WorldWideScience

Sample records for cosmos

  1. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    The foundation for this book is an ethnographic study of masculinity in a Bugkalot village in northern Philippines. While offering new research on the Bugkalot, widely known as the Ilongot, more than 30 years after the last important works were written on this famous hill-people, Cutting Cosmos...... into egalitarian relations. Cutting Cosmos shows how these seemingly opposed characteristics of male life - the egalitarianism and the assertive ideals - are interwoven. Acts of dominance are presented as acts of transgression that are persistently ritualized, contained and isolated as spectacular events within...

  2. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  3. Cosmos 2229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. Reggie; Roy, Roland R.; Hodgson, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The 6 weeks preflight activities of the Cosmos project during 1993 included: modification of EMG connector to improve the reliability of EMG recording; 24 hour cage activity recording from all but two of the flight animals (monkeys); attempts to record from flight candidates during foot lever task; and force transducer calibrations on all flight candidate animals. The 4 week postflight recordings included: postflight recordings from flight animals; postflight recordings on 3 control (non-flight) animals; postflight recalibration of force transducers on 1 flight and 4 control (non-flight) animals; and attempts to record EMG and video data from the flight animals during postflight locomotion and postural activity. The flight EMG recordings suggest that significant changes in muscle control may occur in spaceflight. It is also clear from recordings that levels of EMG recorded during spaceflight can attain values similar to those measured on earth. Amplifier gain settings should therefore probably not be changed for spaceflight.

  4. Signals from the Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  5. Visualizing the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Space, as Douglas Adams once wrote, is big. Really big. But just how big is it? And what else, aside from our own planet Earth, is out there in it? Cosmos: the Infographic Book of Space answers these questions in a stunning fashion, but to describe it as a beautiful book full of interesting facts does not do it justice.

  6. Cosmos: 1989 immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    The effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM were determined. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies performed on Cosmos 1887. Spleen and bone marrow cells were obtained from flown, vivarium control, synchronous control, and suspended rats. The cells were stained with a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against rat leukocyte cell surface antigens. Control cells were stained with a monoclonal antibody directed against an irrelevant species or were unstained. Cells were then analyzed for fluorescence using a FACSCAN flow cytometer. Bone marrow cells were placed in culture with GM-CSF in McCoy's 5a medium and incubated for 5 days. Cultures were then evaluated for the number of colonies of 50 cells or greater.

  7. Engines for the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.; Reisz, Al; Wyckoff, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Galactic forces spiral across the cosmos fueled by nuclear fission and fusion and atoms in plasmatic states with throes of constraints of gravitational forces and magnetic fields, In their wanderings these galaxies spew light, radiation, atomic and subatomic particles throughout the universe. Throughout the ages of man visions of journeying through the stars have been wondered. If humans and human devices from Earth are to go beyond the Moon and journey into deep space, it must be accomplished with like forces of the cosmos such as electrical fields, magnetic fields, ions, electrons and energies generated from the manipulation of subatomic and atomic particles. Forms of electromagnetic waves such as light, radio waves and lasers must control deep space engines. We won't get far on our Earth accustomed hydrocarbon fuels.

  8. The New Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, David J.; Filippenko, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Foreword Alex Filippenko; 1. The awakening of astronomy; 2. How the Sun will die; 3. The end of life on Earth; 4. How the moon formed; 5. Where has all the water gone?; 6. Why did Venus turn inside-out?; 7. Is Pluto a planet?; 8. Planets everywhere; 9. The Milky Way as barred spiral; 10. Here comes Milkomeda; 11. The Big Bang's cosmic echo; 12. How large is the universe?; 13. The mystery of dark matter; 14. The bigger mystery of dark energy; 15. Black holes are ubiquitous; 16. What is the universe's fate?; 17. The meaning of life in the cosmos; Glossary; Bibliography; Index.

  9. Cosmos-1989 immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The current study involved a determination of the effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies carried out on Cosmos 1887.

  10. COSMOS 2044 Mission: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Ballard, R. W.; Connol, J. P.; Vasques, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The COSMOS 2044 spaceflight was the ninth Soviet-International joint mission dedicated to space biomedicine and the seventh in which the United States has participated. The unmanned Vostok vehicle carried 10 rats and two rhesus monkeys on its 14-day voyage. This spaceflight yielded an unprecedented bounty of data on physiological responses to the microgravity environment. The tissues studied and the numbers and types of studies performed by members of the international science community constituted a new record. Many of the results obtained by the approximately 80 American scientists who participated are reported in the series of COSMOS 2044 papers in this issue. Descriptions of the spaceflight and animal procedures are detailed elsewhere. The broad goals of the space biomedical program are threefold. The first is to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the biological responses to the microgravity environment, be they adaptive or pathological. The second goal is to clarify the physiological-biochemical mechanisms mediating the responses to microgravity. The third goal of this program is to use the space environment as a tool to better understand adaptive and disease processes in terrestrial organisms.

  11. Cosmos 1887 - Science overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty two groups of U.S. investigators participated in joint studies of ten male rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite. A summary of these studies embracing skeletal muscle, bone, endocrine, neural, intestinal, metabolic, immunology, cardiac, and gonadal investigations is presented. Three general objectives of the rat experiments are outlined - verification of previous observations of the biological responses to microgravity; clarification of the effects of microgravity on both the tissues investigated and the measurements performed; and relation of biological responses to flight duration. It is concluded that the first objective is met fully and the second with a varying degree of success. The confounding effects of overshooting the designated landing site and delayed recovery of the animals largely precluded meeting the last objective. It is also noted that investigations were performed for the first time on brain and spinal cord enzymes, a neurotransmitter, transmitter receptors, hypothalamic regulatory factors, pineal metabolites, atrial granules, liver histology, and jejunal mitotic rate in spaceflight animals.

  12. Cosmos 1887 - Science overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty two groups of U.S. investigators participated in joint studies of ten male rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite. A summary of these studies embracing skeletal muscle, bone, endocrine, neural, intestinal, metabolic, immunology, cardiac, and gonadal investigations is presented. Three general objectives of the rat experiments are outlined - verification of previous observations of the biological responses to microgravity; clarification of the effects of microgravity on both the tissues investigated and the measurements performed; and relation of biological responses to flight duration. It is concluded that the first objective is met fully and the second with a varying degree of success. The confounding effects of overshooting the designated landing site and delayed recovery of the animals largely precluded meeting the last objective. It is also noted that investigations were performed for the first time on brain and spinal cord enzymes, a neurotransmitter, transmitter receptors, hypothalamic regulatory factors, pineal metabolites, atrial granules, liver histology, and jejunal mitotic rate in spaceflight animals.

  13. Astrophysics Decoding the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Judith A

    2007-01-01

    Astrophysics: Decoding the Cosmos is an accessible introduction to the key principles and theories underlying astrophysics. This text takes a close look at the radiation and particles that we receive from astronomical objects, providing a thorough understanding of what this tells us, drawing the information together using examples to illustrate the process of astrophysics. Chapters dedicated to objects showing complex processes are written in an accessible manner and pull relevant background information together to put the subject firmly into context. The intention of the author is that the book will be a 'tool chest' for undergraduate astronomers wanting to know the how of astrophysics. Students will gain a thorough grasp of the key principles, ensuring that this often-difficult subject becomes more accessible.

  14. Cosmos, an international center for advanced studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Iurii; Alifanov, Oleg; Sadin, Stanley; Coleman, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The concept of Cosmos, a Soviet operating center for aerospace activities, is presented. The main Cosmos participants are the Institute for Aerospace Education, the Institute for Research and Commercial Development, and the Department of Space Policy and Socio-Economic Studies. Cosmos sponsors a number of educational programs, basic research, and studies of the social impact of space-related technologies.

  15. Cosmos, hombre y utopía

    OpenAIRE

    BOTERO URIBE, DARIO

    2004-01-01

    La relación hombre-cosmos pensada no como dualismo sino como unidad: el hombre corporalmente es un pedazo de cosmos, de polvo estelar.la filosofía cósmica piensa el hombre no como un ser vivo en el cosmos sino como un ser cósmico en la vida. se sustenta l

  16. The Mass of the Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Hellaby, C

    2006-01-01

    We point out that the mass of the cosmos on gigaparsec scales can be measured, owing to the unique geometric role of the maximum in the areal radius. Unlike all other points on the past null cone, this maximum has an associated mass, which can be calculated with very few assumptions about the cosmological model, providing a measurable characteristic of our cosmos. In combination with luminosities and source counts, it gives the bulk mass to light ratio. The maximum is particularly sensitive to the values of the bulk cosmological parameters. In addition, it provides a key reference point in attempts to connect cosmic geometry with observations. We recommend the determination of the distance and redshift of this maximum be explicitly included in the scientific goals of the next generation of reshift surveys. The maximum in the redshift space density provides a secondary large scale characteristic of the cosmos.

  17. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N Z; Blain, A W; Calzetti, D; Comastri, A; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Carlstrom, J E; Carollo, C M; Colbert, J; Daddi, E; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Ewald, S P; Fall, M; Franceschini, A; Giavalisco, M; Green, W; Griffiths, R E; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kneib, J P; Koda, J; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mobasher, B; Mould, J; Norman, C; Réfrégier, A; Renzini, A; Rhodes, J; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Shopbell, P L; Taniguchi, Y; Tyson, N; Urry, C M; Van Waerbeke, L; Vettolani, P; White, S D M; Yan, L

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8$\\sq$\\deg) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-F814W exposures with 50% completeness for sources 0.5\\arcsec in diameter at I$_{AB} $ = 26.0 mag. The ACS imaging is a key part of the COSMOS survey, providing very high sensitivity and high resolution (0.09\\arcsec FWHM, 0.05\\arcsec pixels) imaging and detecting a million objects. These images yield resolved morphologies for several hundred thousand galaxies. The small HST PSF also provides greatly enhanced sensitivity for weak lensing investigations of the dark matter distribution.

  18. The life of the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Smolin, Lee

    1997-01-01

    This radical, exciting book draws as much on Darwinian ideas as on Einstein's to propose a way forward beyond theories that can only explain aspects of our universe, towards one that can explain it as a whole. Smolin suggests that the laws of nature are not fixed, but that they evolve in the same way that living things themselves evolve. Effectively, Smolin puts forward the possible unifica-tion of biology and physics, a view of the cosmos which moves beyond both the notion of God and the pessimism of Nietzsche and the existentialists.

  19. Origins cosmos, earth, and mankind

    CERN Document Server

    Coppens, Yves; Simonnet, Dominique; de Rosney, Joel; Silk, Professor of Astronomy and Physics Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this potent book, three eminent scientists—an astrophysicist, an organic chemist, and an anthropologist—ponder and discuss some of the basic questions that have obsessed humankind through the ages, and offer thoughtful, enlightening answers in terms the layperson can easily understand. Until now, most of these questions were addressed by religion and philosophy. But science has reached a point where it, too, can voice an opinion. Beginning with the Big Bang roughly fifteen billion years ago, the authors trace the evolution of the cosmos, from the first particles, the atoms, the molecules, t

  20. Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Sparrow, Giles

    2007-01-01

    The magnificent vault of stars emblazoning Earth’s night skies are but an infinitesimal fraction of the hundreds of billions that inhabit our galaxy—and there are at least as many galaxies in the universe as there are stars in the Milky Way. This collection of images of staggering beauty makes sense of this dizzying celestial panorama by exploring it one step at a time, illustrating the planets, moons, stars, nebulae, white dwarfs, black holes, and other exotica that populate the heavens, with some of science's most spectacular photographs. The book opens with an orbital survey of planet Earth, before venturing into the solar system heading for interstellar space and the heart of our galaxy. As the journey unfolds, the rhythms of stellar life emerge: we pass through dark clouds of dust and gas ablaze with newly smelted stars and we witness dying stars bloom and fade as planetary nebulae, or tear themselves apart as supernovae. Having crossed the Milky Way, we enter intergalactic space, where we watch the ...

  1. Cosmos y teatro : dos historias paralelas

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Quiroga, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The image of the great Cosmos and the perception that man has from himself in relation to it is in the thematic core of this study, much more than a reconstruction of the diverse categories of his own thought in regard to the nature. lt is a notion that in three important epochs of history can be understood as an evident manifestation in the realm of the arts. "Cosmos" takes its origin from the Greek word "Kocrµoc;" (kósmos), that means "order", the antithesis of Chaos. In its general sens...

  2. Welcome to the Potato Powered Cosmos

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Art@CMS initiative, UK artist Rachael Nee worked with a group of international teachers taking part in the 2017 High School Teacher Programme to produce an art installation. The Potato Powered Cosmos represents CERN as an interrelated system of experiment, machine, energy and people. The installation emphasises the importance of CERN’s community - it doesn’t work without human interaction. Art@CMS has produced a ‘how-to’ guide for other art and science teachers who would like to recreate the Potato Powered Cosmos with their students.

  3. NASA Facts, American Experiments on Cosmos 782.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is a summary report of the American experiments conducted on the Soviet Cosmos 782 satellite in November and December, l975. Each of the four passive and seven cooperating experiments developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are reviewed. (SL)

  4. Cosmos: An Information Retrieval System that Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Katherine; Grossman, Alvin

    1980-01-01

    Briefly described is the County of San Mateo Online System (COSMOS) which was developed and is used by the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC) to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Fugitive Information Data Organizer (FIDO) databases as well as the curriculum guides housed at SMERC. (TG)

  5. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.

  6. Cosmos 1129 - Spaceflight and bone changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1980-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during spaceflight were determined to be a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, and a decreased trabecular bone volume and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

  7. Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Mobasher, B; Scoville, N Z; Dahlen, T; Salvato, M; Aussel, H; Thompson, D J; Feldmann, R; Tasca, L; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Carollo, C M; Kartaltepe, J S; McCracken, H; Mould, J; Renzini, A; Sanders, D B; Shopbell, P L; Taniguchi, Y; Ajiki, M; Shioya, Y; Contini, T; Giavalisco, M; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; Le Brun, V; Mainieri, V; Mignoli, M; Scodeggio, M

    2006-01-01

    We measure photometric redshifts and spectral types for galaxies in the COSMOS survey. We use template fitting technique combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to simultaneously estimate dust extinction (i.e. E(B-V)) for each galaxy.Our estimated redshifts are accurate to i<25 and z~1.2. Using simulations with sampling and noise characteristics similar to those in COSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios and the number of bands used. From the simulations we find that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the redshift probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. We compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z < 1.2 from zCOSMOS. Considering different scenarios, depending on us...

  8. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stepanek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP. We present a description of the utilized Community Earth System Models (COSMOS, version: COSMOS-landveg r2413, 2009 and document the procedures that we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM Project mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo- and preindustrial (PI time slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene, as simulated with our COSMOS setup and PRISM boundary conditions, is both warmer and wetter in the global mean than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C, which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  9. COSMOS - a study comparing peripheral intravenous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan Luis González; Del Palacio, Encarnación Ferenández; Marti, Carmen Benedicto; Corral, Javier Olivares; Portal, Pilar Herrera; Vilela, Ana Arribi

    In many areas of the world, safety peripheral intravenous systems have come into widespread use. The Madrid region was the first in Spain to adopt such an approach. These systems, though initially introduced to protect users from sharps injuries, have now evolved to include patient protection features as well. Patient protection, simply stated, means closing the system to pathogen entry. The authors' purpose was to investigate, in a prospective and randomized study, the clinical performance of a closed safe intravenous system versus an open system (COSMOS - Compact Closed System versus Mounted Open System). COSMOS is designed to provide definitive answers, from a nursing perspective, to many topics related to peripheral venous catheterization, which have important implications in intravenous therapy and which have not been validated scientifically. Furthermore, it forms pioneering research in that it is the first clinical trial on medical devices in a legislated environment carried out entirely by nurses and whose promoter and principal investigator is a nurse. The objectives of COSMOS are to compare the effectiveness (as defined by time of survival without complications) and rates of catheter-related complications, such as phlebitis, pain, extravasation, blockage and catheter-related infections. It also looks at rates of catheter colonization, the ease of handling of both systems and overall costs. This article outlines the authors' approach, both in preparing hospital units for such an evaluation as well as in the choice of parameters and their method of study. Further articles will detail the results and findings of the study.

  10. Radio and Millimeter Observations of the COSMOS Field

    OpenAIRE

    Schinnerer, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Carilli, C.L.; Smolčić, V.; Scoville, N.; K. Menten; Voss, H.; Blain, A; Lutz, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) targets an equatorial two square degree field covering the full electromagnetic spectrum. Here we present first results from observations of the COSMOS field in the millimeter and centimeter regime done with the IRAM 30m/MAMBO array and NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA) at 250GHz and 1.4GHz, respectively.

  11. CoSMoS unravels mysteries of transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourse, Richard L; Landick, Robert

    2012-02-17

    Using a fluorescence method called colocalization single-molecule spectroscopy (CoSMoS), Friedman and Gelles dissect the kinetics of transcription initiation at a bacterial promoter. Ultimately, CoSMoS could greatly aid the study of the effects of DNA sequence and transcription factors on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters.

  12. COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System). A Searcher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Superintendent of Schools, Redwood City, CA. Educational Resources Center.

    Operating procedures are explained for COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System), a computerized information retrieval system designed for the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC), which provides interactive access to both ERIC and a local file of fugitive documents. COSMOS hardware and modem compatibility requirements are reviewed,…

  13. CoSMoS Unravels Mysteries of Transcription Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Gourse, Richard L.; Landick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Using a fluorescence method called colocalization single-molecule spectroscopy (CoSMoS), Friedman and Gelles dissect the kinetics of transcription initiation at a bacterial promoter. Ultimately, CoSMoS could greatly aid the study of the effects of DNA sequence and transcription factors on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters.

  14. Adaptation of skeletal muscle to spaceflight: Cosmos rhesus project. Cosmos 2044 and 2229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1994-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medial gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These effects were assessed by examining the biochemical and morphological properties of muscle fibers obtained from biopsies in young Rhesus monkeys (3-4 Kg). Biopsies taken from ground base experiments were analyzed to determine: (1) the effects of chair restraint at 1 G on muscle properties and (2) the growth rate of flexor and extensor muscles in the Rhesus. In addition, two sets of biopsies were taken from monkeys which were in the flight pool and the four monkeys that flew on the Cosmos 2044 and 2229 biosatellite missions. Based on data collected in rats it is generally assumed that extensors atrophy to a greater extent than flexors in response to spaceflight or hindlimb suspension. Consequently, the finding that fibers in the TA (a fast flexor) of the flight monkeys atrophied, whereas fibers in the Sol (a predominantly slow extensor) and MG (a fast extensor) grew after a 14-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) and 12-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2229) was unexpected. In Cosmos 2044, the TA in both flight monkeys had a 21 percent decrease in fiber size, whereas the Sol and MG both had a 79 percent increase in fiber size. In Cosmos 2229, the TA in both flight monkeys showed significant atrophy, whereas the Sol and MG showed slight growth in one monkey (906) and slight atrophy in the other monkey (151).

  15. COSMOS/M应用实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温松涛

    2002-01-01

    @@ COSMOS/M是SRAC公司开发的微机版有限元分析软件,主要由静强度分析、动态响应、模态分析、失稳分析、电磁分析和传热分析等几大模块构成.静强度分析又有Liner Static和Unliner Static两大类.在此,笔者主要介绍Liner Static部分对工程设计的帮助.

  16. SPS Fabric of the Cosmos Cafe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Anish

    2012-02-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best-selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four- part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked-off by 30 ``Cosmic Cafes'' being held around the country funded by an NSF grant which allows SPS-NOVA to fund SPS chapters for these events. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick-off, reviewing and suggesting revisions of resources related to the NOVA series to make them relevant to an SPS audience. I also got to organize and moderate the first ``Cosmic Cafe.'' The Cosmic cafe that I organized was discussion based, with our speaker Dr. James Gates starting with a short talk and then opening the floor up for questions. By organizing a ``Cosmic cafe,'' I got real hand experience about the challenges an SPS chapter would face while organizing a cafe themselves. Based on my experience I shall also discuss the effectiveness of the first ever themed science cafe blitz. A science caf'e is an informal discussion with an expert in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. A science cafe is mostly discussion based, but has a lot of freedom for the format. A ``Cosmic'' cafe is a science cafe which is based around the topics discussed in the documentary ``The Fabric of the Cosmos.''

  17. Genetic diversity of Cosmos species revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bernal, A; Piña-Escutia, J L; Vázquez-García, L M; Arzate-Fernández, A M

    2013-12-04

    The genus Cosmos is native of America and is constituted by 34 species; 28 of them are endemic of Mexico. The cosmos are used as a nematicide, antimalarial, and antioxidative agent. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among 7 cosmos species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequences repeats (ISSR) markers. With RAPD markers, the obtained polymorphism was 91.7 % and the genetic diversity was 0.33, whereas these values were 65.6%, and 0.22 from ISSR markers, respectively, indicating the presence of high genetic diversity among the Cosmos species that were analyzed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrograms that were obtained with both markers were notably similar, revealing 2 clusters and indicating a clear genetic differentiation among the Cosmos species that were assessed. The first cluster comprised the species Cosmos sulphureus, Cosmos pacificus, and Cosmos diversifolius, while the second cluster included the species Cosmos purpureus, Cosmos crithmifolius, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Cosmos parviflorus. Besides this, the Cosmos species were clustered according to their collection sites. The Mantel test corroborates the correlation between the genetic distance and the geographic altitude of each Cosmos species. The results suggest that it is necessary to preserve the Cosmos species in their natural habitat in addition to the germoplasm collection for ex situ conservation.

  18. Antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of extracts from cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In-Cheol; Park, Jae-Hee; Park, Eunju; Park, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmos bipinnatus has been used in a traditional herbal remedy for various diseases such as jaundice, intermittent fever, and splenomegaly. The present study describes the preliminary evaluation of antioxidant activities and antigenotoxic effect of Cosmos bipinnatus flowers according to four different colors (white, pink, orange, and violet). The antioxidants properties were evaluated by determining TPC, DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and RP. The highest TPC of methanolic CFE (at concentration of 1 mg/ml) showed in violet colored CF (1,013 microM), and IC(50) of DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and RP were also the lowest in violet colored CFE with values of 0.61, 1.48, and 0.82 mg/ml, respectively. The antigenotoxic effect of the CFE on DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) in human leukocytes was evaluated by Comet assay. Pretreatments with CFE produced significant reductions in oxidative DNA damage at the concentration of 500 microg/ml, except for violet colored CFE. The ED(50) value of white colored CFE has shown the highest inhibition (0.40 mg/ml) on H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage, followed by orange > pink > violet color. These results suggested that Cosmos bipinnatus has significant antioxidant activity and protective effect against oxidative DNA damage.

  19. Do We Really Understand the Cosmos?

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, T

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge about the universe has increased tremendously in the last three decades or so --- thanks to the progress in observations --- but our understanding has improved very little. There are several fundamental questions about our universe for which we have no answers within the current, operationally very successful, approach to cosmology. Worse still, we do not even know how to address some of these issues within the conventional approach to cosmology. This fact suggests that we are missing some important theoretical ingredients in the overall description of the cosmos. I will argue that these issues --- some of which are not fully appreciated or emphasized in the literature --- demand a paradigm shift: We should not think of the universe as described by a specific solution to the gravitational field equations; instead, it should be treated as a special physical system governed by a different mathematical description, rooted in the quantum description of spacetime. I will outline how this can possibly...

  20. Topological Defects in the Cosmos and Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Vachaspati, T

    1998-01-01

    Current theories of particle physics lead to the unavoidable conclusion that there must have been several phase transitions in the early universe. Further, in the context of these theories, it is possible that cosmological phase transitions would have produced topological defects that may be roaming our heavens today. A finding of these fossils from the early universe would provide a direct confirmation of the thermal history of the cosmos, insight into astrophysical phenomena, and, vital information about particle physics. The elimination of unobserved topological defects provides important constraints on particle physics and may also suggest novel cosmology. I describe some of the research on cosmic topological defects and recent efforts to address cosmological issues in condensed matter systems. (Invited article for publication in Contemporary Physics.)

  1. Gravitational Waves- a new window to Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Prasanna, A R

    2016-01-01

    With the detection of Gravitational waves just about an year ago Einstein`s general theory of relativity- a space-time theory of gravity, got established on a firmer footing than any other theory in physics. Gravitational waves are just propagating disturbances in the gravitational field of extremely strong sources caused by some catastrophic event associated with cosmic bodies, like binary black hole coalescence, or neutron star mergers. As these events happen very far away in cosmos, and the signal strength would be extremely weak, it requires extraordinary detection and analysis technology to observe an event on earth. Luckily the joint collaboration LIGO-VIRGO, have so far detected two events in September and December of 2015 during their analysis of observations made with the laser interferometers over the last few observing sessions. The talk will give a brief theoretical sketch of the analysis required for describing the waves resulting from mass motion in the realm of general relativity, and point out...

  2. Introduction to Particle Acceleration in the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Horwitz, J. L.; Perez, J.; Quenby, J.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated charged particles have been used on Earth since 1930 to explore the very essence of matter, for industrial applications, and for medical treatments. Throughout the universe nature employs a dizzying array of acceleration processes to produce particles spanning twenty orders of magnitude in energy range, while shaping our cosmic environment. Here, we introduce and review the basic physical processes causing particle acceleration, in astrophysical plasmas from geospace to the outer reaches of the cosmos. These processes are chiefly divided into four categories: adiabatic and other forms of non-stochastic acceleration, magnetic energy storage and stochastic acceleration, shock acceleration, and plasma wave and turbulent acceleration. The purpose of this introduction is to set the stage and context for the individual papers comprising this monograph.

  3. The universe within from quantum to cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Turok, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A visionary look at the way the human mind can shape the future by world-renowned physicist Neil Turok. Every technology we rely on today was created by the human mind, seeking to understand the universe around us. Scientific knowledge is our most precious possession, and our future will be shaped by the breakthroughs to come. In this personal and fascinating work, Neil Turok, Director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, explores the transformative scientific discoveries of the past three centuries -- from classical mechanics, to the nature of light, to the bizarre world of the quantum, and the evolution of the cosmos. Each new discovery has, over time, yielded new technologies causing paradigm shifts in the organization of society. Now, he argues, we are on the cusp of another major transformation: the coming quantum revolution that will supplant our current, dissatisfying digital age. Facing this brave new world, Turok calls for creatively re-inventing the way advanced knowledge is developed...

  4. Performance of a newly designed continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kondo, Yutaka; Sahu, Lokesh K; Imaru, Junichi; Fukushima, Nobuhiko; Kano, Minoru

    2008-10-01

    We designed a continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS) for fully automated, high-sensitivity, continuous measurement of light absorption by black carbon (BC) aerosols. The instrument monitors changes in transmittance across an automatically advancing quartz fiber filter tape using an LED at a 565 nm wavelength. To achieve measurements with high sensitivity and a lower detectable light absorption coefficient, COSMOS uses a double-convex lens and optical bundle pipes to maintain high light intensity and signal data are obtained at 1000 Hz. In addition, sampling flow rate and optical unit temperature are actively controlled. The inlet line for COSMOS is heated to 400 degrees C to effectively volatilize non-refractory aerosol components that are internally mixed with BC. In its current form, COSMOS provides BC light absorption measurements with a detection limit of 0.45 Mm(-1) (0.045 microg m(-3) for soot) for 10 min. The unit-to-unit variability is estimated to be within +/- 1%, demonstrating its high reproducibility. The absorption coefficients determined by COSMOS agreed with those by a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) to within 1% (r2 = 0.97). The precision (+/- 0.60 Mm(-1)) for 10 min integrated data was better than that of PSAP and an aethalometer under our operating conditions. These results showed that COSMOS achieved both an improved detection limit and higher precision for the filter-based light absorption measurements of BC compared to the existing methods.

  5. 77 FR 23318 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “African Cosmos: Stellar Arts”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``African Cosmos: Stellar Arts... Cosmos: Stellar Arts,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is...

  6. The Chemical Cosmos A Guided Tour

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Steve

    2012-01-01

    If you have ever wondered how we get from the awesome impersonality of the Big Bang universe to the point where living creatures can start to form, and evolve into beings like you, your friends and your family, wonder no more. Steve Miller provides us with a tour through the chemical evolution of the universe, from the formation of the first molecules all the way to the chemicals required for life to evolve. Using a simple Hydrogen molecule – known as H-three-plus - as a guide, he takes us on a journey that starts with the birth of the first stars, and how, in dying, they pour their hearts out into enriching the universe in which we live. Our molecular guide makes its first appearance at the source of the Chemical Cosmos, at a time when only three elements and a total of 11 molecules existed. From those simple beginnings, H-three-plus guides us down river on the violent currents of exploding stars, through the streams of the Interstellar Medium, and into the delta where new stars and planets form. We are fi...

  7. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Water appears to be essential to all life on Earth. For this reason, "Follow the Water" has been adopted as a mantra for the search for Life in the Cosmos. Expeditions have helped to establish the limits and biodiversity of life in the most extreme environments on Earth. Microbial extremophiles inhabit acidic streams; hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools; the cold deep sea floor, permafrost, rocks, glaciers, and perennially ice-covered lakes of the polar environments; geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hydrothermal vents and hot rocks deep within the Earth's crust. The ESA Venus Express Spacecraft entered Venusian Orbit in 2006 and continues to produce exciting results. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument made the first detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere of Venus, indicating it is much more similar to Earth and Mars than previously thought. Huge hurricane-like vortices have been found above the poles of the planet and as yet unidentified UV absorbers that form mysterious dark bands in the upper atmosphere. At 70 km and below, water vapor and sulfur dioxide combine to form sulfuric acid droplets that create a haze above the cloud tops. Thermophilic acidophiles, such as have recently been discovered on Earth, could possibly survive in the hot sulfuric acid droplets that exist in the upper atmosphere of Venus. In order to understand how to search for life elsewhere in the Solar System, over 40 VIRTIS images of Earth from Venus have been obtained to search for evidence of life on Earth. The signatures of water and molecular Oxygen were detected in the Earth s atmosphere, but the atmosphere of Venus also exhibits these signatures. The water and water ice are far more abundant on comet, the polar caps and permafrost of Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. These "frozen worlds" of our Solar System, are much more promising regimes where extant or extinct microbial life may exist. The ESA Mars Advanced Radar for

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Flower Pigments in Chocolate Cosmos, Cosmos atrosanguineus, and its Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamiya, Kotarou; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Two major anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside, were isolated from the black flowers of Cosmos atrosanguineus cultivar 'Choco Mocha', together with three minor anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-malonylglucoside, pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside. A chalcone, butein 4'-O-glucoside and three minor flavanones were isolated from the red flowers of C. atrosanguineis x C. sulphureus cultivar 'Rouge Rouge'. The anthocyanins and chalcone accumulation of cultivar 'Choco Mocha' and its hybrid cultivars 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge', 'Rouge Rouge' and 'Noel Rouge' was surveyed by quantitative HPLC. Total anthocyanins of black flower cultivars 'Choco Mocha' and 'Brown Rouge' were 3-4-folds higher than that of the red flower cultivar 'Noel Rouge'. On the other hand, total chalcone of 'Noel Rouge' was 10-77-folds higher compared with those of other cultivars, 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge' and 'Rouge Rouge'. It was shown that the flower color variations from red to black of Chocolate Cosmos and its hybrids are due to the difference in the relative amounts of anthocyanins and chalcone.

  9. COSMOS: The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Area-average soil moisture at the sub-kilometer scale is needed but until the advent of the cosmic-ray method (Zreda et al., 2008, it was difficult to measure. This new method is now being implemented routinely in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe (sometimes called "neutronavka" measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. COSMOS has already deployed 53 of the eventual 500 neutronavkas distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its hectometer horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in COSMOS, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  10. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  11. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: optical/IR identifications

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesi, S; Elvis, M; Salvato, M; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Hasinger, G; Lanzuisi, G; Miyaji, T; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Allevato, V; Cappelluti, N; Cardamone, C; Finoguenov, A; Griffiths, R E; Karim, A; Laigle, C; LaMassa, S M; Jahnke, K; Ranalli, P; Schawinski, K; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J D; Smolcic, V; Suh, H; Trakhtenbrot, B

    2015-01-01

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra program on the 2.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 micron identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 micron information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while 54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is availa...

  12. zCOSMOS : A large VLT/VIMOS redshift survey covering 0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilly, S. J.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Silverman, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Daddi, E.; Feldmann, R.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marinoni, C.; Pello, R.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scarlata, C.; Vergani, D.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bardelli, S.; Brusa, M.; Cappi, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Foucaud, S.; Franceschini, R.; Halliday, C.; Impey, C.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Kurk, J.; Maccagni, D.; Maddox, S.; Marano, B.; Marconi, G.; Meneux, B.; Mobasher, B.; Moreau, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Porciani, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Schiminovich, D.; Shopbell, P.; Smail, I.; Thompson, D.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2007-01-01

    zCOSMOS is a large-redshift survey that is being undertaken in the COSMOS field using 600 hr of observation with the VIMOS spectrograph on the 8mVLT. The survey is designed to characterize the environments of COSMOS galaxies from the 100 kpc scales of galaxy groups up to the 100 Mpc scale of the cos

  13. Future investigations onboard Soviet biosatellites of the Cosmos series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, E A

    1981-01-01

    Many rat experiments onboard Cosmos biosatellites have furnished information concerning the effects of weightlessness, artificial gravity, and ionizing radiation combined with weightlessness on structural and biochemical parameters of the animal body. The necessity to expand the scope of physiological investigations has led to the project of flight primate studies. It is planned to carry out the first primate experiments onboard the Cosmos biosatellite in 1982. At present investigations of weightlessness effects on the cardiovascular and vestibular systems, higher nervous activity, skeletal muscles and biorhythms of two rhesus monkeys are being developed and tested. It is also planned to conduct a study of weightlessness effects on embryogenesis of rats and bioenergetics of living systems onboard the same biosatellite. Further experiments onboard Cosmos biosatellites are planned.

  14. Development of Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System `COSMOS`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    The Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System (COSMOS) was developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a safeguards surveillance system under the JASPAS (Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards) with the collaboration of the Sony Corporation. It was intended as a direct replacement to the Twin Minolta film camera system. The COSMOS system can operate with a self-contained battery, record 30,000 scenes with an 8 mm video cassette tape and operate continuously for three months without human intervention. It can also operate by AC power supply for more than three months, and record 45,000 scenes in an 8 mm video cassette tape. The COSMOS system consists of two units, one is the Recording Unit and the other is the Setup/Review Unit. The Recording Unit consists of a main frame, four modules and a tamperproof housing. The four modules are a small CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera with an auto-iris lens and a specific VTR (Video Tape Recorder), a video frame memory module, a system control module, and a DC or an AC power module. Currently, the COSMOS is the only safeguards video surveillance system without the need of external power supply for three months. In 1992 thirteen COSMOS units were successfully tested for the reliability by both the IAEA and the JAERI. None of mechanical failure was observed. On the one hand, the battery operation tests using four units were successfully carried out with 5 minutes time interval for three months. Three units were also tested in the field and no failure was observed. The COSMOS was accepted as the routine-use device for international safeguards by the IAEA in August 1993. The total of 90 units were purchased by the IAEA from the manufacturer, SONY, and also several units were purchased by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan for the STA/IAEA joint-use in Japan. (author)

  15. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu, E-mail: panzz@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Center of Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  16. Compton Thick AGN in the COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Cosmos Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    I will present the results we published in a couple of recent papers (Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A&A 573A 137, Lanzuisi et al. 2015, arXiv 1505.01153) on the properties of X-ray selected Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^24 cm^-2) AGN, in the COSMOS survey. We exploited the rich multi-wavelength dataset available in this field, to show that CT AGN tend to harbor smaller, rapidly growing SMBH with respect to unobscured AGN, and have a higher chance of being hosted by star-forming, merging and post-merger systems.We also demonstrated the detectability of even more heavily obscured AGN (NH>10^25 cm^-2), thanks to a truly multi-wavelength approach in the same field. The extreme source detected in this way shows strong evidences of ongoing powerful AGN feedback, detected as blue-shifted wings of high ionization optical emission lines such as [NeV] and [FeVII], as well as of the [OIII] emission line.The results obtained from these works point toward a scenario in which highly obscured AGN occupy a peculiar place in the galaxy-AGN co-evolution process, in which both the host and the SMBH rapidly evolve toward the local relations.We will also present estimates on the detectability of such extreme sources up to redshift ~6-7 with Athena. Combining the most up to date models for the Luminosity Function of CT AGN at high z, aggressive data analysis techniques on faint sources, and the current Athena survey design, we demonstrate that we will detect, and recognize as such, a small (few to ten) but incredibly valuable sample of CT AGN at such high redshift.

  17. Search for Cosmic Strings in the COSMOS Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, J L; Goldman, J; Teng, I P W; Foley, M; Smoot, G F

    2010-01-01

    We search the COSMOS survey for pairs of galaxies consistent with the gravitational lensing signature of a cosmic string. The COSMOS survey imaged 1.64 square degrees using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Our technique includes estimates of the efficiency for finding the lensed galaxy pair. We find no evidence for cosmic strings with a mass per unit length of G\\mu/c^2 < 3.0E-7 out to redshifts greater than 0.6 at 95% confidence. This corresponds to a global limit on Omega_string<0.0017.

  18. Cosmic rays and radiations from the cosmos; Rayons cosmiques et rayonnement du cosmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizot, E

    2005-12-01

    This document gathers a lot of recent information concerning cosmic radiations, it is divided into 4 parts. Part I: energy, mass and angular spectra of cosmic rays. Part II: general phenomenology of cosmic rays, this part deals with the standard model, the maximal energy of protons inside supernova remnants, nucleosynthesis of light elements, and super-bubbles. Part III: radiations from the cosmos, this part deals with high energy gamma rays, non-thermal radiation of super-bubbles, positron transport, and the Compton trail of gamma-ray bursts. Part IV: the Pierre Auger observatory (OPA), this part deals with the detection of gamma ray bursts at OPA, the measurement of anisotropy, and top-down models. (A.C.)

  19. La ciencia del cosmos, la ciencia en el cosmos : 2015 : ciclo de conferencias de astrofisica y cosmologia

    CERN Document Server

    Science of the Cosmos, Science in the Cosmos : 2015 : series of lectures on astrophysics and cosmology

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to "Science of the Cosmos, Sciences in the Cosmos", the series of lectures that the BBVA Foundation has been offering, live and on DVD, since March 2011. Lecture 1 : Comets and planets / Willy Benz ; lecture 2 : The discovery that the Universe is expanding / James E. Peebles ; lecture 3 : The Universe : continuing surprises / Wendy Freedman ; lecture 4 : The high energy Universe : gamma rays, cosmis rays, neutron stars and black holes / Roger Blandford ; lecture 5 : Earliest light, from the end of the Earth / John M. Kovac ; lecture 6 : The amazing liquid xenon for dark matter WIMPs detection / Elena Aprile

  20. La ciencia del cosmos, la ciencia en el cosmos : 2013-2014 : ciclo de conferencias de astrofisica y cosmologia

    CERN Document Server

    Science of the Cosmos, Science in the Cosmos : 2013-2014 : series of lectures on astrophysics and cosmology

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to "Science of the Cosmos, Sciences in the Cosmos", the series of lectures that the BBVA Foundation has been offering, live and on DVD, since March 2011. Lecture 1 : Let there be light : finding the earliest galaxies / Richard Ellis ; lecture 2 : The origin of the galaxies / Simon White ; lecture 3 : Astrobiology : the quest for the conditions of life in the Universe / Gerda Horneck ; lecture 4 : The long-term stability of planetary systems / Scott Tremaine ; lecture 5 : Asteroseismology : the study of starquakes and its impact on astrophysics / Conny Aerts ; lecture 6 : From Mars to multiverse / Martin Rees

  1. US experiments flown on the Soviet satellite COSMOS 936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, S. N.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of spaceborne experiments onboard the Cosmos 936 satellite are reported. Alterations in normal bone chemistry, muscle structure, and general physiology resulting from spaceflight are covered along with measurements of cosmic radiation and its potential hazard to man during prolonged spaceflights. Postflight activities involving the seven U.S. experiments are emphasized.

  2. Photometric Redshift and Classification for the XMM-COSMOS Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvato, M.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Rau, A.; Capak, P.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bolzonella, M.; Buongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Caputi, K.; Civano, F.; Cook, R.; Elvis, M.; Gilli, R.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Impey, C. D.; Lamareille, F.; Le Floch, E.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; McCarthy, P.; McCracken, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Murayama, T.; Sasaki, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Schiminovich, D.; Shioya, Y.; Shopbell, P.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Surace, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Trump, J. R.; Urry, M.; Zamojski, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present photometric redshifts and spectral energy distribution (SED) classifications for a sample of 1542 optically identified sources detected with XMM in the COSMOS field. Our template fitting classifies 46 sources as stars and 464 as nonactive galaxies, while the remaining 1032 require templat

  3. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing knowledge over…

  4. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: overview and point source catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Civano, F; Comastri, A; Urry, M C; Elvis, M; Cappelluti, N; Puccetti, S; Brusa, M; Zamorani, G; Hasinger, G; Aldcroft, T; Alexander, D M; Allevato, V; Brunner, H; Capak, P; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Fruscione, A; Gilli, R; Glotfelty, K; Griffiths, R E; Hao, H; Harrison, F A; Jahnke, K; Kartaltepe, J; Karim, A; LaMassa, S M; Lanzuisi, G; Miyaji, T; Ranalli, P; Salvato, M; Sargent, M; Scoville, N J; Schawinski, K; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J; Smolcic, V; Stern, D; Toft, S; Trakhenbrot, B; Treister, E; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    The COSMOS-Legacy survey is a 4.6 Ms Chandra program that has imaged 2.2 deg$^2$ of the COSMOS field with an effective exposure of $\\simeq$160 ks over the central 1.5 deg$^2$ and of $\\simeq$80 ks in the remaining area. The survey is the combination of 56 new observations, obtained as an X-ray Visionary Project, with the previous C-COSMOS survey. We describe the reduction and analysis of the new observations and the properties of 2273 point sources detected above a spurious probability of 2$\\times 10^{-5}$. We also present the updated properties of the C-COSMOS sources detected in the new data. The whole survey includes 4016 point sources (3814, 2920 and 2440 in the full, soft and hard band). The limiting depths are 2.2 $\\times$ 10$^{-16}$, 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{-15}$ and 8.9$\\times$ 10$^{-16}$ ${\\rm erg~cm}^{-2}~{\\rm s}^{-1}$ in the 0.5-2, 2-10 and 0.5-10 keV bands, respectively. The observed fraction of obscured AGN with column density $> 10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ from the hardness ratio (HR) is $\\sim$50$^{+17}_{-16}$%...

  5. The zCOSMOS 20k Group Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobel, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Iovino, A.; Kovač, K.; Bschorr, T. J.; Presotto, V.; Oesch, P. A.; Kampczyk, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J. -F; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Barnes, L.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; López-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Welikala, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present an optical group catalog between 0.1 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 1 based on 16,500 high-quality spectroscopic redshifts in the completed zCOSMOS-bright survey. The catalog published herein contains 1498 groups in total and 192 groups with more than five observed memb

  6. Larvicidal, pupicidal and insecticidal activities of Cosmos bipinnatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... University of Free State, Qwaqwa campus, Private Bag X 13, Phuthaditjhaba, 9866, ... mosquito adults within 12 h with LD99 = 0.25 g/air, while the leaves of C. .... Solvents % Yield Alk. Tan . Phl. Sap. Fla. Ste. Ter. Car. Cosmos bipinnatus.

  7. Photometric Redshift and Classification for the XMM-COSMOS Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvato, M.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Rau, A.; Capak, P.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bolzonella, M.; Buongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Caputi, K.; Civano, F.; Cook, R.; Elvis, M.; Gilli, R.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Impey, C. D.; Lamareille, F.; Le Floch, E.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; McCarthy, P.; McCracken, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Murayama, T.; Sasaki, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Schiminovich, D.; Shioya, Y.; Shopbell, P.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Surace, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Trump, J. R.; Urry, M.; Zamojski, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present photometric redshifts and spectral energy distribution (SED) classifications for a sample of 1542 optically identified sources detected with XMM in the COSMOS field. Our template fitting classifies 46 sources as stars and 464 as nonactive galaxies, while the remaining 1032 require

  8. Emerging Adolescence: Finding One's Place in the Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Discusses emerging characteristics of early adolescents from a Montessorian perspective. Considers adolescents' revelations related to cosmic education, their need to serve, their need to think and to feel, and their need to know the cosmos through finding one's place in it. Discusses samples from students' cosmic autobiographies. (KB)

  9. An Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for VLSI Built with COSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, Marios C.; Agius, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents Bigger Bits, an interactive multimedia learning environment that teaches students about VLSI within the context of computer electronics. The system was built with COSMOS (Content Oriented semantic Modelling Overlay Scheme), which is a modelling scheme that we developed for enabling the semantic content of multimedia to be used…

  10. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing…

  11. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  12. [COSMOS motion design optimization in the CT table].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong; Huang, Jian; Ren, Chao

    2013-03-01

    Through the CT Table dynamic simulation by COSMOS Motion, analysis the hinge of table and the motor force, then optimize the position of the hinge of table, provide the evidence of selecting bearing and motor, meanwhile enhance the design quality of the CT table and reduce the product design cost.

  13. THE CHANDRA COSMOS LEGACY SURVEY: OPTICAL/IR IDENTIFICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Urry, C. M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Brusa, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Miyaji, T. [Instituto de Astronomía sede Ensenada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 103, Carret. Tijunana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Treister, E. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cardamone, C. [Department of Science, Wheelock College, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Griffiths, R. E. [Physics and Astronomy Dept., Natural Sciences Division, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 W. Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2016-01-20

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra  COSMOS-Legacy  Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra  program on the 2.2 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2–10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  14. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  15. Universe unveiled the cosmos in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2015-01-01

    The bubbles were swirling all around me, massaging my body. As I luxuriated in this fantastic bath, I gasped realizing that those bubbles carried with them miniature galaxies bringing the entire Cosmos into my bathtub... Alfie is back. And so are George and other characters from the author’s previous book Einstein’s Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath. While the present book, Universe Unveiled - The Cosmos in My Bubble Bath, is completely independent, its storyline can be considered a sequel to the previous one. The scientific content spanning ancient world models to the most recent mysteries of cosmology is presented in an entirely nontechnical and descriptive style through the discussions between Alfie, the enlightened learner, and George, professor of astrophysics. Fantasies, based on these discussions that cover the scientific facts, are created by the magical bubble baths taken by Alfie. Universe Unveiled blends accurate science with philosophy, drama, humour, and fantasy to create an exciting co...

  16. A fortunate universe life in a finely tuned cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geraint F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last forty years, scientists have uncovered evidence that if the Universe had been forged with even slightly different properties, life as we know it - and life as we can imagine it - would be impossible. Join us on a journey through how we understand the Universe, from its most basic particles and forces, to planets, stars and galaxies, and back through cosmic history to the birth of the cosmos. Conflicting notions about our place in the Universe are defined, defended and critiqued from scientific, philosophical and religious viewpoints. The authors' engaging and witty style addresses what fine-tuning might mean for the future of physics and the search for the ultimate laws of nature. Tackling difficult questions and providing thought-provoking answers, this volumes challenges us to consider our place in the cosmos, regardless of our initial convictions.

  17. Cardiac morphology after conditions of microgravity during Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Margaret A.; Edwards, Robert J.; Schroeter, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Light- and electron-microscopic studies were performed on cardiac muscle from rats flown on Cosmos 2044 and from four control groups. Average cross-sectional area of myofibers was measured by video analysis of the light-microscopic images of papillary and ventricular muscle samples from all animals. This cross-sectional area was significantly decreased in flight rats (P = 0.03) compared with synchronous controls. Additional findings at the electron microscopic level consistent with this atrophy were obtained by stereological analysis and optical diffraction analysis of papillary muscle samples. Slightly higher mitochondrial volume density values and mitochondria-to-myofibril ratios as well as normal A-band spacings (d1,0) and Z-band spacings of myofibrils were observed in the tail-suspension and flight groups. General morphological features similar to those in ventricular samples from the previous Cosmos 1887 flight were observed.

  18. Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; Herdman, Liv; Limber, Patrick W; O'Neill, Andrea; Vitousek, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future SLR scenarios, as well as long-term shoreline change and cliff retreat. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California includes 100-year storm flood hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception. Flood projection data in the initial November release is limited to coastal areas within Los Angeles, San Diego, and Orange counties.

  19. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Water appears to be essential to all life on Earth. For this reason, "Follow the Water" has been adopted as a mantra for the search for Life in the Cosmos. Expeditions have helped to establish the limits and biodiversity of life in the most extreme environments on Earth. Microbial extremophiles inhabit acidic streams; hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools; the cold deep sea floor, permafrost, rocks, glaciers, and perennially ice-covered lakes of the polar environments; geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hydrothermal vents and hot rocks deep within the Earth's crust. The ESA Venus Express Spacecraft entered Venusian Orbit in 2006 and continues to produce exciting results. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument made the first detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere of Venus, indicating it is much more similar to Earth and Mars than previously thought. Huge hurricane-like vortices have been found above the poles of the planet and as yet unidentified UV absorbers that form mysterious dark bands in the upper atmosphere. At 70 km and below, water vapor and sulfur dioxide combine to form sulfuric acid droplets that create a haze above the cloud tops. Thermophilic acidophiles, such as have recently been discovered on Earth, could possibly survive in the hot sulfuric acid droplets that exist in the upper atmosphere of Venus. In order to understand how to search for life elsewhere in the Solar System, over 40 VIRTIS images of Earth from Venus have been obtained to search for evidence of life on Earth. The signatures of water and molecular Oxygen were detected in the Earth s atmosphere, but the atmosphere of Venus also exhibits these signatures. The water and water ice are far more abundant on comet, the polar caps and permafrost of Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. These "frozen worlds" of our Solar System, are much more promising regimes where extant or extinct microbial life may exist. The ESA Mars Advanced Radar for

  20. 侧滑双键盘LG Cosmos 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    如果你厌倦了智能手机繁杂的功能,想让手机的待机时问更长,一部简单的功能手机是最好的选择。而具有QWERTY和数字两个实体键盘的侧滑手机LG Cosmos 2。就是这样的产品。

  1. The concept of fractal cosmos, I: Anaxagoras’ cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić P.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a fractal cosmos occupies a prominent position in the modern cosmology. We trace the development of this concept from the presocratic Greece to the present state of affairs. In this first part we consider the original idea due to Anaxagoras and elucidate a number of points with regard to possible interpretation of his cosmological ideas. A comparison has been made with the cosmology of Abderian school and relevance to the modern cosmology discussed.

  2. Radio-Optical Galaxy Shape Correlations in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Tunbridge, Ben; Brown, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the correlations in galaxy shapes between optical and radio wavelengths using archival observations of the COSMOS field. Cross-correlation studies between different wavebands will become increasingly important for precision cosmology as future large surveys may be dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors. In the case of weak lensing, galaxy shapes must be measured to extraordinary accuracy (shear systematics of $ 0.212\\pi$ radians (or $38.2^{\\circ}$) at a $95\\%$ confidence level.

  3. Chasing highly obscured QSOs in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, F; Brusa, M; Salvato, M; Zamorani, G; Aldcroft, T; Ausse, H; Brunner, H; Capak, P; Cappelluti, N; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Elvis, M; Feruglio, C; Finoguenov, A; Fruscione, A; Gilli, R; Hasinger, G; Koekemoer, A; Kartaltepe, J; Ilbert, O; Impey, C; Le Floc'h, E; Lilly, S; Mainieri, V; Martinez-Sansigre, A; McCracken, H J; Menci, N; Merloni, A; Miyaji, T; Sanders, D B; Sargent, M; Schinnerer, E; Scoville, N; Silverman, Joseph; Smolcic, V; Steffen, A; Santini, P; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D; Trump, J R; Vignali, C; Urry, M; Yan, L

    2008-01-01

    (abridged) We take advantage of the deep Chandra and Spitzer coverage of a large area (more than 10 times the area covered by the Chandra deep fields, CDFs in the COSMOS field, to extend the search of highly obscured, Compton-thick active nuclei to higher luminosity. These sources have low surface density and large samples can be provided only through large area surveys, like the COSMOS survey. We analyze the X-ray properties of COSMOS MIPS sources with 24$\\mu$m fluxes higher than 550$\\mu$Jy. For the MIPS sources not directly detected in the Chandra images we produce stacked images in soft and hard X-rays bands. To estimate the fraction of Compton-thick AGN in the MIPS source population we compare the observed stacked count rates and hardness ratios to those predicted by detailed Monte Carlo simulations including both obscured AGN and star-forming galaxies. The density of lower luminosity Compton-thick AGN (logL(2-10keV)=43.5-44) at z=0.7--1.2 is $(3.7\\pm1.1) \\times10^{-5}$ Mpc$^{-3}$, corresponding to $\\sim6...

  4. Completing the Legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Ivo; Caputi, Karina; McLeod, Derek; Cowley, Will; Dayal, Pratika; Behroozi, Peter; Ashby, Matt; Franx, Marijn; Dunlop, James; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Ilbert, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; de Barros, Stephane; Oesch, Pascal; Bouwens, Rychard; Muzzin, Adam; Illingworth, Garth; Stefanon, Mauro; Schreiber, Corentin; Hutter, Anne; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    We propose to complete the legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS by extending the deep coverage to the full 1.8 sq degree field, producing a nearly homogenous and contiguous map unparalleled in terms of area and depth. Ongoing and scheduled improvements in the supporting optical-to-NIR data down to ultradeep limits have reconfirmed COSMOS as a unique field for probing the bright end of the z=6-11 universe and the formation of large-scale structures. However, currently only one-third of the field has received sufficiently deep IRAC coverage to match the new optical/near-IR limits. Here we request deep matching IRAC data over the full 1.8 sq degree field to detect almost one million galaxies. The proposed observations will allow us to 1) constrain the galaxy stellar mass function during the epoch of reionization at z=6-8 with ~10,000 galaxies at these redshifts, 2) securely identify the brightest galaxies at 9 goals owing to the unique array of multiwavelength data from the X-ray to the radio. COSMOS is a key target for ongoing and future studies with ALMA and for spectroscopy from the ground, and with the timely addition of the Spitzer Legacy it will prove to be a crucial treasury for efficient planning and early follow-up with JWST.

  5. SPS 'Fabric of the Cosmos' Science Cafés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2011-12-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked off by more than 30 'Cosmic Cafes' around the country, as part of a Society of Physics Students, NOVA outreach effort funded by an NSF grant. A Cosmic Café is a science café based on the topics discussed in The Fabric of the Cosmos. Science cafes are open events for non-scientists, where they can have an informal discussion with a scientist in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick off, by reviewing science café and The Fabric of the Cosmos resources and suggesting revisions to make them more relevant for an SPS audience. I also organized and moderated the first Cosmic Café. The café that I organized was discussion based, with the speaker, Dr. James Gates, starting with a short talk and then opening up the floor for questions. Organizing a Cosmic Café gave me first-hand experience with the challenges an SPS chapter might face while organizing a café themselves. I will discuss lessons learned and the effectiveness of the first ever themed science café blitz.

  6. Analysis and Consequences of the Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anz-Meador, P. D.; Liou, Jer-Chi

    2010-01-01

    The collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251, on 10 February 2009, was the first known unintentional hypervelocity collision in space of intact satellites. Iridium 33 was an active commercial telecommunications satellite, while Cosmos 2251 was a derelict communication satellite of the Strela-2M class. The collision occurred at a relative velocity of 11.6 km/s at an altitude of approximately 790 km over the Great Siberian Plain and near the northern apex of Cosmos 2251 s orbit. This paper describes the physical and orbital characteristics of the relevant spacecraft classes and reports upon our analysis of the resulting debris clouds size, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and relative velocity/directionality distributions. We compare these distributions to those predicted by the NASA breakup model and notable recent fragmentation events; in particular, we compare the area-to-mass ratio distribution for each spacecraft to that exhibited by the FY-1C debris cloud for the purpose of assessing the relative contribution of modern aerospace materials to debris clouds resulting from energetic collisions. In addition, we examine the long-term consequences of this event for the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Finally, we discuss "lessons learned", which may be incorporated into NASA s environmental models.

  7. Educação, desenvolvimento humano e cosmos Education, human development and cosmos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mogilka

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar o processo de formação e desenvolvimento humano. Ele toma como ponto de partida conceitos da pedagogia humanista e tenta produzir alguns avanços na reflexão sobre esses processos. O artigo tenta demonstrar que essa abordagem explica esses processos de forma interacionista, global e holística. Suas reflexões iniciais se baseiam no pensamento de Carl Rogers, Jean-Jacques Rousseau e John Dewey, tentando resgatar importantes contribuições desses três pensadores sobre o desenvolvimento humano. Em seguida, busca demonstrar a necessidade de superar algumas contradições nas idéias desses autores, atitude necessária para radicalizar uma compreensão interacionista do tema. Talvez a principal contradição nesses autores e em uma parte considerável das pedagogias antiautoritárias esteja na oscilação entre inatismo e interacionismo. Não obstante o grande valor dessas pedagogias para a estruturação de propostas radicalmente democráticas de educação e de sociedade, o artigo tenta demonstrar a necessidade de superação da citada oscilação para avançarmos nesse campo. Ao radicalizarmos o interacionismo, podemos exercitar uma compreensão complexa de ser humano, que o enxerga como um ser afetivo, político e cósmico, simultaneamente. Assim, o organismo humano é entendido em sua unidade interna, em seu pertencimento social e em sua ligação com o cosmos, dimensões imprescindíveis para uma compreensão não fragmentária do desenvolvimento humano.This article seeks to analyze the process of human formation and development. It takes as a point of departure concepts of the humanist pedagogy, and tries to move forwards in the reflection upon these processes. The text attempts to demonstrate that this approach explains these processes in an interactionist, global and holistic way. Its main reflections are based on the thought of Carl Rogers, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and John Dewey, trying to recall important

  8. The COSMOS density field: a reconstruction using both weak lensing and galaxy distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amara, A.; Lilly, S.; Kovač, K.; Rhodes, J.; Massey, R.; Zamorani, G.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Barnes, L.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; Koekoemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Welikala, N.

    2012-01-01

    The COSMOS field has been the subject of a wide range of observations, with a number of studies focusing on reconstructing the 3D dark matter density field. Typically, these studies have focused on one given method or tracer. In this paper, we reconstruct the distribution of mass in the COSMOS field

  9. The COSMOS density field : a reconstruction using both weak lensing and galaxy distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amara, A.; Lilly, S.; Kovač, K.; Rhodes, J.; Massey, R.; Zamorani, G.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J. -F; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Barnes, L.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; Koekoemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Welikala, N.

    2012-01-01

    The COSMOS field has been the subject of a wide range of observations, with a number of studies focusing on reconstructing the 3D dark matter density field. Typically, these studies have focused on one given method or tracer. In this paper, we reconstruct the distribution of mass in the COSMOS field

  10. Properties and environment of radio-emitting galaxies in the VLA-zCOSMOS survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardelli, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčic, V.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Mignoli, M.; Halliday, C.; Kovač, K.; Ciliegi, P.; Caputi, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bondi, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Vergani, D.; Pozzetti, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Capak, P.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Jahnke, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the properties and the environment of radio sources with optical counterparts from the combined VLA-COSMOS and zCOSMOS samples. The advantage of this sample is the availability of optical spectroscopic informations, high quality redshifts, and accurate density determination. Met

  11. The CoSMOS L-band experiment in Southeast Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, K.; Kerr, Y.H.; Boulet, G.

    2007-01-01

    The CoSMOS (Campaign for validating the Operation of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission) campaign was conducted during November of 2005 in the Goulburn River Catchment, in SE Australia. The main objective of CoSMOS was to obtain a series of L-band measurements from the air in order...

  12. Quantitative Analysis of the Usage of the COSMOS Science Education Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Bogner, Franz X.; Neofotistos, George

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative method of mapping the web usage of an innovative educational portal is applied to analyze the behaviour of users of the COSMOS Science Education Portal. The COSMOS Portal contains user-generated resources (that are uploaded by its users). It has been designed to support a science teacher's search, retrieval and access to both,…

  13. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xin Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  14. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Cho, Hye Sun; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  15. Experiment K-7-41: Radiation Experiments on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.; Kovalev, E. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 degrees and altitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq. cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10-4 and 3.05 x 10(exp -4) cm(exp -2).s(exp -1).sr(exp -4) of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(infinity).H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micro-m. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mremld in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra have been compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 degrees) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCR's, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  16. COSMOS 2044: Lung morphology study, experiment K-7-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Mathieu-Costello, Odile; West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers examined the effect of microgravity during spaceflight on lung tissue. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wister rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hour Cosmos 2044 mission was examined and compared to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail suspension. Pulmonary hemorrage and alveolar adema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control animals, and in the dorsal regions of the lung when compared with the vivarium controls. The cause of these changes, which are possibly due to an increase in pulmonary vascular pressure, requires further investigation.

  17. Planets, Stars, and Orbs, The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Edward

    Medieval cosmology was a fusion of pagan Greek ideas and biblical descriptions of the world, especially the creation account in Genesis. Planets, Stars, and Orbs describes medieval conceptions of the cosmos as understood by scholastic theologians and natural philosophers in the universities of western Europe from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Not only are the major ideas and arguments of medieval cosmology described and analysed, but much attention is paid to the responses of scholastic natural philosophers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to the challenges posed by the new science and astronomy as represented by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Galileo and Kepler.

  18. CoolerMaster COSMOS S运动版

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    说起前一年的顶级机箱,CoolerMaster COSMOS绝对要算一个。在2008年德国CeBIT展会上,CoolerMaster公司又在该作的基础上推出了COSMOS S运动版,在提供极致散热性能的同时,新的动感机身,触控式按键设计,让COSMOS有一种焕然如新的感觉。

  19. COSMOS Photometric Redshifts with 30-bands for 2-deg2

    CERN Document Server

    Ilbert, O; Salvato, M; Aussel, H; McCracken, H J; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N; Kartaltepe, J; Arnouts, S; Le Floc'h, E; Mobasher, B; Taniguchi, Y; Lamareille, F; Leauthaud, A; Sasaki, S; Thompson, D; Zamojski, M; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Caputi, K I; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Cook, R; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Hasinger, G; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; Lilly, S; Looper, D; Maier, C; Mainieri, V; Mellier, Y; Mignoli, M; Murayama, T; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Renzini, A; Ricciardelli, E; Schiminovich, D; Scodeggio, M; Shioya, Y; Silverman, Joseph; Surace, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2008-01-01

    We present accurate photometric redshifts in the 2-deg2 COSMOS field. The redshifts are computed with 30 broad, intermediate, and narrow bands covering the UV (GALEX), Visible-NIR (Subaru, CFHT, UKIRT and NOAO) and mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC). A chi2 template-fitting method (Le Phare) was used and calibrated with large spectroscopic samples from VLT-VIMOS and Keck-DEIMOS. We develop and implement a new method which accounts for the contributions from emission lines (OII, Hbeta, Halpha and Ly) to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The treatment of emission lines improves the photo-z accuracy by a factor of 2.5. Comparison of the derived photo-z with 4148 spectroscopic redshifts (i.e. Delta z = zs - zp) indicates a dispersion of sigma_{Delta z/(1+zs)}=0.007 at i<22.5, a factor of 2-6 times more accurate than earlier photo-z in the COSMOS, CFHTLS and COMBO-17 survey fields. At fainter magnitudes i<24 and z<1.25, the accuracy is sigma_{Delta z/(1+zs)}=0.012. The deep NIR and IRAC coverage enables the ph...

  20. The VLA-COSMOS Survey: V. 324 MHz continuum observations

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, Vernesa; Jelic, Vibor; Bondi, Marco; Schinnerer, Eva; Carilli, Chris L; Riechers, Dominik A; Salvato, Mara; Brkovic, Alen; Capak, Peter; Ilbert, Olivier; Karim, Alexander; McCracken, Henry; Scoville, Nick Z

    2014-01-01

    We present 90 cm VLA imaging of the COSMOS field, comprising a circular area of 3.14 square degrees at 8.0"x6.0" angular resolution with an average rms of 0.5 mJy/beam. The extracted catalog contains 182 sources (down to 5.5sigma), 30 of which are multi-component sources. Using Monte Carlo artificial source simulations we derive the completeness of the catalog, and we show that our 90 cm source counts agree very well with those from previous studies. Using X-ray, NUV-NIR and radio COSMOS data to investigate the population mix of our 90 cm radio sample, we find that our sample is dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN). The average 90-20 cm spectral index (S_nu~nu**alpha, where S_nu is the flux density at frequency nu, and alpha the spectral index) of our 90 cm selected sources is -0.70, with an interquartile range of -0.90 to -0.53. Only a few ultra-steep-spectrum sources are present in our sample, consistent with results in the literature for similar fields. Our data do not show clear steepening of the spe...

  1. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-05-05

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis.

  2. MHD Simulations of Core Collapse Supernovae with Cosmos++

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shizuka

    2010-01-01

    We performed 2D, axisymmetric, MHD simulations with Cosmos++ in order to examine the growth of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in core--collapse supernovae. We have initialized a non--rotating 15 solar mass progenitor, infused with differential rotation and poloidal magnetic fields. The collapse of the iron core is simulated with the Shen EOS, and the parametric Ye and entropy evolution. The wavelength of the unstable mode in the post--collapse environment is expected to be only ~ 200 m. In order to achieve the fine spatial resolution requirement, we employed remapping technique after the iron core has collapsed and bounced. The MRI unstable region appears near the equator and angular momentum and entropy are transported outward. Higher resolution remap run display more vigorous overturns and stronger transport of angular momentum and entropy. Our results are in agreement with the earlier work by Akiyama et al. (2003) and Obergaulinger et al. (2009).

  3. Extraterrestrial altruism evolution and ethics in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Altruism examines a basic assumption of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI): that extraterrestrials will be transmitting messages to us for our benefit. This question of whether extraterrestrials will be altruistic has become increasingly important in recent years as SETI scientists have begun contemplating transmissions from Earth to make contact. Should we expect altruism to evolve throughout the cosmos, or is this only wishful thinking? Would this make biological sense? Is it dangerous to send messages to other worlds, as Stephen Hawking has suggested? Would extraterrestrial societies be based on different ethical principles? Extraterrestrial Altruism explores these and related questions about the motivations of civilizations beyond Earth, providing new insights that are critical for SETI. Chapters are authored by leading scholars from diverse disciplines—anthropology, astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, cosmology, engineering, history of science, law, philos...

  4. Environment of MAMBO galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris L; Schinnerer, Eva; McCracken, Henry J; Salvato, Mara; Riechers, Dominik; Sheth, Kartik; Smolcic, Vernesa; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Menten, Karl M

    2009-01-01

    Submillimeter galaxies (SMG) represent a dust-obscured high-redshift population undergoing massive star formation activity. Their properties and space density have suggested that they may evolve into spheroidal galaxies residing in galaxy clusters. In this paper, we report the discovery of compact (~10"-20") galaxy overdensities centered at the position of three SMGs detected with the Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer camera (MAMBO) in the COSMOS field. These associations are statistically significant. The photometric redshifts of galaxies in these structures are consistent with their associated SMGs; all of them are between z=1.4-2.5, implying projected physical sizes of ~170 kpc for the overdensities. Our results suggest that about 30% of the radio-identified bright SMGs in that redshift range form in galaxy density peaks in the crucial epoch when most stars formed.

  5. The COSMOS AGN Spectroscopic Survey I: XMM Counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Elvis, Martin; McCarthy, Patrick J; Huchra, John P; Brusa, Marcella; Salvato, Mara; Capak, Peter; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Gabor, Jared; Hao, Heng; Hasinger, Gunther; Jahnke, Knud; Kelly, Brandon C; Lilly, Simon J; Schinnerer, Eva; Scoville, Nick Z; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2008-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy for an X-ray and optical flux-limited sample of 677 XMM-Newton selected targets covering the 2 deg^2 COSMOS field, with a yield of 485 high-confidence redshifts. The majority of the spectra were obtained over three seasons (2005-2007) with the IMACS instrument on the Magellan (Baade) telescope. We also include in the sample previously published Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra and supplemental observations with MMT/Hectospec. We detail the observations and classification analyses. The survey is 90% complete to flux limits of f_{0.5-10 keV}>8 x 10^-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1 and i_AB+3 x 10^42 erg s^-1) to z<1, of both optically obscured and unobscured types. We find statistically significant evidence that the obscured to unobscured AGN ratio at z<1 increases with redshift and decreases with luminosity.

  6. Gravitational Waves: An Entirely New Window onto the Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    On September 14, 2015, scientists from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration using the LIGO detectors observed the collision and fusion of two black holes by directly measuring the gravitational waves emitted during their collision.  This detection came almost exactly 100 years after Einstein developed his revolutionary general theory of relativity that predicted their existence, and 50 years after scientists began searching for them in earnest.  Since then, two more gravitational-wave events have been confidently detected. These discoveries have truly profound implications for physics and astronomy.   Gravitational waves provide unique information on the most energetic astrophysical events, revealing unique insights into the nature of gravity, matter, space, and time. LIGO has opened a new window onto the cosmos.  I will talk about how we made the detection and discuss how gravitational wave astronomy promises to change our understanding o...

  7. Investigations on-board the biosatellite Cosmos-83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Ilyin, Eu. A.

    The program of the 5day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 (December 1983) envisaged experimental investigations the purpose of which was to ascertain the effect of short-term microgravity on the physiology, growth and development of various animal and plant species. The study of Rhesus-monkeys has shown that they are an adequate model for exploring the mechanisms of physiological adaptation to weightlessness of the vestibular apparatus and the cardiovascular system. The rat experiment has demonstrated that mammalian embryos, at least during the last term of pregnancy, can develop in microgravity. This finding has been confirmed by fish studies. The experiment on germinating seeds and adult plants has given evidence that microgravity produces no effect on the metabolism of seedlings and on the flowering stage.

  8. SolidWorks在穗成功举办COSMOS Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    居全球领先地位的3D CAD供应商SolidWorks公司日前在广州成功举办了“COSMOS Day”,在此次活动中,SolidWorks与HP等业内领先企业以及合作伙伴一起,就计算机辅助工程(CAE)和COSMOS的发展趋势、分析技巧和应用安全与与会者进行了深入探讨。此次为期一天的活动受到业内的广泛关注,共有超过200位设计人员参加了此次展会。

  9. Basic concepts in physics from the cosmos to quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca

    2014-01-01

    "Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book’s fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear....

  10. The contribution of SUBARU-HSC faint galaxies to the Spitzer-CIB fluctuations in COSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Joyce; Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Cooper, Rachel Ann

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the possible contribution of the diffuse background of optical galaxies to the source subtracted cosmic infrared background fluctuations of the COSMOS field. Using data from the COSMOS catalogue and from HSC observations, we artificially created optical galaxies images of the COSMOS. The power spectrum at four different AB magnitude intervals, [mlim, mlim-2, mlim-4, mlim-6], and four redshift intervals, [0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4], for these images were then calculated and compared to the power spectrum of an infrared image of the same field. We found that the coherence of these two images was close to zero and determined that the optical galaxies must only contribute a negligible contribution to the infrared background in the COSMOS field.

  11. The Scale-invariant Power Spectrum of Primordial Curvature Perturbation in CSTB Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Changhong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in a bounce cosmos modeled by a scalar field coupled to the string tachyon field (CSTB cosmos). By explicit computation of its primordial spectral index we show the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, generated during the tachyon matter dominated contraction phase, to be nearly scale invariant. We propose a unified space of parameters for a systematic study of inflationary/bouncing cosmologies. We find that CSTB cosmos is dual--in Wands's sense--to the slow-roll inflation model as can be easily seen from this unified parameter space. Guaranteed by the dynamical attractor behavior of CSTB Cosmos, this scale invariance is free of the fine-tuning problem, in contrast to the slow-roll inflation model.

  12. The SuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, J. A.; Hambly, N. C.; Bilicki, M.; MacGillivray, H. T.; Miller, L.; Read, M. A.; Tritton, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the construction of an all-sky galaxy catalogue, using SuperCOSMOS scans of Schmidt photographic plates from the UK Schmidt Telescope and Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. The photographic photometry is calibrated using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with results that are linear to 2 per cent or better. All-sky photometric uniformity is achieved by matching plate overlaps and also by requiring homogeneity in optical-to-2MASS colours, yielding zero-points that are uniform to 0.03 mag or better. The typical AB depths achieved are BJ < 21, RF < 19.5 and IN < 18.5, with little difference between hemispheres. In practice, the IN plates are shallower than the BJ and RF plates, so for most purposes we advocate the use of a catalogue selected in these two latter bands. At high Galactic latitudes, this catalogue is approximately 90 per cent complete with 5 per cent stellar contamination; we quantify how the quality degrades towards the Galactic plane. At low latitudes, there are many spurious galaxy candidates resulting from stellar blends: these approximately match the surface density of true galaxies at |b| = 30°. Above this latitude, the catalogue limited in BJ and RF contains in total about 20 million galaxy candidates, of which 75 per cent are real. This contamination can be removed, and the sky coverage extended, by matching with additional data sets. This SuperCOSMOS catalogue has been matched with 2MASS and with WISE, yielding quasi-all-sky samples of respectively 1.5 million and 18.5 million galaxies, to median redshifts of 0.08 and 0.20. This legacy data set thus continues to offer a valuable resource for large-angle cosmological investigations.

  13. Second Development of FEM Based on COSMOS/M%基于COSMOS/M有限元的二次开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎

    2005-01-01

    COSMOS/M有限元程序为基础,运用有限元程序语言进行二次开发,建立了内燃机活塞的有限元计算模型,同时运用Delphi语言编制了数据输入输出接口,并在4105,490型柴油机活塞的温度场,及其影响因素的定量分析中进行了应用,为活塞的优化设计提供了高效、便捷的计算工具.

  14. [Dynamics of lipid concentration changes in the livers of rats on biosatellites "Cosmos-605" and "Cosmos-782"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, V I

    1977-10-01

    Histological and histochemical investigation was carried out with rat liver specimens taken 9-11 h (from 6 rats), 24 (from 7 rats), 48 h (from 8 rats), and 25 (from 5 rats) and 27 days (from 7 rats) after the completion of 19.5- and 22.5-day of space bioflights in "Cosmos-605" and "Cosmos-782". The same number of specimens was investigated from corresponding models of the experiments carried out in the laboratory and from the control rats. The investigations demonstrated that in the rats sacrificed during the first two days, and in 25 and 27 days after the completion of the flight, no morphological changes developed in comparison with the control and with the animals from the laboratory experiments. Only some fluctuations in lipid content could be noticed in connection with the time of samples taking after the completion of the experiments. The greatest amount of lipids in the liver was observed in the rats sacrified 9-11 h after the completion of the flight, in 24 h the lipid level was still rather high, and in 48 h there was a tendency to their decrease. In 25 and 27 days the livers of the animals from the experimental group did not differ in their lipid content from those of the control animals. The changes in the lipid content observed in the liver during 8-48 h after the flight completion and during the period of afteraction indicate the reversibility of the adipose infiltration process, connected with lipid mobilization, dependent on stress-reaction.

  15. Data Transmission between COSMOS/M FEM and Database%COSMOS/M有限元与数据库的数据传输

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎

    2005-01-01

    利用Delphi编程语言实现COSMOS/M有限元程序与Paradox数据库之间数据传输,以开发活塞稳态温度场参数化有限元软件为例,说明了实现数据传输的相关方法和步骤.

  16. The angular correlations of galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    McCracken, H J; Guzzo, L; Capak, P; Porciani, C; Scoville, N; Aussel, H; Finoguenov, A; James, J B; Kitzbichler, M G; Koekemoer, A; Leauthaud, A; Le Fèvre, O; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Mobasher, B; Norberg, P; Rhodes, J; Sanders, D B; Sasaki, S S; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D J; White, S D M; El-Zant, A

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the two-point galaxy angular correlation function w(\\theta) in the COSMOS field. Independent determinations of w(\\theta) as a function of magnitude limit are presented for both the HST ACS catalog and also for the ground-based data from Subaru and the CFHT. Despite having significantly different masks, these three determinations agree well. At bright magnitudes (IAB 10 arcmin, which we attribute to a particularly rich structure known to exist at z~0.8. For fainter samples, however, the level of clustering is somewhat higher than reported by some previous studies: in all three catalogues we find w(\\theta=1')~0.014 at a median IAB magnitude of 24. At these very faintest magnitudes, our measurements agree well with the latest determinations from the Canada-France Legacy Survey. This level of clustering is approximately double what is predicted by the semi-analytic catalogs (at all angles). The semi-analytic results allow an estimate of cosmic variance, which is too small to account for...

  17. Photometric redshift and classification for the XMM-COSMOS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Salvato, M; Ilbert, O; Zamorani, G; Brusa, M; Scoville, N; Rau, A; Capak, P; Arnouts, S; Aussel, H; Bolzonella, M; Buongiorno, A; Cappelluti, N; Caputi, K; Civano, F; Cook, R; Elvis, M; Gilli, R; Jahnke, K; Kartaltepe, J S; Impey, C D; Lamareille, F; Le Floc'h, E; Lilly, S; Mainieri, V; McCarthy, P; McCracken, H; Mignoli, M; Mobasher, B; Murayama, T; Sasaki, S; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Shioya, Y; Shopbell, P; Silvermann, J; Smolcic, V; Surace, J; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D; Trump, J R; Urry, M; Zamojski, M

    2008-01-01

    We present photometric redshifts and spectral energy distribution (SED) classifications for a sample of 1542 optically identified sources detected with XMM in the COSMOS field. Our template fitting classifies 46 sources as stars and 464 as non-active galaxies, while the remaining 1032 require templates with an AGN contribution. High accuracy in the derived photometric redshifts was accomplished as the result of 1) photometry in up to 30 bands with high significance detections, 2) a new set of SED templates including 18 hybrids covering the far-UV to mid-infrared, which have been constructed by the combination of AGN and non-active galaxies templates, and 3) multi-epoch observations that have been used to correct for variability (most important for type 1 AGN). The reliability of the photometric redshifts is evaluated using the sub-sample of 442 sources with measured spectroscopic redshifts. We achieved an accuracy of $\\sigma_{\\Delta z/(1+z_{spec})} = 0.014$ for i$_{AB}^*<$22.5 ($\\sigma_{\\Delta z/(1+z_{spec...

  18. Georges et les trésors du cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Les voisins excentriques de Georges, Annie et Eric, ont déménagé en Floride à l'agence Spatiale Globale. Là-bas, Eric s'occupe de son nouveau robot, Homer, qui doit détécter les signes de vie sur Mars. Mais bientôt, Georges reçoit un e-mail : Annie lui demande de la rejoindre au plus vite pour une " mission cosmique " secrète. La jeune fille est persuadée qu'il se passe de drôles de choses sur Mars, car Homer vient de recevoir un message extraterrestre ! Georges et Anne (avec l'aide d'Emmett, un petit garçon bizarre) décident de réparer Cosmos, leur super-ordinateur, et d'aller voir par eux-mêmes... Emmaillotés dans des combinaisons spéciales, ils se lancent alors dans une fabuleuse chasse aux trésors sur Mars, sur les lunes de Saturne, puis sur Titan, avant de se perdre en orbite autour d'Alpha Centauri B... Mais avant de pouvoir élucider le mystère du message extraterrestre, Georges et Annie devront se livrer à une bataille spatiale acharnée qui mettra leur vie en danger, ainsi que ce...

  19. First catalog of strong lens candidates in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Faure, Cecile; Covone, Giovanni; Tasca, Lidia; Leauthaud, Alexie; Capak, Peter; Jahnke, Knud; Smolcic, Vernesa; de la Torre, Sylvain; Ellis, Richard; Finoguenov, Alexis; Heymans, Catherine; Koekemoer, Anton; Le Fevre, Olivier; Massey, Richard; Mellier, Yannick; Refregier, Alexandre; Rhodes, Jason; Scoville, Nick; Schinnerer, Eva; Taylor, James; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Walcher, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    We present the first catalog of 67 strong galaxy-galaxy lens candidates discovered in the 1.64 square degree Hubble Space Telescope COSMOS survey. Twenty of these systems display multiple images or strongly curved large arcs. Our initial search is performed by visual inspection of the data and is restricted, for practical considerations, to massive early-type lens galaxies with arcs found at radii smaller than ~5''. Simple mass models are constructed for the best lens candidates and our results are compared to the strong lensing catalogs of the SLACS survey and the CASTLES database. These new strong galaxy-galaxy lensing systems constitute a valuable sample to study the mass distribution of early-type galaxies and their associated dark matter halos. We further expect this sample to play an important role in the testing of software algorithms designed to automatically search for strong gravitational lenses. From our analysis a robust lower limit is derived for the expected occurrence of strong galaxy-galaxy sy...

  20. Classification of Extremely Red Objects in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Xu; Arimoto, Nobuo; Wang, Min

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the classification of z ~1 extremely red objects (EROs), using a combination of HST/ACS, Spitzer/IRAC, and ground-based images of the COSMOS field. Our sample includes about 5300 EROs with i-Ks>2.45 (AB, equivalently I-Ks=4 in Vega) and Ks<=21.1 (AB). For EROs in our sample, we compute, using the ACS F814W images, their concentration, asymmetry, as well as their Gini coefficient and the second moment of the brightest 20% of their light. Using those morphology parameters and the Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]-[8.0] color, the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting method, we classify EROs into two classes: old galaxies (OGs) and young, dusty starburst galaxies (DGs). We found that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample is similar, about 48 percentages of EROs in our sample are OGs, and 52 percentages of them are DGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we performed a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that morphology para...

  1. Stephen Hawking’s universe the cosmos explained

    CERN Document Server

    Filkin, David

    1997-01-01

    Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time has sold over 9 million copies worldwide. Now, in everyday language, Stephen Hawking’s Universe reveals step-by-step how we can all share his understanding of the cosmos, and our own place within it. Stargazing has never been the same since cosmologists discovered that galaxies are moving away from each other at an extraordinary speed. It was this understanding of the movement of galaxies that allowed scientists to develop a theory of how the universe was created—the Big Bang theory. Working with this theory, Stephen Hawking and other physicists felt challenged to come up with a scientific picture that would tackle the fundamental question: what is the nature of the universe? Stephen Hawking’s Universe charts this work and provides simple explanations for phenomena that arouse our curiosity. This work is a voyage of discovery with an astonishing set of conclusions that will enable us to understand how matter can be produced from nothing at all and will provide...

  2. Galaxy Pairs in COSMOS -- Merger Rate Evolution Since z=1

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, C Kevin; Scoville, N; Capak, P; Drory, N; Gao, Y

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a statistical study of the cosmic evolution of mass dependent major-merger rate since z=1. A stellar mass limited sample of major-merger pairs (CPAIR sample) was selected from the archive of the COSMOS survey, based on photo-z and visual inspections of the HST-ACS images. Pair fractions at different redshifts derived using the CPAIR sample and a local K-band selected pair sample show no significant variations with stellar mass. The pair fraction exhibits moderately strong cosmic evolution, with the best-fitting evolutionary index m=2.2+-0.2. The best-fitting function for the merger rate implies that galaxies with stellar mass between 1E+10 -- 3E+11 M_sun have undergone 0.4 -- 1.2 major-mergers since z=1. Our results show that, for massive galaxies at z<1, major mergers involving star forming galaxies (i.e. wet and mixed mergers) can account for the formation of both ellipticals and red quiescent galaxies (RQGs). On the other hand, major mergers cannot be responsible for the formation ...

  3. No-bang quantum state of the cosmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Don N [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, 11322-89 Avenue Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada)], E-mail: don@phys.ualberta.ca

    2008-08-07

    A quantum state of the entire cosmos (universe or multiverse) is proposed which is the equal mixture of the Giddings-Marolf states that are asymptotically single de Sitter spacetimes in both past and future and are regular on the throat or neck of minimal 3-volume. That is, states are excluded that have a big bang or big crunch or which split into multiple asymptotic de Sitter spacetimes. (For simplicity, transitions between different values of the cosmological constant are assumed not to occur, though different positive values are allowed.) The entropy of this mixed state appears to be of the order of the three-fourth power of the Bekenstein-Hawking A/4 entropy of de Sitter spacetime. Most of the component pure states do not have rapid inflation, but when an inflaton is present and the states are weighted by the volume at the end of inflation, a much smaller number of states may dominate and give a large amount of inflation and hence may agree with observations.

  4. The SuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Peacock, J A; Bilicki, M; MacGillivray, H T; Miller, L; Read, M A; Tritton, S B

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction of an all-sky galaxy catalogue, using SuperCOSMOS scans of Schmidt photographic plates from the UKST and POSS2 surveys. The photographic photometry is calibrated using SDSS data, with results that are linear to 2% or better. All-sky photometric uniformity is achieved by matching plate overlaps and also by requiring homogeneity in optical-to-2MASS colours, yielding zero points that are uniform to 0.03 mag. or better. The typical AB depths achieved are B_J<21, R_F<19.5 and I_N<18.5, with little difference between hemispheres. In practice, the I_N plates are shallower than the B_J & R_F plates, so for most purposes we advocate the use of a catalogue selected in these two latter bands. At high Galactic latitudes, this catalogue is approximately 90% complete with 5% stellar contamination; we quantify how the quality degrades towards the Galactic plane. At low latitudes, there are many spurious galaxy candidates resulting from stellar blends: these approximately match the s...

  5. Stellar X-ray sources in the Chandra COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Civano, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray properties of a sample of solar- and late-type field stars identified in the Chandra Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), a deep (160ks) and wide (0.9 deg2) extragalactic survey. The sample of 60 sources was identified using both morphological and photometric star/galaxy separation methods. We determine X-ray count rates, extract spectra and light curves and perform spectral fits to determine fluxes and plasma temperatures. Complementary optical and near-IR photometry is also presented and combined with spectroscopy for 48 of the sources to determine spectral types and distances for the sample. We find distances ranging from 30pc to ~12kpc, including a number of the most distant and highly active stellar X-ray sources ever detected. This stellar sample extends the known coverage of the L_X-distance plane to greater distances and higher luminosities, but we do not detect as many intrinsically faint X-ray sources compared to previous surveys. Overall the sample is typically more...

  6. Fe K emission from active galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasawa, K; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Vignali, C; Hasinger, G; Sanders, D B; Cappelluti, N; Impey, C D; Koekemoer, A; Lanzuisi, G; Lusso, E; Merloni, A; Salvato, M; Taniguchi, Y; Trump, J R

    2011-01-01

    We present a rest-frame spectral stacking analysis of ~1000 X-ray sources detected in the XMM-COSMOS field in order to investigate the iron K line properties of active galaxies beyond redshift z~1. In Type I AGN that have a typical X-ray luminosity of Lx~1.5e44 erg/s and z~1.6, the cold Fe K at 6.4 keV is weak (EW~0.05keV), in agreement with the known trend. In contrast, high-ionization lines of Fe XXV and Fe XXVI are pronounced. These high-ionization Fe K lines appear to have a connection with high accretion rates. While no broad Fe emission is detected in the total spectrum, it might be present, albeit at low significance, when the X-ray luminosity is restricted to the range below 3e44 erg/s, or when an intermediate range of Eddington ratio around 0.1 is selected. In Type II AGN, both cold and high-ionzation lines become weak with increasing X-ray luminosity. However, strong high-ionization Fe K (EW~0.3 keV) is detected in the spectrum of objects at z>2, while no 6.4 keV line is found. It is then found that...

  7. Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Technology Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, B. Thai; Clampin, M.; Werneth, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Office was established in FY11 and resides at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The office serves as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters for PCOS Program related matters. We present an overview of the Program’s technology management activities and the Program’s technology development portfolio. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology needs and the Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations. This process improves the transparency and relevance of technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and leverages the technology investments of external organizations by defining a need and a customer. Goals for the PCOS Program envisioned by the National Research Council’s (NRC) “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” (NWNH) Decadal Survey report include science missions and technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray, and inflation probe science.

  8. Compton Thick AGN in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzuisi, G; Georgantopoulos, I; Georgakakis, A; Delvecchio, I; Akylas, T; Berta, S; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Cappelluti, N; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Gruppioni, C; Hasinger, G; Iwasawa, K; Koekemoer, A; Lusso, E; Marchesi, S; Mainieri, V; Merloni, A; Mignoli, M; Piconcelli, E; Pozzi, F; Rosario, D J; Salvato, M; Silverman, J; Trakhtenbrot, B; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G

    2014-01-01

    Heavily obscured, Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^24 cm-2) AGN may represent an important phase in AGN/galaxy co-evolution and are expected to provide a significant contribution to the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) at its peak. Through direct X-ray spectra analysis, we selected 39 heavily obscured AGN (NH>3x10^23 cm-2) in the 2 deg^2 XMM-COSMOS survey. Thanks to deeper Chandra data available in the field, we can define 10 of these sources as bona-fide CT, spanning a large range of redshift and luminosity, and estimate the efficiency of our selection to be of the order of 80%. We collected the multi-wavelength information available for these sources, to study the distribution of BH mass (MBH), Eddington ratio (lambda_Edd), stellar mass (M*), specific star formation rate (sSFR) in comparison with a sample of unobscured AGN. We find that highly obscured sources tend to have significantly smaller MBH and higher lambda_Edd with respect to unobscured sources. The sSFR of highly obscured sources is consistent with the one ...

  9. Merging Galaxies with Tidal Tails in COSMOS to z=1

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Z Z

    2016-01-01

    Tidal tails are created in major mergers involving disk galaxies. How the tidal tails trace the assembly history of massive galaxies remains to be explored. We identify a sample of 461 merging galaxies with long tidal tails from 35076 galaxies mass-complete at $M_\\star\\ge 10^{9.5}\\,M_{\\odot}$ and $0.2\\leq z\\leq1$ based on HST/ACS F814W imaging data and public catalogs of the COSMOS field. The long tails refer to these with length equal to or longer than the diameter of their host galaxies. The mergers with tidal tails are selected using our novel $A_{\\rm O}-D_{\\rm O}$ technique for strong asymmetric features together with visual examination. Our results show that the fraction of tidal-tailed mergers evolves mildly with redshift, as $\\sim (1+z)^{2.0\\pm0.4}$, and becomes relatively higher in less massive galaxies out to $z=1$. With a timescale of 0.5 Gyr for the tidal-tailed mergers, we obtain that the occurrence rate of such mergers follows $0.01\\pm 0.007\\,(1+z)^{2.3\\pm 1.4}$ Gyr$^{-1}$ and corresponds to $\\si...

  10. Cosmos 2229 immunology study (Experiment K-8-07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to further validate use of the rhesus monkey as a model for humans in future space flight testing. The areas of immunological importance examined in the Cosmos 2229 flight were represented by two sets of studies. The first set of studies determined the effect of space flight on the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF is an important regulator in the differentiation of bone marrow cells of both monocyte/macrophage and granulocyte lineages and any change in the ability of these cells to respond to GM-CSF can result in altered immune function. A second set of studies determined space flight effects on the expression of cell surface markers on both spleen and bone marrow cells. Immune cell markers included in this study were those for T-cell, B-cell, natural killer cell, and interleukin-2 populations. Variations from a normal cell population percentage, as represented by these markers, can be correlated with alterations in immunological function. Cells were stained with fluorescein-labelled antibodies directed against the appropriate antigens, and then analyzed using a flow cytometer.

  11. The 10k zCOSMOS : Morphological transformation of galaxies in the Group Environment since z ~1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovač, K.; Lilly, S. J.; Knobel, C.; Bolzonella, M.; Iovino, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Scarlata, C.; Sargent, M.; Cucciati, O.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Scodeggio, M.; Kampczyk, P.; Peng, Y.; Oesch, P.; Zucca, E.; Finoguenov, A.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Perez Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Fumana, M.; Guzzo, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z = 1 using a large well-defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with MB luminosi

  12. The zCOSMOS survey : The dependence of clustering on luminosity and stellar mass at z=0.2-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meneux, B.; Guzzo, L.; de la Torre, S.; Porciani, C.; Zamorani, G.; Abbas, U.; Bolzonella, M.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Zucca, E.; Lilly, S. J.; Le Fevre, O.; Kneib, J. -P.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Cassata, P.; Fumana, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Oesch, P.; Scaramella, R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. We study the dependence of galaxy clustering on luminosity and stellar mass at redshifts z similar to [0.2-1], using the first 10K redshifts from the zCOSMOS spectroscopic survey of the COSMOS field. Methods. We measured the redshift-space correlation functions xi(r(p), pi) and xi(s) and the p

  13. The zCOSMOS redshift survey : The three-dimensional classification cube and bimodality in galaxy physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignoli, M.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Cimatti, A.; Halliday, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Pozzetti, L.; Vergani, D.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Kneib, J. -P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Ricciardelli, E.; Scarlata, C.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Zucca, E.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Fumana, M.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Scoville, N.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the relationships between three main optical galaxy observables (spectral properties, colors, and morphology), exploiting the data set provided by the COSMOS/zCOSMOS survey. The purpose of this paper is to define a simple galaxy classification cube, with a carefully selected sam

  14. Spectral Energy Distributions of Type 1 AGN in the COSMOS Survey I - The XMM-COSMOS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, M; Civano, F; Brusa, M; Salvato, M; Bongiorno, A; Capak, P; Zamorani, G; Comastri, A; Jahnke, K; Lusso, E; Mainieri, V; Trump, J R; Ho, L; Aussel, H; Cappelluti, N; Cisternas, M; Frayer, D; Gilli, R; Hasinger, G; Huchra, J P; Impey, C D; Koekemoer, A M; Lanzuisi, G; Floc'h, E Le; Lilly, S J; Liu, Y; McCarthy, P; McCracken, H J; Merloni, A; Roeser, H J; Sanders, D B; Sargent, M; Scoville, N; Schinnerer, E; Schiminovich, D; Silverman, J; Taniguchi, Y; Vignali, C; Urry, C M; Zamojski, M A; Zatloukal, M

    2012-01-01

    The "Cosmic Evolution Survey" (COSMOS) enables the study of the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) because of the deep coverage and rich sampling of frequencies from X-ray to radio. Here we present a SED catalog of 413 X-ray (\\xmm) selected type 1 (emission line FWHM$>2000$ km s$^{-1}$) AGN with Magellan, SDSS or VLT spectrum. The SEDs are corrected for the Galactic extinction, for broad emission line contributions, constrained variability, and for host galaxy contribution. We present the mean SED and the dispersion SEDs after the above corrections in the rest frame 1.4 GHz to 40 keV, and show examples of the variety of SEDs encountered. In the near-infrared to optical (rest frame $\\sim 8\\mu m$-- 4000\\AA), the photometry is complete for the whole sample and the mean SED is derived from detections only. Reddening and host galaxy contamination could account for a large fraction of the observed SED variety. The SEDs are all available on-line.

  15. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE COSMOS SURVEY. I. THE XMM-COSMOS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Civano, F. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Capak, P. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Jahnke, K.; Lusso, E.; Cisternas, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Trump, J. R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute for Science, Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Aussel, H. [AIM Unite Mixte de Recherche CEA CNRS, Universite Paris VII UMR n158, Paris (France); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Hasinger, G., E-mail: elvis@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: hhao@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The 'Cosmic Evolution Survey' (COSMOS) enables the study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) because of the deep coverage and rich sampling of frequencies from X-ray to radio. Here we present an SED catalog of 413 X-ray (XMM-Newton)-selected type 1 (emission line FWHM > 2000 km s{sup -1}) AGNs with Magellan, SDSS, or VLT spectrum. The SEDs are corrected for Galactic extinction, broad emission line contributions, constrained variability, and host galaxy contribution. We present the mean SED and the dispersion SEDs after the above corrections in the rest-frame 1.4 GHz to 40 keV, and show examples of the variety of SEDs encountered. In the near-infrared to optical (rest frame {approx}8 {mu}m-4000 A), the photometry is complete for the whole sample and the mean SED is derived from detections only. Reddening and host galaxy contamination could account for a large fraction of the observed SED variety. The SEDs are all available online.

  16. The digestive tract of rat after flight in the biosatellite Cosmos 1667.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, P; Bordeianu, A; Boca, A

    1987-01-01

    From the histochemical investigation carried out on the digestive tract of rats after 7 days space flight in the soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667 it resulted that neutral and acid glycoproteins diminished slightly in the sublingual gland, stomach, small intestine and the colon. Some intestinal enzymes augmented (leucineaminopeptidase, acid phosphatase, adenosinetriphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase). The changes observed after this flight were less marked than after an 18 day flight (in the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 and 1129) and similar to those revealed after 7 days of hypokinesia. The glycoprotein changes were close to those observed after a 5-day flight (Cosmos 1514) but in which there were pregnant rats; after these last flights, the enzymes were not studied.

  17. Differences in glycogen, lipids, and enzymes in livers from rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, A H; Wang, E; LaRocque, R; Mullins, R E; Morgan, E T; Hargrove, J L; Bonkovsky, H L; Popova, I A

    1992-08-01

    Livers from rats flown aboard COSMOS 2044 were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate (glycogen), and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in microsomal protein, liver glycogen content, tyrosine aminotransferase, and tryptophan oxygenase and reductions in sphingolipids and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis, delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. These results provide further evidence that spaceflight has pronounced and diverse effects on liver function; however, some of the results with samples from COSMOS 2044 differed notably from those from previous spaceflights. This may be due to conditions of spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period for COSMOS 2044.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The COSMOS-Legacy Survey (CLS) catalog (Civano+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; Lamassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-05-01

    The half-a-field shift tiling strategy was designed to uniformly cover the COSMOS Hubble area in depth and point-spread function (PSF) size by combining the old C-COSMOS (Elvis+, 2009, J/ApJS/184/158) observations with the new Chandra ones (see Figure 1). We summarize the main properties of the new ACIS-I Chandra COSMOS-Legacy observations in Table 1. The observations took place in four blocks: 2012 November to 2013 January; 2013 March to July; 2013 October to 2014 January; and 2014 March. The mean net effective exposure time per field was 48.8ks after all the cleaning and reduction operations. (2 data files).

  19. The CfAO's Astronomy Course in COSMOS: Curriculum Design, Rationale, and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Cooksey, Kathy L; Porter, Jason; Raschke, Lynne; Severson, Scott; Hinkley, Sasha

    2010-01-01

    From 2001 to 2007, COSMOS provided a teaching and outreach venue for the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program (CfAO PDP). COSMOS is a four-week residential mathematics and science summer program for high-school students organized by the University of California on four of its campuses. Two topical science courses comprised each COSMOS cluster. An astronomy course has always formed a basis for the CfAO PDP-affiliated cluster. The course included a variety of pedagogical techniques to address a diversity of learners and goals. We outline the astronomy course---lectures, activities, etc.---and provide the rationale for what was taught, how it was aught, and when it was taught.

  20. Differences in glycogen, lipids, and enzymes in livers from rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Laroque, Regina; Mullins, Richard E.; Morgan, Edward T.; Hargrove, James L.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate (glycogen), and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in microsomal protein, liver glycogen content, tyrosine aminotransferase, and tryptophan oxygenase and reductions in sphingolipids and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. These results provide further evidence that spaceflight has pronounced and diverse effects on liver function; however, some of the results with samples from Cosmos 2044 differed notably from those from previous spaceflights. This may be due to conditions of spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period for Cosmos 2044.

  1. Measuring Total Surface Moisture with the COSMOS Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, B. B.; Zreda, M.; Franz, T. E.; Rosolem, R.

    2012-12-01

    The COSMOS rover is the mobile application of the cosmic-ray soil moisture probe. By quantifying the relative amount of the hydrogen molecules within the instrument's support volume (~335 m radius in air, 10-70 cm depth in soil) the instrument makes an area-average surface moisture measurement. We call this measurement "total surface moisture". Quantifying hydrogen in all major stocks (soils, infrastructure, vegetation, and water vapor) allows for an isolation of the volumetric fraction of the exchangeable surface moisture. By isolating the hydrogen molecule we can measure the exchangeable surface moisture over all land cover types including those with built-up infrastructure and dense vegetation; two environments which have been challenging to existing technologies. . The cosmic-ray rover has the capability to improve hydrologic, climate, and weather models by parameterizing the exchangeable surface moisture status over complex landscapes. It can also fill a gap in the verification and development processes of surface moisture satellite missions, such as SMOS and SMAP. In our current research program, 2D transects are produced twice a week and 3D maps are produced once a week during the 2012 monsoon season (July-September) within the Tucson Basin. The 40 km x 40 km area includes four land cover classes; developed, scrub (natural Sonoran Desert), crops, and evergreen forest. The different land cover types show significant differences in their surface moisture behavior with irrigation acting as the largest controlling factor in the developed and crop areas. In addition we investigated the use of the cosmic-ray rover data to verify/compare with satellite derived soil moisture. A Maximum Entropy model is being used to create soil moisture profiles from shallow surface measurements (SMOS data). With the cosmic-ray penetration depth and weighting function known, the satellite measurement can be interpolated, weighted and compared with the cosmic-ray measurement when the

  2. Dissemination of metabolomics results: role of MetaboLights and COSMOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, Reza M; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-05-17

    With ever-increasing amounts of metabolomics data produced each year, there is an even greater need to disseminate data and knowledge produced in a standard and reproducible way. To assist with this a general purpose, open source metabolomics repository, MetaboLights, was launched in 2012. To promote a community standard, initially culminated as metabolomics standards initiative (MSI), COordination of Standards in MetabOlomicS (COSMOS) was introduced. COSMOS aims to link life science e-infrastructures within the worldwide metabolomics community as well as develop and maintain open source exchange formats for raw and processed data, ensuring better flow of metabolomics information.

  3. 基于COSMOS/Works链锯链轮的有限元分析%Finite element analysis on sprocket wheel of chainsaw by COSMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关健; 黄河山; 李黎

    2012-01-01

      This paper is based on sprocket wheel of sawing mechanism of harvester head, the virtual design of sprocket wheel is completed by using Solidworks software. On that basis, have a static analysis of the model through COSMOS/Works. According to the analysis result, the design flows can be discovered immediately, and then optimizing the related structures, thereby leading to enhanced design efficiency.%  以伐木链锯链轮为例,运用Solidworks对链轮进行虚拟设计,以COSMOS/Works有限元分析软件为平台对模型结构进行强度和刚度分析,从中及时发现设计缺陷并进行结构优化,提高了设计效率。

  4. 基于COSMOS/FloWorks的割炬电极冷却水道优化%Optimization of the Electrode Cooling Canal Based on COSMOS/FloWorks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小平; 曹云露

    2006-01-01

    COSMOS/FloWorks是完全整合至SolidWorks且易学易用的流体分析软件.使用COSMOS/FloWorks对一种等离子割炬的电极冷却水道进行仿真分析,从而发现此冷却水道存在的问题,前内壁面冷却水流速偏低,直角拐弯处出现最小流速.通过减小经过前内壁面处的冷却水的流通截面面积,在直角拐弯处开圆角来解决以上两个问题.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of Testing Machine by Chuck Based on COSMOS/Works%基于COSMOS/Works的试验机用夹头有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋岩

    2012-01-01

    针对试验机用夹头的问题,对结构进行了设计分析,运用Solidworks建立了三维模型,利用COSMOS/Works对结构进行了有限元分析,揭示了应力分布规律及位移变化情况,对改进设计具有指导性意义.

  6. Basic concepts in physics. From the cosmos to quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Perez Rojas, H. [ICIMAF, La Habana (Cuba). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    2014-08-01

    A clear, concise and beautifully written presentation of modern physics. Readers will not only learn physics, they will learn to enjoy it. Self-contained and comprehensive History, concepts and formal treatment go hand-in-hand. Suppresses mathematical technicalities in favor of a wide scope of topics. Suited for class use, e.g. as a textbook for the course ''Modern Physics'', but also ideal for ''lone explorers'' and other newcomers to physics. ''Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks'' is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book's fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn

  7. Cicero's Cosmos: Somnium Scipionis ("The Dream of Scipio")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N.

    2011-06-01

    The Dream of Scipio (b. 185 BCE) is the concluding excerpt of Cicero's dialogue in his De Republica ("On the Republic"), which has survived in the neo-Platonic commentaries on the text by Macrobius in the 4th century CE. A variation of its model Plato's Republic, the dialogue is set in 129 BCE. Parallels exist between Plato's closing with the myth of Er, recounting the structure of the cosmos and ordering of the planets and Cicero's cosmology updated by post-Hellenistic astronomical speculation. The Dream begins with his adoptive grandfather Cornelius Scipio Africanus appearing to his son Scipio in heaven as he looks down on Earth, a distant sphere amidst spheres of the universe. The deceased father presents the conditions of his legacy-to do upon Earth as his ancestors have done: "love justice and wisdom", and be devoted to your country, the highest form of virtue. Gazing on the stars-the Milky Way, home of the departed souls, Scipio realizes the relative insignificance of the Earth compared to the stars (analogy with the Roman Empire, a "pinpoint […] of this small Earth"). Africanus orders Scipio to look at the universe, the nine concentric spheres at the very center. Thus, fixed in place, the Earth does not move. Scipio then hears sounds-the music of the spheres in motion, its basis in mathematics and harmonic proportions. Comparisons between the works of Plato and Cicero are revealing. Both stress the relationship of city and state, and both share concern with justice and moral behavior. Whereas Plato focuses on the journey of the soul in the afterlife, Cicero's purpose is to show how public service, the importance of civic life, is a divinely sanctioned activity: "And remember that the most splendid deeds you can do are those which serve your country". The two major themes are the immortality of the soul and the relationship between human society and the divine order of the universe. Scipio must "contemplate the heavens in order to act rightly on Earth". The

  8. COSMOS-rice technology abrogates the biotoxic effects of municipal solid waste incinerator residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarienti, Michela; Cardozo, Sdenka Moscoso; Borgese, Laura; Lira, Gloria Rodrigo; Depero, Laura E; Bontempi, Elza; Presta, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Fly ashes generated by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) are classified as hazardous waste and usually landfilled. For the sustainable reuse of these materials is necessary to reduce the resulting impact on human health and environment. The COSMOS-rice technology has been recently proposed for the treatment of fly ashes mixed with rice husk ash, to obtain a low-cost composite material with significant performances. Here, aquatic biotoxicity assays, including daphnidae and zebrafish embryo-based tests, were used to assess the biosafety efficacy of this technology. Exposure to lixiviated MSWI fly ash caused dose-dependent biotoxic effects on daphnidae and zebrafish embryos with alterations of embryonic development, teratogenous defects and apoptotic events. On the contrary, no biotoxic effects were observed in daphnidae and zebrafish embryos exposed to lixiviated COSMOS-rice material. Accordingly, whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of the expression of various tissue-specific genes in zebrafish embryos provided genetic evidence about the ability of COSMOS-rice stabilization process to minimize the biotoxic effects of MSWI fly ash. These results demonstrate at the biological level that the newly developed COSMOS-rice technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to process MSWI fly ash, producing a biologically safe and reusable material.

  9. US monkey and rat experiments flown on the Soviet Satellite Cosmos 1514

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, R. C. (Editor); Gomersall, E. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    On December 14, 1983, the U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos 1514, an unmanned spacecraft carrying biological and radiation physics experiments from nine countries, including five from the United States. This was the fourth flight with U.S. experiments aboard one of the Soviet unmanned spacecraft. The Cosmos 1514 flight was limited to five days duration because it was the first nonhuman primate flight. Cosmos 1514 marked a significant departure from earlier flights both in terms of Soviet goals and the degree of cooperation between the U.S.S.R. and the United States. This flight included more than 60 experiments on fish, crawfish eggs, plants and seeds, 10 Wistar pregnant rats, and 2 young adult rhesus monkeys as human surrogates. United States specialist participated in postflight data transfer and specimen transfer, and conducted rat neonatal behavioral studies. An overview of the mission is presented focusing on preflight, on-orbit, and postflight activites pertinent to the five U.S. experiments aboard Cosmos.

  10. UltraVISTA: a new ultra-deep near-infrared survey in COSMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, H. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J.; Franx, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fèvre, O.; Holt, J.; Caputi, K. I.; Goranova, Y.; Buitrago, F.; Emerson, J. P.; Freudling, W.; Hudelot, P.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Magnard, F.; Mellier, Y.; Møller, P.; Nilsson, K. K.; Sutherland, W.; Tasca, L.; Zabl, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the first data release of the UltraVISTA near-infrared imaging survey of the COSMOS field. We summarise the key goals and design of the survey and provide a detailed description of our data reduction techniques. We provide stacked, sky-subtracted images in YJHKs and narrow-

  11. UltraVISTA : a new ultra-deep near-infrared survey in COSMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, H. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J.; Franx, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fevre, O.; Holt, J.; Caputi, K. I.; Goranova, Y.; Buitrago, F.; Emerson, J. P.; Freudling, W.; Hudelot, P.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Magnard, F.; Mellier, Y.; Moller, P.; Nilsson, K. K.; Sutherland, W.; Tasca, L.; Zabl, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the first data release of the UltraVISTA near-infrared imaging survey of the COSMOS field. We summarise the key goals and design of the survey and provide a detailed description of our data reduction techniques. We provide stacked, sky-subtracted images in YJHK(s) and narro

  12. The Environments of Active Galactic Nuclei within the zCOSMOS Density Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, J. D.; Kovac, K.; Knobel, C.; Lilly, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Lamareille, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Peng, Y.; Hasinger, G.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Jahnke, K.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Brunner, H.; Caputi, K.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Elvis, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Montero, E. Perez; Ricciardelli, E.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Vignali, C.; Zucca, E.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Salvato, M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of environment on active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity up to z ~ 1 is assessed by utilizing a mass-selected sample of galaxies from the 10k catalog of the zCOSMOS spectroscopic redshift survey. We identify 147 AGN by their X-ray emission as detected by XMM-Newton from a parent sample of

  13. The VLA-COSMOS Survey: III. Further Catalog Analysis and the Radio Source Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Bondi, M; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V; Jahnke, K; Carilli, C; Zamorani, G

    2008-01-01

    The VLA-COSMOS Large Project has imaged the 2 sq.deg. COSMOS field with a resolution of 1.5 arcsec and a sensitivity of about 11 microJy (1 sigma) yielding to a catalog of about 3600 radio sources. In this paper we present a further analysis of the VLA-COSMOS Large Project catalog of radio sources aimed to: 1) quantify and correct for the effect of bandwidth smearing in the catalog, 2) determine the incompleteness produced by the noise bias and the resolution bias in the new catalog and 3) derive the radio source counts at 1.4 GHz. The effect of bandwidth smearing on the radio sources in the catalog was quantified comparing the peak and total flux densities in the final mosaic and in each of the individual pointings where the source was closest to the center of the field. We find that the peak flux densities in the original VLA-COSMOS Large Project catalog have to be divided by a factor about 0.8 or 0.9, depending on the distance from the mosaic center. The completeness of the radio catalog has been tested us...

  14. Dissecting Photometric Redshift for Active Galactic Nucleus Using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvato, M.; Ilbert, O.; Hasinger, G.; Rau, A.; Civano, F.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Elvis, M.; Vignali, C.; Aussel, H.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Kneib, J. -P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Ideue, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Impey, C. D.; Le Fevre, O.; Lamareille, F.; Lanzuisi, G.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Lilly, S.; Maier, C.; Manohar, S.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H.; Messias, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Nagao, T.; Pello, R.; Puccetti, S.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Silvermann, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Trump, J. R.; Zucca, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redsh

  15. Dissecting Photometric Redshift for Active Galactic Nucleus Using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvato, M.; Ilbert, O.; Hasinger, G.; Rau, A.; Civano, F.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Elvis, M.; Vignali, C.; Aussel, H.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Kneib, J. -P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Ideue, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Impey, C. D.; Le Fevre, O.; Lamareille, F.; Lanzuisi, G.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Lilly, S.; Maier, C.; Manohar, S.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H.; Messias, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Nagao, T.; Pello, R.; Puccetti, S.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Silvermann, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Trump, J. R.; Zucca, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redsh

  16. Uses of wonder in popular science: Cosmos: A Personal Voyage and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsing, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyses the use of wonder in the TV-series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage (1980). Popular science has been studied extensively (e.g. Broks 2006; Leane 2007; Perrault 2013), and wonder has been studied moderately (e.g. Daston & Park 1998; Fuller 2006; Vasalou 2015). However, there are very few studies of wonder in popular science. This paper explores how and why wonder is used in Cosmos, with the wider aim of understanding uses of wonder in popular science. The studies that discuss wonder in popular science (Fahnestock 1986; Perrault 2013) argue that wonder is used to enthuse the audience about science, but they do not discuss why wonder has this ability, nor whether wonder has other functions. This paper argues that Fuller's (2006) psychological and evolutionary account of wonder can elucidate why wonder has the ability to enthuse; it discerns three senses of 'wonder' (related to objects, emotions and attitudes); and it discusses other functions of wonder (existential, aesthetic and ethical). Due to the centrality of astrobiological questions in Cosmos, this paper also highlights the relation of these questions to the senses and functions of wonder in Cosmos.

  17. Dissecting Photometric Redshift for Active Galactic Nucleus Using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvato, M.; Ilbert, O.; Hasinger, G.; Rau, A.; Civano, F.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Elvis, M.; Vignali, C.; Aussel, H.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Kneib, J. -P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Ideue, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Impey, C. D.; Le Fevre, O.; Lamareille, F.; Lanzuisi, G.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Lilly, S.; Maier, C.; Manohar, S.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H.; Messias, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Nagao, T.; Pello, R.; Puccetti, S.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Silvermann, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Trump, J. R.; Zucca, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric

  18. [Experiments with cultures of mammalian cells aboard the biosatellite "Cosmos-782"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkov, F V; Rudneva, S V; Nadtocheĭ, G A; Polikarpova, S I; Portugalov, V V

    1977-10-01

    A considerable contribution to the investigation on biological importance of weightlessness was made by the experiments with animals in the artificial Earth satelites (AES) of "Cosmos" type. Cell cultures can serve as an ideal model to get a direct cell response to the effect of external factors. For the experiment in the AES "Cosmos-782", two thoroughly examined cell strains (L and 237) were chosen, which differed in a number of parameters (for example, duration of their mitotic cycles). Density of cell seeding and temperature of their cultivation in the laboratory experiment were calculated in such a way that the whole cycle of the culture development should take place under the conditions of weightlessness: the beginning of lag-phase--before launching and the stationary phase--after landing. The weightlessness was not shown to result in any genetical shifts revealed at chromosomal level. When cultivated after the flight, the cells do not change their mitotic cycle parameters, mitotic course and structural organization. The data obtained in the experiments with AES "Cosmos-368" and "Cosmos-782" (increase of mitotic index, some forms of mitotic pathology during the first terms of cultivation after the flight and enlargement of cellular nuclei) demonstrate the changes in the cell population which have formed under the conditions of weightlessness. Similar changes are observed while the cells propagate in the laboratory conditions. Indirect data on an earlier cell culture aging during the flight do not exclued the possibility that under weightlessness the rate of cell propagation could differ from that under gravitation.

  19. HR-Cosmos: Kinematics of Star-Forming Galaxies at z $\\sim$ 0.9

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccia, D; Epinat, B; Ilbert, O; Scoville, N; Amram, P; Lemaux, B C; Zamorani, G

    2016-01-01

    We present the kinematic analysis of a sub-sample of 82 galaxies at $\\mathrm{0.75COSMOS aimed to obtain the first statistical study on the kinematics of star-forming galaxies in the treasury COSMOS field at $\\mathrm{0COSMOS images. We constrained the kinematics of the sub-sample at $0.75COSMOS photometric catalog, which includes the latest data releases of UltraVISTA and \\emph{Spitzer}. In doubling the sample ...

  20. Calibration and validation of the COSMOS rover for surface soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mobile COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) rover may be useful for validating satellite-based estimates of near surface soil moisture, but the accuracy with which the rover can measure 0-5 cm soil moisture has not been previously determined. Our objectives were to calibrate and va...

  1. CoSMOS: Performance of Kurtosis Algorithm for Radio Frequency Interference Detection and Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misra, Sidharth; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Skou, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a previously developed algorithm for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation is experimentally evaluated. Results obtained from CoSMOS, an airborne campaign using a fully polarimetric L-band radiometer are analyzed for this purpose. Data is collected using two...

  2. Structure simulation with calculated NMR parameters - integrating COSMOS into the CCPN framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Olaf; Fogh, Rasmus H; Sternberg, Ulrich; Klenin, Konstantin; Kondov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The Collaborative Computing Project for NMR (CCPN) has build a software framework consisting of the CCPN data model (with APIs) for NMR related data, the CcpNmr Analysis program and additional tools like CcpNmr FormatConverter. The open architecture allows for the integration of external software to extend the abilities of the CCPN framework with additional calculation methods. Recently, we have carried out the first steps for integrating our software Computer Simulation of Molecular Structures (COSMOS) into the CCPN framework. The COSMOS-NMR force field unites quantum chemical routines for the calculation of molecular properties with a molecular mechanics force field yielding the relative molecular energies. COSMOS-NMR allows introducing NMR parameters as constraints into molecular mechanics calculations. The resulting infrastructure will be made available for the NMR community. As a first application we have tested the evaluation of calculated protein structures using COSMOS-derived 13C Cα and Cβ chemical shifts. In this paper we give an overview of the methodology and a roadmap for future developments and applications.

  3. Biosafe inertization of municipal solid waste incinerator residues by COSMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarienti, Michela; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Bontempi, Elza; Moscoso Cardozo, Sdenka; Borgese, Laura; Zizioli, Daniela; Mitola, Stefania; Depero, Laura E; Presta, Marco

    2014-08-30

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues can generate negative environmental impacts when improperly handled. The COlloidal Silica Medium to Obtain Safe inert (COSMOS) technology represents a new method to stabilize MSWI residues and to produce inert safe material. Here we report the results about aquatic biotoxicity of lixiviated MSWI fly ash and the corresponding inertized COSMOS material using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity test. Quantitative assessment of waste biotoxicity included evaluation of mortality rate and of different morphological and teratogenous endpoints in zebrafish embryos exposed to tested materials from 3 to 72h post-fertilization. The results demonstrate that lixiviated MSWI fly ash exerts a dose-dependent lethal effect paralleled by dramatic morphological/teratogenous alterations and apoptotic events in the whole embryo body. Similar effects were observed following MSWI fly ash stabilization in classical concrete matrices, demonstrating that the obtained materials are not biologically safe. On the contrary, no significant mortality and developmental defects were observed in zebrafish embryos exposed to COSMOS inert solution. Our results provide the first experimental in vivo evidence that, in contrast with concrete stabilization procedure, COSMOS technology provides a biologically safe inert.

  4. The scale invariant power spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbations from the coupled scalar tachyon bounce cosmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E., E-mail: chellifegood@gmail.com, E-mail: cheung@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing, 210093 China (China)

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in a bounce cosmos modeled by a scalar field coupled to the string tachyon field (CSTB cosmos). By explicit computation of its primordial spectral index we show the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, generated during the tachyon matter dominated contraction phase, to be nearly scale invariant. We propose a unified parameter space for a systematic study of inflationary and bounce cosmologies. The CSTB cosmos is dual-in Wands's sense-to slow-roll inflation as can be visualized with the aid of this parameter space. Guaranteed by the dynamical attractor behavior of the CSTB Cosmos, the scale invariance of its power spectrum is free of the fine-tuning problem, in contrast to the slow-roll inflation model.

  5. The zCOSMOS redshift survey: the three-dimensional classification cube and bimodality in galaxy physical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Mignoli, M; Scodeggio, M; Cimatti, A; Halliday, C; Lilly, S J; Pozzetti, L; Vergani, D; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Scarlata, C; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Zucca, E; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Capak, P; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N

    2008-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the relationships between three main optical galaxy observables (spectral properties, colours, and morphology), exploiting the data set provided by the COSMOS/zCOSMOS survey. The purpose of this paper is to define a simple galaxy classification cube, using a carefully selected sample of around 1000 galaxies. Methods. Using medium resolution spectra of the first 1k zCOSMOS-bright sample, optical photometry from the Subaru/COSMOS observations, and morphological measurements derived from ACS imaging, we analyze the properties of the galaxy population out to z~1. Applying three straightforward classification schemes (spectral, photometric, and morphological), we identify two main galaxy types, which appear to be linked to the bimodality of galaxy population. The three parametric classifications constitute the axes of a "classification cube". Results. A very good agreement exists between the classification from spectral data (quiescent/star-forming galaxies) and that based on colours (red/blue...

  6. The COSMOS2015 Catalog: Exploring the 1 < z < 6 Universe with Half a Million Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigle, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Hsieh, B. C.; Davidzon, I.; Capak, P.; Hasinger, G.; Silverman, J. D.; Pichon, C.; Coupon, J.; Aussel, H.; Le Borgne, D.; Caputi, K.; Cassata, P.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Civano, F.; Dunlop, J.; Fynbo, J.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leauthaud, A.; Lilly, S.; Lin, L.; Marchesi, S.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Smolcic, V.; Stockmann, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S.; Vaccari, Mattia; Zabl, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present the COSMOS201524 catalog, which contains precise photometric redshifts and stellar masses for more than half a million objects over the 2deg2 COSMOS field. Including new {{YJHK}}{{s}} images from the UltraVISTA-DR2 survey, Y-band images from Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam, and infrared data from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Spitzer legacy program, this near-infrared-selected catalog is highly optimized for the study of galaxy evolution and environments in the early universe. To maximize catalog completeness for bluer objects and at higher redshifts, objects have been detected on a χ 2 sum of the {{YJHK}}{{s}} and z ++ images. The catalog contains ˜ 6× {10}5 objects in the 1.5 deg2 UltraVISTA-DR2 region and ˜ 1.5× {10}5 objects are detected in the “ultra-deep stripes” (0.62 deg2) at {K}{{s}}≤slant 24.7 (3σ, 3″, AB magnitude). Through a comparison with the zCOSMOS-bright spectroscopic redshifts, we measure a photometric redshift precision of {σ }{{Δ }z/(1+{z}s)} = 0.007 and a catastrophic failure fraction of η = 0.5%. At 3\\lt z\\lt 6, using the unique database of spectroscopic redshifts in COSMOS, we find {σ }{{Δ }z/(1+{z}s)} = 0.021 and η = 13.2 % . The deepest regions reach a 90% completeness limit of {10}10{M}⊙ to z = 4. Detailed comparisons of the color distributions, number counts, and clustering show excellent agreement with the literature in the same mass ranges. COSMOS2015 represents a unique, publicly available, valuable resource with which to investigate the evolution of galaxies within their environment back to the earliest stages of the history of the universe. The COSMOS2015 catalog is distributed via anonymous ftp and through the usual astronomical archive systems (CDS, ESO Phase 3, IRSA).

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Hydraulic Support Based on Cosmos/Works%基于Cosmos/Works液压支架整架有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽荣; 戴汉政; 张鑫

    2009-01-01

    对适用于大倾角的液压支架优化设计技术进行研究,在对液压支架产品建立虚拟样机模型的基础上,按照MT312-2000试验标准,通过Cosmos/Works软件,主要分析支架在顶梁扭转载荷工况下的有限元分析,为支架结构的优化设计分析提供了参考.

  8. Static and Stiff Analysis of Structural Parts Based on COSMOS/Works%基于COSMOS/Works的构件静强度与刚度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德华

    2005-01-01

    运用与SolidWorks无缝集成的有限元分析软件COSMOS/Works,可以方便、快速、准确地对工程构件进行强度和刚度分析,使工程设计人员从繁琐而又容易出现错误的强度与刚度计算中解脱出来.文章介绍了COSMOS/Works软件的有限元分析功能在结构静强度和刚度计算上的具体运用.

  9. The XMM-Newton Wide-field Survey in the Cosmos Field (XMM-COSMOS) : Demography and Multiwavelength Properties of Obscured and Unobscured Luminous Active Galactic Nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusa, M.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Fiore, F.; Hasinger, G.; Mainieri, V.; Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Elvis, M.; Gilli, R.; Hao, H.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lusso, E.; Mignoli, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Treister, E.; Trump, J. D.; Vignali, C.; Zamojski, M.; Aldcroft, T.; Aussel, H.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; Finoguenov, A.; Fruscione, A.; Garilli, B.; Impey, C. D.; Iovino, A.; Iwasawa, K.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leborgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Maier, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y. -J.; Perez-Montero, E.; de Ravel, L.; Sanders, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Tanaka, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; de la Torre, S.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the final optical identifications of the medium-depth (~60 ks), contiguous (2 deg2) XMM-Newton survey of the COSMOS field. XMM-Newton has detected ~1800 X-ray sources down to limiting fluxes of ~5 × 10-16, ~3 × 10-15, and ~7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV, and 5-10 keV ban

  10. The VLA-COSMOS Survey: II. Source Catalog of the Large Project

    CERN Document Server

    Schinnerer, E; Carilli, C L; Bondi, M; Ciliegi, P; Jahnke, K; Scoville, N Z; Aussel, H; Bertoldi, F; Blain, A W; Impey, C D; Koekemoer, A M; Lefèvre, O; Urry, C M

    2006-01-01

    The VLA-COSMOS large project is described and its scientific objective is discussed. We present a catalog of ~ 3,600 radio sources found in the 2deg^2 COSMOS field at 1.4 GHz. The observations in the VLA A and C configuration resulted in a resolution of 1.5''x1.4'' and a mean rms noise of ~ 10.5(15) uJy/beam in the central 1(2)deg^2. 80 radio sources are clearly extended consisting of multiple components, and most of them appear to be double-lobed radio galaxies. The astrometry of the catalog has been thoroughly tested and the uncertainty in the relative and absolute astrometry are 130mas and <55mas, respectively.

  11. The Impact of Recent Advances in Laboratory Astrophysics on our Understanding of the Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, D W; Cowan, J J; Drake, R P; Federman, S R; Ferland, G J; Frank, A; Gudipati, M S; Haxton, W C; Herbst, E; Profumo, S; Salama, F; Ziurys, L M; Zweibe, E G

    2011-01-01

    An emerging theme in modern astrophysics is the connection between astronomical observations and the underlying physical phenomena that drive our cosmos. Both the mechanisms responsible for the observed astrophysical phenomena and the tools used to probe such phenomena - the radiation and particle spectra we observe - have their roots in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, plasma, nuclear and particle physics. Chemistry is implicitly included in both molecular and condensed matter physics. This connection is the theme of the present report, which provides a broad, though non-exhaustive, overview of progress in our understanding of the cosmos resulting from recent theoretical and experimental advances in what is commonly called laboratory astrophysics. This work, carried out by a diverse community of laboratory astrophysicists, is increasingly important as astrophysics transitions into an era of precise measurement and high fidelity modeling.

  12. An ear turned to ``The Cosmos'': 50 projects to discover the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Carmen

    2011-06-01

    In 1609, as Galileo pointed the sky with a telescope, he observed Jupiter's satellites and changed our vision of the universe. Four hundred years later, we celebrate this event all over the world, and also in the Canaries. 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, is a very special year for the Science and Cosmos Museum (Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos). This was the first museum in Spain supported by a public entity, The Local Government of Tenerife (Cabildo de Tenerife), through its Autonomous Council of Museums (Organismo Autónomo de Museos y Centros), and a research centre, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Fifteen years later, this museum, which receives 50,000 visitors a year, celebrates the International Year of Astronomy with fifty projects described in this paper.

  13. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  14. The environment of radio sources in the VLA-COSMOS Survey field

    CERN Document Server

    Malavasi, Nicola; Ciliegi, Paolo; Ilbert, Olivier; Pozzetti, Lucia; Zucca, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This work studies the correlation among environmental density and radio AGN presence up to $z = 2$. Using data from the photometric COSMOS survey and its radio 1.4 GHz follow-up (VLA-COSMOS), a sample of radio AGNs has been defined. The environment was studied using the richness distributions inside a parallelepiped with base side of 1 Mpc and height proportional to the photometric redshift precision. Radio AGNs are found to be always located in environments significantly richer than those around galaxies with no radio emission. Moreover, a distinction based on radio AGN power shows that the significance of the environmental effect is only maintained for low-power radio sources. The results of this work show that denser environments play a significant role in enhancing the probability that a galaxy hosts a radio AGN and, in particular, low-power ones.

  15. The impact of recent advances in laboratory astrophysics on our understanding of the cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, D W; Brickhouse, N S; Cowan, J J; Drake, R P; Federman, S R; Ferland, G J; Frank, A; Gudipati, M S; Haxton, W C; Herbst, E; Profumo, S; Salama, F; Ziurys, L M; Zweibel, E G

    2012-03-01

    An emerging theme in modern astrophysics is the connection between astronomical observations and the underlying physical phenomena that drive our cosmos. Both the mechanisms responsible for the observed astrophysical phenomena and the tools used to probe such phenomena-the radiation and particle spectra we observe-have their roots in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, plasma, nuclear and particle physics. Chemistry is implicitly included in both molecular and condensed matter physics. This connection is the theme of the present report, which provides a broad, though non-exhaustive, overview of progress in our understanding of the cosmos resulting from recent theoretical and experimental advances in what is commonly called laboratory astrophysics. This work, carried out by a diverse community of laboratory astrophysicists, is increasingly important as astrophysics transitions into an era of precise measurement and high fidelity modeling.

  16. The spatial clustering of X-ray selected AGN in the XMM-COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Gilli, R; Miyaji, T; Silverman, Joseph; Brusa, M; Mainieri, V; Cappelluti, N; Daddi, E; Porciani, C; Pozzetti, L; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Salvato, M; Vignali, C; Hasinger, G; Lilly, S; Impey, C; Trump, J; Capak, P; McCracken, H; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Cimatti, A; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Scaramella, R; Walcher, J

    2008-01-01

    We study the spatial clustering of 538 X-ray selected AGN in the 2 deg^2 XMM-COSMOS field that are spectroscopically identified to I_{AB} 3 x 10^{10} M_sun) at the same redshift. This suggests that AGN at z~1 are preferentially hosted by massive galaxies, as observed both in the local and in the distant (z~2) Universe. (shortened)

  17. Cosmos, Time and Creation (Remarks to the Philosophical, Theological and Physical Conceptions of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zamarovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the beginning of Cosmos appears to be problematic. Not only ancient theological, but also present-day physical approaches evoke many questions. They originate in the definition of time, its dimensionality and its scale. If we accept the Standard Model, all physical processes including processes utilised in clocks (chronometric processes lose their theoretical basis in the vicinity of the initial singularity. The singularity is hidden behind horizon. Does it mean that the singularity did not exist?

  18. Proceedings, 13th International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC XIII)

    CERN Document Server

    Elekes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the foremost bi-annual conference of nuclear physicists, astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others to survey the recent achievements in Nuclear Astrophysics. As an interdisciplinary meeting it promotes mutual understanding and collaboration over fields fundamental to solve a range of open questions, from the origin of the elements to stellar evolution. Inherent part of the conference is a school devoted to students and young scientists where prominent scientists introduce the field of nuclear astrophysics to the participants.

  19. An high definition view of the COSMOS Wall at z~0.73

    CERN Document Server

    Iovino, A; Scodeggio, M; Bolzonella, M; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Cucciati, O; Pozzetti, L; Tasca, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Finoguenov, A; Ilbert, O; Tanaka, M; Salvato, M; Kovac, K; Cassata, P

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of a large filamentary structure at z~0.73 in the field of the COSMOS survey, the so-called COSMOS Wall. This structure encompasses a comprehensive range of environments from a dense cluster and a number of galaxy groups to filaments, less dense regions, and adjacent voids. It thus provides a valuable laboratory for the accurate mapping of environmental effects on galaxy evolution at a look-back time of ~6.5 Gyr, when the Universe was roughly half its present age. We performed deep spectroscopic observations with VIMOS at VLT of a K-band selected sample of galaxies in this complex structure, building a sample of galaxies complete in galaxy stellar mass down to a lower limit of log(M/M_sun)~ 9.8, which is significantly deeper than previously available data. Thanks to its location within the COSMOS survey, each galaxy benefits from a wealth of ancillary information. In this paper we detail the survey strategy and weighting scheme adopted to account for the biases introduced by the photometric...

  20. The VLA-COSMOS Survey. IV. Deep Data and Joint Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Schinnerer, Eva; Bondi, M; Smolcic, V; Datta, A; Carilli, C L; Bertoldi, F; Blain, A; Ciliegi, P; Koekemoer, A M; Scoville, N Z

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the VLA-COSMOS Deep project additional VLA A array observations at 1.4 GHz were obtained for the central degree of the COSMOS field and combined with the existing data from the VLA-COSMOS Large project. A newly constructed Deep mosaic with a resolution of 2.5" was used to search for sources down to 4 sigma with 1 sigma ~ 12 microJy/beam in the central 50'x50'. This new catalog is combined with the catalog from the Large project (obtained at 1.5"x1.4" resolution) to construct a new Joint catalog. All sources listed in the new Joint catalog have peak flux densities of >5 sigma at 1.5" and/or 2.5" resolution to account for the fact that a significant fraction of sources at these low flux levels are expected to be slighty resolved at 1.5" resolution. All properties listed in the Joint catalog such as peak flux density, integrated flux density and source size are determined in the 2.5" resolution Deep image. In addition, the Joint catalog contains 43 newly identified multi-component sources.

  1. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L; Evans, J; Grindeland, R; Krasnov, I

    1992-08-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, we obtained pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on COSMOS 2044. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to stimulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27% (P less than 0.05) in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (micrograms hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33% (P less than 0.05) compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the COSMOS 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  2. Seeing the Sky through Hubble's Eye: The COSMOS SkyWalker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Koekemoer, A.

    2006-08-01

    Large, high-resolution space-based imaging surveys produce a volume of data that is difficult to present to the public in a comprehensible way. While megapixel-sized images can still be printed out or downloaded via the World Wide Web, this is no longer feasible for images with 109 pixels (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys [ACS] images of the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs [GEMS] project) or even 1010 pixels (for the ACS Cosmic Evolution Survey [COSMOS]). We present a Web-based utility called the COSMOS SkyWalker that allows viewing of the huge ACS image data set, even through slow Internet connections. Using standard HTML and JavaScript, the application successively loads only those portions of the image at a time that are currently being viewed on the screen. The user can move within the image by using the mouse or interacting with an overview image. Using an astrometrically registered image for the COSMOS SkyWalker allows the display of calibrated world coordinates for use in science. The SkyWalker ``technique'' can be applied to other data sets. This requires some customization, notably the slicing up of a data set into small (e.g., 2562 pixel) subimages. An advantage of the SkyWalker is the use of standard Web browser components; thus, it requires no installation of any software and can therefore be viewed by anyone across many operating systems.

  3. Simulating the COSMOS: The fraction of merging galaxies at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Kampczyk, P; Carollo, C M; Scarlata, C; Feldmann, R; Koekemoer, A; Leauthaud, A; Taniguchi, Y; Capak, P

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of nearby (0.015 < z < 0.025) SDSS galaxies have been used to reproduce as accurately as possible the appearance that they would have on COSMOS ACS images if they had been observed at z ~ 0.7 and z ~ 1.2. By adding the SDSS galaxies to random locations in the COSMOS images, we simulate the effects of chance superpositions of high redshift galaxies with unrelated foreground or background objects. We have used these simulated images, together with those of real COSMOS galaxies at these same redshifts, to undertake a "blind" morphological classification of galaxies to identify those that appear to be undergoing mergers and thus to estimate the change in merger fraction with redshift. We find that real mergers are harder to recognize at high redshift, and also that the chance superposition of unrelated galaxies often produces the appearance of mergers where in reality none exists. In particular, we estimate that 1.5 - 2.0% of objects randomly added to ACS images are misclassified as mergers due ...

  4. CosmosDG: An hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Hyper-resolved Relativistic MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, Peter; Bryant, Colton; Fragile, P. Chris; Holgado, A. Miguel; Lau, Cheuk; Nemergut, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We have extended Cosmos++, a multidimensional unstructured adaptive mesh code for solving the covariant Newtonian and general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, to accommodate both discrete finite volume and arbitrarily high-order finite element structures. The new finite element implementation, called CosmosDG, is based on a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation, using both entropy-based artificial viscosity and slope limiting procedures for the regularization of shocks. High-order multistage forward Euler and strong-stability preserving Runge-Kutta time integration options complement high-order spatial discretization. We have also added flexibility in the code infrastructure allowing for both adaptive mesh and adaptive basis order refinement to be performed separately or simultaneously in a local (cell-by-cell) manner. We discuss in this report the DG formulation and present tests demonstrating the robustness, accuracy, and convergence of our numerical methods applied to special and general relativistic MHD, although we note that an equivalent capability currently also exists in CosmosDG for Newtonian systems.

  5. The XMM-Newton wide-field survey in the COSMOS field: I. Survey description

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinger, G; Brunner, H; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Elvis, M; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Franceschini, A; Gilli, R; Griffiths, R E; Lehmann, I; Mainieri, V; Matt, G; Matute, I; Miyaji, T; Molendi, S; Paltani, S; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Tresse, L; Urry, C M; Vettolani, P; Zamorani, G

    2006-01-01

    We present the first set of XMM-Newton EPIC observations in the 2 square degree COSMOS field. The strength of the COSMOS project is the unprecedented combination of a large solid angle and sensitivity over the whole multiwavelength spectrum. The XMM-Newton observations are very efficient in localizing and identifying active galactic nuclei (AGN) and clusters as well as groups of galaxies. One of the primary goals of the XMM-Newton Cosmos survey is to study the co-evolution of active galactic nuclei as a function of their environment in the Cosmic web. Here we present the log of observations, images and a summary of first research highlights for the first pass of 25 XMM-Newton pointings across the field. In the existing dataset we have detected 1416 new X-ray sources in the 0.5-2, 2-4.5 and 4.5-10 keV bands to an equivalent 0.5-2 keV flux limit of 7x10-16 erg cm-2 s-1. The number of sources is expected to grow to almost 2000 in the final coverage of the survey. From an X-ray color color analysis we identify a ...

  6. KOSMOS and COSMOS: New facility instruments for the NOAO 4-meter telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Paul; Points, S; Sprayberry, D; Derwent, M A; Gonzalez, R; Mason, J A; O'Brien, T P; Pappalardo, D P; Pogge, R W; Stoll, R; Zhelem, R; Daly, P; Fitzpatrick, M; George, J R; Hunten, M; Marshall, R; Poczulp, G; Rath, S; Seaman, R; Trueblood, M; Zelaya, K

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and measured performance of the Kitt Peak Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) for the 4-m Mayall telescope and the Cerro Tololo Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (COSMOS) for the 4-m Blanco telescope. These nearly identical imaging spectrographs are modified versions of the OSMOS instrument; they provide a pair of new, high-efficiency instruments to the NOAO user community. KOSMOS and COSMOS may be used for imaging, long-slit, and multi-slit spectroscopy over a 100 square arcminute field of view with a pixel scale of 0.29 arcseconds. Each contains two VPH grisms that provide R~2500 with a one arcsecond slit and their wavelengths of peak diffraction efficiency are approximately 510nm and 750nm. Both may also be used with either a thin, blue-optimized CCD from e2v or a thick, fully depleted, red-optimized CCD from LBNL. These instruments were developed in response to the ReSTAR process. KOSMOS was commissioned in 2013B and COSMOS was commissioned in 2014A.

  7. Spectral Energy Distributions of Type 1 AGN in XMM-COSMOS Survey II - Shape Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Heng; Civano, Francesca; Zamorani, Gianni; Ho, Luis C; Comastri, Andrea; Bongiorno, Angela; Merloni, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella; Trump, Jonathan R; Salvato, Mara; Impey, Chris D; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Celotti, Annalisa; Jahnke, Knud; Vignali, Cristian; Silverman, John D; Urry, C Megan; Schawinski, Kevin; Capak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared to optical-ultraviolet (0.1 -- 10 $\\mu m$) spectral energy distribution (SED) shapes of 407 X-ray-selected radio-quiet type 1 AGN in the wide-field "Cosmic Evolution Survey" (COSMOS) have been studied for signs of evolution. For a sub-sample of 200 radio-quiet quasars with black hole mass estimation and host galaxy correction, we study the mean SEDs as a function of a broad range of redshift, bolometric luminosity, black hole mass and Eddington ratio, and compare them with the Elvis et al. (1994, E94) type 1 AGN mean SED. The mean SEDs in each bin are very similar to each other, showing no evidence of dependence on any of the analyzed parameters. We also checked the SED dispersion as a function of these four parameters, and found no significant dependance. The dispersion of the XMM-COSMOS SEDs is generally larger than E94 SED dispersion in the ultraviolet, which might be largely due to the broader "window function" for COSMOS quasars, and the X-ray based selection technique.

  8. The Chandra COSMOS Survey: III. Optical and Infrared Identification of X-ray Point Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Civano, F; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Salvato, M; Zamorani, G; Aldcroft, T; Bongiorno, A; Capak, P; Cappelluti, N; Cisternas, M; Fiore, F; Fruscione, A; Hao, H; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Gilli, R; Impey, C D; Lanzuisi, G; Lusso, E; Mainieri, V; Miyaji, T; Lilly, S; Masters, D; Puccetti, S; Schawinski, K; Scoville, N Z; Silverman, J; Trump, J; Urry, M; Vignali, C; Wright, N J

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that has imaged the central 0.9 deg^2 of the COSMOS field down to limiting depths of 1.9 10^-16 erg cm^-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band, 7.3 10^-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1 in the 2-10 keV band, and 5.7 10^-16 erg cm^-2 s-1 in the 0.5-10 keV band. In this paper we report the i, K and 3.6micron identifications of the 1761 X-ray point sources. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. For most of the remaining 3%, the presence of multiple counterparts or the faintness of the possible counterpart prevented a unique association. For only 10 X-ray sources we were not able to associate a counterpart, mostly due to the presence of a very bright field source close by. Only 2 sources are truly empty fields. Making use of the large number of X-ray sources, we update the "classic locus" of AGN and define a new locus containing 90% of the AGN in the survey with full band luminosi...

  9. Dissecting Photometric redshift for Active Galactic Nuclei using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS samples

    CERN Document Server

    Salvato, M; Hasinger, G; Rau, A; Civano, F; Zamorani, G; Brusa, M; Elvis, M; Vignali, C; Aussel, H; Comastri, A; Fiore, F; Floc'h, E Le; Mainieri, V; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Capak, P; Caputi, K; Cappelluti, N; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Fotopoulou, S; Fruscione, A; Gilli, R; Halliday, C; Kneib, J-P; Kakazu, Y; Kartaltepe, J S; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Ideue, Y; Ikeda, H; Impey, C D; Fevre, O Le; Lamareille, F; Lanzuisi, G; Borgne, J-F Le; Brun, V Le; Lilly, S J; Maier, C; Manohar, S; Masters, D; McCracken, H; Messias, H; Mignoli, M; Mobasher, B; Nagao, T; Pello, R; Puccetti, S; Renzini, E Perez Montero A; Sargent, M; Sanders, D B; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N; Shopbell, P; Silvermann, J; Taniguchi, Y; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Trump, J R; Zucca, E

    2011-01-01

    With this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the COSMOS field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redshifts comparable to the highest quality results presently available for normal galaxies. We demonstrate that morphologically extended, faint X-ray sources without optical variability are more accurately described by a library of normal galaxies (corrected for emission lines) than by AGN-dominated templates, even if these sources have AGN-like X-ray luminosities. Preselecting the library on the bases of the source properties allowed us to reach an accuracy sigma_(Delta z/(1+z_spec)) \\sim0.015 with a fraction of outliers of 5.8% for the entire Chandra-COSMOS sample. In addition, we release revised photometric redshifts for the 1735 optical counterparts of the XMM-detected sources over the entire 2 sq. deg.of COSMOS. For 248 sources, our upda...

  10. Commissioning COSMOS: Detection of Lithium in Young Stars in Lupus 3 through Multi-Object Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Kyle; Briceno, Cesar; Elias, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph and imager, is a new instrument on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. In order to demonstrate the instrument's operations during commissioning, we used COSMOS, its red grism and three custom slit masks to conduct a spectroscopic survey of the star-forming core of the Lupus 3 dark cloud in an effort to detect the presence of Lithium in the T Tauri stars that have been previously identified in that region. We detected the Li I 6708 Angstrom resonance transition in several (but not all) stars that were observed, consistent with prior studies that have observed Lithium in other young stars at the center of the Lupus 3 dark cloud and in other star-forming regions. These results also demonstrate the ability of COSMOS to significantly reduce the time required to complete spectroscopic surveys, relative to single-object instruments.Lackey was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  11. The COSMOS2015 Catalog: Exploring the 1

    CERN Document Server

    Laigle, C; Ilbert, O; Hsieh, B C; Davidzon, I; Capak, P; Hasinger, G; Silverman, J D; Pichon, C; Coupon, J; Aussel, H; Borgne, D Le; Caputi, K; Cassata, P; Chang, Y -Y; Civano, F; Dunlop, J; Fynbo, J; kartaltepe, J S; Koekemoer, A; Fevre, O Le; Floc'h, E Le; Leauthaud, A; Lilly, S; Lin, L; Marchesi, S; Milvang-Jensen, B; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Stockmann, M; Taniguchi, Y; Tasca, L; Toft, S; Vaccari, M; Zabl, J

    2016-01-01

    We present the COSMOS2015 catalog which contains precise photometric redshifts and stellar masses for more than half a million objects over the 2deg$^{2}$ COSMOS field. Including new $YJHK_{\\rm s}$ images from the UltraVISTA-DR2 survey, $Y$-band from Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam and infrared data from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Spitzer legacy program, this near-infrared-selected catalog is highly optimized for the study of galaxy evolution and environments in the early Universe. To maximise catalog completeness for bluer objects and at higher redshifts, objects have been detected on a $\\chi^{2}$ sum of the $YJHK_{\\rm s}$ and $z^{++}$ images. The catalog contains $\\sim 6\\times 10^5$ objects in the 1.5 deg$^{2}$ UltraVISTA-DR2 region, and $\\sim 1.5\\times 10^5$ objects are detected in the "ultra-deep stripes" (0.62 deg$^{2}$) at $K_{\\rm s}\\leq 24.7$ (3$\\sigma$, 3", AB magnitude). Through a comparison with the zCOSMOS-bright spectroscopic redshifts, we measure a photometric redshift prec...

  12. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  13. Seeing the sky through Hubble's eye: The COSMOS SkyWalker

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, K; Koekemoer, A

    2006-01-01

    Large, high-resolution space-based imaging surveys produce a volume of data that is difficult to present to the public in a comprehensible way. While megapixel-sized images can still be printed out or downloaded via the World Wide Web, this is no longer feasible for images with 10^9 pixels (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys [ACS] images of the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs [GEMS] project) or even 10^10 pixels (for the ACS Cosmic Evolution Survey [COSMOS]). We present a Web-based utility called the COSMOS SkyWalker that allows viewing of the huge ACS image data set, even through slow Internet connections. Using standard HTML and JavaScript, the application successively loads only those portions of the image at a time that are currently being viewed on the screen. The user can move within the image by using the mouse or interacting with an overview image. Using an astrometrically registered image for the COSMOS SkyWalker allows the display of calibrated world coordinates f...

  14. Machine-learning identification of galaxies in the WISExSuperCOSMOS all-sky catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Krakowski, T; Bilicki, M; Pollo, A; Krupa, M; Kurcz, A

    2016-01-01

    The two currently largest all-sky photometric datasets, WISE and SuperCOSMOS, were cross-matched by Bilicki et al. (2016) (B16) to construct a novel photometric redshift catalogue on 70% of the sky. Galaxies were therein separated from stars and quasars through colour cuts, which may leave imperfections because of mixing different source types which overlap in colour space. The aim of the present work is to identify galaxies in the WISExSuperCOSMOS catalogue through an alternative approach of machine learning. This allows us to define more complex separations in the multi-colour space than possible with simple colour cuts, and should provide more reliable source classification. For the automatised classification we use the support vector machines learning algorithm, employing SDSS spectroscopic sources cross-matched with WISExSuperCOSMOS as the training and verification set. We perform a number of tests to examine the behaviour of the classifier (completeness, purity and accuracy) as a function of source appa...

  15. Protein composition in human plasma after long-term orbital missions and in rodent plasma after spaceflights on biosatellites "Cosmos-1887" and "Cosmos-2044".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, O N

    1991-02-01

    The two-dimensional plasma protein map of crewmembers of long-duration "Mir" expeditions obtained the day after the recovery shows a manifold increase in the content of several proteins normally seen in trace amounts. The emergence of several unusual protein spots occurs as well, some of them probably due to charge shifts provided by the events influencing posttranslational modification processes. By the 8 postflight day these phenomena were disappeared. In the "Cosmos-1887" biosatellite experiment, the plasma samples obtained two days after the landing as well as plasma of synchronous animals exhibited the higher fibrinogen levels when compared to those of vivarium animals. The protein consisting of a number of fractions with molecular weight of 50 to 60 kD and pI 5 to 6 had protein spots of similar size in flight and synchronous animals while in vivarium rats one of the spots was larger in size as opposed to the others. The plasma protein spectrum of flight and synchronous groups of animals in "Cosmos-1887" experiment where plasma samples were prepared in the period of time from 5 to 10 hours after spaceflight coincided with the pattern of vivarium animals. The data suggest that the protein changes described above develop during postflight period and accelerations, vibrations, readaptation to 1 G gravity, emotional stress could be the cause of these alterations.

  16. A high definition view of the COSMOS Wall at z ~ 0.73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, A.; Petropoulou, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Cucciati, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Tasca, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Finoguenov, A.; Ilbert, O.; Tanaka, M.; Salvato, M.; Kovač, K.; Cassata, P.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We present a study of a large filamentary structure at z ~ 0.73 in the field of the COSMOS survey, the so-called COSMOS Wall. This structure encompasses a comprehensive range of environments from a dense cluster and a number of galaxy groups to filaments, less dense regions, and adjacent voids. It thus provides a valuable laboratory for the accurate mapping of environmental effects on galaxy evolution at a look-back time of ~6.5 Gyr, when the Universe was roughly half its present age. Methods: We performed deep spectroscopic observations with VIMOS at VLT of a K-band selected sample of galaxies in this complex structure, building a sample of galaxies complete in galaxy stellar mass down to a lower limit of log(ℳ∗/ℳ⊙) ~ 9.8, which is significantly deeper than previously available data. Thanks to its location within the COSMOS survey, each galaxy benefits from a wealth of ancillary information: HST-ACS data with I-band exposures down to IAB ~ 28 complemented by extensive multiwavelength ground- and space-based observations spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Results: In this paper we detail the survey strategy and weighting scheme adopted to account for the biases introduced by the photometric preselection of our targets. We present our galaxy stellar mass and rest-frame magnitudes estimates together with a group catalog obtained with our new data and their member galaxies color/mass distribution. Conclusions: Owing to our new sample we can perform a detailed, high definition mapping of the complex COSMOS Wall structure. The sharp environmental information, coupled with high quality spectroscopic information and rich ancillary data available in the COSMOS field, enables a detailed study of galaxy properties as a function of local environment in a redshift slice where environmental effects are important, and in a stellar mass range where mass and environment driven effects are both at work. Based on observations collected at the European

  17. An Analysis of the FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the year 2013 marks the sixth anniversary of the destruction of the Fengyun-1C (FY-1C) weather satellite as the result of an anti-satellite test conducted by China in January 2007 and the fourth anniversary of the accidental collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in February 2009. These two events represent the worst satellite breakups in history. A total of 5579 fragments have been cataloged by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN), and almost 5000 of them were still in orbit in January 2013. In addition to these cataloged objects, hundreds of thousands (or more) of fragments down to the millimeter size regime were also generated during the breakups. These fragments are too small to be tracked by the SSN, but are large enough to be a safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Like their cataloged siblings, many of them remain in orbit today. These two breakup events dramatically changed the landscape of the orbital debris environment in LEO. The spatial density of the cataloged population in January 2013 is shown as the top blue curve. The combined FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 fragments (black curve) account for about 50 percent of the cataloged population below an altitude of 1000 km. They are also responsible for the concentrations at 770 km and 850 km, altitudes at which the collisions occurred. The effects of the FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 fragments will continue to be felt for decades to come. For example, approximately half of the generated FY-1C fragments will remain in orbit 20 years from now. In general, the Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 fragments will decay faster than the FY-1C fragments because of their lower altitudes. Of the Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 fragments, the former have much shorter orbital lifetimes than the latter, because lightweight composite materials were heavily used in the construction of the Iridium

  18. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Curation and reanalysis of 17.5k redshifts in the G10/COSMOS region

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, L J M; Robotham, A S G; Baldry, I K; Lange, R; Liske, J; Meyer, M; Popping, A; Wright, A H; Wilkins, S M

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the construction of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) 10h region (G10) using publicly available data in the Cosmic Evolution Survey region (COSMOS) in order to extend the GAMA survey to z~1 in a single ~1deg$^2$. In order to obtain the maximum number of high precision spectroscopic redshifts we re-reduce all archival zCOSMOS-bright data and use the GAMA automatic cross-correlation redshift fitting code autoz. We combine autoz redshifts with all other available redshift information (zCOSMOS-bright 10k, PRIMUS, VVDS, SDSS and photometric redshifts) to calculate robust best-fit redshifts for all galaxies and visually inspect all 1D and 2D spectra to confirm automatically assigned redshifts. In total, we obtain 17,466 robust redshifts in the full COSMOS region. We then define the G10 region to be the central ~1deg$^2$ of COSMOS, which has relatively high spectroscopic completeness, and encompasses the CHILES VLA region. We define a combined r < 23.0 mag & i < 22.0 mag G10 sample (selected t...

  19. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies III. Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Tomicic, N; Zamorani, G; Finoguenov, A; Lemaux, B C; Aravena, M; Capak, P; Chiang, Y-K; Civano, F; Delvecchio, I; Ilbert, O; Jurlin, N; Karim, A; Laigle, C; Fevre, O Le; Marchesi, S; McCracken, H J; Riechers, D A; Salvato, M; Schinnerer, E; Tasca, L; Toft, S

    2016-01-01

    We study the environment of 23 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from the JCMT/AzTEC 1.1mm S/N-limited sample in the COSMOS field, as well as 4 COSMOS SMGs at z_spec>4.5, and 1 at z_spec=2.49, yielding a sample of 28 SMGs. We search for overdensities using the COSMOS photometric redshifts based on over 30 UV-NIR photometric bands, reaching an accuracy of sigma(Delta z/(1+z))=0.0067 (0.0155) at z3.5). To identify overdensities we apply the Voronoi tessellation analysis, and estimate the overdensity estimator delta_g as a function of distance from the SMG and/or overdensity center. We test and validate our approach via simulations, X-ray detected groups, and spectroscopic verifications using VUDS and zCOSMOS catalogues showing that even with photometric redshifts in COSMOS we can efficiently retrieve overdensities out to z~5. Our results yield that 11/23 (48%) JCMT/AzTEC 1.1mm SMGs occupy overdense environments. Considering the entire JCMT/AzTEC 1.1mm S/N>4 sample, and accounting for the expected fraction of ...

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): curation and reanalysis of 16.6k redshifts in the G10/COSMOS region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Lange, R.; Liske, J.; Meyer, M.; Popping, A.; Wilkins, S. M.; Wright, A. H.

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the construction of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) 10h region (G10) using publicly available data in the Cosmic Evolution Survey region (COSMOS) in order to extend the GAMA survey to z ˜ 1 in a single deg2 field. In order to obtain the maximum number of high precision spectroscopic redshifts we re-reduce all archival zCOSMOS-bright data and use the GAMA automatic cross-correlation redshift fitting code AUTOZ. We use all available redshift information (AUTOZ, zCOSMOS-bright 10k, PRIMUS, VVDS, SDSS and photometric redshifts) to calculate robust best-fitting redshifts for all galaxies and visually inspect all 1D and 2D spectra to obtain 16 583 robust redshifts in the full COSMOS region. We then define the G10 region to be the central ˜1 deg2 of COSMOS, which has relatively high spectroscopic completeness, and encompasses the CHILES VLA region. We define a combined r sources with reliable high-precision VLT-VIMOS spectra. All tables, spectra and imaging are available at http://ict.icrar.org/cutout/G10.

  1. 基于Solid Works/COSMOS Motion的凸轮轮廓线设计%The design of cam's figure based on Solid Works/COSMOS Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠维

    2008-01-01

    凸轮轮廓曲线是凸轮机构设计的关键,常用的设计方法有解析法和图解珐.该方珐利用Solid Works绘制凸轮机构实体零件、构建机构装配体模型,并用Solid Works自带的COSMOS Motion插件设置凸轮机构运动模型约束和运动参数,通过对凸轮机构进行运动学仿真,最终得到凸轮轮廓线.较之其它设计方法, 该方法能自动绘制凸轮轮廓线,直观、简便,可视性好,具有一定的实际应用价值.

  2. Distribución geográfica y riqueza del género Cosmos (Asteraceae: Coreopsideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Vargas-Amado; Arturo Castro-Castro; Mollie Harker; José Luis Villaseñor; Enrique Ortiz; Aarón Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Cosmos es uno de los géneros monofiléticos más diversos de la tribu Coreopsideae (Asteraceae). El grupo incluye 35 especies y 4 taxa infraespecíficos restringidos al continente americano. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la distribución geográfica y la riqueza de Cosmos a través de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG). Se estimó el área de distribución geográfica de los taxa con más de un registro. También se evaluó la riqueza de las especies de Cosmos por región política, p...

  3. Catecholamines and their enzymes in discrete brain areas of rats after space flight on biosatellites Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvetnansky, R; Culman, J; Serova, L V; Tigranjan, R A; Torda, T; Macho, L

    1983-01-01

    The activity of the catecholaminergic system was measured in the hypothalamus of rats which had experienced an 18.5-19.5-day-long stay in the state of weightlessness during space flights on board Soviet biosatellites of the type Cosmos. In the first two experiments, Cosmos 782 and 936, the concentration of norepinephrine and the activities of synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and of the degrading enzyme monoamine oxidase were measured in the total hypothalamus. None of the given parameters was changed after space flight. In the light of the changes of these parameters recorded after exposure to acute stress on Earth, this finding indicates that long-term state of weightlessness does not represent an intensive stressogenic stimulus for the system studied. In the space experiment Cosmos 1129, the concentration of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine was studied in isolated nuclei of the hypothalamus of rats within 6-10 hr following return from space. Norepinephrine was found to be significantly reduced in the arcuate nucleus, median eminence and periventricular nucleus, epinephrine in the median eminence, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, whereas dopamine was not significantly changed after space flight. The decreased catecholamine levels found in some hypothalamic nuclei of rats which had undergone space flight indicate that no chronic intensive stressor could have acted during the flight, otherwise the catecholamine concentration would have been increased in the nuclei. The decreased levels must have been induced by the effect of a stressogenic factor acting for a short time only, and that either during the landing maneuver or immediately after landing. Thus long-term exposure of the organism to the state of weightlessness does not represent a stressogenic stimulus for the catecholaminergic system in the hypothalamus, which is one of the regulators of the activation of neuroendocrine reactions under stress.

  4. Current twin studies in Germany: report on CoSMoS, SOEP, and ChronoS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Elisabeth; Gottschling, Juliana; Spinath, Frank M

    2013-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of three recent German twin studies: CoSMoS, SOEP, and ChronoS. The German twin study on Cognitive Ability, Self-Reported Motivation, and School Achievement (CoSMoS) is a three-wave longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together, and aims to investigate predictors of and influences on school performance. In the first wave of the data collection in 2005, 408 pairs of twins aged between 7 and 11 as well as their parents participated in CoSMoS. The SOEP twin study is an extended twin study, which has combined data from monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together with additional data from full sibling pairs, mother-child, and grandparent-child dyads who participated in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study. The SOEP twin project comprises about 350 twin and 950 non-twin pairs aged between 17 and 70. Data were collected between 2009 and 2010, with a focus on personality traits, wellbeing, education, employment, income, living situation, life-satisfaction, and several attitudes. The aim of the Chronotype twin study (ChronoS) was to examine genetic and environmental influences on chronotype (morningness and eveningness), coping strategies, and several aspects of the previous SOEP twin project in a sample of 301 twin pairs aged between 19 and 76 years, recruited in 2010 and 2011. Part of the ChronoS twin sample also participated in the earlier SOEP twin study, representing a second wave of assessments. We briefly describe the design and contents of these three studies as well as selected recent findings.

  5. The privileged planet how our place in the cosmos is designed for discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Is Earth merely an insignificant speck in a vast and meaningless universe? On the contrary. The Privileged Planet: How Our Place in the Cosmos Is Designed for Discovery shows that this cherished assumption of materialism is dead wrong. Earth is far more significant than virtually anyone has realized. Contrary to the scientific orthodoxy, it is not an average planet around an ordinary star in an unremarkable part of the Milky Way.In this provocative book, Guillermo Gonzalez and Jay W. Richards present a staggering array of evidence that exposes the hollowness of this modern

  6. Cosmos 1887 mission overview - Effects of microgravity on rat body and adrenal weights and plasma constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Vasques, M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Popova, I. A.

    1990-01-01

    Tissues of male, specific pathogen-free Wistar rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite are studied. First the mission is described, and then analytical methods are outlined. It is noted that flight rats grew more slowly and had larger adrenal glands than earth gravity controls. Analysis of plasma reveals increased concentrations of hepatic alkaline phosphatase, glucose, urea nitrogen, and creatinine in flight rats. In contrast, electrolytes, total protein, albumin, corticosteron, prolactin, and immunoreactive growth hormone levels are unchanged. However, testosterone concentration is marginally decreased after flight and thyroid hormone levels are suggestive of reduced thyroid function.

  7. Radio galaxy feedback in X-ray selected groups from COSMOS: the effect on the ICM

    CERN Document Server

    Giodini, S; Finoguenov, A; Boehringer, H; Birzan, L; Zamorani, G; Oklopcic, A; Pierini, D; Pratt, G W; Schinnerer, E; Massey, R; Koekemoer, A M; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Kartaltepe, J S; Thompson, D

    2010-01-01

    We quantify the importance of the mechanical energy released by radio-galaxies inside galaxy groups. We use scaling relations to estimate the mechanical energy released by 16 radio-AGN located inside X-ray detected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field. By comparing this energy output to the host groups' gravitational binding energy, we find that radio galaxies produce sufficient energy to unbind a significant fraction of the intra-group medium. This unbinding effect is negligible in massive galaxy clusters with deeper potential wells. Our results correctly reproduce the breaking of self-similarity observed in the scaling relation between entropy and temperature for galaxy groups.

  8. A comparison study of CORSIKA and COSMOS simulations for extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Roh, Soonyoung; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Kido, Eiji; Taketa, Akimichi

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic rays with energy exceeding ~ 10^{18} eV are referred to as ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Monte Carlo codes for extensive air shower (EAS) simulate the development of EASs initiated by UHECRs in the Earth's atmosphere. Experiments to detect UHECRs utilize EAS simulations to estimate their energy, arrival direction, and composition. In this paper, we compare EAS simulations with two different codes, CORSIKA and COSMOS, presenting quantities including the longitudinal distribution of particles, depth of shower maximum, kinetic energy distribution of particle at the ground, and energy deposited to the air. We then discuss implications of our results to UHECR experiments.

  9. Cygnus mystery unlocking the ancient secret of life's origins in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Author, Andrew Collins

    2012-01-01

    It was a universal belief among ancient civilizations that life came originally from the cosmos, and ultimately would return there after death. The shamanic journey was always to this sky-world - and it appears that it was always located in the direction of the stars of Cygnus - also known as the Northern Cross - accessed either via the Milky Way or an imagined cosmic axis. Andrew Collins demonstrates that this belief is based on an ancient astronomy - around 17,000 years old. All over the world, standing stones, temples and monuments are orientated towards the rising and setting of the stars

  10. POSSIBILITY, LIFE’S ONTOPOIESIS, AND THE VINDICATION OF THE COSMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA-TERESA TYMIENIECKA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How could we better understand the cosmic-positioning of human being/becoming in the territory of life we have access? Discussing some issues about the real and possible existence, on the ground of Tischner, Ingarden and Husserl’s philosophical/phenomenological perspectives, I argue the significance of my own phenomenology of the ontopoiesis of life, focusing on the opportunities of grasping the imaginative/intellective forces in deciphering the logos of life’s manifestations; finally, reaching to the comprehension of the indivualization within the cosmos, by life-transcendental architectonics of beingness/becoming.

  11. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the soviet satellite COSMOS 1129. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, M.R.; Souza, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies Kosmos Satellites experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  12. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the Soviet satellite Cosmos 1129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M. R. (Editor); Souza, K. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies; experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  13. The Collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251: The Shape of Things to Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johnson

    2009-01-01

    The collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 was the most severe accidental fragmentation on record. More than 1800 debris approx. 10 cm and larger were produced. If solar activity returns to normal, half of the tracked debris will reenter within five years. Less than 60 cataloged debris had reentered by 1 October 2009. Some debris from both satellites will remain in orbit through the end of the century. The collision rate of one every five years will increase without future removal of large derelict spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages.

  14. Analyses of plasma for metabolic and hormonal changes in rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Mullins, Richard E.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas samples from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for the levels of key metabolites, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in glucose, cholesterol, phosphate, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased levels of thyroxine. Most of these differences were not mimicked by tail suspension of ground-based rats; however, both flight and suspended rats exhibited inhibited testosterone secretion. Corticosterone, immunoreactive growth hormone, and prolactin showed inconsistent differences from the various control groups, suggesting that the levels of these hormones were not due to actual or simulated microgravity.

  15. The Effects of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja Supplementation on Serum and Bone Minerals Levels in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Osteoporosis is a consequence of estrogen deficiency and has been associated with oxidative stress. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, a local plant, has been shown to improve bone histomorphometry in ovariectomized rats. This study further determined the effects of Cosmos caudatus on serum and bone minerals levels in ovariectomised rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups, (I sham operated (SO (II ovariectomised  (OVX (III ovariectomised + 500mg/kg Cosmos caudatus extract (CC and (IV ovariectomised + estrogen 64.5 ug/kg of rat weight (E2. Rats were treated for 8 weeks. Ovariectomy reduced serum calcium and phosphate levels compared to SO group (p = 0.042 for both but did not cause any changes in bone minerals levels. Groups treated with CC and E2 showed significant increase in serum calcium levels (p= 0.018 for both and serum phosphate levels (p= 0.016, p= 0.002 respectively compared to ovariectomized group. However, both Cosmos caudatus and E2 did not affect the minerals levels of femur and fifth lumbar bones (L5. In conclusion, Cosmos caudatus is comparable to estrogen in improving estrogen deficient-induced osteoporosis by maintaining serum minerals homeostasis. Industrial relevance. Osteoporosis has grown to be a major concern especially among postmenopausal women. Studies have been done extensively in finding alternative treatment for osteoporosis. This is in view of the various side effects caused by the existing treatment agents such as estrogen. Cosmos caudatus, one of the local plants, has been explored and was observed to improve bone histomorphometric in ovariectomised rats. It has also been shown to enhance fracture healing in ovariectomized rats. This study further examined the effects of Cosmos caudatus on minerals homeostasis which further proved the effectiveness of this plant as an alternative treatment for osteoporosis. Keywords. Cosmos caudatus; estrogen; bone minerals; serum minerals

  16. 要漂亮,更要冷酷!—酷冷至尊COSMOS RC1000机箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    酷冷至尊新推出的COSMOS RC1000机箱是专门针对发烧友设计的产品。它的侧板采用铝合金,内部支架则采用镀锌钢架结构、非常牢固、净重达到了16.9公斤,和普通机箱相比,用坚如磐石来形容COSMOS RC1000并不为过。

  17. COSMOS Works两种有限元建模方式数值分析的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳峰松

    2004-01-01

    本文作者通过对某开式压力机机身进行强度计算的实例,对COSMOS Works中采用装配体的有限元模型进行了初步研究.同时结合SolidWorks以及COSMOS Works的功能特点.对装配体和单一零件式有限元模型的优缺点进行了对比,对两种模型的如何使用提出了一些建议。

  18. The Intensity Analysis of Frame for Gear Driller Based on Cosmos/Works Software%基于Cosmos/Works的牙轮钻机钻架结构强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖茂河; 刘立; 杨春晖; 肖成勇

    2007-01-01

    应用Solid/Works软件建立牙轮钻机钻架的三维模型,利用与Solid/Woks无缝集成的快速有限元分析软件Cosmos/Works方便、快速、准确地对钻架进行强度分析与校核.

  19. Weak lensing calibrated M-T scaling relation of galaxy groups in the cosmos field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Massey, R. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands); Taylor, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Spinelli, P. F. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas (IAG), Rua do Matão, 1226 Cidade Universitária 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tanaka, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ilbert, O. [LAM, CNRS-UNiv Aix-Marseille, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curis, F-13013 Marseille (France); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: kimmo.kettula@iki.fi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute{sup 2}, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48{sub −0.09}{sup +0.13}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS photometric redshift catalog (Ilbert+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; McCracken, H. J.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Kartaltepe, J.; Arnouts, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mobasher, B.; Taniguchi, Y.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Sasaki, S.; Thompson, D.; Zamojski, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Cook, R.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Le Brun, V.; Fevre, O. L.; Lilly, S.; Looper, D.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mellier, Y.; Mignoli, M.; Murayama, T.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Schiminovich, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Shioya, Y.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2017-03-01

    Compared with the previous optical/NIR catalog (Capak et al., 2007ApJS..172...99C, Cat. II/284), the new photometry implements 14 new medium/narrowband data from the Subaru Telescope, deep ground-based NIR data (J and K bands), and Spitzer-IRAC data. The spectroscopic sample used to calibrate/test the photo-z is 10 times larger at i+AB1.5. Hereafter, we detail the photometric and spectroscopic data used to measure the photo-z. Fluxes are measured in 30 bands from data taken on the Subaru (4200-9000Åg), CFHT (3900-21500Å), UKIRT (12500Å), Spitzer (3.6-8um), and GALEX (1500.2300Å) telescopes. We refer to P. Capak et al. (2008, in preparation) for a complete description of the observations, data reduction, and the photometry catalog. Photometric catalogue from P. Capak Photo-z catalogue from O. Ilbert PIs of the photometric data: D.B. Sanders, N. Scoville, Y. Tanigushi Data reducers: H. Aussel, P. Capak, H. McCracken, M. Salvato, S. Sasaki,D. Thompson, O. Ilbert, J. Kartaltepe, E. Le Floc'h, D. Looper, D.B. Sanders, N. Scoville Spectroscopic redshifts for validation from the zCOSMOS team (PI S. Lilly), from J. Kartaltepe and from P. Capak Identification of the Xray sources in the optical catalogue M. Brusa, G. Hasinger and the COSMOS/XMM team. (1 data file).

  1. CANDELS Multi-wavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS COSMOS Survey Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, H.; Hemmati, S.; Mobasher, B.; Ferguson, H. C.; Cooray, A.; Barro, G.; Faber, S. M.; Dickinson, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Peth, M.; Salvato, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Darvish, B.; Donley, J.; Durbin, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Fontana, A.; Grogin, N. A.; Gruetzbauch, R.; Huang, K.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kocevski, D.; Kodra, D.; Lee, B.; Newman, J.; Pacifici, C.; Pforr, J.; Stefanon, M.; Wiklind, T.; Willner, S. P.; Wuyts, S.; Castellano, M.; Conselice, C.; Dolch, T.; Dunlop, J. S.; Galametz, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Lucas, R. A.; Yan, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric catalog in the COSMOS field as part of the observations by the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The catalog is based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of the COSMOS field (centered at R.A.: {10}{{h}}{00}{{m}}{28}{{s}}, Decl.: +02^\\circ 12\\prime {21}\\prime\\prime ). The final catalog has 38671 sources with photometric data in 42 bands from UV to the infrared (∼ 0.3{--}8 μ {{m}}). This includes broadband photometry from HST, CFHT, Subaru, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, and Spitzer Space Telescope in the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands along with intermediate- and narrowband photometry from Subaru and medium-band data from Mayall NEWFIRM. Source detection was conducted in the WFC3 F160W band (at 1.6 μm) and photometry is generated using the Template FITting algorithm. We further present a catalog of the physical properties of sources as identified in the HST F160W band and measured from the multi-band photometry by fitting the observed spectral energy distributions of sources against templates.

  2. Properties and environment of Radio Emitting Galaxies in the VLA-zCOSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bardelli, S; Smolcic, V; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Mignoli, M; Halliday, C; Kovac, K; Ciliegi, P; Caputi, K; Koekemoer, A M; Bongiorno, A; Bondi, M; Bolzonella, M; Vergani, D; Pozzetti, L; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; LeFevre, O; Lilly, S; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; delaTorre, S; deRavel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Lamareille, F; LeBorgne, J -F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pello`, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Guzzo, L; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Capak, P; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Jahnke, K

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the properties and the environment of radio sources with optical counterpart from the combined VLA-COSMOS and zCOSMOS samples. The advantage of this sample is the availability of optical spectroscopic information, high quality redshifts, and accurate density determination. By comparing the star formation rates estimated from the optical spectral energy distribution with those based on the radio luminosity, we divide the radio sources in three families, passive AGN, non-passive AGN and star forming galaxies. These families occupy specific regions of the 8.0-4.5 $\\mu$m infrared color--specific star formation plane, from which we extract the corresponding control samples. Only the passive AGN have a significantly different environment distribution from their control sample. The fraction of radio-loud passive AGN increases from ~2% in underdense regions to ~15% for overdensities (1+delta) greater than 10. This trend is also present as a function of richness of the groups hosting the radio sources. ...

  3. A wide angle tail radio galaxy in the COSMOS field: evidence for cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Finoguenov, A; Sakelliou, I; Carilli, C L; Botzler, C S; Brusa, M; Scoville, N Z; Ajiki, M; Capak, P; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Jahnke, K; Kartaltepe, J S; McCracken, H J; Mobasher, B; Murayama, T; Sasaki, S S; Shioya, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Trump, J R

    2006-01-01

    We have identified a complex galaxy cluster system in the COSMOS field via a wide angle tail (WAT) radio galaxy consistent with the idea that WAT galaxies can be used as tracers of clusters. The WAT galaxy, CWAT-01, is coincident with an elliptical galaxy resolved in the HST-ACS image. Using the COSMOS multiwavelength data set, we derive the radio properties of CWAT-01 and use the optical and X-ray data to investigate its host environment. The cluster hosting CWAT-01 is part of a larger assembly consisting of a minimum of four X-ray luminous clusters within ~2 Mpc distance. We apply hydrodynamical models that combine ram pressure and buoyancy forces on CWAT-01. These models explain the shape of the radio jets only if the galaxy's velocity relative to the intra-cluster medium (ICM) is in the range of about 300-550 km/s which is higher than expected for brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in relaxed systems. This indicates that the CWAT-01 host cluster is not relaxed, but is possibly dynamically young. We argue t...

  4. Millimeter imaging of submillimeter galaxies in the COSMOS field: Redshift distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Navarrete, F; Schinnerer, E; Riechers, D A; Bertoldi, F; Feruglio, C; Finoguenov, A; Salvato, M; Sargent, M; McCracken, H J; Albrecht, M; Karim, A; Capak, P; Carilli, C L; Cappelluti, N; Elvis, M; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J; Lilly, S; Sanders, D; Sheth, K; Scoville, N Z; Taniguchi, Y

    2012-01-01

    We present new IRAM PdBI 1.3mm continuum observations at ~1.5" resolution of 28 SMGs previously discovered with the 870um bolometer LABOCA at APEX within the central 0.7deg2 of the COSMOS field. 19 out of the 28 LABOCA sources were detected with the PdBI at a >~3sigma level of ~1.4mJy/b. A combined analysis of this new sample with existing interferometrically identified SMGs in the COSMOS field yields the following results: 1) >~15%, and possibly up to ~40% of single-dish detected SMGs consist of multiple sources, 2) statistical identifications of multi-wavelength counterparts to the single-dish SMGs yield that only ~50% of these single-dish SMGs have real radio or IR counterparts, 3) ~18% of interferometric SMGs have only radio or even no multi-wavelength counterpart at all, and 4) ~50-70% of z>~3 SMGs have no radio counterparts down to an rms of 7-12uJy at 1.4GHz. Using the exact interferometric positions to identify proper multi-wavelength counterparts allows us to determine accurate photometric redshifts ...

  5. Dernières nouvelles du cosmos vers la première seconde

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Hubert

    1994-01-01

    « Ces dernières années, les recherches scientifiques sur le passé le plus lointain de l'univers ont été menées avec une grande vigueur. Je me propose d'en présenter ici les résultats les plus marquants. La théorie du Big Bang s'impose comme la description la plus adéquate de l'évolution du cosmos. Les arguments en sa faveur se sont accumulés. Mais, en parallèle, un certain nombre de difficultés sont apparues. Mon objectif est d'amener le lecteur vers les premiers temps de l'univers pour lui permettre d'estimer lui-même le degré de crédibilité de la théorie. Dans ce livre, nous remontons le temps jusqu'au moment où l'horloge conventionnelle marque " une seconde ". (Un ouvrage ultérieur nous présentera ce que nous savons de l'univers pendant cette première seconde.) Les affirmations de la théorie sont fondées sur une collection d'observations, les " fossiles cosmologiques ", qui nous renseignent sur l'état du cosmos à certains moments de son histoire. Nous donnons à chaque étape le...

  6. Final Science Reports of the US Experiments Flown on the Russian Biosatellite Cosmos 2229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor); Helwig, Denice A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Cosmos 2229 was launched on December 29, 1992, containing a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, insects, amphibians, and cell cultures. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia for a mission duration of 11.5 days. The major research objectives were: (1) Study of adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; and (2) Study of physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases. American scientists and their Russian collaborators conducted 11 experiments on this mission which included extensive preflight and postflight studies with rhesus monkeys. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included the development of experiment protocols, the fabrication of some flight instrumentation and experiment-specific ground-based hardware, the conducting of preflight and postflight testing and the analysis of biospecimens and data for the U.S. experiments. A description of the Cosmos 2229 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and postflight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and Russia is also described, along with the associated preflight testing ot the U.S. hardware. Final Science Reports for the experiments are also included.

  7. The Effects of Cosmos caudatus on Structural Bone Histomorphometry in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is considered a serious debilitating disease. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, a plant containing antioxidant compounds and minerals, may be used to treat and prevent osteoporosis. This study determines the effectiveness of C. caudatus as bone protective agent in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-two female rats, aged 3 months old, were divided into 4 groups. Group one was sham operated (sham while group two was ovariectomized. These two groups were given ionized water by forced feeding. Groups three and four were ovariectomized and given calcium 1% ad libitum and force-fed with C. caudatus at the dose of 500 mg/kg, respectively. Treatments were given six days per week for a period of eight weeks. Body weight was monitored every week and structural bone histomorphometry analyses of the femur bones were performed. Ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV, decreased trabecular number (Tb.N, and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp. Both calcium 1% and 500 mg/kg C. caudatus reversed the above structural bone histomorphometric parameters to normal level. C. caudatus shows better effect compared to calcium 1% on trabecular number (Tb.N and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp. Therefore, Cosmos caudatus 500 mg/kg has the potential to act as the therapeutic agent to restore bone damage in postmenopausal women.

  8. G10/COSMOS: 38 band (far-UV to far-IR) panchromatic photometry using LAMBDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S. K.; Driver, S. P.; Davies, L. J. M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Wright, Angus H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a consistent total flux catalogue for a ˜1 deg2 subset of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) region (RA ∈ [149.55°, 150.65°], Dec. ∈ [1.80°, 2.73°]) with near-complete coverage in 38 bands from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. We produce aperture matched photometry for 128 304 objects with i Telescope, Subaru, Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, Spitzer and Herschel, contains a robust total flux measurement or upper limit for every object in every waveband and complements our re-reduction of publicly available spectra in the same region. We perform a number of consistency checks, demonstrating that our catalogue is comparable to existing data sets, including the recent COSMOS2015 catalogue. We also release an updated Davies et al. spectroscopic catalogue that folds in new spectroscopic and photometric redshift data sets. The catalogues are available for download at http://cutout.icrar.org/G10/dataRelease.php. Our analysis is optimised for both panchromatic analysis over the full wavelength range and for direct comparison to GAMA, thus permitting measurements of galaxy evolution for 0 < z < 1 while minimizing the systematic error resulting from disparate data reduction methods.

  9. High-Performance Computer Modeling of the Cosmos-Iridium Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, S.

    This paper describes the application of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness (SSA) enterprise, to the recent Cosmos-Iridium collision. This framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We will describe the application of this framework to the recent collision of the Cosmos and Iridium satellites, including (1) detailed hydrodynamic modeling of the satellite collision and resulting debris generation, (2) orbital propagation of the simulated debris and analysis of the increased risk to other satellites (3) calculation of the radar and optical signatures of the simulated debris and modeling of debris detection with space surveillance radar and optical systems (4) determination of simulated debris orbits from modeled space surveillance observations and analysis of the resulting orbital accuracy, (5) comparison of these modeling and simulation results with Space Surveillance Network observations. We will also discuss the use of this integrated modeling and simulation framework to analyze the risks and consequences of future satellite collisions and to assess strategies for mitigating or avoiding future incidents, including the addition of new sensor systems, used in conjunction with the Space Surveillance Network, for improving space situational awareness.

  10. High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology from Space: NASA's Physics of the Cosmos Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    We summarize currently-funded NASA activities in high energy astrophysics and cosmology embodied in the NASA Physics of the Cosmos program, including updates on technology development and mission studies. The portfolio includes participation in a space mission to measure gravitational waves from a variety of astrophysical sources, including binary black holes, throughout most of cosmic history, and in another to map the evolution of black hole accretion by means of the accompanying X-ray emission. These missions are envisioned as collaborations with the European Space Agency's Large 3 (L3) and Athena programs, respectively. It also features definition of a large, NASA-led X-ray Observatory capable of tracing the surprisingly rapid growth of supermassive black holes during the first billion years of cosmic history. The program also includes the study of cosmic rays and high-energy gamma-ray photons resulting from range of physical processes, and efforts to characterize both the physics of inflation associated with the birth of the universe and the nature of the dark energy that dominates its mass-energy content today. Finally, we describe the activities of the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group, which serves as a forum for community analysis and input to NASA.

  11. Evolution of the Quasar Luminosity Function Over 3 < z < 5 in the COSMOS Survey Field

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Daniel; Salvato, Mara; Civano, Francesca; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Hasinger, Guenther; Impey, Christopher; Nagao, Tohru; Trump, Jonathan; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Elvis, Martin; Scoville, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the high-redshift quasar luminosity function (QLF) down to an apparent magnitude of I(AB) = 25 in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). Careful analysis of the extensive COSMOS photometry and imaging data allows us to identify and remove stellar and low-redshift contaminants, enabling a selection that is nearly complete for type-1 quasars at the redshifts of interest. We find 155 likely quasars at z > 3.1, 39 of which have prior spectroscopic confirmation. We present our sample in detail and use these confirmed and likely quasars to compute the rest-frame UV QLF in the redshift bins 3.1 3 is similar to what has been found for more luminous optical and X-ray quasars. We compare the rest-frame UV luminosity functions found here with the X-ray luminosity function at z > 3, and find that they evolve similarly between z \\sim 3.2 and z \\sim 4; however, the different normalizations imply that roughly 75% of X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) at z \\sim 3 - 4 are optically obscured. This fractio...

  12. The effects of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) supplementation on bone biochemical parameters in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norazlina; Yin, Chai Mei; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza; Babji, Abdul Salam; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2013-09-01

    Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja) contains high mineral content and possesses high antioxidant activity which may be beneficial in bone disorder such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. The effects of C. caudatus on bone metabolism biomarkers in ovariectomized rats were studied. 48 Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months were divided into 6 groups. One group of rats was sham-operated while the remaining rats were ovariectomized. The ovariectomized rats were further divided into 5 groups: the control, three groups force-fed with C. caudatus at the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg or 300mg/kg and another group supplemented with calcium 1% ad libitum. Treatments were given 6 days per week for a period of eight weeks. Blood samples were collected twice; before and after treatment. Parameters measured were bone resorbing cytokine; interleukin-1 and the bone biomarkers; osteocalcin and pyridinoline. Serum IL-1 and pyridinoline levels were significantly increased in ovariectomized rats. Supplementation of C. caudatus was able to prevent the increase of IL-1 and pyridinoline in ovariectomized rats. Besides that, C. caudatus showed the same effect as calcium 1% on biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. In conclusion, Cosmos caudatus was as effective as calcium in preventing the increase in bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

  13. G10/COSMOS: 38 band (far-UV to far-IR) panchromatic photometry using LAMBDAR

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, S K; Davies, L J M; Kafle, Prajwal R; Robotham, Aaron S G; Wright, Angus H

    2016-01-01

    We present a consistent total flux catalogue for a $\\sim$1 deg$^2$ subset of the COSMOS region (R.A. $\\in [149.55\\degr, 150.65\\degr]$, DEC $\\in [1.80\\degr, 2.73\\degr]$) with near-complete coverage in 38 bands from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. We produce aperture matched photometry for 128,304 objects with i < 24.5 in a manner that is equivalent to the Wright et al. (2016) catalogue from the low-redshift (z < 0.4) Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. This catalogue is based on publicly available imaging from GALEX, CFHT, Subaru, VISTA, Spitzer and Herschel, contains a robust total flux measurement or upper limit for every object in every waveband and complements our re-reduction of publicly available spectra in the same region. We perform a number of consistency checks, demonstrating that our catalogue is comparable to existing data sets, including the recent COSMOS2015 catalogue (Laigle et al. 2016). We also release an updated Davies et al. (2015) spectroscopic catalogue that folds in new...

  14. The Effects of Cosmos caudatus on Structural Bone Histomorphometry in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norazlina; Gwee Sian Khee, Sharon; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza; Suhaimi, Farihah; Othman, Faizah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is considered a serious debilitating disease. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja), a plant containing antioxidant compounds and minerals, may be used to treat and prevent osteoporosis. This study determines the effectiveness of C. caudatus as bone protective agent in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-two female rats, aged 3 months old, were divided into 4 groups. Group one was sham operated (sham) while group two was ovariectomized. These two groups were given ionized water by forced feeding. Groups three and four were ovariectomized and given calcium 1% ad libitum and force-fed with C. caudatus at the dose of 500 mg/kg, respectively. Treatments were given six days per week for a period of eight weeks. Body weight was monitored every week and structural bone histomorphometry analyses of the femur bones were performed. Ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), decreased trabecular number (Tb.N), and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Both calcium 1% and 500 mg/kg C. caudatus reversed the above structural bone histomorphometric parameters to normal level. C. caudatus shows better effect compared to calcium 1% on trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Therefore, Cosmos caudatus 500 mg/kg has the potential to act as the therapeutic agent to restore bone damage in postmenopausal women.

  15. COSMOS 2006软件又增多项新功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005年6月30日,SolidWorks公司宣布,COSMOS设计验证软件已推出最新版本COSMOS 2006,性能卓越且更加简便易用,只需通过鼠标点击、功能模版和帮助向导即可实现其强大的设计分析功能。COSMOS 2006软件将强大的新功能与简便易用的特点完美结合,其设计分析功能可以帮助用户企业节省工作时间并降低作业成本,从而在从设计方案构思伊始直至最后投产的整个过程中实现工作程序的有效优化。

  16. The [OIII] emission line luminosity function of optically selected type-2 AGN from zCOSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, A; Zamorani, G; Lamareille, F; Lanzuisi, G; Miyaji, T; Bolzonella, M; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J P; Le Fèvre, O; Lilly, S J; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Bardelli, S; Brusa, M; Caputi, K; Civano, F; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Halliday, C; Hasinger, G; Koekemoer, A M; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Merloni, A; Nair, P; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Salvato, M; Silverman, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Guzzo, L; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Pozzetti, L; Scaramella, R

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 213 type-2 AGN selected from the zCOSMOS survey. The selected sample covers a wide redshift range (0.15COSMOS observations). We study their evolution by computing the [OIII]5007A line luminosity function (LF) and we constrain the fraction of obscured AGN as a function of luminosity and redshift. The sample was selected on the basis of the optical emission line ratios, after applying a cut to the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the relevant lines. We used the standard diagnostic diagrams [OIII]/Hbeta versus [NII]/Halpha and ([OIII]/Hbeta versus [SII]/Halpha) to isolate AGN in the redshift range 0.15

  17. High-Performance Computer Modeling of the Cosmos-Iridium Collision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S; Cook, K; Fasenfest, B; Jefferson, D; Jiang, M; Leek, J; Levatin, J; Nikolaev, S; Pertica, A; Phillion, D; Springer, K; De Vries, W

    2009-08-28

    This paper describes the application of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness (SSA) enterprise, to the recent Cosmos-Iridium collision. This framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel, high-performance computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We will describe the application of this framework to the recent collision of the Cosmos and Iridium satellites, including (1) detailed hydrodynamic modeling of the satellite collision and resulting debris generation, (2) orbital propagation of the simulated debris and analysis of the increased risk to other satellites (3) calculation of the radar and optical signatures of the simulated debris and modeling of debris detection with space surveillance radar and optical systems (4) determination of simulated debris orbits from modeled space surveillance observations and analysis of the resulting orbital accuracy, (5) comparison of these modeling and simulation results with Space Surveillance Network observations. We will also discuss the use of this integrated modeling and simulation framework to analyze the risks and consequences of future satellite collisions and to assess strategies for mitigating or avoiding future incidents, including the addition of new sensor systems, used in conjunction with the Space Surveillance Network, for improving space situational awareness.

  18. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Overview And Catalog From The Cosmos Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Civano, F.; Hickox, R. C.; Puccetti, S.

    2015-01-01

    To provide the census of the sources contributing to the X-ray background peak above 10 keV, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is performing extragalactic surveys using a three-tier "wedding cake" approach. We present the NuSTAR survey of the COSMOS field, the medium sensitivity...

  19. Identification of temperature profile and heat transfer on a dielectric membrane for gas sensors by COSMOS program simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumitrescu, M.; Cobianu, C.; Lungu, D.; Dascalu, D.; Pascu, A.; van den Berg, Albert; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Kolev, S.; Ducso, C.; Barsony, I.

    1997-01-01

    The application of commercial 3-D software `COSMOS' for the design and thermal analysis of the low power consumption test structures with dielectric membrane for gas microsensors is presented. Within this work, the simulation provides the estimation of the temperature profile on the active area and

  20. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and electrolyte metabolism in rat blood after flight aboard Cosmos-1129 biosatellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvetnansky, R.; Tigranyan, R.A.; Jindra, A.; Viting, T.A.

    1982-08-01

    Blood plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity were studied in rats flow in space on the Cosmos 1129 satellite using radioimmunoassay techniques. Immediately after the flight, the animals presented significant decreases in plasma renin activity, as compared to rats in the vivarium control and animals in the synchronous experiment. R. J.

  1. A 1.75 kpc/h Separation Dual AGN at z=0.36 in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Comerford, Julia M; Gerke, Brian F; Cooper, Michael C; Newman, Jeffrey A; Davis, Marc; Stern, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present strong evidence for dual active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the z=0.36 galaxy COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the galaxy shows a tidal tail, indicating that the galaxy recently underwent a merger, as well as two bright point sources near the galaxy's center. Both the luminosities of these sources (derived from the HST image) and their emission line flux ratios (derived from Keck/DEIMOS slit spectroscopy) suggest that both are AGN and not star-forming regions or supernovae. Observations from zCOSMOS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, XMM-Newton, Very Large Array, and Spitzer fortify the evidence for AGN activity. With HST imaging we measure a projected spatial offset between the two AGN of 1.75 +- 0.03 kpc/h, and with DEIMOS we measure a 150 +- 40 km/s line-of-sight velocity offset between the two AGN. Combined, these observations provide substantial evidence that COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2 is a dual AGN in a merger-remnant galaxy.

  2. CoSMoS and TwinPaW: initial report on two new German twin studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinath, Frank M; Wolf, Heike

    2006-12-01

    After briefly recapitulating two earlier German twin studies (BiLSAT and GOSAT), we present two new German twin studies with a longitudinal perspective: CoSMoS and TwinPaW. The twin study on Cognitive ability, Self-reported Motivation and School performance (CoSMoS) aims to investigate predictors and influences of school performance in a genetically sensitive design, beginning with children in late elementary school. The Twin study on Personality And Wellbeing (TwinPaW) focuses on adult personality and its relation to physical health as well as health-related behavior in an adult sample of twins. Both studies are characterized by an effort to recruit new large twin samples through a novel recruitment procedure aimed at reducing self-selective sampling. In two German federal states, contact information on persons born on the same day and with the same name was retrieved from record sections. From the resulting pool of more than 36,000 addresses we contacted approximately 2000 parents of twins aged 9 and 10 for CoSMoS, as well as 2000 adult twin pairs for TwinPaW by telephone and mail. Personal contact by telephone proved to be more efficient with agreement rates of 63% in the children sample and 65% in the adult sample. In this article we briefly describe the rationale and the study aims of CoSMoS and TwinPaW as well as the characteristics of the sample we have recruited so far.

  3. Field-scale moisture estimates using COSMOS sensors: a validation study with temporary networks and leaf-area-indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) is a new and innovative method for estimating surface and near surface soil moisture at large (~700 m) scales. This system accounts for liquid water within its measurement volume. Many of the sites used in the early validation of the system had...

  4. Calibración in situ del sensor cosmos para determinar humedad del suelo en escalas intermedias (~1 km.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidencio Cruz Bautista

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La heterogeneidad del suelo influye ampliamente en el contenido de humedad, dificultando la precisa determinación de este parámetro en estudios con fines hidrológicos y ecológicos que requieren de mediciones continuas y representativas para escalas intermedias (~1 km. En este contexto un sensor de neutrón de rayo cósmico The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS permite cuantificar humedad del suelo de manera continua y a escalas espaciales de cientos de metros. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar un esquema de calibración para un sensor COSMOS CRS-1000. El estudio se realizó en una sabana de zacate buffel (Pennisetum ciliare en Rayón Sonora, México. En este sitio se instaló el COSMOS CRS-1000 y para su calibración se realizaron muestreos de suelo en dos etapas. A estas muestras se les determinó el contenido de humedad y su densidad aparente por técnicas gravimétricas. Con el contenido de humedad de estas muestras, expresado en términos volumétricos, se obtuvo por aproximación el parámetro de calibración para el COSMOS CRS-1000. El valor obtenido para este parámetro fue de 4121 conteos por hora (tasa de conteo del neutrón sobre suelo. Con este valor se realizó la corrección a los valores estimados originalmente por el sensor COSMOS CRS-1000. Al realizar esta corrección, se observó un incremento en el contenido de humedad del suelo de 1 a 2 % con respecto a los valores estimados con el COSMOS CRS-1000 en todo el periodo de análisis. A pesar de la variabilidad espacial en el contenido de humedad del suelo bajo estudio, se observó que el sensor COSMOS CRS-1000 tiene la capacidad de proveer estimaciones razonables del contenido de la humedad del suelo de manera continua a una profundidad de 0 a 40 cm, en una superficie de alrededor de 30 ha.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project (Smolcic+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolcic, V.; Novak, M.; Bondi, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Mooley, K. P.; Schinnerer, E.; Zamorani, G.; Navarrete, F.; Bourke, S.; Karim, A.; Vardoulaki, E.; Leslie, S.; Delhaize, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Myers, S. T.; Baran, N.; Delvecchio, I.; Miettinen, O.; Banfield, J.; Balokovic, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Frail, D. A.; Hallinan, G.; Hao, H.; Herrera Ruiz, N.; Horesh, A.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H.; Jelic, V.; Klockner, H.-R.; Krpan, J.; Kulkarni, S. R.; McCracken, H.; Laigle, C.; Middleberg, E.; Murphy, E.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sheth, K.

    2016-10-01

    The catalog contains sources selected down to a 5σ(σ~2.3uJy/beam) threshold. This catalog can be used for statistical analyses, accompanied with the corrections given in the data & catalog release paper. All completeness & bias corrections and source counts presented in the paper were calculated using this sample. The total fraction of spurious sources in the COSMOS 2 sq.deg. is below 2.7% within this catalog. However, an increase of spurious sources up to 24% at 5.0=5.5 for single component sources (MULTI=0). The total fraction of spurious sources in the COSMOS 2 sq.deg. within such a selected sample is below 0.4%, and the fraction of spurious sources is below 3% even at the lowest S/N (=5.5). Catalog Notes: 1. Maximum ID is 10966 although there are 10830 sources. Some IDs were removed by joining them into multi-component sources. 2. Peak surface brightness of sources [uJy/beam] is not reported, but can be obtained by multiplying SNR with RMS. 3. High NPIX usually indicates extended or very bright sources. 4. Reported positional errors on resolved and extended sources should be considered lower limits. 5. Multicomponent sources have errors and S/N column values set to -99.0 Additional data information: Catalog date: 21-Mar-2016 Source extractor: BLOBCAT v1.2 (http://blobcat.sourceforge.net/) Observations: 384 hours, VLA, S-band (2-4GHz), A+C array, 192 pointings Imaging software: CASA v4.2.2 (https://casa.nrao.edu/) Imaging algorithm: Multiscale multifrequency synthesis on single pointings Mosaic size: 30000x30000 pixels (3.3 GB) Pixel size: 0.2x0.2 arcsec2 Median rms noise in the COSMOS 2 sq.deg.: 2.3uJy/beam Beam is circular with FWHM=0.75 arcsec Bandwidth-smearing peak correction: 0% (no corrections applied) Resolved criteria: Sint/Speak>1+6*snr^(-1.44) Total area covered: 2.6 sq.deg. (1 data file).

  6. Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Oliver H.; Krasnov, Igor; Kakueva, E. Ilyina; Nemeth, Patti M.; Mcdougal, David B., Jr.; Choksi, Rati; Carter, Joyce G.; Chi, Maggie M. Y.; Manchester, Jill K.; Pusateri, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The effects of microgravity and hind limb suspension on the enzyme patterns are assessed within a slow twitch muscle (soleus) and a fast twitch muscle (tibialis anterior). Studies were made on 95 soleus fibers and about 300 tibialis anterior (TA) fibers. Over 2200 individual enzyme measurements were made. Six key metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinease, citrate kinase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate, and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight, and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution of each enzyme and amine acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

  7. Cosmos & Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1996-01-01

    The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne.......The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne....

  8. Kepler's cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    1998-05-01

    Copernicus's system of the Universe was revolutionary but his method of representing it on paper was anything but. It was left to Kepler to apply Renaissance techniques of spatial visualization to make the theory come alive.

  9. The First Release COSMOS Optical and Near-IR Data and Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Capak, P; Ajiki, M; McCracken, H J; Mobasher, B; Scoville, N; Shopbell, P; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D; Tribiano, S; Sasaki, S; Blain, A W; Brusa, M; Carilli, C; Comastri, A; Carollo, C M; Cassata, P; Colbert, J; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Giavalisco, M; Green, W; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Impey, C; Jahnke, K; Kartaltepe, J; Kneib, J-P; Koda, J; Koekemoer, A; Komiyama, Yu; Leauthaud, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Massey, R; Miyazaki, S; Murayama, T; Nagao, T; Peacock, J A; Pickles, A; Porciani, C; Renzini, A; Rhodes, J; Rich, M; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Scarlata, C; Schiminovich, D; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Shioya, Y; Tasca, L; Taylor, J E; Yan, L; Zamorani, G

    2007-01-01

    We present imaging data and photometry for the COSMOS survey in 15 photometric bands between 0.3um and 2.4um. These include data taken on the Subaru 8.3m telescope, the KPNO and CTIO 4m telescopes, and the CFHT 3.6m telescope. Special techniques are used to ensure that the relative photometric calibration is better than 1% across the field of view. The absolute photometric accuracy from standard star measurements is found to be 6%. The absolute calibration is corrected using galaxy spectra, providing colors accurate to 2% or better. Stellar and galaxy colors and counts agree well with the expected values. Finally, as the first step in the scientific analysis of these data we construct panchromatic number counts which confirm that both the geometry of the universe and the galaxy population are evolving.

  10. Lyman Alpha Emitters at Redshift 5.7 in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Murayama, T; Scoville, N Z; Ajiki, M; Sanders, D B; Mobasher, B; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Koekemoer, A; Shioya, Y; Nagao, T; Carilli, C; Ellis, Richard S; Garilli, B; Giavalisco, M; Kitzbichler, M G; LeFevre, O; MacCagni, D; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V; Tribiano, S; Cimatti, A; Komiyama, Yu; Miyazaki, S; Sasaki, S S; Koda, J; Karoji, H

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a narrow-band optical survey of a contiguous area of 1.95 deg^2, covered by the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). Both optical narrow-band (lambda_c = 8150 AA and Delta_lambda = 120 AA) and broad-band (B, V, g', r', i', and z') imaging observations were performed with the Subaru prime-focus camera, Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We provide the largest contiguous narrow-band survey, targetting Ly alpha emitters (LAEs) at z~5.7. We find a total of 119 LAE candidates at z~5.7. Over the wide-area covered by this survey, we find no strong evidence for large scale clustering of LAEs. We estimate a star formation rate (SFR) density of ~7*10^-4 M_sun yr^-1 Mpc^-3 for LAEs at z~5.7, and compare it with previous measurements.

  11. Frozen storage stability of beef patties incorporated with extracts from ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihani, S F S; Tan, Thuan-Chew; Huda, Nurul; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-07-15

    In Malaysia, fresh ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus) are eaten raw with rice. In this study, beef patties incorporated with extracts of ulam raja (UREX) and commercial green tea extract (GTE) added individually at 200 and 500 mg/kg were stored at -18°C for up to 10 weeks. Lipid oxidation, cooking yield, physicochemical properties, textural properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of the beef patties were compared between those incorporated with UREX, GTE and the control (pure beef patty). Incorporation of UREX or GTE at 500 mg/kg into beef patties reduced the extent of lipid oxidation significantly (P0.05) on the colour, pH, proximate composition and overall sensory acceptability of the patties.

  12. DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T. F; Inan, U. S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V. S.; Helliwell, R. A.; Sobolev, Ya. P.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Gonzalez, S.

    1994-01-01

    Past work demostrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength lambda. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which lambda less than or equal to 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the local lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of approximately 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H(+) ions with energy less than or equal to 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells.

  13. The effect of artificial gravity on plasma and tissue lipids in rats: The Cosmos 936 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, I.; Praslička, M.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    Plasma and tissue lipids in male SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 days aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite were analyzed. One group of rats was subjected to artificial gravity by use of a centrifuge during the flight. An experiment simulating known space flight factors other than weightlessness was done on Earth. An increase of total cholesterol in plasma, of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma and brown adipose tissue, of triacylglycerols in plasma, liver, thymus and bone marrow was noted several hours after biosatellite landing. Smaller changes were observed in the terrestrial control experiment. With the exception of triacylglycerol accumulation in bone marrow, these increases disappeared 25 days after biosatellite landing. Exposing the rats aboard the biosatellite to artificial gravity was beneficial in the sense that such exposure inhibited the phospholipid and triacylglycerol increase in plasma and inhibited the increase of triacylglycerol in liver and especially in bone marrow.

  14. The NAFE'05/CoSMOS Data Set: Toward SMOS Soil Moisture Retrieval, Downscaling, and Assimilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panciera, Rocco; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Kalma, Jetse D.

    2008-01-01

    -resolution data from SMOS; and 3) testing its assimilation into land surface models for root zone soil moisture retrieval. This paper describes the NAFE'05 and COSMOS airborne data sets together with the ground data collected in support of both aircraft campaigns. The airborne L-band acquisitions included 40 km x...... was to provide simulated Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) observations using airborne L-band radiometers supported by soil moisture and other relevant ground data for the following: 1) the development of SMOS soil moisture retrieval algorithms; 2) developing approaches for downscaling the low....... The L-band data were accompanied by airborne thermal infrared and optical measurements. The ground data consisted of continuous soil moisture profile measurements at 18 monitoring sites throughout the 40 km x 40 km study area and extensive spatial near-surface soil moisture measurements concurrent...

  15. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  16. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 1-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 1-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  18. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 1-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  19. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: average conditions in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 1-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  1. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  2. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: average conditions in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  3. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 1-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: average conditions in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 1-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  6. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: average conditions in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  7. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 1-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: average conditions in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 100-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  11. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  12. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 20-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  13. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 100-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  14. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: average conditions in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  15. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 100-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  16. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 20-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: average conditions in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  18. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  19. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 20-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  1. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 1-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  2. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 100-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  3. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 water-level projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived total water levels (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 wave-hazard projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived significant wave height (in meters) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes...

  6. The Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool: Charting Galaxies over Cosmic Times in The Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogee, Shardha; Hemenway, M. K.; Miller, S.; Smith, A.; Augustine, A.; Worhatch, R.; Preston, S.; Lester, D.; Fricke, K.

    2007-12-01

    Recent large galaxy surveys conducted with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have provided unprecedented legacy datasets, which allow astronomers to charter the evolution of galaxies over a large fraction of the age of the Universe. The Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET; http://www.as.utexas.edu/gcet/) is an online web-based tool that allows the general public and students to actively participate in this exciting adventure through quantitative analyses of HST images from the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs (GEMS) survey, one of the widest-area galaxy surveys conducted in two filters with ACS to date. The tool allows users to surf the vast cosmos and access ACS images of over 8,000 galaxies over the last eight billion years. For galaxies of interest, users can measure the size, determine the lookback time for concordance cosmology, perform morphological classification on images at two rest-frame wavelengths, and gauge the different stellar populations present. Users can record their measurements, as well as reference information, such as coordinates and redshift, of each galaxy into Excel spreadsheets for further analysis. The celestial coordinates can be used to extract further multiwavelength data from existing archives and upcoming virtual observatories. For undergraduate classes, more advanced IDL or C-based analyses that employ the full samples, can be combined with the visualization capabilities of GCET in order to explore the nature of interesting objects, such as the most massive galaxies, starbursting systems, interacting and merging galaxies. GCET provides a powerful tool for discovery learning in undergraduate science and introductory classes, as well as high schools. We thank the GEMS collaboration, and acknowledge support from NASA grants NAG5-13063 and NASA NNG 06GB99G, NSF grant AST-0607748, and the Faculty And Student Teams for Technology (FAST Tex) award from the University of Texas Division of

  7. Machine-learning identification of galaxies in the WISE × SuperCOSMOS all-sky catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, T.; Małek, K.; Bilicki, M.; Pollo, A.; Kurcz, A.; Krupa, M.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The two currently largest all-sky photometric datasets, WISE and SuperCOSMOS, have been recently cross-matched to construct a novel photometric redshift catalogue on 70% of the sky. Galaxies were separated from stars and quasars through colour cuts, which may leave imperfections because different source types may overlap in colour space. Aims: The aim of the present work is to identify galaxies in the WISE × SuperCOSMOS catalogue through an alternative approach of machine learning. This allows us to define more complex separations in the multi-colour space than is possible with simple colour cuts, and should provide a more reliable source classification. Methods: For the automatised classification we used the support vector machines (SVM) learning algorithm and employed SDSS spectroscopic sources that we cross-matched with WISE × SuperCOSMOS to construct the training and verification set. We performed a number of tests to examine the behaviour of the classifier (completeness, purity, and accuracy) as a function of source apparent magnitude and Galactic latitude. We then applied the classifier to the full-sky data and analysed the resulting catalogue of candidate galaxies. We also compared the resulting dataset with the one obtained through colour cuts. Results: The tests indicate very high accuracy, completeness, and purity (>95%) of the classifier at the bright end; this deteriorates for the faintest sources, but still retains acceptable levels of 85%. No significant variation in the classification quality with Galactic latitude is observed. When we applied the classifier to all-sky WISE × SuperCOSMOS data, we found 15 million galaxies after masking problematic areas. The resulting sample is purer than the one produced by applying colour cuts, at the price of a lower completeness across the sky. Conclusions: The automatic classification is a successful alternative approach to colour cuts for defining a reliable galaxy sample. The identifications we

  8. 基于COSMOS/FloWorks的割炬电极冷却水道优化%Optimization of the Cooling Course of the Electrode Based on COSMOS/FloWorks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小平; 曹云露

    2006-01-01

    COSMOS/FloWorks是完全整合至SolidWorks且易学易用的流体分析软件.文中使用COSMOS/FloWorks对一种等离子割炬的电极冷却水道进行仿真分析,从而发现此冷却水道存在的问题是前内壁面冷却水流速偏低,直角拐弯处出现最小流速.通过减少经过前内壁面处的冷却水的流通截面面积,在直角拐弯处开圆角可解决上述问题.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Slewing Table of Crane Truck Based on COSMOS/Works%基于COSMOS/Works的汽车起重机转台有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 张勇

    2009-01-01

    转台是汽车起重机的主要承载件之一,通过分析转台受力情况,建立力学模型,应用COSMOS/Works对转台结构进行有限元分析,其分析结果对汽车起重机设计具有重要指导意义.

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 storm-hazard projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Foxgrover, Amy; Herdman, Liv

    2017-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future SLR scenarios, as well as long-term shoreline change and cliff retreat.  Resulting projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Several versions of CoSMoS have been implemented for areas of the California coast, including Southern California, Central California, and San Francisco Bay, and further versions will be incorporated as additional regions and improvements are developed.

  11. Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation, rather than an exploration of all possible cosmic models. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplistic relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.

  12. From quantum physics to consciousness. Cosmos, spirit, and matter; Von der Quantenphysik zum Bewusstsein. Kosmos, Geist und Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goernitz, Thomas [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Goernitz, Brigitte

    2016-07-01

    The present book is a consequent continuation and deepening of a new concept layed down ba Thomas and Brigitte Goernitz in several writings. Starting from quantum theory they describe the evolution of the spirituality from the origin of the cosmos until the origin of the consciousness. Obtained was this knowledge by profund physical and mathematical research lasting for decades and in cooperation lasting for years with scientists and philosophers, especially with Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker.

  13. Tohoku Intelligent Cosmos Plan and informationalization in districts : Tohoku district in the world of the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonuma, Naoji

    Tohoku Intelligent Cosmos Plan is to construct the third local core in Japan by raising accumulation of sciences, technology and information, and ultimately to contribute to the nationwide as well as worldwide development toward the 2lst century. It has just stepped forward as a national project. This paper describes the history and outline of this plan. It also describes some subjects to be solved in building masterplan, arranging practical activities and constructing networks under the cooperation among industry, universities and governments.

  14. 工欲善其事,必先利其器——COSMOS 2007新功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊

    2006-01-01

    SolidWorks公司最近推出的COSMOS2007。在保持技术优势的基础上。又新增加了超过60个新的特性。COSMOS作为完全集成于SolidWorks环境的CAE工具。希望为用户进行创新设计提供更多的帮助。

  15. CoSMoS v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Foxgrover, Amy; Herdman, Liv

    2016-01-01

    CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) v3.0 for Southern California. Phase 2 data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for a variety of storm conditions and sea-level rise scenarios. Several changes from Phase 1 projections are reflected in many areas. Data will be disseminated by county, with San Diego County being the first of Phase 2 data releases.

  16. The XMM-Newton wide-field survey in the COSMOS field: VI. Statistical properties of clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Finoguenov, A; Hasinger, G; Scoville, N Z; Aussel, H; Böhringer, H; Brusa, M; Capak, P; Cappelluti, N; Comastri, A; Giodini, S; Griffiths, R E; Impey, C; Koekemoer, A M; Kneib, J P; Leauthaud, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Mainieri, V; Massey, R; McCracken, H J; Mobasher, B; Murayama, T; Peacock, J A; Sakelliou, I; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J D; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Tasca, L; Taylor, J E; Trump, J R; Zamorani, G

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a search for galaxy clusters in the first 36 XMM-Newton pointings on the COSMOS field. We reach a depth for a total cluster flux in the 0.5-2 keV band of 3x10-15 ergs cm-2 s-1, having one of the widest XMM-Newton contiguous raster surveys, covering an area of 2.1 square degrees. Cluster candidates are identified through a wavelet detection of extended X-ray emission. Verification of the cluster candidates is done based on a galaxy concentration analysis in redshift slices of thickness of 0.1-0.2 in redshift, using the multi-band photometric catalog of the COSMOS field and restricting the search to zS)-lg(S) distribution compares well with previous results, although yielding a somewhat higher number of clusters at similar fluxes. The X-ray luminosity function of COSMOS clusters matches well the results of nearby surveys, providing a comparably tight constraint on the faint end slope of alpha=1.93+/-0.04. For the probed luminosity range of 8x10+42 - 2x10+44 ergs s-1, our survey is in a...

  17. The redshift and nature of AzTEC/COSMOS 1: A starburst galaxy at z=4.6

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Ilbert, O; Blain, A W; Salvato, M; Aretxaga, I; Schinnerer, E; Masters, D; Moric, I; Riechers, D A; Sheth, K; Aravena, M; Aussel, H; Aguirre, J; Berta, S; Carilli, C L; Civano, F; Fazio, G; Huang, J; Hughes, D; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A M; Kneib, J -P; LeFloc'h, E; Lutz, D; McCracken, H; Mobasher, B; Murphy, E; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Sanders, D B; Sargent, M; Scott, K S; Scoville, N Z; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D; Willott, C; Wilson, G; Yun, M

    2011-01-01

    Based on broad/narrow-band photometry and Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy we report a redshift of z=4.64-0.08+0.06 for AzTEC/COSMOS 1, the brightest sub-mm galaxy in the AzTEC/COSMOS field. In addition to the COSMOS-survey X-ray to radio data, we report observations of the source with Herschel/PACS (100, 160 micron), CSO/SHARC II (350 micron), CARMA and PdBI (3 mm). We do not detect CO(5-4) line emission in the covered redshift ranges, 4.56-4.76 (PdBI/CARMA) and 4.94-5.02 (CARMA). If the line is within this bandwidth, this sets 3sigma upper limits on the gas mass to <~8x10^9 M_Sol and <~5x10^10 M_Sol, respectively (assuming similar conditions as observed in z~2 SMGs). This could be explained by a low CO-excitation in the source. Our analysis of the UV-IR spectral energy distribution of AzTEC 1 shows that it is an extremely young (<~50 Myr), massive (M*~10^11 M_Sol), but compact (<~2 kpc) galaxy forming stars at a rate of ~1300 M_Sol/yr. Our results imply that AzTEC 1 is forming stars in a 'gravitationall...

  18. GMRT observation of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the COSMOS field at $z \\sim 0.37$

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Jonghwan; Chengalur, Jayaram N; Briggs, Frank H; Colless, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of HI spectral stacking analysis of Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations targeting the COSMOS field. The GMRT data cube contains 474 field galaxies with redshifts known from the zCOSMOS-bright 10k catalogue. Spectra for the galaxies are co-added and the stacked spectrum allows us to make a $\\sim 3\\sigma$ measurement of the average HI mass. Using this average HI mass along with the integral optical $B$-band luminosity of the galaxies and the luminosity density of the COSMOS field, a volume normalisation is applied to obtain the cosmic HI mass density ($\\Omega_{\\rm HI}$). We find a cosmic HI mass density of $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}$ = (0.42 $\\pm$ 0.16) $\\times$ 10$^{-3}$ at $z \\sim 0.37$, which is the highest-redshift measurement of $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}$ ever made using HI spectral stacking. The value we obtained for $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}$ at $z \\sim 0.37$ is consistent with that measured from large blind 21-cm surveys at $z = 0$ as well as measurements from other HI stacking experiments at...

  19. An efficient method to identify galaxy clusters by using SuperCOSMOS, 2MASS and WISE data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WeiWei; WEN ZhongLue; HAN JinLin

    2014-01-01

    The survey data of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) provide an opportunity for the identification of galaxy clusters.We present an efficient method for detecting galaxy clusters by combining the WISE data with SuperCOSMOS and 2MASS data.After performing star-galaxy separation,we calculate the number of companion galaxies around the galaxies with photometric redshifts previously estimated by the SuperCOSMOS,2MASS and WISE data.A scaled richness Rscal ≥ 30 is set as a criterion to identify clusters.From a sky area of 275 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 region,we identify 302 clusters in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 0.35,247 (82%) of which are previously known SDSS clusters.The results suggest that our method is efficient for identifying galaxy clusters by using the all sky data of the SuperCOSMOS,2MASS and WISE.

  20. Late-stage galaxy mergers in cosmos to z ∼ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, C. N.; Silverman, J. D. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Kampczyk, P. [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sanders, D.; Lee, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Capak, P.; Scoville, N. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Civano, F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Halliday, C. [23, rue d’Yerres, F-91230 Montgeron (France); Ilbert, O.; Le Fèvre, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille), F-13388, Marseille (France); Jahnke, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Liu, C. T. [Astrophysical Observatory, CUNY, College of Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Toft, S., E-mail: claire.lackner@ipmu.jp [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK-2100 (Denmark)

    2014-12-01

    The role of major mergers in galaxy and black hole formation is not well-constrained. To help address this, we develop an automated method to identify late-stage galaxy mergers before coalescence of the galactic cores. The resulting sample of mergers is distinct from those obtained using pair-finding and morphological indicators. Our method relies on median-filtering of high-resolution images to distinguish two concentrated galaxy nuclei at small separations. This method does not rely on low surface brightness features to identify mergers, and is therefore reliable to high redshift. Using mock images, we derive statistical contamination and incompleteness corrections for the fraction of late-stage mergers. The mock images show that our method returns an uncontaminated (<10%) sample of mergers with projected separations between 2.2 and 8 kpc out to z∼1. We apply our new method to a magnitude-limited (m{sub FW} {sub 814}<23) sample of 44,164 galaxies from the COSMOS HST/ACS catalog. Using a mass-complete sample with logM{sub ∗}/M{sub ⊙}>10.6 and 0.25COSMOS, we find that the star formation rates and X-ray selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in likely late-stage mergers are higher by factors of ∼2 relative to those of a control sample. Combining our sample with more

  1. Cosmos caudatus enhances fracture healing in ovariectomised rats: A preliminary biomechanical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Godspower Rufus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Osteoporotic fractures occur in osteoporotic states and affect patients’ quality of life. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja is a local plant known for its high calcium content and anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the fracture healing properties of C. caudatus water extract in ovariectomised rats by studying the biomechanical properties of tibia. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: (i sham operated (ii ovariectomised control (iii ovariectomised + estrogen (100µg/kg/day and (iv ovariectomised + C. caudatus (500mg/kg. Following six weeks of sham operation or ovariectomy, the right tibia of the rats were fractured. Rats were then given their respective treatment for 8 weeks with body weight monitored weekly. Biomechanical analysis indicated that the maximum load, stress and Young’s modulus of the ovariectomised control group (36.2 ± 4.7N, 10.01 ± 1.41MPa, 29.2 ± 9.39MPa respectively were significantly lower compared to sham operated (150.32 ± 32. 6N, 36.75 ± 7.98MPa, 183 ± 53.2MPa respectively and the C. caudatus treated group (136.86 ± 16.95N, 33.45 ± 4.14MPa, 155.13± 58.58MPa respectively. Therefore, C. caudatus extract improved the biomechanical property of the healed bone and may be beneficial for fracture healing in the estrogen deficient state.Industrial Relevance. Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a debilitating disease affecting women worldwide. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT, commonly used for the prevention and treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis has been associated with several side effects. Thus, in finding alternatives in the treatment of osteoporosis, C. caudatus is a plant of interest. Previous study showed that C. caudatus improved bone histomorphometry in ovariectomized rats by increasing double-labeled surface (dLS/BS, mineral appositional rate (MAR, osteoid volume (OV/BV and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess

  2. Physical properties of z>4 submillimeter galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Miettinen, O; Novak, M; Magnelli, B; Riechers, D A; Schinnerer, E; Capak, P; Bondi, M; Ciliegi, P; Aravena, M; Bertoldi, F; Bourke, S; Banfield, J; Carilli, C L; Civano, F; Ilbert, O; Fevre, O Le; Finoguenov, A; Hallinan, G; Kloeckner, H -R; Laigle, C; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Mooley, K; Murphy, E; Navarette, F; Salvato, M; Sargent, M; Sheth, K; Toft, S; Zamorani, G

    2014-01-01

    We study the physical properties of a sample of 6 SMGs in the COSMOS field, spectroscopically confirmed to lie at z>4. We use new GMRT 325 MHz and 3 GHz JVLA data to probe the rest-frame 1.4 GHz emission at z=4, and to estimate the sizes of the star-forming (SF) regions of these sources, resp. Combining our size estimates with those available in the literature for AzTEC1 and AzTEC3 we infer a median radio-emitting size for our z>4 SMGs of (0.63"+/-0.12")x(0.35"+/-0.05") or 4.1x2.3 kpc^2 (major times minor axis; assuming z=4.5) or lower if we take the two marginally resolved SMGs as unresolved. This is consistent with the sizes of SF regions in lower-redshift SMGs, and local normal galaxies, yet higher than the sizes of SF regions of local ULIRGs. Our SMG sample consists of a fair mix of compact and more clumpy systems with multiple, perhaps merging, components. With an average formation time of ~280 Myr, derived through modeling of the UV-IR SEDs, the studied SMGs are young systems. The average stellar mass, ...

  3. The multiplicity of 250-$\\mu$m Herschel sources in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Scudder, Jillian M; Hurley, Peter D; Griffin, Matt; Sargent, Mark T; Scott, Douglas; Wang, Lingyu; Wardlow, Julie L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity of extragalactic sources detected by the Herschel Space Observatory in the COSMOS field. Using 3.6- and 24-$\\mu$m catalogues, in conjunction with 250-$\\mu$m data from Herschel, we seek to determine if a significant fraction of Herschel sources are composed of multiple components emitting at 250 $\\mu$m. We use the XID+ code, using Bayesian inference methods to produce probability distributions of the possible contributions to the observed 250-$\\mu$m flux for each potential component. The fraction of Herschel flux assigned to the brightest component is highest for sources with total 250-$\\mu$m fluxes < 45 mJy; however, the flux in the brightest component is still highest in the brightest Herschel sources. The faintest 250-$\\mu$m sources (30-45 mJy) have the majority of their flux assigned to a single bright component; the second brightest component is typically significantly weaker, and contains the remainder of the 250-$\\mu$m source flux. At the highest 250-$\\mu$m fluxes (45-...

  4. Ongoing and co-evolving star formation in zCOSMOS galaxies hosting Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Maier, C; Lilly, S; Mainieri, V; Brusa, M; Cappelluti, N; Hasinger, G; Zamorani, G; Scodeggio, M; Bolzonella, M; Contini, T; Carollo, C M; Jahnke, K; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Merloni, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Brunner, H; Caputi, K; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Elvis, M; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gilli, R; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Vignali, C; Zucca, E; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Griffiths, R; Kartaltepe, J; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Salvato, M

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the host galaxies of AGN selected from the zCOSMOS survey to establish if accretion onto supermassive black holes and star formation are explicitly linked up to z~1. We identify 152 galaxies that harbor AGN, based on XMM observations of 7543 galaxies (i<22.5). Star formation rates (SFRs), including those weighted by stellar mass, are determined using the [OII]3727 emission-line, corrected for an AGN contribution. We find that the majority of AGN hosts have significant levels of star formation with a distribution spanning ~1-100 Msun yr^-1. The close association between AGN activity and star formation is further substantiated by an increase in the AGN fraction with the youthfulness of their stars as indicated by the rest-frame color (U-V) and spectral index Dn(4000); we demonstrate that mass-selection alleviates an artifical peak falling in the transition region when using luminosity-limited samples. We also find that the SFRs of AGN hosts evolve with cosmic time in a manner that close...

  5. The Environments of Active Galactic Nuclei within the zCOSMOS Density Field

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Knobel, C; Lilly, S; Bolzonella, M; Lamareille, F; Mainieri, V; Brusa, M; Cappelluti, N; Peng, Y; Hasinger, G; Zamorani, G; Scodeggio, M; Contini, T; Carollo, C M; Jahnke, K; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Brunner, H; Caputi, K; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Elvis, M; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gilli, R; Griffiths, R; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Vignali, C; Zucca, E; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Salvato, M

    2008-01-01

    The impact of environment on AGN activity up to z~1 is assessed by utilizing a mass-selected sample of galaxies from the 10k catalog of the zCOSMOS spectroscopic redshift survey. We identify 147 AGN by their X-ray emission as detected by XMM-Newton from a parent sample of 7234 galaxies. We measure the fraction of galaxies with stellar mass M_*>2.5x10^10 Msun that host an AGN as a function of local overdensity using the 5th, 10th and 20th nearest neighbors that cover a range of physical scales (~1-4 Mpc). Overall, we find that AGNs prefer to reside in environments equivalent to massive galaxies with substantial levels of star formation. Specifically, AGNs with host masses between 0.25-1x10^11 Msun span the full range of environments (i.e., field-to-group) exhibited by galaxies of the same mass and rest-frame color or specific star formation rate. Host galaxies having M_*>10^11 Msun clearly illustrate the association with star formation since they are predominantly bluer than the underlying galaxy population an...

  6. Jazz with the cosmos | CERN at the Montreux Jazz Festival | 12 July

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    CERN will be participating in the Montreux Jazz Festival again this year with "The Physics of Music and the Music of Physics" at the Petit Palais on 12 July. The event, which is also part of CERN's 60th anniversary schedule, brings the music of the LHC, the Higgs boson, and the distant cosmos.   The Physics of Music and the Music of Physics Petit Palais, Montreux Jazz Festival Saturday 12 July 2014 - 5.00 p.m.  Free Entrance - for more information, visit the event site You may not realise it but energetic cosmic rays are passing through your body every second. They are produced by the collision of high-energy charged particles with the Earth’s upper atmosphere. The particles come from events occurring all over our Universe, some of which happened billions of years ago. A little over 100 years ago, scientists started detecting these ‘cosmic rays’, finding that there were many more particles in our Universe than we originally th...

  7. COLDz: Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array discovery of a gas-rich galaxy in COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Lentati, L; Carilli, C L; Riechers, D; Capak, P; Walter, F; Aravena, M; da Cunha, E; Hodge, J A; Ivison, R J; Smail, I; Sharon, C; Daddi, E; Decarli, R; Dickinson, M; Sargent, M; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V

    2014-01-01

    The broad spectral bandwidth at mm and cm-wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48, through the detection of CO(1-0) line emission in the COLDz survey, through a sensitive, Ka-band (31 to 39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 square arcminute region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ~570 +/- 80 km/s) is most likely to be CO(1-0) at z=2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z = 3.2 +/- 0.4. The CO(1-0) line luminosity is L'_CO = (2.2 +/- 0.3) x 10^{10} K km/s pc^2, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M_gas ~ (2 - 8)x10^{10}M_solar depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio alpha_CO. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrare...

  8. MetaboLights: towards a new COSMOS of metabolomics data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Christoph; Conesa, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Mahendraker, Tejasvi; Williams, Mark; Maguire, Eamonn; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Salek, Reza M; Griffin, Julian L

    2012-10-01

    Exciting funding initiatives are emerging in Europe and the US for metabolomics data production, storage, dissemination and analysis. This is based on a rich ecosystem of resources around the world, which has been build during the past ten years, including but not limited to resources such as MassBank in Japan and the Human Metabolome Database in Canada. Now, the European Bioinformatics Institute has launched MetaboLights, a database for metabolomics experiments and the associated metadata (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/metabolights). It is the first comprehensive, cross-species, cross-platform metabolomics database maintained by one of the major open access data providers in molecular biology. In October, the European COSMOS consortium will start its work on Metabolomics data standardization, publication and dissemination workflows. The NIH in the US is establishing 6-8 metabolomics services cores as well as a national metabolomics repository. This communication reports about MetaboLights as a new resource for Metabolomics research, summarises the related developments and outlines how they may consolidate the knowledge management in this third large omics field next to proteomics and genomics.

  9. COordination of Standards in MetabOlomicS (COSMOS): facilitating integrated metabolomics data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, Reza M; Neumann, Steffen; Schober, Daniel; Hummel, Jan; Billiau, Kenny; Kopka, Joachim; Correa, Elon; Reijmers, Theo; Rosato, Antonio; Tenori, Leonardo; Turano, Paola; Marin, Silvia; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Rolin, Dominique; Dartigues, Benjamin; Conesa, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; O'Hagan, Steve; Hao, Jie; van Vliet, Michael; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Ludwig, Christian; Bouwman, Jildau; Cascante, Marta; Ebbels, Timothy; Griffin, Julian L; Moing, Annick; Nikolski, Macha; Oresic, Matej; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Viant, Mark R; Goodacre, Royston; Günther, Ulrich L; Hankemeier, Thomas; Luchinat, Claudio; Walther, Dirk; Steinbeck, Christoph

    Metabolomics has become a crucial phenotyping technique in a range of research fields including medicine, the life sciences, biotechnology and the environmental sciences. This necessitates the transfer of experimental information between research groups, as well as potentially to publishers and funders. After the initial efforts of the metabolomics standards initiative, minimum reporting standards were proposed which included the concepts for metabolomics databases. Built by the community, standards and infrastructure for metabolomics are still needed to allow storage, exchange, comparison and re-utilization of metabolomics data. The Framework Programme 7 EU Initiative 'coordination of standards in metabolomics' (COSMOS) is developing a robust data infrastructure and exchange standards for metabolomics data and metadata. This is to support workflows for a broad range of metabolomics applications within the European metabolomics community and the wider metabolomics and biomedical communities' participation. Here we announce our concepts and efforts asking for re-engagement of the metabolomics community, academics and industry, journal publishers, software and hardware vendors, as well as those interested in standardisation worldwide (addressing missing metabolomics ontologies, complex-metadata capturing and XML based open source data exchange format), to join and work towards updating and implementing metabolomics standards.

  10. A Runaway Black Hole in COSMOS: Gravitational Wave or Slingshot Recoil?

    CERN Document Server

    Civano, F; Lanzuisi, G; Jahnke, K; Zamorani, G; Blecha, L; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Hao, H; Leauthaud, A; Loeb, A; Mignoli, M; Mainieri, V; Piconcelli, E; Salvato, M; Scoville, N; Trump, J; Vignali, C; Aldcroft, T; Bolzonella, M; Bressert, E; Finoguenov, A; Fruscione, A; Koekemoer, A M; Cappelluti, N; Fiore, F; Giodini, S; Gilli, R; Impey, C D; Lilly, S J; Lusso, E; Puccetti, S; Silverman, J D; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Frayer, D; Le Floc'h, E; McCracken, H J; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Taniguchi, Y

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a peculiar source in the COSMOS survey at z=0.359. Source CXOCJ100043.1+020637 (CID-42) presents two compact optical sources embedded in the same galaxy. The distance between the 2, measured in the HST/ACS image, is 0.495" that, at the redshift of the source, corresponds to a projected separation of 2.46 kpc. A large (~1200 km/s) velocity offset between the narrow and broad components of Hbeta has been measured in three different optical spectra from the VLT/VIMOS and Magellan/IMACS instruments. CID-42 is also the only X-ray source having in its X-ray spectra a strong redshifted broad absorption iron line, and an iron emission line, drawing an inverted P-Cygni profile. The Chandra and XMM data show that the absorption line is variable in energy by 500 eV over 4 years and that the absorber has to be highly ionized, in order not to leave a signature in the soft X-ray spectrum. That these features occur in the same source is unlikely to be a coincidence. We envisage two possible ex...

  11. The COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES): Probing HI Across Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ximena; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Chiles Team

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (HI) is the most abundant element in the Universe, and surprisingly, we know very little about the neutral hydrogen beyond z~0.08. The recently upgraded VLA makes it now possible to image the HI in galaxies beyond the local Universe. We are using the broad bandwidth of the VLA to instantaneously probe HI from z=0 to z=0.5 in one pointing of the COSMOS field. Once CHILES is complete, we will have HI images of 300 galaxies across cosmic time in different environments. These images will have a spatial resolution of 0.5 kpc for nearby galaxies and 30 kpc at z~0.5, and a velocity resolution of 7 km/s. In preparation for CHILES, we carried out a pilot study that observed the same pointing out to z~0.2, and detected HI in 33 galaxies in our volume. I will describe the science goals of CHILES, what we learned from the pilot study, and present preliminary results for the first 200 hours of observations of the full survey. After 1002 hours of integration time, we will have high-resolution HI images that will help us understand galaxy evolution across cosmic time and test predictions made by cosmological simulations.

  12. The SuperCosmos South Galactic Cap multi-colour/epoch digitised survey - Online!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, N.; Read, M.

    We describe the first release of data from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey programme, the South Galactic Cap survey. This consists of a 3 colour (BRI), one colour (R) at 2 epochs, digital sky survey based on high Galactic latitude (|b|>60o) Schmidt survey plates covering ~5000 square degrees - it is the first digitised sky survey to include both colours and proper motions. Positions are tied to the International Co-ordinate Reference Frame via the Tycho-ACT catalogue and are externally accurate to ~0.3 arcsec; proper motions (also zero-pointed on the extragalactic frame) are typically accurate to ~10 mas yr-1. Photometry in BRI is accurate to ~0.2m and is tied to external CCD zeropoints with field-to-field zeropoint errors minimised using field overlap regions. We describe a simple database interrogation example and show the results. Finally, we describe the future plans for expanding the survey to cover the full southern sky. For full details access the survey homepage on http://www-wfau.roe.ac.uk/sss/.

  13. Galaxy Stellar Mass Assembly between 0.2COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ilbert, O; Le Floc'h, E; Aussel, H; Capak, P; McCracken, H J; Mobasher, B; Kartaltepe, J; Scoville, N; Sanders, D B; Arnouts, S; Bundy, K; Cassata, P; Kneib, J -P; Koekemoer, A; Le Fèvre, O; Lilly, S; Surace, J; Taniguchi, Y; Tasca, L; Thompson, D; Tresse, L; Zamojski, M; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E

    2009-01-01

    We follow the galaxy stellar mass assembly by morphological and spectral type in the COSMOS 2-deg^2 field. We derive the stellar mass functions and stellar mass densities from z=2 to z=0.2 using 192,000 galaxies selected at F(3.6 micron) > 1 microJy with accurate photometric redshifts (sigma_dz/(1+z)~0.12). Using a spectral classification, we find that z~1 is an epoch of transition in the stellar mass assembly of quiescent galaxies. Their stellar mass density increases by 1.3 dex between z=1.5-2 and z=0.8-1 (dt~2.5Gyr), but only by 0.25 dex between z=0.8-1 and z~0.1 (dt~6Gyr). Then, we add the morphological information and find that 75-85% of the massive quiescent galaxies (log(M)~11) have an elliptical morphology at z<0.8. We also estimate that less than 20% of the morphologically selected massive elliptical galaxies exhibit ongoing star-formation. Therefore, a dominant mechanism links the shutdown of star formation and the acquisition of an elliptical morphology in massive galaxies. Still, a significant ...

  14. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey: Source X-ray spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesi, S; Civano, F; Iwasawa, K; Suh, H; Comastri, A; Zamorani, G; Allevato, V; Griffiths, R; Miyaji, T; Ranalli, P; Salvato, M; Schawinski, K; Silverman, J; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 1855 extragalactic sources in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey catalog having more than 30 net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band. 38% of the sources are optically classified Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), 60% are Type 2 AGN and 2% are passive, low-redshift galaxies. We study the distribution of AGN photon index and of the intrinsic absorption N(H,z) based on the sources optical classification: Type 1 have a slightly steeper mean photon index than Type 2 AGN, which on the other hand have average intrinsic absorption ~3 times higher than Type 1 AGN. We find that ~15% of Type 1 AGN have N(H,z)>1E22 cm^(-2), i.e., are obscured according to the X-ray spectral fitting; the vast majority of these sources have L(2-10keV)>$1E44 erg/s. The existence of these objects suggests that optical and X-ray obscuration can be caused by different phenomena, the X-ray obscuration being for example caused by dust-free material surrounding the inner part of the nuclei. ~18% of Type 2 AG...

  15. Physical properties of distant red galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zhongyang; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on physical properties for a large distant red galaxy (DRG) sample, using the $K$-selected multi-band photometry catalog of the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field and the CANDELS NIR data. Our sample includes 4485 DRGs with $(J-K)_\\mathrm{AB}>1.16$ and $K_\\mathrm{AB}<$23.4 mag, and 132 DRGs have HST/WFC3 morphological measurements. The results of nonparametric measurements of DRG morphology are consistent with our rest-frame UVJ color classification: quiescent DRGs are generally compact while star-forming DRGs tend to have extended structures. We find the star formation rate (SFR) and the stellar mass of star-forming DRGs present tight "main sequence" relations in all redshift bins. Moreover, the specific SFR (sSFR) of DRGs increase with redshift in all stellar mass bins and DRGs with higher stellar masses generally have lower sSFRs, which indicates that galaxies were much more active on average in the past, and star formation contributes more to the mass growth of low-mass galaxies than to high-ma...

  16. Discover the Cosmos - Bringing Cutting Edge Science to Schools across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The fast growing number of science data repositories is opening enormous possibilities to scientists all over the world. The emergence of citizen science projects is engaging in science discovery a large number of citizens globally. Astronomical research is now a possibility to anyone having a computer and some form of data access. This opens a very interesting and strategic possibility to engage large audiences in the making and understanding of science. On another perspective it would be only natural to imagine that soon enough data mining will be an active part of the academic path of university or even secondary schools students. The possibility is very exciting but the road not very promising. Even in the most developed nations, where all schools are equipped with modern ICT facilities the use of such possibilities is still a very rare episode. The Galileo Teacher Training Program GTTP, a legacy of IYA2009, is participating in some of the most emblematic projects funded by the European Commission and targeting modern tools, resources and methodologies for science teaching. One of this projects is Discover the Cosmos which is aiming to target this issue by empowering educators with the necessary skills to embark on this innovative path: teaching science while doing science.

  17. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins technology development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark; Pham, Thai

    2014-07-01

    NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices, established in 2011, reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The offices serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the programs' technology development activities and technology investment portfolio, funded by NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. We currently fund 19 technology advancements to enable future PCOS and COR missions to help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The programs' goal is to promote and support technology development needed to enable missions envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) Decadal Survey report [1] and the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2]. These include technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and a 4m-class UV/optical telescope to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies, as a post-Hubble observatory with significantly improved sensitivity and capability.

  18. Probing the faint end of the quasar luminosity function at z ~ 4 in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, H; Matsuoka, K; Taniguchi, Y; Shioya, Y; Trump, J R; Capak, P; Comastri, A; Enoki, M; Ideue, Y; Kakazu, Y; Koekemoer, A M; Morokuma, T; Murayama, T; Saito, T; Salvato, M; Schinnerer, E; Scoville, N Z; Silverman, J D

    2010-01-01

    We searched for quasars that are ~ 3 mag fainter than the SDSS quasars in the redshift range 3.7 < z < 4.7 in the COSMOS field to constrain the faint end of the quasar luminosity function. Using optical photometric data, we selected 31 quasar candidates with 22 < i' < 24 at z ~ 4. We obtained optical spectra for most of these candidates using FOCAS on the Subaru telescope, and identified 8 low-luminosity quasars at z ~ 4. In order to derive the quasar luminosity function (QLF) based on our spectroscopic follow-up campaign, we estimated the photometric completeness of our quasar survey through detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Our QLF at z ~ 4 has a much shallower faint-end slope beta = -1.67^{+0.11}_{-0.17} than that obtained by other recent surveys in the same redshift. Our result is consistent with the scenario of downsizing evolution of active galactic nuclei inferred by recent optical and X-ray quasar surveys at lower redshifts.

  19. WISE x SuperCOSMOS photometric redshift catalog: 20 million galaxies over 3pi steradians

    CERN Document Server

    Bilicki, M; Jarrett, T H; Cluver, M E; Maddox, N; Brown, M J I; Taylor, E N; Hambly, N C; Solarz, A; Holwerda, B W; Baldry, I; Loveday, J; Moffett, A; Hopkins, A M; Driver, S P; Alpaslan, M; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2016-01-01

    We cross-match the two currently largest all-sky photometric catalogs, mid-infrared WISE and SuperCOSMOS scans of UKST/POSS-II photographic plates, to obtain a new galaxy sample that covers 3pi steradians. In order to characterize and purify the extragalactic dataset, we use external GAMA and SDSS spectroscopic information to define quasar and star loci in multicolor space, aiding the removal of contamination from our extended-source catalog. After appropriate data cleaning we obtain a deep wide-angle galaxy sample that is approximately 95% pure and 90% complete at high Galactic latitudes. The catalog contains close to 20 million galaxies over almost 70% of the sky, outside the Zone of Avoidance and other confused regions, with a mean surface density of over 650 sources per square degree. Using multiwavelength information from two optical and two mid-IR photometric bands, we derive photometric redshifts for all the galaxies in the catalog, using the ANNz framework trained on the final GAMA-II spectroscopic da...

  20. The Faint End Slopes Of Galaxy Luminosity Functions In The COSMOS 2-Square Degree Field

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Charles T; Mobasher, Bahram; Paglione, Timothy A D; Rich, R Michael; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Tribiano, Shana M; Tyson, Neil D

    2007-01-01

    We examine the faint-end slope of the rest-frame V-band luminosity function (LF), with respect to galaxy spectral type, of field galaxies with redshift z<0.5, using a sample of 80,820 galaxies with photometric redshifts in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. For all galaxy spectral types combined, the LF slope, alpha, ranges from -1.24 to -1.12, from the lowest redshift bin to the highest. In the lowest redshift bin (0.02

  1. Accreting SMBHs in the COSMOS field and the connection to their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Magnelli, B; Salvato, M; Mignoli, M; Zamorani, G; Fiore, F; Rosario, D; Mainieri, V; Comastri, A; Vignali, C; Balestra, I; Bardelli, S; Berta, S; Civano, F; Kampczyk, P; Floc'h, E Le; Lusso, E; Lutz, D; Pozzetti, L; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Shankar, F; Silverman, J

    2012-01-01

    Using the wide multi-band photometry available in the COSMOS field we explore the host galaxy properties of a large sample of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) obtained by combining X-ray and optical spectroscopic selections. Based on a careful study of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), which has been parametrized using a 2-component (AGN+galaxy) model fit, we derived dust-corrected rest-frame magnitudes, colors, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs). We find that AGN hosts span a large range of stellar masses and SFRs. No color-bimodality is seen at any redshift in the AGN hosts, which are found to be mainly massive, red galaxies. Once accounting for the color-mass degeneracy in well defined mass-matched samples, we find a residual marginal enhancement of AGN incidence in redder galaxies with lower specific star formation rates, and we argue that this result might emerge because of our ability to properly account for AGN light contamination and dust extinction. Interestingly, we find that the pro...

  2. Pan-STARRS1 variability of XMM-COSMOS AGN. I. Impact on photometric redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Simm, T; Salvato, M; Bender, R; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Draper, P W; Flewelling, H; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

    2015-01-01

    [Abbreviated] Upcoming large area sky surveys like EUCLID and eROSITA crucially depend on accurate photometric redshifts (photo-z). The identification of variable sources, such as AGNs, and the achievable redshift accuracy for varying objects are important in view of the science goals of the EUCLID and eROSITA missions. We probe AGN optical variability for a large sample of X-ray-selected AGNs in the XMM-COSMOS field, using the light curves provided by the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3pi and MDF04 surveys. Utilizing two different variability parameters, we defined a sample of varying AGNs for every PS1 band. We investigated the influence of variability on the calculation of photo-z by applying three different input photometry sets for our fitting procedure. For each of the five PS1 bands, we chose either the epochs minimizing the interval in observing time, the median magnitude values, or randomly drawn light curve points to compute the redshift. In addition, we derived photo-z using PS1 photometry extended by GALEX/IR...

  3. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Overview and Catalog from the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Civano, F; Puccetti, S; Comastri, A; Mullaney, J R; Zappacosta, L; LaMassa, S M; Aird, J; Alexander, D M; Ballantyne, D R; Bauer, F E; Brandt, W N; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Del-Moro, A; Elvis, M; Forster, K; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Lansbury, G B; Luo, B; Madsen, K; Saez, C; Stern, D; Treister, E; Urry, M C; Wik, D R; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    To provide the census of the sources contributing to the X-ray background peak above 10 keV, NuSTAR is performing extragalactic surveys using a three-tier "wedding cake" approach. We present the NuSTAR survey of the COSMOS field, the medium sensitivity and medium area tier, covering 1.7 deg2 and overlapping with both Chandra and XMM-Newton data. This survey consists of 121 observations for a total exposure of ~3 Ms. To fully exploit these data, we developed a new detection strategy, carefully tested through extensive simulations. The survey sensitivity at 20% completeness is 5.9, 2.9 and 6.4 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s in the 3-24 keV, 3-8 keV and 8-24 keV bands, respectively. By combining detections in 3 bands, we have a sample of 91 NuSTAR sources with 10^42 -10^45.5 erg/s luminosities and redshift z=0.04-2.5. Thirty two sources are detected in the 8-24 keV band with fluxes ~100 times fainter than sources detected by Swift-BAT. Of the 91 detections, all but four are associated with a Chandra and/or XMM-Newton point-...

  4. The star formation history of mass-selected galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Alexander; Martinez-Sansigre, Alejo; Sargent, Mark T; van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ilbert, Olivier; Smolcic, Vernesa; Carilli, Chris; Pannella, Maurilio; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bell, Eric F; Salvato, Mara

    2010-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the specific star formation rate (SSFR) for 3.6um-selected galaxies of different M_* in the COSMOS field. The average SFR for sub-sets of these galaxies is estimated with stacked 1.4GHz radio continuum emission. We separately consider the total sample and a subset of galaxies (SF) that shows evidence for substantive recent star formation in the rest-frame optical SED. At 0.22, at least above 4x10^10M_Sun where our conclusions are most robust. We find a tight correlation with power-law dependence, SSFR~(M_*)^beta, between SSFR and M_* at all z. It tends to flatten below ~10^10M_Sun if quiescent galaxies are included; if they are excluded a shallow index beta_SFG~-0.4 fits the correlation. On average, higher M_* objects always have lower SSFRs, also among SF galaxies. At z>1.5 there is tentative evidence for an upper SSFR-limit that an average galaxy cannot exceed. It is suggested by a flattening of the SSFR-M_* relation (also for SF sources), but affects massive (>10^10M_Sun) galaxi...

  5. AGN X-ray variability in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzuisi, G; Salvato, M; Hasinger, G; Cappelluti, N; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Lusso, E; Nandra, P K; Merloni, A; Silverman, J; Trump, J; Vignali, C; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Schramm, M; Steinhardt, C; Sanders, D; Kartaltepe, J; Rosario, D; Trakhtenbrot, B

    2013-01-01

    We took advantage of the observations carried out by XMM in the COSMOS field during 3.5 years, to study the long term variability of a large sample of AGN (638 sources), in a wide range of redshift (0.1

  6. Black hole accretion and host galaxies of obscured quasars in XMM-COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Mainieri, V; Merloni, A; Aller, M; Carollo, M; Iwasawa, K; Koekemoer, A M; Mignoli, M; Silverman, J D; Bolzonella, M; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Halliday, C; Ilbert, O; Lusso, E; Salvato, M; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Fevre, O Le; Lilly, S; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Balestra, I; Bardelli, S; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J -F Le; Brun, V Le; Maier, C; Nair, P; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Pozzetti, L; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Cappelluti, N; Elvis, M; Fiore, F; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Floc'h, E Le; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Trump, J

    2011-01-01

    We explore the connection between black hole growth at the center of obscured quasars selected from the XMM-COSMOS survey and the physical properties of their host galaxies. We study a bolometric regime ( 8 x 10^45 erg/s) where several theoretical models invoke major galaxy mergers as the main fueling channel for black hole accretion. We confirm that obscured quasars mainly reside in massive galaxies (Mstar>10^10 Msun) and that the fraction of galaxies hosting such powerful quasars monotonically increases with the stellar mass. We stress the limitation of the use of rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams as a diagnostic tool for studying galaxy evolution and inferring the influence that AGN activity can have on such a process. We instead use the correlation between star-formation rate and stellar mass found for star-forming galaxies to discuss the physical properties of the hosts. We find that at z ~1, ~62% of Type-2 QSOs hosts are actively forming stars and that their rates are comparable to those measured for ...

  7. How Does The Universe Work? The Physics Of The Cosmos Program (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, Rita M.

    2011-09-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) program incorporates cosmology, high-energy astrophysics, and fundamental physics projects aimed at addressing central questions about the nature of complex astrophysical phenomena such as black holes, neutron stars, dark energy, and gravitational waves. Its overarching theme is, How does the Universe work? PCOS includes a suite of operating (Chandra, Fermi, Planck, XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL) and future missions across the electromagnetic spectrum and beyond, which are in concept development and/or formulation. The PCOS program directly supports development of intermediate TRL (4-6) technology relevant to future missions through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, as well as data analysis, theory, and experimental astrophysics via other R&A avenues (e.g., ADAP, ATP). The Einstein Fellowship is a vital and vibrant PCOS component funded by the program. PCOS receives community input via its Program Analysis Group, the PhysPAG (www.pcos.gsfc.nasa.gov/physpag.php), whose membership and meetings are open to the community at large. In this poster, we describe the detailed science questions addressed within PCOS, with special emphasis on future opportunities. Details about the PhysPAG operations and functions will be provided, as well as an update on future meetings.

  8. Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

  9. Cluster candidates around low power radio-galaxies at z~1-2 in COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Castignani, Gianluca; Celotti, Annalisa; Norman, Colin; De Zotti, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    We search for high redshift ($z\\sim$1-2) galaxy clusters using low luminosity radio galaxies (FR~I) as beacons and our newly developed Poisson Probability Method (PPM) based on photometric redshift information and galaxy number counts. We use a sample of 32 FR~Is within the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field from Chiaberge et al. (2009) catalog. We derive a reliable subsample of 21 {\\it bona fide} Low Luminosity Radio Galaxies (LLRGs) and a subsample of 11 High Luminosity Radio Galaxies (HLRGs), on the basis of photometric redshift information and NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) radio fluxes. The LLRGs are selected to have 1.4~GHz rest frame luminosities lower than the fiducial FR~I/FR~II divide. This also allows us to estimate the comoving space density of sources with $L_{1.4}\\simeq 10^{32.3}\\,\\hbox{erg}\\,\\hbox{s}^{-1}\\,\\hbox{Hz}^{-1}$ at $z\\simeq 1.1$, which strengthens the case for a strong cosmological evolution of these sources. In the fields of the LLRGs and HLRGs we find evidence that 14 and 8 of them ...

  10. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa.

  11. Filimonas endophytica sp. nov., isolated from surface-sterilized root of Cosmos bipinnatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Hye; Kim, Tae-Su; Joung, Yochan; Kim, Seung Bum

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, yellow, motile by gliding, filamentous bacterium, designated SR 2-06T, was isolated from surface-sterilized root of garden cosmos. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that SR 2-06T was related most closely to Filimonas lacunae YT21T of the family Chitinophagaceae at a sequence similarity of 96.90 %, while levels of similarity to other related taxa were less than 93.08 %. Strain SR 2-06T exhibited similar features to F. lacunae in that it contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, and iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and a summed feature consisting of C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acids. However, strain SR 2-06T was distinguished from F. lacunae using a combination of physiological and biochemical properties. The cellular polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, unknown aminolipids, an unknown phospholipid and unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 46.0 mol%. The phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence clearly indicates that strain SR 2-06T represents a novel species of the genus Filimonas, for which the name Filimonas endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR 2-06T ( = KCTC 42060T = JCM 19844T).

  12. Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja): A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Anthony, Joseph; Ismail, Amin

    2015-10-01

    Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted.

  13. Influence of growth stage and season on the antioxidant constituents of Cosmos caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Ping, Tan Chin; Khatib, Alfi; Lajis, Nordin H

    2012-12-01

    The impact of tropical seasons (dry and wet) and growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) of Cosmos caudatus on the antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the level of bioactive compounds were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plant morphology (plant height) also showed variation between the two seasons. Samples planted from June to August (during the dry season) exhibited a remarkably higher bioactivity and height than those planted from October to December (during the wet season). The samples that were harvested at eight weeks of age during the dry season showed the highest bioactivity with values of 26.04 g GAE/100 g and 22.1 μg/ml for TPC and IC₅₀, respectively. Identification of phytochemical constituents in the C. caudatus extract was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass (LC-DAD-ESIMS/MS) technique and the confirmation of constituents was achieved by comparison with literature data and/or co-chromatography with authentic standards. Six compounds were indentified including quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid. Their concentrations showed significant variance among the 8, 10 and 12-week-old herbs during both seasons.

  14. Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of a chalcone 3-hydroxylase from Cosmos sulphureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlangen, Karin; Miosic, Silvija; Thill, Jana; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2010-07-01

    A chalcone 3-hydroxylase (CH3H) cDNA clone was isolated and characterized from Cosmos sulphureus petals accumulating butein (2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxychalcone) derivatives as yellow flower pigments. The recombinant protein catalyses the introduction of an additional hydroxyl group in the B-ring of chalcones, a reaction with high similarity to the hydroxylation of flavonoids catalysed by the well-studied flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). CH3H shows high specificity for chalcones, but a low F3'H activity was also detected. By contrast, the common F3'H from C. sulphureus does not accept chalcones as substrates and is therefore unlikely to be involved in the creation of the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of the yellow flower pigments. CH3H was primarily expressed in young buds, the main tissue for chalcone pigment formation. Expression levels in open flowers and 3-d-old seedlings were lower and almost no CH3H expression was observed in leaves. F3'H, in contrast, showed the highest expression also in buds, but comparable expression rates in all other tissues tested. Recombinant hybrid proteins constructed from CH3H and F3'H fragments demonstrated that amino acid residues at a substrate recognition site and an insertion of four amino acid residues in a putative loop region have an impact on chalcone acceptance. This is the first identification of a CH3H cDNA from any plant species.

  15. Experiment K-7-20: Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R. (Editor); Krasnov, I.

    1994-01-01

    Pituitary levels of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in rats exposed to 14 days of spaceflight (FLT) as well as in ground-based controls; one group synchronously maintained in flight-type cages with similar feeding schedules (SYN), one group in vivarium cages (VIV), and a group of tail suspended (SUS) animals. Flight rats had significantly less (p less than 0.05) pituitary OT and VP (4.48 +/- 0.31 and 7.48 +/- 0.53 mg hormone / mg protein, n = 5) than either the SYN (6.66 +/- 0..59 and 10.98 + 1.00, n = 5), VIV (6.14 +/- 0.40 and 10.98 +/- 0..81, n = 5) or SUS (5.73 +/- 0.24, n = 4) control groups, respectively. The reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP are similar to measurements made on rats from the previous 12.5 day Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to be a direct result of exposure to spaceflight.

  16. Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hui Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted.

  17. AzTEC Millimetre Survey of the COSMOS Field: I. Data Reduction and Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, K S; Perera, T A; Wilson, G W; Aretxaga, I; Bock, J J; Hughes, D H; Kang, Y; Kim, S; Mauskopf, P D; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N; Yun, M S

    2008-01-01

    We present a 1.1 mm wavelength imaging survey covering 0.3 sq. deg. in the COSMOS field. These data, obtained with the AzTEC continuum camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), were centred on a prominent large-scale structure over-density which includes a rich X-ray cluster at z = 0.73. A total of 50 millimetre galaxy candidates, with a significance ranging from 3.5-8.5 sigma, are extracted from the central 0.15 sq. deg. area which has a uniform sensitivity of 1.3 mJy/beam. Sixteen sources are detected with S/N > 4.5, where the expected false-detection rate is zero, of which a surprisingly large number (9) have intrinsic (de-boosted) fluxes > 5 mJy at 1.1 mm. Assuming the emission is dominated by radiation from dust, heated by a massive population of young, optically-obscured stars, then these bright AzTEC sources have FIR luminosities > 6 x 10^12 L(sun) and star formation-rates > 1100 M(sun)/yr. Two of these nine bright AzTEC sources are found towards the extreme peripheral region of the X-ray clu...

  18. Mapping the heavens the radical scientific ideas that reveal the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a tour of the greatest hits of cosmological discoveries the ideas that reshaped our universe over the past century. The cosmos, once understood as a stagnant place, filled with the ordinary, is now a universe that is expanding at an accelerating pace, propelled by dark energy and structured by dark matter. Priyamvada Natarajan, our guide to these ideas, is someone at the forefront of the research an astrophysicist who literally creates maps of invisible matter in the universe. She not only explains for a wide audience the science behind these essential ideas but also provides an understanding of how radical scientific theories gain acceptance. The formation and growth of black holes, dark matter halos, the accelerating expansion of the universe, the echo of the big bang, the discovery of exoplanets, and the possibility of other universes these are some of the puzzling cosmological topics of the early twenty-first century. Natarajan discusses why the acceptance of new ideas about the univer...

  19. The zCOSMOS Redshift Survey: How group environment alters global downsizing trends

    CERN Document Server

    Iovino, A; Scodeggio, M; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lilly, S; Bolzonella, M; Tasca, L A M; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Caputi, K; Pozzetti, L; Oesch, P; Lamareille, F; Halliday, C; Bardelli, S; Finoguenov, A; Guzzo, L; Kampczyk, P; Maier, C; Tanaka, M; Vergani, D; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bongiorno, A; Coppa, G; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Schiminovich, D; Scoville, N

    2009-01-01

    We took advantage of the wealth of information provided by the first ~10000 galaxies of the zCOSMOS-bright survey and its group catalogue to study the complex interplay between group environment and galaxy properties. The classical indicator F_blue (fraction of blue galaxies) proved to be a simple but powerful diagnostic tool. We studied its variation for different luminosity and mass selected galaxy samples. Using rest-frame B-band selected samples, the groups galaxy population exhibits significant blueing as redshift increases, but maintains a lower F_blue with respect both to the global and the isolated galaxy population. However moving to mass selected samples it becomes apparent that such differences are largely due to the biased view imposed by the B-band luminosity selection, being driven by the population of lower mass, bright blue galaxies for which we miss the redder, equally low mass, counterparts. By focusing the analysis on narrow mass bins such that mass segregation becomes negligible we find th...

  20. The Accelerating Universe: Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario

    2000-12-01

    Advance Praise for The Accelerating Universe "The Accelerating Universe is not only an informative book about modern cosmology. It is rich storytelling and, above all, a celebration of the human mind in its quest for beauty in all things." -Alan Lightman, author of Einstein's Dreams "This is a wonderfully lucid account of the extraordinary discoveries that have made the last years a golden period for observational cosmology. But Mario Livio has not only given the reader one clear explanation after another of what astronomers are up to, he has used them to construct a provocative argument for the importance of aesthetics in the development of science and for the inseparability of science, art, and culture." -Lee Smolin, author of The Life of the Cosmos "What a pleasure to read! An exciting, simple account of the universe revealed by modern astronomy. Beautifully written, clearly presented, informed by scientific and philosophical insights." -John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study "A book with charm, beauty, elegance, and importance. As authoritative a journey as can be taken through modern cosmology." -Allan Sandage, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington

  1. Extreme emission-line galaxies out to z$\\sim$1 in zCOSMOS-20k. I. Sample and characterization of global properties

    CERN Document Server

    Amorín, Ricardo; Contini, T; Vílchez, J M; Bolzonella, M; Tasca, L A M; Lamareille, F; Zamorani, G; Maier, C; Carollo, C M; Kneib, J -P; Fèvre, O Le; Lilly, S; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovač, K; Borgne, J -F Le; Mignoli, V Le Brun M; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Presotto, V; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2014-01-01

    We present a large sample of 183 extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift 0.11 < z < 0.93 selected from the 20k zCOSMOS Bright Survey by their unusually large [OIII]5007 equivalent widths. Based on emission-line diagnostics, 165 purely star-forming EELGs and 18 narrow-line AGN candidates are identified. Using multiwavelength COSMOS photometry, HST-ACS I-band imaging and optical zCOSMOS spectroscopy we characterize their main physical properties. EELGs are small (R_50 ~ 1.3 kpc), low-mass (M*/Msol~10^7-10^10) galaxies forming stars at unusually high rates (SFR~0.1-35 Msol/yr), being among the highest specific SFRs galaxies in zCOSMOS. Consistently, the EELGs are luminous and extremely compact at rest-frame UV wavelengths and include strong Ly$\\alpha$ emitters, as revealed by GALEX spectroscopy. Using both direct and strong-line methods, we show that zCOSMOS EELGs are low-metallicity systems (12+log(O/H)=8.16 in the median) including several extremely metal-deficient galaxies (<10% solar). Fi...

  2. Composite Traffic Management System (COSMOS) for Shinkansen of JR East Railway Company%JR东日本公司的新干线综合运输管理系统(COSMOS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    村山一雄; 邹振民

    2000-01-01

    介绍了JR东日本旅客公司开发的新干线综合运输管理系统(COSMOS)的各种功能.该系统包括运输计划、运行管理、车站作业管理、维修作业管理、车辆管理、设备管理、信息集中管理和电力系统控制等子系统.

  3. 基于COSMOS/Works的带式输送机传动滚筒的有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis of Driving Drum of Belt Conveyor Based on COSMOS/Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓丽; 袁圆

    2010-01-01

    对输送机传动滚筒受力状况做了理论分析,运用有限元分析软件COSMOS/Works对传动滚筒进行了静力分析,得出滚筒在载荷作用下的应力和变形分布规律.分析结果表明,该传动滚筒的结构设计完全满足其强度、刚度要求.

  4. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins programs manage Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Thronson, Harley; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-07-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" and "Are we alone?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos2 (PCOS), Cosmic Origins3 (COR), and Exoplanet Exploration Program4 (ExEP) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the

  5. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs.

  6. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins Technology Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-01-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the Astrophysics Division's main investment method to mature technologies

  7. WISE × SuperCOSMOS Photometric Redshift Catalog: 20 Million Galaxies over 3/pi Steradians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Peacock, John A.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Maddox, Natasha; Brown, Michael J. I.; Taylor, Edward N.; Hambly, Nigel C.; Solarz, Aleksandra; Holwerda, Benne W.; Baldry, Ivan; Loveday, Jon; Moffett, Amanda; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Driver, Simon P.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2016-07-01

    We cross-match the two currently largest all-sky photometric catalogs—mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and SuperCOSMOS scans of UKST/POSS-II photographic plates—to obtain a new galaxy sample that covers 3π steradians. In order to characterize and purify the extragalactic data set, we use external GAMA and Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic information to define quasar and star loci in multicolor space, aiding the removal of contamination from our extended source catalog. After appropriate data cleaning, we obtain a deep wide-angle galaxy sample that is approximately 95% pure and 90% complete at high Galactic latitudes. The catalog contains close to 20 million galaxies over almost 70% of the sky, outside the Zone of Avoidance and other confused regions, with a mean surface density of more than 650 sources per square degree. Using multiwavelength information from two optical and two mid-IR photometric bands, we derive photometric redshifts for all the galaxies in the catalog, using the ANNz framework trained on the final GAMA-II spectroscopic data. Our sample has a median redshift of {z}{med}=0.2, with a broad {dN}/{dz} reaching up to z > 0.4. The photometric redshifts have a mean bias of | δ z| ˜ {10}-3, a normalized scatter of σ z = 0.033, and less than 3% outliers beyond 3σ z . Comparison with external data sets shows no significant variation of photo-z quality with sky position. Together with the overall statistics, we also provide a more detailed analysis of photometric redshift accuracy as a function of magnitudes and colors. The final catalog is appropriate for “all-sky” three-dimensional (3D) cosmology to unprecedented depths, in particular through cross-correlations with other large-area surveys. It should also be useful for source preselection and identification in forthcoming surveys, such as TAIPAN or WALLABY.

  8. X-ray properties of radio-selected star forming galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ranalli, P.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Civano, F.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Gilli, R.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolcic, V.; Vignali, C.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray surveys contain sizable numbers of star forming galaxies, beyond the AGN which usually make the majority of detections. Many methods to separate the two populations are used in the literature, based on X-ray and multiwavelength properties. We aim at a detailed test of the classification schemes and to study the X-ray properties of the resulting samples. We build on a sample of galaxies selected at 1.4 GHz in the VLA-COSMOS survey, classified by Smolcic et al. (2008) according to their o...

  9. Notas etnográficas sobre el cosmos Ufaina y su relación con la maloca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Von Hildebrand

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo damos a conocer algunos resultados de estudios etnológicos que hemos realizado durante los últimos años en el Amazonas colombiano. Este material ha sido recopilado en su totalidad en varias ocasiones y con diversos shamanes o sabios de la comunidad Ufaina. Aunque existen algunas diferencias entre un modelo y otro del cosmos, precisamente por ser un modelo vivo que tiene que permitir a las personas estructurar su realidad cotidiana, el modelo que aquí exponemos presenta la base a partir de la cual todos operan.

  10. Recently Quenched Galaxies at z = 0.2-4.8 in the COSMOS UltraVISTA Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki

    2017-07-01

    We present a new analysis of the stellar mass function and morphology of recently quenched galaxies (RQGs), whose star formation has been recently quenched for some reason. The COSMOS2015 catalog was exploited to select those galaxies at 0.2 1, while low-mass RQGs start to grow very rapidly at z type distribution of RQGs are intermediate between those of star-forming and passive galaxies. These results indicate that RQGs represent a major transitional phase of galaxy evolution, in which star-forming galaxies turn into passive galaxies, accompanied by the build up of spheroidal component.

  11. The space density of Compton-thick AGN at z~0.8 in the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Gilli, R; Comastri, A; Iwasawa, K; Zamorani, G; Mainieri, V; Bongiorno, A

    2014-01-01

    The obscured accretion phase in BH growth is a key ingredient in many models linking the AGN activity with the evolution of their host galaxy. At present, a complete census of obscured AGN is still missing. The purpose of this work is to assess the reliability of the [NeV] emission line at 3426 A to pick up obscured AGN up to z~1 by assuming that [NeV] is a reliable proxy of the intrinsic AGN luminosity and using moderately deep X-ray data to characterize the amount of obscuration. A sample of 69 narrow-line (Type 2) AGN at z=0.65-1.20 were selected from the 20k-zCOSMOS Bright galaxy sample on the basis of the presence of the [NeV] emission. The X-ray properties of these galaxies were then derived using the Chandra-COSMOS coverage of the field; the X-ray-to-[NeV] flux ratio, coupled with X-ray spectral and stacking analyses, was then used to infer whether Compton-thin or Compton-thick absorption were present in these sources. Then the [NeV] luminosity function was computed to estimate the space density of Com...

  12. The Population of High A$_V$ Quasars in COSMOS: Determining the Fraction of Reddened Quasi-Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Heintz, K E; Møller, P; Milvang-Jensen, B; Zabl, J; Maddox, N; Krogager, J -K; Geier, S; Vestergaard, M; Noterdaeme, P; Ledoux, C

    2016-01-01

    The sub-population of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) reddened by intrinsic or intervening clouds of dust are known to be underrepresented in optical QSO surveys. By defining a complete parent sample of the most luminous and spatially unresolved QSOs in the COSMOS field we quantify to which extent this sub-population is fundamental to our understanding of the true population of QSOs. By utilizing the available multi-wavelength data of various surveys in the COSMOS field we build a parent sample of 33 QSOs, identified by robust X-ray to radio wavelength selection techniques. We assume that by applying several complementary selection techniques of QSOs, our parent sample will be complete down to our adopted magnitude limit of $J=20$. Spectroscopic follow-up with the NOT/ALFOSC was carried out to obtain a 100\\% redshift completeness of the sample. The population of High $A_V$ Quasars (HAQs), a specific sub-population of QSOs selected from optical/near-infrared photometry of which some were shown to be missed in lar...

  13. Cosmos caudatus as a potential source of polyphenolic compounds: optimisation of oven drying conditions and characterisation of its functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Khatib, Alfi; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-08-29

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.055 mg/mL, respectively. The predicted values for TPC under the optimised conditions for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 16.5 and 15.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that Cosmos caudatus can be used as a potential source of antioxidants for food and medicinal applications.

  14. CoSMoS Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) storm hazard projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; O'Neill, Andrea; Herdman, Liv

    2016-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception for a 100-year storm scenario and sea-level rise 0 - 2 m. Changes from previous data releases may be reflected in some areas. Data are complete for the information presented but are considered preliminary; changes may be reflected in the full data release (Phase II) in summer 2016.

  15. Constraint-based strain design using continuous modifications (CosMos) of flux bounds finds new strategies for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Cameron; Reed, Jennifer L

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, a growing number of metabolic engineering strain design techniques have employed constraint-based modeling to determine metabolic and regulatory network changes which are needed to improve chemical production. These methods use systems-level analysis of metabolism to help guide experimental efforts by identifying deletions, additions, downregulations, and upregulations of metabolic genes that will increase biological production of a desired metabolic product. In this work, we propose a new strain design method with continuous modifications (CosMos) that provides strategies for deletions, downregulations, and upregulations of fluxes that will lead to the production of the desired products. The method is conceptually simple and easy to implement, and can provide additional strategies over current approaches. We found that the method was able to find strain design strategies that required fewer modifications and had larger predicted yields than strategies from previous methods in example and genome-scale networks. Using CosMos, we identified modification strategies for producing a variety of metabolic products, compared strategies derived from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic models, and examined how imperfect implementation may affect experimental outcomes. This study gives a powerful and flexible technique for strain engineering and examines some of the unexpected outcomes that may arise when strategies are implemented experimentally.

  16. K+a galaxies in the zCOSMOS Survey: Physical properties of systems in their post-starburst phase

    CERN Document Server

    Vergani, D; Lilly, S J; Lamareille, F; Halliday, C; Scodeggio, M; Vignali, C; Ciliegi, P; Bolzonella, M; Bondi, M; Kovac, K; Knobel, C; Zucca, E; Caputi, K; Pozzetti, L; Bardelli, S; Mignoli, M; Iovino, A; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bongiorno, A; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Kampczyk, P; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Maccagni, A Leauthaud D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Capak, P; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y

    2009-01-01

    The identities of the main processes triggering and quenching star-formation in galaxies remain unclear. A key stage in evolution, however, appears to be represented by post-starburst galaxies. To investigate their impact on galaxy evolution, we initiated a multiwavelength study of galaxies with k+a spectral features in the COSMOS field. We examine a mass-selected sample of k+a galaxies at z=0.48-1.2 using the spectroscopic zCOSMOS sample. K+a galaxies occupy the brightest tail of the luminosity distribution. They are as massive as quiescent galaxies and populate the green valley in the colour versus luminosity (or stellar mass) distribution. A small percentage (<8%) of these galaxies have radio and/or X-ray counterparts (implying an upper limit to the SFR of ~8Msun/yr). Over the entire redshift range explored, the class of k+a galaxies is morphologically a heterogeneous population with a similar incidence of bulge-dominated and disky galaxies. This distribution does not vary with the strength of the Hdelt...

  17. The radio-loud AGN population at z>~1 in the COSMOS field. I. Selection and Spectral Energy Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Ranieri D; Chiaberge, Marco; Celotti, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    We select a sample of radio galaxies at high redshifts (z>~1) in the COSMOS field, by cross-matching optical/infrared images with the FIRST radio data. The aim of this study is to explore the high-z radio-loud (RL) AGN population at much lower luminosities than the classical samples of distant radio sources and similar to those of the local population of radio galaxies. The wide multiwavelength coverage provided by the COSMOS survey allows us to derive their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). The SED modeling with stellar and dust components (with our code 2SPD) returns several important quantities associated with the AGN and host properties. The final sample consists of 74 RL AGN, which extends the sample previously selected by Chiaberge et al. (2009) and studied by Baldi et al. (2013). The resulting photometric redshifts range from z~0.7 to 3. The sample mostly includes compact radio sources, but also 21 FRIIs; the radio power distribution of the sample at 1.4 GHz covers ~10^(31.5)-10^(34.3) \\erg\\s\\Hz. T...

  18. Possible NaK release from a TOPAZ reactor onboard Cosmos 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Carsten; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Gelhaus, Johannes; Moeckel, Marek; Klinkrad, Heiner; Krag, Holger; Voersmann, Peter

    In July 2008, an orbital debris generating incident occurred, which probably can be categorized as coolant release event. The event was caused by the satellite Cosmos 1818, which contains a nuclear power system (NPS). The NPS is a reactor of the type TOPAZ, which has been inoperative since 1987. The satellite is currently on a sufficiently high orbit (SHO), where it will remain for several centuries in order to allow a decay of the radioactivity down to an acceptable level. According to American observations, the satellite has released a number of small objects. Due to the low additional velocity of these objects, this release is a low-energy event. It is assumed that the objects are sodium-potassium (NaK) droplets from the reactor's cooling system. If the debris objects are actually NaK droplets, then this is the first documented event that cannot be assigned to a Buk reactor. Some of the Buk reactors, which were used onboard satellites of the type RORSAT, have operationally ejected their reactor core and thereby opened the primary coolant loop. As a result, 16 probable 16 events occurred by the end of the 1980s, where NaK droplets have been released. These droplets contribute about 30 percent to the space debris population in 900 km altitude in the centimeter size range today. In contrast with that, the TOPAZ reactors were not designed for such an operational procedure, according to the current knowledge. Therefore, a coolant release was not expected for a TOPAZ reactor. In this work, the contribution of the possible NaK release event, caused by the TOPAZ reactor, to the existing population of orbital liquid metal droplets is investigated. A model for the description of the release will be developed, including the estimation of important parameters. These parameters are the released liquid metal mass, size distribution and number of droplets, the release velocity, and the release direction. The release event is simulated. The results of orbit propagation

  19. La ANT tal como yo la imagino. Breve ensayo sobre el cosmos semafórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Silva Rios

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hace tres años llegué a Barcelona con una intención firme que pasados unos dos meses tuve que echar por tierra. Quería estudiar a la gente cruzando la calle en esta ciudad y luego comparar sus actos con los de la gente de mi ciudad de origen, Caracas. Mis evaluadores, apenas se enteraron de mi propósito, me desaconsejaron, ya que comparar requería de un tiempo que no tenía. Debía dedicarme sólo a una de las ciudades. Escogí Barcelona. Más tarde, en una segunda consulta, volvieron a desaconsejarme: en lugar de estudiar a la gente que cruza la calle, me recomendaban que tomara como punto de partida el semáforo; específicamente, el cambio de luz y si era posible la luz misma. Esta especie de atomización del interés, en lugar de amilanarme, redefinió y acicateó mi entusiasmo cogitativo, y con ese impulso emprendí la tarea de elaborar un diario de campo. Como no se podía hacer eso de una manera ingenua, tomé la decisión de asumir una mirada y luego una escritura sesgada por algunas de las nociones de la Teoría del Actor-Red tal como las plantea Bruno Latour. Su manera de ver el mundo, más que recibirla como un conjunto sistemático de conceptos, la he incorporado muy lentamente como un dispositivo de imaginación, es decir, como una serie de formas que promueven y facilitan la re-creación de los acontecimientos mundanos. En este ensayo hablo brevemente de parte de esa experiencia investigativa, centrándome en una idea que para mí no deja de ser fascinante: es posible componer un mundo común, un cosmos, partiendo de una entidad aparentemente discreta; en mi caso, el semáforo.

  20. From Genomes to Life to the Planet and the Cosmos: In Appreciation of Carl Sagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Earth and life have evolved in tandem; It is impossible to separate the two over most of geologic time. Geological and geochemical processes create and define the conditions necessary for life. In turn, life has shaped geological processes in ways that are understood, and ways that are not yet understood. The reciprocal interaction between the planet and its inhabitants has driven changes in the molecules, metabolisms, and morphologies of terrean organisms. Today, with the emergence of complete genome sequences and tools from molecular biology, we are now better able, more than ever before, to tell stories of how we came to be, on a planet and in a cosmos that has both nourished us and (from time to time) threatened to extinguish us. The stories to be told in this talk combine information from the geological and paleontological records, analysis of genome sequence data, and experiments that resurrect ancient, extinct life forms for study in the laboratory. The talk will emphasize the non-recurring, progressive feature of the dance between Earth and Life. We will show how the emergence of humans was influenced by the environment, and how humans placed their irreversible mark on the genes of organisms that they touched. We will show how the global environmental crisis that began in the Oligocene irreversibly transformed the plant and animal kingdoms. We will proceed back to the Cretaceous, to explore how plants and dinosaurs influenced each other, and the genomes of surviving fungus and flies. From there we will go to the Jurassic, as the first placental mammals reconstructed their reproductive systems in response to the planetary changes. We will ask how cosmic events, from asteroids to supernova, may have influenced life on Earth. We will ask what consequential features of life that we see around us might be unique to Earth, and what features might be found universally in life elsewhere. The talk will also review some of the methodological issues associated

  1. Active galactic nucleus X-ray variability in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Ponti, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Nandra, P. K.; Merloni, A.; Rosario, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hasinger, G.; Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bongiorno, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Lusso, E.; Steinhardt, C. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Silverman, J.; Schramm, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Trump, J. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kartaltepe, J., E-mail: lanzuisi@noa.gr [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    We used the observations carried out by XMM in the COSMOS field over 3.5 yr to study the long term variability of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (638 sources) in a wide range of redshifts (0.1 < z < 3.5) and X-ray luminosities (10{sup 41} < L {sub 0.5-10} <10{sup 45.5}). Both a simple statistical method to assess the significance of variability and the Normalized Excess Variance (σ{sub rms}{sup 2}) parameter were used to obtain a quantitative measurement of the variability. Variability is found to be prevalent in most AGNs, whenever we have good statistics to measure it, and no significant differences between type 1 and type 2 AGNs were found. A flat (slope –0.23 ± 0.03) anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity is found when all significantly variable sources are considered together. When divided into three redshift bins, the anti-correlation becomes stronger and evolving with z, with higher redshift AGNs being more variable. We prove, however, that this effect is due to the pre-selection of variable sources: when considering all of the sources with an available σ{sub rms}{sup 2} measurement, the evolution in redshift disappears. For the first time, we were also able to study long term X-ray variability as a function of M {sub BH} and Eddington ratio for a large sample of AGNs spanning a wide range of redshifts. An anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and M {sub BH} is found, with the same slope of anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity, suggesting that the latter may be a by-product of the former. No clear correlation is found between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and the Eddington ratio in our sample. Finally, no correlation is found between the X-ray σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and optical variability.

  2. A multi-wavelength study of the gravitational lens COSMOS J095930+023427

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Cao; Giovanni Covone; Maurizio Paolillo; Zong-Hong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the gravitational lens COSMOS J095930+023427 (z1 =0.892),together with the associated galaxy group along the line of sight located at z ~ 0.7,and the lensed background galaxy.The source redshift is currently unknown,but estimated to be at zs ~ 2.This analysis is based on publicly available HST,Subaru and Chandra imaging data,as well as VLT spectroscopy.The lensing system is an early-type galaxy showing a strong [OⅡ] emission line,and produces four bright images of the distant background source.It has an Einstein radius of 0.79",about four times larger than the effective radius.We perform a lensing analysis using both a singular isothermal ellipsoid and a peudo-isothermal elliptical mass distribution for the lensing galaxy,and find that the final results on the total mass,the dark matter (DM) fraction within the Einstein radius and the external shear due to a foreground galaxy group are robust with respect to the choice of the parametric model and the source redshift (yet unknown).We measure the luminous mass from the photometric data,and find the DM fraction within the Einstein radius fDM to be between 0.71 + 0.13 and 0.79 ± 0.15,depending on the unknown source redshift.Meanwhile,the non-null external shear found in our lensing models supports the presence and structure of a galaxy group at z ~ 0.7,and an independent measurement of the 0.5-2 keV X-ray luminosity within 20" around the X-ray centroid provides a group mass of M =(3-10) × 1013 M☉,in good agreement with the previous estimate derived through weak lensing analysis.Finally,by inverting the HST/ACS I814 image with the lensing equation,we obtain the reconstructed image of the magnified source galaxy,which has a scale of about 3.3 kpc at zs =2 (2.7 kpc at zs =4) and the typical disturbed disk-like appearance observed in low-mass star-forming galaxies at z ~ 3.However,deep,spatially resolved spectroscopic data for similar lensed sources are still required to

  3. The evolution of the stellar mass functions of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 from the COSMOS/ultraVISTA survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefano, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 Ks -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stella...

  4. MASS AND ENVIRONMENT AS DRIVERS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN SDSS AND zCOSMOS AND THE ORIGIN OF THE SCHECHTER FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Ying-Jie; Lilly, Simon J.; Kovac, Katarina; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Renzini, Alvio; Zamorani, Gianni; Ilbert, Olivier; Knobel, Christian; Iovino, Angela; Maier, Christian; Cucciati, Olga; Tasca, Lidia; Carollo, C. Marcella; Silverman, John; Kampczyk, Pawel; De Ravel, Loic; Sanders, David; Scoville, Nicholas; Contini, Thierry; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Scodeggio, Marco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fevre, Olivier; Bardelli, Sandro; Bongiorno, Angela; Caputi, Karina; Coppa, Graziano; de la Torre, Sylvain; Franzetti, Paolo; Garilli, Bianca; Lamareille, Fabrice; Le Borgne, Jean-Francois; Le Brun, Vincent; Mignoli, Marco; Montero, Enrique Perez; Pello, Roser; Ricciardelli, Elena; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tresse, Laurence; Vergani, Daniela; Welikala, Niraj; Zucca, Elena; Oesch, Pascal; Abbas, Ummi; Barnes, Luke; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Bottini, Dario; Cappi, Alberto; Cassata, Paolo; Cimatti, Andrea; Fumana, Marco; Hasinger, Gunther; Koekemoer, Anton; Leauthaud, Alexei; Maccagni, Dario; Marinoni, Christian; McCracken, Henry; Memeo, Pierdomenico; Meneux, Baptiste; Nair, Preethi; Porciani, Cristiano; Presotto, Valentina; Scaramella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We explore the simple inter-relationships between mass, star formation rate, and environment in the SDSS, zCOSMOS, and other deep surveys. We take a purely empirical approach in identifying those features of galaxy evolution that are demanded by the data and then explore the analytic consequences of

  5. zCOSMOS-10k-bright spectroscopic sample. The bimodality in the galaxy stellar mass function : Exploring its evolution with redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzetti, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Lilly, S.; Renzini, A.; Moresco, M.; Mignoli, M.; Cassata, P.; Tasca, L.; Lamareille, F.; Maier, C.; Meneux, B.; Halliday, C.; Oesch, P.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Kovac, K.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Peng, Y.; Carollo, M.; Contini, T.; P. Kneib, J.; Le F'evre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; F. Le Borgne, J.; Le Brun, V.; Pell`o, R.; Perez Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; D. Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; M. Koekemoer, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; J. McCracken, H.; Memeo, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.

    2010-01-01

    We present the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) to redshift z similar or equal to 1, based on the analysis of about 8500 galaxies with I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.4 deg(2), which are part of the zCOSMOS-bright 10k spectroscopic sample. We investigate the total GSMF, as well as the contributions of ea

  6. zCOSMOS-10k-bright spectroscopic sample. The bimodality in the galaxy stellar mass function : Exploring its evolution with redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzetti, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Lilly, S.; Renzini, A.; Moresco, M.; Mignoli, M.; Cassata, P.; Tasca, L.; Lamareille, F.; Maier, C.; Meneux, B.; Halliday, C.; Oesch, P.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Kovac, K.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Peng, Y.; Carollo, M.; Contini, T.; P. Kneib, J.; Le F'evre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; F. Le Borgne, J.; Le Brun, V.; Pell`o, R.; Perez Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; D. Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; M. Koekemoer, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; J. McCracken, H.; Memeo, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.

    2010-01-01

    We present the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) to redshift z similar or equal to 1, based on the analysis of about 8500 galaxies with I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.4 deg(2), which are part of the zCOSMOS-bright 10k spectroscopic sample. We investigate the total GSMF, as well as the contributions of ea

  7. The zCOSMOS 10k-sample : the role of galaxy stellar mass in the colour-density relation up to z similar to 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Kovac, K.; Scodeggio, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bardelli, S.; Vergani, D.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Knobel, C.; Oesch, P.; Lamareille, F.; Caputi, K.; Kampczyk, P.; Tresse, L.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Scoville, N.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. With the first similar to 10 000 spectra of the flux limited zCOSMOS sample (I-AB Methods. We use our previously derived 3D local density contrast delta, computed with the 5th nearest neighbour approach, to study the evolution with z of the environmental effects on galaxy U-B colour, D4000 ang

  8. MASS AND ENVIRONMENT AS DRIVERS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN SDSS AND zCOSMOS AND THE ORIGIN OF THE SCHECHTER FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Ying-Jie; Lilly, Simon J.; Kovac, Katarina; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Renzini, Alvio; Zamorani, Gianni; Ilbert, Olivier; Knobel, Christian; Iovino, Angela; Maier, Christian; Cucciati, Olga; Tasca, Lidia; Carollo, C. Marcella; Silverman, John; Kampczyk, Pawel; De Ravel, Loic; Sanders, David; Scoville, Nicholas; Contini, Thierry; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Scodeggio, Marco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fevre, Olivier; Bardelli, Sandro; Bongiorno, Angela; Caputi, Karina; Coppa, Graziano; de la Torre, Sylvain; Franzetti, Paolo; Garilli, Bianca; Lamareille, Fabrice; Le Borgne, Jean-Francois; Le Brun, Vincent; Mignoli, Marco; Montero, Enrique Perez; Pello, Roser; Ricciardelli, Elena; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tresse, Laurence; Vergani, Daniela; Welikala, Niraj; Zucca, Elena; Oesch, Pascal; Abbas, Ummi; Barnes, Luke; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Bottini, Dario; Cappi, Alberto; Cassata, Paolo; Cimatti, Andrea; Fumana, Marco; Hasinger, Gunther; Koekemoer, Anton; Leauthaud, Alexei; Maccagni, Dario; Marinoni, Christian; McCracken, Henry; Memeo, Pierdomenico; Meneux, Baptiste; Nair, Preethi; Porciani, Cristiano; Presotto, Valentina; Scaramella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We explore the simple inter-relationships between mass, star formation rate, and environment in the SDSS, zCOSMOS, and other deep surveys. We take a purely empirical approach in identifying those features of galaxy evolution that are demanded by the data and then explore the analytic consequences of

  9. Intensity Analysis of Ladle Revolving Arm Structure of Consmos/Works%基于Cosmos/Works的大包回转臂结构强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 周剑雄; 兰芳; 王鹏

    2010-01-01

    应用Solid/Works软件建立大包回转臂三维模型,利用与Solid/Works无缝集成的快速有限元分析软件Cosmos/Works,方便、快速、准确地对大包回转臂进行强度分析与校核.

  10. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  11. The zCOSMOS Redshift Survey: the role of environment and stellar mass in shaping the rise of the morphology-density relation from z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Tasca, L A M; Iovino, A; Le Fèvre, O; Kovac, K; Bolzonella, M; Lilly, S J; Abraham, R G; Cassata, P; Cucciati, O; Guzzo, L; Tresse, L; Zamorani, G; Capak, P; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Koekemoer, A; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cimatti, A; Ilbert, O; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Pozzetti, L; Scaramella, R; Scarlata, C

    2009-01-01

    For more than two decades we have known that galaxy morphological segregation is present in the Local Universe. It is important to see how this relation evolves with cosmic time. To investigate how galaxy assembly took place with cosmic time, we explore the evolution of the morphology-density relation up to redshift z~1 using about 10000 galaxies drawn from the zCOSMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey. Taking advantage of accurate HST/ACS morphologies from the COSMOS survey, of the well-characterised zCOSMOS 3D environment, and of a large sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshift, we want to study here the evolution of the morphology-density relation up to z~1 and its dependence on galaxy luminosity and stellar mass. The multi-wavelength coverage of the field also allows a first study of the galaxy morphological segregation dependence on colour. We further attempt to disentangle between processes that occurred early in the history of the Universe or late in the life of galaxies. The zCOSMOS field benefits of high-...

  12. The Colors of Central and Satellite Galaxies in zCOSMOS Out to z ~= 0.8 and Implications for Quenching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobel, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Kovac, K.; Peng, Y.; Bschorr, T. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Perez Montero, E.; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Barnes, L.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Welikala, N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the red fraction of central and satellite galaxies in the large zCOSMOS group catalog out to z similar or equal to 0.8, correcting for both the incompleteness in stellar mass and for the less than perfect purities of the central and satellite samples. We show that at all masses and at all

  13. The zCOSMOS 10k-sample: the role of galaxy stellar mass in the colour-density relation up to z ~ 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Kovač, K.; Scodeggio, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bardelli, S.; Vergani, D.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Knobel, C.; Oesch, P.; Lamareille, F.; Caputi, K.; Kampczyk, P.; Tresse, L.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Scoville, N.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: With the first ˜10 000 spectra of the flux limited zCOSMOS sample (IAB ≤ 22.5) we want to study the evolution of environmental effects on galaxy properties since z ~ 1.0, and to disentangle the dependence among galaxy colour, stellar mass and local density. Methods: We use our previously deriv

  14. The COSMOS2015 galaxy stellar mass function . Thirteen billion years of stellar mass assembly in ten snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidzon, I.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Coupon, J.; McCracken, H. J.; Delvecchio, I.; Masters, D.; Capak, P.; Hsieh, B. C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tresse, L.; Bethermin, M.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Faisst, A. L.; Le Floc'h, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Toft, S.; Aussel, H.; Dubois, C.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    We measure the stellar mass function (SMF) and stellar mass density of galaxies in the COSMOS field up to z 6. We select them in the near-IR bands of the COSMOS2015 catalogue, which includes ultra-deep photometry from UltraVISTA-DR2, SPLASH, and Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. At z> 2.5 we use new precise photometric redshifts with error σz = 0.03(1 + z) and an outlier fraction of 12%, estimated by means of the unique spectroscopic sample of COSMOS ( 100 000 spectroscopic measurements in total, more than one thousand having robust zspec> 2.5). The increased exposure time in the DR2, along with our panchromatic detection strategy, allow us to improve the completeness at high z with respect to previous UltraVISTA catalogues (e.g. our sample is >75% complete at 1010 ℳ⊙ and z = 5). We also identify passive galaxies through a robust colour-colour selection, extending their SMF estimate up to z = 4. Our work provides a comprehensive view of galaxy-stellar-mass assembly between z = 0.1 and 6, for the first time using consistent estimates across the entire redshift range. We fit these measurements with a Schechter function, correcting for Eddington bias. We compare the SMF fit with the halo mass function predicted from ΛCDM simulations, finding that at z> 3 both functions decline with a similar slope in thehigh-mass end. This feature could be explained assuming that mechanisms quenching star formation in massive haloes become less effective at high redshifts; however further work needs to be done to confirm this scenario. Concerning the SMF low-mass end, it shows a progressive steepening as it moves towards higher redshifts, with α decreasing from -1.47+0.02-0.02 at z ≃ 0.1 to -2.11+0.30-0.13-2.11-0.13+0.30 at z ≃ 5. This slope depends on the characterisation of the observational uncertainties, which is crucial to properly remove the Eddington bias. We show that there is currently no consensus on the method to quantify such errors: different error models result in

  15. 基于Cosmos/Motion的剪叉式液压升降台设计及优化%Design and Optimization of Scissors Type Hydraulic Lifting Platforms Based on Cosmos/Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维

    2011-01-01

    液压升降台种类多,应用广泛,不同工况对升降台运动特性有不同要求,在设计剪叉式液压升降台时,用数学方法设计计算各参数值过程比较复杂,例如设计计算剪叉机构的尺寸结构和液压缸的安装位置,零部件的受力情况等.文中介绍用S olidWorks、Cosmos/Motion进行升降台的设计及优化,简化了设计工作,结果也更加准确.

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Expanding Sleeve Connection of Belt Conveyor Based on COSMOS/Works%基于COSMOS/Works的带式输送机胀套联接的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆悌元; 郭永存; 胡坤

    2010-01-01

    胀套联接作为带式输送机中滚筒轴与轮毂之间的一种联接形式,具有其自身的优越性.通过建立胀套的有限元模型,利用COSMOS/Works插件的接触分析功能来检查胀套及其所联接的滚筒轴的应力和变形情况,从而选择合适的滚筒轴和确保其安装的精确性.并在此基础上比较胀套与其他联接的优缺点.

  17. 基于Solid Works/COSMOS Motion的离散点凸轮轮廓曲线设计及后处理%The design of cam's figure based on SolidWorks/COSMOS Motion with discrete link's displacements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠维

    2008-01-01

    在凸轮机构工程应用中经常要求顶杆件在若干个位置要有精确值,针对这种情况本文利用Solid Works绘制凸轮机构实体零件、构建机构装配体模型,用COSMOS Motion自带样条函数自动实现离散点值拟合,模拟运行凸轮机构,生成凸轮轮廓曲线,并对凸轮轮廓曲线进行后处理,最终得到实体凸轮模型.

  18. Gamma-ray burst afterglows as probes of their host galaxies and the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Antonino

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) represent the sole class of catastrophic phenomena seen over almost the entire history of the Universe. Their extreme luminosities in high energy gamma-ray radiation make them readily detectable, even with relatively small satellite-based detectors, out to the earliest cosmic epochs. Moreover, the brilliance of their fading afterglow light, routinely observed in X-ray, optical, near-infrared, and radio wavelengths, allows them to be exploited -- for hours, days, or weeks -- as cosmic lighthouses, probing the conditions of gas and dust along the line of sight, through their host galaxies and the cosmos at large. Since the November 2004 launch of Swift, this GRB-focused NASA mission has discovered more than 500 GRBs, in almost all cases reporting the burst coordinates to ground-based observers within seconds of the event. The availability of prompt burst positions from Swift, combined with promptly-reported flux measurements from instruments on Swift and an array of ground-based robotic telescopes, have enabled targeted spectroscopic campaigns that have gathered detailed observations of the young, bright afterglows of hundreds of these events. This thesis reports the results of my own efforts over the past 5 years, analyzing imaging and spectroscopic observations of Swift-detected GRBs as triggered according to my own requests, or as gathered from public data archives. In Chapter 2, I discuss our follow-up campaign for GRB090429B, one of our best "extreme redshift" (z > 8) candidates. This burst followed closely on the spectroscopicallyconfirmed z = 8.2 GRB090423, and our multiwavelength observations and SED modeling demonstrate the value and limitation of such studies, in cases where a spectroscopic redshift cannot be gathered in a timely fashion. I also address the importance of such extreme-redshift events from a cosmological perspective. In Chapter 3, I use high-resolution GRB afterglow spectra to study the properties of intervening

  19. The close environment of 24 micron galaxies at 0.6COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Caputi, K I; Bolzonella, M; Lilly, S J; Zamorani, G; Aussel, H; Sanders, D; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Contini, T; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Frayer, D; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; Le Floc'h, E; Leauthaud, A; Maier, C; Mainieri, V; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Salvato, M; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N; Silverman, Joseph; Surace, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Capak, P; Cappi, A; Carollo, C M; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Fumana, M; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A; Scaramella, R; Scarlata, C

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the close environment of 203 Spitzer 24 micron-selected sources at 0.61.4. We find that LIRGs at 0.61.4 within 1 Mpc and +/- 500 km/s). The contrast between the activities of the close environments of LIRGs and ULIRGs appears especially enhanced in the COSMOS field density peak at z~0.67, because LIRGs on this peak have a larger fraction of passive neighbours, while ULIRGs have as active close environments as those outside the large-scale structure. The differential environmental activity is related to the differences in the distributions of stellar mass ratios between LIRGs/ULIRGs and their close neighbours, as well as in the general local density fields. At 0.8

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Merging galaxies with tidal tails in COSMOS to z=1 (Wen+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. Z.; Zheng, X. Z.

    2017-02-01

    Our study utilizes the public data and catalogs from multi-band deep surveys of the COSMOS field. The UltraVISTA survey (McCracken+ 2012, J/A+A/544/A156) provides ultra-deep near-IR imaging observations of this field in the Y,J,H, and Ks-band, as well as a narrow band (NB118). The HST/ACS I-band imaging data are publicly available, allowing us to measure morphologies in the rest-frame optical for galaxies at z<=1. The HST/ACS I-band images reach a 5σ depth of 27.2 magnitude for point sources. (1 data file).

  1. No Evolution in the IR-Radio Relation for IR-Luminous Galaxies at z<2 in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, Mark T; Murphy, E; Carilli, C L; Helou, G; Aussel, H; Le Floc'h, E; Frayer, D T; Ilbert, O; Oesch, P; Salvato, M; Smolcic, V; Kartaltepe, J; Sanders, D B

    2010-01-01

    Previous observational studies of the infrared (IR)-radio relation out to high redshift employed any detectable star forming systems at a given redshift within the restricted area of cosmological survey fields. Consequently, the evolution inferred relies on a comparison between the average IR/radio properties of (i) very IR-luminous high-z sources and (ii) more heterogeneous low(er)-z samples that often lack the strongest IR emitters. In this report we consider populations of objects with comparable luminosities over the last 10 Gyr by taking advantage of deep IR (esp. Spitzer 24 micron) and VLA 1.4 GHz observations of the COSMOS field. Consistent with recent model predictions, both Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) and galaxies on the bright end of the evolving IR luminosity function do not display any change in their average IR/radio ratios out to z~2 when corrected for bias. Uncorrected data suggested ~0.3 dex of positive evolution.

  2. 使用COSMOS/M对模型进行局部几何网格细化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦明海; 雒兴刚; 胡伟

    2002-01-01

    @@ 所有有经验的分析工程师都知道,选取合适的网格密度才能够在最短的计算时间内,提供出正确的分析结果.本文的重点在于介绍使用专业有限元分析软件COSMOS/M以及在使用GEOSTAR前后处理器时,如何决定几何模型中不同位置的最适当网格密度,以及改变网格使其由密而疏的方法与过程.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS/UltraVISTA Ks-selected catalogs v4.1 (Muzzin+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzin, A.; Marchesini, D.; Stefanon, M.; Franx, M.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J. S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Brammer, G.; Labbe, I.; van Dokkum, P.

    2016-07-01

    The current catalog release, v4.1 is a Ks-selected catalog of the COSMOS field based on the imaging from the DR1 UltraVISTA release (see McCracken+, 2012, J/A+A/544/A156). The catalog covers a total area of 1.62deg2, and has photometry in 30 bands including the GALEX, Subaru, CFHT, UltraVISTA, and Spitzer imaging. The 90% completeness limit of the survey is Ks,tot=23.4 AB. Photometry has been determined in a color aperture by PSF matching all bands, including additional source-fitting for the large-PSF space-based imaging such as GALEX and IRAC/MIPS. (6 data files).

  4. Inter-comparison of Radio-Loudness Criteria for Type 1 AGNs in the XMM-COSMOS Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Heng; Elvis, Martin; Schinnerer, Eva; Zamorani, Gianni; Ho, Luis C; Donley, Jennifer L; Civano, Francesca; Smolcic, Vernesa; Celotti, Annalisa; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Salvato, Mara; Brusa, Marcella; Capak, Peter; Carilli, Chris L; Comastri, Andrea; Impey, Chris D; Jahnke, Knud; Koekemoer, Anton M; Schawinski, Kevin; Trump, Jonathan R; Urry, C Megan; Vignali, Cristian; Yun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Limited studies have been performed on the radio-loud fraction in X-ray selected type 1 AGN samples. The consistency between various radio-loudness definitions also needs to be checked. We measure the radio-loudness of the 407 type 1 AGNs in the XMM-COSMOS quasar sample using nine criteria from the literature (six defined in the rest-frame and three defined in the observed frame): $R_L=\\log(L_{5GHz}/L_B)$, $q_{24}=\\log(L_{24\\mu m}/L_{1.4GHz})$, $R_{uv}=\\log(L_{5GHz}/L_{2500\\AA})$, $R_{i}=\\log(L_{1.4GHz}/L_i)$, $R_X=\\log(\

  5. Lonely hearts of the cosmos the story of the scientific quest for the secret of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Overbye, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Ever since the first rocket entered space, science and technology have become the obsessions of the 20th century. With their aid it seems possible that man can discover his own origins and learn the history of the cosmos. This book is the story of the cosmologists whose job discription is to determine the fate of the universe. As well as the creation myths, there are radically opposing theories of the world's origin. Some hold the "big bang" theory, by which the world began in a fiery cataclysm and might disapear again in an equally spectacular crash. Others believe that the universe is infinite and always the same. This is a tribute to the human beings who, with the help of science, might eventually reach the truth.

  6. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-05-07

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  7. Nitrate, ascorbic acid, mineral and antioxidant activities of Cosmos caudatus in response to organic and mineral-based fertilizer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Siti Aishah; Mijin, Salumiah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Ding, Phebe; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat

    2012-06-28

    The source and quantity of nutrients available to plants can affect the quality of leafy herbs. A study was conducted to compare quality of Cosmos caudatus in response to rates of organic and mineral-based fertilizers. Organic based fertilizer GOBI (8% N:8% P₂O₅:8% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O) were evaluated based on N element rates at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg h⁻¹. Application of organic based fertilizer reduced nitrate, improved vitamin C, antioxidant activity as well as nitrogen and calcium nutrients content. Antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher with increased fertilizer application. Fertilization appeared to enhance vitamin C content, however for the maximum ascorbic acid content, regardless of fertilizer sources, plants did not require high amounts of fertilizer.

  8. Meeting new challenges: The 2014 HUPO-PSI/COSMOS Workshop: 13-15 April 2014, Frankfurt, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Sandra; Albar, Juan Pablo; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Kettner, Carsten; Jones, Andrew R; Salek, Reza M; Vizcaino, Juan Antonio; Deutsch, Eric W; Hermjakob, Henning

    2014-11-01

    The Annual 2014 Spring Workshop of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) of the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) was held this year jointly with the metabolomics COordination of Standards in MetabOlomicS (COSMOS) group. The range of existing MS standards (mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, mzTab, TraML) was reviewed and updated in the light of new methodologies and advances in technologies. Adaptations to meet the needs of the metabolomics community were incorporated and a new data format for NMR, nmrML, was presented. The molecular interactions workgroup began work on a new version of the existing XML data interchange format. PSI-MI XML3.0 will enable the capture of more abstract data types such as protein complex topology derived from experimental data, allosteric binding, and dynamic interactions. Further information about the work of the HUPO-PSI can be found at http://www.psidev.info.

  9. On the Power of Music: Using 'Cosmos' and 'Anthropos' to Articulate a Holistic Approach to Discussing the Power of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Cates

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Music is an experience that is universal to all of mankind, no matter one’s race, gender, culture, or socioeconomic status. Whether it’s beholding one of Mahler’s symphonies in Carnegie Hall or listening to the “No. 1 Top Single” on iTunes using headphones, one truth is evident: music moves. The statement “music moves” inherently possesses an implication of the 'cosmic' and the 'anthropic’ nature of music – a holistic union of both mystery and humanity. This one truth has been the subject of an ongoing 2,000 year-old discussion that attempts to articulate the powerful reaction that results from experiencing music in all forms, beginning with the ancient Greeks of antiquity who possessed a cosmologically-grounded explanation to the power of music. However, as time moved forward, this cosmological, mysterious paradigm of the power of music slowly began to incorporate explainable and tangible anthropological articulations of the power of the music with respect to the human emotions, senses, and thoughts. This incorporation of anthropos reached a climax in the Renaissance era with the ushering in of humanism, which stripped away the mysterious and replaced the cosmologically-grounded explanation of music with the anthropologically-grounded view of naturalism. Since this profound departure from cosmos, society seems to be at a loss in articulating accurate reactions to music. This paper offers two proposals with respect to musical thought, one for society at large and one for the individual. I assert in this paper that society, in general, needs to return to an appreciation of the cosmos, the answerable, and the mysterious in nature, and that the individual needs to commence thinking holistically with respect to music—incorporating both cosmic and anthropic thought. I have reached my conclusions, assertions, and propositions based on this thesis by critically analyzing both primary and secondary resources in the form of the

  10. The XMM-Newton wide-field survey in the COSMOS field. IV: X-ray spectral properties of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Mainieri, V; Cappelluti, N; Brusa, M; Brunner, H; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Elvis, M; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Gilli, R; Lehmann, I; Silverman, Joseph; Tasca, L; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Schinnerer, E; Impey, C; Trump, J; Lilly, S; Maier, C; Griffiths, R E; Miyaji, T; Capak, P; Koekemoer, A; Scoville, N Z; Shopbell, P; Taniguchi, Y

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of point-like X-ray sources in the XMM-COSMOS field. Our sample of 135 sources only includes those that have more than 100 net counts in the 0.3-10 keV energy band and have been identified through optical spectroscopy. The majority of the sources are well described by a simple power-law model with either no absorption (76%) or a significant intrinsic, absorbing column (20%).As expected, the distribution of intrinsic absorbing column densities is markedly different between AGN with or without broad optical emission lines. We find within our sample four Type-2 QSOs candidates (L_X > 10^44 erg/s, N_H > 10^22 cm^-2), with a spectral energy distribution well reproduced by a composite Seyfert-2 spectrum, that demonstrates the strength of the wide field XMM/COSMOS survey to detect these rare and underrepresented sources.

  11. Calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling (COSMOS): a method for conditioning the inverse problem from measured magnetic field map to susceptibility source image in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Kressler, Bryan; Wang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility differs among tissues based on their contents of iron, calcium, contrast agent, and other molecular compositions. Susceptibility modifies the magnetic field detected in the MR signal phase. The determination of an arbitrary susceptibility distribution from the induced field shifts is a challenging, ill-posed inverse problem. A method called "calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling" (COSMOS) is proposed to stabilize this inverse problem. The field created by the susceptibility distribution is sampled at multiple orientations with respect to the polarization field, B(0), and the susceptibility map is reconstructed by weighted linear least squares to account for field noise and the signal void region. Numerical simulations and phantom and in vitro imaging validations demonstrated that COSMOS is a stable and precise approach to quantify a susceptibility distribution using MRI.

  12. CoSMoS Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) flood hazard projections: Los Angeles, San Diego and Orange counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; O'Neill, Andrea; Herdman, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception for a 100-year storm scenario. Data are complete for the information presented but are considered preliminary; changes may be reflected in the full data release (Phase II) in summer 2016.

  13. A Multiwavelength Study of a Sample of 70 μm Selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field : II. The Role of Mergers in Galaxy Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Frayer, D. T.; Aussel, H.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Surace, J.; Yan, L.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Civano, F.; Hasinger, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C. T.; McCracken, H. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Trump, J.; Baldassare, V. F.; Fiorenza, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the morphological properties of a large sample of 1503 70 μm selected galaxies in the COSMOS field spanning the redshift range 0.01

  14. COSMOS--improving the quality of life in nursing home patients: protocol for an effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized clinical hybrid trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebo, Bettina S; Flo, Elisabeth; Aarsland, Dag; Selbaek, Geir; Testad, Ingelin; Gulla, Christine; Aasmul, Irene; Ballard, Clive

    2015-09-15

    Nursing home patients have complex mental and physical health problems, disabilities and social needs, combined with widespread prescription of psychotropic drugs. Preservation of their quality of life is an important goal. This can only be achieved within nursing homes that offer competent clinical conditions of treatment and care. COmmunication, Systematic assessment and treatment of pain, Medication review, Occupational therapy, Safety (COSMOS) is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial that combines and implements organization of activities evidence-based interventions to improve staff competence and thereby the patients' quality of life, mental health and safety. The aim of this paper is to describe the development, content and implementation process of the COSMOS trial. COSMOS includes a 2-month pilot study with 128 participants distributed among nine Norwegian nursing homes, and a 4-month multicenter, cluster randomized effectiveness-implementation clinical hybrid trial with follow-up at month 9, including 571 patients from 67 nursing home units (one unit defined as one cluster). Clusters are randomized to COSMOS intervention or current best practice (control group). The intervention group will receive a 2-day education program including written guidelines, repeated theoretical and practical training (credited education of caregivers, physicians and nursing home managers), case discussions and role play. The 1-day midway evaluation, information and interviews of nursing staff and a telephone hotline all support the implementation process. Outcome measures include quality of life in late-stage dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, activities of daily living, pain, depression, sleep, medication, cost-utility analysis, hospital admission and mortality. Despite complex medical and psychosocial challenges, nursing home patients are often treated by staff possessing low level skills, lacking education and in facilities with a high staff turnover

  15. Optimum structural design of punched parts using COSMOSWorks%利用COSMOS Works对冲压件进行的结构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国一; 刘娥

    2008-01-01

    采用Solid Works进行实体造型,根据使用要求外加约束并施加载荷,利用Solid Works自带的插件COSMOS Works进行分析,根据图解分析结构弊端并改进其结构,最终得到合适的结构和尺寸.

  16. Fingerprints of the first black holes? Crosscorrelationg the Near-Infrared and X-ray background in COSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasinger, Guenther

    Unresolved cosmic backgrounds carry information about the populations of stars and black holes not accessible by any other current observational technique. Studies using both Spitzer and AKARI have revealed large-scale fluctuations in the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) after subtracting resolved sources to faint levels. The signal, which is stronger than all foreground contributions, has been attributed to the earliest light in the universe. Other teams, by using Spitzer and CIBER, suggested that this signal could originate from stars tidally stripped from their parent galaxies at low redshift as a result of mergers. Only sensitive multi-wavelength observations can distinguish between these radically different interpretations. Recently our team discovered an intriguing cross-correlation signal between the unresolved CIB and X-ray background (CXB) suggesting significant black hole populations among the CIB sources (C13). The analysis used data from Spitzer and Chandra in an overlapping 8'x45' region of the All-Wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS), probing the clustering of the underlying sources to angular scales 20', but the experiment is limited by the size and the elongated configuration of the field. Here we propose to use the much more extended multiwavelength observations in the COSMOS field to obtain new constraints on this important debate. Spitzer has recently completed the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH), which observed the full 2 square degree COSMOS field to about half the depth of the AEGIS field, but a 20 times larger sky area. SPLASH, focusing on the COSMOS field with excellent multi-wavelength coverage from space and ground-based observatories, is ideally suited to study the CIB to better precision and at larger scales than available so far. We propose to cross-correlate the Spitzer unresolved CIB to the unresolved CXB observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Chandra has covered the full 2 deg2 COSMOS

  17. The [OII]3727 Luminosity function and Star Formation Rate at z~1.2 in the COSMOS 2 Square-degree Field and the Subaru Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, M I; Taniguchi, Y; Murayama, T; Ajiki, M; Sasaki, S S; Koizumi, O; Nagao, T; Scoville, N Z; Mobasher, B; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Ellis, Richard S; Garilli, B; Giavalisco, M; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kitzbichler, M G; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S J; MacCagni, D; Renzini, A; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Shopbell, P; Smolcic, V; Tribiano, S; Ideue, Y; Mihara, S

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a wide-field imaging survey for [OII]3727 emitting galaxies at z~1.2 in the HST COSMOS 2 square degree field using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The survey covers a sky area of 6700 arcmin^2 in the COSMOS field, and a redshift range between 1.17 and 1.20 (Delta_z = 0.03), corresponding to a survey volume of 5.56*10^5 Mpc^3. We obtain a sample of 3176 [OII] emitting galaxies with observed emission-line equivalent widths greater than 26 AA. Since our survey tends to sample brighter [OII]3727 emitting galaxies, we also analyze a sample of fainter [OII]3727 emitting galaxies found in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). We find an extinction-corrected [OII] luminosity density of 10^{40.35^+0.08_-0.06} ergs s^-1 Mpc-3, corresponding to star formation rate density of 0.32^+0.06_-0.04 M_sun yr-1 Mpc^-3 in the COSMOS field at z~1.2. This is the largest survey for [OII]3727 emitters beyond z=1 currently available.

  18. Galaxies in COSMOS: Evolution of Black hole vs. bulge mass but not vs. total stellar mass over the last 9 Gyrs?

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Knud; Brusa, Marcella; Capak, Peter; Cappelluti, Nico; Cisternas, Mauricio; Civano, Francesca; Colbert, James; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Hasinger, Günther; Impey, Chris; Inskip, Katherine; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lilly, Simon; Maier, Christian; Merloni, Andrea; Riechers, Dominik; Salvato, Mara; Schinnerer, Eva; Scoville, Nick Z; Silverman, John; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Trump, Jonathan R; Yan, Lin

    2009-01-01

    We constrain the ratio of black hole (BH) mass to total stellar mass of type-1 AGN in the COSMOS survey at 1COSMOS Magellan/IMACS and zCOSMOS surveys. We find zero difference between the M_BH--M_(*,total)-relation at z~1.4 and the M_BH--M_(*,bulge)-relation in the local Universe. Our interpretation is: (a) If our objects were purely bulge-dominated, the M_BH--M_(*,bulge)-relation has not evolved since z~1.4. However, (b) since we have evidence for substantial disk components, the bulges of massive galaxies (logM_(*,total)=11.1+-0.25 or logM_BH~8.3+-0.2) must have grown over the last 9 Gyrs predominantly by redistribution of disk- into bulge-mass. Since all necessary stellar mass exists in the galaxy at z=1.4, no star...

  19. Star-forming galaxies versus low- and high-excitation radio AGN in the VLA-COSMOS 3GHz Large Project

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, N; Novak, M; Delhaize, J; Delvecchio, I; Capak, P; Civano, F; Herrera-Ruiz, N; Ilbert, O; Laigle, C; Marchesi, S; McCracken, H J; Middelberg, E; Salvato, M; Schinnerer, E

    2016-01-01

    We study the composition of the faint radio population selected from the VLA-COSMOS 3GHz Large Project, a radio continuum survey performed at 10 cm wavelength. The survey covers the full 2 square degree COSMOS field with mean $rms\\sim2.3$ $\\mu$Jy/beam, cataloging 10,899 source components above $5\\times rms$. By combining these radio data with UltraVISTA, optical, near-infrared, and Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data, as well as X-ray data from the Chandra Legacy, and Chandra COSMOS surveys, we gain insight into the emission mechanisms within our radio sources out to redshifts of $z\\sim5$. From these emission characteristics we classify our souces as star forming galaxies or AGN. Using their multi-wavelength properties we further separate the AGN into sub-samples dominated by radiatively efficient and inefficient AGN, often referred to as high- and low-excitation emission line AGN. We compare our method with other results based on fitting of the sources' spectral energy distributions using both galaxy and AGN spec...

  20. The mass-metallicity relation of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ~ 0.7, its dependence on SFR, and the existence of massive low-metallicity galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, C; Lilly, S J; Contini, T; Montero, E Perez; Lamareille, F; Bolzonella, M; Floc'h, E Le

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) The knowledge of the number and of the physical nature of low-metallicity massive galaxies is crucial for the determination and interpretation of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR). Using VLT-ISAAC near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of 39 zCOSMOS z~0.7 galaxies, we have measured Halpha and [NII] emission line fluxes for galaxies with [OII], Hbeta and [OIII] available from VIMOS optical spectroscopy. The NIR spectroscopy enables us to break the degeneracy of the R23 method to derive unambiguously O/H gas metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Halpha. Using, as a benchmark, the position in the D4000 vs. [OIII]/Hbeta diagram of galaxies with reliable O/Hs from NIR spectroscopy, we were able to break the lower/upper branch R23 degeneracy of additional 900 zCOSMOS z~0.7 galaxies. Additionally, the Halpha-based SFR measurements were used to find the best SFR calibration based on [OII] for the zCOSMOS z~0.7 galaxies without Halpha measurements. We find a fraction of 19% of lower mass 9.5<...

  1. Cosmic infrared background fluctuations of the COSMOS field in the SPLASH survey: new measurements and the cosmological explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) is the integrated emission of all sources through cosmic time and carries an abundance of information about the star formation and galaxy growth in the Universe. Due to significant and complex foregrounds from our Galaxy, the optimal way to study the unresolved background is to actually study its fluctuations, especially at large angular scales where they reflect the clustering of unresolved galaxies. Our new measurements of the CIB fluctuations reach the largest angular scale to date for such a study, thanks to new observations of the COSMOS field from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH). We analyzed Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 um data of the whole field, with an average depth of 1.33 hour/pixel over 4 epochs spanning 2 years. We found that the auto-power spectra are consistent among various epochs and are correlated at the two channels. We confirmed the previously detected excess flux at large scales of the power spectra.The cross-correlation of the CIB fluctuations with backgrounds at other wavelengths is an extremely useful technique to understand the excess flux. The previously seen CIB and X-ray background (CXB) cross-correlation suggests significant contribution to the CIB fluctuations from accreting black holes that is much higher than among any known populations, and such a cross-correlation is also used as an evidence for the existence of direct collapse black holes in the early Universe.In this talk, we will present the first CIB fluctuation measurements of the COSMOS field using the new SPLASH data and we will also revisit the CIB and CXB cross-correlation in this field, which is about 20 times larger than the previous study and therefore with much improved significance levels. Measuring CIB fluctuations is a powerful tool to study the large-scale structure of the Universe. The CIB and CXB cross-correlation can not only provide observational constrains on the theoretical modeling of the CIB

  2. HST/ACS Morphology of Lyman Alpha Emitters at Redshift 5.7 in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Y; Scoville, N Z; Sasaki, S S; Nagao, T; Shioya, Y; Saitô, T; Ideue, Y; Nakajima, A; Matsuoka, K; Sanders, D B; Mobasher, B; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Salvato, M; Koekemoer, A; Carilli, C; Cimatti, A; Ellis, Richard S; Garilli, B; Giavalisco, M; Ilbert, O; Impey, C D; Kitzbichler, M G; Le Fèvre, O; McCracken, H J; Scarlata, C; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V; Tribiano, S; Trump, J R

    2009-01-01

    We present detailed morphological properties of Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs) at z~ 5.7 in the COSMOS field, based on {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The ACS imaging in the F814W filter covered 85 LAEs of the 119 LAEs identified in the full two square degree field, and 47 LAEs of them are detected in the ACS images. Nearly half of them are spatially extended with a size larger than 0.15 arcsec (~0.88 kpc at z=5.7) up to 0.4 arcsec (~2.5 kpc at z=5.7). The others are nearly unresolved compact objects. Two LAEs show double-component structures, indicating interaction or merging of building components to form more massive galaxies. By stacking the ACS images of all the detected sources, we obtain a Sersic parameter of n~0.7 with a half-light radius of 0.13 arcsec (0.76 kpc), suggesting that the majority of ACS detected LAEs have not spheroidal-like but disk-like or irregular light profiles. Comparing ACS F814W magnitudes (I_814) with Subaru/Suprime-Cam magnitudes in the NB816, ...

  3. The dust un-biased cosmic star formation history from the 20 cm VLA-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Zamorani, G; Bell, E F; Bondi, M; Carilli, C L; Ciliegi, P; Mobasher, B; Paglione, T; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N

    2008-01-01

    We derive the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) out to z=1.3 using a sample of ~350 radio-selected star-forming galaxies, a far larger sample than in previous, similar studies. We attempt to differentiate between radio emission from AGN and star-forming galaxies, and determine an evolving 1.4 GHz luminosity function based on these VLA-COSMOS star forming galaxies. We precisely measure the high-luminosity end of the star forming galaxy luminosity function (SFR>100 M_Sol/yr; equivalent to ULIRGs) out to z=1.3, finding a somewhat slower evolution than previously derived from mid-infrared data. We find that more stars are forming in luminous starbursts at high redshift. We use extrapolations based on the local radio galaxy luminosity function; assuming pure luminosity evolution, we derive $L_* \\propto (1+z)^{2.1 \\pm 0.2}$ or $L_* \\propto (1+z)^{2.5 \\pm 0.1}$, depending on the choice of the local radio galaxy luminosity function. Thus, our radio-derived results independently confirm the ~1 order of magnitude de...

  4. X-ray properties of radio-selected star forming galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Zamorani, G; Cappelluti, N; Civano, F; Georgantopoulos, I; Gilli, R; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V; Vignali, C

    2012-01-01

    X-ray surveys contain sizable numbers of star forming galaxies, beyond the AGN which usually make the majority of detections. Many methods to separate the two populations are used in the literature, based on X-ray and multiwavelength properties. We aim at a detailed test of the classification schemes and to study the X-ray properties of the resulting samples. We build on a sample of galaxies selected at 1.4 GHz in the VLA-COSMOS survey, classified by Smolcic et al. (2008) according to their optical colours and observed with Chandra. A similarly selected control sample of AGN is also used for comparison. We review some X-ray based classification criteria and check how they affect the sample composition. The efficiency of the classification scheme devised by Smolcic et al. (2008) is such that ~30% of composite/misclassified objects are expected because of the higher X-ray brightness of AGN with respect to galaxies. The latter fraction is actually 50% in the X-ray detected sources, while it is expected to be muc...

  5. Quest for COSMOS submillimeter galaxy counterparts using CARMA and VLA: Identifying three high-redshift starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Aravena, M; Ilbert, O; Yun, M S; Sheth, K; Salvato, M; McCracken, H J; Diener, C; Aretxaga, I; Riechers, D A; Finoguenov, A; Bertoldi, F; Capak, P; Hughes, D; Karim, A; Schinnerer, E; Scoville, N Z; Wilson, G

    2012-01-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2"-3" resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F(1mm)>5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ~10"-30", resolution. All three sources -- AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3 and Cosbo-8 -- are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but that further away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (~2") mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z>~2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric-red...

  6. Properties of the molecular gas in a starbursting QSO at z=1.83 in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Schinnerer, Eva; Weiss, Axel; Jahnke, Knud; Carilli, Chris L; Frayer, David T; Henkel, Christian; Brusa, Marcella; Menten, Karl M; Salvato, Mara; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2008-01-01

    Using the IRAM 30m telescope, we have detected the CO J=2-1, 4-3, 5-4, and 6-5 emission lines in the millimeter-bright, blank-field selected AGN COSMOS J100038+020822 at redshift z=1.8275. The sub-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) excitation of the J=4 level implies that the gas is less excited than that in typical nearby starburst galaxies such as NGC253, and in the high-redshift quasars studied to date, such as J1148+5251 or BR1202-0725. Large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling of the CO line spectral energy distribution (CO SED; flux density vs. rotational quantum number) yields H2 densities in the range 10^{3.5}--10^{4.0} cm-3, and kinetic temperatures between 50 K and 200 K. The H2 mass of (3.6 - 5.4) x 10^{10} M_sun implied by the line intensities compares well with our estimate of the dynamical mass within the inner 1.5 kpc of the object. Fitting a two-component gray body spectrum, we find a dust mass of 1.2 x 10^{9} M_sun, and cold and hot dust temperatures of 42+/-5 K and 160+/-25 K, respectively. ...

  7. Photometric properties of Ly alpha emitters at z=4.86 in the COSMOS 2 square degree field

    CERN Document Server

    Shioya, Y; Sasaki, S S; Nagao, T; Murayama, T; Saitô, T; Ideue, Y; Nakajima, A; Matsuoka, K L; Trump, J; Scoville, N Z; Sanders, D B; Mobasher, B; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Carilli, C; Ellis, Richard S; Garilli, B; Giavalisco, M; Kitzbichler, M G; Impey, C; LeFevre, O; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a survey for Ly alpha emitters at z=4.86 based on optical narrowband (lambda_c=7126 angstrom, Delta lambda=73 angstrom) and broadband (B, V, r', i', and z') observations of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field using Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We find 79 LAE candidates at z=4.86 over a contiguous survey area of 1.83 deg^2, down to the Ly alpha line flux of 1.47 x 10^-17 ergs s^-1 cm^-2. We obtain the Ly alpha luminosity function with a best-fit Schechter parameters of log L^*=42.9^+0.5_-0.3 ergs s^-1 and phi^* = 1.2^+8.0_-1.1 x 10^-4 Mpc^-3 for alpha=-1.5 (fixed). The two-point correlation function for our LAE sample is xi(r) = (r/4.4^+5.7_-2.9 Mpc)^-1.90+/-0.22. In order to investigate the field-to-field variations of the properties of Ly alpha emitters, we divide the survey area into nine tiles of 0.5^circ x 0.5^circ each. We find that the number density varies with a factor of ~ 2 from field to field with high statistical significance. However, we find no significant fi...

  8. Cosmic Web of Galaxies in the COSMOS Field: Public Catalog and Different Quenching for Centrals and Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Darvish, Behnam; Martin, D Christopher; Sobral, David; Scoville, Nick Z; Stroe, Andra; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2016-01-01

    We use a mass complete (log($M/M_{\\odot}$) $\\geqslant$ 9.6) sample of galaxies with accurate photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field to construct the density field and the cosmic web to $z$=1.2. The comic web extraction relies on the density field Hessian matrix and breaks the density field into clusters, filaments and the field. We provide the density field and cosmic web measures to the community. We show that at $z$ $\\lesssim$ 0.8, the median star-formation rate (SFR) in the cosmic web gradually declines from the field to clusters and this decline is especially sharp for satellites ($\\sim$ 1 dex vs. $\\sim$ 0.5 dex for centrals). However, at $z$ $\\gtrsim$ 0.8, the trend flattens out for the overall galaxy population and satellites. For star-forming galaxies only, the median SFR is constant at $z$ $\\gtrsim$ 0.5 but declines by $\\sim$ 0.3-0.4 dex from the field to clusters for satellites and centrals at $z$ $\\lesssim$ 0.5. We argue that for satellites, the main role of the cosmic web environment is to contr...

  9. A constant characteristic mass for star forming galaxies since z~3 revealed by radio emission in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Alexander; VLA-COSMOS, the

    2011-01-01

    We present results of our 1.4 GHz image stacking analysis of mass-selected galaxies in the COSMOS field. From the resulting median radio continuum flux density we have determined the evolution of the average star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies as a function of stellar mass, unbiased from effects of dust but also source confusion due to the 1.5" angular resolution achieved by the VLA. We find a power-law relation between specific SFR (SSFR) and stellar mass for star forming galaxies out to z=3. While higher mass systems exhibit lower SSFRs at any epoch, no differential, more rapid evolution of high mass galaxies is evident at least out to z~1.5 where our conclusions are most robust. Utilizing measured mass functions of star forming systems, the characteristic stellar mass for galaxies contributing most to the comoving SFR density appears not to evolve. These findings hence challenge 'downsizing' scenarios in which star formation has gradually shifted towards lower mass systems with cosmic time. Our analysis ...

  10. Effect of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam raja) supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Ismail, Amin; Anthony, Joseph; Ng, Ooi Chuan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd

    2016-02-27

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health threat worldwide. Cosmos caudatus is one of the medicinal plants used to treat type 2 diabetes. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effectiveness and safety of C. caudatus in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolomic approach will be carried out to compare the metabolite profiles between C. Caudatus treated diabetic patients and diabetic controls. This is a single-center, randomized, controlled, two-arm parallel design clinical trial that will be carried out in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. In this study, 100 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes will be enrolled. Diabetic patients who meet the eligibility criteria will be randomly allocated to two groups, which are diabetic C. caudatus treated(U) group and diabetic control (C) group. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The serum and urine metabolome of both groups will be examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The study will be the first randomized controlled trial to assess whether C. caudatus can confer beneficial effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of this trial will provide clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of C. caudatus in patients with type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02322268.

  11. New insights from deep VLA data on the potentially recoiling black hole CID-42 in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Mladen; Civano, Francesca; Bondi, Marco; Ciliegi, Paolo; Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham; Banfield, Julie; Bourke, Stephen; Elvis, Martin; Hallinan, Gregg; Intema, Huib T; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Mooley, Kunal; Navarrete, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    We present deep 3 GHz VLA observations of the potentially recoiling black hole CID-42 in the COSMOS field. This galaxy shows two optical nuclei in the HST/ACS image and a large velocity offset of ~ 1300 km/s between the broad and narrow H beta emission line although the spectrum is not spacially resolved (Civano et al. 2010). The new 3 GHz VLA data has a bandwidth of 2 GHz and to correctly interpret the flux densities imaging was done with two different methods: multi-scale multi-frequency synthesis and spectral windows stacking. The final resolutions and sensitivities of these maps are 0.7" with rms = 4.6 muJy/beam and 0.9" with rms = 4.8 muJy/beam respectively. With a 7 sigma detection we find that the entire observed 3 GHz radio emission can be associated with the South-Eastern component of CID-42, coincident with the detected X-ray emission. We use our 3 GHz data combined with other radio data from the literature ranging from 320 MHz to 9 GHz, which include the VLA, VLBA and GMRT data, to construct a radi...

  12. Chandra's Cosmos: Dark Matter, Black Holes, and Other Wonders Revealed by NASA's Premier X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wallace H.

    2017-03-01

    On July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built, was launched aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Since then, Chandra has given us a view of the universe that is largely hidden from telescopes sensitive only to visible light. In Chandra's Cosmos, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra science spokesperson Wallace H. Tucker uses a series of short, connected stories to describe the telescope's exploration of the hot, high-energy face of the universe. The book is organized in three parts: "The Big," covering the cosmic web, dark energy, dark matter, and massive clusters of galaxies; "The Bad," exploring neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes; and "The Beautiful," discussing stars, exoplanets, and life. Chandra has imaged the spectacular, glowing remains of exploded stars and taken spectra showing the dispersal of their elements. Chandra has observed the region around the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way and traced the separation of dark matter from normal matter in the collision of galaxies, contributing to both dark matter and dark energy studies. Tucker explores the implications of these observations in an entertaining, informative narrative aimed at space buffs and general readers alike.

  13. The Lyman Continuum escape fraction of galaxies at z=3.3 in the VUDS-LBC/COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Grazian, A; Gerbasi, R; Fiore, F; Fontana, A; Fevre, O Le; Pentericci, L; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Tasca, L A M; Thomas, R; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Cassara', L P; Castellano, M; Cimatti, A; Cucciati, O; Durkalec, A; Giavalisco, M; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Lemaux, B C; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Bonchi, A; Boutsia, K; Capak, P; Charlot, S; Contini, T; de la Torre, S; Dunlop, J; Fotopoulou, S; Guaita, L; Koekemoer, A; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Merlin, E; Paris, D; Pforr, J; Pilo, S; Santini, P; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Wang, P W

    2016-01-01

    The Lyman continuum (LyC) flux escaping from high-z galaxies into the IGM is a fundamental quantity to understand the physical processes involved in the reionization epoch. We have investigated a sample of star-forming galaxies at z~3.3 in order to search for possible detections of LyC photons escaping from galaxy halos. UV deep imaging in the COSMOS field obtained with the prime focus camera LBC at the LBT telescope was used together with a catalog of spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) to build a sample of 45 galaxies at z~3.3 with L>0.5L*. We obtained deep LBC images of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the interval 3.2728% but a detailed analysis of their properties reveals that, with the exception of two marginal detections (S/N~2) in the U band, all the other 8 galaxies are most likely contaminated by the UV flux of low-z interlopers located close to the high-z targets. The average escape fraction derived from the stacking of the cleaned sample was constrained t...

  14. Faint COSMOS AGN at z~3.3 - I. Black Hole Properties and Constraints on Early Black Hole Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Marchesi, Stefano; Schawinski, Kevin; Elvis, Martin; Rosario, David; Suh, Hyewon; Mejia-Restrepo, Julian; Simmons, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    We present new Keck/MOSFIRE K-band spectroscopy for a sample of 14 faint, X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field. The data covers the spectral region surrounding the broad Balmer emission lines, which enables the estimation of black hole masses (M_BH) and accretion rates (in terms of L/L_Edd). We focus on ten AGN at z~3.3, where the we observe the Hbeta spectral region, while for the other four z~2.4 sources we use the Halpha broad emission line. Compared with previous detailed studies of unobscured AGNs at these high redshifts, our sources are fainter by an order of magnitude, corresponding to number densities of order ~10^-6--10^-5 Mpc^-3. The lower luminosities also allow for a robust identification of the host galaxies emission, necessary to obtain reliable intrinsic AGN luminosities, BH masses and accretion rates. We find the AGNs in our sample to be powered by SMBHs with a typical mass of M_BH~6*10^8 M_Sol - significantly lower than the higher-luminosity, rarer quasars reported...

  15. Pan-STARRS1 variability of XMM-COSMOS AGN. II. Physical correlations and power spectrum analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Simm, T; Saglia, R; Ponti, G; Lanzuisi, G; Nandra, K; Bender, R

    2016-01-01

    [Abbreviated] We search for scaling relations between the fundamental AGN parameters and rest-frame UV/optical variability properties for a sample of $\\sim$90 X-ray selected AGNs covering a wide redshift range from the XMM-COSMOS survey, with optical light curves in four bands provided by the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field 04 survey. To estimate the variability amplitude we utilize the normalized excess variance ($\\sigma_{\\mathrm{rms}}^{2}$) and probe variability on rest-frame timescales of several months and years by calculating $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{rms}}^{2}$ from different parts of our light curves. In addition, we derive the rest-frame optical PSD for our sources using continuous-time autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models. We observe that the excess variance and the PSD amplitude are strongly anti-correlated with wavelength, bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio. There is no evidence for a dependency of the variability amplitude on black hole mass and redshift. These results suggest that the a...

  16. The cosmic growth of the active black hole population at 1COSMOS, VVDS and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, A; Gavignaud, I; Schramm, M; Silverman, J; Merloni, A; Zamorani, G; Hirschmann, M; Mainieri, V; Wisotzki, L; Shankar, F; Fiore, F; Koekemoer, A M; Temporin, G

    2014-01-01

    We present a census of the active black hole population at 1COSMOS and SDSS), that cover a wide range of 3 dex in luminosity over our redshift interval of interest. We investigate the cosmic evolution of the AGN population as a function of AGN luminosity, black hole mass and accretion rate. Compared to z = 0 we find a distinct change in the shape of the BHMF and the ERDF, consistent with downsizing in black hole mass. The active fraction or duty cycle of type 1 AGN at z~1.5 is almost flat as...

  17. Starburst galaxies in the COSMOS field: clumpy star-formation at redshift 0 < z < 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Hinojosa-Goñi, R; Méndez-Abreu, J

    2016-01-01

    At high redshift, starburst galaxies present irregular morphologies, with 10-20\\%\\ of their star formation occurring in giant clumps. These clumpy galaxies are considered to be the progenitors of local disk galaxies. To understand the properties of starbursts at intermediate and low redshift, it is fundamental to track their evolution and possible link with the systems at higher $z$. We present an extensive, systematic, and multi-band search and analysis of the starburst galaxies at redshift ($0 < z < 0.5$) in the COSMOS field, as well as detailed characteristics of their star-forming clumps by using Hubble Space Telescope/Advance Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) images. Their principal properties, sizes, masses, and star formation rates are provided. The individual star-forming knots in our sample follow the same L(H$\\alpha$) vs. size scaling relation than local giant HII regions (Fuentes-Masip et al. 2000). However, they slightly differ from the one provided using samples at high redshift. This result hig...

  18. AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS: is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, A; Merloni, A; Zamorani, G; Ilbert, O; La Franca, F; Peng, Y; Piconcelli, E; Mainieri, V; Silverman, J D; Brusa, M; Fiore, F; Salvato, M; Scoville, N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate i.e., lambda_SAR, distribution function (SARDF) up to z~2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass dependent but redshift independent break whose low lambda_SAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that, for a given stellar mass, higher lambda_SAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch compared to the lower lambda_SAR ones, following and mimicking the well known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schech...

  19. Morphological evolution of z~1 galaxies from deep K-band AO imaging in the COSMOS deep field

    CERN Document Server

    Huertas-Company, M; Soucail, G; Lefèvre, O; Tasca, L; Contini, T

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of an imaging programme of distant galaxies (z~0.8) at high spatial resolution (~0.1").We observed 7 fields of 1'*1' with the NACO Adaptive Optics system (VLT) in Ks (2.16um) band with typical V ~ 14 guide stars and 3h integration time per field. Observed fields are selected within the COSMOS survey area. High angular resolution K-band data have the advantage to probe old stellar populations in the rest-frame, enabling to determine galaxy morphological types unaffected by recent star formation, better linked to the underlying mass than classical optical morphology studies (HST). Adaptive optics on ground based telescopes is the only method today to obtain such high resolution in the K-band. In this paper we show that reliable results can be obtained and establish a first basis for larger observing programmes. We analyze the morphologies by means of B/D (Bulge/Disk) decomposition with GIM2D and CAS (Concentration-Asymmetry) estimators for 79 galaxies with magnitudes between Ks = 17-23 an...

  20. Bolometric luminosities and Eddington ratios of X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lusso, E; Simmons, B D; Mignoli, M; Zamorani, G; Vignali, C; Brusa, M; Shankar, F; Lutz, D; Trump, J R; Maiolino, R; Gilli, R; Bolzonella, M; Puccetti, S; Salvato, M; Impey, C D; Civano, F; Elvis, M; Mainieri, V; Silverman, J D; Koekemoer, A M; Bongiorno, A; Merloni, A; Berta, S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L

    2012-01-01

    Bolometric luminosities and Eddington ratios of both X-ray selected broad-line (Type-1) and narrow-line (Type-2) AGN from the XMM-Newton survey in the COSMOS field are presented. The sample is composed by 929 AGN (382 Type-1 AGN and 547 Type-2 AGN) and it covers a wide range of redshifts, X-ray luminosities and absorbing column densities. About 65% of the sources are spectroscopically identified as either Type-1 or Type-2 AGN (83% and 52% respectively), while accurate photometric redshifts are available for the rest of the sample. The study of such a large sample of X-ray selected AGN with a high quality multi-wavelength coverage from the far-infrared (now with the inclusion of Herschel data at 100 micron and 160 micron) to the optical-UV allows us to obtain accurate estimates of bolometric luminosities, bolometric corrections and Eddington ratios. The kbol-Lbol relations derived in the present work are calibrated for the first time against a sizable AGN sample, and rely on observed redshifts, X-ray luminosit...

  1. The bolometric output and host-galaxy properties of obscured AGN in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lusso, E; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Treister, E; Sanders, D; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Civano, F; Gilli, R; Mainieri, V; Nair, P; Aller, M C; Carollo, M; Koekemoer, A M; Merloni, A; Trump, J R

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the multi-wavelength properties, from the mid-infrared to the hard X-rays, of a sample of 255 spectroscopically identified X-ray selected Type-2 AGN from the XMM-COSMOS survey. Most of them are obscured the X-ray absorbing column density is determined by either X-ray spectral analyses (for the 45% of the sample), or from hardness ratios. Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) are computed for all sources in the sample. The average SEDs in the optical band is dominated by the host-galaxy light, especially at low X-ray luminosities and redshifts. There is also a trend between X-ray and mid-infrared luminosity: the AGN contribution in the infrared is higher at higher X-ray luminosities. We calculate bolometric luminosities, bolometric corrections, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for these sources using a multi-component modeling to properly disentangle the emission associated to stellar light from that due to black hole accretion. For 90% of the sample we also have the morpholo...

  2. Morphology enabled dipole inversion (MEDI) from a single-angle acquisition: comparison with COSMOS in human brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Liu, Jing; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Khalidov, Ildar; Ledoux, James Robert; Wang, Yi

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic susceptibility varies among brain structures and provides insights into the chemical and molecular composition of brain tissues. However, the determination of an arbitrary susceptibility distribution from the measured MR signal phase is a challenging, ill-conditioned inverse problem. Although a previous method named calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling (COSMOS) has solved this inverse problem both theoretically and experimentally using multiple angle acquisitions, it is often impractical to carry out on human subjects. Recently, the feasibility of calculating the brain susceptibility distribution from a single-angle acquisition was demonstrated using morphology enabled dipole inversion (MEDI). In this study, we further improved the original MEDI method by sparsifying the edges in the quantitative susceptibility map that do not have a corresponding edge in the magnitude image. Quantitative susceptibility maps generated by the improved MEDI were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with those generated by calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling. The results show a high degree of agreement between MEDI and calculation of susceptibility through multiple orientation sampling, and the practicality of MEDI allows many potential clinical applications.

  3. The redshift evolution of early-type galaxies in COSMOS: Do massive early-type galaxies form by dry mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlata, C; Lilly, S J; Feldmann, R; Kampczyk, P; Renzini, A; Cimatti, A; Halliday, C; Daddi, E; Sargent, M T; Koekemoer, A; Scoville, N; Kneib, J P; Leauthaud, A; Massey, R; Rhodes, J; Tasca, L; McCracken, H J; Mobasher, B; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D; Ajiki, M; Aussel, H; Murayama, T; Sanders, D B; Sasaki, S; Shioya, Y; Takahashi, M

    2007-01-01

    ABRIDGED: We study the evolution since z~1 of the rest-frame B luminosity function of the early-type galaxies (ETGs) in ~0.7 deg^2 in the COSMOS field. In order to identify ALL progenitors of local ETGs we construct the sample of high-z galaxies using two complementary criteria: (i) A morphological selection based on the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types, and (ii) A photometric selection based on the galaxy properties in the (U-V)-M_V color-magnitude diagram. We furthermore constrain both samples so as to ensure that the selected progenitors of ETGs are compatible with evolving into systems which obey the mu_B-r_{hl} Kormendy relation. Assuming the luminosity evolution derived from studies of the fundamental plane for high-z ETGs, our analysis shows no evidence for a decrease in the number density of the most massive ETGs out to z~ 0.7: Both the morphologically- and the photometrically-selected sub-samples show no evolution in the number density of bright (~L>2.5L*) ETGs. Allowing for different star format...

  4. zCOSMOS 10k-bright spectroscopic sample: exploring mass and environment dependence in early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moresco, M; Cimatti, A; Zamorani, G; Mignoli, M; Di Cesare, S; Bolzonella, M; Zucca, E; Lilly, S; Kovac, K; Scodeggio, M; Cassata, P; Tasca, L; Vergani, D; Halliday, C; Carollo, M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Nair, P; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scarlata, C; Scoville, N

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of the U-V rest-frame color distribution and some spectral features as a function of mass and environment for two sample of early-type galaxies up to z=1 extracted from the zCOSMOS spectroscopic survey. The first sample ("red galaxies") is defined with a photometric classification, while the second ("ETGs") by combining morphological, photometric, and spectroscopic properties to obtain a more reliable sample. We find that the color distribution of red galaxies is not strongly dependent on environment for all mass bins, with galaxies in overdense regions redder than galaxies in underdense regions with a difference of 0.027\\pm0.008 mag. The dependence on mass is far more significant, with average colors of massive galaxies redder by 0.093\\pm0.007 mag than low-mass galaxies throughout the entire redshift range. We study the color-mass relation, finding a mean slope 0.12\\pm0.005, while the color-environment relation is flatter, with a slope always smaller than 0.04. The spectral analysis t...

  5. The XMM-Newton Wide-Field Survey in the COSMOS Field. The point-like X-ray source catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Cappelluti, N; Hasinger, G; Comastri, A; Zamorani, G; Finoguenov, A; Gilli, R; Puccetti, S; Miyaji, T; Salvato, M; Vignali, C; Aldcroft, T; Böhringer, H; Brunner, H; Civano, F; Elvis, M; Fiore, F; Fruscione, A; Griffiths, R E; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; Koekemoer, A M; Mainieri, V; Scoville, N Z; Shopbell, P; Silverman, Joseph; Urry, C M

    2009-01-01

    The COSMOS survey is a multiwavelength survey aimed to study the evolution of galaxies, AGN and the large scale structure. The XMM-COSMOS is a deep X-ray survey over the full 2 deg2 of the COSMOS area. It consists of 55 XMM-Newton pointings for a total exposure of ~1.5 Ms with an average vignetting corrected depth of 40 ks across the field of view and a sky coverage of 2.13 deg2. We present the catalogue of point-like X-ray sources detected with the EPIC CCD cameras, the logN-logS relations and the X-ray colour-colour diagrams. The analysis was performed in the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV and 5-10 keV energy bands. The completeness of the catalogue as well as logN-logS have been calibrated using Monte Carlo simulations. The catalogs contains a total of 1887 unique sources detected in at least one band. The survey, that shows unprecedented homogeneity, has a flux limit of ~1.7x10-15 erg cm-2 s-1, ~9.3x10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 and ~1.3x10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 over 90% of the area (1.92 deg2) in the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV and 5-10 ke...

  6. Autoconocimiento y creación de un cosmos. Dimensiones de la sofia en el pensamiento de Platón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lavecchia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que el concepto de sophia ocupa un lugar central en el pensamiento de Platón, hasta ahora no se han analizado adecuadamente los pocos pasajes de los diálogos platónicos en los que este concepto se examina directamente. A partir de estos pasajes, se puede mostrar que la sophia es una unidad viva de  conocimiento y  acción basada en la experiencia del principio supremo, esto es, del Bien. Esta experiencia lleva al hombre a transcenderse a sí mismo y volverse semejante al Intelecto (nous que crea y guía al universo. De esta manera, el hombre se vuelve capaz de transformar la propia vida en un cosmos que, permeado por el Bien, se revela como una manifestación de la verdadera belleza. --- “Self-knowledge and Creation of a Cosmos. Dimensions of sofia in Plato’s Thought”. Even though the concept of sophia holds a central role in Plato’s thought, the few passages of the Platonic dialogues in which this concept is examined directly have not been adequately analyzed until now. In the consideration of these passages, one can prove that sophia is a living unity of knowledge and action based on the experience of the supreme principle, that is, of the Good. This experience leads man to transcend himself and to become similar to the Intellect (nous that creates and guides the universe. This way, man becomes capable of transforming his own life into a cosmos that, permeated by the Good, reveals itself as a manifestation of true beauty.

  7. Development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) for predicting the impact of storms on high-energy, active-margin coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Maarten van Ormondt,; Erikson, Li H.; Jodi Eshleman,; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Peter Ruggiero,; Peter Adams,; Foxgrover, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) applies a predominantly deterministic framework to make detailed predictions (meter scale) of storm-induced coastal flooding, erosion, and cliff failures over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers). CoSMoS was developed for hindcast studies, operational applications (i.e., nowcasts and multiday forecasts), and future climate scenarios (i.e., sea-level rise + storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm hazards information that may be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. The prototype system, developed for the California coast, uses the global WAVEWATCH III wave model, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry-based global tide model, and atmospheric-forcing data from either the US National Weather Service (operational mode) or Global Climate Models (future climate mode), to determine regional wave and water-level boundary conditions. These physical processes are dynamically downscaled using a series of nested Delft3D-WAVE (SWAN) and Delft3D-FLOW (FLOW) models and linked at the coast to tightly spaced XBeach (eXtreme Beach) cross-shore profile models and a Bayesian probabilistic cliff failure model. Hindcast testing demonstrates that, despite uncertainties in preexisting beach morphology over the ~500 km alongshore extent of the pilot study area, CoSMoS effectively identifies discrete sections of the coast (100s of meters) that are vulnerable to coastal hazards under a range of current and future oceanographic forcing conditions, and is therefore an effective tool for operational and future climate scenario planning.

  8. Cosmic Web of Galaxies in the COSMOS Field: Public Catalog and Different Quenching for Centrals and Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Martin, D. Christopher; Sobral, David; Scoville, Nick; Stroe, Andra; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2017-03-01

    We use a mass complete (log(M/{M}ȯ ) ≥slant 9.6) sample of galaxies with accurate photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field to construct the density field and the cosmic web to z = 1.2. The comic web extraction relies on the density field Hessian matrix and breaks the density field into clusters, filaments, and the field. We provide the density field and cosmic web measures to the community. We show that at z ≲ 0.8, the median star formation rate (SFR) in the cosmic web gradually declines from the field to clusters and this decline is especially sharp for satellites (∼1 dex versus ∼0.5 dex for centrals). However, at z ≳ 0.8, the trend flattens out for the overall galaxy population and satellites. For star-forming (SF) galaxies only, the median SFR is constant at z ≳ 0.5 but declines by ∼0.3–0.4 dex from the field to clusters for satellites and centrals at z ≲ 0.5. We argue that for satellites, the main role of the cosmic web environment is to control their SF fraction, whereas for centrals, it is mainly to control their overall SFR at z ≲ 0.5 and to set their fraction at z ≳ 0.5. We suggest that most satellites experience a rapid quenching mechanism as they fall from the field into clusters through filaments, whereas centrals mostly undergo a slow environmental quenching at z ≲ 0.5 and a fast mechanism at higher redshifts. Our preliminary results highlight the importance of the large-scale cosmic web on galaxy evolution.

  9. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolcic, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany); Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institut for Astronomy, Auf dem Huegel 71, Bonn D-53121 (Germany); Aravena, M.; Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ilbert, O. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite de Provence, CNRS, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, F-13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Yun, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Diener, C. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zrich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F{sub 1m} > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, {approx}10''-30'', resolution. All three sources-AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8-are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution ({approx}2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z {approx}> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 {+-} 1.2, 1.9{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5}, and {approx}4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of {approx}> 1000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}and IR luminosities of {approx}10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z {approx} 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  10. AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS. Is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, A.; Schulze, A.; Merloni, A.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; La Franca, F.; Peng, Y.; Piconcelli, E.; Mainieri, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate, that is, λSAR, the distribution function (SARDF), up to z ~ 2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best-fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass-dependent but redshift-independent break, whose low λSAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that for a given stellar mass, higher λSAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch than the lower λSAR objects, following and mimicking the well-known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schechter function with an almost constant M∗⋆ and a low-mass slope α that flattens with redshift. Compared to the stellar mass function, we find that the HGMF has a similar shape and that up to log (M⋆/M⊙) ~ 11.5, the ratio of AGN host galaxies to star-forming galaxies is basically constant (~10%). Finally, the comparison of the AGN HGMF for different luminosity and specific accretion rate subclasses with a previously published phenomenological model prediction for the "transient" population, which are galaxies in the process of being mass-quenched, reveals that low-luminosity AGN do not appear to be able to contribute significantly to the quenching and that at least at high masses, that is, M⋆ > 1010.7 M⊙, feedback from luminous AGN (log Lbol ≳ 46 [erg/s]) may be responsible for the quenching of star formation in the host galaxy.

  11. Lung cancer risk prediction to select smokers for screening CT--a model based on the Italian COSMOS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bellomi, Massimo; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Rotmensz, Nicole; Field, John K; Decensi, Andrea; Veronesi, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    Screening with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) has been shown to significantly reduce lung cancer mortality but the optimal target population and time interval to subsequent screening are yet to be defined. We developed two models to stratify individual smokers according to risk of developing lung cancer. We first used the number of lung cancers detected at baseline screening CT in the 5,203 asymptomatic participants of the COSMOS trial to recalibrate the Bach model, which we propose using to select smokers for screening. Next, we incorporated lung nodule characteristics and presence of emphysema identified at baseline CT into the Bach model and proposed the resulting multivariable model to predict lung cancer risk in screened smokers after baseline CT. Age and smoking exposure were the main determinants of lung cancer risk. The recalibrated Bach model accurately predicted lung cancers detected during the first year of screening. Presence of nonsolid nodules (RR = 10.1, 95% CI = 5.57-18.5), nodule size more than 8 mm (RR = 9.89, 95% CI = 5.84-16.8), and emphysema (RR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.59-3.49) at baseline CT were all significant predictors of subsequent lung cancers. Incorporation of these variables into the Bach model increased the predictive value of the multivariable model (c-index = 0.759, internal validation). The recalibrated Bach model seems suitable for selecting the higher risk population for recruitment for large-scale CT screening. The Bach model incorporating CT findings at baseline screening could help defining the time interval to subsequent screening in individual participants. Further studies are necessary to validate these models.

  12. [Structural and functional organization of the vestibular apparatus in rats maintained under weightless conditions for 19.5 days aboard the satellite "Cosmos-782"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Ia A; Gazenko, O G; Titova, L K; Bronshteĭn, A A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    1978-01-01

    Vestibular apparatus was investigated in rats subjected to weightlessness for 19.5 days in the satelite "Cosmos-782" and experienced acceleration on launching and landing. Some structural and functional changes were noted. They were seen in otolith clinging to the utricular receptor surface and in the peripheral arrangement of the nucleolus in the nuclei of the receptor cells. It is also possible that increased edema of the vestibular tissue resulted in destruction of some receptor cells, and within the otolith--changes in the form and structure of otoconia. In the horizontal crista the cupula was separated.

  13. Finite element method for parallel machine tool based on the COSMOS software%基于COSMOS的并联机床有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红; 沈斌; 林建荣

    2007-01-01

    针对新颖的五自由度五轴并联机床结构,在三维建模的基础上,借助有限元分析软件COSMOS,根据并联机床具有随位形变化而变化的动态特性,分析了该机床主轴在不同关键位置时整机的静刚度和固有频率.结果表明,机床具有良好的性能.

  14. Radio and millimeter properties of $z \\sim 5.7$ Ly$\\alpha$ emitters in the COSMOS field: limits on radio AGN, submm galaxies, and dust obscuration

    CERN Document Server

    Carilli, C L; Wang, R; Schinnerer, E; Taniguchi, Y; Smolcic, V; Bertoldi, F; Ajiki, M; Nagao, T; Sasaki, S S; Shioya, Y; Aguirre, J E; Blain, A W; Scoville, N Z; Sanders, D B

    2006-01-01

    We present observations at 1.4 and 250 GHz of the $z\\sim 5.7$ Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAE) in the COSMOS field found by Murayama et al.. At 1.4 GHz there are 99 LAEs in the lower noise regions of the radio field. We do not detect any individual source down to 3$\\sigma$ limits of $\\sim 30\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at 1.4 GHz, nor do we detect a source in a stacking analysis, to a 2$\\sigma$ limit of $2.5\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$. At 250 GHz we do not detect any of the 10 LAEs that are located within the central regions of the COSMOS field covered by MAMBO ($20' \\times 20'$) to a typical 2$\\sigma$ limit of $S_{250} 6\\times 10^{24}$ W Hz$^{-1}$ in the LAE sample. The radio and millimeter observations also rule out any highly obscured, extreme starbursts in the sample, ie. any galaxies with massive star formation rates $> 1500$ M$_\\odot$ year$^{-1}$ in the full sample (based on the radio data), or 500 M$_\\odot$ year$^{-1}$ for the 10% of the LAE sample that fall in the central MAMBO field. The stacking analysis implies an upper li...

  15. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies - II. The spatial extent of the radio-emitting regions

    CERN Document Server

    Miettinen, Oskari; Smolčić, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Murphy, Eric J; Aravena, Manuel; Bondi, Marco; Carilli, Chris L; Karim, Alex; Salvato, Mara; Zamorani, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Radio emission at cm wavelengths from highly star-forming galaxies, such as SMGs, is dominated by synchrotron radiation arising from supernova activity. Using deep, high-resolution ($1\\sigma=2.3$ $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$; $0.75^{"}$) cm radio-continuum observations taken by the VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project, we studied the radio-emitting sizes of a flux-limited sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field. Of the 39 SMGs studied here, 3 GHz emission was detected towards 18 of them ($\\sim46\\pm11\\%$) with S/N ratios in the range of ${\\rm S/N=4.2-37.4}$. Using 2D elliptical Gaussian fits, we derived a median deconvolved major axis FWHM size of $0.54^{"}\\pm 0.11^{"}$ for our 18 SMGs detected at 3 GHz. For the 15 SMGs with known redshift we derived a median linear major axis FWHM of $4.2\\pm0.9$ kpc. No clear correlation was found between the radio-emitting size and the 3 GHz or submm flux density, or the redshift of the SMG. However, there is a hint of larger radio sizes at $z\\sim2.5-5$ compared to lower redshifts. The sizes we...

  16. Particle trajectories in seeds of Lactuca sativa and chromosome aberrations after exposure to cosmic heavy ions on cosmos biosatellites 8 and 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facius, R.; Scherer, K.; Reitz, G.; Bücker, H.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.

    1994-10-01

    The potentially specific importance of the heavy ions of the galactic cosmic radiation for radiation protection in manned spaceflight continues to stimulate in situ, i.e., spaceflight experiments to investigate their radiobiological properties. Chromosome aberrations as an expression of a direct assault on the genome are of particular interest in view of cancerogenesis being the primary radiation risk for man in space. In such investigations the establishment of the geometrical correlation between heavy ions' trajectories and the location of radiation sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved for the identification of particle trajectories in the order of 2~10 μm as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed. We describe how this was achieved for seeds of Lactuca sativa as biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographies displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The incidence of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed during the COSMOS 1887 (Biosatellite 8) and the COSMOS 2044 (Biosatellite 9) mission was determined for seeds hit by cosmic heavy ions. In those seeds the incidence of both single and multiple chromosome aberrations was enhanced. The results of the Biosatellite 9 experiment, however, are confounded by spaceflight effects unrelated to the passage of heavy ions.

  17. On the cosmic evolution of the scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies: Broad Line AGN in the zCOSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Merloni, A; Bolzonella, M; Brusa, M; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Elvis, M; Fiore, F; Gilli, R; Hao, H; Jahnke, K; Koekemoer, A M; Lusso, E; Mainieri, V; Mignoli, M; Miyaji, T; Renzini, A; Salvato, M; Silverman, Joseph; Trump, J; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Capak, P; Lilly, S J; Sanders, D; Taniguchi, Y; Bardelli, S; Carollo, C M; Caputi, K; Contini, T; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Iovino, A; Iwasawa, K; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; Maier, C; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Scodeggio, M; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L A M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2009-01-01

    (Abriged) We report on the measurement of the rest frame K-band luminosity and total stellar mass of the hosts of 89 broad line Active Galactic Nuclei detected in the zCOSMOS survey in the redshift range 1COSMOS project. We found that, as compared to the local value, the average black hole to host galaxy mass ratio appears to evolve positively with redshift, with a best fit evolution of the form (1+z)^{0.68 \\pm0.12 +0.6 -0.3}, where the large asymmetric systematic errors stem from the uncertainties in the choice of IMF, in the calibration of the virial relation used to estimate BH masses and in the mean QSO SED adopted. A thoroug...

  18. A Weak Lensing Study of X-ray Groups in the COSMOS survey: Form and Evolution of the Mass-Luminosity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Leauthaud, A; Taylor, J E; Massey, R; Rhodes, J; Ilbert, O; Bundy, K; Tinker, J; George, M R; Capak, P; Koekemoer, A M; Johnston, D E; Cappelluti, N; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Heymans, C; Le Fèvre, O; Lilly, S; McCraken, H J; Mellier, Y; Réfrégier, A; Salvato, M; Scoville, N; Smoot, G; Tanaka, M; Van Waerbeke, L; Wolk, M

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of X-ray scaling laws are critical for improving cosmological constraints derived with the halo mass function and for understanding the physical processes that govern the heating and cooling of the intracluster medium. In this paper, we use a sample of 206 X-ray selected galaxy groups to investigate the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (Lx) and halo mass (M00) where M200 is derived via stacked weak gravitational lensing. This work draws upon a broad array of multi-wavelength COSMOS observations including 1.64 square degrees of contiguous imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and deep XMM-Newton/Chandra imaging. The combined depth of these two data-sets allows us to probe the lensing signals of X-ray detected structures at both higher redshifts and lower masses than previously explored. Weak lensing profiles and halo masses are derived for nine sub-samples, narrowly binned in luminosity and redshift. The COSMOS data alone are well fit by a power law, M200 ~ Lx^a, with a slope...

  19. How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century--Lessons from UK COSMOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille B Toledano

    Full Text Available Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame necessitated new approaches to consent and recruitment between 2009-2012. Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. Commercial providers of register and marketing data, smartphones, apps, email, social media, and the internet offer innovative possibilities for identifying, recruiting and following up cohorts. Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don'ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. Thus a more streamlined experience to the benefit of both research participants and researchers becomes achievable.

  20. How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century--Lessons from UK COSMOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Mireille B; Smith, Rachel B; Brook, James P; Douglass, Margaret; Elliott, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame necessitated new approaches to consent and recruitment between 2009-2012. Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. Commercial providers of register and marketing data, smartphones, apps, email, social media, and the internet offer innovative possibilities for identifying, recruiting and following up cohorts. Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don'ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. Thus a more streamlined experience to the benefit of both research participants and researchers becomes achievable.

  1. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z>2 using VLT and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, C; Ziegler, B; Contini, T; Montero, E Perez; Peng, Y; Balestra, I

    2014-01-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M,SFR) relation is invariant with redshift - the so-called Fundamental Metallicity Relation (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M,SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z>2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.12 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically-motivated formulation of the Z(M,SFR) relation from Lilly et al. (2003), but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al. (2010).

  2. Oxygen abundances of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ~ 1.4 based on five lines and implications for the fundamental metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christian; Lilly, Simon J.; Ziegler, Bodo L.

    2015-02-01

    A relation between the stellar mass M and the gas-phase metallicity Z of galaxies, the MZR, is observed up to higher redshifts. It is a matter of debate, however, if the SFR is a second parameter in the MZR. To explore this issue at z > 1, we used VLT-SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of eight zCOSMOS galaxies at 1.3 extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the MZR of these star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.4 is lower than the local SDSS MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than reported in the literature using [NII]/Hα-based metallicities from individual and stacked spectra. Correcting N2-based O/Hs using recent results by Newman et al. (2014), also the larger FMOS sample at z ~ 1.4 of Zahid et al. (2014) shows a similar evolution of the MZR like the zCOSMOS objects. These observations seem also in agreement with a non-evolving FMR using the physically motivated formulation of the FMR from Lilly et al. (2013).

  3. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: Clustering of X-ray selected AGN at 2.9

    CERN Document Server

    Allevato, V; Finoguenov, A; Marchesi, S; Zamorani, G; Hasinger, G; Salvato, M; Miyaji, T; Gilli, R; Cappelluti, N; Brusa, M; Suh, H; Lanzuisi, G; Trakhtenbrot, B; Griffiths, R; Vignali, C; Schawinski, K; Karim, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the measurement of the projected and redshift space 2-point correlation function (2pcf) of the new catalog of Chandra COSMOS-Legacy AGN at 2.9$\\leq$z$\\leq$5.5 ($\\langle L_{bol} \\rangle \\sim$10$^{46}$ erg/s) using the generalized clustering estimator based on phot-z probability distribution functions (Pdfs) in addition to any available spec-z. We model the projected 2pcf estimated using $\\pi_{max}$ = 200 h$^{-1}$ Mpc with the 2-halo term and we derive a bias at z$\\sim$3.4 equal to b = 6.6$^{+0.60}_{-0.55}$, which corresponds to a typical mass of the hosting halos of log M$_h$ = 12.83$^{+0.12}_{-0.11}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_{\\odot}$. A similar bias is derived using the redshift-space 2pcf, modelled including the typical phot-z error $\\sigma_z$ = 0.052 of our sample at z$\\geq$2.9. Once we integrate the projected 2pcf up to $\\pi_{max}$ = 200 h$^{-1}$ Mpc, the bias of XMM and \\textit{Chandra} COSMOS at z=2.8 used in Allevato et al. (2014) is consistent with our results at higher redshift. The results suggest only...

  4. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  5. Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf in lean rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hafeedza Abdul; Sahib, Najla Gooda; Saari, Nazamid; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-02-22

    Obesity is a major health concern both in developed and developing countries. The use of herbal medicines became the subject of interest for the management of obesity due to its natural origin, cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study aimed at investigating anti-obesity potential of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf (EECCL). In this study, the rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (ND); (2) Normal Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 175 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 350 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 175 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 350 mg/kgBW). The anti-obesity potential was evaluated through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight, and blood biochemicals including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leptin, insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin and fecal fat content. In addition, metabolite profiling of EECCL was carried out using NMR spectroscopy. Rats receiving EECCL together with HFD showed significant (p rats receiving HFD only. At the end of study, the body weight gain of EECCL treated rats was not significantly (p > 0.05) different with those of ND rats. Other related obesity biomarkers including plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels also showed significant improvement (p < 0.05). Administration of EECCL caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in fecal fat excretion, which validates the hypothesis of lipase inhibition, an anti-obesity mechanism similar to standard drug of Orlistat. The (1)H-NMR spectra of EECCL ascertained the presence of catechin, quercetin, rutin, kaempherol and chlorogenic acid in the extract. Conclusively, EECCL showed anti-obesity properties by inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and

  6. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: Energy Spectrum of the Cosmic X-Ray Background and Constraints on Undetected Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Ricarte, Angelo; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Allevato, Viola; Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Ajello, Marco; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Finoguenov, Alexis; Gilli, Roberto; Hasinger, Günther; Marchesi, Stefano; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Pacucci, Fabio; Treister, E.; Urry, C. Megan

    2017-03-01

    Using Chandra observations in the 2.15 deg2 COSMOS-legacy field, we present one of the most accurate measurements of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) spectrum to date in the [0.3–7] keV energy band. The CXB has three distinct components: contributions from two Galactic collisional thermal plasmas at kT ∼ 0.27 and 0.07 keV and an extragalactic power law with a photon spectral index Γ = 1.45 ± 0.02. The 1 keV normalization of the extragalactic component is 10.91 ± 0.16 keV cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 keV‑1. Removing all X-ray-detected sources, the remaining unresolved CXB is best fit by a power law with normalization 4.18 ± 0.26 keV cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 keV‑1 and photon spectral index Γ = 1.57 ± 0.10. Removing faint galaxies down to {i}{AB}∼ 27{--}28 leaves a hard spectrum with {{Γ }}∼ 1.25 and a 1 keV normalization of ∼1.37 keV cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 keV‑1. This means that ∼91% of the observed CXB is resolved into detected X-ray sources and undetected galaxies. Unresolved sources that contribute ∼8%–9% of the total CXB show marginal evidence of being harder and possibly more obscured than resolved sources. Another ∼1% of the CXB can be attributed to still undetected star-forming galaxies and absorbed active galactic nuclei. According to these limits, we investigate a scenario where early black holes totally account for non-source CXB fraction and constrain some of their properties. In order to not exceed the remaining CXB and the z∼ 6 accreted mass density, such a population of black holes must grow in Compton-thick envelopes with {N}H > 1.6 × 1025 cm‑2 and form in extremely low-metallicity environments ({Z}ȯ )∼ {10}-3.

  7. The 2-10 keV unabsorbed luminosity function of AGN from the LSS, CDFS, and COSMOS surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, P.; Koulouridis, E.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Fotopoulou, S.; Hsu, L.-T.; Salvato, M.; Comastri, A.; Pierre, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Carrera, F. J.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Gilli, R.; Iwasawa, K.; Pacaud, F.; Paltani, S.; Plionis, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-05-01

    The XMM-Large scale structure (XMM-LSS), XMM-Cosmological evolution survey (XMM-COSMOS), and XMM-Chandra deep field south (XMM-CDFS) surveys are complementary in terms of sky coverage and depth. Together, they form a clean sample with the least possible variance in instrument effective areas and point spread function. Therefore this is one of the best samples available to determine the 2-10 keV luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their evolution. The samples and the relevant corrections for incompleteness are described. A total of 2887 AGN is used to build the LF in the luminosity interval 1042-1046 erg s-1 and in the redshift interval 0.001-4. A new method to correct for absorption by considering the probability distribution for the column density conditioned on the hardness ratio is presented. The binned luminosity function and its evolution is determined with a variant of the Page-Carrera method, which is improved to include corrections for absorption and to account for the full probability distribution of photometric redshifts. Parametric models, namely a double power law with luminosity and density evolution (LADE) or luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE), are explored using Bayesian inference. We introduce the Watanabe-Akaike information criterion (WAIC) to compare the models and estimate their predictive power. Our data are best described by the LADE model, as hinted by the WAIC indicator. We also explore the recently proposed 15-parameter extended LDDE model and find that this extension is not supported by our data. The strength of our method is that it provides unabsorbed, non-parametric estimates, credible intervals for luminosity function parameters, and a model choice based on predictive power for future data. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and NASA.Tables with the samples of the posterior probability distributions

  8. Le Cosmos d'Alexandre von Humboldt et La Tentation de saint Antoine de Gustave Flaubert : deux œuvres de toute une vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Orr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le septième et dernier tableau de La Tentation de saint Antoine de 1874, la fin célèbre est mise en contexte par une description longue et détaillée qui n’a jamais attiré l’attention critique qu’elle mérite. Cet article analyse l’importance de ce panorama du monde naturel sous la forme d’une exploration intertextuelle des passages du Cosmos d’Alexandre de Humboldt. Que Flaubert signale ses lectures de l’œuvre de Humboldt dans sa Correspondance de 1860 suggère des liens très riches entre Le Cosmos – que Humboldt désigne comme « l’œuvre de ma vie » – et la Tentation de saint Antoine définitive que Flaubert retravaillait au même moment. Cette relecture de La Tentation à travers la perspective de Humboldt souligne la place importante du Cosmos parmi les découvertes et les textes scientifiques contemporains de Flaubert, et la manière dont ceux-ci informent la vision de la vie scientifique et religieuse de son protagoniste, Antoine.In the seventh and final tableau of the Tentation de Saint Antoine of 1874, the famous finale is set in the context of a long, detailed description which has not attracted the critical attention it deserves. This article focuses on the importance of this panorama of the natural world as an intertextual exploration of passages from Kosmos by Alexander von Humboldt. The fact that Flaubert’s Correspondance of 1860 mentions his reading of Humboldt’s works suggests rich lines of investigation between Kosmos – which Humboldt calls the « work of all of life » and the final Tentation de Saint Antoine,which Flaubert was reworking at the same moment. This re-reading of the Tentation through the optic of Humboldt underscores the pivotal position of Kosmos amid the scientific discoveries and texts contemporary to Flaubert, and how these inform the vision of life of his protagonist, Antoine, as scientific and religious.

  9. Coastal hazards in a changing world: projecting and communicating future coastal flood risk at the local-scale using the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Andrea; Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; Limber, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Fitzgibbon, Michael; Wood, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    The risk of coastal flooding will increase for many low-lying coastal regions as predominant contributions to flooding, including sea level, storm surge, wave setup, and storm-related fluvial discharge, are altered with climate change. Community leaders and local governments therefore look to science to provide insight into how climate change may affect their areas. Many studies of future coastal flooding vulnerability consider sea level and tides, but ignore other important factors that elevate flood levels during storm events, such as waves, surge, and discharge. Here we present a modelling approach that considers a broad range of relevant processes contributing to elevated storm water levels for open coast and embayment settings along the U.S. West Coast. Additionally, we present online tools for communicating community-relevant projected vulnerabilities. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) is a numerical modeling system developed to predict coastal flooding due to both sea-level rise (SLR) and plausible 21st century storms for active-margin settings like the U.S. West Coast. CoSMoS applies a predominantly deterministic framework of multi-scale models encompassing large geographic scales (100s to 1000s of kilometers) to small-scale features (10s to 1000s of meters), resulting in flood extents that can be projected at a local resolution (2 meters). In the latest iteration of CoSMoS applied to Southern California, U.S., efforts were made to incorporate water level fluctuations in response to regional storm impacts, locally wind-generated waves, coastal river discharge, and decadal-scale shoreline and cliff changes. Coastal hazard projections are available in a user-friendly web-based tool (www.prbo.org/ocof), where users can view variations in flood extent, maximum flood depth, current speeds, and wave heights in response to a range of potential SLR and storm combinations, providing direct support to adaptation and management decisions. In order to capture

  10. Experiment K-6-13. Morphological and biochemical examination of heart tissue. Part 1: Effects of microgravity on the myocardial fine structure of rats flown on Cosmos 1887. Ultrastructure studies. Part 2: Cellular distribution of cyclic ampdependent protein kinase regulatory subunits in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, Jaime; Mednieks, M. I.; Sapp, W.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    The left ventricle of hearts from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days was compared to the same tissue of synchronous and vivarium control animals maintained in a ground based laboratory. The volume density of the mitochondria in the myocardium of the space-flown animals was statistically less (p equal less than 0.01) than that of the synchronous or vivarium control rats. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a certain degree of myocardial degeneration manifested in mitochondrial changes and accumulation of myeloid bodies. Generalized myofibrillar edema was also observed.

  11. Hellhounds of the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Simak, Clifford Donald

    2012-01-01

    This gripping short story from the golden age of science fiction is a must-read for Simak fans, or for anyone looking for an out-of-this-world adventure. As the denizens of Earth face an invasion from inhabitants of another dimension, the future of the planet hangs in the balance. Will anyone be able to stop the marauding attackers and save the human race?

  12. Unveiling the radio cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinde, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Using a radio telescope with no moving parts, the dark energy speeding up the expansion of the Universe can be probed in unprecedented detail, says Keith Vanderlinde, on behalf of the CHIME collaboration.

  13. Galaxy mapping the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, James

    2014-01-01

    Each night, we are able to gaze up at the night sky and look at the thousands of stars that stretch to the end of our individual horizons. But the stars we see are only those that make up our own Milky Way galaxy-but one of hundreds of billions in the whole of the universe, each separated  by inconceivably huge tracts of empty space. In this book, astronomer James Geach tells the rich stories of both the evolution of galaxies and our ability to observe them, offering a fascinating history of how we've come to realize humanity's tiny place in the vast universe.             Taking us on a compel

  14. Educar en el cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita Fontecha, M. C.

    Cosmoeduca is an educational project set up by the Canaries Astrophysics Institute (IAC), with the support of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology, for teachers of all subjects at secondary school level. During this talk we shall discuss (a) How it all started, (b) What we hope to achieve and (c) The past, the present and the future.

  15. The New Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses areas of modern astronomy that owe their development largely to nonoptical radiation: radio, infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray radiation. Indicates new observations favor the big-bang" model of the universe, for it is now established that the earth is expanding at a measurable rate. Annotated bibliography. (LS)

  16. Life in the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Discoveries by NASA & ESA Spacecraft provide additional evidence for present day liquid water on Mars and water/ice jets on Comets & Enceladus. Stardust mineralogical data support the Hypothesis that water-rich Comets represent parent bodies for the CI1 Carbonaceous Meteorites. Undetectable Nitrogen & low O/C ratios in Filaments found in CI1 Orgueil meteorite rule out Modern Biological Contamination Hypothesis.

  17. Cosmos and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Brier, Søren; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo

    2011-01-01

    a cybersemiotics. In this paper, we focus on the understanding of the evolution of the universe that Peirce produced as an alternative to the mechanistic view underlying classical physics and try to place man in an evolving universe as a creative, aesthetical agent. It is true that modern non-equilibrium physics...... has made a modern foundation for a profound physical understanding of the basic evolutionary processes in the universe. But science still has not produced a theory that can explain how the creativity of the universe could produce signification, interpretation, and first-person consciousness...

  18. A new method to separate star forming from AGN galaxies at intermediate redshift: The submillijansky radio population in the VLA-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Scodeggio, M; Franzetti, P; Aussel, H; Bondi, M; Brusa, M; Carilli, C L; Capak, P; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Ilbert, O; Ivezic, Z; Jahnke, K; McCracken, H J; Obric, M; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N; Trump, J R; Tremonti, C; Tasca, L; Walcher, C J; Zamorani, G

    2008-01-01

    We explore the properties of the submillijansky radio population at 20 cm by applying a newly developed optical color-based method to separate star forming (SF) from AGN galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z1.3) galaxies. We find, for the composition of the submillijansky radio population, that SF galaxies are not the dominant population at submillijansky flux levels, as previously often assumed, but that they make up an approximately constant fraction of 30-40% in the flux density range of ~50 microJy to 0.7 mJy. In summary, based on the entire VLA-COSMOS radio population at 20 cm, we find that the radio population at these flux densities is a mixture of roughly 30-40% of SF and 50-60% of AGN galaxies, with a minor contribution (~10%) of QSOs.

  19. Visão eclética do cosmos. Lógica matemática aplicada ás idéias de Einstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthull Husth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi publicado um estudo, há algum tempo, onde é sugerido que o universo não seria infinito. Mas a equipe de pesquisadores que chegou a essa consideração baseou-se na idéia de que a idade do universo seria de 13 bilhões e 700 milhões de anos. Podemos mostrar, no entanto – através de lógica matemática – que o universo é eterno e, sendo assim, o estudo da radiação derivada do “Big Bang”, no qual se basearam, não pode servir de vestígio para conceber o cosmos, pelo menos no que se refere a sua origem.

  20. The bimodality of the 10k zCOSMOS-bright galaxies up to z ~ 1: a new statistical and portable classification based on the global optical galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Coppa, G; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Pozzetti, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Cimatti, A; Lilly, S J; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Le Fèvre, O; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Mainieri, V; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Memeo, P; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Perez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Scarlata, C; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Capak, P; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to develop a new and reliable statistical method to classify galaxies from large surveys. We probe the reliability of the method by comparing it with a three-dimensional classification cube (Mignoli et al.~2009), using the same set of spectral, photometric and morphological parameters.We applied two different methods of classification to a sample of galaxies extracted from the zCOSMOS redshift survey, in the redshift range 0.5 0.5$, while galaxies with lower masses - of the order of $10^{10}$ Msun - are in transition at later epochs; galaxies with $M 5\\cdot 10^{10}$ Msun) mostly completed their transition before $z\\sim 1$.

  1. How "Discover the COSMOS", "PATHWAY", "Go-Lab" and "Inspiring Science Education" are changing the science education in European high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, Christine

    2014-04-01

    It has been noted by various reports that during recent years, there has been an alarming decline in young people's interest for science studies and mathematics. Since it is believed that the traditional teaching methods often fail to foster positive attitudes towards learning science, the European Commission has made intensive efforts to promote science education in schools though new methods based on the inquiry methodology of learning: questions, search and answers. This should be coupled to laboratories and hands-on experience which should be structured and scaffolded in a pedagogically meaningful way. "PATHWAY", "Discover the COSMOS" and "ISE" have been providing the lesson plans and the best practices for teachers and students and "Go-lab" is working towards an integrated set up of on-line labs for large scale use in science education. In the next sections some concrete examples which aim to bring the High Energy Physics (HEP) frontier research to schools will be given.

  2. US experiments flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Volume 1: Mission description, experiments K-7-01 - K-7-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Cosmos 2044 was launched on September 15, 1989, containing radiation dosimetry experiments and a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, ten adult male Wistar rats, insects, amphibians, protozoa, cell cultures, worms, plants and fish. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the Soviet Union for a mission duration of 14 days, as planned. The major research objectives were: (1) Study adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; (2) Study physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases; (3) Study the tissue regeneration processes of mammals; (4) Study the development of single-celled organisms, cell cultures and embryos in microgravity; (5) Study radiation characteristics during the mission and investigate doses, fluxes and spectra of cosmic radiation for various types of shielding. American and Soviet specialists jointly conducted 29 experiments on this mission including extensive preflight and post flight studies with rhesus monkeys, and tissue processing and cell culturing post flight. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included development of flight and ground-based hardware, the preparation of rat tissue sample procedures, the verification testing of hardware and experiment procedures, and the post flight analysis of biospecimens and data for the joint experiments. The U.S. investigations included four primate experiments, 24 rat experiments, and one radiation dosimetry experiment. Three scientists investigated tissue repair during flight for a subgroup of rats injured preflight by surgical intervention. A description of the Cosmos 2044 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and post flight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. is also described, along with

  3. The Mass-Metallicity and Fundamental Metallicity Relations at z > 2 Using Very Large Telescope and Subaru Near-infrared Spectroscopy of zCOSMOS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Ziegler, B. L.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Peng, Y.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called "fundamental metallicity relation" (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al. AND SUBARU

  4. Galaxy Zoo: an independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C.; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Smith, Arfon M.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2014-03-01

    We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used both to identify the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of 2, from 22 ± 5 per cent at z = 0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11 ± 2 per cent at z = 1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log (M⋆/M⊙) ≥ 10.0], cannot be due to redshift-dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a sample of 98 red disc galaxies. These galaxies have a high bar fraction (45 ± 5 per cent), and are missing from other COSMOS samples which used SED fitting or colours to identify high-redshift discs. Our results are consistent with a picture in which the evolution of massive disc galaxies begins to be affected by slow (secular) internal process at z ˜ 1. We discuss possible connections of the decrease in bar fraction to the redshift, including the growth of stable disc galaxies, mass evolution of the gas content in disc galaxies, as well as the mass-dependent effects of tidal interactions.

  5. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the COSMOS field: Physical properties derived from energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O.; Delvecchio, I.; Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Brisbin, D.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Novak, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Albrecht, M.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P. L.; Casey, C. M.; Hayward, C. C.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Jiang, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F.; Padilla, N. D.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Scott, K. S.; Sheth, K.; Tasca, L. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) represent an important source population in the origin and cosmic evolution of the most massive galaxies. Hence, it is imperative to place firm constraints on the fundamental physical properties of large samples of SMGs. Aims: We determine the physical properties of a sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field that were pre-selected at the observed-frame wavelength of λobs = 1.1 mm, and followed up at λobs = 1.3 mm with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA). Methods: We used the MAGPHYS model package to fit the panchromatic (ultraviolet to radio) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 124 of the target SMGs, which lie at a median redshift of z = 2.30 (19.4% are spectroscopically confirmed). The SED analysis was complemented by estimating the gas masses of the SMGs by using the λobs = 1.3 mm dust emission as a tracer of the molecular gas component. Results: The sample median and 16th-84th percentile ranges of the stellar masses, obscured star formation rates, dust temperatures, and dust and gas masses were derived to be log(M⋆/M⊙) = 11.09+0.41-0.53, SFR = 402+661-233 M⊙ yr-1, Tdust = 39.7+9.7-7.4 K, log(Mdust/M⊙) = 9.01+0.20-0.31, and log(Mgas/M⊙ = 11.34+0.20-0.23, respectively. The Mdust/M⋆ ratio was found to decrease as a function of redshift, while the Mgas/Mdust ratio shows the opposite, positive correlation with redshift. The derived median gas-to-dust ratio of 120+73-30 agrees well with the canonical expectation. The gas fraction (Mgas/ (Mgas + M⋆)) was found to range from 0.10 to 0.98 with a median of 0.62+0.27-0.23. We found that 57.3% of our SMGs populate the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies, while 41.9% of the sources lie above the MS by a factor of greater than three (one source lies below the MS). These super-MS objects, or starbursts, are preferentially found at z ≳ 3, which likely reflects the sensitivity limit of our source selection. We estimated that the median gas

  6. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z > 2 using very large telescope and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, C.; Ziegler, B. L. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lilly, S. J.; Peng, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Contini, T. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, 14 avenue Édouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Pérez Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Balestra, I., E-mail: christian.maier@univie.ac.at [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching b. München (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called 'fundamental metallicity relation' (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al.

  7. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  8. Star formation rates in Lyman break galaxies: radio stacking of LBGs in the COSMOS field and the sub-$\\mu$Jy radio source population

    CERN Document Server

    Carilli, C L; Capak, P; Schinnerer, E; Lee, K -S; McCraken, H; Yun, M S; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Giavalisco, M; Datta, A; Taniguchi, Y; Urry, C Megan

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of the radio properties of large samples of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at $z \\sim 3$, 4, and 5 from the COSMOS field. The median stacking analysis yields a statistical detection of the $z \\sim 3$ LBGs (U-band drop-outs), with a 1.4 GHz flux density of $0.90 \\pm 0.21 \\mu$Jy. The stacked emission is unresolved, with a size $< 1"$, or a physical size $< 8$kpc. The total star formation rate implied by this radio luminosity is $31\\pm 7$ $M_\\odot$ year$^{-1}$, based on the radio-FIR correlation in low redshift star forming galaxies. The star formation rate derived from a similar analysis of the UV luminosities is 17 $M_\\odot$ year$^{-1}$, without any correction for UV dust attenuation. The simplest conclusion is that the dust attenuation factor is 1.8 at UV wavelengths. However, this factor is considerably smaller than the standard attenuation factor $\\sim 5$, normally assumed for LBGs. We discuss potential reasons for this discrepancy, including the possibility that the dust attenuati...

  9. A Multiwavelength Study of a Sample of 70 micron Selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field II: The Role of Mergers in Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Le Floc'h, E; Frayer, D T; Aussel, H; Arnouts, S; Ilbert, O; Salvato, M; Scoville, N Z; Surace, J; Yan, L; Capak, P; Caputi, K; Carollo, C M; Cassata, P; Civano, F; Hasinger, G; Koekemoer, A M; Le Fèvre, O; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D J; Trump, J; Baldassare, V F; Fiorenza, S L

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the morphological properties of a large sample of 1503 70 micron selected galaxies in the COSMOS field spanning the redshift range 0.011 being difficult to classify and subject to the effects of band pass shifting, therefore, these numbers can only be considered lower limits. At z1 the fraction of major mergers is at least 30-40% for ULIRGs. Although the general morphological trends agree with what has been observed for local (U)LIRGs, the fraction of major mergers is slightly lower than seen locally. This is in part due to the difficulty of identifying merger signatures at high redshift. W e argue that given the number of major gas-rich mergers observed and the relatively short timescale that they would be observable in the (U)LIRG phase that it is plausible for the observed red sequence of massive ellipticals (<10^12 M_sun) to have been formed entirely by gas-rich major mergers.

  10. Extended X-ray emission from non-thermal sources in the COSMOS field: A detailed study of a large radio galaxy at z=1.168

    CERN Document Server

    Jelic, Vibor; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Civano, Francesca; Schinnerer, Eva; Cappelluti, Nico; Koekemoer, Anton

    2012-01-01

    X-ray selected galaxy group samples are usually generated by searching for extended X- ray sources that reflect the thermal radiation of the intragroup medium. On the other hand, large radio galaxies that regularly occupy galaxy groups also emit in the X-ray window, and their contribution to X-ray selected group samples is still not well understood. In order to investigate their relative importance, we have carried out a systematic search for non-thermal extended X-ray sources in the COSMOS field. Based on the morphological coincidence of X-ray and radio extensions, out of 60 radio galaxies, and \\sim 300 extended X-ray sources, we find only one candidate where the observed extended X-ray emission arises from non- thermal processes related to radio galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of this source, and its environment. Our results yield that external Inverse Compton emission of the lobes is the dominant process that generates the observed X-ray emission of our extended X-ray candidate, with a minor contr...

  11. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies - I. Multiwavelength identifications and redshift distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Miettinen, Oskari; Novak, Mladen; Aravena, Manuel; Karim, Alexander; Masters, Dan; Riechers, Dominik A; Bussmann, R Shane; McCracken, Henry J; Ilbert, Olivier; Bertoldi, Frank; Capak, Peter; Feruglio, Chiara; Halliday, Claire; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Navarrete, Felipe; Salvato, Mara; Sanders, David; Schinnerer, Eva; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    We used the PdBI to map a sample of 15 SMGs in the COSMOS field at the wavelength of 1.3 mm. The target SMGs were originally discovered in the JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey at S/N=4-4.5. This paper presents, for the first time, interferometric millimetre-wavelength observations of these sources. The angular resolution of our observations, 1.8", allowed us to accurately determine the positions of the target SMGs. Using a detection threshold of S/N>4.5 regardless of multiwavelength counterpart association, and 4

  12. Identifying dynamically young galaxy groups via wide-angle tail galaxies: A case study in the COSMOS field at z=0.53

    CERN Document Server

    Oklopcic, A; Giodini, S; Zamorani, G; Birzan, L; Schinnerer, E; Carilli, C L; Finoguenov, A; Lilly, S; Koekemoer, A; Scoville, N Z

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of a wide-angle tail (WAT) radio galaxy located in a galaxy group in the COSMOS field at a redshift of z=0.53 (hereafter CWAT-02). We find that the host galaxy of CWAT-02 is the brightest galaxy in the group, although it does not coincide with the center of mass of the system. Estimating a) the velocity of CWAT-02, relative to the intra-cluster medium (ICM), and b) the line-of-sight peculiar velocity of CWAT-02's host galaxy, relative to the average velocity of the group, we find that both values are higher than those expected for a dominant galaxy in a relaxed system. This suggests that CWAT-02's host group is dynamically young and likely in the process of an ongoing group merger. Our results are consistent with previous findings showing that the presence of a wide-angle tail galaxy in a galaxy group or cluster can be used as an indicator of dynamically young non-relaxed systems. Taking the unrelaxed state of CWAT-02's host group into account, we discuss the impact of radio-AGN heating...

  13. A Multiwavelength Study of a Sample of 70 micron Selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field I: Spectral Energy Distributions and Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Le Floc'h, E; Frayer, D T; Aussel, H; Arnouts, S; Ilbert, O; Salvato, M; Scoville, N Z; Surace, J; Yan, L; Brusa, M; Capak, P; Caputi, K; Carollo, C M; Civano, F; Elvis, M; Faure, C; Hasinger, G; Koekemoer, A M; Lee, N; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D J; Trump, J

    2009-01-01

    We present a large robust sample of 1503 reliable and unconfused 70microm selected sources from the multiwavelength data set of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). Using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry, we estimate the total infrared luminosity, L_IR (8--1000 microns), by finding the best fit template from several different template libraries. The long wavelength 70 and 160 micron data allow us to obtain a reliable estimate of L_IR, accurate to within 0.2 and 0.05 dex, respectively. The 70 micron data point enables a significant improvement over the luminosity estimates possible with only a 24 micron detection. The full sample spans a wide range in L_IR, L_IR ~ 10^8-10^14 L_sun, with a median luminosity of 10^11.4 L_sun. We identify a total of 687 luminous, 303 ultraluminous, and 31 hyperluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, ULIRGs, and HyLIRGs) over the redshift range 0.01

  14. The Evolution of the Stellar Mass Functions of Star-Forming and Quiescent Galaxies to z = 4 from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro; Franx, Marijn; McCracken, Henry J; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Dunlop, James S; Fynbo, J P U; Fevre, Olivier Le; Brammer, Gabriel; Labbe, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95 675 galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. Sources have been selected from the DR1 UltraVISTA K_{s}-band imaging which covers a unique combination of a wide area (1.62 deg^2), to a significant depth (K_{s,tot} = 23.4). The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar mass density of the universe was only 50%, 10% and 1% of its current value at z ~ 1.0, 2.0, and 3.5, respectively. The quiescent population drives most of the overall growth, with the stellar mass density of these galaxies increasing by 2.71^{+0.93}_{-0.22} dex since z = 3.5. At z > 2.5, star-forming galaxies dominate the total SMF at all stellar masses, although a nonzero population of quiescent galaxies persists to z = 4. Comparisons of the K_{s}-selected star-forming galaxy SMFs to UV-selected SMFs at 2.5 3.5. We estimate the average mass growth of ind...

  15. Rest-frame Optical Emission Lines in Far-Infrared Selected Galaxies at z<1.7 from the FMOS-COSMOS Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Silverman, J D; Kashino, D; Chu, J; Zahid, H; Hasinger, G; Kewley, L; Matsuoka, K; Nagao, T; Riguccini, L; Salvato, M; Schawinski, K; Taniguchi, Y; Treister, E; Capak, P; Daddi, E; Ohta, K

    2015-01-01

    We have used FMOS on Subaru to obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 123 far-infrared selected galaxies in COSMOS and obtain the key rest-frame optical emission lines. This is the largest sample of infrared galaxies with near-infrared spectroscopy at these redshifts. The far-infrared selection results in a sample of galaxies that are massive systems that span a range of metallicities in comparison with previous optically selected surveys, and thus has a higher AGN fraction and better samples the AGN branch. We establish the presence of AGN and starbursts in this sample of (U)LIRGs selected as Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-MIPS detections in two redshift bins (z~0.7 and z~1.5) and test the redshift dependence of diagnostics used to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. In addition, we construct a low redshift (z~0.1) comparison sample of infrared selected galaxies and find that the evolution from z~1.5 to today is consistent with an evolving AGN selection line and a range of ISM conditions and metall...

  16. SINFONI spectra of heavily obscured AGNs in COSMOS: evidence of outflows in a MIR/O target at z$\\sim2.5$

    CERN Document Server

    Perna, M; Salvato, M; Cresci, G; Lanzuisi, G; Berta, S; Delvecchio, I; Fiore, F; Lutz, D; Floc'h, E Le; Mainieri, V; Riguccini, L

    2015-01-01

    We present new data for four candidate obscured Compton-Thick (CT) quasars at z $\\sim$1-2.5 observed with SINFONI VLT spectrograph in AO mode. These sources were selected from a 24$\\mu$m Spitzer MIPS survey of the COSMOS field, on the basis of red mid-infrared-to-optical and optical-to-near-infrared colours, with the intention of identifying active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dust enshrouded environments, where most of the black hole mass is assembled in dust enshrouded environments. Near infrared spectra were analyzed in order to check for emission line features and to search for broad components in the [OIII]-H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$-[NII] regions. X-ray spectral analysis, radio and MIR diagnostics, and SED fitting have also been employed to study the nature of the sources. We successfully identified three objects for which we had only a photometric redshift estimate. Based on their emission line diagnostics and on ancillary multi-wavelength constraints, we find that all four targets harbor obscured AGNs. Broad...

  17. Evolution of the specific Star Formation Rate Function at z<1.4 - Dissecting the mass-SFR plane in COSMOS and GOODS

    CERN Document Server

    Ilbert, O; Floc'h, E Le; Aussel, H; Bethermin, H; Capak, P; Hsieh, B C; Kajisawa, M; Fevre, O Le; Lee, N; Lilly, S; McCracken, H J; Michel-Dansac, L; Moutard, T; Renzini, A; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N; Sheth, K; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Tresse, L

    2014-01-01

    The relation between the stellar mass and the star formation rate characterizes how the instantaneous star formation is determined by the galaxy past star formation history and by the growth of the dark matter structures. We deconstruct the M-SFR plane by measuring the specific SFR functions in several stellar mass bins from z=0.2 out to z=1.4. Our analysis is primary based on a MIPS 24$\\mu m$ selected catalogue combining the COSMOS and GOODS surveys. We estimate the SFR by combining mid- and far-infrared data for 20500 galaxies. The sSFR functions are derived in four stellar mass bins within the range 9.5

  18. Cosmic Galaxy-IGM HI Relation at ${\\it{z}}\\sim 2-3$ Probed in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA $1.6$ deg$^2$ Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mukae, Shiro; Kakiichi, Koki; Suzuki, Nao; Ono, Yoshiaki; Cai, Zheng; Inoue, Akio K; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    We present spatial correlations of galaxies and IGM neutral hydrogen HI in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA 1.62 deg$^2$ field. Our data consist of 13415 photo-$z$ galaxies at $z\\sim2-3$ with $K_s<23.4$ and the Ly$\\alpha$ forest absorptions in the background quasar spectra selected from SDSS data with no signature of damped Ly$\\alpha$ system contamination. We estimate a galaxy overdensity $\\delta_{gal}$ in an impact parameter of 2.5 pMpc, and calculate the Ly$\\alpha$ forest fluctuations $\\delta_{\\langle F\\rangle}$ whose negative values correspond to the strong Ly$\\alpha$ forest absorptions. We identify a weak anti-correlation between $\\delta_{gal}$ and $\\delta_{\\langle F\\rangle}$ with a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of $-0.39$ suggesting that the galaxy overdensities and the Ly$\\alpha$ forest absorptions positively correlate in space at the $\\sim90\\%$ confidence level. This positive correlation indicates that high-$z$ galaxies exist around an excess of HI gas in the Ly$\\alpha$ forest. We find four cosmic vo...

  19. Mass and environment as drivers of galaxy evolution in SDSS and zCOSMOS and the origin of the Schechter function

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Y; Kovac, K; Bolzonella, M; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A; Zamorani, G; Ilbert, O; Knobel, C; Iovino, A; Maier, C; Cucciati, O; Tasca, L; Carollo, C M; Silverman, J; Kampczyk, P; de Ravel, L; Sanders, D; Contini, T; Mainieri, V; Scodeggio, M; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; de la Torre, S; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Mignoli, M; Montero, E Perez; Pello, R; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Welikala, N; Zucca, E; Oesch, P; Abbas, U; Barnes, L; Bordoloi, R; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Fumana, M; Hasinger, G; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Nair, P; Porciani, C; Presotto, V; Scaramella, R

    2010-01-01

    We explore the inter-relationships between mass, star-formation rate and environment in the SDSS, zCOSMOS and other surveys. The differential effects of mass and environment are completely separable to z ~ 1, indicating that two distinct processes are operating, "mass-quenching" and "environment-quenching". Environment-quenching, at fixed over-density, evidently does not change with epoch to z ~ 1, suggesting that it occurs as large-scale structure develops in the Universe. The observed constancy of the mass-function shape for star-forming galaxies, demands that the mass-quenching of galaxies around and above M*, must be proportional to their star-formation rates at all z < 2. We postulate that this simple mass-quenching law also holds over a much broader range of stellar mass and epoch. These two simple quenching processes, plus some additional quenching due to merging, then naturally produce (a) a quasi-static Schechter mass function for star-forming galaxies with a value of M* that is set by the proport...

  20. Effect of storage time on metabolite profile and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Cosmos caudatus leaves – GCMS based metabolomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Javadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cosmos caudatus, which is a commonly consumed vegetable in Malaysia, is locally known as “Ulam Raja”. It is a local Malaysian herb traditionally used as a food and medicinal herb to treat several maladies. Its bioactive or nutritional constituents consist of a wide range of metabolites, including glucosinolates, phenolics, amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. However, many of these metabolites are not stable and easily degraded or modified during storage. In order to investigate the metabolomics changes occurring during post-harvest storage, C. caudatus samples were subjected to seven different storage times (0 hours, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, 10 hours, and 12 hours at room temperature. As the model experiment, the metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS were correlated with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity analyzed with multivariate data analysis (MVDA to find out the variation among samples and metabolites contributing to the activity. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS analysis was applied to investigate the metabolomics changes. A profound chemical alteration, both in primary and secondary metabolites, was observed. The α-tocopherol, catechin, cyclohexen-1-carboxylic acid, benzoic acid, myo-inositol, stigmasterol, and lycopene compounds were found to be the discriminating metabolites at early storage; however, sugars such as sucrose, α-d-galactopyranose, and turanose were detected, which was attributed to the discriminating metabolites for late storage. The result shows that the MVDA method is a promising technique to identify biomarker compounds relative to storage at different times.

  1. Shadow of a Colossus: A z=2.45 Galaxy Protocluster Detected in 3D Ly-a Forest Tomographic Mapping of the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Khee-Gan; White, Martin; Prochaska, J Xavier; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Schlegel, David J; Rich, R Michael; Suzuki, Nao; Stark, Casey W; Fevre, Olivier Le; Nugent, Peter E; Salvato, Mara; Zamorani, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Using moderate-resolution optical spectra from 58 background Lyman-break galaxies and quasars at $z\\sim 2.3-3$ within a $11.5'\\times13.5'$ area of the COSMOS field ($\\sim 1200\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ projected area density or $\\sim 2.4\\,h^{-1}\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}$ mean transverse separation), we reconstruct a 3D tomographic map of the foreground Ly$\\alpha$ forest absorption at $2.2

  2. All-sky Multi-colour, Multi-epoch SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey Images Now Available in the VO Through SIAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, N. C.; Read, M. A.; Holliman, M. S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Collins, R. S.; Mann, R. G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a new all-sky Simple Image Access (SIA) protocol cut-out service based on the legacy Schmidt telescope photographic surveys (epoch 1949-2000) as digitised by the now decommissioned precision plate scanning facility SuperCOSMOS. Every part of the sky is covered in BRI (typical depths B=22, R=20, I=18 with 2 arcsec resolution) with at least two epochs in R; multiple-epoch images are available in the substantial survey overlap regions. Furthermore, specialist regions have additional filter/epoch coverage, e.g. Hα and matched R exposures in the Galactic Plane, and ˜200 multi-epoch/colour images spread over ˜30 years in the ESO/SRC survey field~287 at 21^h28^m, -45° (B1950). The service has been published to the international Virtual Observatory through the WFAU publishing registry, which can be found through the IVOA Registry of Registries. URL, http://www-wfau.roe.ac.uk:8080/ssa/SSS_SIAP IVORN, ivo://wfau.roe.ac.uk/sss-siap

  3. Oxygen abundances of zCOSMOS galaxies at z~1.4 based on five lines and implications for the fundamental metallicity relation

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, C; Ziegler, B L

    2014-01-01

    A relation between the stellar mass M and the gas-phase metallicity Z of galaxies, the MZR, is observed up to higher redshifts. It is a matter of debate, however, if the SFR is a second parameter in the MZR. To explore this issue at z > 1, we used VLT-SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of eight zCOSMOS galaxies at 1.3 < z < 1.4 to measure the strengths of four emission lines: Hbeta, [OIII]lambda5007, Halpha, and [NII]lambda6584, additional to [OII]lambda3727 measured from VIMOS. We derive reliable O/H metallicities based on five lines, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Halpha measurements. We find that the MZR of these star-forming galaxies at z~1.4 is lower than the local SDSS MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than reported in the literature using [NII]/Halpha-based metallicities from individual and stacked spectra. Correcting N2-based O/Hs using recent results by Newman et al. (2014), also the larger FMOS sample at z~1.4 of Zahid et al. (2014) shows a similar evolution of t...

  4. The 2-10 keV unabsorbed luminosity function of AGN from the XMM-Newton LSS, CDFS and COSMOS surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Georgantopoulos, I; Fotopoulou, S; Hsu, L -T; Salvato, M; Comastri, A; Pierre, M; Cappelluti, N; Carrera, F J; Chiappetti, L; Clerc, N; Gilli, R; Iwasawa, K; Pacaud, F; Paltani, S; Plionis, E; Vignali, C

    2015-01-01

    The XMM-LSS, XMM-COSMOS, and XMM-CDFS surveys are complementary in terms of sky coverage and depth. Together, they form a clean sample with the least possible variance in instrument effective areas and PSF. Therefore this is one of the best samples available to determine the 2-10 keV luminosity function of AGN and its evolution. The samples and the relevant corrections for incompleteness are described. A total of 2887 AGN is used to build the LF in the luminosity interval 10^42-10^46 erg/s, and in the redshift interval 0.001-4. A new method to correct for absorption by considering the probability distribution for the column density conditioned on the hardness ratio is presented. The binned luminosity function and its evolution is determined with a variant of the Page-Carrera method, improved to include corrections for absorption and to account for the full probability distribution of photometric redshifts. Parametric models, namely a double power-law with LADE or LDDE evolution, are explored using Bayesian in...

  5. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.6 I. H\\alpha -based star formation rates and dust extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Kashino, D; Rodighiero, G; Renzini, A; Arimoto, N; Daddi, E; Lilly, S J; Sanders, D B; Kartaltepe, J; Zahid, H J; Nagao, T; Sugiyama, N; Capak, P; Carollo, C M; Chu, J; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Kajisawa, M; Kewley, L J; Koekemoer, A M; Kovač, K; Fèvre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Onodera, M; Scoville, N; Strazzullo, V; Symeonidis, M; Taniguchi, Y

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the COSMOS field, using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) on the Subaru telescope, designed to characterize the star-forming galaxy population at 1.4

  6. The composite nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) at z~2-3 in the COSMOS field: I. A Far-Infrared View

    CERN Document Server

    Riguccini, L; Mullaney, J R; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Calanog, J; Capak, P; Cooray, A; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; McCracken, H; Oliver, S; Roseboom, I; Salvato, M; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Treister, E

    2015-01-01

    Dust-Obscured galaxies (DOGs) are bright 24 um-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. They are typically characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (T_D ~ 200-1000K) in the near-IR indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an an active galactic nucleus (AGN). DOGs with a fainter 24 um flux display a stellar bump in the near-IR and their mid-IR luminosity appears to be mainly powered by dusty star formation. Alternatively, it may be that the mid-IR emission arising from AGN activity is dominant but the torus is sufficiently opaque to make the near-IR emission from the AGN negligible with respect to the emission from the host component. In an effort to characterize the astrophysical nature of the processes responsible for the IR emission in DOGs, this paper exploits Herschel data (PACS + SPIRE) on a sample of 95 DOGs within the COSMOS field. We derive a wealth of far-IR properties (e.g., total IR luminosities; mid-to-far IR colors; dust temperatures and ma...

  7. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z~1.6 III. Survey design, performance, and sample characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Arimoto, N; Renzini, A; Rodighiero, G; Daddi, E; Sanders, D; Kartaltepe, J; Zahid, J; Nagao, T; Kewley, L J; Lilly, S J; Sugiyama, N; Capak, P; Carollo, C M; Chu, J; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Kajisawa, M; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Fevre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Onodera, M; Scoville, N; Strazzullo, V; Taniguchi, Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of galaxies in the COSMOS field using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS), a near-infrared instrument on the Subaru Telescope. Our survey is specifically designed to detect the Halpha emission line that falls within the H-band (1.6-1.8 micron) spectroscopic window from star-forming galaxies with M_stellar>10^10 Msolar and 1.4 < z < 1.7. With the high multiplex capabilities of FMOS, it is now feasible to construct samples of over one thousand galaxies having spectroscopic redshifts at epochs that were previously challenging. The high-resolution mode (R~2600) is implemented to effectively separate Halpha and [NII] emission lines thus enabling studies of gas-phase metallicity and photoionization conditions of the interstellar medium. The broad goals of our program are concerned with how star formation depends on stellar mass and environment, both recognized as drivers of galaxy evolution at lower redshifts. In addition to the main galaxy sample, our target selection...

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of the active components from the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Bong-Sik; Kim, So-Young; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Sik; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a sesquiterpene lactone from the methanol extract of the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus, namely, MDI (a mixture of dihydrocallitrisin and isohelenin). The anti-inflammatory activity of MDI was evaluated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. MDI significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Consistent with these results, the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was suggested to be suppressed by MDI in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value was 0.94 and 2.88 µg mL(-1) for NO and PGE2, respectively). In addition, MDI significantly inhibited the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, MDI attenuated DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκB. These results indicate that MDI isolated from the roots of C. bipinnatus shows anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by modulating the NF-κB pathway.

  9. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies IV. Physical properties derived from spectral energy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Miettinen, Oskari; Smolčić, Vernesa; Novak, Mladen; Aravena, Manuel; Karim, Alexander; Murphy, Eric J; Schinnerer, Eva; Capak, Peter; Ilbert, Olivier; Intema, Huib T; Laigle, Clotilde; McCracken, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    We characterise the physical nature of a 1.1 mm-selected, flux-limited, and interferometrically followed up sample of SMGs in COSMOS. We used the MAGPHYS code to fit the multiwavelength (UV-radio) SEDs of 16 of the target SMGs. We also constructed the pure radio SEDs of our SMGs using three different radio bands (325 MHz, 1.4 GHz, and 3 GHz). Moreover, since two SMGs in our sample, AzTEC1 and AzTEC3, benefit from previous CO line observations, we studied their properties in more detail. We found that 63% of our target SMGs lie above the galaxy main-sequence by more than a factor of 3, and hence are starbursts. The 3 GHz radio sizes we have previously measured for the target SMGs were compared with the present stellar mass estimates, and we found that the z>3 SMGs are fairly consistent with the mass-size relationship of z~2 compact, quiescent galaxies (cQGs). The median IR-radio correlation parameter is found to be q=2.27, which is lower than measured locally (median q=2.64). AzTEC1 is found to have a sub-Eddi...

  10. Eight Weeks of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) Supplementation Improves Glycemic Status in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Ismail, Amin; Anthony, Joseph; Ng, Ooi Chuan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Optimizing glycemic control is crucial to prevent type 2 diabetes related complications. Cosmos caudatus is reported to have promising effect in improving plasma blood glucose in an animal model. However, its impact on human remains ambiguous. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of C. caudatus on glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. In this randomized controlled trial with two-arm parallel-group design, a total of 101 subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to diabetic-ulam or diabetic controls for eight weeks. Subjects in diabetic-ulam group consumed 15 g of C. caudatus daily for eight weeks while diabetic controls abstained from taking C. caudatus. Both groups received the standard lifestyle advice. Results. After 8 weeks of supplementation, C. caudatus significantly reduced serum insulin (-1.16 versus +3.91), reduced HOMA-IR (-1.09 versus +1.34), and increased QUICKI (+0.05 versus -0.03) in diabetic-ulam group compared with the diabetic controls. HbA1C level was improved although it is not statistically significant (-0.76% versus -0.37%). C. caudatus was safe to consume. Conclusions. C. caudatus supplementation significantly improves insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Very-long-chain 1,2- and 1,3-bifunctional compounds from the cuticular wax of Cosmos bipinnatus petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Peng, Chen; Jetter, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Four uncommon classes of very-long-chain compounds were identified and quantified in the petal wax of Cosmos bipinnatus (Asteraceae). The first two were homologous series of alkane 1,2-diols and 1,3-diols, both ranging from C20 to C26. The upper and lower petal surfaces contained 0.11 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) of 1,2-diols, respectively. 1,3-Diols were present at quantities one order of magnitude less than the 1,2-diols. Both series had similar chain length distributions, with 6-20%, 59-73% and 20-31% of the C20, C22 and C24 diols, respectively. The other two compound classes were primary and secondary monoacetates of C20-C24 1,2-diols. The monoacetates had chain length profiles similar to the free 1,2-diols, and amounted to 0.04 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) on the adaxial and abaxial sides, respectively. Methods were developed to minimize acyl migration during monoacetate isomer analyses. The ratios of diol 1-acetates to diol 2-acetates averaged close to 3:5, and thus opposite to the chemical equilibrium ratio of 7:3.

  12. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in the sea-ice response to volcanic forcing simulated by MPI-ESM (COSMOS-Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zanchettin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decadal evolution of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice following strong volcanic eruptions is investigated in four climate simulation ensembles performed with the COSMOS-Mill version of the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model. The ensembles differ in the magnitude of the imposed volcanic perturbations, with sizes representative of historical tropical eruptions (1991 Pinatubo and 1815 Tambora and of tropical and extra-tropical "supervolcano" eruptions. A post-eruption Arctic sea-ice expansion is robustly detected in all ensembles, while Antarctic sea ice responds only to "supervolcano" eruptions, undergoing an initial short-lived expansion and a subsequent prolonged contraction phase. Strong volcanic forcing therefore emerges as a potential source of inter-hemispheric interannual-to-decadal climate variability, although the inter-hemispheric signature is weak in the case of historical-size eruptions. The post-eruption inter-hemispheric decadal asymmetry in sea ice is interpreted as a consequence mainly of different exposure of Arctic and Antarctic regional climates to induced meridional heat transport changes and of dominating local feedbacks that set in within the Antarctic region. "Supervolcano" experiments help clarifying differences in simulated hemispheric internal dynamics related to imposed negative net radiative imbalances, including the relative importance of the thermal and dynamical components of the sea-ice response. "Supervolcano" experiments could therefore serve the assessment of climate models' behavior under strong external forcing conditions and, consequently, favor advancements in our understanding of simulated sea-ice dynamics.

  13. The zCOSMOS survey: the role of the environment in the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types

    CERN Document Server

    Zucca, E; Bolzonella, M; Zamorani, G; Ilbert, O; Pozzetti, L; Mignoli, M; Kovac, K; Lilly, S; Tresse, L; Tasca, L; Cassata, P; Halliday, C; Vergani, D; Caputi, K; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J P; LeFevre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Bongiorno, A; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; delaTorre, S; deRavel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Lamareille, F; LeBorgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pello`, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cimatti, A; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Moresco, M; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Arnouts, S; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Kartaltepe, J; Salvato, M; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We studied the evolution in the B band luminosity function to z~1 in the zCOSMOS 10k sample, for which both accurate galaxy classifications and a detailed description of the local density field are available. The global LF exhibits a brightening of ~0.7 mag in M* from z~0.2 to z~0.9. At low z, late types dominate at faint magnitudes, while the bright end is populated mainly by early types. At higher z, late-type galaxies evolve significantly and, at z~1, the contribution from the various types to the bright end of the LF is comparable. The evolution for early types is in both luminosity and normalization. A similar behaviour is exhibited by late types, but with an opposite trend for the normalization. Studying the role of the environment, we find that the global LF of galaxies in overdense regions has always a brighter M* and a flatter slope. In low density environments, the main contribution to the LF is from blue galaxies, while for high density environments there is an important contribution fro...

  14. zCOSMOS - 10k-bright spectroscopic sample. The bimodality in the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function: exploring its evolution with redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzetti, L; Zucca, E; Zamorani, G; Lilly, S; Renzini, A; Moresco, M; Mignoli, M; Cassata, P; Tasca, L; Lamareille, E; Maier, C; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Vergani, D; Caputi, K; Kovac, K; Cimatti, A; Cucciati, O; Iovino, A; Peng, Y; Carollo, M; Contini, T; Kneib, J P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Scodeggio, M; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Coppa, G; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Pellò, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, Joseph; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Guzzo, L; Halliday, C; Leauthaud, A; Koekemoer, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H; Memeo, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scarlata, C; Scoville, N

    2009-01-01

    We present the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function (GSMF) up to z~1 from the zCOSMOS-bright 10k spectroscopic sample. We investigate the total MF and the contribution of ETGs and LTGs, defined by broad-band SED, morphology, spectral properties or star formation activities. We unveil a galaxy bimodality in the global MF, at least up to the z~0.55, better represented by 2 Schechter functions dominated by ETGs and LTGs, respectively. For the global population we confirm that low-mass galaxies number density increases later and faster than for massive galaxies. We find that the MF evolution at intermediate-low Mstar (logM<10.6) is mostly explained by a growth in stellar mass driven by smooth and decreasing SFHs. The low/negligible evolution at higher Mstar sets a limit of 30-15%, decreasing with redshift, to the fraction of major merging. We find that ETGs increase in number density with cosmic time faster for decreasing Mstar, with a median "building redshift" increasing with mass, in contrast with hierarchical mode...

  15. Galaxy Zoo: An independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P; Casteels, Kevin R V; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Smith, Arfon M; Willett, Kyle W

    2014-01-01

    We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used to identify both the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of two, from 22+/-5% at z=0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11+/-2% at z=1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log(Mstar/Msun) > 10.0], cannot be due to redshift dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a...

  16. Scientists as Producers, Presenters, Videographers, Distributors and 'Stars': The Revolution In Science Filmmaking, from COSMOS to iPhones on Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Morris, K.

    2013-12-01

    In 1980, Carl Sagan's COSMOS received ratings of some 16 million and won three Emmys and a Peabody award. Sagan was hailed as a 'Showman of Science' by Time magazine, confirming his status as a science superstar. Haines-Stiles, 1st author for this presentation, was a Senior Producer and series director on what was for several decades PBS's highest-rated science series. Some researchers still consider primetime series on national networks as THE way to engage and inform audiences. But a revolution in both the making and consuming of science film and television has transformed the media landscape from high profile series such as COSMOS to more of a 'horizontal' ecosystem in which different formats for diverse audiences via multiple distribution networks are the norm. From the early 1990's the Internet has played an increasingly prominent role in this revolution. In 1993, Haines-Stiles and Akuginow added interactivity to traditional one-way TV broadcasts with 'Dale's Dive Diary,' in what was arguably the world's first science blog, detailing online the joys and rigors of working in Antarctica. Increasingly, the evolution of media allowed for the documentation of the process of doing science along with "eureka" discoveries and press conference results. In POLAR-PALOOZA (PPZA) this new perspective was further extended by taking Arctic and Antarctic researchers on the road to science museums in some 25 communities across the USA for spoken-word performances supported by High Definition video profiles of scientists at work at remote locations. In one instance, a researcher was given a crash course in videography and loaned a low-cost prosumer camcorder to take with her to the heart of East Antarctica. Excellent video was captured, and made part of large screen presentations in IMAX-scale theaters. In addition to the Summative Evaluation (required by project sponsors, NSF and NASA) which focused on audience responses, a recent research paper by communications scholar, Kim

  17. Mass and Environment as Drivers of Galaxy Evolution in SDSS and zCOSMOS and the Origin of the Schechter Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying-jie; Lilly, Simon J.; Kovač, Katarina; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Renzini, Alvio; Zamorani, Gianni; Ilbert, Olivier; Knobel, Christian; Iovino, Angela; Maier, Christian; Cucciati, Olga; Tasca, Lidia; Carollo, C. Marcella; Silverman, John; Kampczyk, Pawel; de Ravel, Loic; Sanders, David; Scoville, Nicholas; Contini, Thierry; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Scodeggio, Marco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Bardelli, Sandro; Bongiorno, Angela; Caputi, Karina; Coppa, Graziano; de la Torre, Sylvain; Franzetti, Paolo; Garilli, Bianca; Lamareille, Fabrice; Le Borgne, Jean-Francois; Le Brun, Vincent; Mignoli, Marco; Perez Montero, Enrique; Pello, Roser; Ricciardelli, Elena; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tresse, Laurence; Vergani, Daniela; Welikala, Niraj; Zucca, Elena; Oesch, Pascal; Abbas, Ummi; Barnes, Luke; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Bottini, Dario; Cappi, Alberto; Cassata, Paolo; Cimatti, Andrea; Fumana, Marco; Hasinger, Gunther; Koekemoer, Anton; Leauthaud, Alexei; Maccagni, Dario; Marinoni, Christian; McCracken, Henry; Memeo, Pierdomenico; Meneux, Baptiste; Nair, Preethi; Porciani, Cristiano; Presotto, Valentina; Scaramella, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    We explore the simple inter-relationships between mass, star formation rate, and environment in the SDSS, zCOSMOS, and other deep surveys. We take a purely empirical approach in identifying those features of galaxy evolution that are demanded by the data and then explore the analytic consequences of these. We show that the differential effects of mass and environment are completely separable to z ~ 1, leading to the idea of two distinct processes of "mass quenching" and "environment quenching." The effect of environment quenching, at fixed over-density, evidently does not change with epoch to z ~ 1 in zCOSMOS, suggesting that the environment quenching occurs as large-scale structure develops in the universe, probably through the cessation of star formation in 30%-70% of satellite galaxies. In contrast, mass quenching appears to be a more dynamic process, governed by a quenching rate. We show that the observed constancy of the Schechter M* and αs for star-forming galaxies demands that the quenching of galaxies around and above M* must follow a rate that is statistically proportional to their star formation rates (or closely mimic such a dependence). We then postulate that this simple mass-quenching law in fact holds over a much broader range of stellar mass (2 dex) and cosmic time. We show that the combination of these two quenching processes, plus some additional quenching due to merging naturally produces (1) a quasi-static single Schechter mass function for star-forming galaxies with an exponential cutoff at a value M* that is set uniquely by the constant of proportionality between the star formation and mass quenching rates and (2) a double Schechter function for passive galaxies with two components. The dominant component (at high masses) is produced by mass quenching and has exactly the same M* as the star-forming galaxies but a faint end slope that differs by Δαs ~ 1. The other component is produced by environment effects and has the same M* and αs as the

  18. A Weak Lensing Study of X-ray Groups in the Cosmos Survey: Form and Evolution of the Mass-Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Taylor, James E.; Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Ilbert, Olivier; Bundy, Kevin; Tinker, Jeremy; George, Matthew R.; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Johnston, David E.; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Cappelluti, Nico; Ellis, Richard S.; Elvis, Martin; Giodini, Stefania; Heymans, Catherine; Le Fèvre, Oliver; Lilly, Simon; McCracken, Henry J.; Mellier, Yannick; Réfrégier, Alexandre; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick; Smoot, George; Tanaka, Masayuki; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Wolk, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of X-ray scaling laws are critical for improving cosmological constraints derived with the halo mass function and for understanding the physical processes that govern the heating and cooling of the intracluster medium. In this paper, we use a sample of 206 X-ray-selected galaxy groups to investigate the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (L X) and halo mass (M 200) where M 200 is derived via stacked weak gravitational lensing. This work draws upon a broad array of multi-wavelength COSMOS observations including 1.64 degrees2 of contiguous imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys to a limiting magnitude of I F814W = 26.5 and deep XMM-Newton/Chandra imaging to a limiting flux of 1.0 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band. The combined depth of these two data sets allows us to probe the lensing signals of X-ray-detected structures at both higher redshifts and lower masses than previously explored. Weak lensing profiles and halo masses are derived for nine sub-samples, narrowly binned in luminosity and redshift. The COSMOS data alone are well fit by a power law, M 200 vprop (L X)α, with a slope of α = 0.66 ± 0.14. These results significantly extend the dynamic range for which the halo masses of X-ray-selected structures have been measured with weak gravitational lensing. As a result, tight constraints are obtained for the slope of the M-L X relation. The combination of our group data with previously published cluster data demonstrates that the M-L X relation is well described by a single power law, α = 0.64 ± 0.03, over two decades in mass, M 200 ~ 1013.5-1015.5 h -1 72 M sun. These results are inconsistent at the 3.7σ level with the self-similar prediction of α = 0.75. We examine the redshift dependence of the M-L X relation and find little evidence for evolution beyond the rate predicted by self-similarity from z ~ 0.25 to z ~ 0.8. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope

  19. Satellite Collision Modeling with Physics-Based Hydrocodes: Debris Generation Predictions of the Iridium-Cosmos Collision Event and Other Impact Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, H K; Miller, W O; Levatin, J L; Pertica, A J; Olivier, S S

    2010-09-06

    Satellite collision debris poses risks to existing space assets and future space missions. Predictive models of debris generated from these hypervelocity collisions are critical for developing accurate space situational awareness tools and effective mitigation strategies. Hypervelocity collisions involve complex phenomenon that spans several time- and length-scales. We have developed a satellite collision debris modeling approach consisting of a Lagrangian hydrocode enriched with smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), advanced material failure models, detailed satellite mesh models, and massively parallel computers. These computational studies enable us to investigate the influence of satellite center-of-mass (CM) overlap and orientation, relative velocity, and material composition on the size, velocity, and material type distributions of collision debris. We have applied our debris modeling capability to the recent Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 collision event. While the relative velocity was well understood in this event, the degree of satellite CM overlap and orientation was ill-defined. In our simulations, we varied the collision CM overlap and orientation of the satellites from nearly maximum overlap to partial overlap on the outermost extents of the satellites (i.e, solar panels and gravity boom). As expected, we found that with increased satellite overlap, the overall debris cloud mass and momentum (transfer) increases, the average debris size decreases, and the debris velocity increases. The largest predicted debris can also provide insight into which satellite components were further removed from the impact location. A significant fraction of the momentum transfer is imparted to the smallest debris (< 1-5mm, dependent on mesh resolution), especially in large CM overlap simulations. While the inclusion of the smallest debris is critical to enforcing mass and momentum conservation in hydrocode simulations, there seems to be relatively little interest in their

  20. Cosmic Galaxy-IGM HI Relation at z ∼ 2–3 Probed in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA 1.6 Deg2 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukae, Shiro; Ouchi, Masami; Kakiichi, Koki; Suzuki, Nao; Ono, Yoshiaki; Cai, Zheng; Inoue, Akio K.; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2017-02-01

    We present spatial correlations of galaxies and IGM neutral hydrogen H i in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA 1.62 deg2 field. Our data consist of 13,415 photo-z galaxies at z ∼ 2–3 with {K}s whose negative values correspond to the strong Lyα forest absorption lines. We identify weak evidence of an anti-correlation between δ gal and {δ } with a Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient of ‑0.39 suggesting that the galaxy overdensities and the Lyα forest absorption lines positively correlate in space at the ∼90% confidence level. This positive correlation indicates that high-z galaxies exist around an excess of H i gas in the Lyα forest. We find four cosmic volumes, dubbed A obs, B obs, C obs, and D obs, that have extremely large (small) values of δ gal ≃ 0.8 (‑1) and {δ } ≃ 0.1(-0.4), three of which, B obs–D obs, significantly depart from the δ gal–{δ } correlation, and weaken the correlation signal. We perform cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and compare with our observational results. Our simulations reproduce the δ gal–{δ } correlation, agreeing with the observational results. Moreover, our simulations have model counterparts of A obs–D obs, and suggest that the observations pinpoint, by chance, a galaxy overdensity like a proto-cluster, gas filaments lying on the quasar sightline, a large void, and orthogonal low-density filaments. Our simulations indicate that the significant departures of B obs–D obs are produced by the filamentary large-scale structures and the observation sightline effects.