strategic technology and policy recommendations on this issue. R and D strategies should help formulate these recommendations.

  16. Promoting Psychiatry as a Career Option for Ghanaian Medical Students through a Public-Speaking Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…

  17. Promoting Psychiatry as a Career Option for Ghanaian Medical Students through a Public-Speaking Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…

  18. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Cost Reducing Investment, Competition and Industry Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Petrakis; S. Roy (Santanu)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe demonstrate the possibility of shake-out of firms and emergence of inter-firm heterogeneity along the (socially optimal) dynamic equilibrium path of a competitive industry with free entry and exit, even when there is no uncertainty and all firms are ex ante identical with perfect fore

  20. Sustainable energy conversion: fuel cells - the competitive option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D. [Energy-Environment Policy Research Group, TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    The definition of sustainability is still under discussion, but it is becoming increasingly clear that present practices of energy supply and distribution are causing severe environmental pressures, and that they cannot be continued indefinitely. The fuel cell has been undergoing rapid development and is now at a stage immediately prior to commercialisation for a number of markets. It is expected to be economically competitive with many other energy conversion technologies within the next 5 years. However, introduction of the fuel cell may also speed the economic introduction of emissions-free energy carriers such as hydrogen, linking directly to renewably generated electricity. Hydrogen could be used as a form of energy storage in cases where electricity demand and supply were not matched. The fuel cell would then be complementary to, rather than competitive with, renewable generation technologies. Ultimately, the fuel cell, in both its high and low-temperature derivatives, could become one of the pillars of a future sustainable energy system. (orig.)

  1. Interim findings of programmatic options for a building design competition for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-27

    The purpose of this report is to present various programmatic options for the Buildings and Community Systems (BCS) to use in utilizing a building design competition as a mechanism to promote the widescale adoption of energy conservation in new buildings design. The general program requirements were that: (1) the design competition focus on the multi-family low-rise residential market; (2) the design competition would result in the construction of a building or buildings under a Federally-assisted housing program; (3) the competition would be among competitors who are professional architects, designers, and/or developers; (4) the design competition would generate a high degree of public and professional awareness of conservation options in building design; and (5) the competition would be based on the use of a common standard of judgement (e.g., Btu's per square foot). The purpose of the initial phase of this study has been: (1) to assess the feasibility of developing a design competition that can meet the general requirements; (2) to identify potential program options for the competition; and (3) to develop a preliminary structural framework for it. This paper reports the study approach and the preliminary findings. (MCW)

  2. Parallel Binomial American Option Pricing with (and without) Transaction Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Nan; Zastawniak, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    We present a parallel algorithm that computes the ask and bid prices of an American option when proportional transaction costs apply to the trading of the underlying asset. The algorithm computes the prices on recombining binomial trees, and is designed for modern multi-core processors. Although parallel option pricing has been well studied, none of the existing approaches takes transaction costs into consideration. The algorithm that we propose partitions a binomial tree into blocks. In any round of computation a block is further partitioned into regions which are assigned to distinct processors. To minimise load imbalance the assignment of nodes to processors is dynamically adjusted before each new round starts. Synchronisation is required both within a round and between two successive rounds. The parallel speedup of the algorithm is proportional to the number of processors used. The parallel algorithm was implemented in C/C++ via POSIX Threads, and was tested on a machine with 8 processors. In the pricing ...

  3. Energy Storage Options for Low-Cost Spacecraft Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, D.F.; Wecker, S.E.; Wright, R. D.; Coates, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    Several energy storage options currently exist for small satellite power systems. These include nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. Nickel-hydrogen is available only as a spaceflight qualified system and is therefore relatively high in cost. Nickel-metal hydride batteries are available only in a small capacity, commercial cylindrical version which limits usefulness in aerospace applications. Both aerospace and commercial nickel-cadmium batteries are available, ...

  4. Unit labour costs, productivity and international competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van; Stuivenwold, Edwin; Ypma, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides international comparisons of relative levels of unit labour costs (ULC) for several OECD countries relative to the United States. The estimates are based on the Total Economy Database and the 60-Industry Database of the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC), and are also

  5. Valuation of Real Options as Competitive Prototyping in System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Facility (Ceylan & Ford, 2002). The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) needed to develop slabs of laser glass to be used in the testing of nuclear...glass produced if the production technologies were feasible, were very uncertain as were costs and devel- opment schedules. Although NIF had...relationships with experienced laser glass vendors, none could guarantee successful development within the required time a priori. Therefore, the NIF program

  6. The Impact of Market Maker Competition on Market Quality: Evidence from an Options Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Aspris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic relationship between competition, liquidity provision, and market structure. By examining the entry and exit of market makers in the Australian Options market, this study empirically analyses the issue of market maker competition. Results indicate that market maker entry depends on a broad range of profit, risk and market concentration characteristics, but free market maker movement does not explicitly result in a competitive market structure. This study also finds that the degree of market concentration additionally affects the marginal impact of market maker entry (exit, but the effect is significantly more pronounced for the most liquid classes of options. The implication of this finding is pertinent to market regulators since market maker competition may not necessarily contribute to enhancing market quality for less liquid securities.

  7. A Cost Analysis of Kidney Replacement Therapy Options in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Younis Ph.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine. It informs evidence-based resource allocation decisions for government-funded kidney disease services where transplant donors are limited, and some of the common modalities, i.e., peritoneal dialysis (PD and home hemodialysis (HD, are not widely available due to shortages of qualified staff, specialists, and centers to follow the patient cases, provide training, make home visits, or provide educational programs for patients. The average cost of kidney transplant was US$16 277 for the first year; the estimated cost of HD per patient averaged US$16 085 per year—nearly as much as a transplant. Consistent with prior literature and experience, while live, related kidney donors are scarce, we found that kidney transplant was more adequate and less expensive than HD. These results have direct resource allocation implications for government-funded kidney disease services under Palestinian Ministry of Health. Our findings strongly suggest that investing in sufficient qualified staff, equipment, and clinical infrastructure to replace HD services with transplantation whenever medically indicated and suitable kidney donors are available, as well as deploying PD programs and Home HD programs, will result in major overall cost savings. Our results provide a better understanding of the costs of kidney disease and will help to inform Ministry of Health and related policy makers as they develop short- and long-term strategies for the population, in terms of both cost savings and enhanced quality of life.

  8. Cost based interconnection charges as a way to induce competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between regulation of interconnection charges and the level of competition. One of the most important issues in the debate on interconnect regulation has been use of forward looking costs for setting of interconnection charges. This debate...... has been ongoing within the EU as well as in US. This paper discusses the European experiences and in particular the Danish experiences with use of cost based interconnection charges, and their impact on competition in the telecom market....

  9. Coverage Options for a Low cost, High Resolution Optical Constellation

    OpenAIRE

    Price, M E; Levett, W.; Graham, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the range of coverage options available to TopSat like small satellites, both singly and in a small constellation. TopSat is a low-cost, high resolution and image quality, optical small satellite, due for launch in October 2004. In particular, the paper considers the use of tuned, repeat ground track orbits to improve coverage for selected ground targets, at the expense of global coverage. TopSat is designed to demonstrate the capabilities of small satellites for high valu...

  10. Cost-Effective Helicopter Options for Partner Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    elevation feature MGTOW maximum gross takeoff weight MOB main operating base MoD Ministry of Defense MoI Ministry of Interior nm nautical miles NSRW...we provided a main operat- ing base ( MOB ) or forward operating base (FOB) from which operations would be conducted. In these instances, the...RAND RR141z1-2.2 MOB /FOB MOB /FOB X Y Z LZs Alternate LZs 23 nmPrimary LZ Bor der Bor der 120º 120º 10 Cost-Effective Helicopter Options for Partner

  11. Real Option Cost Vulnerability Analysis of Electrical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Knight, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Critical infrastructure such as electricity substations are vulnerable to various geo-hazards that arise from climate change. These geo-hazards range from increased vegetation growth to increased temperatures and flood inundation. Of all the identified geo-hazards, coastal flooding has the greatest impact, but to date has had a low probability of occurring. However, in the face of climate change, coastal flooding is likely to occur more often due to extreme water levels being experienced more frequently due to sea-level rise (SLR). Knowing what impact coastal flooding will have now and in the future on critical infrastructure such as electrical substations is important for long-term management. Using a flood inundation model, present day and future flood events have been simulated, from 1 in 1 year events up to 1 in 10,000 year events. The modelling makes an integrated assessment of impact by using sea-level and surge to simulate a storm tide. The geographical area the model covers is part of the Northwest UK coastline with a range of urban and rural areas. The ensemble of flood maps generated allows the identification of critical infrastructure exposed to coastal flooding. Vulnerability has be assessed using an Estimated Annual Damage (EAD) value. Sampling SLR annual probability distributions produces a projected "pathway" for SLR up to 2100. EAD is then calculated using a relationship derived from the flood model. Repeating the sampling process allows a distribution of EAD up to 2100 to be produced. These values are discounted to present day values using an appropriate discount rate. If the cost of building and maintain defences is also removed from this a Net Present Value (NPV) of building the defences can be calculated. This distribution of NPV can be used as part of a cost modelling process involving Real Options, A real option is the right but not obligation to undertake investment decisions. In terms of investment in critical infrastructure resilience this

  12. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All param

  13. Using the pallet costing system to determine costs and stay competitive in the pallet industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jefferson Jr. Palmer; Bruce G. Hansen; Bruce G. Hansen

    2002-01-01

    In order to stay competitive and keep production costs at a minimum, wood pallet manufacturers must plan, monitor, and control their various production activities. Cost information on pallet manufacturing operations, must be gathered and analyzed so that the plant manager can determine whether certain activities are efficient and profitable. The Pallet Costing System (...

  14. Price discrimination, entry, and switching costs in network competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews theoretical models of network competition in telecommunications. We will discuss two alternative approaches. The first approach assumes Hoteling’s horizontal differentiation and the second approach is based on switching costs. We will first analyse spatial competition with linear prices and continue with price discrimination between on-net and off-net calls. Price discrimination can also be used to deter entry to the market. We will also deal with the regulator’s optimal choice of access price, which should be designed to induce entry of new firms. Furthermore, pricing of roaming services and the switching cost approach to network competition will be considered. Finally, we will illustrate the theoretical results with data from the Serbian mobile and fixed telephony market.

  15. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  16. CO{sub 2} mitigation costs of large-scale bioenergy technologies in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L. [Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden). Dept. of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Ecotechnology; Madlener, R. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). CEPE

    2003-11-01

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO{sub 2} mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO{sub 2} mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the sociopolitical will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO{sub 2} mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural gas fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural gas fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $90/tC. (author)

  17. Impact of Continuous Competition on Operations and Support Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    private firms, not the government. Aircraft Net Cost Growth B737-400 0.76 B757-200ER 0.80 A310-300 0.98 A320 0.92 A330-300 0.86 DC10-30 0.83 MD...Analysis. (1989). Results of Navy Competition. Nolte, P., Quackenbush, et al. (2008). Sustainment key performance parameter and the RAM-C manual ...of Defense. (2009). Department of Defense reliability, availability, maintainability, and cost rationale report manual . Washington, DC: Department of

  18. Cost-effective and low-technology options for simulation and training in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Christie J; Glass, Kristen M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore low-cost options for simulation and training in neonatology. Numerous cost-effective options exist for simulation and training in neonatology. Lower cost options are available for teaching clinical skills and procedural training in neonatal intubation, chest tube insertion, and pericardiocentesis, among others. Cost-effective, low-cost options for simulation-based education can be developed and shared in order to optimize the neonatal simulation training experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Competitive pricing and the challenge of cost control in medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulam, Robert F; Feldman, Roger D; Dowd, Bryan E

    2011-08-01

    The Medicare program faces a serious challenge: it must find ways to control costs but must do so through a system of congressional oversight that necessarily limits its choices. We look at one approach to prudent purchasing - competitive pricing - that Medicare has attempted many times and in various ways since the beginning of the program, and in all but one case unsuccessfully due to the politics of provider opposition working through Congress and the courts. We look at some related efforts to change Medicare pricing to explore when the program has been successful in making dramatic changes in how it pays for health care. A set of recommendations emerges for ways to respond to the impediments of law and politics that have obstructed change to more efficient payment methods. Except in unusual cases, competitive pricing threatens too many stakeholders in too many ways for key political actors to support it. But an unusual case may arise in the coming Medicare fiscal crisis, a crisis related in part to the prices Medicare pays. At that point, competitive pricing may look less like a problem and more like a solution coming at a time when the system badly needs one.

  20. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Adarsh [Hull Univ., School of Economic Studies, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the canons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme. (Author)

  1. Asian Option Pricing with Monotonous Transaction Costs under Fractional Brownian Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric-average Asian option pricing model with monotonous transaction cost rate under fractional Brownian motion was established. The method of partial differential equations was used to solve this model and the analytical expressions of the Asian option value were obtained. The numerical experiments show that Hurst exponent of the fractional Brownian motion and transaction cost rate have a significant impact on the option value.

  2. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  3. Operating costs and plant options analysis for the Shamokin fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, M.G.; Dowdy, T.E.; Litman, R.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examined the operating costs and options to improve the Shamokin Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Demonstration Plant located near Shamokin, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to perform an operating cost analysis and compare the results with projected operating costs. An analysis was also made to identify possible cost savings options. Two base case scenarios were developed for this study: the first scenario assumed that the plant operated in a manner similar to operations during the extended test program; and the second scenario was concerned with two options. One option assumed upgrading the plant to achieve continuous full load operation, restarting, and used revised costs and revenues. The second assumed reconfiguring the plant for cogeneration.

  4. 48 CFR 1552.217-74 - Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-74 Section 1552.217-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.217-74 Option for increased quantity—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed in 1517.208(e), insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee term contracts when...

  5. Increasing fisheries management options with a flexible cost function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Horwood, J.

    1998-01-01

    This study proposes a dynamic control of fisheries by fishing effort, calculated so as to optimize a novel cost function, over a long period of management, based upon an example of the exploitation of the Celtic Sea cod. This cost function is a flexible weighed compromise between: (i) minimizing......) is zero, the optimization of the cost function usually results in a non- linear divergent control, which is an artefact related to the choice of the length of the management period. (C) 1998 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....... of fishing effort towards the agreed long-term target, a decrease in short-term yields, and an increase in long-term yields. When the weight attached to (iii) is non-zero, the optimization of the cost function provides a non-oscillatory, convergent, and near-linear control. When the weight attached to (iii...

  6. Lookback Option Pricing with Fixed Proportional Transaction Costs under Fractional Brownian Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Shengwu; Zhang, Yan; Han, Miao; Wang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The pricing problem of lookback option with a fixed proportion of transaction costs is investigated when the underlying asset price follows a fractional Brownian motion process. Firstly, using Leland's hedging method a partial differential equation satisfied by the value of the lookback option is derived. Then we obtain its numerical solution by constructing a Crank-Nicolson format. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed form is verified through a numerical example. Meanwhile, the impact of transaction cost rate and volatility on lookback option value is discussed.

  7. Competitive environments sustain costly altruism with negligible assortment of interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncaster, C Patrick; Jackson, Adam; Watson, Richard A

    2013-10-03

    Competition hinders the evolution of altruism amongst kin when beneficiaries gain at the expense of competing relatives. Altruism is consequently deemed to require stronger kin selection, or trait-selected synergies, or elastic population regulation, to counter this effect. Here we contest the view that competition puts any such demands on altruism. In ecologically realistic scenarios, competition influences both altruism and defection. We show how environments that pit defectors against each other allow strong altruism to evolve even in populations with negligible kin structure and no synergies. Competition amongst defectors presents relative advantages to altruism in the simplest games between altruists and defectors, and the most generic models of altruistic phenotypes or genotypes invading non-altruistic populations under inelastic density regulation. Given the widespread inevitability of competition, selection will often favour altruism because its alternatives provide lower fitness. Strong competition amongst defectors nevertheless undermines altruism, by facilitating invasion of unrelated beneficiaries as parasites.

  8. Executive Stock Option, Mediation of Agency Costs and Allocation of Power in Levered Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongyan; Kong Feng; Zhang Wei

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between options and agency costs in levered firms is studied by modeling the effect of executive stock options on the managers investment strategy in levered firms. Stock options do not necessarily aggravate agency costs in levered firms. The corporate governance affects agency costs greatly. If debt-holders were entitled to design executive stock options together with stockholders, by allocating power properly between stockholders and debt-holders, firm value could be enhanced greatly. The following way of allocating power between the two parties is proposed: the exercise price should be the weighted average of the stockholders and debt-holders suggested exercise prices. The weight allocated to debt-holders is positively related to the amount of debts that debt-holders lend to stockholders.

  9. European Option Pricing with Transaction Costs in Lévy Jump Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European option pricing problem with transaction costs is investigated for a risky asset price model with Lévy jump. By the aid of arbitrage pricing theory and the generalized Itô formula (which includes Poisson jump, the explicit solution to the risk asset price model is given. According to arbitrage-free principle, we first discretize the continuous-time model. Then, in each small time interval, the transaction costs are introduced. By using the Δ-hedging strategy, the explicit solutions of the European options pricing formula with transaction costs are given for the risky asset price model with Lévy jump.

  10. Reasons for Patent Protection and Cost-effective Patent Filing Options for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Brion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs do not seek patent protection for their innovations, either because they are skeptical about the perceived benefits or wary of the perceived costs. However, by failing to protect their intellectual property with patents, they leave themselves exposed to attack by other patent holders. This article explores arguments for patent protection as well as filing options that can protract the patenting process while simultaneously reducing patenting costs. By choosing their patent application filings wisely, SMEs can keep their patenting options open for as long as possible while delaying costs.

  11. Cost benefit analysis of two policy options for cannabis: status quo and legalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

    2014-01-01

    To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised-regulated option was conducted. A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised-regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised-regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case.

  12. Comparative Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Hardening Options for Critical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungmin Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the most cost effective alternative among hardening options of power systems, the direct monetary benefits should be evaluated above all other things. Therefore, this paper presents a life-cycle cost model which describes total monetary costs experienced in annual time increments during the project with consideration for the time value of money. In addition, to minimize the risks associated with estimated cost errors due to uncertainties of input data, the stochastic input data are considered. Using the Monte Carlo method, the probabilities and cost ranges in the case studies can be predicted, in turn resulting in better decisions in the selection of hardening options which are cost effective.

  13. Assessment of DOD electric power supply options, strategies, and costs under retail open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, P.J.; Catlin, T.S.; Estomin, S.L.; Galligan, R.A.; Kahal, M.I.

    1997-09-15

    Over the last several years, there has been increasing recognition that electric power rates in many parts of the country are above competitive market levels. The reason for the difference between regulated and competitive rates rests in dramatic changes to the generation segment of the industry. Numerous factors have combined to drive up the generation costs that are recovered under regulation. At the same time, significant changes in generation technology and reductions in fuel prices have reduced the cost of power from new generating facilities, driving down competitive prices for generation. Similar changes have not affected the transmission and distribution sides of the business; therefore, the generation market is the focus of competitively spurred reductions in electricity prices.

  14. Competition in the Dutch hospital sector: an analysis of health care volume and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Groot, T L C M; Lindeboom, M

    2017-03-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of market competition on health care volume and cost. At the start of 2005, the financing system of Dutch hospitals started to be gradually changed from a closed-end budgeting system to a non-regulated price competitive prospective reimbursement system. The gradual implementation of price competition is a 'natural experiment' that provides a unique opportunity to analyze the effects of market competition on hospital behavior. We have access to a unique database, which contains hospital discharge data of diagnosis treatment combinations (DBCs) of individual patients, including detailed care activities. Difference-in-difference estimates show that the implementation of market-based competition leads to relatively lower total costs, production volume and number of activities overall. Difference-in-difference estimates on treatment level show that the average costs for outpatient DBCs decreased due to a decrease in the number of activities per DBC. The introduction of market competition led to an increase of average costs of inpatient DBCs. Since both volume and number of activities have not changed significantly, we conclude that the cost increase is likely the result of more expensive activities. A possible explanation for our finding is that hospitals look for possible efficiency improvements in predominantly outpatient care products that are relatively straightforward, using easily analyzable technologies. The effects of competition on average cost and the relative shares of inpatient and outpatient treatments on specialty level are significant but contrary for cardiology and orthopedics, suggesting that specialties react differently to competitive incentives.

  15. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas

  16. Price transparency for MRIs increased use of less costly providers and triggered provider competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sze-jung; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Shah, Christiane; DeVries, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    To encourage patients to select high-value providers, an insurer-initiated price transparency program that focused on elective advanced imaging procedures was implemented. Patients having at least one outpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in 2010 or 2012 were divided according to their membership in commercial health plans participating in the program (the intervention group) or in nonparticipating commercial health plans (the reference group) in similar US geographic regions. Patients in the intervention group were informed of price differences among available MRI facilities and given the option of selecting different providers. For those patients, the program resulted in a $220 cost reduction (18.7 percent) per test and a decrease in use of hospital-based facilities from 53 percent in 2010 to 45 percent in 2012. Price variation between hospital and nonhospital facilities for the intervention group was reduced by 30 percent after implementation. Nonparticipating members residing in intervention areas also observed price reductions, which indicates increased price competition among providers. The program significantly reduced imaging costs. This suggests that patients select lower-price facilities when informed about available alternatives.

  17. Options for Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Guiyang, China: A Cost-Ancillary Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Cao

    2004-01-01

    This study provides information on the additional "ancillary" benefits that China would experience by reducing emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. It investigates a number of options for mitigating CO2 emissions in the power and industrial sectors of Guiyang City. It calculates the impact these options would have on the city's overall air pollution and effects these changes in air quality would have on the health improvements and looks at the overall cost and benefit that each of ...

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnostic options for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP is challenging, particularly in developing countries. Highly sensitive diagnostic methods are costly, while less expensive methods often lack sensitivity or specificity. Cost-effectiveness comparisons of the various diagnostic options have not been presented. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared cost-effectiveness, as measured by cost per life-years gained and proportion of patients successfully diagnosed and treated, of 33 PCP diagnostic options, involving combinations of specimen collection methods [oral washes, induced and expectorated sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL] and laboratory diagnostic procedures [various staining procedures or polymerase chain reactions (PCR], or clinical diagnosis with chest x-ray alone. Our analyses were conducted from the perspective of the government payer among ambulatory, HIV-infected patients with symptoms of pneumonia presenting to HIV clinics and hospitals in South Africa. Costing data were obtained from the National Institutes of Communicable Diseases in South Africa. At 50% disease prevalence, diagnostic procedures involving expectorated sputum with any PCR method, or induced sputum with nested or real-time PCR, were all highly cost-effective, successfully treating 77-90% of patients at $26-51 per life-year gained. Procedures using BAL specimens were significantly more expensive without added benefit, successfully treating 68-90% of patients at costs of $189-232 per life-year gained. A relatively cost-effective diagnostic procedure that did not require PCR was Toluidine Blue O staining of induced sputum ($25 per life-year gained, successfully treating 68% of patients. Diagnosis using chest x-rays alone resulted in successful treatment of 77% of patients, though cost-effectiveness was reduced ($109 per life-year gained compared with several molecular diagnostic options. CONCLUSIONS: For diagnosis of PCP, use of PCR technologies, when

  19. Collar Option Model for Managing the Cost Overrun Caused by Change Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyo Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective change order management is very important in maintaining the financial sustainability of various stakeholders related to construction projects by minimizing cost overruns. In this study, we propose a zero-cost risk management approach based on the collar option model in order to control for the loss caused by change orders, the main cause of cost overruns in construction projects. We apply this model to actual projects for empirical analysis. The analysis, based on 237 projects, indicates that insurance buyers benefit from the collar option model in 46% of the cases, while insurance sellers do so in 53% of the cases. In most cases, the insurance buyer is the owner. According to the model, the owner experiences a loss when the cost overrun caused by change orders is lower than what was expected. In such cases, it is appropriate to conclude that the loss is not caused by the collar option model, but by the absence of additional revenue. However, the insurance seller suffers a loss if the cost overrun is higher than the strike price of the call option. Thus, the insurance seller needs to have expertise in construction management.

  20. 24. Pricing in Bertrand competition with increasing marginal costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Brandts, J.

    2008-01-01

    Bertrand competition under decreasing returns involves a wide interval of pure strategy Nash equilibrium prices. We first present results of experiments in which two, three and four identical firms repeatedly interact in this environment. More firms lead to lower average prices. However, prices rema

  1. UNCERTAINTY, CAPACITY COSTS, AND POTENTIAL GAINS FROM COOPERATION AND COMPETITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KNIEPS, G; PETHIG, R

    1994-01-01

    During the actual debate on reforming the European utility industry the concept of regional monopolies is challenged. Opponents of deregulation in the utility industries argue that competition fails to guarantee security of provision in view of severe uncertainties. This paper analyzes the question

  2. Environmental Compliance Costs in Developed Country Agricultures: Implications for Trade and Competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, G.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reflects on the costs of compliance with environmental regulations and standards in agriculture in developed countries, and its implications for trade and competitiveness. It highlights the importance of enforcement mechanisms and implementation, subjects which often have been undervalu

  3. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing I: Pricing European option with transaction costs under the fractional Black-Scholes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by the fractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs. By a mean self-financing delta-hedging argument in a discrete time setting, a European call option pricing formula is obtained. The minimal price C(t,St) of an option under transaction costs is obtained as timestep δt=((, which can be used as the actual price of an option. In fact, C(t,St) is an adjustment to the volatility in the Black-Scholes formula by using the modified volatility σ√{2}(( to replace the volatility σ, where {k}/{σ}{1}/{2} is the Hurst exponent, and k is a proportional transaction cost parameter. In addition, we also show that timestep and long-range dependence have a significant impact on option pricing.

  4. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing III: A fractional version of the Merton model with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian; Yan, Hai-Gang; Tang, Ming-Ming; Zhu, En-Hui

    2010-02-01

    A model for option pricing of fractional version of the Merton model with ‘Hurst exponent’ H being in [1/2,1) is established with transaction costs. In particular, for H∈(1/2,1) the minimal price Cmin(t,St) of an option under transaction costs is obtained, which displays that the timestep δt and the ‘Hurst exponent’ H play an important role in option pricing with transaction costs.

  5. Warranty cost analysis using alternating quasi-renewal processes with a warranty option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedida, Sarada; Unnissa Munavar, Mubashir; Ranjani, R.

    2012-03-01

    This article analyses a repairable deteriorating system with quasi-renewal operating and repair times during warranty. To establish the importance of non-negligible repair times modelled with quasi-renewal processes in warranty cost analysis, a fixed warranty model is developed and the results are compared with an existing model using expected warranty cost. Sensitivity analysis and graphical illustrations are provided to highlight the effect of various cost parameters on the expected warranty cost by means of three different distributions. In order to examine the cost implications to the customer and manufacturer, an extended warranty model in which a manufacturer offers a warranty option to the customer with two different policies, has been proposed. Based on the long-run average cost per unit time, profit analysis has been carried out for the manufacturer as it is an essential aspect of warranty management. This article emphasises the incorporation of non-negligible 'improved' repair times during warranty.

  6. 'Excellence' and Exclusion: The Individual Costs of Institutional Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard; Olssen, Mark

    A performance-based funding system like the United Kingdom's 'Research Excellence Framework' (REF) symbolizes the re-rationalization of higher education according to neoliberal ideology and New Public Management technologies. The REF is also significant for disclosing the kinds of behaviour that characterize universities' response to government demands for research auditability. In this paper, we consider the casualties of what Henry Giroux (2014) calls "neoliberalism's war on higher education" or more precisely the deleterious consequences of non-participation in the REF. We also discuss the ways with which higher education's competition fetish, embodied within the REF, affects the instrumentalization of academic research and the diminution of academic freedom, autonomy and criticality.

  7. Evaluation of wound care options in patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: a costly necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Anna Yasmine; Weitz, Nicole A; Tlougan, Brook; Morel, Kimberly D

    2014-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a genetic disorder in which mutations in collagen VII, the main component of the anchoring fibril, lead to skin fragility and to the development of acute and chronic wounds. Wound care and dressing changes are an important part of the daily lives of individuals with RDEB. Ideal wound care should improve wound healing, minimize pain, and improve quality of life. The objective of the current study was to review wound care options that might be used in a patient with RDEB and calculate the cost of these various options based on publicly available pricing of wound care products. There is a wide range of costs for wound care options in patients with RDEB. For example, a 1-day supply of dressing for a neonate boy with RDEB ranges from $10.64 for the least expensive option to $127.54 for the most expensive option. Wound care in patients with severe, generalized RDEB has not only a significant economic effect, but also directly affects quality of life in this patient population. Although randomized controlled trials evaluating different wound care products in patients with RDEB are lacking, small studies and expert opinion support the use of specialized nonadherent dressings that minimize skin trauma and promote wound healing. Until there is a cure, prospective studies are needed to assess pain, quality of life, and wound healing associated with the use of specialized wound care products for this life-altering condition.

  8. Recombinant snakebite antivenoms: A cost-competitive solution to a neglected tropical disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Johansen, Kristoffer H.; Engmark, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    not only on their possible therapeutic impact, but also on their cost-competitiveness. Recombinant antivenoms based on oligoclonal mixtures of human IgG antibodies produced by CHO cell cultivation may be the key to obtaining better snakebite envenoming therapies. Based on industry data, the cost...

  9. Replacement-cost depreciation: monopoly versus competitive business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matulich, S.; Hensley, S.

    1982-06-24

    The purpose of this article is to clarify some of the arguments for and against the use of replacement-cost depreciation in setting rates for public-utility companies. It does so by examining some simplified examples, which enable the reader to focus upon the logic and basic merits of each argument, pro or con.

  10. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Samuel; Wells, Jessie A.; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J. M.; Runge, Michael C.; Possingham, Hugh P.; McDonald Madden, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  11. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Sam; Wells, Jessie A; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J M; Runge, Michael C; Possingham, Hugh P; Madden, Eve McDonald

    2014-06-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Beginning of the End of Cost Competitiveness in CEE Countries - Analysis of Dependence between Labor Costs and Internationalization of the Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiliński, Witold

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to verify whether previous low level of labor costs being one of competitive edges of CEE countries is a factor that may determine competitiveness of this region in the long...

  13. An integrated TSP-GA with EOL cost model for selecting the best EOL option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakri Ghazalli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our research works on integrating design for disassembly with cost model for end-of-life (EOL product. This paper has two objectives. The first objective is to optimize disassembly sequence of the EOL product. We integrate a traveling salesman problem approach with genetic algorithm in finding the optimal disassembly sequence for disassembling the EOL product. Based on this optimal sequence, the second objective is to identify the best EOL option. We employ EOL profits and net present value of parts and subassemblies of the EOL product to determine the best EOL option of components and parts of the EOL product. The predicted results showed that the developed cost model has reached a good correspondence with the established methods.

  14. Identification of preferred dipole design options and cost estimates: Deliverable D5.2

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This document contains a description of the preferred 16 Tesla dipole magnet baseline design with its expected performances. The document also includes an analysis of the individual merits and risks of the different, initial design options and gives a justification for the selection of the baseline design. The deliverable includes expected field levels, field errors and a cost estimate, which serve as input for the arc design consolidation.

  15. A variational inequality arising from European option pricing with transaction costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI FaHuai; YANG Zhou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method which can transform a variational inequality with gradient constraints into a usual two obstacles problem in one dimensional case. The prototype of the problem is a parabolic variational inequality with the constraints of two first order differential inequalities arising from a two-dimensional model of European call option pricing with transaction costs. We obtain the monotonicity and smoothness of two free boundaries.

  16. A variational inequality arising from European option pricing with transaction costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method which can transform a variational inequality with gradient constraints into a usual two obstacles problem in one dimensional case.The prototype of the problem is a parabolic variational inequality with the constraints of two first order differential inequalities arising from a two-dimensional model of European call option pricing with transaction costs.We obtain the monotonicity and smoothness of two free boundaries.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Mar, Javier; O'Leary, Aisling; Adams, Róisín; San Miguel, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a cost-effectiveness analysis of therapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infected patients in Spain. A Markov model was designed to simulate the progression in a cohort of patients aged 50 years over a lifetime horizon. Sofosbuvir (SOF) plus peginterferon and ribavirin for 12 weeks was a cost-effective option when compared to standard of care (SoC) in the treatment of both 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were €35,276/QALY and €18,374/QALY respectively. ICERs for SOF plus daclatasvir (DCV) regimens versus SoC were over the threshold limit considered, at €56,178/QALY and €77,378/QALY for 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients respectively. Addition of SOF to IFN-based regimens for genotype 3 was cost-effective for both 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients. IFN-free options including SOF and DCV association required price reductions lower than the list prices to be considered cost-effective.

  18. The Dynamics of Bertrand Price Competition with Cost-Reducing Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskhakov, Fedor; Rust, John; Schjerning, Bertel

    We present a dynamic extension of the classic static model of Bertrand price competition that allows competing duopolists to undertake cost-reducing investments in an attempt to “leapfrog” their rival to attain low-cost leadership – at least temporarily. We show that leapfrogging occurs in equili......We present a dynamic extension of the classic static model of Bertrand price competition that allows competing duopolists to undertake cost-reducing investments in an attempt to “leapfrog” their rival to attain low-cost leadership – at least temporarily. We show that leapfrogging occurs...... in equilibrium, resolving the Bertrand investment paradox., i.e. leapfrogging explains why firms have an ex ante incentive to undertake cost-reducing investments even though they realize that simultaneous investments to acquire the state of the art production technology would result in Bertrand price competition...... in the product market that drives their ex post profits to zero. Our analysis provides a new interpretation of “price wars”. Instead of constituting a punishment for a breakdown of tacit collusion, price wars are fully competitive outcomes that occur when one firm leapfrogs its rival to become the new low cost...

  19. Abatement costs of SO{sub 2}-control options in the Mexican electric-power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islasa, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Colonia Centro, Temixco, Morelos 62580, (Mexico); Grandeb, Genice [Posgrado en Ingenieria de Sistemas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510, (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    Mexico's electricity-sector contributes over 75% of national SO{sub 2}-emissions, causing economic and health damage. These emissions come mostly from the combustion of fossil-fuels, whereas a minor share comes from biomass (wood fuel and sugar cane) burning emissions as well as those produced by industrial processes. For this reason, this study assesses the abatement costs of several SO{sub 2}-control options (including flue-gas desulphurization technologies, hydrotreatment of fuel oil, and the substitution of high-sulfur by low-sulfur content fuels). Likewise, this study has evaluated the implementation of such options in 10 selected power-plants - the main SO{sub 2} emitters in the Mexican Electric Power Sector (MEPS) - with the aim of suggesting solutions for SO{sub 2}-emissions reduction and estimating the corresponding abatement, investment and total costs during the analyzed period. Study's results indicate that the best SO{sub 2}-abatement-costs route may account for a reduction of 41% of MEPS SO{sub 2}-emissions and would require investment and total costs of $841 and $477 million, respectively. This means that an important reduction in the national SO{sub 2}-emissions may be achieved with a relatively small effort.(author)

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Option B+ for HIV prevention and treatment of mothers and children in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunke Fasawe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ministry of Health in Malawi is implementing a pragmatic and innovative approach for the management of all HIV-infected pregnant women, termed Option B+, which consists of providing life-long antiretroviral treatment, regardless of their CD4 count or clinical stage. Our objective was to determine if Option B+ represents a cost-effective option. METHODS: A decision model simulates the disease progression of a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy, and estimates the number of paediatric infections averted and maternal life years gained over a ten-year time horizon. We assess the cost-effectiveness from the Ministry of Health perspective while taking into account the practical realities of implementing ART services in Malawi. RESULTS: If implemented as recommended by the World Health Organization, options A, B and B+ are equivalent in preventing new infant infections, yielding cost effectiveness ratios between US$ 37 and US$ 69 per disability adjusted life year averted in children. However, when the three options are compared to the current practice, the provision of antiretroviral therapy to all mothers (Option B+ not only prevents infant infections, but also improves the ten-year survival in mothers more than four-fold. This translates into saving more than 250,000 maternal life years, as compared to mothers receiving only Option A or B, with savings of 153,000 and 172,000 life years respectively. Option B+ also yields favourable incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICER of US$ 455 per life year gained over the current practice. CONCLUSION: In Malawi, Option B+ represents a favorable policy option from a cost-effectiveness perspective to prevent future infant infections, save mothers' lives and reduce orphanhood. Although Option B+ would require more financial resources initially, it would save societal resources in the long-term and represents a strategic option to simplify and

  1. On option pricing in the large risk aversion, small transaction cost limit

    CERN Document Server

    Hynd, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    G. Barles and H. Soner considered the problem of option pricing in the large risk aversion, small transaction cost limit within the framework of indifference pricing. This problem turns out to be one of asymptotic analysis of nonlinear parabolic PDE and the interesting feature is the role of an ODE eigenvalue problem. Solving the eigenvalue problem almost explicitly helped these authors characterize the limiting option price as a solution of a nonlinear PDE. We study a model problem in the multi-asset setting where it is necessary to develop new methods as the corresponding PDE eigenvalue problem cannot be solved by trivial means. We deduce important properties of the eigenvalue function which aids us in proving a convergence theorem analogous to the aforementioned result in the single-asset case.

  2. DSS Investment Options with Damage Cost Valuation of Water Pollution at a River Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M.; Maroun, R.; Abou Najm, M. R.; Bou Fakhr Aldeen, R.; Lichaa El-Khoury, D.

    2008-12-01

    Poor water quality coupled with inadequate water sanitation services and hygiene practices has long been associated with higher water-borne diseases resulting in a serious cost to society in the form of cost of illness and forgone earnings directly related to increased morbidity and premature mortality, as well as cost of protective measures. This paper presents a socio-economic assessment of water quality in the Upper Litani river basin, Lebanon. For this purpose, field surveys were first conducted followed by the application of 1) the human capital and the willingness to pay approaches for mortality valuation, 2) the cost of illness, pain and suffering approach for morbidity valuation, and 3) the market price approach for the valuation of agricultural impacts. Economic benefits of improving water quality and sanitation were examined in the context of a cost- benefit analysis using a Decision Support System to evaluate various investment options in the construction and operation of wastewater treatment plants. The estimated damage costs ranged between 0.22-3.26 percent of the GDP in the study area with an expected return on investment in treatment facilities within 10 to 25 years depending on economic parameters used.

  3. Relationship between energy cost, swimming velocity, speed fluctuation in competitive swimming strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Tiago M.; Lima, A.B.; Portela, A; Novais, D.; L Machado; Colaço, P.; Gonçalves, P; Fernandes, R. J.; Keskinen, K.L.; Vilas-Boas, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationships between the total energy expenditure ( tot), the energy cost (EC), the intra-cycle variation of the horizontal velocity of displacement of centre of mass (dv) and the mean swimming velocity (v) in the four competitive swimming strokes.

  4. 48 CFR 1552.217-72 - Option to extend the term of the contract-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the contract-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-72 Section 1552.217-72 Federal Acquisition... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.217-72 Option to extend the term of the contract—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed in 1517.208(c), insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee...

  5. Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  6. Social Cost Assessment for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji-eun; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper will investigate the vast array of economic factors to estimate the true cost of the nuclear power. There are many studies addressing the external costs of energy production. However, it is only since the 1990s that the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production has been studied in detail. Each investigation has identified their own set of external costs and developed formulas and models using a variety of statistical techniques. The objective of this research is to broaden the scope of the parameters currently consider by adding new areas and expanding on the types of situations considered. Previously the approach to evaluating the external cost of nuclear power did not include various fuel cycle options and influencing parameters. Cost has always been a very important factor in decision-making, in particular for policy choices evaluating the alternative energy sources and electricity generation technologies. Assessment of external costs in support of decision-making should reflect timely consideration of important country specific policy objective. PWR-MOX and FR-Pyro are the best fuel cycle in parameter of environment impacts, but OT or OT-ER is proper than FR-Pyro in human beings. Using the OT fuel cycle is better than FR-Pyro to reduce the conflict cost. When energy supply is deficient, FR-Pyro fuel cycle stands longer than other fuel cycles. Proliferation resistance is shown as 'high' in all fuel cycles, so there are no difference between fuel cycles. When the severe accident occurs, FR-Pyro cycle is economical than other OT based fuel cycles.

  7. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bridoux

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political arena

  8. Spatial firm competition in two dimensions with linear transportation costs: simulations and analytical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncoroni, Alan; Medo, Matus

    2016-12-01

    Models of spatial firm competition assume that customers are distributed in space and transportation costs are associated with their purchases of products from a small number of firms that are also placed at definite locations. It has been long known that the competition equilibrium is not guaranteed to exist if the most straightforward linear transportation costs are assumed. We show by simulations and also analytically that if periodic boundary conditions in a plane are assumed, the equilibrium exists for a pair of firms at any distance. When a larger number of firms is considered, we find that their total equilibrium profit is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of firms. We end with a numerical investigation of the system's behavior for a general transportation cost exponent.

  9. Spatial firm competition in two dimensions with linear transportation costs: simulations and analytical results

    CERN Document Server

    Roncoroni, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Models of spatial firm competition assume that customers are distributed in space and transportation costs are associated with their purchases of products from a small number of firms that are also placed at definite locations. It has been long known that the competition equilibrium is not guaranteed to exist if the most straightforward linear transportation costs are assumed. We show by simulations and also analytically that if periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions are assumed, the equilibrium exists for a pair of firms at any distance. When a larger number of firms is considered, we find that their total equilibrium profit is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of firms. We end with a numerical investigation of the system's behavior for a general transportation cost exponent.

  10. Assessment of DoD electric power supply options, strategies, and costs under retail open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report, prepared under Contract No. SP0600-97-M-5726, provides an estimate of the level of savings that the DOD would realize over the 15-year analysis period (1997 through 2011) from the restructuring of the electric utility industry under current expectations regarding future policies likely to be adopted by the states. The report also addresses issues related to the future acquisition of power by the DOD in a competitive retail electric power market, including the degree to which competitive solicitations for electric power should reflect the aggregated loads of multiple DOD installations, the degree to which the competitive power supply procurement function should be centralized, and the cost implications associated with the use of federal hydropower currently purchased by certain DOD installations from the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Southwestern Power Administration. Other topics addressed in this report include a description of current electric power markets, the expected changes that will affect the future structure of these markets, the status of state and federal legislation related to industry restructuring, and several other issues potentially affected by restructuring, such as efforts being undertaken by the DOD to privatize on-base utility systems and DOD`s efforts to implement energy conservation and demand-side management projects.

  11. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  12. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression.

  13. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kristal E; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression.

  14. Ordering dynamics with two non-excluding options: bilingualism in language competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Xavier; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2006-12-01

    We consider an extension of the voter model in which a set of interacting elements (agents) can be in either of two equivalent states (A or B) or in a third additional mixed (AB) state. The model is motivated by studies of language competition dynamics, where the AB state is associated with bilingualism. We study the ordering process and associated interface and coarsening dynamics in regular lattices and small world networks. Agents in the AB state define the interfaces, changing the interfacial noise driven coarsening of the voter model to curvature driven coarsening. This change in the coarsening mechanism is also shown to originate for a class of perturbations of the voter model dynamics. When interaction is through a small world network the AB agents restore coarsening, eliminating the metastable states of the voter model. The characteristic time to reach the absorbing state scales with system size as τ ~ lnN to be compared with the result τ ~ N for the voter model in a small world network.

  15. Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕思思

    2007-01-01

    <正> The term competition reminds me of asoul-stirring fight between a mother monkeyand a crocodile,The crocodile caught her babywhen the baby was drinking water in a pool,Inthe end,the mother got her baby,but herbaby’s body only,She lost her child forever,just for a mouthful of water.Such is competition,cruel and merciless,But if we see the other side of the coin,we’ll

  16. Networks and RegionalCompetitiveness: Towards a Transaction Cost Approach of Small-Scale Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Friel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preoccupation with competition often dominates the study of governance. A focus on competition often unnecessarily precludes the possibility that regional institutions can suspend competition in certain areas and facilitate cooperation among potential rivals, thereby potentially contributing to their mutual success. In many ways companies cooperating through these types of networks have a greater degree of flexibility than firms which are forced to rely solely on hierarchies or markets for solutions to their problems. In order to fully understand how such networks work, this article first parses out differences in definitions of networks in order to understand how the type of network mentioned above actually differs from other uses of this term. Then it develops a theory of governance that goes beyond hierarchies and markets by demonstrating how this type of network can lead to reductions in transaction costs. This claim is illustrated on hand from examples of alternative forms of organization in Germany and Italy.

  17. Costs and benefits of Wolbachia infection in immature Aedes albopictus depend upon sex and competition level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavotte, Laurent; Mercer, David R; Stoeckle, John J; Dobson, Stephen L

    2010-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts induce various effects on hosts and can dramatically impact host fitness and development. An example is provided by obligate, maternally-inherited Wolbachia, which infect a broad range of invertebrates. Wolbachia are capable of altering host reproduction, thereby promoting infection spread. Wolbachia also pose direct physiological costs and benefits to hosts, complicating their categorization as parasites or mutualists. This study examines for an effect of Wolbachia infection in intra-specific larval competition by Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, with the goal of examining for an impact of Wolbachia infection in mixed populations. Similar to prior work examining for an influence of Wolbachia infection on the fitness of A. albopictus in adults, the results presented here support the hypothesized impact of Wolbachia across all life stages, including immatures. The differential competitiveness of infected larvae detected in our experiments indicates that Wolbachia infected A. albopictus females are less competitive relative to uninfected females when competing under highly competitive conditions. In contrast, under low competitive pressures, infected females experience higher survivorship. Thus, Wolbachia infection shifts from parasitism to mutualism as a function of developmental conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the invasion and persistence of Wolbachia in A. albopictus populations. The results are important to the evolution of stable Wolbachia symbioses, including Wolbachia invasion of an uninfected population. The resulting infection dynamics that occur in an infected population are discussed.

  18. A cost for high levels of sperm competition in rodents: increased sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; García-Álvarez, Olga; Soler, Ana Josefa; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Garde, José Julián; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2016-03-16

    Sperm competition, a prevalent evolutionary process in which the spermatozoa of two or more males compete for the fertilization of the same ovum, leads to morphological and physiological adaptations, including increases in energetic metabolism that may serve to propel sperm faster but that may have negative effects on DNA integrity. Sperm DNA damage is associated with reduced rates of fertilization, embryo and fetal loss, offspring mortality, and mutations leading to genetic disease. We tested whether high levels of sperm competition affect sperm DNA integrity. We evaluated sperm DNA integrity in 18 species of rodents that differ in their levels of sperm competition using the sperm chromatin structure assay. DNA integrity was assessed upon sperm collection, in response to incubation under capacitating or non-capacitating conditions, and after exposure to physical and chemical stressors. Sperm DNA was very resistant to physical and chemical stressors, whereas incubation in non-capacitating and capacitating conditions resulted in only a small increase in sperm DNA damage. Importantly, levels of sperm competition were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation across rodent species. This is the first evidence showing that high levels of sperm competition lead to an important cost in the form of increased sperm DNA damage. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Designing cost-effective seawater reverse osmosis system under optimal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.; Small, Mitchell J. [Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Today, three billion people around the world have no access to clean drinking water and about 1.76 billion people live in areas already facing a high degree of water stress. This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness of a stand alone small-scale renewable energy-powered seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system for developing countries. In this paper, we have introduced a new methodology; an energy optimization model which simulates hourly power production from renewable energy sources. Applying the model using the wind and solar radiation conditions for Eritrea, East Africa, we have computed hourly water production for a two-stage SWRO system with a capacity of 35 m{sup 3}/day. According to our results, specific energy consumption is about 2.33 kW h/m{sup 3}, which is a lower value than that achieved in most of the previous designs. The use of a booster pump, energy recovery turbine and an appropriate membrane, allows the specific energy consumption to be decreased by about 70% compared to less efficient design without these features. The energy recovery turbine results in a reduction in the water cost of about 41%. Our results show that a wind-powered system is the least cost and a PV-powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 and 1.00/m{sup 3}, respectively. By international standards, for example, in China, these values are considered economically feasible. Detailed simulations of the RO system design, energy options, and power, water, and life-cycle costs are presented. (author)

  20. Mineral carbonation: energy costs of pretreatment options and insights gained from flow loop reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Larry R.; O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of carbon as a stable mineral carbonate has been proposed to mitigate environmental concerns that carbon dioxide may with time escape from its sequestered matrix using alternative sequestration technologies. A method has been developed to prepare stable carbonate products by reacting CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals in aqueous bicarbonate/chloride media at high temperature and pressure. Because this approach is inherently expensive due to slow reaction rates and high capital costs, studies were conducted to improve the reaction rates through mineral pretreatment steps and to cut expenses through improved reactor technology. An overview is given for the estimated cost of the process including sensitivity to grinding and heating as pretreatment options for several mineral feedstocks. The energy costs are evaluated for each pretreatment in terms of net carbon avoided. New studies with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow-loop reactor have yielded information on overcoming kinetic barriers experienced with processing in stirred autoclave reactors. Repeated tests with the flow-loop reactor have yielded insights on wear and failure of system components, on challenges to maintain and measure flow, and for better understanding of the reaction mechanism.

  1. Competition with Online and Offline Demands considering Logistics Costs Based on the Hotelling Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Through popular information technologies (e.g., call centers, web portal, ecommerce and social media, etc., traditional shops change their functions for servicing online demands while still providing offline sales and services, which expand the market and the service capacity. In the Hotelling model that formulates the demand effect by considering just offline demand, the shops in a line city will locate at the center as a the result of competition by games. The online demands are met by the delivery logistics services provided by the shops with additional cost; the consumers’ waiting time after their orders also affects their choices for shops. The main purpose is to study the effects of the following aspects on the shops’ location competition: two logistics costs (consumers’ travelling cost for offline demands and the shops’ delivery logistics cost for online demands, the consumers’ waiting cost for online orders, and the ratios of online demands to the whole demands. Therefore, this study primarily contributes to the literature on the formulation of these aspects by extending the Hotelling model. These features and effects are demonstrated by experiments using the extended Hotelling models.

  2. Early Treatment in HCV: Is it a Cost-Utility Option from the Italian Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellusi, Andrea; Viti, Raffaella; Damele, Francesco; Cammà, Calogero; Taliani, Gloria; Mennini, Francesco Saverio

    2016-08-01

    In Italy, the Italian Pharmaceutical Agency (AIFA) criteria used F3-F4 fibrosis stages as the threshold to prioritise the treatment with interferon (IFN)-free regimens, while in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (G1 CHC) patients with fibrosis of liver stage 2, an approach with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-based triple therapy with simeprevir was suggested. The key clinical question is whether, in an era of financial constraints, the application of a universal IFN-free strategy in naïve G1 CHC patients is feasible within a short time horizon. The aim of this study is to perform an economic analysis to estimate the cost-utility of the early innovative therapy in Italy for managing hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The incremental cost-utility analysis was carried out to quantify the benefits of the early treatment approach in HCV subjects. A Markov simulation model including direct and indirect costs and health outcomes was developed from an Italian National Healthcare Service and societal perspective. A total of 5000 Monte Carlo simulations were performed on two distinct scenarios: standard of care (SoC) which includes 14,000 genotype 1 patients in Italy treated with innovative interferon-free regimens in the fibrosis of liver stages 3 and 4 (F3-F4) versus early-treatment scenario (ETS) where 2000 patients were additionally treated with simeprevir plus PEG-IFN and ribavirin in the fibrosis stage 2 (F2) (based on Italian Medicines Agency AIFA reimbursement criteria). A systematic literature review was carried out to identify epidemiological and economic data, which were subsequently used to inform the model. Furthermore, a one-way probabilistic sensitivity was performed to measure the relationship between the main parameters of the model and the cost-utility results. The model shows that, in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained, ETS appeared to be the most cost-utility option compared with both

  3. Cost, energy, global warming, eutrophication and local human health impacts of community water and sanitation service options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Wood, Alison; Hawkins, Troy R; Garland, Jay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option. Of the selected sustainability metrics, the greatest advantages of the alternative community water systems (compared to the conventional system) were in terms of local human health impact and eutrophication potential, despite large, outstanding uncertainties. Of the alternative options, the systems with on-site water reuse and energy recovery technologies had the least local human health impact; however, the cost of these options was highly variable and the energy consumption was comparable to on-site alternatives without water reuse or energy recovery, due to on-site reuse treatment. Future work should aim to reduce the uncertainty in the energy recovery process and explore the health risks associated with less costly, on-site water treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Creating customer value and the use of the product life cycle to generate strategic options for maturing low-cost service-retail markets -A case study on The Spirit Group value pub food retail concept"Two for One"

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This is a case study on a low-cost service retail concept known as "Two for One" a pub-food chain owned by The Spirit Group. The thesis aims to explore the nature and characteristics of the product life cycle for low-cost service retailers with the objective to establish strategic options. The nature of low-cost propositions is that price is the main strategic driver to compete for growth and market share. However in maturing markets where competition is high and margins are low, retailers...

  5. Fitness costs of chemical defense in Plantago lanceolata L.: effects of nutrient and competition stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Hamida B; Biere, Arjen; Van Damme, Jos M M

    2003-11-01

    Fitness costs of defense are often invoked to explain the maintenance of genetic variation in levels of chemical defense compounds in natural plant populations. We investigated fitness costs of iridoid glycosides (IGs), terpenoid compounds that strongly deter generalist insect herbivores, in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) using lines that had been artificially selected for high and low leaf IG concentrations for four generations. Twelve maternal half-sib families from each selection line were grown in four environments, consisting of two nutrient and two competition treatments. We tested whether: (1) in the absence of herbivores and pathogens, plants from lines selected for high IG levels have a lower fitness than plants selected for low IG levels; and (2) costs of chemical defense increase with environmental stress. Vegetative biomass did not differ between selection lines, but plants selected for high IG levels produced fewer inflorescences and had a significantly lower reproductive dry weight than plants selected for low IG levels, indicating a fitness cost of IG production. Line-by-nutrient and line-by-competition interactions were not significant for any of the fitness-related traits. Hence, there was no evidence that fitness costs increased with environmental stress. Two factors may have contributed to the absence of higher costs under environmental stress. First, IGs are carbon-based chemicals. Under nutrient limitation, the relative carbon excess may result in the production of IGs without imposing a further constraint on growth and reproduction. Second, correlated responses to selection on IG levels indicate the existence of a positive genetic association between IG level and cotyledon size. At low nutrient level, a path analysis based on family means revealed that in the presence of competitors, the negative direct effect of a high IG level on aboveground plant dry weight was partly offset by a positive direct effect of the associated larger

  6. Strategic cost management as instrument for improving competitiveness of agribusiness complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost accounting as a segment of an integrated accounting information system by generation of the relevant information provides significant support for both financial and managerial accounting. The above information represents the information base for decision making of internal and external users (management, investors, creditors and other stakeholders. In this paper a special attention is paid to contemporary systems of cost accounting, the application of which can be seen as an integral part of the effort undertaken in order to measure and control costs, since cost management is one of the indispensable elements to achieve, maintain and improve the competitiveness of enterprises. Having in mind the significant potential the Republic of Serbia has in the field of agricultural production, the aim of this paper is to highlight the challenges and specifics of cost management in the agribusiness complex enterprises. Hence, this paper discusses the modern systems of cost accounting as well as the cost management methods suited to the specific agricultural management activities, which could help to the local companies in efforts for share in the global agri-food products' market.

  7. LOOKING BEYOND COST LEADERSHIP AND DIFFERENTIATION IN THE QUEST FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian – Liviu Vele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current business environment, shaped by significant changes in the consumers’ behavior and, also, by a decrease in the demand for products and services, has influenced the way in which the companies are organized and managed, making the quest for sustainable competitive advantages top priority. The companies that will be able to provide customers with superior products and services will have the highest chances of survival. While it is true that times of economic crises causes a large number of companies to exit the market, it is also true that those who manage to adapt and gain sustainable competitive advantages will not only survive, but will be able to fill in the gaps left by their competitors and thus to increase their business. This article wishes to provide a theoretical perspective on the possible sources of sustainable competitive advantages, besides Michael Porter’s cost leadership and differentiation strategies. Following this, we will show how technological innovation, time, efficient use of the resources and designing the best organizational structure can be used as sources to gain sustainable competitive advantages.

  8. Avoiding the Tragedy of the Commons in Health Care: Policy Options for Covering High-Cost Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Liu, Hangsheng; Hoch, Emily; Mulcahy, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Mattke and his colleagues discuss the risk that strategic behavior by health insurers could unravel the market for curative therapies for chronic diseases. Because the cost of these cures is front-loaded but the benefits accrue over time, insurers might attempt to delay treatment or avoid patients who require it, in the hope that they might change insurers. The authors discuss policy options to remedy this potential free-rider problem through alignment of incentives at the patient level, coordination among payers, and government intervention. They present a framework to analyze policy options and real-world case studies. While implementing those policy options is far from easy, stakeholders need to collaborate in order to establish equitable mechanisms that fairly distribute the cost and benefits of high-cost cures.

  9. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  10. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  11. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  12. Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines and Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Makundi, W.; Andrasko, K.; Boer, R.; Ravindranath, N.; Sudha, P.; Rao, S.; Lasco, R.; Pulhin, F.; Masera, O.; Ceron, A.; Ordonez, J.; Deying, X.; Zhang, X.; Zuomin, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon (C) mitigation potential and costs of about 40 forestry options in seven developing countries. Each study uses the same methodological approach - Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (COMAP) - to estimate the above parameters between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios. Coupled with data on a per ha basis on C sequestration or avoidance, and costs and benefits, it allows the estimation of monetary benefit per Mg C, and the total costs and carbon potential. The results show that about half (3.0 Pg C) the cumulative mitigation potential of 6.2 Petagram (Pg) C between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries (about 200 x 106 Mg C yr-1) could be achieved at a negative cost and the remainder at costs ranging up to $100 Mg C-1. About 5 Pg C could be achieved, at a cost less than $20 per Mg C. Negative cost potential indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of these options. The achievable potential is likely to be smaller, however, due to market, institutional, and sociocultural barriers that can delay or prevent the implementation of the analyzed options.

  13. Cost modeling of biocontrol strains Pseudomonas chlororaphis and P. flurorescens for competitive exclusion of Salmonella enterica on tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of foodborne pathogens may complement postharvest intervention measures to enhance food safety of minimally processed produce. The purpose of this research was to develop cost model estimates for application of competitive exclusion process (CEM) using Pseudomonas chlororaphis and...

  14. Recombinant snakebite antivenoms: A cost-competitive solution to a neglected tropical disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kristoffer H.; Engmark, Mikael; Andersen, Mikael R.

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health burden in tropical parts of the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, neglect has led to a scarcity of antivenoms threatening the lives and limbs of snakebite victims. Technological advances within antivenom are warranted, but should be evaluated not only on their possible therapeutic impact, but also on their cost-competitiveness. Recombinant antivenoms based on oligoclonal mixtures of human IgG antibodies produced by CHO cell cultivation may be the key to obtaining better snakebite envenoming therapies. Based on industry data, the cost of treatment for a snakebite envenoming with a recombinant antivenom is estimated to be in the range USD 60–250 for the Final Drug Product. One of the effective antivenoms (SAIMR Snake Polyvalent Antivenom from the South African Vaccine Producers) currently on the market has been reported to have a wholesale price of USD 640 per treatment for an average snakebite. Recombinant antivenoms may therefore in the future be a cost-competitive alternative to existing serum-based antivenoms. PMID:28158193

  15. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF COSTS - THE MAIN TOOL OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA MICULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Both global and national hipercompetiţia and globalization are two phenomena that generate complexity and instability in the business. Therefore, the economic context in which organizations operate has changed a lot, the current environment characterized by globalization, increased competition, rapidly changing, market segmentation, changes in technology, demand volatility, the importance of information. These phenomena not only create a state of turmoil and turbulence in the competitive environment and generate changes in market conditions, but require changes and development in organizations. In these circumstances organizations worldwide are forced to adapt constantly, products and services to market needs to turn its attention to customer satisfaction, they need sophisticated production processes, internal processes flexible to respond quickly to changes environment.Therefore to achieve any competitive advantage, organizations must take the current economic environment strategies that integrate environmental opportunities, market and technology advantages in the most efficient way. In this context the question of modernization, the transformation cost information system, an adaptation to the realities and requirements of this, to change tools, processes and methods to meet current scientific and technical progress.

  16. Household Rates of Return to Education in Rural Bangladesh: Accounting for Direct Costs, Child Labour, and Option Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates the returns to boys' education for rural Bangladeshi households by accounting for some conventionally neglected items: direct costs of education, foregone child labour earnings, and option value. The estimated returns are 13.5% for primary education, 7.8% for junior-secondary education, 12.9% for higher-secondary education,…

  17. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Final briefing: Cost working group discussion session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The economic factors involved in the design and utilization of the space station are investigated. Topics include the economic benefits associated with research and production, the orbit transfer vehicle, and satellite servicing. Program costs and design options are examined. The possibilities of financing from the private sector are discussed.

  18. Online Cooperative Promotion and Cost Sharing Policy under Supply Chain Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjiang E

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies online cooperative promotion and cost sharing decisions in competing supply chains. We consider a model of one B2C e-commerce platform and two supply chains each consisting of a supplier and an online retailer. The problem is studied using a multistage game. Firstly, the e-commerce platform carries out the cooperative promotion and sets the magnitude of markdown (the value of e-coupon. Secondly, each retailer and his supplier determine the fraction of promotional cost sharing when they have different bargaining power. Lastly, the retailers decide whether to participate in the cooperative promotion campaign. We show that the retailers are likely to participate in the promotion if consumers become more price-sensitive. However, it does not imply that the retailers can benefit from the price promotion; the promotion decision game resembles the classical prisoner’s dilemma game. The retailers and suppliers can benefit from the cooperative promotion by designing an appropriate cost sharing contract. For a supply chain, the bargaining power between supplier and retailer, consumer price sensitivity, and competition intensity affect the fraction of the promotional cost sharing. We also find that equilibrium value of e-coupon set by the e-commerce platform is not optimal for all the parties.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of available treatment options for patients suffering from severe COPD in the UK: a fully incremental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertel N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nadine Hertel1, Robert W Kotchie1, Yevgeniy Samyshkin1, Matthew Radford1, Samantha Humphreys2, Kevin Jameson21IMS Consulting Group, London, UK; 2MSD Ltd, Hoddesdon, UKPurpose: Frequent exacerbations which are both costly and potentially life-threatening are a major concern to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, despite the availability of several treatment options. This study aimed to assess the lifetime costs and outcomes associated with alternative treatment regimens for patients with severe COPD in the UK setting.Patients and methods: A Markov cohort model was developed to predict lifetime costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of various combinations of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA, a long-acting beta agonist (LABA, an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, and roflumilast in a fully incremental analysis. Patients willing and able to take ICS, and those refusing or intolerant to ICS were analyzed separately. Efficacy was expressed as relative rate ratios of COPD exacerbation associated with alternative treatment regimens, taken from a mixed treatment comparison. The analysis was conducted from the UK National Health Service (NHS perspective. Parameter uncertainty was explored using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis.Results: Based on the results of the fully incremental analysis a cost-effectiveness frontier was determined, indicating those treatment regimens which represent the most cost-effective use of NHS resources. For ICS-tolerant patients the cost-effectiveness frontier suggested LAMA as initial treatment. Where patients continue to exacerbate and additional therapy is required, LAMA + LABA/ICS can be a cost-effective option, followed by LAMA + LABA/ICS + roflumilast (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] versus LAMA + LABA/ICS: £16,566 per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained. The ICER in ICS-intolerant patients, comparing LAMA + LABA + roflumilast versus LAMA + LABA, was £13

  20. Competition with a host nestling for parental provisioning imposes recoverable costs on parasitic cuckoo chick's growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geltsch, Nikoletta; Hauber, Márk E; Anderson, Michael G; Bán, Miklós; Moskát, Csaba

    2012-07-01

    Chicks of the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) typically monopolize host parental care by evicting all eggs and nestmates from the nest. To assess the benefits of parasitic eviction behaviour throughout the full nestling period, we generated mixed broods of one cuckoo and one great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to study how hosts divide care between own and parasitic young. We also recorded parental provisioning behaviour at nests of singleton host nestlings or singleton cuckoo chicks. Host parents fed the three types of broods with similar-sized food items. The mass of the cuckoo chicks was significantly reduced in mixed broods relative to singleton cuckoos. Yet, after the host chick fledged from mixed broods, at about 10-12 days, cuckoo chicks in mixed broods grew faster and appeared to have compensated for the growth costs of prior cohabitation by fledging at similar weights and ages compared to singleton cuckoo chicks. These results are contrary to suggestions that chick competition in mixed broods of cuckoos and hosts causes an irrecoverable cost for the developing brood parasite. Flexibility in cuckoos' growth dynamics may provide a general benefit to ecological uncertainty regarding the realized successes, failures, and costs of nestmate eviction strategies of brood parasites.

  1. A dynamic perspective on pharmaceutical competition, drug development and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Herings, Ron

    2011-04-01

    Limited healthcare budgets result in payers adopting policies at national, regional or local level to achieve allocative efficiency in drug spending. Some of these aim at creating a link between pharmaceutical prices and the value they provide by setting a cost effectiveness (CE) threshold as the maximum acceptable ratio between incremental costs and effects of new drugs. The clinical effectiveness of the comparator used in those CE analyses tends to be greater over time, whilst, due to market competition and loss of exclusivity, their price is expected to be lower. At the same time, research and development (R&D) costs increase with inflation and with efforts to address regulation towards increased safety concerns. As effective patent times decrease, a minimum price constraint raises for the new entrant. These features occur at different rates across disease areas and are expected to result in differently shaped innovation curves. In this scenario, we demonstrate that a general arbitrary threshold may prevent further efficient R&D. Investment may be withdrawn before the optimum innovation point is reached and affordable clinical effectiveness may be lost. We conclude that disease-specific characteristics are an additional consideration in CE decision rules to accommodate the particularities of innovation across disease areas.

  2. Of hummingbirds and helicopters: hovering costs, competitive ability, and foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L

    2004-01-01

    Wing morphology and flight kinematics profoundly influence foraging costs and the overall behavioral ecology of hummingbirds. By analogy with helicopters, previous energetic studies have applied the momentum theory of aircraft propellers to estimate hovering costs from wing disc loading (WDL), a parameter incorporating wingspan (or length) and body mass. Variation in WDL has been used to elucidate differences either among hummingbird species in nectar-foraging strategies (e.g., territoriality, traplining) and dominance relations or among gender-age categories within species. We first demonstrate that WDL, as typically calculated, is an unreliable predictor of hovering (induced power) costs; predictive power is increased when calculations use wing length instead of wingspan and when actual wing stroke amplitudes are incorporated. We next evaluate the hypotheses that foraging strategy and competitive ability are functions of WDL, using our data in combination with those of published sources. Variation in hummingbird behavior cannot be easily classified using WDL and instead is correlated with a diversity of morphological and physiological traits. Evaluating selection pressures on hummingbird wings will require moving beyond wing and body mass measurements to include the assessment of the aerodynamic forces, power requirements, and power reserves of hovering, forward flight, and maneuvering. However, the WDL-helicopter dynamics model has been instrumental in calling attention to the importance of comparative wing morphology and related aerodynamics for understanding the behavioral ecology of hummingbirds.

  3. 76 FR 27062 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Options for a User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009... interchangeable biological product (351(k)) applications submitted under the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act... called the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCI Act) that amends the PHS Act and...

  4. Are High Labour Costs Destroying the Competitiveness of Danish Dairy Farmers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Nielsen, Kurt; Bogetoft, Peter

    This paper analysis the competitiveness of Danish dairy farmers relative to dairy farmers in other Northern European countries. We use individual farm accounts data from the European Commission’s Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and have an average of 1665 observations per year in the period...... on the differences in average efficiencies between countries. The results shows that the Danish dairy farmers, on average, were the most economically efficient in Northern Europe in 2007 and 2008. We find that the effect of labour costs for the Danish dairy farmers is decreasing during the study period despite...... of the salary differences increasing. In 2002 the negative impact of having the highest hourly pay was an average 4.7 percentage points whereas it in 2008 was only 0.6 percentage points.This indicates that the Danish dairy farmers have been highly successful in adapting to having the highest, and increasing...

  5. Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition, and Costly Change Orders with Fixed-Price Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    cannot be parents nor children of each other. In the case of IDV and linked, this is because the causal link is difficult adjudicate because of...ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer Competition, and Costly Change Orders With...REPORT DATE 30 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Avoiding Terminations, Single Offer

  6. A Real Options Approach to Quantity and Cost Optimization for Lifetime and Bridge Buys of Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    greater than zero penalty cost avoided , but LTB costs will have to be paid. The cost avoidances in Equation 1 are uncertain due to uncertainties in...buys and to determine the optimum part quantity for a lifetime or bridge buy. The approach accommodates uncertainties in demand, holding costs, and end... uncertainties in demand, holding costs, and end of support dates. Introduction Background A significant problem facing many complex systems is

  7. A Real Options Approach to Quantity and Cost Optimization for Lifetime and Bridge Buys of Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    options in that they apply to tangible assets that are not typically traded as securities. • Unlike conventional net present value analysis...buys play a role in nearly every part obsolescence management portfolio. • Advantages of Lifetime Buys: – Design modifications and re-qualification... value of an option would be trivial to determine. - However, everything is uncertain and the future returns are generally highly asymmetric (upside

  8. The Contemporary Ways to Improve the Cost Management System in Order to Increase the Competitiveness of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumak Larysa F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the current directions and ways to improve the cost management systems, allowing to increase the competitiveness of enterprise. Costs of enterprise, in any conditions of existence, are the most significant aspect of the influence on formation of economic performance, as well as obtaining the important competitive advantages, playing a special role in achieving sustainable development. Cost management system of enterprise is one of the basic elements in developing and careful substantiating the managerial decisions, therefore its continuous improvement is necessary. Improving the enterprise’s cost management system requires an integrated approach to its formation, introduction of the latest modern approaches, methods, and elaborations. Analysis of directions for improving the efficiency of cost management systems allows to define the most promising way of adapting to the practical use of the most advanced automated systems.

  9. Cost awareness decreases total percutaneous coronary intervention procedural cost: The SHOPPING (Show How Options in Price for Procedures Can Be Influenced Greatly) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Elad; Mansour, John; Wheeler, Adam; Kendrick, Daniel; Cunningham, Michael; Parikh, Sahil; Zidar, David; Harford, Todd; Simon, Daniel I; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2017-06-01

    We initiated the SHOPPING Trial (Show How Options in Price for Procedures can be InflueNced Greatly) to see if percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures can be performed at a lower cost in a single institution. Procedural practice variability is associated with inefficiency and increased cost. We hypothesized that announcing costs for all supplies during a catheterization procedure and reporting individual operator cost relative to peers would spur cost reduction without affecting clinical outcomes. Baseline costs of 10 consecutive PCI procedures performed by 9 interventional cardiologists were documented during a 90-day interval. Costs were reassessed after instituting cost announcing and peer reporting the next quarter. The intervention involved labeling of all endovascular supplies, equipment, devices, and disposables in the catheterization laboratory and announcement of the unit price for each piece when requested. For each interventionalist, procedure time and costs were measured and analyzed prior to and after the intervention. We found that total PCI procedural cost was significantly reduced by an average of $234.77 (P = 0.01), equating to a total savings of $21,129.30 over the course of 90 PCI procedures. Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Event (MACCE) rates were similar during both periods (2.3% vs. 3.5%, P = NS). Announcing costs in the catheterization laboratory during single vessel PCI and peer reporting leads to cost reduction without affecting clinical outcomes. This intervention may have a role in more complex coronary and peripheral interventional procedures, and in other procedural areas where multiple equipment and device alternatives with variable costs are available. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Life cycle assessment of mobility options using wood based fuels--comparison of selected environmental effects and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    An environmental assessment and a cost analysis were conducted for mobility options using electricity, hydrogen, ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and methane derived from wood. Therefore, the overall life cycle with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying emissions and fossil energy demand as well as costs is analysed. The investigation is carried out for mobility options in 2010 and gives an outlook to the year 2030. Results show that methane utilization in the car is beneficial with regard to environmental impacts (e.g. 58.5 g CO2-eq./km) and costs (23.1 €-ct./km) in 2010, especially in comparison to hydrogen usage (132.4 g CO2-eq./km and 63.9 €-ct./km). The electric vehicle construction has high environmental impacts and costs compared to conventional vehicles today, but with technical improvements and further market penetration, battery electric vehicles can reach the level of concepts with combustion engines in future applications (e.g. cost decrease from 38.7 to 23.4 €-ct./km). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  12. Are high labour costs destroying the competitiveness of danish dairy farmers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Nielsen, Kurt; Bogetoft, Peter

    This paper analysis the competitiveness of Danish dairy farmers relative to dairy farmers in other Northern European countries. We use individual farm accounts data from the European Commission’s Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and have an average of 1665 observations per year in the period......¿erences in average e¿ciencies between countries. The results shows that the Danish dairy farmers, on average, were the most economically e¿cient in Northern Europe in 2007 and 2008. We ¿nd that the e¿ect of labour costs for the Danish dairy farmers is decreasing during the study period despite of the salary di......¿erences increasing. In 2002 the negative impact of having the highest hourly pay was an average 4.7 percentage points whereas it in 2008 was only 0.6 percentage 1points.This indicates that the Danish dairy farmers have been highly successful in adapting to having the highest, and increasing, hourly labour costs...

  13. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens and feeding options in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rwanda's National PMTCT program aims to achieve elimination of new HIV infections in children by 2015. In November 2010, Rwanda adopted the WHO 2010 ARV guidelines for PMTCT recommending Option B (HAART for all HIV-positive pregnant women extended throughout breastfeeding and discontinued (short course-HAART only for those not eligible for life treatment. The current study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of this policy choice. METHODS: Based on a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women in Rwanda, we modelled the cost-effectiveness of six regimens: dual ARV prophylaxis with either 12 months breastfeeding or replacement feeding; short course HAART (Sc-HAART prophylaxis with either 6 months breastfeeding, 12 months breastfeeding, or 18 months breastfeeding; and Sc-HAART prophylaxis with replacement feeding. Direct costs were modelled based on all inputs in each scenario and related unit costs. Effectiveness was evaluated by measuring HIV-free survival at 18 months. Savings correspond to the lifetime costs of HIV treatment and care avoided as a result of all vertical HIV infections averted. RESULTS: All PMTCT scenarios considered are cost saving compared to "no intervention." Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding or 6 months breastfeeding dominate all other scenarios. Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding allows for more children to be alive and HIV-uninfected by 18 months than Sc-HAART with 6 months breastfeeding for an incremental cost per child alive and uninfected of 11,882 USD. This conclusion is sensitive to changes in the relative risk of mortality by 18 months for exposed HIV-uninfected children on replacement feeding from birth and those who were breastfed for only 6 months compared to those breastfeeding for 12 months or more. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the earlier decision by Rwanda to adopt WHO Option B and could inform alternatives for breastfeeding duration. Local contexts and existing care delivery models should

  14. Benefit and cost competitiveness analysis of wind and solar power inter-continent transmission under global energy interconnection mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Ding, Jian; Liu, Jie; Wei, Tiezhong

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the global energy Interconnection, considering the energy implementation, carrying out clean energy alternative is mainly to use the clean energy to take place of fossil energy. Under the green development scenario, This research gives the global energy interconnection development model, makes the Artic and the Equation as the connection points, gives the Northern hemisphere interconnection model and equator interconnection model unite the whole world energy. This research also identifies the factors effecting the transmission changes cost, including generation cost, transmission cost and landing cost. And take two continents connection as the prediction example, estimate these two continents cost benefit and variable power-jointed scheme cost competitiveness. It showed that under the global energy interconnection mode, the trans-continent mode had better benefit, and the landing cost is good to be used, can solve the pollution and energy restriction.

  15. Low-cost passive solar-retrofit options for mobile homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brant, S.; Holtz, M.; Tasker, M.

    1981-03-01

    Passive solar heating and cooling retrofit options can significantly reduce the energy consumption of new and existing mobile homes. The initial efforts of the Solar Energy Research Institute to explore the solar potential for the existing stock of mobile homes and those in the production stage are described.

  16. Air Defense Options for Taiwan: An Assessment of Relative Costs and Operational Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    much more diversified threat. These include fielding new, sophisticated fighter aircraft and fighter-bombers. Highly accurate air-to-ground weapons...threats. Therefore, we do not include them for consideration as part of Taiwan’s airpower portfolio . 126 Air Defense Options for Taiwan The

  17. Upgrading the Extender: Which Options Are Cost-Effective for Modernizing the KC-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    study. Our action officers in the Global Reach Programs Mobility Division, Lt Col Brian Jonasen, Lt Col Eugene Croft, Allan Haenisch, and Tod...modernization option A. At the other extreme, if there were no requirement to execute mission Z, then there would be no benefit in choos - 3 During long

  18. Cost modeling of pseudomonoas fluorescens and pseudomonoas chlororphis biocontrol for competitive exclusion of salmonella enterica on tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocontrol measures may enhance postharvest interventions, however; published research on process-based models for biocontrol of foodborne pathogens on produce is limited. The aim of this research was to develop cost model estimates for competitive exclusion process using Pseudomonas fluorescens and...

  19. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Bentley, J.; Barnett, B.

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R&D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice, operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under 150/kW in stationary applications and 30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories.

  20. Cost effectiveness of option B plus for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited countries: evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Adam; Paintsil, Elijah; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Long, Elisa F

    2015-03-18

    Achieving the goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) necessitates increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Option B provides ART through pregnancy and breastfeeding, whereas Option B+ recommends continuous ART regardless of CD4 count, thus potentially reducing MTCT during future pregnancies. Our objective was to compare maternal and pediatric health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of Option B+ versus Option B in Ghana. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate HIV progression in mothers and transmission (in utero, during birth, or through breastfeeding) to current and all future children. Clinical parameters, including antenatal care access and fertility rates, were estimated from a retrospective review of 817 medical records at two hospitals in Ghana. Additional parameters were obtained from published literature. Modeled outcomes include HIV infections averted among newborn children, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness ratios. HIV-infected women in Ghana have a lifetime average of 2.3 children (SD 1.3). Projected maternal life expectancy under Option B+ is 16.1 years, versus 16.0 years with Option B, yielding a gain of 0.1 maternal QALYs and 3.2 additional QALYs per child. Despite higher initial ART costs, Option B+ costs $785/QALY gained, a value considered very cost-effective by World Health Organization benchmarks. Widespread implementation of Option B+ in Ghana could theoretically prevent up to 668 HIV infections among children annually. Cost-effectiveness estimates remained favorable over robust sensitivity analyses. Although more expensive than Option B, Option B+ substantially reduces MTCT in future pregnancies, increases both maternal and pediatric QALYs, and is a cost-effective use of limited resources in Ghana.

  1. Costs of mating competition limit male lifetime breeding success in polygynous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Although differences in breeding lifespan are an important source of variation in male fitness, the factors affecting the breeding tenure of males have seldom been explored. Here, we use cross-species comparisons to investigate the correlates of breeding lifespan in male mammals. Our results show that male breeding lifespan depends on the extent of polygyny, which reflects the relative intensity of competition for access to females. Males have relatively short breeding tenure in species where individuals have the potential to monopolize mating with multiple females, and longer ones where individuals defend one female at a time. Male breeding tenure is also shorter in species in which females breed frequently than in those where females breed less frequently, suggesting that the costs of guarding females may contribute to limiting tenure length. As a consequence of these relationships, estimates of skew in male breeding success within seasons overestimate skew calculated across the lifetime and, in several polygynous species, variance in lifetime breeding success is not substantially higher in males than in females.

  2. Therapeutic options in docetaxel-refractory metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixian Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is an established first-line therapy to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC. Recently, abiraterone and cabazitaxel were approved for use after docetaxel failure, with improved survival. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE preliminary recommendations were negative for both abiraterone (now positive in final recommendation and cabazitaxel (negative in final recommendation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone, cabazitaxel, mitoxantrone and prednisone for mCRPC treatment in US. METHODS: A decision-tree model was constructed to compare the two mCRPC treatments versus two placebos over 18 months from a societal perspective. Chance nodes include baseline pain as a severity indicator, grade III/IV side-effects, and survival at 18 months. Probabilities, survival and health utilities were from published studies. Model cost inputs included drug treatment, side-effect management and prevention, radiation for pain, and death associated costs in 2010 US dollars. RESULTS: Abiraterone is a cost-effective choice at $94K/QALY (quality adjusted life years compared to placebo in our base-case analysis. Cabazitaxel and abiraterone are the most effective, yet also most expensive agents. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER at base-case are $101K/QALY (extended dominated for mitoxantrone vs. placebo, $91K/QALY for abiraterone vs. mitoxantrone, $956K/QALY for cabazitaxel vs. abiraterone. Abiraterone becomes less cost-effective as its AWP increases, or if the cost of mitoxantrone side-effect management decreases. Increases in the percentage of patients with baseline pain leads to an increased ICER for both mitoxantrone and abiraterone, but mitoxantrone does relatively better. Cabazitaxel remains not cost-effective. CONCLUSION: Our base case model suggests that abiraterone is a cost-effective option in docetaxel-refractory mCRPC patients. Newer treatments will also

  3. Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport. An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Hon, G.; Wang, H. [The International Council for Clean Transportation ICCT, Beijing (China); Tsimplis, M. [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    This report studies the legal and technical constraints to possible mandatory speed regulation for ships. It also analyses the design of these regulations and the costs and benefits. The report shows that slow steaming has significant environmental benefits, and, in most scenarios, economic benefits as well. Regulated slow steaming is legally feasible and feasible to implement. Regulated slow steaming has a number of advantages: it is the most cost effective way to reduce ship emissions, and if implemented correctly, it is cost free to the shipping industry as a whole and entails marginal incremental logistic and supply chain costs to consumers; regulated slow steaming ensures that emissions in the shipping sector will be reduced, regardless of the fuel price and demand for shipping; a cap on speed would reduce the risk of an otherwise likely spike in emissions if ships were to speed up in response to a recovery in demand; a cap set today around current average ship speeds will have little impact on industry in the short term; and regulated slow steaming is relatively easy to monitor and enforce, and may have a lower administrative burden than some of the recently proposed market-based measures. There are also disadvantages to regulated slow steaming: A restriction on speed reduces market flexibility; because of the perceived loss of market flexibility, regulated slow steaming appears to be widely opposed by shipping companies and shippers; it may not be cost-effective for all ships, on all routes or for all ship types; it reduces the cost-effectiveness of other means of fuel efficiency improvements and may result in less innovation; since it prescribes a specific measure it would run contrary to the goal-based approach to shipping environmental policy favoured in recent years; and while regulated slow steaming, if implemented carefully, need not impose additional costs on the shipping sector as a whole, neither would it raise revenues for use in fighting climate

  4. Assessing competition with the Panzar-Rosse model : the role of scale, costs, and equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Shaffer, Sherrill; Spierdijk, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Panzar-Rosse test has been widely applied to assess competitive conduct, often in specifications controlling for firm scale or using a price equation. We show that neither a price equation nor a scaled revenue function yields a valid measure for competitive conduct. Moreover, even an unscaled re

  5. Innovative and cost competitive hydrogen storage systems: STORHY- A European integrated Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubel, V.; Bartlok, G.; Krainz, G.; Gauthier, A.; Mair, G.; Muller, J.; Barral, K.; Zieger, J.

    2005-07-01

    Session Alternative fuel and drive train solutions represent one of the biggest challenge for the vehicle of the future. Current research activities related to hydrogen as an energy carrier indicate that the concept of a hydrogen economy has considerably gained in credibility in recent years. One main technical gap for the wide commercialisation of hydrogen-fuelled vehicles is the improvement of hydrogen storage systems in terms of efficiency, cost and safety. This is indeed the main objective of the Integrated Project StorHy within the EU 6th Framework Programme. In IP StorHy, the major European automotive companies, gas suppliers, research institutes and universities will develop innovative and cost competitive storage solutions with a view to mass production. Technologies of 700 bar compressed gaseous hydrogen storage vessels will be investigated in terms of the following criteria: novel liner materials, modular storage vessel concept, liner and composite vessel manufacturing processes, fast-filling processes for 700 bar vessels applying cool filling protocols, safety on-board monitoring system, recyclability, 700 bar exchangeable rack. Thanks to its low working pressure (compared to high-pressure systems), cryogenic storage of liquid hydrogen allows for new concepts with conformable geometries more suited to vehicle design. Furthermore, the use of new composite materials entails a great potential for weight reduction - with these materials a specific energy storage mass similar to conventional fuel tanks can be achieved. As for the solid hydrogen storage technologies, the StorHy project focuses on light weight complex alanates as these are considered as one of the most promising materials for solid hydrogen storage. The investigations concentrate on improving hydrogen storage density as well as hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics. Furthermore, material production processes capable of supplying larger quantities of storage material for a demonstrator tank

  6. Cost analysis of common treatment options for indolent follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Agthoven, M; Kramer, MHH; Sonneveld, P; van der Hem, KG; Huijgens, PC; Wijermans, PW; Kluin-Nelemans, HC; Biesma, DH; Mattijssen, [No Value; Uyl-de Groot, CA; Hagenbeek, A; Schaafsma, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives. We assessed direct health care costs associated with the most commonly prescribed treatments for indolent follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (FL). Design and Methods. New and previously diagnosed FL patients ( >= 18 years) known during 1997-1998 to 15 Dutch hospitals were

  7. A least cost energy analysis of US CO sub 2 reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Solomon, B.D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Hill, D. (Hill (Douglas), Huntington, NY (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Public policy debate on global climate change is increasingly focused on the cost of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Discussion in the US has centered on national energy policy and the desirability and cost of increased energy conversion efficiency and end-use conservation, and on shifting from high greenhouse gas emitting fuels to natural gas, renewable and nuclear-based energy sources. This paper overviews the US MARKAL model, a dynamic linear programming (LP) model of US energy supply and demand. Useful energy projections are specified exogenously to the model, which then determines the optimal energy supply that can meet the demand. We have updated MARKAL with currently available energy technology cost and market penetration data and have applied it to the CO{sub 2} reduction problem for the US. In addition, we have varied some key inputs to the model to test the sensitivity of the energy system to alternative assumptions and to overcome some of the key limitations of the input data. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Compensating the opportunity cost of forest functional zoning - two alternative options for the Romanian forest policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Drăgoi,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge of the environmental policy is conceivingappropriate economic instruments able to account for the positive externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This issue is extremely important for implementing the provisions of the Romanian Forest Act, which states that forest owners shall be compensated for the opportunity costs of giving up harvesting operations due to various conservation purposes. The paper presents a statistical method based on analytical assessment of the effective forgone revenues brought about by banning the harvesting operations in 96 cases, each case being a distinctive forest management plan conceived for a large forest area, i.e. a production unit. Doing so, the scale effect has been taken into account because all legal provisions referring to forest management planning systems are focused on production units, considered the basic reference elements for sustainable forest management. The multiple regression function produced by the statistical analysis was turned into a simple formula allowing for a straightforward set up of the average compensation worth being paid per year and hectare. In order to better fetch the real opportunity cost paid for each hectare of protected forest, the algorithmwas further improved in order to account for the differences in stumpage residual value. Actually, the average compensation is differentiated onto five categories of hauling distances, using the same algorithm used by the National Forest Administration for differentiating the average reservation price established at national level on the ground of full-cost method stumpage pricing system.

  9. Price Competition with Reduced Consumer Switching Costs: The Case of "Wireless Number Portability" in the Cellular Phone Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mengze Shi; Jeongwen Chiang; Byong-Duk Rhee

    2006-01-01

    Wireless number portability (WNP) is a telecommunication regulatory policy that requires cellular phone service providers to allow customers who switch service subscriptions to retain their original phone numbers. The right to retain the number lowers the switching cost for a consumer. Thus, the purpose of the policy is to induce more competition and facilitate the growth of new or small service providers. In this paper, we show that WNP drives market price downward as expected but with a sur...

  10. Pyrrhic Victories: The Need for Social Status Drives Costly Competitive Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter eVan Den Bos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Competitive behavior is commonly defined as the decision to maximize one’s payoffs relative to others. We argue instead that competitive drive derives from a desire for social status. We make use of a multi-player auction task in which subjects knowingly incur financial losses for the sake of winning auctions. First, we show that overbidding is increased when the task includes members of a rival out-group, suggesting that social identity is an important mediator of competitiveness. In addition, we show that the extent that individuals are willing to incur losses is related to affective responses to social comparisons but not to monetary outcomes. Second, we show that basal levels of testosterone predict overbidding, and that this effect of testosterone is mediated by affective responses to social comparisons. Based on these findings, we argue that competitive behavior should be conceptualized in terms of social motivations as opposed to just relative monetary payoffs.

  11. Pyrrhic victories: the need for social status drives costly competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Golka, Philipp J M; Effelsberg, David; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-01

    Competitive behavior is commonly defined as the decision to maximize one's payoffs relative to others. We argue instead that competitive drive derives from a desire for social status. We make use of a multi-player auction task in which subjects knowingly incur financial losses for the sake of winning auctions. First, we show that overbidding is increased when the task includes members of a rival out-group, suggesting that social identity is an important mediator of competitiveness. In addition, we show that the extent that individuals are willing to incur losses is related to affective responses to social comparisons but not to monetary outcomes. Second, we show that basal levels of testosterone predict overbidding, and that this effect of testosterone is mediated by affective responses to social comparisons. Based on these findings, we argue that competitive behavior should be conceptualized in terms of social motivations as opposed to just relative monetary payoffs.

  12. Logistics Costs Analysis as an Assisting Tool to Achieve Competitive Advantage for Agricultural Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Wajszczuk, Karol

    2005-01-01

    An attempt of evaluation of level and structure of logistics costs in chosen great area agricultural enterprises was shown in the paper. Results of research have shown, that great area agricultural enterprises have got high share costs of logistics both in total costs of production 42,2%, and in selling value of products and services 27,5%. Costs of physical flow of materials predominate in the structure of total logistics costs of great area agricultural enterprises 86,5%.

  13. Towards a tipping point in responding to change: rising costs, fewer options for Arctic and global societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Henry P; Goodstein, Eban; Euskirchen, Eugénie

    2012-02-01

    Climate change incurs costs, but government adaptation budgets are limited. Beyond a certain point, individuals must bear the costs or adapt to new circumstances, creating political-economic tipping points that we explore in three examples. First, many Alaska Native villages are threatened by erosion, but relocation is expensive. To date, critically threatened villages have not yet been relocated, suggesting that we may already have reached a political-economic tipping point. Second, forest fires shape landscape and ecological characteristics in interior Alaska. Climate-driven changes in fire regime require increased fire-fighting resources to maintain current patterns of vegetation and land use, but these resources appear to be less and less available, indicating an approaching tipping point. Third, rapid sea level rise, for example from accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet, will create a choice between protection and abandonment for coastal regions throughout the world, a potential global tipping point comparable to those now faced by Arctic communities. The examples illustrate the basic idea that if costs of response increase more quickly than available resources, then society has fewer and fewer options as time passes.

  14. Free-roaming dog populations: a cost-benefit model for different management options, applied to Abruzzo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, H R; Er, C; Di Nardo, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2013-11-01

    Since 1991, Italian free-roaming dogs have been under government protection and euthanasia is restricted by law. Management measures are regulated at the regional level and include: kennelling, adoptions, conversion of stray dogs into block dogs, and population control of owned dogs. "Block dogs" are free-roaming dogs that have been collected by the veterinary services, microchipped, sterilised, vaccinated, and released under the responsibility of the local municipalities. The present paper describes a cost-benefit model for different management options and applies it to two provinces in Abruzzo, central Italy. The model considers welfare, nuisance and direct costs to the municipality. Welfare is quantified based on the expert opinions of 60 local veterinarians, who were asked to assign a score for each dog category according to the five freedoms: freedom from pain, physical discomfort, disease, fear, and freedom to express normal behaviour. Nuisance was assessed only for comparisons between management options, using the number of free-roaming dogs per inhabitant as a proxy indicator. A community dog population model was constructed to predict the effect of management on the different subpopulations of dogs during a ten-year period. It is a user-friendly deterministic model in Excel, easily adaptable to different communities to assess the impact of their dog management policy on welfare, nuisance and direct monetary cost. We present results for Teramo and Pescara provinces. Today's management system is compared to alternative models, which evaluate the effect of specific interventions. These include either a 10% yearly increase in kennel capacity, an increase in adoptions from kennels, a doubling of the capture of stray dogs, or a stabilisation of the owned dog population. Results indicate that optimal management decisions are complex because welfare, nuisance and monetary costs may imply conflicting interventions. Nevertheless, they clearly indicate that

  15. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  16. Management strategies to curb rhino poaching: Alternative options using a cost benefit approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The combination of increasing demand and high black market prices for rhino horn in Asian markets has fueled an escalation in rhino poaching since 2007, particularly in South Africa. This situation has in turn resulted in greatly increased rhino protection costs, loss in confidence by the private sector in rhinos, loss of revenue to conservation authorities and reduced rhino population growth rates. Within current CITES processes, management responses to threats posed by poaching to rhino persistence fall within a mixture of reactive responses of increased protection and law enforcement and some pro-active responses such as demand reduction tactics, along with a parallel call for opening a legal trade in horn. These rhino management strategies carry different risks and benefits in meeting several conservation objectives. An expert-based risk-benefit analysis of five different rhino management strategies was undertaken to assess their potential for delivering upon agreed rhino conservation objectives. The outcomes indicated that benefits may exceed risks for those strategies that in some or other format legally provided horn for meeting demand. Expert risk-benefit approaches are suggested to offer a rational, inclusive and consensus generating means of addressing complex issues such as rhino poaching and augmenting the information used within the CITES decision-making processes.

  17. Are high labour costs destroying the competitiveness of danish dairy farmers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Nielsen, Kurt; Bogetoft, Peter

    This paper analysis the competitiveness of Danish dairy farmers relative to dairy farmers in other Northern European countries. We use individual farm accounts data from the European Commission’s Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and have an average of 1665 observations per year in the period ...

  18. Collaborative Ventures and Value of Learning: Integrating the Transaction Cost and Strategic Option Perspectives on the Choice of Market Entry Modes

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper employs a simple stochastic model to investigate how transaction cost and strategic option considerations interact to influence a firm's evaluation of collaborative venturing as a market entry mode. After demonstrating how uncertainty about the market and about the potential partner can add to the value of a collaborative venture, the paper explicates a condition under which the option to acquire or sell out generates a positive economic value for both of the partners. The interact...

  19. Hot Issue and Burning Options in Waste Management: A Social Cost Benefit Analysis of Waste-to-Energy in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Kiamil, H.; Nepal, R.

    2008-01-01

    The growing stream of municipal solid waste requires a sustainable waste management strategy. Meanwhile, addressing climate change and security of energy supply concerns require increased use of low-carbon and domestic sources of energy. This paper assesses the economic and policy aspects of waste management options focusing on waste to energy (WtE). We conclude that high levels of WtE and recycling are compatible as waste treatment options. We also present a social cost-benefit analysis of w...

  20. Modeling the Costs and Environmental Benefits of Disposal Options for End-of-Life Electronic Equipment: The Case of Used Computer Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Karen; Macauley, Molly; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cline, Sarah; Holsinger, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Managing the growing quantity of used electronic equipment poses challenges for waste management officials. In this paper, we focus on a large component of the electronic waste stream—computer monitors—and the disposal concerns associated with the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We develop a policy simulation model of consumers’ disposal options based on the costs of these options and their associated environmental impacts. For the stock of monitors disposed o...

  1. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    -cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation...

  2. Fitness costs of chemical defense in Plantago lanceolata L.: effects of nutrient and competition stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Fitness costs of defense are often invoked to explain the maintenance of genetic variation in levels of chemical defense compounds in natural plant populations. We investigated fitness costs of iridoid glycosides (IGs), terpenoid compounds that strongly deter generalist insect herbivores, in ribwort

  3. Transmission avoided cost: a new parameter to evaluate the economic competitiveness of generations plants projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, D.S. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, J.C.R.; Rosenblat, J. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents a new formulation that makes feasible a composition of long run production marginal costs with the long run transmission marginal costs, including the costs related to the interconnection EHV networks and that related to the voltage levels below. The goal top be attained is to have available a more adequate parameter in order to compare production cost related to a plant, that will be connected to a certain voltage level network, to the cost related supplying the sam,e amount of energy from the bulk power system which will be represented by the marginal costs up to the voltage level under consideration. This procedure brings to light the Transmission Avoided Costs concepts, that are stressed throughout the text. The proposed methodology is now being used, in the brazilian Power Sector, as a rule of thumb in order to guide planning decisions about the schedule of new plants that have installed capacity below 30 MW. For plants with higher capacity, the transmission avoided costs are evaluated for each specific case, simulating the system behavior without the quoted hydroelectric plant. This paper focuses, an an application example, the case of the Canoas Hydroelectric Project, recently included in the Generation Expansion Reference Plan after a detailed analysis supported by the methodology described here. (author) 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Competition - cost lower limits and quality assurance; Wettbewerb - Kostenuntergrenzen und Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, H. [Abt. Technik, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Fernwaerme - AGFW e.V., VDEW, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The stiff competition in the pipeline and underground engineering field has now reached ruinous proportions. At the processing level it is quite possible that in contrast to former times, prices are dictated by the principal client. Practice shows that an order accepted under adverse conditions will, as a rule, not improve during completion, but will more likely deteriorate. Competition carried out on the backs of the executing firms results in a ruinous market situation. In order to create fundamentals for the survival of district heat in the prevailing rationalization debate, the Board of Directors of the AGFW has decided to place the AGFW regulations on a binding basis. Transparent minimum requirements provide the basis for both the quality of the product district heat and for competition-oriented activities. They are mandatory for implementing efficient and reliable district heat supply. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der harte Wettbewerb im Rohrleitungs- und Tiefbaubereich hat mittlerweile ruinoese Formen angenommen. Die Praxis zeigt, dass ein Auftrag, der zu schlechten Konditionen akzeptiert wurde, in der Regel waehrend der Auftragsabwicklung nicht besser, sondern eher noch schlechter wird. Vorwiegend auf dem Ruecken der Ausfuehrenden ausgetragener Wettbewerb fuehrt zu ruinoesem Wettbewerb. Um in der momentanen Rationalisierungsdiskussion die Grundlagen fuer das Ueberleben der Fernwaerme zu schaffen, hat der Vorstand der AGFW entschieden, das AGFW-Regelwerk auf eine verbindliche Basis zu stellen. Transparente Mindestanforderungen bieten die Basis fuer die Qualitaet des Produktes Fernwaerme und wettbewerbsorientiertes Handeln. Sie sind Voraussetzung fuer die Realisierung einer wirtschaftlichen und sicheren Fernwaermeversorgung. (orig.)

  5. 非对称双寡头企业实物期权博弈分析%Option game analysis on asymmetric duopoly competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马旭耀; 秦现生; 白宏伟

    2012-01-01

    Aim To study how the difference of maket share and investment cost affects duopoly enterprises' investment critical value. Methods Real option game theory and mathematical analysis. Results Higher market share and lower investment cost can reduce investment critical value, unbalanced difference affects duopoly enterprises in racing to clutch at game opportunity. Conclusion When an enterprise has a dominant market share and investment cost, becoming a maket leader is the optimal choice. While an enterprise can become a follower and acquire a better achievement when it has only one advantage.%目的 分析市场占有率和投资成本因素的差异对双寡头企业抢滩阈值的影响.方法 期权博弈理论和数值分析.结果 较高的市场占有率、较低的投资成本降低抢滩博弈阈值,不均衡差异影响双寡头企业抢滩博弈时机.结论 市场占有率和投资成本均占优的情况下,成为领先者是最佳选择;只有一项优势的情况下,成为追随者也会取得较好的业绩.

  6. Research on Strategic Cost Management and the Core Competitiveness of Corporation%以战略成本管理提升企业核心竞争力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓玲

    2011-01-01

    战略成本管理是旨在提高企业长期竞争能力的成本管理手段.文章从战略成本管理的内涵出发,分析了战略成本管理与企业核心竞争力的关系,最后探讨了如何通过战略成本管理来提升企业核心竞争力.%Strategic cost management is a kind of cost management means which aims to improve long-term competitiveness of corporation. Starting from the concept of strategic cost management, the paper analyzes the relationship between strategic cost management and core competitiveness, then discusses how to enhance the core competitiveness through strategic cost management.

  7. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  8. Study Competition Channel Structure Based on the Differences of Cost and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lan; AI Xingzheng; ZHANG Chi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to expand Trivedig study on the influence of channel structure ,which based on product difference,to cost difference;and analyze the evolution course of channel structure under different conditions.We find that like product difference,cost difference have important influence on the choice of channel structure.This paper has improved the present result and provided proof for the choice of channel structure under different environments.

  9. Of hummingbirds and helicopters: Hovering costs, competitive ability, and foraging strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Stiles, F. Gary; Dudley, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Wing morphology and flight kinematics profoundly influence foraging costs and the overall behavioral ecology of hummingbirds. By analogy with helicopters, previous energetic studies have applied the momentum theory of aircraft propellers to estimate hovering costs from wing disc loading (WDL), a parameter incorporating wingspan (or length) and body mass. Variation in WDL has been used to elucidate differences either among hummingbird species in nectar-foraging strategies (e.g., territoriality...

  10. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  11. Feed-backs among inbreeding, inbreeding depression in sperm traits and sperm competition can drive evolution of costly polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2017-09-12

    Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in non-selfing systems. We use a genetically-explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males rather than avoiding inbreeding. Specifically, given inbreeding depression in sperm traits, costly polyandry evolved to ensure female fertility, without requiring explicit inbreeding avoidance. We show the mechanisms behind two main feed-backs. First, resulting sperm competition caused evolution of sperm traits and further mitigated the negative effect of inbreeding depression on female fertility. Second, the evolving mating system fed back to decrease population-wide homozygosity, and hence inbreeding. However, net overall reduction was small due to compound effects on the variances in sex-specific reproductive success and paternity skew. Purging of deleterious mutations did not eliminate inbreeding depression in sperm traits and hence selection for polyandry. Polyandry evolution, both directly and through sperm competition, might consequently facilitate evolutionary rescue for populations experiencing sudden increases in inbreeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Member satisfaction information as competitive intelligence: a new tool for increasing market share and reducing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, T

    1995-01-01

    MCOs have begun to realize the impact that consumer satisfaction has on enrollment and pricing. Taking a lesson from auto manufacturers, MCOs are now realizing the additional advantages of obtaining consumer satisfaction information about their competitors. Knowing competitors' members intentions to stay or leave their plans, pin-pointing competitors' strengths and weaknesses, and identifying unmet consumer needs, allow MCOs to more successfully develop tactics and strategies for sales, marketing, and planning. This article describes the use of member satisfaction information as competitive intelligence, what to look for in this information, and sources for obtaining reliable information.

  13. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  14. Online Cooperative Promotion and Cost Sharing Policy under Supply Chain Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Erjiang E; Geng Peng; Xin Tian; Qinghong Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies online cooperative promotion and cost sharing decisions in competing supply chains. We consider a model of one B2C e-commerce platform and two supply chains each consisting of a supplier and an online retailer. The problem is studied using a multistage game. Firstly, the e-commerce platform carries out the cooperative promotion and sets the magnitude of markdown (the value of e-coupon). Secondly, each retailer and his supplier determine the fraction of promotional cost shar...

  15. MORE COSTLY OR MORE PRODUCTIVE? MEASURING CHANGES IN COMPETITIVENESS IN MANUFACTURING ACROSS REGIONS IN CHINA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Vivian W.; Wu, Harry X.; van Ark, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Using a newly constructed industry-by-region dataset based on China's two censuses, this paper examines the trend of average labor compensation (ALC), labor productivity (ALP) and unit labor cost (ULC) in 28 manufacturing industries across 29 provinces in China for 1995 and 2004. Findings show that

  16. MORE COSTLY OR MORE PRODUCTIVE? MEASURING CHANGES IN COMPETITIVENESS IN MANUFACTURING ACROSS REGIONS IN CHINA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Vivian W.; Wu, Harry X.; van Ark, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Using a newly constructed industry-by-region dataset based on China's two censuses, this paper examines the trend of average labor compensation (ALC), labor productivity (ALP) and unit labor cost (ULC) in 28 manufacturing industries across 29 provinces in China for 1995 and 2004. Findings show that

  17. 股票期权的税收效应及非税成本%Tax Effect of Stock Options and Non-tax Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 吴玉霞

    2012-01-01

    股票期权最早是基于税收目的出现及税收政策作用于股票期权使得股票期权产生替代效应,然而,非税成本会对股票期权的税收效应产生冲击,因此,公司制定股票期权时应充分考虑非税成本对其的影响,否则可能导致负面影响。%Stock options is generated due to tax reasons,The role of tax policy on stock options,stock options have made the substitution effect,However,non-tax cost of the tax effect of stock options will have an impact,Therefore,when the company draw up the policy of stock options,the company should fully consider the impact of non-tax costs,Otherwise,it maybe have a negative impact.

  18. Future cost-competitive electricity systems and their impact on US CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Alexander E.; Clack, Christopher T. M.; Alexander, Anneliese; Dunbar, Adam; Wilczak, James; Xie, Yuanfu

    2016-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation are a major cause of anthropogenic climate change. The deployment of wind and solar power reduces these emissions, but is subject to the variability of the weather. In the present study, we calculate the cost-optimized configuration of variable electrical power generators using weather data with high spatial (13-km) and temporal (60-min) resolution over the contiguous US. Our results show that when using future anticipated costs for wind and solar, carbon dioxide emissions from the US electricity sector can be reduced by up to 80% relative to 1990 levels, without an increase in the levelized cost of electricity. The reductions are possible with current technologies and without electrical storage. Wind and solar power increase their share of electricity production as the system grows to encompass large-scale weather patterns. This reduction in carbon emissions is achieved by moving away from a regionally divided electricity sector to a national system enabled by high-voltage direct-current transmission.

  19. Ownership, competition, and the adoption of new technologies and cost-saving practices in a fixed-price environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, R A; Chernew, M E; Orzol, S M

    2000-01-01

    Advances in medical technology have been implicated as the primary cause of rising health care expenditures. It is not yet known whether the increasing prevalence of managed care mechanisms, particularly capitation, will change substantially incentives for acquiring and using cost-increasing innovations. We examined the decisions of dialysis units (a set of providers that has faced capitation and real decreases in payment for several decades) with respect to use of cost-increasing technologies that enhance quality of care, cost-cutting practices that reduce quality of care, and amenities desired by patients that are unrelated to quality of care. We found that the dialysis payment system does not appear to have blocked access to a number of new, quality-enhancing technologies that were developed in the 1980s. However, facilities made adjustments along other valuable margins to facilitate adoption of these technologies; use of new technologies varied with numerous facility, regulatory, and case-mix characteristics including ownership, chain membership, size, market competition, and certificate of need programs. Interestingly, the trade-offs made by for-profit and nonprofit facilities when faced with fixed prices appeared quite different. For-profits tended to deliver lower technical quality of care but more amenities, while nonprofits favored technical quality of care over amenities. Our findings may have implications for the response of other types of health care providers to capitation and increasing economic constraints.

  20. The Air Force’s Experience with Should-Cost Reviews and Options for Enhancing Its Capability to Conduct Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    or as should-cost analysis (Monczka, Trent, and Handfield , 2001). Target costing or target pricing is another type of cost analysis that is similar to...should- cost analysis. Monczka, Trent, and Handfield describe target pricing as a method used in initial product development. The price willing to...pricing is that the target cost must never be violated (Monczka, Trent, and Handfield , 2001, p. 443). This approach is akin to the cost as an

  1. Low cost PEMFC generator manufacturing line. The competitiveness and trustability strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Mauricio S. [NovoCell Energy Systems S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)], Email: valdemar.stelita@novocell.ind.br; Muschellack, Erich [Idee Technologies Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Concepts of Lean Manufacturing Lines for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have been searched for the last twenty years, with no fully success so far. As this is considered around the world the last barrier to spread the hydrogen economy for universities and science institutions to the normal life of people, we at NovoCell decided six years ago to develop and test all key aspects that can help making it by a 'Low Cost, Feasible and Reliable Production Process'. The present work is a demonstration of the results we achieved, the main characteristics of the prototypes produced from the lines and that will be the base for our commercial operation starting next year. (author)

  2. Cost competitive “soft sensor” for determining product recovery in industrial methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2017-01-01

    product recovery. In this work a novel, simple and economical method based on density and flow rate measurements to calculate the product recovery of industrial methanol distillation columns has been developed. This method has been validated against plant measurements as well as a validated process......The measurement of ratio of product recovery in industrial methanol distillation is of high economic importance and represent a key performance index (KPI) of the distillation unit. In current operations, the product recovery of many industrial distillation units are not actively monitored, instead...... back calculated from daily production reports. The active monitoring of product recovery can be a costly affair as it requires expensive gas chromatographs and accurate feed mass flow measuring devices to be installed. Historically, this has been one of the key reasons for not actively monitoring...

  3. 42 CFR 413.139 - Depreciation: Optional allowance for depreciation based on a percentage of operating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is determined. (c) Application. If a provider has inadequate historical cost records for pre-1966... either has no historical cost records or has incomplete records, the determination of historical cost may... based on a percentage of operating costs. 413.139 Section 413.139 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  4. The Impact of Pollution Charges, Ash Handling and Carbon Dioxide on the Cost Competitiveness of the Fuel Sources Used for Energy Production in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latisov, Eduard; Kleesmaa, Juri; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the effects of pollution charges, ash handling and of the carbon dioxide quota trade on the competitiveness of natural gas, oil shale, peat and wood chips in Estonia for 2010 and 2015. The pollution charges and levels are calculated based on the Environmental Charges Act, and Regulations No 99/2004 and No 94/2004 of the Estonian Minister of the Environment. The calculations show a considerable change in the cost competitiveness of fuels. Fuel related costs of the fossil fuels with high CO2 emission factors and other environmental impacts may be doubled.

  5. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  6. Maintaining the competitiveness of the American fisheries society journals: an assessment based on influence and cost-effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Link, Jason S.; Steinich, Dave R.; Wahl, David H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in the landscape of scientific publishing prompted the Publications Overview Committee of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) to review the Society's portfolio of scientific journals. We evaluated journals based on metrics in two categories: (1) citation-based measures of the influence of a journal on the scientific literature, and (2) measures of the cost-effectiveness of a journal (citation rate adjusted for subscription cost). Over the long-term, we found that ecology journals had far stronger citation-based influence than fisheries and aquatic sciences journals, and that journals publishing primarily basic research had stronger influence than journals publishing applied research (including four AFS journals and Fisheries magazine). In evaluating the current status of fisheries and aquatic sciences journals, we found that metrics of influence and cost-effectiveness provided considerably different portrayals of journals relative to their peers. In terms of citation-based influence, we found that the AFS journal Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (TAFS) and Fisheries magazine were competitive with highly regarded peer fisheries journals, but that North American Journal of Aquaculture (NAJA) and Journal of Aquatic Animal Health (JAAH) were less influential than their peers. The citation-based influence of North American Journal of Fisheries Management (NAJFM) was intermediate between TAFS/Fisheries and NAJA/JAAH. For journals like NAJFM and NAJA, we expect that much of the scientific influence on policy and management is not captured by citations in the primary literature, and alternative methods of evaluation may be needed. All of the AFS journals ranked highly with regard to cost-effectiveness because their subscription costs are low, and these rankings are in accordance with membership needs and the strategic mission of AFS to provide broad and timely dissemination of scientific information. We conclude by suggesting

  7. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options, volume 2, technical. Book 3: Economic benefits, costs and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The economic benefits, cost analysis, and industrial uses of the manned space station are investigated. Mission payload costs are examined in relation to alternative architectures and projected technological evolution. Various approaches to industrial involvement for financing, development, and marketing of space station resources are described.

  8. Beyond Business as Usual: A Framework and Options for Improving Quality and Containing Costs in California Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Kirk L.

    This monograph summarizes the current thinking in the national literature on the subject of cost-containment and productivity in higher education and applies findings to higher education in California. It presents a framework for characterizing the major factors driving higher education costs, outlines potentially promising areas in identifying…

  9. Evaluation of quality of life and cost-effectiveness of definitive surgery and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system as treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Cevdet; Seyfettinoğlu, Sevtap; Aka Satar, Deniz; Arlier, Sefa; Eskimez, Eda; Kaya, Fatma; Nazik, Hakan

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to compare the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) as first-line treatments for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Ninety-eight patients aged 20-55 years who complained of regular heavy menstrual bleeding were enrolled in the study. The TAH group included 29 patients, the LNG-IUS group included 34, and the TLH group included 35. These groups were compared in terms of quality of life and the cost-effectiveness of the selected methods. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form (SF-36), and cost-effectiveness was assessed according to the current cost of each approach. The quality of life parameters, with the exception of mental health, improved significantly in the LNG-IUS, TAH, and TLH groups. The mean costs of the LNG-IUS, TAH, and TLH procedures were $99.15 ± 4.90, $538.82 ± 193.00 and $1617.05 ± 258.44, respectively (P < 0.05). Overall, LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective treatment option. The outcome measures of the SF-36 revealed that after 6 months, these treatments were equal in terms of quality of life, except for mental health. LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective approach.

  10. COMPETITIVE BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ONTO TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. LEAVES AS A COST EFFECTIVE BIOSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagruti N. Jadav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the competitive biosorption properties of nonliving biosorbent, Terminalia catappa L. leaves as a cost effective biosorbent for Pb(II ions was investigated using batch technique. FTIR analysis of the biosorbent revealed that hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups which are involved in the uptake of lead (II ions. SEM represents porous structure with large surface area. The effects of operational factors including solution pH, biosorbent dose, initial lead (II ions concentration, contact time and temperature on the biosorption efficiency were studied. The optimum solution pH for Pb(II ions adsorption by biosorbent was 6.0 with the optimal removal 82.06%. The biosorbent dose 5 mg/mL was enough for optimal removal of 79.35%. The biosorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was achieved after 90 minutes of contact time. The experimental equilibrium biosorption data were fitted by four widely used two-parameters Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR and Temkin isotherm equations. Langmuir isotherm model provided a better fit with the experimental data than Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR adsorption isotherm models by high correlation coefficient value (R2= 0.997. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 50.00 mg/g of biosorbent. Simple kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion rate mixing equation were employed to determine the adsorption mechanism. Results indicates that pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2= 0.999 was found to be correlate the experimental data strongest than other three kinetic models and this suggests that chemical biosorption process was more dominant. Thermodynamic study revealed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and increasing randomness of the solid solution interfaces. Tarminalia catappa L. leaves were

  11. The Impact of Pollution Charges, Ash Handling and Carbon Dioxide on the Cost Competitiveness of the Fuel Sources Used for Energy Production in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Latisov, E; Kleesmaa, J; A. Siirde

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the effects of pollution charges, ash handling and of the carbon dioxide quota trade on the competitiveness of natural gas, oil shale, peat and wood chips in Estonia for 2010 and 2015. The pollution charges and levels are calculated based on the Environmental Charges Act, and Regulations No 99/2004 and No 94/2004 of the Estonian Minister of the Environment. The calculations show a considerable change in the cost competitiveness of fuels. Fuel relat...

  12. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  13. The costs and benefits of reconstruction options in Nepal using the CEDIM FDA modelled and empirical analysis following the 2015 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan; Girard, Trevor; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Kunz, Michael; Muehr, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Over the days following the 2015 Nepal earthquake, rapid loss estimates of deaths and the economic loss and reconstruction cost were undertaken by our research group in conjunction with the World Bank. This modelling relied on historic losses from other Nepal earthquakes as well as detailed socioeconomic data and earthquake loss information via CATDAT. The modelled results were very close to the final death toll and reconstruction cost for the 2015 earthquake of around 9000 deaths and a direct building loss of ca. 3 billion (a). A description of the process undertaken to produce these loss estimates is described and the potential for use in analysing reconstruction costs from future Nepal earthquakes in rapid time post-event. The reconstruction cost and death toll model is then used as the base model for the examination of the effect of spending money on earthquake retrofitting of buildings versus complete reconstruction of buildings. This is undertaken future events using empirical statistics from past events along with further analytical modelling. The effects of investment vs. the time of a future event is also explored. Preliminary low-cost options (b) along the line of other country studies for retrofitting (ca. 100) are examined versus the option of different building typologies in Nepal as well as investment in various sectors of construction. The effect of public vs. private capital expenditure post-earthquake is also explored as part of this analysis, as well as spending on other components outside of earthquakes. a) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/experts-calculate-new-loss-predictions-for-nepal-quake/ b) http://www.aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/23-Daniell.pdf

  14. LUGH, the Proposed Mercury Express Mission, as an Ideal, Current, Low-Cost, Low-Risk Option for Mercury Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Lawlor, S. McKenna; Curtis, S.; Marr, G.; Giles, B.

    2000-01-01

    We propose an ESA Flexi Mission, LUGH, Mercury Express Mission, an extremely fast, low cost, low risk, high return, three-platform, multiple flyby mission which would provide data which are unique and complimentary to recently selected long lead time Mercury missions.

  15. LUGH, the Proposed Mercury Express Mission, as an Ideal, Current, Low-Cost, Low-Risk Option for Mercury Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Lawlor, S. McKenna; Curtis, S.; Marr, G.; Giles, B.

    2000-01-01

    We propose an ESA Flexi Mission, LUGH, Mercury Express Mission, an extremely fast, low cost, low risk, high return, three-platform, multiple flyby mission which would provide data which are unique and complimentary to recently selected long lead time Mercury missions.

  16. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations.

  17. On the Efficient Competitive Tender of Coal Mine Engineering Cost%煤矿工程造价竞标的高效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康铁钢

    2015-01-01

    本文在分析和研究煤矿工程造价的基础上,介绍了其含义与职能,并进一步探讨了煤矿工程造价竞标的意义和作用。%This paper analyzes and researches coal mine engineering cost, introduces the meaning and functions of it and further expounds the significance and effect of the competitive tender of coal mine engineering cost.

  18. Cost analysis of robot-assisted choledochotomy and common bile duct exploration as an option for complex choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almamar, Ahmed; Alkhamesi, Nawar A; Davies, Ward T; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of elective, robot-assisted choledochotomy and common bile duct exploration (RCD/CBDE) compared to open surgery for ERCP refractory choledocholithiasis. A prospective database of all RCD/CBDE has been maintained since our first procedure in April 2007 though April 2016. With ethics approval, this database was compared with all contemporaneous elective open procedures (OCD/CBDE) performed since March 2005. Emergency procedures were excluded from analysis. Cost analysis was calculated using a micro-costing approach. Outcomes were analyzed on the basis of intent-to-treat. A p value of 0.05 denoted statistical significance. A total of 80 cases were performed since 2005 compromising 50 consecutive, unselected RCD/CBDE and 30 OCD/CBDE. Comparing RCD/CBDE to OCD/CBDE there were no significant differences between groups with respect to age (65 ± 20 vs. 67 ± 18 years, p = 0.09), gender (14/30 vs. 16/25 male/female, p = 0.52), ASA class or co-morbidities. The mean duration of surgery for RCD/CBDE trended longer compared to OCD/CBDE (205 ± 70 min vs. 174 ± 73 min, p = 0.08). However, there was significant reduction in postoperative complications with RCD/CBDE versus OCD/CBDE (22% vs. 56%, p = 0.002). Median hospital stay was also significantly reduced (6 vs 12 days, p = 0.01). The net overall hospital cost for RCD/CBDE was lower ($8449.88 CAD vs. $11671.2 CAD). In this single-centre, cohort study, robotic-assisted CD/CBDE for ERCP refractory common bile duct stones provides the dominating strategy of improved patient outcomes with a reduction of overall cost.

  19. Acquisition and Competition Strategy Options for the DD(X): The U.S. Navy’s 21st Century Destroyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    construction meshes with other tasks at the shipyard. While the cost of purchased material will also depend somewhat on schedule, the cost of providing the...sensitive to the ship construction schedule and how that schedule meshes with other jobs at the shipyard. We believe labor costs are a good proxy for the over...design problems discovered in lead ship construction can be rede - signed and revised drawings provided to the follow ship builder. In reality, however

  20. Assessment of cooperation mechanism options: Cost-efficient and sustainable deployment of renewable energy sources towards the 20% target by 2020, and beyond. D3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pade Hansen, L.-L.; Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Skovsgaard Nielsen, L.

    2012-12-15

    The RES Directive 2009/28/EC (European Commission 2009) set legally binding targets for EU Member States on energy consumption from renewable sources - the 2020 RES targets. A part of this can be achieved through the use of cooperation mechanisms: statistical transfer, joint project and joint support schemes. The intention of the cooperation mechanisms is to provide the flexibility needed to achieve Europe's renewable energy targets in a more cost-efficient way. In Task 3 of the RES4Less project we analyse the benefits and challenges of using the two cooperation mechanisms: joint project and joint support schemes. This report is the outcome of the work in Task 3.2 where we analyse how the barriers can be overcome and how different design options can be used under varying conditions and time horizons. Cooperation mechanisms have the potential to reduce the compliance costs of reaching the 2020 RES targets for EU member states. The largest benefits can be achieved under full harmonisation and one joints support scheme. However, the different national objectives along with uneven distribution of benefits and costs make this unrealistic in the near future. Cooperation between pairs or groups of countries with large net benefits that can be relatively easy estimated and shared is attractive and realisable in a shorter time horizon. Joint project cooperation is the most flexible instrument to use as it preserves the national legislation and support schemes (national objectives) and can be easily scaled in size. The drawback is the high transaction costs and some uncertainty regarding which party should carry the project implementation risk and guaranty the support for the projects for the entire lifetime. The joint projects can be realised in a short term horizon and as such pave the way for further cooperation. Large projects has a considerable advantage in the reduced transaction cost relative to project size and governments can be expected to be more willing to

  1. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  2. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  3. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond...

  4. Cooling the greenhouse effect: Options and costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from the American Electric Power Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helme, N.; Popovich, M.G.; Gille, J. [Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A recent report from the National Academy of Sciences concludes that the earth is likely to face a doubling of preindustrial greenhouse gases in the next half century. This doubling could be expected to push average global temperatures. up from between 1.8 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Much of the potential for human impacts on the global climate is linked to fossil fuel consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in the US totals about one-quarter of the world`s total emissions from energy consumption. Global warming is different from other environmental problems because CO{sub 2} emissions can be captured naturally by trees, grasses, soil, and other plants. In contrast, acid rain emissions reductions can only be accomplished through switching to lower-polluting fuels, conserving energy, or installing costly retrofit technologies. Terrestrial biota, such as trees, plants, grasses and soils, directly affect the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the atmosphere. A number of reports have concluded that forestry and land-use practices can increase CO{sub 2} sequestration and can help reduce or delay the threat of global warming.

  5. Knowledge of the diversity and rivalry between technological options for the photovoltaic electric power production; Apprentissage de la diversite et competition entre options technologiques pour la production d'electricite photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    1998-05-01

    This presentation of the photovoltaic cells market development takes stock on this industry sector; The first part presents the crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, their production, cost and performance. The second chapter is devoted to the photovoltaic cells technology diffusion by an analysis of the markets and the utilization sectors. The last part underlines the intra technological rivalry and the actors strategy showing the dominant position of the crystalline silicon, in spite of its limited capacity, to the detriment of new technologies more promising. (A.L.B.)

  6. New Option Pricing about Underlying Asset Pricing Process by Mixed Process with Transaction Cost%有交易成本的标的资产服从混合过程的新型期权定价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔克林; 蒋登智; 李晋枝

    2012-01-01

    On the definition of transaction costs and dividends, by changing basic assumption of Black-Scholes option pricing model to the assume that underlying asset complies with mixed process. Using the method of portfolio combination to simulation options gains, get rainbow option pricing equation about underlying asset pricing process by mixed process with transaction cost and dividends, and many factors option pricing equation.%在有交易成本和红利的基础上,改变Black-Scholes期权定价模型的基本假设,认为标的资产是服从混合过程,运用证券组合模拟期权收益的方法,得到有交易成本和红利的标的资产服从混合过程的彩虹期权定价方程,以及多因素期权定价方程.

  7. 78 FR 17624 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic To Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998... Return for Connect America Cost Model,'' to seek public input on what cost of money should be utilized in.... Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing electronic comments, the Commission...

  8. Federal employees health program experiences lack of competition in some areas, raising cost concerns for exchange plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Barker, Abigail R; Pollack, Lisa M; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith J

    2012-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for creation of health insurance exchanges designed to provide private health insurance plan choices. The Federal Employees Health Benefits Program is a national model that to some extent resembles the planned exchanges. Both offer plans at the state level but are also overseen by the federal government. We examined the availability of plans and enrollment levels in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program throughout the United States in 2010. We found that although plans were widely available, enrollment was concentrated in plans owned by just a few organizations, typically Blue Cross/Blue Shield plans. Enrollment was more concentrated in rural areas, which may reflect historical patterns of enrollment or lack of provider networks. Average biweekly premiums for an individual were lowest ($58.48) in counties where competition was extremely high, rising to $65.13 where competition was extremely low. To make certain that coverage sold through exchanges is affordable, policy makers may need to pay attention to areas where there is little plan competition and take steps through risk-adjustment policies or other measures to narrow differences in premiums and out-of-pocket expenses for consumers.

  9. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  10. Collaboration, not competition: cost analysis of neonatal nurse practitioner plus neonatologist versus neonatologist-only care models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Although advanced practice in neonatal nursing is accepted and supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics and National Association of Neonatal Nurse Practitioners, less than one-half of all states allow independent prescriptive authority by advanced practice nurse practitioners. The purpose of this study was to compare costs of a collaborative practice model that includes neonatal nurse practitioner (NNP) plus neonatologist (Neo) versus a neonatologist only (Neo-Only) practice in Washington state. Published Internet median salary figures from 3 sources were averaged to produce mean ± SD provider salaries, and costs for each care model were calculated in this descriptive, comparative study. Median NNP versus Neo salaries were $99,773 ± $5206 versus $228,871 ± $9654, respectively (P cost $1,185,475 versus Neo-Only (8 Neo FTEs) cost $1,830,960. The NNP + Neo practice model with 8 FTEs suggests a cost savings, with assumed equivalent reimbursement, of $645,485/year. These results may provide the impetus for more states to adopt broader scope of practice licensure for NNPs. These data may provide rationale for analysis of actual costs and outcomes of collaborative practice.

  11. Cross - Currency Hedging Using Options

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Akshay

    2006-01-01

    In today's competitive global markets, most firms are vulnerable to increasing fluctuation in foreign exchange, which is leading them to make use of Currency Derivatives to hedge their risks. Among the several derivatives available, Currency Options are the second most popular instrument used to hedge currency risk. Options are a very distinctive set of instruments that are available to hedge Currency risk. This study provides empirical evidence on why companies employ Currency Options to hed...

  12. Higher Education Cost Measurement: Public Policy Issues, Options, and Strategies. A Compilation of Background Papers Prepared for a Seminar on Cost Measurement and Management. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Jane, Comp.; O'Brien, Colleen, Comp.

    This collection of papers is the result of a project by the Institute for Higher Education Policy designed to explore the public policy aspects of higher education cost measurement (expenditure analysis). Papers come from a 1-day seminar in 1999 that brought together individuals knowledgeable about cost measurement with institutional leaders and…

  13. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  14. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  15. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  16. Health-insurance products and plan options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkstetter, W D

    1990-10-01

    Trends in health insurance are discussed, with emphasis on insurers' efforts to offer an array of cost-effective plans tailored to the needs of employers and subscribers. Health-insurance companies, responding to employers' demands to curtail the rising costs of premiums, now offer a variety of insurance products. While indemnity plans, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and preferred-provider organizations (PPOs) remain as the three basic types of plans, insurers are combining these elements in different ways, creating dual- and triple-option plans that consist of indemnity insurance and an HMO, a PPO and an HMO, or other variations. Insurers offering multiple options may effect internal cost savings through shared personnel and administrative expenses. Four factors influence the development and marketing of insurance products: cost and volume of healthcare services, adverse selection, competition, and the profit incentive. Many of the insurance products have been developed in response to requests for maximum freedom of choice of provider; as an example, the fastest-growing HMO product in 1989 was the point-of-service HMO, which allows the subscriber to seek care from a provider who is not part of the HMO network. PPOs and exclusive-provider organizations (EPOs) are growing; these are often organized by hospitals or physician networks. Among the new trends in product-line development are "riders" for specialty services such as vision care and prescription drugs. As competition intensifies, marketing efforts are focusing on previously overlooked groups such as the small employer and certain ethnic communities. Cost and freedom of choice will remain important criteria in the selection of insurance products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Disposal of Nuclear Wastes: At an increased but still modest cost, more options can be explored and the outlook can be improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, A S; Rose, D J

    1973-12-21

    For the present and the foreseeable future the following options appear to be either usable or worth further exploration: mausolea; disposal in mines of various sorts, and perhaps in ice; in situ melt; and further chemical separations. The options are interdependent. It is too early to assess disposal in space, and disposal in the oceans remains unsafe for lack of adequate knowledge. Table 3 is a summary of the main ideas for which we have worked out (sometimes uncertain) costs. For the short term, ultimate disposal in deep mines is the best-developed plan. However, the related concept of in situ melt has significant advantages and should be realistically appraised. Further chemical separation with subsequent recycling of the actinides in a LMFBR should be investigated and implemented, for it would be universally beneficial; on the other hand, additional removal of strontium and cesium does not seem attractive. Thus, for the near future we make the following recommendations: 1) Provide temporary storage facilities to ensure that the projected commercial high-level wastes do not become a public hazard. The AEC adopts this view, and has stated an intention to construct such facilities. But because of the capriciousness of man and nature, a workable ultimate disposal scheme must be developed soon. 2) Fund other ultimate disposal schemes at the same rate as the salt mine project-say $1 million a year or more-to sharpen the technological issues, so that a decision can be reached in the next few years. The schemes should include (i) in situ melt, and the variation with a central repository; (ii) burial in mines other than salt mines (including Antarctic rocks and permanent ice); (iii) further chemical separation of actinides and recycling actinides in a LMFBR. 3) Maintain liaison with the developing space shuttle technology to insure that no opportunity is lost. The AEC has a commitment to hold safety foremost in its waste management program, but budget considerations

  18. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  19. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels; Modele mathematique du cout de transport maritime application a la competitivite du navire nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1966-05-01

    In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [French] Pour etudier la competitivite du navire marchand nucleaire, plutot que de nous livrer a des evaluations economiques chiffrees, discutables dans l'etat actuel des etudes, nous utilisons un modele simplifie permettant de mieux saisir le mecanisme de la comparaison des navires et l'influence particuliere de chaque parametre. Nous etablissons une expression du cout unitaire de la tonne transportee sur un parcours donne en fonction des variables vitesse et port en lourd. Et nous l'utilisons pour determiner les optima des navires classiques et nucleaires. Pour representer le marche du fret qui intervient dans les etudes d'optimisation, et donc dans la

  20. Are newer, more expensive pharmacotherapy options associated with superior symptom control compared to less costly agents used in a collaborative practice setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschules, Douglas J; Maxwell, Terri; Reifsnyder, JoAnne; Knowlton, Calvin H

    2006-01-01

    Innovative approaches to care may be necessary to provide the most effective symptom management to hospice patients. One approach is prescribing newer pharmacotherapy options with the potential to improve symptom management in hospice. Such therapies are sometimes prescribed outside of Food and Drug Administration indications and are typically more costly than older agents used for the same symptoms. Another approach is the collaborative practice (CP) care model, whereby clinical pharmacists are given prescriptive authority according to evidence-based protocols and algorithms within boundaries approved by a physician. The agents typically included in CP protocols are those with wide therapeutic indices and with substantial evidence to support their use. The purpose of this study was to examine both approaches to management of pain, insomnia, and nausea, comparing symptom scores for those patients who received noncollaborative drug therapies (transdermal fentanyl, zolpidem, and ondansetron) to those who received agents under CP (oral sustained-release opioids, temazepam, and prochlorperazine). The object of the study was to investigate outcomes associated with newer drug therapy options as compared to older agents for the management of pain, insomnia, and nausea. A secondary goal is to compare symptom outcomes for patients receiving pharmaceutical care under CP and non-CP models. The study design was retrospective with a cohort. A total of 50 patients were randomly selected for each cohort of the pain and insomnia study arms. Only 45 patients prescribed oral ondansetron met inclusion criteria for the nausea group; 45 patients prescribed prochlorperazine were randomly selected as the comparator group. Patients were compared on their degree of response to the prescribed therapy. Response was classified as complete, partial, no improvement from baseline, worsened, or unknown. A complete response was defined as the symptom score improving to a 0 of 10, regardless of the

  1. 考虑范围经济与转换成本的混合捆绑竞争%Bundling competition with scope economies and switching costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕魁; 胡汉辉; 王旭辉

    2012-01-01

    产业融合促进了多产品竞争.基于扩展的两维Hotelling模型,研究了范围经济和转换成本对网络产业中多产品捆绑销售竞争均衡的影响,并分析了捆绑销售和线性定价下公司利润和社会福利的差异.研究表明转换成本导致企业不对称的细分市场结构并对新产品设定低价策略,但捆绑定价与转换成本无关.范围经济增加则公司捆绑产品价格较大幅度下降,一站式用户获益较多;成本随之下降但公司利润减少.与线性定价相比,捆绑销售导致单件产品价格较低,提高了消费者转换率,削弱了转换成本对忠实用户的不利影响;捆绑销售下公司利润较低,消费者剩余增加;不考虑范围经济则捆绑销售的社会福利较低,但当范围经济效应足够大时,捆绑销售不仅提高消费者剩余而且增加社会福利.%Industry convergence promotes the multi-product competition in the network industry. The effects of the scope economies and switching costs on the equilibrium of bundling competition are researched in the network industries based on the extended Hotelling model. Then the difference of the profit and social welfare between the bundling and linear pricing are analyzed. The results show that the switching costs cause asymmetric segment market, while the bundling price is not relevant with the switching cost. The bundling price decreases quickly as the scope economies increases, so the consumers of on-stop shopping are benefited. Compared with the linear pricing, the bundling leads to lower components prices, promotes the switching rate of the consumers and reduces the negative effects of switching costs on loyal consumers; The company's profits decrease while the consumer's surpluses increase in bundling. The bounding can lead to more consumers' surplus and social welfare than the linear pricing when the effects of the scope economies are large enough.

  2. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ijaz [Department of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Guelen, Guercan [Center for Energy Economics, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, 1801 Allen Pkwy, Houston, TX 77019 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  3. 面对成比例交易成本的情况下外汇期权的定价%FOREIGN CURRENCY OPTION PRICING WITH PROPORTIONAL TRANSACTION COSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑锦; 李胜宏

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of present work is to examine the financial problem of finding the universal reservation prices of a European call option written on exchange rate when there is proportional transaction costs of trading foreign currency in the market. An approach is suggested to compute the reservation bid-ask price of foreign currency call option based on maximizing the investor's expected utility. Option prices are determined from the investor's basic portfolio selection problem, without the need to solve a more complex optimization problem involving the insertion of the option payoffs into the terminal value function. Option prices are computed numerically in a Markov chain approximation for the case of exponential utility.Numerical results show that the option price bounds are almost independent of the alternative risk aversion parameter, but the bounds of NT region becomes narrower and the range of values of the initial holding for which the fair price lies within the bid-ask spread is shifted to a lower value when the risk aversion parameter increases.

  4. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  5. Options for competitive and sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.; Tavasszy, L.; Chen, M.; Guis, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Logistics as a sector has a key role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and in reducing the dependency of our economy on non-renewable energy sources. The challenges are enormous: by 2050 the sector needs to have achieved about 50% lower fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions. If

  6. COMPETITIVENESS AND SUPPORTING THE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mester Liana-Eugenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness designates efficiency, productivity, success, adaptability, quality products, optimum costs. Competitiveness is a complex concept which defines the ability of a firm or country to cope with actual or potential competition companies or countries on a particular market, on the world market respectively and it is synonymous with economic efficiency; competitiveness reflects a certain state of the economic activity arising from a certain resource consumption in order to achieve economic goods. Supporting the national competitiveness and flexibility is aimed at a sustained increase in productivity relying on the diversification and the innovation of the domestic industrial base. The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012 ranks Romania as the 77th out of 142 assessed economies. Romania has access to a large market and free trade area, which makes it attractive for many foreign companies, but Romania needs a coherent economic policy that changes the approach used today - from the traditionalist design of restructuring following the resources and, therefore, related to the comparative advantage to finding solutions that stimulate the activities based on knowledge and information so that they allow the emphasis of the competitive advantages. This paper aims to identify the factors and reasons that gave rise to the level of competitiveness for some activities or fields of activities from the economy of Romania during the reporting period, as well as the possibilities that would lead to increasing and supporting the competitiveness of the national economy.

  7. Low-cost and highly sensitive immunosensing platform for aflatoxins using one-step competitive displacement reaction mode and portable glucometer-based detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Lin, Youxiu; Zhou, Qian; Lin, Yuping; Li, Peiwu; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2014-11-18

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by a number of different fungi and present in a wide range of food and feed commodities. Herein, we designed a simple and low-cost immunosensing platform for highly sensitive detection of mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, AFB1, used as a model) on polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated mesoporous silica nanocontainers (PEI-MSN). The assay was carried out by using a portable personal glucometer (PGM) as the readout based on a competitive displacement reaction mode between target AFB1 and its pseudo-hapten (PEI-MSN) for monoclonal anti-AFB1 antibody (mAb). To construct such an assay protocol, two nanostructures including mAb-labeled gold nanoparticle (mAb-AuNP) and PEI-MSN were initially synthesized, and then numerous glucose molecules were gated into the pores based on the interaction between negatively charged mAb-AuNP and positively charged PEI-MSN. In the presence of target AFB1, a competitive-type displacement reaction was implemented between mAb-AuNP and PEI-MSN by target AFB1 through the specific antigen-antibody reaction. Accompanying the reaction, target AFB1 could displace the mAb-AuNP from the surface of PEI-MSN, resulting in the release of the loading glucose from the pores due to the gate opened. The released glucose molecules could be quantitatively determined by using a portable PGM. Under optimal conditions, the PGM signal increased with the increment of AFB1 concentration in the range from 0.01 to 15 μg/kg (ppb) with a detection limit (LOD) of 5 ng/kg (5 ppt) at the 3sblank criterion. The selectivity and precision were acceptable. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for assaying naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples, and consistent results between the PGM-based immunoassay and the referenced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were obtained. Therefore, the developed immunoassay provides a promising approach for rapid screening of organic pollutants because it is simple

  8. Strategic Approach To Produce Low-Cost, Efficient, and Stable Competitive Internal Controls for Detection of RNA Viruses by Use of Reverse Transcription-PCR▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, Gabriela V.; Gardiol, Daniela; Taborda, Miguel A.; Reggiardo, Virginia; Tanno, Hugo; Rivadeneira, Emilia D.; Perez, Germán R.; Giri, Adriana A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics based on reverse transcription (RT)-PCR are routinely complicated by the lack of stable internal controls, leading to falsely negative results. We describe a strategy to produce a stable competitive internal control (CIC) based on a Qβ phage derivative (recombinant Qβ [rQβ]) bearing primers KY78 and KY80, which are widely used in the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). rQβ was RNase resistant and stable at 4°C for 452 days in SM medium (0.1 M NaCl, 8 mM MgSO4·7H2O, 50 mM Tris HCl [pH 7.5], 2% gelatin) and for 125 days after lyophilization and reconstitution. rQβ performance as a CIC was evaluated. rQβ was added to HCV-positive samples, followed by RNA extraction and a CIC-HCV RT-PCR assay. This method combines RT-PCR, liquid hybridization with nonradioactive probes, and enzyme immunoanalysis. No influence of the CIC on qualitative HCV detection was observed independently of viral load, and results had high concordance with those of commercial kits. In conclusion, we describe a versatile, low-cost alternative strategy to armored RNA technology that can be adapted for detection or real-time applications of any RNA target. Moreover, the CIC reported here is an essential reagent for HCV screening in blood banks in resource-limited settings. PMID:17699653

  9. Retirement Options to Offer College Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Daniel A.

    1982-01-01

    Retirement options available to institutions are outlined, including early retirement incentives, phased retirement, facilitating consulting opportunities, travel and outplacement services, maintaining community involvement, annuities, and pensions. Suggestions are made for increasing cost-effectiveness and fitting the options to local…

  10. Retirement Options to Offer College Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Daniel A.

    1982-01-01

    Retirement options available to institutions are outlined, including early retirement incentives, phased retirement, facilitating consulting opportunities, travel and outplacement services, maintaining community involvement, annuities, and pensions. Suggestions are made for increasing cost-effectiveness and fitting the options to local…

  11. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  12. Repowering: new options for expanding the supply at lower costs; Repotenciacao de usinas: nova opcao para expansao da oferta a custo reduzido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares; Mazzon, Joao Gilberto; Chaves, Jose Roberto A. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Grull, Doron [ETEP, SP (Brazil)

    1995-09-01

    A large number of power plants from the Brazilian electrical generating system are reaching the limit of the economic life of their equipment which makes repowering an attractive option. In this paper the repowering of the Jupia hydroelectric power plant in Brazil is presented 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  13. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    call options confers an absolute obligation to deliver to the other party to the option contract a specified amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. This latter position (short call means unlimited loss in the case of appreciation of euro. This was the situation faced by some Polish exporters in the second half of 2008 who in the middle of 2008 issued the most risky call options for banks and, thus, they bought a currency risk from the banks. Issuing any option always means also buying someone others risk, in exchange for a relatively small option premium which might trigger a relatively huge and actually unlimited risk of losses, if the assumed forecast does not come true. This is not the economic analysis of law to be relied on any more in respect of the cost of preventing the risk of loss being higher or lower than the amount of damage. The manager of an exporting company, unlike the speculator who sells options (buys risk, usually has no knowledge of financial engineering, which is essential to safely manage such excessive risk through creating a hedging portfolio.

  14. New water management and conservation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peachey, B.R. [New Paradigm Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The importance of water management issues in oil and gas operations was discussed in an effort to demonstrate how a basic understanding of water impacts, issues and management options can help the industry maximize oil and gas recovery while improving their financial and environmental results. Water related practices and regulations used for conventional oil production in western Canada may be useful in determining water management practices in expanded applications such as in the oil sands and coalbed methane (CBM) sectors. Although many water management strategies exist, they must be chosen proactively for each situation, since no one solution works well in all cases. The association of water and hydrocarbon production was also summarized with reference to water use, costs of water, and benefits of water. Water also represents environmental risks and opportunities such as leaks and spills; corrosion of equipment; competition for fresh water; expanding use of water for enhanced oil recovery; and, use of fresh water from CBM operations for irrigation or as an energy source for geothermal power production. Water's link to climate change was also addressed. Some of the options for water management include: selling off water prone assets; block, retreat and minimize other costs; use water effectively and maximize oil; use blocking agents; control water coning; segregate waste water streams; reduce water volumes with downhole separation and disposal; and, reduce fresh water use. 14 refs., 22 figs.

  15. External Costs and Benefits of Energy. Methodologies, Results and Effects on Renewable Energies Competitivity; Costes y Beneficios Externos de la Energia. Metodologias, Resultados e Influencia sobre la Competitividad de las Energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez, R.; Cabal, H.; Varela, M. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    This study attempts to give a summarised vision of the concept of externally in energy production, the social and economic usefulness of its evaluation and consideration as support to the political decision-marking in environmental regulation matters, technologies selection of new plants, priorities establishment on energy plans, etc. More relevant environmental externalities are described, as are the effects on the health, ecosystems, materials and climate, as well as some of the socioeconomic externalities such as the employment, increase of the GDP and the reduction and depletion of energy resources. Different methodologies used during the last years have been reviewed as well as the principals results obtained in the most relevant studies accomplished internationally on this topic. Special mention has deserved the European study National Implementation of the ExternE Methodology in the EU. Results obtained are represented in Table 2 of this study. Also they are exposed, in a summarised way, the results obtained in the evaluation of environmental externalities of the Spanish electrical system in function of the fuel cycle. In this last case the obtained results are more approximated since have been obtained by extrapolation from the obtained for ten representative plants geographically distributed trough the Peninsula. Finally it has been analysed the influence that the internalization of the external costs of conventional energies can have in the competitiveness and in the market of renewable energy, those which originate less environmental effects and therefore produce much smaller external costs. The mechanisms of internalization and the consideration on the convenience or not of their incorporation in the price of energy have been also discussed. (Author) 30 refs.

  16. Comprehensive Evaluation Forthe Cost-Competitive of Third-Party Logistics%第三方物流企业成本竞争力综合评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成灶平

    2012-01-01

    When the customers select the third-party logistics service, cost control is the first consideration, this paper presents the concept of "cost-competitive of third-party logistics". This paper establishes an evaluation index system of cost-competitive of third-party logistics, using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to evaluate the cost-competitive of third-party logistics in our country.%客户在选择第三方物流服务的时候,成本控制是第一位的考量。提出了第三方物流企业成本竞争力的概念,构建出了基于成本管理与控制的第三方物流企业成本竞争力评价指标体系,引入模糊综合评价模型,全面地对我国第三方物流企业的成本竞争进行量化评判和分析。

  17. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  18. Knowledge-Driven Creative Destruction, or Leveraging Knowledge for Competitive Advantage: Strategic Knowledge Arbitrage and Serendipity as Real Options Drivers Triggered by Co-Opetition, Co-Evolution and Co-Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayannis, Elias G.

    2008-01-01

    In today's globalizing and hypercompetitive marketplace, knowledge and learning are the only capabilities that can provide sustained competitive advantage. "Knowledge" is the content of learning, and a firm gains competitive superiority either by knowing something that its competitors do not know or by having a certain type of knowledge that…

  19. Optimisation of operating cost of fossil-fired power plants through CDM and JI. Option for meeting the emission reduction targets; Optimierung der Betriebskosten fossilbefeuerter Kraftwerke mittels CDM und JI. Optionen zur kosteneffizienten Erreichung der Emissionsminderungsziele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertz, J. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Fuebi, M. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The optimisation of the power plant park as well as the development of innovate, efficiency-increasing and thus CO{sub 2}-decreasing technologies will make an important contribution to the harmonisation between secure energy supply and the requirements of climate protection. Investments in climate protection projects within the scope of CDM and JI are an additional option to make-up for cost arising in connection with CO{sub 2} control and such projects will make climate protection economically efficient and sustainable. (orig.)

  20. Competition and Offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Lopez

    2012-01-01

    I present a model of offshoring decisions with heterogeneous firms, random adjustment costs, and endogenous markups. The model shows an inverted-U relationship between firm-level productivity and the probability of offshoring; hence, the most productive firms are less likely to offshore than some lower-productivity firms. A tougher competitive environment has two opposing effects on firm-level offshoring likelihood: a Schumpeterian effect--accounting for the negative effect of competition on ...

  1. Post2012 climate regime options for global GHG emission reduction. Analysis and evaluation of regime options and reduction potential for achieving the 2 degree target with respect to environmental effectiveness, costs and institutional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord and provides an in-depth comparison with results arrived at in other model analyses. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO2 emissions by 30 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target, i.e. where the EU adopts a 30 % emission reduction target in 2020 (rather than a 20 % reduction target), while all other countries stick with their ''weak'' pledges. Not included in the calculations is possible financial support for developing countries from industrialized countries as currently discussed in the climate change negotiations and laid out in the Copenhagen Accord. (orig.)

  2. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  3. LOGISTICS - SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana SCRIOSTEANU; Popescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the logistics if source of competitive advantage. Logistics can offer a source of competitive advantage, such as a superior position compared to the competitors regarding cost reductions, service diversity and satisfaction of consumer requirements. The logistic activities generate cost and give value to the final product .Despite that the same logistic activity can be done in many ways, with different costs and performance , the evaluation of the activities and the links b...

  4. 需求和生产成本同时扰动下供应链期权契约应对突发事件%Supply Chain Coordination under Market Demand and Production Costs Disruptions by Adjusting Option Contracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠和; 陈宏; 赵千

    2013-01-01

    本文研究了单一供应商和单一零售商组成的供应链在期权契约下的应急协调问题.首先证明了稳定条件下的期权契约能够实现该供应链的协调,当突发事件导致随机市场需求分布函数和制造商生产成本同时扰动时,在市场需求和生产成本变化满足一定条件下,供应链最优购买量不变,否则将会发生改变,此时协调被打破;通过调整期权契约能够实现对突发事件的协调应对.最后运用数值实验对模型进行了验证.%In recent years,emergency events such as nature disaster,terror attack etc.occur frequently,which affect the normal operation of enterprises and supply chain tremendously.Thus,this question leads to a wide attention about how to coordinate the supply chain to response to disruptions.On the other hand,the option contracts have a wide application in the supply chain coordination because of their good flexibility,but in previous studies,only few of them use the option contract to coordinate the supply chain to response to disruptions and verify its validity,and this is just the field that will be explored in this paper.In this paper,we considering a two-stage supply chain composed of one manufacturer and one retailer,while the disruptions cause the stochastic market demand distribution function and the manufacturer's production cost fluctuated simultaneously,how to coordinate the supply chain to response to the disruption by using the option contract is discussed in this paper.A supply chain coordination model is set up based on option contract firstly.As the disruption may affect the supply chain production plan and furthermore it will cause the manufacturer to adjust the production quantity,the production quantity adjustment need to throw in deviation cost.So in the emergency environment,a supply chain model iset up based on a option contract by drawing (leading) into deviation cost.In addition,the model is analyzed thoroughly.As for the thinking

  5. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  6. Competitive Pressures and Transition to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    This paper investigates whether the likelihood of entrepreneurial activity is associated with the competitive pressures for promotion within a firm. We argue that competitive pressures increase the relative attractiveness of entrepreneurship as a career option. We test our prediction using...... if they start working in organizational settings with strong competitive pressures. Furthermore, this competitive effect is more pronounced in firms that are entrepreneurially prominent, i.e. firms that spawn more entrepreneurial ventures, suggesting that combining different sources of incentives...

  7. Electricity transmission congestion costs: A review of recent reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2003-10-01

    Recently, independent system operators (ISOs) and others have published reports on the costs of transmission congestion. The magnitude of congestion costs cited in these reports has contributed to the national discussion on the current state of U.S. electricity transmission system and whether it provides an adequate platform for competition in wholesale electricity markets. This report reviews reports of congestion costs and begins to assess their implications for the current national discussion on the importance of the U.S. electricity transmission system for enabling competitive wholesale electricity markets. As a guiding principle, we posit that a more robust electricity system could reduce congestion costs; and thereby, (1) facilitate more vibrant and fair competition in wholesale electricity markets, and (2) enable consumers to seek out the lowest prices for electricity. Yet, examining the details suggests that, sometimes, there will be trade-offs between these goals. Therefore, it is essential to understand who pays, how much, and how do they benefit in evaluating options (both transmission and non-transmission alternatives) to address transmission congestion. To describe the differences among published estimates of congestion costs, we develop and motivate three ways by which transmission congestion costs are calculated in restructured markets. The assessment demonstrates that published transmission congestion costs are not directly comparable because they have been developed to serve different purposes. More importantly, critical information needed to make them more comparable, for example in order to evaluate the impacts of options to relieve congestion, is sometimes not available.

  8. Costs, benefits and management options for an invasive alien tree species: the case of mesquite in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wise, RM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available rainfall and the need to factor transport costs into the calculations, however, will probably render this use unprofitable although conversion in situ to higher value products (e.g. oils, bio-char) may prove viable. 2.3.3. The negative consequences...

  9. Reducing Long-Term Costs While Preserving a Robust Strategic Airlift Fleet: Options for the Current Fleet and Next-Generation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    available to the general public; and Michael Kennedy, Laura H. Bald - win, Michael Boito, Katherine M. Calef, James S. Chow, Joan Cornuet, Mel Eisman...pro- cure the C-767 first than to buy a pure fleet of either. To understand the sensitivity of these results, we examined the cost at which the C

  10. The Probabilistic Efficiency Frontier: A Framework for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Germany Put into Practice for Hepatitis C Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Sadler, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen) adapted the efficiency frontier (EF) approach to conform to statutory provisions on cost-effectiveness analysis of health technologies. EF serves as a framework for evaluating cost-effectiveness and indirectly for pricing and reimbursement decisions. To calculate an EF on the basis of single multidimensional benefit by taking patient preferences and uncertainty into account; to evaluate whether EF is useful to inform decision makers about cost-effectiveness of new therapies; and to find whether a treatment is efficient at given prices demonstrated through a case study on chronic hepatitis C. A single multidimensional benefit was calculated by linear additive aggregation of multiple patient-relevant end points. End points were identified and weighted by patients in a previous discrete-choice experiment (DCE). Aggregation of overall benefit was ascertained using preferences and clinical data. Monte-Carlo simulation was applied. Uncertainty was addressed by price acceptability curve (PAC) and net monetary benefit (NMB). The case study illustrates that progress in benefit and efficiency of hepatitis C virus treatments could be depicted very well with the EF. On the basis of cost, effect, and preference data, the latest generations of interferon-free treatments are shown to yield a positive NMB and be efficient at current prices. EF was implemented taking uncertainty into account. For the first time, a DCE was used with the EF. The study shows how DCEs in combination with EF, PAC, and NMB can contribute important information in the course of reimbursement and pricing decisions. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic considerations of commercial tokamak options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    Systems studies have been performed to assess commercial tokamak options. Superconducting, as well as normal, magnet coils in either first or second stability regimes have been considered. A spherical torus (ST), as well as an elongated tokamak (ET), is included in the study. The cost of electricity (COE) is selected as the figure of merit, and beta and first-wall neutron wall loads are selected to represent the physics and technology characteristics of various options. The results indicate that an economical optimum for tokamaks is predicted to require a beta of around 10%, as predicted to be achieved in the second stability regime, and a wall load of about 5 MW/m/sup 2/, which is assumed to be optimum technologically. This tokamak is expected to be competitive with fission plants if efficient, noninductive current drive is developed. However, if this regime cannot be attained, all other tokamaks operating in the first stability regime, including spherical torus and elongated tokamak and assuming a limiting wall load of 5 MW/m/sup 2/, will compete with one another with a COE of about 50 mill/kWh. This 40% higher than the COE for the optimum reactor in the second stability regime with fast-wave current drive. The above conclusions pertain to a 1200-MW(e) net electric power plant. A comparison was also made between ST, ET, and superconducting magnets in the second stability regime with fast-wave current drive at 600 MW(e).

  12. 加速技能大赛成果转化,深化工程造价专业课程改革%Accelerate the Skills Competition Achievement Transformation, Deepen the Course Reform of the Engineering Cost Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹智

    2014-01-01

    进行技能大赛成果转化,需结合大赛赛点,尝试工程造价专业技能大赛与岗位技能及核心课程的对接;通过开发课程标准、教材及引入大赛评分标准,实现教学资源的开发与利用;通过开设专业社团、校内企业工作室和企业专业教研室等,深化课程教学模式的改革,为工程造价专业课程改革提供有效途径和方法。%Conduct the achievements transformation of skills competition , need to be combined with competition match point ,try to dock with engineering cost professional skills ,job skills contest and core course;By developing the course standards ,textbooks and introduction of competition score stand‐ard ,enables the development and use of teaching resources ;By establishing the professional associations , school enterprise studios and professional teaching and researching office ,deepen the reform of course teaching mode ,providing effective ways and methods for course reform of engineering cost majors .

  13. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice....

  14. Knee-attributable medical costs and risk of re-surgery among patients utilizing non-surgical treatment options for knee arthrofibrosis in a managed care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Judith J; Quimbo, Ralph A; Gu, Tao

    2010-05-01

    To determine if differences in costs and risks of re-hospitalization and/or re-operation exist between arthrofibrosis patients treated with low intensity stretch (LIS) or high intensity stretch (HIS) mechanical therapies, or physical therapy alone (No Device). This observational cohort study utilized administrative claims data to identify arthrofibrosis patients, age arthrofibrosis for the No Device group. Knee-attributable medical costs (KAMC), accrued over 6-month pre- and post-index periods, as well as risks of re-operation, re-injury, and re-hospitalization were compared between groups. Multivariate models were used to evaluate group differences in utilization and costs when controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. A total of 60 359 patients (143 HIS; 607 LIS; 59 609 No Device) met the inclusion criteria. Unadjusted post-index KAMC were significantly less (p < 0.0001) among HIS patients ($8213 +/- 10 576) relative to LIS ($16 861 +/- 17 857) and No Device ($9345 +/- 14 120) patients. A significantly greater percentage of LIS Device patients had total knee replacements than HIS Device or No Device patients, and the LIS group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with musculoskeletal disease. When controlling for these group differences, the multivariate predictive model results were similar to the unadjusted results, with greater post-index KAMC for the LIS patients (24%, p = 0.025) and No Device (9%, p = 0.323) relative to HIS patients. No Device patients were 71% (p < 0.0001) more likely to have a subsequent knee event than HIS patients, and HIS patients had significantly lower rates of re-hospitalization than LIS and No Device patients (p < 0.0001). Patients treated with HIS mechanical therapy demonstrated significantly reduced rates of re-hospitalization which corresponded to reduced knee-attributable medical costs. Limitations of this study include those inherent in the use of retrospective claims data to identify the cohorts and for

  15. Low-cost options for reducing consumer health risks from farm to fork where crops are irrigated with polluted water in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoah, Philip; Keraita, Bernard; Akple, Maxwell;

    To identify interventions which reduce health risks of consumers where highly polluted irrigation water is used to irrigate vegetables in West Africa, scientists worked over 5 years with farmers, market traders and street food vendors in Ghana. The most promising low-cost interventions with high...... adoption potential were analyzed for their ability to reduce common levels of pathogens (counts of fecal coliforms and helminth eggs). The analysis showed the combination potential of various interventions, especially on-farm and during vegetable washing in line with the World Health Organization (WHO...

  16. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  17. COMPETITIVENESS OF INNOVATIVE PRODUCTION AS A RESULT OF THE INTENSIFICATION OF LABOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the competitiveness of innovative industries as a result of the intensification of labor. The article presents five options for increasing intensification labor proposed mechanism The article examines several options for increasing intensification of labor (economy and management, reducing costs of living embodied labor, and improving education and training of employees, an understanding of the prospects for the development of innovative industries and others, a mechanism in the development of innovative processes, in particular, increased science armament tech and labor , the change in the cost structure for the development of industries. Studied the principles of a competitive innovative development of industries based on the intensification of labor, such as rationality, high level of education and training of employees, the dependence of the development of a competitive innovative productions of the state of political and administrative reforms in the country and other regions. Refined economic, legal, organizational factors that contribute to the intensification of work. Identified tasks of the state, the region and the organization in the development of competitive innovative productions. Defined the concept of "the development of competitive industries on the basis of innovative intensification of labor," as companies that introduce new technologies, using the latest information systems, highly qualified staff and oriented to providing products that the market demands with the best change of labor and materials.

  18. 48 CFR 17.202 - Use of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Evaluation of Options, in the solicitation. (See 17.207(f) with regard to the exercise of options.) (b...) The contractor will incur undue risks; e.g., the price or availability of necessary materials or labor... unless (i) the basic quantity is a learning or testing quantity and (ii) competition for the option is...

  19. SMALL OFFICE BUILDING ENTERPRISE: CRITERIA FOR EFFICIENCY AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Folomeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main efficiency and competitiveness assessment criteria applicable to small construction organizations operating under market conditions are minimization of reduced costs and maximal conformity with quality requirements to building and structures under construction. Small enterprisefinance organization principles are as follows: independence, self-financing, responsibility for the company’s financial and economic activity results and control thereof. A method of investment option efficiency assessment with due account of construction project specifics is proposed. It is recommended to develop and use strategic cards to provide for balanced enterprise development.

  20. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    OpenAIRE

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna; Prokopenko Olha Volodymyrіvna; Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  1. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  2. Border tax adjustments for additional costs engendered by internal and EU environmental protection measures. Implementation options and WTO admissibility; Grenzsteuerausgleich fuer Mehrkosten infolge nationaler/europaeischer Umweltschutzinstrumente. Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten und WTO-rechtliche Zulaessigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Jacqueline; Berg, Holger (comps.)

    2008-04-15

    At the end of the year 2006, France proposed the introduction of a 'climatic tariff' into the discussion of the international climatic protection. The 'climatic tariff' shall adjust extra costs, which result from the domestic production by means of environmental protection instruments and to which the import goods are not exposed, with import/export compensatory payments in the form of import duties and/or taxes on import goods. The introduction of an import/export compensatory payment system aims to load imported goods equivalent to domestic products in order to adjust competitive disadvantages. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on possibilities and problems of design for an import/export tax compensatory. The authors examine the validity of the measures of import/export compensation from legal view the World Trade Organization (Geneva, Switzerland) based on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

  3. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  4. Full disclosure of financial costs and options to patients: the roles of race, age, health insurance, and usual source for care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Arbelaez, Jose J; Dixon, Bruce W

    2004-02-01

    The objective was to identify factors associated with financial discussions and financial disclosure of medical costs within a low-income urban community. The method used was a cross-sectional community-based survey in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted door-to-door and at area food pantries. Two hundred and twenty six adults were interviewed. Overall, 76.1% reported having a usual source for care and 73.0% had health insurance. Thirty nine and four tenths percent reported having been asked about their ability to pay for health services; this was more common among African Americans (OR 5.2; 95% CI 1.73-15.84), those with no health insurance (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.01-17.89), and those less than 45 years old (OR:2.9; 95% CI 1.03-8.28). Only 10.6% reported being told how much a health visit would cost. Overall, 30.1% reported their provider made payment allowances for medical bills, with white respondents 2.5 times more likely and those persons identifying an ambulatory site for care 2.6 times more likely to report this. Overall, 30.5% reported being referred to a collection agency for unpaid medical bills; this was 2.4 times more common among those individuals identifying a non-ambulatory usual site for care. Significant race and socio-economic disparities exist in discussions about and access to financial resources to pay for medical care. Expanding the availability of financial assistance is critical to improving access to health care.

  5. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  6. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  7. Friendly competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change.

  8. Reconciling viability and cost-effective shape memory alloy options – A review of copper and iron based shape memory metallic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kanayo Alaneme

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are group of alloys that display anthropomorphic characteristics. These alloys recover their pre-deformed morphology when heated above their transition temperatures after being deformed in their lower temperature phase (martensitic phase. This unique material behavior is explored in industrial and technological applications where capacity for strain recovery is a key design parameter. Copper and iron based SMAs are largely viewed as potential cost effective substitute to Ni–Ti SMAs judging from their promising shape memory properties, damping capacity and other functional properties. Despite their outstanding potentials, the susceptibility of copper based SMAS to phase stabilization, transition hysteresis, aging and brittleness creates doubt on the possibility of transiting from the realm of potential to functional long term use in engineering applications. On the other hand the low percentage shape recovery in the Fe based SMAs also creates a gap between the theory and potential use of these alloys. This paper takes a critical look at the science of shape memory phenomena as applicable to copper and iron based SMA systems. It also covers the limitations of these systems, the effect of processing parameters on these alloys, proposed solutions to limitations associated with this group of shape memory alloys and thoughts for future consideration.

  9. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  10. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  11. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  12. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  13. Making real options really work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets.

  14. Possible effects of competition on electricity consumers in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1998-01-01

    In part, the impetus for restructuring the U.S. electricity industry stems from the large regional disparities in electricity prices. Indeed, industry reforms are moving most rapidly in high-cost states, such as California and those in the Northeast. Legislators, regulators, and many others in states that enjoy low electricity prices, on the other hand, ask whether increased competition will benefit consumers in their states. This report quantifies the effects of increased competition on electricity consumers and producers in two regions, the Pacific Northwest and California. California`s generating costs are roughly double those of the Northwest. We use a new strategic-planning model called Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) to conduct these analyses. Specifically, we analyzed four cases: a pre-competition base case intended to represent conditions as they might exist under current regulation in the year 2000, a post-competition case in which customer loads and load shapes respond to real-time electricity pricing, a sensitivity case in which natural-gas prices are 20% higher than in the base case, and a sensitivity case in which the hydroelectric output in the Northwest is 20% less than in the base case. The ORCED analyses suggest that, absent regulatory intervention, retail competition would increase profits for producers in the Northwest and lower prices for consumers in California at the expense of consumers in the Northwest and producers in California. However, state regulators may be able to capture some or all of the increased profits and use them to lower electricity prices in the low-cost region. Perhaps the most straightforward way to allocate the costs and benefits to retail customers is through development of transition-cost charges or credits. With this option, the consumers in both regions can benefit from competition. The magnitude and even direction of bulk-power trading between regions depends strongly on the amount of hydroelectric

  15. 模糊环境下不对称企业的技术创新投资期权博弈分析%Option-Game Approach to Analyze Technology Innovation Investment With Cost Asymmetry Under the Fuzzy Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭英双; 衡爱民; 龙勇; 吴宏伟; 江礼梅

    2011-01-01

    Basing on the asymmetric duopoly option-game model with investment cost asymmetry, this research discusses the present value of profit flows and the sunk investment costs for the trapezoidal fuzzy number, and Firms' technology innovation investment strategy is analyzed. It constructs followers, leaders of investment value and investment threshold of fuzzy expressions under the fuzzy environment to conduct numerical analysis. And it is concluded that there is still existing the best increasing investment strategy under fuzzy environment, with the development of the trapezoidal fuzzy number of the sunk cost of expected investment, the investment value of business declines, but the critical value for the investment ascends. This offers a kind of explanation to the investment strategies under the fuzzy environment.%本文在不对称双头垄断期权博弈模型基础上讨论了利润流现值和沉没投资成本为梯形模糊数的情形并进行了扩展,对企业技术创新投资策略进行了分析。构建了模糊环境下追随者、领导者的投资价值和投资临界值的模糊表达式并进行数值分析。分析表明模糊环境下仍存在最优投资策略,随着梯形模糊数的沉没投资成本期望值的增加,企业的投资价值下降而投资临界值上升。为模糊环境下投资决策提供了一种解释。

  16. Evolution of definition of competitiveness of products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Aleksandrov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigational evolution of definition of competitiveness of products, certainly the stages of his development. Classification of existent approaches is improved in relation to the estimation of competitiveness of products, found out the sources of competitive edges from position of consumer cost, marginal utility, differentiation of products, demand and supply, key competense, marketing categories and ecological approach.

  17. Economic Analysis of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic analysis has been performed to compare four nuclear fuel cycle options: a once-through cycle (OT, DUPIC recycling, thermal recycling using MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR-MOX, and sodium fast reactor recycling employing pyroprocessing (Pyro-SFR. This comparison was made to suggest an economic competitive fuel cycle for the Republic of Korea. The fuel cycle cost (FCC has been calculated based on the equilibrium material flows integrated with the unit cost of the fuel cycle components. The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC have been derived in terms of mills/kWh for a fair comparison among the FCCs, and the results are as follows: OT 7.35 mills/kWh, DUPIC 9.06 mills/kWh, PUREX-MOX 8.94 mills/kWh, and Pyro-SFR 7.70 mills/kWh. Due to unavoidable uncertainties, a cost range has been applied to each unit cost, and an uncertainty study has been performed accordingly. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to obtain the break-even uranium price (215$/kgU for the Pyro-SFR against the OT, which demonstrates that the deployment of the Pyro-SFR may be economical in the foreseeable future. The influence of pyrotechniques on the LFCC has also been studied to determine at which level the potential advantages of Pyro-SFR can be realized.

  18. Incremental Cost Pricing Model of Distribution Network under Scale Competition Mechanism%标尺竞争机制下的配电网增量成本定价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰菊

    2013-01-01

    Distribution service pricing is one of important issues in the process of transmission and distribution separation. Traditional power distribution regulation is change to the incentive regulation. Based on the analysis of the related issues of distribution service pricing under scale competition mechanism, an incremental cost pricing model is proposed. The incremental cost can be estimated from the distribution network expansion program. The formulation of the distribution service pricing can be derived from the share of each user to distribution network load. The result of case study shows that the pricing model is effective for promoting competition among distribution companies, encouraging the parties to improve efficiency and reduce costs.%配电服务定价是输配分开过程中的重要问题之一,鉴于传统的配电管制正在向激励性管制转变,分析了标尺竞争机制下配电服务定价的相关问题,提出了一种基于标尺竞争机制的配电网增量成本定价模型,该模型基于配电网扩容计划估算增量成本和边际成本,并从每个配网使用者对配网负荷的使用份额来分析推导出配电服务价格.算例分析结果表明,该定价模型能有效促进配电公司之间的竞争,从而激励配电企业采取措施提高效率、降低成本.

  19. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...

  20. 基于实物期权的绿色建筑增量成本效益评价%Assessment of Green Building Incremental Cost Effectiveness based on Real Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓国

    2015-01-01

    绿色建筑的推广需从投资者和社会的角度对绿色建筑项目进行科学评价。以“有无对比”的原则,对绿色建筑项目增量成本和增量效益进行全面识别和计量。通过增量财务现金流量与增量经济费用流量的对比分析,由于绿色建筑的经济外部性,财务效益不显著,单从投资者的角度对推广绿色建筑项目积极性不大。政府需依据经济分析结果进行适当的财政补贴,使其具有财务可行性。同时,由于投资者对是否开发绿色建筑项目具有选择权,使绿色建筑项目具有实物期权价值。运用实物期权法对绿色建筑项目进行科学评价,更有利于绿色建筑项目的推广。%The promotion of green building requires the scientific evaluation on the green building project from the perspective of the investors and the social. The paper uses"with and without comparison"principle to recognize and measure comprehensively the incremental cost and incremental benefit of the green building project. By comparing the incremental financing cash flow and economic increment of cost flow analysis, it is found that there is no significant financial benefit viewed from the perspective of investors little enthusiasm for the promotion of green building project because of the economic externality of green building. The government should offer appropriate financial subsidies according to the economic analysis results and improve the financial feasibility. At the same time , because of the investors has the right to choose whether to develop green building project or not, the green building project has real option value. Using real option method to evaluate green building projects could be more conductive to the promotion of green building project.

  1. Managed competition that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caper, P

    1993-05-19

    President Clinton has advocated managed competition within a global budget as a long-term strategy for simultaneously controlling health care costs and expanding access to medical care to all Americans. This proposal is intended to show how these two seemingly conflicting goals can be simultaneously accomplished. Managed competition, as it has been conceptualized to date, is primarily a strategy for reforming the system of providing health services. To work, it must be joined with a strategy for reforming our system of financing and paying for those services and of limiting overall system capacity. "Managed Competition That Works" is a proposal that would create a single trust-funded national system of health insurance, implemented through a system of vouchers to individuals. Global budgeting would be accomplished through establishment of the voucher's value each year. The trust fund would pay health plans for all medical care by capitation, but health plans would be free to negotiate a variety of payment arrangements with physicians, hospitals, and other providers. All plans would be required to offer a standard package of benefits, but would have great flexibility in offering benefits beyond the scope of the standard package, if those benefits replace high-cost with lower-cost services or permit the plan to compete more effectively for market share. This proposal would establish firm but acceptable national budget limits; provide universal, comprehensive, and uniform insurance coverage; eliminate cost shifting; encourage competition; reward efficiency-improving innovation; greatly reduce the need for centralized micromanagement of medical care; and retain local determination and a somewhat reduced level of consumer choice. Although this proposal is written as a national plan, trust funds could be implemented at the state level, if problems associated with portability of benefits among states could be solved.

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  3. Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation can help reduce the long-term costs associated with climate change. This document provides an introduction to climate change impacts and adaptation options for estuaries, beaches and coastal areas.

  4. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  5. Competition and investment — A unified approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutzler, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Using a simple but general two-­‐‑stage framework, this paper identifies the circumstances under which increasing competition leads to more cost-­‐‑reducing investments. The framework can, for instance, capture increasing substitutability for different types of oligopoly models or changes from Cournot to Bertrand competition. The paper identifies four transmission mechanisms by which competition affects investment. For a firm with lower initial marginal costs (higher efficiency), a posi...

  6. Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks (aka AURORA: Areal Use and Reactant Optimization at Rated Amperage)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Amedeo [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dross, Robert [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Hydrogen fuel cells are recognized as one of the most viable solutions for mobility in the 21st century; however, there are technical challenges that must be addressed before the technology can become available for mass production. One of the most demanding aspects is the costs of present-day fuel cells which are prohibitively high for the majority of envisioned markets. The fuel cell community recognizes two major drivers to an effective cost reduction: (1) decreasing the noble metals content, and (2) increasing the power density in order to reduce the number of cells needed to achieve a specified power level. To date, the majority of development work aimed at increasing the value metric (i.e. W/mg-Pt) has focused on the reduction of precious metal loadings, and this important work continues. Efforts to increase power density have been limited by two main factors: (1) performance limitations associated with mass transport barriers, and (2) the historical prioritization of efficiency over cost. This program is driven by commercialization imperatives, and challenges both of these factors. The premise of this Program, supported by proprietary cost modeling by Nuvera, is that DOE 2015 cost targets can be met by simultaneously exceeding DOE 2015 targets for Platinum loadings (using materials with less than 0.2 mg-Pt/cm2) and MEA power density (operating at higher than 1.0 Watt/cm2). The approach of this program is to combine Nuvera’s stack technology, which has demonstrated the ability to operate stably at high current densities (> 1.5 A/cm2), with low Platinum loading MEAs developed by Johnson Matthey in order to maximize Pt specific power density and reduce stack cost. A predictive performance model developed by PSU/UTK is central to the program allowing the team to study the physics and optimize materials/conditions specific to low Pt loading electrodes and ultra-high current density and operation.

  7. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  8. CAES: a cost-effective power option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, R.W.; Iocca, J.M.; Kelsall, A.C.

    1983-08-01

    Compressed-air energy storage (CAES) is technically feasible and economically attractive; it is beginning to receive attention as an alternative peaking-generation source in the US Equipment required to operate a CAES facility is commercially available, and techniques for mining underground caverns, or for converting naturally occurring porous strata to store compressed air, have already been successfully applied to natural-gas storage. CAES siting is limited by necessary underground geological formations, but, because of the variety of formations that can be used, the technique has greater geographical application than pumped-storage hydro. 8 figures.

  9. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang-Yu; Ryvak, Marta; Sayeed, Sara; Zhao, Nick

    2012-04-23

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States' energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future.

  10. The Strategic Options of Supreme Audit Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Carrington, Thomas; Catasús, Bino

    2017-01-01

    Based on the theory of professional competition, this paper identifies and investigates four strategic options of supreme audit institutions (SAIs) through a case study of four Nordic national audit offices: a performance auditing strategy; a financial auditing strategy; a portfolio strategy...

  11. The role of competitive forces in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, E.; Goldman, C.

    1991-10-01

    In this report, we study the potential for competitive forces to enhance the efficiency of integrated resource planning and produce consumer cost reductions. We examine the efficiency gains from competition in the private power market, and ask whether similar forces can be successful on the demand-side of the market. The goal of this analysis is to identify and elucidate options available to state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs) to support competition in utility demand-side management programs to achieve efficiencies similar to those being achieved through development of competitive forces on the supply-side of the industry. We consider the entire market structure from upstream suppliers to distribution intermediaries to ultimate consumers. The market structure differs substantially between the demand-side and the supply-side of the electricity market. Demand-site electricity markets have a longer distribution chain and more intermediaries than the supply-side, which is attributable in part to the ultimately retail nature of demand and the wholesale nature of supply, and in part indicates market failures.

  12. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  13. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  14. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  15. Competitive electricity markets, prices and generator entry and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Robert George

    The electric power industry in the United States is quickly being deregulated and restructured. In the past, new electric generation capacity was added by regulated utilities to meet forecasted demand levels and maintain reserve margins. With competitive wholesale generation, investment will be the responsibility of independent private investors. Electricity prices will assume the coordinating function which has until recently been the responsibility of regulatory agencies. Competitive prices will provide the entry and exit signals for generators in the future. Competitive electricity markets have a distinctive price formation process, and thus require a specialized price model. A mean-reverting price process with stochastic jumps is proposed as an appropriate long-run price process for annual electricity prices. This price process is used to develop an analytic real options model for private investment decisions. The required recursive infinite series solutions have not been widely used for real option models. Entry thresholds and asset values for competitive wholesale electricity markets, and exit decisions for plants with significant retirement costs (i.e. nuclear power plants), are examined. The proposed model results in significantly lower trigger prices for both entry and exit decisions, and higher asset values, when compared with other standard models. The model is used to show that the incentives for retiring a nuclear plant are very sensitive to the treatment of decommissioning costs (e.g. if plant owners do not face full decommissioning costs, retirement decisions may be economically premature.) An econometric model of short-run price behavior is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood using daily electricity prices from markets in the USA and Australia. The model specifies two mean reverting price processes with stochastic Markov switching between the regimes, which allows discontinuous jumps in electricity prices. Econometric tests show that a two

  16. The evolution of energy costs and their effect on the competitiveness of Spanish industry; La evolucion de los costes energeticos y su efecto en la competitividad de la industria espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arocena, P.; Diaz, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of energy costs in the Spanish manufacturing and its evolution during the period 2000-2010. We carry out a descriptive analysis to firstly, determine the share of energy expenses on total operating expenses and personnel costs, and compare it with that registered in other European countries. Secondly, we analyze the evolution of the energy expenditure in relation to the output value created throughout the decade 2000-2010 and decompose such variation into a price effect and a quantity effect. (Author)

  17. 我国竞技体育职业化改革成本的经济学分析%Economic Analysis of the Reform Costs for Professional Competitive Sports System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扶健华; 陈虹帆

    2014-01-01

    In the development process of professional competitive sports, the costs and benefits must be considered, and the competitive level and the performance determine the relationship between professional sports and the market economy.The present paper analyzes and evaluates the development of our country's professional sports from the e-conomic perspective, describing some advantages and disadvantages of several professional sports development mod-el with Chinese characteristics.It also proposes some new ideas for the standardized and systematic development of our country's professional sports.%在竞技体育职业化发展过程中,成本和效益是必须考虑的因素,但竞技水平和比赛的观赏性决定了职业体育与市场经济的关系,从经济学角度对我国竞技体育职业化的改革成本进行了分析与评价,阐述了几种具有我国特色的职业体育发展模式的优缺点,为我国竞技体育职业化向科学、系统、规范的方向发展提供了新思路。

  18. 以职业竞争力为导向的工程造价专业教学%Teaching exploration for engineering cost specialty to improve students' career competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽; 刘海芳

    2012-01-01

    在大学生就业形势严峻的今天,如何提高学生的职业竞争力已成为高校学生培养工作的一个重点。文章从工程造价专业毕业生在实际工作中存在的问题出发,深入分析工程造价专业的职业竞争力,建立了五项核心能力模型,并结合学校实际,提出了工程造价专业五项核心能力重点培养的具体措施。%Nowadays, it is hard for graduate students to find a well-pleasing job. Therefore, how to enhance students' career competitiveness is an important work in the colleges and universities. We presented main problems in graduate students' practical work, analyzed career competitiveness of engineering cost specialty, established a model of five core capabilities, and proposed specific measures to realize the training of five core capabilities based on the reality of our university.

  19. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  20. Do prices fall faster when Wal-Mart is around? The effect of competition and reputation on cost pass-through and price adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, M. Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes Wal-Mart’s pricing practices and its influence on competitors’ input cost transmission. Previous attempts to analyze Wal-Mart’s pricing strategy in the United States have been limited by the company’s refusal to provide scanner data to third party research firms such as AC Nielsen. This is the first study to observe Wal-Mart’s prices over an extended period of time. Using weekly-store level price data between 2001 and 2006 that government officials collected in 12 Mexican citie...

  1. ACCOUNTING FOR OPTIONS AND ANALYSIS OF USE OF OPTION COMBINATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Derun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of accounting for options in Ukraine, namely: value expression of initial cost of options, their revaluation, accounting of premiums, financial assets and financial liabilities and variation margin. The paper offers ways of solution of these problems which based on harmonization with IAS 32, IAS 39, IFRS 7 and IFRS 9. The study considers option combination strategies (straddle, strangle, strap, strip and approaches of identification of possible financial results for investors which use these strategies. Examples of possible financial results are provided for buyers and sellers of options which use option combination strategies.

  2. Bank Mergers, Competition and Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan market competition, which in turn modifies the dis...

  3. Competitiveness of Slovenian Cargo Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojka Počuča

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Slovenian cargo shipping, its system oforganisation, ownership, age and value stntcture. It shows theimportance of shipping in the Slovenian overseas trade and itsimpact on the state's balance of payments. The analysis of thecompetitiveness of shipping was made from the viewpoint ofoperation costs and in comparison with the competitiveness ofEU shippers. The paper concludes with a proposal of possiblesystemic solutions which improve the competitiveness of Slovenianshipping.

  4. Strategies in second pricing in oligopolistic competition with switching cost%带有转移成本寡头垄断的二次定价及仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶阳; 周名阳; 万猛; 霍佳震

    2012-01-01

    Oligopolistic enterprises usually price their products for the second time, or use price discrimination, in order to earn more profit, especially for firms who enter the market later on. Most late comers' strategy is to occupy the market share first by pricing lower and then to earn more profit by raising the price. This paper is to 9tudy such competition between two oligopolistic enterprises in their second pricing. The study proves that the price and the gross profit are negatively related to the switching cost, and that die oligopoly who practices the lower price strategy at the first pricing stage would lose part of its market share at the second one. By comparing the switching cost, which is generated from the first pricing, with the cost on advertisement or promotion for the new products, the paper discusses the competition among neighboring products and points out that the profit of the oligopoly mainly comes from the switching cost.%寡头垄断企业往往通过二次定价或价格歧视来获取更多的利润,尤其是后入者经常采用先低价抢占市场,再高价获取利润的策略.研究了两个寡头垄断企业二次定价的竞争.证明了定价及总利润与转移成本负相关,第一阶段实行低价策略的寡头企业会在第二阶段定价中失去部分第一阶段获取的超额市场.将第一次定价产生的转移成本看作新产品投放市场广告或市场推广等成本效果,进一步讨论了产品在毗邻位置竞争的情况,指出寡头垄断的利润主要来自转移成本.

  5. CONDITIONAL ASIAN OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runhuan Feng; Volkmer, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Conditional Asian options are recent market innovations, which offer cheaper and long-dated alternatives to regular Asian options. In contrast with payoffs from regular Asian options which are based on average asset prices, the payoffs from conditional Asian options are determined only by average prices above certain threshold. Due to the limited inclusion of prices, conditional Asian options further reduce the volatility in the payoffs than their regular counterparts and have been promoted i...

  6. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  7. Cost Reduction is an Important Means to Improve Market Competitiveness for State-owned Industrial Enterprises%降低成本是国有工业企业提高市场竞争力的重要手段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何荣

    2013-01-01

      只要商品经济存在,市场竞争就不可避免。市场竞争十分激烈,价格竞争是市场竞争的客观要求,也是企业提高经济效益的要求。价格以成本为基础,没有低廉的成本,价格就没有任何竞争优势。因此,降低成本是国有工业企业提高市场竞争力的重要手段。%Market competition is inevitable as long as there is commodity economy. Market competition is very fierce. Price competition is the objective requirement of market competition, also is the need to enhance the economic performance for en-terprises. Price is based on cost, and it has no competitive advantage if there is no low cost. Therefore, cost reduction is an im-portant means to improve market competitiveness for state-owned industrial enterprises.

  8. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  9. Optimal Competition : A Benchmark for Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces optimal competition: the best form of competition in an industry that a competition authority can achieve under the information constraint that it cannot observe firms' effciency levels.We show that the optimal competition outcome in an industry becomes more competitive as more

  10. Getting Competitive: Competitive Intelligence Is a Smart next Step for Information Pros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cynthia Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) has become an attractive concept for Library and Information Science professionals, as information and research functions have become commoditized by end users, and financial, competitive, and performance pressures increase the need to demonstrate value. In the current competitive and cost-cutting environment,…

  11. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  12. Academic health centers on the front lines: survival strategies in highly competitive markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, D; Weissman, J S; Griner, P F

    1999-09-01

    The authors describe approaches that five academic health centers (AHCs) have taken to reduce costs, enhance quality, or improve their market positions since the onset of price competition and managed care. The five AHCs, all on the West Coast, were selected for study because they (1) are located in markets that had been highly competitive for the longest time; (2) are committed to all the major missions of AHCs; and (3) own or substantially control their major clinical teaching facilities. The study findings reflect the status of the five AHCs during the fall of 1998. Although some findings may no longer be current (especially in light of ongoing implementation of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997), they still provide insights into the options and opportunities available to many AHCs in highly competitive markets. The authors report on the institutions' financial viability (positive), levels of government support (advantageous), and competition from other AHCs (modest). They outline the study AHCs' survival strategies in three broad areas: increasing revenues via exploiting market niches, reducing costs, and reorganizing to improve internal governance and decision making. They also report how marketplace competition and the strategies the AHCs used to confront it have affected the AHCs' missions. The authors summarize the outstanding lessons that all AHCs can learn from the experiences of the AHCs studied, although adding that AHCs in other parts of the country should use caution in looking to the West Coast AHCs for answers.

  13. Financial Aspects of Competitiveness in the Sustainable Development of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Dimitriu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of firms is a most important problem and now the negative impact of financialcrisis bring in discussion was in which Romanian firms may survive on the Unique European market. Wethink that in present are necessary the following: 1. Increased competitiveness should not be regarded as aprocess of exploiting short-term advantages (e.g. low cost of labour, but as a process of building aneconomic structure based on capital investment and process R & D innovation; 2. Competitiveness incomplying with the legal community, or financial efforts in environmental protection, are significantsegments of the real economy of Romania can not integrate into the European Single Market; 3. Of the 6priorities of the NDP 2007-2013 (Competitiveness, Transport Infrastructure, Environment, HumanResources, Rural Development, regional development, the lowest financial allocation for Competitiveness(8.9% of total. Moreover, attracting European funds in the list is left behind to "graphics" originally made byRomania; 4. Now is a general series of vulnerabilities that lead to additional costs, such as uncertaintyregarding the sustainability and stability of policy options, solutions for restructuring and economicdevelopment, large uncertainties regarding the ability to translate words into concrete actions and establishpriorities in macroeconomic objectives and others.

  14. Productivity, Efficiency, and Competitiveness of Small-Scale Organic Cotton Production in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mgeni, Dotto; Henningsen, Arne

    , these inputs face non-constant shadow prices, which are determined by their opportunity costs. In order to account for the endogeneity of these shadow prices when calculating allocative efficiencies, we use the approach for modeling imperfect markets developed by Henning and Henningsen (2007). Based on our...... be an attractive option for cotton farmers in Eastern Africa, because in this region, the use of chemical inputs is anyway virtually absent, the labor cost is low, and organic cotton has a higher sales price than conventional cotton. In order to scrutinize this option, we use microeconomic production theory......, and competitiveness. Traditionally, the measurement of allocative efficiency assumed that all inputs can be freely traded at a given price on a perfectly functioning market. This assumption was relaxed by Tauer (1993) who suggested an approach that can additionally account for quasi-fixed input quantities, which...

  15. Real Options: Examples and Principles of Valuation and Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); L. Trigeorgis (Lenos)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper illustrates the use of real options and game theory principles to value prototypical investment projects and capture important competitive/strategic dimensions in a step-by-step analysis of investment decisions (options) under uncertainty. It first illustrates the application o

  16. Evaluation of call options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道平

    2002-01-01

    The European and American call options,for which the prices of their underlying asset follow compound Poisson process,are evaluated by a probability method.Formulas that can be used to evaluate the options are obtained,which include not only the elements of an option:the price of the call option,the exercise price and the expiration date,but also the riskless interest rate,nevertheless exclude the volatility of the underlying asset.In practice,the evaluated results obtained by these formulas can proved references of making strategic decision for an investor who buys the call option and a company who sells the call option.

  17. Menu Costs and Dynamic Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Kazuko

    2011-01-01

    Examining a state-dependent pricing model in the presence of menu costs and dynamic duopolistic interactions, this paper claims that the assumption regarding market structure is crucial for iden- tifying the menu costs for price changes. Prices in a dynamic duopolistic market can be more rigid than those in more competitive markets, such as a monopolistic-competition market. Therefore, the estimates of menu costs under monopolistic competition are potentially biased upward due to the price ri...

  18. Multilayer-Grown Ultrathin Nanostructured GaAs Solar Cells as a Cost-Competitive Materials Platform for III-V Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Boju; Sun, Yukun; Lim, Haneol; Chen, Huandong; Faucher, Joseph; Lee, Minjoo L; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-01-24

    Large-scale deployment of GaAs solar cells in terrestrial photovoltaics demands significant cost reduction for preparing device-quality epitaxial materials. Although multilayer epitaxial growth in conjunction with printing-based materials assemblies has been proposed as a promising route to achieve this goal, their practical implementation remains challenging owing to the degradation of materials properties and resulting nonuniform device performance between solar cells grown in different sequences. Here we report an alternative approach to circumvent these limitations and enable multilayer-grown GaAs solar cells with uniform photovoltaic performance. Ultrathin single-junction GaAs solar cells having a 300-nm-thick absorber (i.e., emitter and base) are epitaxially grown in triple-stack releasable multilayer assemblies by molecular beam epitaxy using beryllium as a p-type impurity. Microscale (∼500 × 500 μm(2)) GaAs solar cells fabricated from respective device layers exhibit excellent uniformity (solar cells grown in triple-stack epitaxial assemblies.

  19. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  20. The Competitiveness of Alternative Hydrogen Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.

    to transport services and in market competitiveness and societal competitiveness. The major societal competitive advantage of hydrogen is its convertibility to electricity and from any other source of energy. This enables a flexible use of natural gas and primary electricity as transport fuels. The major...... advantage in market competitiveness is the energy efficiency of the fuel cell. This advantage is, however, to some extent balanced by the costs associated with conversion, transport, and storage. The balance between these factors required for market competitiveness is identified....

  1. The future of competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Gary; Jensen, Boris Brorman; Miessen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition....

  2. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  3. A CBO Paper: Accounting for Employee Stock Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    form of employee stock options . For some types of employee stock options they grant, however firms can choose how to measure that value. They can use...than zero. As a result, firms may assign a cost of zero to that portion of compensation made up of grants of employee stock options . That practice results in overstatement of reported net income.

  4. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  5. 77 FR 55515 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... this transaction cost level strikes the appropriate balance between establishing reasonable fees and... fees for two option positions. The Exchange believes that this transaction cost level strikes...

  6. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  7. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...... of lean improvements as well as organizational learning....

  8. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  9. On the weak project construction cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.

  10. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  11. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...... to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels...... and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges...

  12. Recent Advances in Real Options Signaling Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rigopoulos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial economics have benefited from game theory advances and its application to various domains where competition is present. Following relevant research this paper presents a literature review of recent works on the intersection of real options and game theory, especially on signaling games. A preliminary background is presented initially and next a review of the works is presented. The paper compiles existing works to a useful reference for researchers in the field. Keywords: Signaling games; Capital budgeting, Real options, Game theory, Discrete time games

  13. Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal.

  14. MODIFICATION OF DELTA FOR CHOOSER OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Ďurica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Correctly used financial derivatives can help investors increase their expected returns and minimize their exposure to risk. To ensure the specific needs of investors, a large number of different types of non-standard exotic options is used. Chooser option is one of them. It is an option that gives its holder the right to choose at some predetermined future time whether the option will be a standard call or put with predetermined strike price and maturity time. Although the chooser options are more expensive than standard European-style options, in many cases they are a more suitable instrument for investors in hedging their portfolio value. For an effective use of the chooser option as a hedging instrument, it is necessary to check the values of the Greek parameters delta and gamma for the options. Especially, if the value of the parameter gamma is too large, hedging of the portfolio value using only parameter delta is insufficient and brings high transaction costs because the portfolio has to be reviewed relatively often. Therefore, in this article, a modification of delta-hedging as well as using the value of parameter gamma is suggested. Error of the delta modification is analyzed and compared with the error of widely used parameter delta. Typical patterns for the modified hedging parameter variation with various time to choose time for chooser options are also presented in this article.

  15. Methane : its role in climate change and options for control

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study on CH4, (its role in climate change and options for control), aimed at a scenario analysis to assess future climate change under reduced methane emissions. At the same time improving the quality of CH4 emission inventories and estimating the costs of emission reductions between 2010 and 2100. In this thesis 28 major options to control or mitigate methane emissions from different sources were identified. The effectiveness and costs of these options were assessed. This resulted in a ...

  16. Allopurinol as a therapeutic option in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Osita N; Farrington, K; Gorog, Diana A

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that hyperuricaemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Alongside uric acid formation, increased xanthine oxidase activity also results in the formation of oxidative free radicals and superoxide particles. Oxidative stress significantly contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, including endothelial cell dysfunction, atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and impaired myocardial energetics. Allopurinol, a competitive xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in addition to reducing serum uric acid levels, can act as a free radical scavenger. Although traditionally used for the management of gout, there has been renewed interest in the role of allopurinol in the management of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarise the role of the xanthine oxidase pathway in the generation of oxidative stress and evaluate the current body of evidence assessing the clinical effects of allopurinol in patients with cardiovascular disease. A number of small clinical studies have shown a beneficial effect of allopurinol in reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury in the setting of bypass surgery and coronary angioplasty. Additionally, studies in heart failure indicate a potential favourable effect of allopurinol on endothelial dysfunction, LV function and haemodynamic indices, particularly in those with raised serum uric acid levels. Whilst this cheap and readily available pharmacological option may offer a very cost effective therapeutic option, large-scale prospective studies are required to better delineate its role in reducing hard clinical end-points.

  17. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  18. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  19. Analyzing competition in intermodal freight transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    To cope with an intense and competitive environment, intermodal freight transport operators have increasingly adopted business practices —like horizontal and vertical business integration—which aim to reduce the operational costs, increase the profit margins, and improve their competitive position

  20. Competitive Procurement of Integrated Library Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Evan A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the competitive bidding process used by California State University to successfully procure integrated library systems for 5 of its 19 campuses during 1 fiscal year. The procurements demonstrated that competitive bidding not only reduces overall cost of library systems, but also allows the buyer to achieve favorable contract provisions.…

  1. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  2. What Customer Orders Really Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Robert J.; Larry J. Rankin

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies facing significant pricing competition need customer cost informations systems (CCISs) that reliably measure the resource costs of serving individual customers. Prices are often set by the market and competition, particularly from foreign imports, and severely restricts marketingÕs ability to adjust prices to cover costs. It is important that marketing personnel have access to accurate product and customer cost information. With such information, marketing personnel ca...

  3. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klāvs, G.; Kundziņa, A.; Kudrenickis, I.

    2016-10-01

    Use of renewable energy sources (RES) might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 - the investment support (IS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) - on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel) biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas utility roughly corresponds to the historical FIT regarding electricity production using RES. However, if in addition to the FIT the IS is provided, the analysis shows that the practice of combining both the above-mentioned instruments is not optimal because too high total support (overcompensation) is provided for a biogas utility developer. In a long-term perspective, the latter gives wrong signals for investments in new technologies and also creates unequal competition in the RES electricity market. To provide optimal biogas utilisation, it is necessary to consider several options. Both on-site production of electricity and upgrading to biomethane for use in a low pressure gas distribution network are simulated by the cost estimation model. The authors' estimates show that upgrading for use in a gas distribution network should be particularly considered taking into account the already existing infrastructure and technologies. This option requires lower support compared to support for electricity production in small-scale biogas utilities.

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ingrid, Keller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of business strategies that build value throughout the supply chain of goods and services and simultaneously contribute to sustainability is one of the most difficult to address in practice. So for the present study we researched the possible strategies, identifying those options to successfully integrate the dimensions of sustainability into organizational development from a systems perspective and its possibilities and limitations. The characteristic activities of the five possible choices - risk management, image building and reputation, productivity and efficiency, innovation and market development - can be implemented in pure form, in combination or sequentially. In this way you can build competitive advantages in the context of sustainability, which allows the company to achieve greater chance of success, not only in the short term but also medium and long term.

  5. Competitive energy markets and nuclear power: Can we have both, do we want either?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve, E-mail: Stephen.thomas@gre.ac.u [Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    In 1987, the UK Conservative Party was re-elected promising to transform the electricity industry into a privatised competitive industry and to promote an expansion of nuclear power. Fulfilling both objectives was not possible. The nuclear plants were withdrawn from the sale and plans to build new plants were abandoned, but privatisation proceeded. In 2007, the Labour government began a new attempt to build nuclear plants to operate in the competitive electricity market, promising that no subsidies would be offered to them. By 2010, the utilities that were planning to build nuclear plants were beginning to suggest that 'support' in some form would be needed if they were to build new plants. More surprisingly, the energy regulator, Ofgem, cast doubt on whether a competitive wholesale electricity market would provide security of supply. In 1990, the UK government opted for a competitive electricity market over expanding nuclear power. Now, the option of opting for a competitive electricity market may not exist. However, this might not leave the way open for new nuclear plants. The expected cost of power from new nuclear plants is now so high that no more than one or two heavily subsidised plants will be built.

  6. Competitive energy markets and nuclear power. Can we have both, do we want either?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve [Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    In 1987, the UK Conservative Party was re-elected promising to transform the electricity industry into a privatised competitive industry and to promote an expansion of nuclear power. Fulfilling both objectives was not possible. The nuclear plants were withdrawn from the sale and plans to build new plants were abandoned, but privatisation proceeded. In 2007, the Labour government began a new attempt to build nuclear plants to operate in the competitive electricity market, promising that no subsidies would be offered to them. By 2010, the utilities that were planning to build nuclear plants were beginning to suggest that 'support' in some form would be needed if they were to build new plants. More surprisingly, the energy regulator, Ofgem, cast doubt on whether a competitive wholesale electricity market would provide security of supply. In 1990, the UK government opted for a competitive electricity market over expanding nuclear power. Now, the option of opting for a competitive electricity market may not exist. However, this might not leave the way open for new nuclear plants. The expected cost of power from new nuclear plants is now so high that no more than one or two heavily subsidised plants will be built. (author)

  7. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  8. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  9. Nanotechnology and U.S. Competitiveness: Issues and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-15

    List of Figures Figure 1. Nanotechnology Papers in the Science Citation Index , by Region, 2000-2005...for CRS by Evaluametrics, Ltd. in December 2007. This analysis was performed using information from Thompson Scientific’s Science Citation Index , selecting...RoW CN+TW EU27 USA Figure 1. Nanotechnology Papers in the Science Citation Index , by Region, 2000-2005 CRS-15 40 Using the Potential Citation Index metric

  10. Determination of leveled costs of electric generation for gas plants, coal and nuclear; Determinacion de costos nivelados de generacion electrica para plantas de gas, carbon y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J.C.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Gomez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The present work analyzes the leveled costs of electric generation for different types of nuclear reactors known as Generation III, these costs are compared with the leveled costs of electric generation of plants with the help of natural gas and coal. In the study several discount rates were used to determine their impact in the initial investment. The obtained results are comparable with similar studies and they show that it has more than enough the base of the leveled cost the nuclear option it is quite competitive in Mexico. Also in this study it is also thinks about the economic viability of a new nuclear power station in Mexico. (Author)

  11. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  12. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  13. Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

    2009-06-01

    HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health

  14. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  15. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  16. Trade Liberalization and the Degree of Competition in International Duopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashournia, Damoun; Hansen, Per Svejstrup; Hansen, Jonas Worm

    2013-01-01

    products. Our main finding is that trade liberalization may have an anti-competitive effect. We find that there is no unique relation between a reduction in trade costs and the degree of competition. When products are differentiated, a lowering of trade costs is pro-competitive if trade costs are initially......This paper analyzes how a reduction in trade costs influences the possibility for firms to engage in international cartels, and hence how trade liberalization affects the degree of competition. We consider a particular intra-industry trade model amended to allow for firms producing differentiated...... high, but anti-competitive if trade costs initially are low. Hence, trade policy is not necessarily a substitute for competition policy...

  17. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  18. RTP as an Optional Service: It's Alive, But Is It Well?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-03-10

    Economists have advocated for real-time pricing (RTP) of electricity on the basis of the gains in economic efficiency that would result from charging customers the contemporaneous marginal cost of supplying electricity instead of the average cost. In recent years, RTP has also become the subject of interest in a variety of policy contexts, including integrated resource planning initiatives, ongoing efforts to improve efficiency and reliability in competitive electricity markets, and implementation of default service in states with retail choice. Most experience with RTP has been as an optional service, that is, a self-selecting alternative to the standard utility service. By our count, approximately 70 utilities in the U.S. offered an optional RTP program at some point over the past 20 years. However, many programs are now defunct. In 2003, 47 utilities in the U.S. were still offering an optional RTP program, on either a pilot or permanent basis (see Figure 1). In addition, 10 utilities in states with retail choice currently offer RTP as the default service for large customers that are not under contract with a competitive supplier. Another two utilities have received regulatory approval to do so in the next few years. Although the results of a few optional RTP programs have been publicized, the vast majority of programs have operated in relative obscurity. To provide a wider perspective on utility and customer experience with RTP, we surveyed 43 optional RTP programs offered in 2003. We interviewed RTP program managers and other utility staff, and reviewed publicly available sources, including key regulatory documents and program evaluations. Based on this research, we identified trends related to RTP program history and outlook, program design and implementation, customer participation, and participant price response. The results are both surprising and instructive. We conclude that RTP is indeed alive but is not prospering as well it could. Thus, we offer a

  19. Informed Option Trading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe use a sequential trade model to clarify two mechanisms following the introduction of an option that may lead to increased efficiency in the underlying. On the one hand, market makers learn from trades in the option market and set more accurate prices. On the other hand, the proportion

  20. Prioritization of perspectives for a sustainable concrete chain. Cost curve on the basis of a quick scan of 16 sustainability options; Prioritering handelingsperspectieven verduurzaming betonketen. Kostencurve opgesteld op basis van quickscan van 16 door het MVO-netwerk beton geselecteerde verduurzamingsopties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lieshout, M.; Warringa, G.E.A.; Bergsma, G.C.

    2013-11-15

    The goal of the project is make a rough estimate of the cost curve for 16 options for the medium term to improve the sustainability of the chain in the cement industry. In Chapter 2, the selection process of the sustainability options is described. Appendix A holds the list of options for the medium term. Next, the selected sustainability options are described of which CO2 emission reduction costs and CO2 emission reduction potentials are investigated. In Appendix B, the following aspects are described: ( a) the working principle of the measure (how does this measure contribute to the reduction of CO2 emission in the concrete chain?), (b) the reduction costs (how much are the costs for the reduction of 1 tonne CO2?, (c) the reduction potential (the amount of CO2 emissions that can be avoided on an annual basis, with the production in 2010 as the reference base)? In Chapter 3, the cost curve is presented: What are the reduction costs, What is the reduction potential, How sensitive are the data presented for variations in parameters? In Chapter 4 conclusions and recommendations are presented [Dutch] Het doel van het project is om een ruwe inschatting van de kostencurve op te stellen voor 16 opties voor de middellange termijn om de betonketen te verduurzamen. In Hoofdstuk 2 is het selectieproces van de verduurzamingopties beschreven. In Bijlage A staat de lijst met opties voor de middellange termijn waarmee de begeleidingsgroep begonnen is. Vervolgens beschrijven we welke verduurzamingsopties geselecteerd zijn waarvan de CO2-emissiereductiekosten en het CO2-emissiereductiepotentieel onderzocht zijn. In Bijlage B zijn de volgende aspecten beschreven: (a) het werkingsprincipe van de maatregel (hoe draagt deze maatregel bij aan CO2-emissiereductie in de betonketen?); (b) de reductiekosten (hoeveel kost het om op deze manier een ton CO2 te besparen?); (c) het reductiepotentieel (hoeveel CO2-emissie kan er op deze manier voorkomen worden per jaar, uitgaande van de

  1. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  2. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  3. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition....

  4. Research on the Relationship between Stock-options Incentives and Acquisition Decisions:The Mediating and Moderating Effect of Agency Cost and CEO Overconfidence%CEO股票期权激励与并购决策关系研究--代理成本的中介作用和CEO过度自信的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜跃平; 徐杰

    2016-01-01

    运用美国上市银行1998—2014年的数据,将股票期权激励、代理成本、CEO过度自信与并购决策纳入统一的框架进行研究,以代理成本为中介变量,CEO过度自信为调节变量,以检验股票期权激励是否会影响并购决策,以及股票期权激励、代理成本、CEO过度自信与并购决策之间的关系。实证结果表明:CEO股票期权激励能够有效刺激其做出并购决策;代理成本对股票期权激励与并购决策的关系存在部分中介效应;CEO过度自信能显著调节股票期权激励与并购决策的关系;CEO过度自信对于股票期权激励与并购决策的关系的调节作用会通过代理成本起作用。%By using the data of public-listed bank bidders in the U. S. from 1998 to 2014, this paper examines the relationship between stock-options incentives, agency cost, CEO overconfidence, and acquisition investment decisions, with agency cost and CEO overconfidence as the mediating and moderating variables respectively. We find that the correlation between CEO stock-option based compensation and acquisition investment decisions is significantly positive; agency cost has a mediating effect between the relationship of stock-options incentives and acquisition investment decisions; the moderating effect of CEO overconfidence is significant;while stock-options incentives cannot induce overconfident CEOs to make acquisitions, non-over-confident CEOs with stock-options incentives are more likely to conduct acquisition investments. The moderating effect of CEO overconfidence can also function via agency cost.

  5. Options for refuelling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, R.; Bauen, A.; Hart, D.

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H 2 FCV) trials are taking place in a number of cities around the world. In Italy, Milan and Turin are the first to have demonstration projects involving hydrogen-fuelled vehicles, in part to satisfy increasing consumer demand for improved environmental performance. The Italian transport plan specifically highlights the potential for FCVs to enter into the marketplace from around 2005. A scenario for FCV penetration into Italy, developed using projected costs for FCV and hydrogen fuel, suggests that by 2015, 2 million Italian cars could be powered by fuel cells. By 2030, 60% of the parc could be FCVs. To develop an infrastructure to supply these vehicles, a variety of options is considered. Large-scale steam reforming, on-site reforming and electrolysis options are analysed, with hydrogen delivered both in liquid and gaseous form. Assuming mature technologies, with over 10,000 units produced, on-site steam reforming provides the most economic hydrogen supply to the consumer, at US 2.6/kg. However, in the early stages of the infrastructure development there is a clear opportunity for on-site electrolysis and for production of hydrogen at centralised facilities, with delivery in the form of liquid hydrogen. This enables additional flexibility, as the hydrogen may also be used for fuel refining or for local power generation. In the current Italian context, energy companies could have a significant role to play in developing a hydrogen infrastructure. The use of hydrogen FCVs can substantially reduce emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases. Using externality costs for regulated pollutants, it is estimated that the use of hydrogen fuel cell buses in place of 5% of diesel buses in Milan could avoid US 2 million per year in health costs. The addition of even very low externality costs to fuel prices makes the use of untaxed hydrogen in buses and cars, which is slightly more expensive for the motorist than untaxed gasoline or

  6. Online algorithms for scheduling with machine activation cost on two uniform machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Shu-guang; JIANG Yi-wei; HU Jue-liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a variant of the scheduling problem on two uniform machines with speeds 1 and s. For this problem, we are given two potential uniform machines to process a sequence of independent jobs. Machines need to be activated before starting to process, and each machine activated incurs a fixed machine activation cost. No machines are initially activated,and when a job is revealed, the algorithm has the option to activate new machines. The objective is to minimize the sum of the makespan and the machine activation cost. We design optimal online algorithms with competitive ratio of (2s+1)/(s+1) for every s≥1.

  7. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new...... of advanced offshoring, exploring what causes firms to offshore some of their more advanced tasks. Our findings indicate that while the lower cost of unskilled, labor-intensive processes is the main driver for firms that offshore less advanced tasks, the offshoring of advanced tasks is part of firms’ strategy...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  8. Driving Competitiveness Through Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    countries and emerging economies. It is our hope that this booklet can assist managers to analyze and plan a servitization strategy. The text is brief and comprehensive to supplement a workshop, but can also be used separately as a quick guide on steps to follow for a manager when considering servitization......Servitization, or adding services to the manufactured product, has become a strategy for increasing financial margins, getting closer to the customer and prolonging product lives. This is especially applicable to Western hemisphere companies in their efforts to compete with companies from low cost...... for the company. This booklet is produced to serve as a documentation of a research project together with industry on how servitization can be a strategy to enhance the competitiveness of manufacturing firms....

  9. Agricultural Contracts and Alternative Marketing Options: A Matching Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Katchova, Ani L.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of agricultural contracts and processor concentration raises concerns that processors may offer lower contract prices in absence of competition from other local contractors and spot markets. This study examines the price competitiveness of marketing and production contracts depending on the availability of alternative marketing options. A propensity score matching method is used to compare prices using contract data from a farm-level national survey. The results show that t...

  10. Nondegree Options for Expanding a Leadership Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R; Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Organizational leaders are time-challenged to stay attuned with dynamic health care and business environments, leaving time for professional development at a premium. Beyond interorganizational leadership programs, learning options for nondegree-enhanced education are provided, referencing some of the high-quality, high-volume programs available at no or low cost. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(7):299-301.

  11. Paper Document Storage: A Summary of Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Discusses problems with paper storage; considers organizational requirements for storage, including access, cost, and security; describes storage options, including filing cabinets, open shelving, cabinets, carousels, mobile racking, and rotary storage; and examines paper storage as part of a records management strategy. (LRW)

  12. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  13. Housing Options for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different services. The services are based on the lifestyle and health care needs of the residents. Below are some options for senior living. Active adult communitiesActive adult communities are neighborhoods made for older ...

  14. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  15. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  16. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  17. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  18. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  19. Assessment of the costs, risks and benefits of selected integrated policy options to adapt to flood and drought in the water and agricultural sectors of the Warta River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzimir, Jan; Dubel, Anna; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Damurski, Jakub; Schroeter, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    Historically large reservoirs have been the dominant strategy to counter flood and drought risk in Europe. However, a number of smaller-scale approaches have emerged as alternative strategies. To compare the cost effectiveness of reservoirs and these alternatives, we calculated the Investment & maintenance costs in terms of (euros) /m3 water stored or annual runoff reduced for five different strategies: large reservoirs (1.68 euros), large on-farm ponds (5.88 euros), small on-farm ponds (558.00 euros), shelterbelts (6.86 euros), switching to conservation tillage (-9.20 euros). The most cost effective measure for reducing runoff is switching to conservation tillage practices because this switch reduces machinery and labor costs in addition to reducing water runoff. Although shelterbelts that reduce annual runoff cannot be directly compared to ponds and reservoirs that store water, our estimates show that they likely compare favorably as a natural water retention measure, especially when taking account of their co-benefits in terms of erosion control, biodiversity and pollination. Another useful result is our demonstration of the economies of scale among reservoirs and ponds for storing water. Small ponds are two orders of magnitude more costly to construct and maintain as a flood and drought prevention measure than large reservoirs. Here, again, there are large co-benefits that should be factored into the cost-benefit equation, including especially the value of small ponds in promoting corridors for migration. This analysis shows the importance of carrying out more extensive cost-benefit estimates across on-farm and off-farm measures for tackling drought and flood risk in the context of a changing climate. While concrete recommendations for supporting water retention measures will depend on a more detailed investigation of their costs and benefits, this research highlights the potential of natural water retention measures as a complement to conventional investments

  20. Heliostat cost optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.

  1. Employer-based coverage and medical travel options: lessons for healthcare managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppan, Corinne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Outbound medical travel (MT) involves U.S. patients going abroad to seek medical care. Over the past decade, there has been much discussion about MT's broadening appeal to several segments of U.S. healthcare consumers, but little is known about its penetration in the employer-based coverage (EBC) marketplace. The objectives of this article are to fill this gap and identify (1) the current status of MT options in EBC, (2) the differences between adopters and nonadopters of MT options, and (3) the factors that impede adoption. The results were obtained from a nationwide survey of human resources (HR) professionals making decisions regarding medical benefits. In this sample (n = 608), 16.8% of the respondents offered outbound MT options to their employees, often bypassing their insurance providers. Besides benefiting from a strong HR function, these organizations tended to be more involved in global business transactions, more open to change, more sensitive to cost savings, and more flexible in implementing administrative innovations than nonadopters were. An organizational climate conducive to innovation may explain their propensity to downplay the importance of well-known obstacles to implementation, such as the effort required to make changes, an emphasis on short-term goals, and the fear of liability. The lessons to be learned by U.S. healthcare managers are clear. To attract a value-conscious market, they must offer an attractive package of outstanding quality (clinical outcomes and patient experience) at competitive costs. Operational excellence may thus be the key to slowing the inevitable diffusion of MT options in EBC and maintaining or even expanding the U.S. market share of elective surgeries.

  2. The competition of different measures to increase flexibility in energy systems with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Christoph; Teufel, Felix [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Research and Innovation Dept.

    2013-04-01

    The continuous expansion of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) is changing the present generation structure that has been designed to follow fluctuating demand considerably. In order to utilise a high share of supply-dependent RES, the future energy system needs to become more flexible than it is today. This paper describes the different flexibility options that can be implemented with regard to their major restrictions as well as their suitability to balance a certain deficit or surplus of RES generation. Furthermore, it outlines the importance of competition between these different balancing measures to meet the required level of flexibility at lowest cost. (orig.)

  3. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database(GMOD)and Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database (GMOD) is a decision support database and tool that provides cost and performance information for GHG mitigation options for the power, cement, refinery, landfill and pulp and paper sectors. The GMOD includes approximately 450 studies fo...

  4. 5 CFR 870.402 - Withholdings for Optional insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which his/her birthday occurs. (3) When OPM makes any adjustment to the Optional life insurance premiums... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Cost of Insurance § 870.402... amount of Optional life insurance deductions from an individual's pay, annuity, or compensation,...

  5. Potential Bioenergy Options in Developed and Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant –based energy production (energy crops, forest growth) and residue and waste ... Modern bioenergy options offer significant, cost-effective and ... contribute to sustainable development both in developed and less developed countries, ...

  6. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  7. Physics Competitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, ErzséBet SzéP, Jenö

    The following sections are included: * Description of Physics Competitions in Hungary * Training of the Hungarian Team before the International Physics Olympiad * Few Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition for 15 - 16 Year Old students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Year Old Students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * solving this equation we obtain m = 18kg * The work done is 427 joule - 80 joule 347 joule * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Pear Old Students

  8. FUTURES OPTIONS: UNIVERSE OF POTENTIAL PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teselios Delia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A approaching options on futures contracts in the present paper is argued, on one hand, by the great number of their directions for use (in financial speculation, in managing and risk control, etc. and, on the other hand, by the fact that in Romania, nowadays, futures contracts and options represent the main categories of traded financial instruments. Because futures contract, as an underlying asset for options, it is often more liquid and involves more reduced transaction costs than cash product which corresponds to that futures contract, this paper presents a number of information regarding options on futures contracts, which offer a wide range of investment opportunities, being used to protect against adverse price moves in commodity, interest rate, foreign exchange and equity markets. There are presented two assessment models of these contracts, namely: an expansion of the Black_Scholes model published in 1976 by Fischer Black and the binomial model used especially for its flexibility. Likewise, there are presented a series of operations that can be performed using futures options and also arguments in favor of using these types of options.

  9. Pricing European Options in Realistic Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Schaden, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the fair price for European-style vanilla options and the distribution of short-term returns on the underlying asset ignoring transaction and other costs. We compute the risk-neutral probability density conditional on the total variance of the asset's returns when the option expires. If the asset's future price has finite expectation, the option's fair value satisfies a parabolic partial differential equation of the Black-Scholes type in which the variance of the asset's returns rather than a trading time is the evolution parameter. By immunizing the portfolio against large-scale price fluctuations of the asset, the valuation of options is extended to the realistic case\\cite{St99} of assets whose short-term returns have finite variance but very large, or even infinite, higher moments. A dynamic Delta-hedged portfolio that is statically insured against exceptionally large fluctuations includes at least two different options on the asset. The fair value of an option in this c...

  10. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  11. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  12. Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.

    This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented

  13. SPEAR: sustainable options for people catchment and aquatic resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferreira, GJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available research models, which assimilate dispersed local and regional data, and develop screening models which integrate key processes and interactions Examine ways of internalizing environmental costs and recommend re- sponse options such as optimisation... detailed research models, which assimilate dispersed local and regional data, and develop screening models which integrate key processes and interactions Examine ways of internalizing environmental costs and recommend re- sponse options...

  14. Destination Competitiveness: a Framework for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    GRUESCU Ramona; Roxana NANU; Gheorghe PIRVU

    2009-01-01

    We identify the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes "bottom to top" analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT. Two essential basis of the competitive advantage are isolated: differentiation and cost adv...

  15. Administrative burdens and dairy industry competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bremmers, H.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Meulen, van der, GG George

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess the effect of regulatory burdens in the European dairy industry on its competitiveness. A theoretical foundation is provided by transaction cost economics and total quality management insights. The effects of legislation on administrative requirements and competitiveness are supposed to be mediated by impacts on innovativeness, company strategy, food safety system availability, as well as the available information & communication capabilities. We will conne...

  16. Spatial competition in the French supermarket industry

    OpenAIRE

    Turolla, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    This papers develops a structural model of spatial competition to analyze the competition intensity among large grocery stores at geographical market level. The model is estimated for a metropolitan area of South of France and uses a cross-sectional household survey containing detailed information on stores visited for the main food product categories. Using estimates of demand parameters and assuming a particular pricing rule, we recover both stores’ marginal cost and margin. The results poi...

  17. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  18. Thermal test options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  19. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  20. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  1. Conversion options for Peterhead Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibble, I.R.; O' Donnell, I.H. [Scottish Hydro-Electric plc, Perth (United Kingdom); Hunt, G.F. [Thermoflow Ltd., Tewkesbury (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The two gas/oil-fired 660 MW generating sets at Scottish Hydro-Electric's Peterhead Power Station were originally commissioned in 1981/2 and in order to remain competitive it was essential to upgrade the plant. This paper describes the plant performance aspects of a study carried out by Scottish Hydro-Electric to identify the possible routes for plant modification and the associated efficiency of each option. Scottish Hydro-Electric employed the suite of Thermoflow programs to carry out the performance study. These programs had sufficient flexibility to model the performance of the original plant and then to analyse the variety of re-powering options available, using the original accurate modes as the basis. (author)

  2. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  3. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  4. Mapping your competitive position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  5. Effects of payment reform in more versus less competitive markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Alpert, Abby; Barnes, Kayleigh; Huckfeldt, Peter; Escarce, José J

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly interested in reducing healthcare costs and inefficiencies through innovative payment strategies. These strategies may have heterogeneous impacts across geographic areas, potentially reducing or exacerbating geographic variation in healthcare spending. In this paper, we exploit a major payment reform for home health care to examine whether reductions in reimbursement lead to differential changes in treatment intensity and provider costs depending on the level of competition in a market. Using Medicare claims, we find that while providers in more competitive markets had higher average costs in the pre-reform period, these markets experienced larger proportional reductions in treatment intensity and costs after the reform relative to less competitive markets. This led to a convergence in spending across geographic areas. We find that much of the reduction in provider costs is driven by greater exit of "high-cost" providers in more competitive markets.

  6. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  7. Evaluation of empirical models and competition indices in ranking canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S Safahani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the competitive ability (CA of canola cultivars against wild mustard, two experiments were conducted at the Gorgan Institute in Iran during the 2005-2007 cropping seasons. The experimental factors were canola cultivars (1st year: Zarfam, Option500, Hayola330, Hayola401, Talayh, RGS003 and Sarigol; 2nd year: Zarfam, Hayola330, RGS003 and Option500 and weed density (1st year: control and 30 plants m-2; 2nd year: control, 4, 8 and 16 plants m-2. The result of the first year is experiment indicated that the grain yield and competitive indices differed significantly between the cultivars. Cultivar Zarfam showed a high ability to withstand competition (AWC = 47 %, high competitive indices (CI=1.79 and CI2 = 1.83 and low grain yield in the weed- free plots (1729 kg ha-1. The cultivar Option500, a less competitive cultivar had the lowest ability to withstand competition (AWC = 4 % and the lowest competitive indices (CI = 0.09 and CI2= 0.11 amongst the cultivars. However, the cultivar Option500 showed more grain yield in the weed- free plots (2333 kg ha-1 than cultivar Zarfam. In the second year of the experiment, the result of the yield loss models showed that the lowest and highest yield loss belonged to cultivars Zarfam and Option500 (50 and 95 % respectively. A comparison of different empirical models revealed that the empirical yield loss model based on weed relative leaf area was more reliable for predicting canola yield loss according to a high coefficient of determination (R2=0.99. The relative damage coefficient (q of the weed relative leaf area model showed that wild mustard was more competitive than canola (q>1.

  8. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of transs......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither.......The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...

  9. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of production and outsourcing strategies using the "diamond" model of M. Porter, we can say that is one of the viable solutions for gaining competitive advantages necessary for proper European companies to face competition from countries outside Europe. As developing countries do not meet certain environmental standards or norms of European law, but in terms of product innovation and development of new materials, they do not have the necessity for technology. We conducted an analysis of the factors that play a key role in the production of textiles, representing how they are used in the favor of European companies such investments to be supplemented can be found in how these factors act on the total costs.

  10. Use of wastes as option for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Henriques, Rachel Martins [Virtual Institute of Climate Change (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68565, CEP 21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, Amaro Olimpio Jr. [Center for Integrated Studies of the Environment and Climate Change (CentroClima/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68565, CEP 21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    The present study presents an analysis of the options available for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the Brazilian power sector. The objective is to verify the potential use of wastes for electrical energy generation and its competitiveness in comparison with other sources of renewable energy. A comparison was made using marginal abatement cost curves derived from a reference scenario obtained from earlier studies dealing with the expansion of the Brazilian power sector. The results showed that the availability of wastes is significant and that they can be used at a cost 20-60% lower than that of wind power generation, a subsidized source of energy in Brazil. It can therefore be concluded that it would be more efficient if incentives were applied to the use of wastes for electrical power generation since it offers socio-environmental benefits which go far beyond the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  11. Our Energy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  12. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  13. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  14. Degenerate optimization problems and competitiveness of NPPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Klimenko

    2016-12-01

    Since, as it was demonstrated by the performed systems optimization calculations of power generation in Russia, the examined options of NPPs with fast reactors (SVBR-100, BN-1200 (three-circuit, BREST-1200 appeared to be included not into all optimal plans, there is a place for certain doubts that the chosen parameters of the NPPs and the associated nuclear fuel cycles (NFCs are not competitive although strenuous multi-parameter research in this direction is ongoing during already several decades.

  15. Costing bias in economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappier, Julie; Tremblay, Gabriel; Charny, Mark; Cloutier, L Martin

    2015-01-01

    Determining the cost-effectiveness of healthcare interventions is key to the decision-making process in healthcare. Cost comparisons are used to demonstrate the economic value of treatment options, to evaluate the impact on the insurer budget, and are often used as a key criterion in treatment comparison and comparative effectiveness; however, little guidance is available to researchers for establishing the costing of clinical events and resource utilization. Different costing methods exist, and the choice of underlying assumptions appears to have a significant impact on the results of the costing analysis. This editorial describes the importance of the choice of the costing technique and it's potential impact on the relative cost of treatment options. This editorial also calls for a more efficient approach to healthcare intervention costing in order to ensure the use of consistent costing in the decision-making process.

  16. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenfeld, Michaela; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2013-08-20

    The World Health Organization recommends establishing that human papillomavirus vaccination is cost-effective before vaccine introduction. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to 1 April 2012 for economic evaluations of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries. We found 25 articles, but almost all low income countries and many middle income countries lacked country-specific studies. Methods, assumptions and consequently results varied widely, even for studies conducted for the same country. Despite the heterogeneity, most studies conclude that vaccination is likely to be cost-effective and possibly even cost saving, particularly in settings without organized cervical screening programmes. However, study uncertainty could be reduced by clarity about vaccine prices and vaccine delivery costs. The review supports extending vaccination to low income settings where vaccine prices are competitive, donor funding is available, cervical cancer burden is high and screening options are limited.

  18. Supplementing managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  19. Treating Urge Incontinence in Older Women: A Cost-Effective Investment in Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To conduct cost-effectiveness analyses of urge incontinence treatments for older women. Methods. Decision-analytic models assessed three treatment pathways: (1 limited behavioral therapy (LBT; (2 full behavioral therapy (FBT with biofeedback; and (3 drug (DRUG, with allowances for crossover options following initial treatments. Model inputs were gathered from published data. Cost data were based on third party payer reimbursement. Outcomes were measured as the number of incontinence episodes avoided and quality-adjusted life years gained (QALYs. Results. At baseline values costs per QALY gained ranged from US$3696 to $10609. LBT was the least costly with the lowest benefit. Switching from LBT to FBT, with the greatest gain, was $415 per additional QALY. DRUG was the most expensive option. Sensitivity analyses showed that only small changes in key inputs were required for DRUG to generate greater gains than FBT. Medication costs had to fall substantially for DRUG to be cost competitive. Conclusion. All treatment strategies provide QALYs gains at a bargain price, compared to the standard of US$50,000 per QALY gained. No single treatment strategy dominated under all conditions. Clinicians should offer multiple treatment options to older women with urge incontinence.

  20. Controlling pharmacy costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, S

    1988-01-01

    There are many costs associated with parenteral nutrition: physician time, nursing time, biochemical monitoring, patient education, ancillary equipment and the nutrition solutions themselves. The solutions are easily identified as responsible for a large proportion of these costs. There are several strategies that can be used to help control pharmacy costs, such as selection of ingredients, purchasing contracts, standardized formulae and prescribing procedures, preprinted doctor's order forms, automated manufacturing and labelling processes, patient monitoring, all-in-one preparation, and contracted manufacturing services. Individual pharmacies need to know what options are available in order to select those that, in the context of their own institutions, can lead to cost savings and improved efficiency.

  1. 78 FR 5538 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... believes that any potential effects on intramarket competition that the adoption of the proposed VIX... executed greater than (or equal to) 375,000 contracts of multiply-listed options volume but less than 1,500... contracts of multiply-listed options volume but less than 1,500,000 such contracts, the Clearing...

  2. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  3. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2015-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  4. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Stefka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO in 1993 as ‘a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures’. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  5. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  6. From monopoly to competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J-M.

    1997-12-31

    For nearly a century, electric utilities have been vertically integrated, having control over power generation, distribution and transmission. They virtually monopolized the markets which they served. In 1977, during the energy crisis, the electric utilities were challenged with the establishment of the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and in 1978 by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). This independent agency, which was initially set up to promote new energy sources and cogeneration, was also a major player in regulating electric power transmission and wholesale trade. PURPA required that electric utilities buy their electricity from qualifying independent power producers. In 1996, FERC orders 888 and 889 were issued which opened up competition to a large degree. Traditional utilities were forced to unbundle their generating and transmission costs. Order 889 opened up information systems to show available transmission capacity on power grids. By setting up a division to take charge of its power transmission system, Hydro-Quebec hopes to gain full access to transmission setups and the wholesale electricity market in the US. 1 fig.

  7. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...

  8. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a ...

  9. A Note on Quality Disclosure and Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    Competitive pressure is lower in markets where goods are more differentiated. I analyze how a change in the degree of horizontal product differentiation affects the incentives of duopolists to disclose quality information. If disclosure is costly, then a firm discloses high qualities but conceals...... low qualities in equilibrium. The higher the disclosure cost, the higher the equilibrium threshold below which firms conceal quality information. I show that the effect of product differentiation on quality disclosure depends on the cost of disclosure. For low (high) disclosure costs, a firm discloses...... more (less) quality information if goods become more differentiated....

  10. Novel operative treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  12. 转移成本、价格歧视与银行竞争——基于霍特林模型的实证分析%Price Discrimination with Switching Costs and Banking Competition --A Study Based on the Hotelling Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宗豪; 吴冰洋

    2011-01-01

    在银行业竞争中,转移成本能够锁定消费者,使银行能够对锁定的消费者定一个较高的价格,但是,转移成本也使银行对没有被锁定的消费者的竞争更加激烈。研究发现,转移成本的存在增加了银行的利润,并且转移成本越高,银行从信贷中获得的利润越高。但是,当存在存款市场和贷款市场竞争时,由于价格歧视的存在,银行的利润随着转移成本的增加而降低,转移成本没有给银行带来优势。%Switching costs can lock -in consumers and allow banks to set a higher price to the locked -in consumers. But switching costs is a double - edged sword, because there is more intense competition on consumers who have not been locked -in between banks. This study finds that switching costs increase bank profits. On the other hand, the bank profits decrease as switching costs increase when there are deposit market and loan market competitions, and switching costs do not bring advantage to the bank.

  13. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  14. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-12-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  15. Expensing stock options: a fair-value approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Palepu, Krishna G

    2003-12-01

    Now that companies such as General Electric and Citigroup have accepted the premise that employee stock options are an expense, the debate is shifting from whether to report options on income statements to how to report them. The authors present a new accounting mechanism that maintains the rationale underlying stock option expensing while addressing critics' concerns about measurement error and the lack of reconciliation to actual experience. A procedure they call fair-value expensing adjusts and eventually reconciles cost estimates made at grant date with subsequent changes in the value of the options, and it does so in a way that eliminates forecasting and measurement errors over time. The method captures the chief characteristic of stock option compensation--that employees receive part of their compensation in the form of a contingent claim on the value they are helping to produce. The mechanism involves creating entries on both the asset and equity sides of the balance sheet. On the asset side, companies create a prepaid-compensation account equal to the estimated cost of the options granted; on the owners'-equity side, they create a paid-in capital stock-option account for the same amount. The prepaid-compensation account is then expensed through the income statement, and the stock option account is adjusted on the balance sheet to reflect changes in the estimated fair value of the granted options. The amortization of prepaid compensation is added to the change in the option grant's value to provide the total reported expense of the options grant for the year. At the end of the vesting period, the company uses the fair value of the vested option to make a final adjustment on the income statement to reconcile any difference between that fair value and the total of the amounts already reported.

  16. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  17. Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-10-01

    The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.

  18. Cost and Demand Characteristics of Telecom Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics.......The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics....

  19. Lowering costs, maintaining efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie; Berner, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    The price of solar thermal must come down if the branch is to hold its own in competition on the heating market. Cost reduction strategies, quality demands and the new ecodesign directive were thus among the topics discussed at SMEThermal 2012. (orig.)

  20. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  1. Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent ta...

  2. Competition in treasury auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Elsinger, Helmut; Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp; Zulehner, Christine

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of competition on the outcome of Austrian Treasury auctions. Austria's EU accession led to an increase in the number of banks participating in treasury auctions. We use structural estimates of bidders' private values to examine the effect of increased competition on auction performance: We find that increased competition reduced bidder surplus substantially, but less than reduced form estimates would suggest. A significant component of the surplus reduction is due to m...

  3. COMPETITIVENESS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: ROMANIAN STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia-Elena TUCLEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented one of the important sectors of the nationaleconomy, at least from its potential for development perspective: thehospitality industry. The research interest is related to finding out the mainfactors of competitiveness in this field. This research attempts to identify theessential aspects of competitiveness in the hospitality industry. Theobjectives pursued refer to: discovering the degree to which the concept ofcompetitiveness is understood and capitalized on by the managers in theRomanian hospitality industry; identifying a set of factors considered decisivein raising the competitiveness of Romanian firms in the hospitality industry;identifying the strategic concerns of firms operating in the Romanianhospitality industry, in order to establish the connection between strategy andthe competitiveness of the firms belonging to this sector.As a result, the hypotheses are: in the hospitality industry there areparticularities which influence the firms’ competitiveness and strategicorientation; preoccupation towards raising competitiveness and strategicorientation is influenced by the type of exploitation and the number of stars(level of comfort; in the hospitality industry, managers focus on cost controland service quality as decisive factors of competitiveness.

  4. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  5. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  6. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  7. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians.

  8. Achilles tendinosis: treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L; Jung, Hong-Geun

    2015-03-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options.

  9. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  10. Competitive Overdrive Stalls High Achieving Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Debra

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses findings by pediatric psychologists studying destructive stress responses and other psychological costs of overdriven competitiveness in gifted students. Warning signs indicative of depression or antisocial withdrawal are described, as are contributing factors such as parental expectations. Suggestions for avoiding…

  11. Matching Effective HR Practices with Competitive Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines links between three competitive strategies (cost reduction, quality improvement, and innovation) and human resources (HR) practices. Describes a framework for ensuring that the two are made compatible and illustrates the process by showing how one $20 million business wrestled with these compatibility issues. (CH)

  12. A Note on Quality Disclosure and Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Competitive pressure is lower in markets where goods are more differentiated. I analyze how a change in the degree of horizontal product differentiation affects the incentives of duopolists to disclose quality information. If disclosure is costly, then a firm discloses high qualities but conceals...

  13. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, Nicole; Nash, Chris; Pels, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers,

  14. Matching Effective HR Practices with Competitive Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines links between three competitive strategies (cost reduction, quality improvement, and innovation) and human resources (HR) practices. Describes a framework for ensuring that the two are made compatible and illustrates the process by showing how one $20 million business wrestled with these compatibility issues. (CH)

  15. Cooperative behavior, competition and operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical tool to study cooperation and competition. Since the beginnings of operations research and game theory both fields have been closely related. This thesis further investigates this relationship. Costs or rewards sharing problems arising from scheduling problems, travel

  16. The Decline of Direct Newspaper Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosse, James N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the decline of direct newspaper competition in terms of the loss of effective newspaper market segmentation. Examines the following influences on market segmentation: shift in advertising demand, advertiser preferences for differentiated audiences, shift in subscriber demand, growth of alternative media, increasing production costs, and…

  17. Intraguild Competition of Three Noctuid Maize Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivenha, J P F; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V; Blankenship, E E

    2016-08-01

    The western bean cutworm Striacosta albicosta (Smith), the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are among the major lepidopteran pests of maize in the United States, belonging to the same guild and injuring the reproductive tissues of this crop. Here, intraguild competition of these lepidopterans on non-Bt maize was evaluated through survival analysis of each species under laboratory and field conditions. Competition scenarios were carried out in arenas containing maize silk or ear tissue, using larvae on different stadium of development. Fitness cost competition studies were conducted to examine the influence of intraguild competition and cannibalism and predation rates on larval development. The survival of S. albicosta competing with the other species was significantly lower than in intraspecific competition, even when the larvae were more developed than the competitor. For S. frugiperda, survival remained high in the different competition scenarios, except when competing in a smaller stadium with H. zea Larvae of H. zea had a high rate of cannibalism, higher survival when competing against S. albicosta than S. frugiperda, and reduced survival when the H. zea larvae were at the same development stadium or smaller than the competitors. Based on fitness cost results, the absence of a competitor for the feeding source may confer an advantage to the larval development of S. frugiperda and H. zea Our data suggest that S. frugiperda has a competitive advantage against the other species, while S. albicosta has the disadvantage in the intraguild competition on non-Bt maize.

  18. Do Private Schools Provide Competition for Public Schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Minter Hoxby

    1994-01-01

    Arguments in favor of school choice depend on the idea that competition between schools improves the quality of education. However, we have almost no empirical evidence on whether competition actually affects school quality. In this study, I examine the effects of inter-school competition on public schools by using exogenous variation in the availability and costs of private school alternatives to public schools. Because low public school quality raises the demand for private schools as subst...

  19. The effect of manure management regulations on competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2003-01-01

    Significant differences in the competitiveness of pig production along with growing international competition in the pigmeat market have raised concerns about the cost impact of environmental regulations on producers, particularly those regarding the management of manure. There appears to be a U...... regulations in different countries do not appear to be of a scale that could explain the general difference in pigmeat competitiveness between countries....

  20. STRATEGIC EXERCISE OF REAL OPTIONS:INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin ZHU; John WEYANT

    2003-01-01

    Viewing investment projects in new technologies as real options, this paper studies the effects of endogenous competition and asymmetric information on the strategic exercise of real options. We first develop a multi-period, game-theoretic model and show how competition leads to early exercise and aggressive investment behaviors and how competition erodes option values. We then relax the typical full-information assumption found in the literature and allow information asymmetry to exist across firms. Our model shows, in contrast to the literature that payoff is independent of the ordering of exercise, that the sequential exercise of real options may generate both informational and payoff externalities. We also find some surprising but interesting results such as having more information is not necessarily better.

  1. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  2. Competition with Dynamic Spectrum Leasing

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Lingjie; Shou, Biying

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analytical study of two competitive cognitive operators' spectrum leasing and pricing strategies, taking into account operators' heterogeneity in leasing costs and users' heterogeneity in transmission power and channel conditions. We model the interactions between operators and users as a three-stage dynamic game, where operators make simultaneous spectrum leasing and pricing decisions in Stages I and II, and users make purchase decisions in Stage III. Using backward induction, we are able to completely characterize the game's equilibria. We show that both operators make the equilibrium leasing and pricing decisions based on simple threshold policies. Moreover, two operators always choose the same equilibrium price despite their difference in leasing costs. Each user receives the same signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) at the equilibrium, and the obtained payoff is linear in its transmission power and channel gain. We also compare the duopoly equilibrium with the coordinated case ...

  3. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  4. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  5. Free energy option and its relevance to improve domestic energy demands in southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Eterigho Emetere

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to seek an energy option that would benefit the growing energy demands. Domestic energy demands in southern Nigeria had increased greatly due to failing power programs and seasonal migrations. The fossil fuel option is gradually fading away due to environmental pollution and recent dynamic cost. The renewable energy option had been celebrated with little success in the coastal area of southern Nigeria. At the moment, the renewable energy option is very expensive with little guarantee on its efficiency with time. The data set used for this study was obtained from the Davis weather installation in Covenant University. The free energy option was considered. The cost and its environmental implication for domestic use were comparatively discussed alongside other energy options — using the Life cycle cost analysis. It was found out that free energy option is more affordable and efficient for domestic use.

  6. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  7. Treatment Options for Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem and its prevalence may be increasing over time. The main treatment options of single vision spectacle lenses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery do not slow the accompanying eye growth or retard the physiological changes associated with excessive axial elongation. High myopia is a predisposing factor for retinal detachment, myopic retinopathy, and glaucoma, contributing to loss of vision and blindness. The high prevalence of myopia and its prominence as a public health problem emphasize the importance of finding effective treatments that slow myopia progression and axial elongation. Treatments that have been investigated include various types of spectacle lenses and contact lenses, as well as pharmaceutical agents such as atropine and pirenzepine. The bulk of evidence from well-conducted studies shows that overall, most therapies for myopia have small treatment benefits that last for a relatively short period of time or have significant side effects. Some therapies may be more effective in subsets of myopic children. This review of treatment options for myopia will emphasize recent results from well-designed clinical studies and will suggest possible future therapies. PMID:19390466

  8. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  9. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    results of the current analysis and in Mouton et al., 2015, is the relative cost -effectiveness between the CH-47D and the Mi-17v5. In the previous...helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost -effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of

  11. Sport Commitment among Competitive Female Gymnasts: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Windee M.; Weiss, Maureen R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and competitive level differences in the relationship between determinants and level of sport commitment. Gymnasts (N = 304) comprised three age groups (8-11, 11-14.5, and 14.5-18 years) and two competitive levels (Levels 5-6 and 8-10). Multiple regression analyses revealed: (a) perceived costs and…

  12. Street Vending and Competitive Advantage: Towards Building a Theoretical Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aborampah Amoah-Mensah

    2016-01-01

    ..." (strategic exit and return into business), regular changing of goods and services, exploitation of flexible operating hours, cost-based pricing strategy, sales promotion, trade credit and locational advantage - to gain competitive advantage...

  13. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  14. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  15. Agency Cost Analysis under the Similar Competitive Enterprises Based on Asymmetric Information%基于不对称信息的同类竞争企业下的代理成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯梦黎; 彭涛

    2013-01-01

      委托代理理论是现代公司治理的逻辑起点,而委托代理理论中的代理成本受多方面因素影响。文章分析了“剩余损失”中的风险成本与激励成本所构成的代理成本,在传统分布函数的参数化方法的基础上进行简化和扩张,深入研究委托代理理论中的代理成本控制。企业的代理成本,不仅受到代理人的努力程度的影响,还将会受到其他与产出有关的因素的影响,因此加入其他与产出有关的因素将会增加激励性,减少代理成本。%Principal-agent theory is the logical starting point of modern corporate governance, and agency cost of the theory affected by various factors. The paper analyzes the risk cost of "residual loss" and agency cost consisting of incentive cost, simplify and expand it on the basis of parametric method of traditional distribution function, and study the agency cost of prin-cipal-agent theory in-depth. The agency cost of enterprise not only affects the agent level of effort, also will be affected by other factors related to the output. So joining other factors related to the output will increase the inspiration and reduce agency costs.

  16. Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, J.C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, A.; Ortiz, J.; Longoria, L.C.

    2004-10-06

    In the case of new nuclear power stations, it is necessary to pay special attention to the financial strategy that will be applied, time of construction, investment cost, and the discount and return rate. The levelized cost quantifies the unitary cost of the electricity (the kWh) generated during the lifetime of the nuclear power plant; and allows the immediate comparison with the cost of other alternative technologies. The present paper shows levelized cost for different nuclear technologies and it provides comparison among them as well as with gas and coal electricity plants. For the calculations we applied our own methodology to evaluate the levelized cost considering investment, fuel and operation and maintenance costs, making assumptions for the Mexican market, and taking into account the gas prices projections. The study also shows comparisons using different discount rates (5% and 10%), and some comparisons between our results and an OECD 1998 study. The results are i n good agreement and shows that nuclear option is cost competitive in Mexico on the basis of levelized costs.

  17. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  18. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  19. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including...... ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  20. The effect of manure management regulations on competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2003-01-01

    Significant differences in the competitiveness of pig production along with growing international competition in the pigmeat market have raised concerns about the cost impact of environmental regulations on producers, particularly those regarding the management of manure. There appears to be a U......-shaped relationship between farm size and the costs imposed by manure management regulations. This results from the additional application and transport costs for large-scale producers, and the lack of scale advantages for smaller farms in meeting regulations. Costs imposed on producers by manure management...

  1. Empowering Variable Renewables - Options for Flexible Electricity Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Hugo [Renewable Energy Unit, International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    A flexible electricity system is one that can respond reliably, and rapidly, to large fluctuations in supply and demand. Flexibility is already present in all power systems, in order to manage fluctuations in demand, and it is crucial for high performance and economic and reliable operation. This paper looks at measures to increase flexibility. but careful cost/benefit analysis is essential, and specific national and regional circumstances will influence the choice of option(s).

  2. The cost reduction on the use of local productive arrangement on competitive supply logistic. Study about the case on APL milk and sun of the productive chain of milk in Ceará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Braga Carneiro

    2008-07-01

    milk in Ceará State. Here called like Milk and Sun. Searched to check if the enterprises that consist the sequence productive analyzed to reach a meaning cost reduction developing its activist inside the productive arrangement. Metodologicament done use, at principal, the deductive method, and, subsidiaryment the inductive method. The search can be classified the point of view about its nature like a search applied and described, looking for describe and to analyze the characteristics of the enterprises the belong Local Productive Arrangement analyzed. Key-words: Local productive arrangement. Cost. Supply logistic.

  3. Relaxing competition through speculation : Committing to a negative supply slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, Par; Willems, Bert

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how commodity producers can take strategic speculative positions in derivatives markets to soften competition in the spot market. In our game, producers first choose a portfolio of call options and then compete in supply functions. In equilibrium, producers sell forward contracts and

  4. Relaxing Competition through Speculation : Committing to a Negative Supply Slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, P.; Willems, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We demonstrate how suppliers can take strategic speculative positions in derivatives markets to soften competition in the spot market. In our game, suppliers first choose a portfolio of call options and then compete with supply functions. In equilibrium firms sell forward contracts and buy

  5. Competition for trophies triggers male generosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Sophia Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters--including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards.

  6. An analytic framework to assess future electricity options in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittner, Noah; Dimco, Hilda; Azemi, Visar; Tairyan, Evgenia; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed an analytic platform to analyze the electricity options, costs, and impacts for Kosovo, a nation that is a critical part of the debate over centralized versus distributed electricity generation and the role of fossil fuels versus cleaner electricity options to meet growing demands for power. We find that a range of alternatives exists to meet present supply constraints all at a lower cost than constructing a proposed 600 MW coal plant. The options include energy efficiency measures, combinations of solar PV, wind, hydropower, and biomass, and the introduction of natural gas. A 30 EUR ton-1 shadow price on CO2 increases costs of coal generation by at least 330 million EUR. The results indicate that financing a new coal plant is the most expensive pathway to meet future electricity demand.

  7. Village power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three different computer codes which have been written to model village power applications. The reasons which have driven the development of these codes include: the existance of limited field data; diverse applications can be modeled; models allow cost and performance comparisons; simulations generate insights into cost structures. The models which are discussed are: Hybrid2, a public code which provides detailed engineering simulations to analyze the performance of a particular configuration; HOMER - the hybrid optimization model for electric renewables - which provides economic screening for sensitivity analyses; and VIPOR the village power model - which is a network optimization model for comparing mini-grids to individual systems. Examples of the output of these codes are presented for specific applications.

  8. Effects of cost reflective electricity tariffs in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-15

    The power balance in Southern Africa is changing. Namibia faces the choice between increased reliance on imports of electricity or expanding domestic generation. One option is to build a gas fired power plant at Kudu. This plant will have an average generation cost well above the projected import cost. The changing power balance in the region may warrant that Namibia incurs substantial costs to ensure energy security. If Kudu is not built, we project that real end user tariffs will peak in 2010/11 at a level 22 percent higher than in 2006, but then gradually revert towards the 2006 level. The effects of this tariff scenario on the economy should not be dramatic, and we would not recommend to subsidise electricity in this case. This forecast is based on an assumed 67 percent increase the real price of imports. In this and all other scenarios we assume that the unit costs of distribution in Namibia and local surcharges will decline. Namibia has experienced temporary halts in imports of electricity. As the balance in the Southern African power market is changing, the risks of capacity shortages appear to have increased. Frequent power outages could be very costly to the economy, and one may thus argue that Namibia should accept the higher costs of electricity to ensure stable supply. Building Kudu could be one, and possibly the only, viable option to reduce the risks of capacity shortages. The cost of generation at Kudu, if it is built, is uncertain. We have assumed a cost at 44 c/kWh. This can be viewed as an upper bound of the cost range. If Kudu is built at this cost, the end user tariff would have to increase by 85 per cent in real terms over the 2006-2011 period to finance Kudu in full, having factored in projected exports earnings. The real tariff will decline slowly after 2011. This appears a risky scenario, not least for the effects on investments in exports sectors and businesses facing international competition in the Namibian market. If Kudu is built at

  9. Propulsion options for very low Earth orbit microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leomanni, Mirko; Garulli, Andrea; Giannitrapani, Antonio; Scortecci, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The growing competitiveness in the commercial space market has raised the interest in operating small spacecraft at very low altitudes. To make this feasible, the space industry has started developing propulsion options tailored specifically to these platforms. This paper presents a review of emerging micropropulsion technologies and evaluates their applicability to microsatellite missions in the altitude range 250-500 km. The results of the proposed analysis are demonstrated on two different remote sensing applications.

  10. Female competition: causes, constraints, content, and contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne

    2004-02-01

    Monogamy tends to equalise mate competition between the sexes. However, women show greater restraint in their use of direct intrasexual aggression, which, I argue, is a result of their higher parental investment and the consequently greater reproductive cost of injury or death. Women usually compete for mates by advertising qualities valued by men (beauty and sexual exclusiveness) and by using indirect means of denigrating rivals (through gossip and stigmatisation). However, where well-resourced men are in short supply, women must find alternative sources of support or escalate their competition for male partners to physical levels. Data from criminology, psychology, evolutionary biology, and anthropology are used to support these proposals.

  11. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  12. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  13. Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

  14. An Evaluation of Energy Storage Options for Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dufek, Eric J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Energy supply, distribution, and demand are continuing to evolve as new generation sources come online and new appliances are installed. A larger percentage of the United States (U.S.) energy mix is provided by variable energy sources such as wind and solar each year, and distributed generation is becoming more common. In parallel, an evolution in consumer products such as electrical vehicles, information technology devices for residential and industrial applications, and appliances is changing how energy is consumed. As a result of these trends, nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being called upon to operate more flexibly than ever before. Furthermore, advanced nuclear power plants (A-NPPs) might operate as part of an electricity system that looks very different than when the current NPP fleet was constructed. A-NPPs face the possibility that they will need to operate in an environment where flexibility (e.g., fast ramping) is more highly valued than stability (e.g., baseload generation for conventional demand curves). The current fleet of NPPs is struggling to remain economical in competitive markets in an era of historically low natural gas prices and renewable sources with very low marginal costs. These factors, overlaid with an ambiguous national policy related to nuclear energy and a decision-making context that struggles with multi-decade capital investments, raise key questions and present significant challenges to the economics of nuclear power in the evolving grid. Multiple factors could improve the economics of A-NPPs, including: (1) minimizing the need for active safety systems, (2) minimizing adoption of one-off reactor designs, (3) establishing policies that credit low carbon emitting technologies, and (4) integrating energy storage technologies that increase revenue and reduce costs through a combination of ancillary services, market hedging, and reduced costs via stable operation. This report focuses on Item (4), containing an overview, synthesis, and

  15. Activity-based costing saves on supply distribution costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Activity-based costing is coming, but is your organization ready? A few pioneering hospitals are already reaping the operational and economic benefits of activity-based costing in their materials management, and now the VHA purchasing alliance is offering this costing option to its 1,200 hospital members. The concept is simple, so why aren't there more takers? Here are the details on this pragmatic pricing approach that could save your facility plenty.

  16. Evaluation of Transportation Options for Intermediate Non-destructive Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Susan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoggard, Gary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non-destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.” This evaluation includes transportation options for intermediate NDE using the GE 2000 cask, BEA Research Reactor (BRR) package, Dry Transfer Cubicle (DTC) insert, and the General Electric Model 100 (GE 100) cask. The GE 2000 cask is the only Type B shipping container currently in use for shipments of irradiated material (exceeding Type A quantities) from ATR to HFEF; therefore it is included as one of the four shipping options in this evaluation. Cost and schedule estimates are provided for performing neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of a five-capsule drop-in-type ATR experiment for each transportation option. All costs provided in this evaluation are rough order-of-magnitude costs based on input from knowledgeable vendor employees and individuals at INL facilities.

  17. Controversial reversal of nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due introduction of climate change prevention measures. Recent developments indicate the advantages of nuclear option over other possible options in terms of sustainable development. However, a large number of controversial issues on nuclear energy make its...

  18. Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers. Working Paper 46

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, David N.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2010-01-01

    Voucher options like tuition tax credit-funded scholarship programs have become increasingly popular in recent years. One argument for such school choice policies is that public schools will improve the quality of education they offer when faced with competition for their students. This study examines the effects of private school competition on…

  19. Managed competition, governmentality and institutional response in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, D W

    2001-04-01

    This article traces the use of managed competition policy to transform the NHS from an administered public service to a set of interlocking markets and contracts. It reviews the overlooked origins of managed competition in the new managerialism and explains the relationship between managed competition and the cost crisis of the NHS by extending Foucault's concept of governmentality to revise the concept of the state. The paper then describes how the government structured health care markets, using managed competition as an instrument of governmentality. It summarises institutional responses by health authorities, hospital trusts, and GP fundholders. The terms "master institution", "dictated competition" and "coercive partnering" are introduced as new concepts for economic sociology and as strategies of governmentality. Implementation, however, led to resistance, opposition and eventual abandonment of managed competition as too disruptive and costly. Yet, this analysis contends, managed competition has left an enduring legacy of accountability to purchasers in economic terms such as efficiency, transaction costs, and cost effectiveness. The policies of the new government are based on coercive partnering and doctor-based "commissioning". This and the Internet imply revolutionary changes for the health professions and the delivery of health care services through networks of moebius-strip organisations interacting in flexible sequences and subject to communitarian pressures.

  20. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.