Sample records for cosmogony

  1. Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan


    Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

  2. Chinese charms in the light of cosmogony. (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S


    The two greatest powers are Heaven/Earth. As opposites, on union they generate Creative Energy. Such power is transferred to their symbols as Yang/Yin. Conceived as concrete entities, Heaven/Earth appear as Air/Earth. These possess specific qualities. Air is Moist and Hot, Earth, Cold and Dry. Thus arose four cosmic qualities. Moreover, the union between Heaven and Earth resulted in creation, first being Water. Thus arose San-Pao, the three Primordial powers, Heaven, Earth and Water. Water produced its opposite, Fire, so that there resulted four cosmic elements. Air, Earth, Water and Fire. With Yin-Yang, Heaven/Earth, in the center surrounded by eight creations as cosmic elements and cosmic qualities, there arose the symbol of cosmogony. Since water was the first creation, its symbol is best placed between Heaven and Earth. Then the symbol of cosmogony with its units representing power becomes a charm. The best charm shows water next to Heaven and then items representing qualities of Air, Earth and Water. Those that usually form a continuous series would be Earth, Water, Air, Moisture, a quality of both, Water and Air. These items are an essential feature in the makeup of a Chinese charm.

  3. Ideological principles of Neo-Byurakan Cosmogony (United States)

    Poghosyan, Samvel


    There exists an insurmountable antagonism between the Classical and the Byurakan approaches on the origins of celestial bodies. The Classical approach states that celestial bodies arise from the condensation of gases, gravitational compression; and according to the Byurakan conception, they come into existence due to the explosions, differentiation of compact, superdense bodies. Rejecting each other, the supporters of these two polarized views do not accept that those two trends, differentiation and integration, dispersion and unity are interconnected and mutually conditioned processes: there are always cases of dispersion and differentiation in integration and unity and vice versa. Neo-Byurakan theory distinguishes two types of physical symmetries: substantial and relational symmetries. The types of substantial symmetry are: Symmetry of positive and negative gravitational charges (masses), Symmetry of particles and antiparticles (matter and antimatter). The types of relational symmetry are: Symmetry of differentiation and integration, Symmetry of homogeneity and inhomogeneity, Symmetry of statics (or stationarity) and dynamics, Symmetry of great unity, of strong and electroweak forces and interactions, Symmetry of electroweak unity, of weak and electromagnetic forces. As the above mentioned examples show, substantial symmetries are related to the basic types of matter; and relational symmetries to the interactions of these types. Both types can be explicit and implicit. Neo-Byurakan cosmogony puts forward a range of new ideas: 1.Being a part of Gc?? Cosmology, it differentiates and identifies the concepts of "Eternal Universe", "our Universe" and "Metagalaxy". Viewing Metagalaxy as a subsystem of our universe, as a unity of all galaxies and their clusters, it defines the basic equations which express the basic physical parameters of Metagalaxy, describes its structure, giving a physical explanation to the homogeneity of the large-scale structure of Metagalaxy

  4. Byurakan Cosmogony Concept in the Light of Modern Observational Data: Why We Need to Recall it? (United States)

    Harutyunian, H. A.


    Some physically possible consequences of interaction between baryonic matter and dark energy are considered. We are arguing that the modern cosmogony and cosmology based on the hypothesis of Kant and Laplace and its further modifications are not adequate to the nowadays growing base of observational data. A thought experiment is conducted in the framework of generally accepted physical concepts and laws to study the most prominent consequences of interactions between various types of substances with the dark energy carrier. Such experiments allow one to arrive at a conclusion that owing to continuous exchanges of energy between the atomic nuclei and the bearer of dark energy, the binding energy of nuclei should reduce and their mass had increase over time. This process can be considered as the Universe total mass growth at the expense of dark energy. Then one would be able to explain the long standing paradox: why the Universe did not collapse immediately after the mass formation event at the very beginning of the Universe formation. On the other hand, this way of thinking leads to a physical picture of the Universe where huge amounts of embryonic baryons possessing of negligible masses can exist in the interiors of large cosmic objects to transform into the ordinary baryonic matter of vast masses in the future. As a result, clumps of matter of huge masses can be ejected from the cores of such objects.

  5. Tunguska-1908 and similar events in light of the New Explosive Cosmogony of minor bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshevski, Edward M


    The well-known Tunguska-1908 phenomenon (TP) problems (the fast transfer of the kinetic energy of the meteoroid W~10-50 Mt TNT to air, with its heating to T>10^4 K at an altitude of 5-10 km, the final turn of the smoothly sloping, ~0-20^o to horizon, trajectory of the body through ~10^o to the West, the pattern and area of the tree-fall and trees' scorching by heat radiation, etc.) allow a simple solution within the New Explosive Cosmogony (NEC) of minor bodies, as opposed to other approaches. The NEC considers the short-period (SP) comet nuclei, to which the Tunguska body belonged, to be fragments produced in explosions of massive icy envelopes of Ganymede-type bodies saturated by products of bulk electrolysis of ices to the form of a 2H2+O2 solid solution. The nearly tangent entry into the Earth's atmosphere with V~20 km/s of such a nucleus, ~200-500 m in size and ~(5-50)x10^12 g in mass, also saturated by 2H2+O2, initiated detonation of its part of ~10^12 g at an altitude of 5-10 km. This resulted in defle...

  6. Gaia, Helios, Selene and Ouranos: the three principal celestial bodies and the sky in the ancient Greek cosmogony (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Petros

    In this article we consider the role of the three principal celestial bodies, the Earth (Gaia), the Sun (Helios) and the Moon (Selene), as well as the Sky (Ouranos) in the ancient Greek cosmogony. This is done by the analysis of antique Greek texts like Orphic Hymns and the literary remains of the writers and philosophers like Aeschylus, (Pseudo) Apollodorus, Apollonius Rhodius, Aristotle, Euripides, Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus, Nonnus, Pausanias, Pindar and Sophocles, as well as by the analysis of texts of Roman writers like Cicero, Ovid and Pliny.

  7. Věda a počátky vesmíru: Ke vztahu kosmogonie a přírodní vědy (Science and the Origins of the Universe: On the Relationship between Cosmogony and Natural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Stodola


    Full Text Available The article deals with the relationship between a question of the generation and the origin of the universe (a cosmogony question and science. At first, there are presented two possible answers to this question – theism and monism. There is examined the relationship between cosmogonic questions and modern natural science. There is shown several variants of this relationship and there are presented some arguments for and against them.

  8. Halo and Galaxy Formation Histories from the Millennium Simulation: Public release of a VO-oriented and SQL-queryable database for studying the evolution of galaxies in the LambdaCDM cosmogony

    CERN Document Server

    Lemson, G


    The Millennium Run is the largest simulation of the formation of structure within the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony so far carried out. It uses $10^{10}$ particles to follow the dark matter distribution in a cubic region 500$h^{-1}$Mpc on a side, and has a spatial resolution of 5 $h^{-1}$kpc. Application of simplified modelling techniques to the stored output of this calculation allows the formation and evolution of the $\\sim 10^7$ galaxies more luminous than the Small Magellanic Cloud to be simulated for a variety of assumptions about the detailed physics involved. As part of the activities of the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory we have used a relational database to store the detailed assembly histories both of all the haloes and subhaloes resolved by the simulation, and of all the galaxies that form within these structures for two independent models of the galaxy formation physics. We have created web applications that allow users to query these databases remotely using the standard Structured Query Langu...

  9. 从宇宙起源论到宇宙生成过程论——早期希腊宇宙论的逻辑发展%From Cosmogonies to Cosmology: An Essay on the Logic of Early Greek Thought of Cosmos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  10. Cosmology and Cosmogony in a Cyclic Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayant V. Narlikar; Geoffrey Burbidge; R. G. Vishwakarma


    In this paper we discuss the properties of the quasi-steady state cosmological model (QSSC) developed in 1993 in its role as a cyclic model of the universe driven by a negative energy scalar field. We discuss the origin of such a scalar field in the primary creation process first described by F. Hoyle & J. V. Narlikar forty years ago. It is shown that the creation processes which take place in the nuclei of galaxies are closely linked to the high energy and explosive phenomena, which are commonly observed in galaxies at all redshifts. The cyclic nature of the universe provides a natural link between the places of origin of the microwave background radiation (arising in hydrogen burning in stars), and the origin of the lightest nuclei (H, D, He3 and He4). It also allows us to relate the large scale cyclic properties of the universe to events taking place in the nuclei of galaxies. Observational evidence shows that ejection of matter and energy from these centers in the form of compact objects, gas and relativistic particles is responsible for the population of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and gamma-ray burst sources in the universe. In the later parts of the paper we briefly discuss the major unsolved problems of this integrated cosmological and cosmogonical scheme – the understanding of the origin of the intrinsic redshifts, and the periodicities in the redshift distribution of the QSOs.

  11. The baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation predicted by cold dark matter cosmogony

    CERN Document Server

    Desmond, Harry


    The baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation (TFR) is a tight relationship observed between baryonic mass and rotational velocity in spiral galaxies. Providing a theoretical basis for the TFR in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm has proved problematic: simple calculations suggest too low a slope and too high a scatter. This paper aims to develop a rigorous prediction for the relation in the context of CDM by accounting for all relevant TFR-independent effects observed in numerical simulations of dark matter haloes, including their expected scatter. It is demonstrated that consistent treatment of these effects goes a large way towards reconciling the CDM prediction with the data; the normalisation becomes almost perfect, athough the slope remains somewhat too low. The predicted scatter is indeed too large, but may be reduced to near that of the data by accouting for observational selection effects.


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    Cooper, Andrew P. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Martinez-Delgado, David [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos; Cole, Shaun [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, DH1 3LE Durham (United Kingdom); Crawford, Ken [Rancho del Sol Observatory, Camino, CA 95709 (United States); Zibetti, Stefano [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Carballo-Bello, Julio A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Jay GaBany, R., E-mail:, E-mail: [Black Bird Observatory II, 5660 Brionne Drive, San Jose, CA 95118 (United States)


    We present new deep observations of 'shell' structures in the halo of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 7600, alongside a movie of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe. The movie, based on an ab initio cosmological simulation, shows how continuous accretion of clumps of dark matter and stars creates a swath of diffuse circumgalactic structures. The disruption of a massive clump on a near-radial orbit creates a complex system of transient concentric shells which bare a striking resemblance to those of NGC 7600. With the aid of the simulation we interpret NGC 7600 in the context of the CDM model.

  13. An Isocurvature CDM Cosmogony; 1, A Worked Example of Evolution Through Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Peebles, P J E


    I present a specific worked example of evolution through inflation to the initial conditions for an isocurvature CDM model for structure formation. The model invokes three scalar fields, one that drives power law inflation, one that survives to become the present-day CDM, and one that gives the CDM field a mass that slowly decreases during inflation and so ``tilts'' the primeval mass fluctuation spectrum of the CDM. The functional forms for the potentials and the parameter values that lead to an observationally acceptable model for structure formation do not seem to be out of line with current ideas about the physics of the very early universe. I argue in an accompanying paper that the model offers an acceptable fit to main observational constraints.

  14. An Isocurvature Cold Dark Matter Cosmogony. I. A Worked Example of Evolution through Inflation (United States)

    Peebles, P. J. E.


    I present a specific worked example of evolution through inflation to the initial conditions for an isocurvature cold dark matter (ICDM) model for structure formation. The model invokes three scalar fields: one that drives power-law inflation, one that survives to become the present-day CDM, and one that gives the CDM field a mass that slowly decreases during inflation and therefore ``tilts'' the primeval mass fluctuation spectrum of the CDM. The functional forms for the potentials and the parameter values that lead to an observationally acceptable model for structure formation do not seem to be out of line with current ideas about the physics of the very early universe. I argue in an accompanying paper that the model offers a not unacceptable fit to main observational constraints.

  15. Nordic cosmogonies: Birkeland, Arrhenius and fin-de-siècle cosmical physics (United States)

    Kragh, Helge


    During the two decades before World War I, many physicists, astronomers and earth scientists engaged in interdisciplinary research projects with the aim of integrating terrestrial, solar and astronomical phenomena. Under the umbrella label "cosmical physics" they studied, for example, geomagnetic storms, atmospheric electricity, cometary tails and the aurora borealis. According to a few of the cosmical physicists, insights in solar-terrestrial and related phenomena might be extrapolated to the entire solar system or beyond it. Inspired by their research in the origin and nature of the aurora, Kristian Birkeland from Norway and Svante Arrhenius from Sweden proposed new theories of the universe that were of a physical rather than astronomical nature. Whereas Birkeland argued that electrons and other charged particles penetrated the entire universe - and generally that electromagnetism was of no less importance to cosmology than gravitation - Arrhenius built his cosmology on the hypothesis of dust particles being propelled throughout the cosmos by stellar radiation pressure. Both of the Scandinavian scientists suggested that the universe was infinitely filled with matter and without a beginning or an end in time. Although their cosmological speculations did not survive for long, they are interesting early attempts to establish physical cosmologies and for a while they attracted a good deal of attention.

  16. Deep Impact Mission to Tempel 1 Favours New Explosive Cosmogony of Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshevski, E M; Schmidt, A A


    The assumption that short-period (SP) comets are fragments of massive icy envelopes of Ganymede-like bodies saturated by products of ice electrolysis that underwent global explosions provides a plausible explanation of all known manifestations of comets, including the jet character of outflows, the presence of ions in the vicinity of the nucleus, the bursts and splitting of cometary nuclei, etc., with solar radiation initiating burning of the products of electrolysis in the nucleus. As shown persuasively by numerical simulation carried out in hydrodynamic approximation, the shock wave initiated by the Deep Impact (DI) impactor in the cometary ice saturated originally by the electrolysis products 2H2 + O2 is capable of activating under certain conditions exothermal reactions (of the type O2 + H2 + organics = H2O + CO + HCN + other products of incomplete burning of organics including its light and heavy pyrolyzed compounds, soot, etc.), which will slow down shock wave damping (forced detonation) and increase ma...

  17. Large-scale structure in COBE-normalized cold dark matter cosmogonies

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, S; Frenk, C S; Ratra, B; Cole, Shaun; Weinberg, David H.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Ratra, Bharat


    We study the clustering of the mass distribution in COBE-normalized open and flat CDM models using large N-body simulations. With an age of the universe of 14 Gyr (12 Gyr) for the flat (open) models and a baryon density fixed by nucleosynthesis constraints, the observed abundance of rich galaxy clusters leads to tight constraints on the density parameter; 0.250.2, implies that galaxies are overabundant in clusters relative to the field. The tilted Omega_0=1 model, on the other hand, does require that galaxies be positively biased on all scales. We also compute the topology of isodensity contours in these models, obtaining theoretical predictions that are less sensitive to galaxy bias.

  18. Cosmic background radiation anisotropy in an open inflation, cold dark matter cosmogony (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Ratra, Bharat; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi


    We compute the cosmic background radiation anisotropy, produced by energy-density fluctuations generated during an early epoch of inflation, in an open cosmological model based on the cold dark matter scenario. At Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalized open model appears to be consistent with most observations.

  19. Cosmogonies and Culture: Teaching Genesis and the Popol Vuh in an Interdisciplinary Course at a Christian University (United States)

    Parsons, Mikeal C.; Cook, Garrett


    This paper explores the possibilities of teaching Genesis and the Popol Vuh, the Mayan creation account, in an interdisciplinary course at a church-related institution. The course is part of an alternative, interdisciplinary core curriculum typically taken by two hundred students a year at the university. A comparison of the Popol Vuh with Genesis…

  20. Cosmogonies and Culture: Teaching Genesis and the Popol Vuh in an Interdisciplinary Course at a Christian University (United States)

    Parsons, Mikeal C.; Cook, Garrett


    This paper explores the possibilities of teaching Genesis and the Popol Vuh, the Mayan creation account, in an interdisciplinary course at a church-related institution. The course is part of an alternative, interdisciplinary core curriculum typically taken by two hundred students a year at the university. A comparison of the Popol Vuh with Genesis…

  1. Stardust findings favor not only the planetary origin of comets but the underlying close-binary cosmogony of the Solar system as well

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshevski, E M


    We analyze findings of the Stardust mission that brought to the Earth dust from the 81P/Wild 2 coma. Just as the data of the Deep Impact mission to 9P/Tempel 1, they are at odds with the widely accepted condensation/sublimation comet paradigm. They fit rather well to the approach assuming ejection of nuclei of short-period comets from moon-like bodies of the type of Galilean satellites in rare (six to seven events in 4.5 aeons) global explosions of their massive icy envelopes saturated by 2H2+O2, products of the electrolysis of ice. This approach offers an explanation, in particular, for the jet activity of comets, which is sustained by combustion of the 2H2+O2+organics mixture ignited and complemented by the solar radiation. Combustion accounts also for other observations, in particular, the presence in the dust of products of high-temperature (800-900 K) metamorphism. The presence of minerals forming at still higher temperatures (~1400-2000 K), just as the undoubtedly planetary origin of some long-period co...

  2. Studies in the History of Astronomy. Issue 32 %t Istoriko-Astronomicheskie Issledovaniya. Vypusk XXXII (United States)

    Idlis, G. M.

    This collection contains papers covering a wide scope of problems in the history of astronomy. Its basic headlines are: Cosmology and cosmogony of the 20th century; History of observations and astronomical organizations; Scientists and their works; Astronomy and society; Publications and memoirs; Astronomy and astrology; Memory of scientists

  3. Masses for the Local Group and the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yang-Shyang; White, Simon D. M.


    We use the very large Millennium Simulation of the concordance Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony to calibrate the bias and error distribution of Timing Argument estimators of the masses of the Local Group and of the Milky Way. From a large number of isolated spiral spiral pairs similar to the Milky

  4. Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context (United States)

    Brown, C. Mackenzie


    Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution,…

  5. Chôra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta


    , as in a dream. Sallis' interpretation opens up the possibility for a new reading of the dialogue, and offers a tool to examine phenomena occurred in the aftermath of the Platonic cosmogony. One of the most fascinating episodes of the afterlife of the Platonic chôra is the Byzantine chôra, presented...

  6. La composición de los poemas hesiódicos

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    Francisco Rodríguez Adrados


    Full Text Available Hesiod organised his poems, specially Theogony and Works and Days, on the basis of preexistent genres: lyrics, cosmogonies and theogonies, genealogies, “instructions” and calendaries. His originality was to create extensive poems introduced by proemia and consisting in a series of blocks. These blocks present a ternary structure (a - b - c and are interconnected by associations. There are also excursus and additions.

  7. CMB Anisotropy Correlation Function and Topology from Simulated Maps for MAP

    CERN Document Server

    Park, C; Gott, J R; Ratra, B; Spergel, D N; Sugiyama, N; Park, Changbom; Colley, Wesley N.; Ratra, Bharat; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi


    We have simulated cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy maps for several COBE-DMR-normalized cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogonies, to make predictions for the upcoming MAP experiment. We have studied the sensitivity of the simulated MAP data to cosmology, sky coverage, and instrumental noise. With accurate knowledge of instrumental noise, MAP data will discriminate among the cosmogonies considered, and determine the topology of the initial fluctuations. A correlation function analysis of the simulated MAP data results in a very accurate measurement of the acoustic Hubble radius at decoupling. A low-density open CDM model with Omega_0=0.4 can be distinguished from the Omega_0=1 fiducial CDM model or a Lambda CDM model with > 99% confidence from the location of the acoustic "valley" in the correlation function. A genus analysis of the simulated MAP data indicates that in cosmogonies with Gaussian random-phase initial conditions, a shift of the zero-crossing point of the genus curve near the mean temperatur...

  8. Scaling Evolution of Universal Dark-Matter Halo Density Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Raig, A; Salvador-Solé, E


    Dark-matter halos show a universal density profile with a scaling such that less massive systems are typically denser. This mass-density relation is well described by a proportionality between the characteristic density of halos and the mean cosmic density at halo formation time. It has recently been shown that this proportionality could be the result of the following simple evolutionary picture. Halos form in major mergers with essentially the same, cosmogony-dependent, dimensionless profile, and then grow inside-outside, as a consequence of accretion. Here we verify the consistency of this picture and show that it predicts the correct zero point of the mass-density relation.

  9. Reasons for removal of the moon

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    S. Orlov


    Full Text Available In article the new concept of an explanation of the reason of removal of the Moon from Earth is offered to consideration. It is based on the theory of vortex gravitation, cosmology and a cosmogony. The main reason for this removal is that gravity, the earth's field does not create our planet, and ether vortex The orbital plane of the Moon doesn't coincide with the plane of a gravitational whirlwind that creates reduction of forces of an attraction of the Moon to Earth on some sites of its orbit. Removal of a lunar orbit happens a consequence of it.

  10. Música, Experiência e Mediação: a canção popular como dispositivo de memória

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    MENDONÇA, Carlos Magno Maco


    Full Text Available Some authors define contemporary society as a culture image, whose consequences would lead to an impoverishment of experience and to the technical production of a general amnesia. In opposition to this perspective, we would rather approach the images within mediatization - thought as an interactive reference process, incomplete and faulty. We believe it is necessary to inspect the places where life is played with images and beyond them. From the Greek cosmogony, we associate memory to the aesthetic experience arguing that music can be a privileged memory device still nowadays. To test our hypothesis, we rehearsed the analysis of the song Triste Bahia, by Caetano Veloso.

  11. Habit as a Connecting Nature, Mind and Culture in CS Peirce's Semiotic Pragmaticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren


    theories and models. The end of research in a certified truth is an ideal far away in the future [2]. Furthermore he was not a physicalistic material mechanists but a process philosopher and an evolutionary synechist [3]. This means that he thought that mind and matter was connected in a continuum...... in Newton’s theory of motion was reversible. Time had no arrow. But in Peirce’s cosmogony change is at the basis as Firstness is imbued with the tendency to take habits and time therefore has an arrow and is irreversible and therefore what the laws manifested as the universe develop. This was unthinkable...

  12. Habit as a Connection Between Nature, Mind and Culture in C.S. Peirce’s Semiotic Pragmaticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    theories and models. The end of research in a certified truth is an ideal far away in the future. Furthermore he was not a physicalistic material mechanists but a process philosopher and an evolutionary synechist. This means that he thought that mind and matter was connected in a continuum and that matter......’s theory of motion was reversible. Time had no arrow. But in Peirce’s cosmogony change is at the basis as Firstness is imbued with the tendency to take habits and time therefore has an arrow and is irreversible and therefore what the laws manifested as the universe develop. This was unthinkable from...

  13. Pregalactic black holes - A new constraint (United States)

    Barrow, J. D.; Silk, J.


    Pregalactic black holes accrete matter in the early universe and produce copious amounts of X radiation. By using observations of the background radiation in the X and gamma wavebands, a strong constraint is imposed upon their possible abundance. If pregalactic black holes are actually present, several outstanding problems of cosmogony can be resolved with typical pregalactic black hole masses of 100 solar masses. Significantly more massive holes cannot constitute an appreciable mass fraction of the universe and are limited by a specific mass-density bound.

  14. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L


    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  15. 原始文化中的二元逻辑与史前考古艺术形象%Dual Logic in Primitive Culture and Artistic Figures in Prehistoric Archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤惠生; 田旭东


    Using the theory of dual opposites, the present paper studies archaeological data incombination with early man's thinking and ideas. From the angle of Shaman cosmogony, the thought ofdual opposites and their cultural concepts, its puts forward new interpretations on numerous commonly-seen designs, such as the depiction of a bird pecking a fish, tao-tie mask, hooked-cloud pattern, birddesign, human face design, and the depiction of the Royal lord of the East and the Royal lady of theWest. Furthermore, the author summarizes the three developmental stages of dual logic and the significance of the thought of dual opposites in primitive culture and prehistoric archaeology.

  16. Trapped particle absorption by the ring of Jupiter (United States)

    Fillius, W.


    The ring systems of Jupiter and Saturn, and their interaction with the magnetosphere were studied. Opportunities to improve the understanding of the sweeping effect of orbiting material on trapped radiation, and the use of this process to gain insight on both the trapped radiation and the target material are outlined. Within the cosmogony of Hannes Alfven, this mechanism is also the key to understanding the formation of many of the features of the Saturnian rings. A better understanding of the sweeping effect would also help to clarify this process.

  17. The Jovian period in the Sun? (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.


    The 41-year measurements of the Doppler effect of the photosphere performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered two periods of global oscillations of the Sun: 9600.606(12) s and 9597.929(15) s. Their beat period, 398.4(2.9) d, well agrees with a synodic orbital period of Jupiter, PJ = 398.9 d, raising a new problem for solar physics, cosmogony and cosmology. A hypothesis is advanced that the PJ beating of the Sun is induced by gravitation of Jupiter, revolving in a privileged reference system "the Sun - the Earth".


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gülsine UZUN


    Full Text Available Symbolism of Cosmogony and Derivation In the Works of Cengiz AytmatovMythology and whose supporting samples of fables, folk tales, epics and legends are the best literary examples that reverberate a nation’s past, history and experiences throughout the next generations. Kyrgyz writer Cengiz Aytmatov is one of such skillful authors using that folkloric material. In this article, how Cengiz Aytmatov has used mythological elements by symbolizing them in his telling of the pains and sufferings of the Turkish peoples caused by their suppression by the Soviet regime is told.

  19. Astronomy and Cosmology of the Guarani of Southern Brazil (United States)

    de Mello, Flávia Cristina

    The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyu Sarjanawati


    Full Text Available Temple as a product of the culture of Hindu-Buddhist period is the building that describes the concept of cosmogony and a replica of Mount Mahameru the place of the gods. Dwarapala statue is one of the guards in almost Javanese temple. The existence of this statue in the temple (depiction microcosm has a meaning. Problems which will be solved, namely: (1 where the statue Dwarapala placed in the temple Plaosan and the temple Sewu (2 how is the depiction of Dwarapala statues in the temple Palosan and the temple Sewu? Gana figure that became the object of the study were analyzed with hermeneutical analysis. Hermeneutical analysis of the statue Dwarapala can only be done if the information about these statues is known. From the results of research and discussion can be seen that the meaning of the statue at Buddhist temple Dwarapala not be separated from the concept of cosmogony. Portrayal system was adapted to the function of these statues at the temple. So it can be said that the statues have meaning that Dwarapala is a portrayal of religious situation in the Hindu-Buddhist and the symbol of the world above (heaven. The placement of temple statues Dwarapala complement cosmogony concept representations, thus building meaning of worship into a whole. Keywords:  Dwarapala, temple, hermeneutic   Candi sebagai produk dari budaya masa Hindu-Buddha adalah bangunan yang menggambarkan konsep kosmogoni dan replika Gunung Mahameru tempat para dewa. Patung Dwarapala adalah salah satu penjaga di kuil hampir Jawa. Keberadaan patung ini di candi (mikrokosmos penggambaran memiliki arti. Masalah yang akan dipecahkan, yaitu: (1 bagaimana patung Dwarapala ditempatkan di candi Plaosan dan candi Sewu (2 bagaimana penggambaran patung Dwarapala di candi Palosan dan candi Sewu? Gana sosok yang menjadi objek penelitian dianalisis dengan analisis hermeneutis. Analisis hermeneutis patung Dwarapala hanya dapat dilakukan jika informasi tentang patung-patung ini dikenal

  1. Galaxy formation through hierarchical clustering (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.


    Analytic methods for studying the formation of galaxies by gas condensation within massive dark halos are presented. The present scheme applies to cosmogonies where structure grows through hierarchical clustering of a mixture of gas and dissipationless dark matter. The simplest models consistent with the current understanding of N-body work on dissipationless clustering, and that of numerical and analytic work on gas evolution and cooling are adopted. Standard models for the evolution of the stellar population are also employed, and new models for the way star formation heats and enriches the surrounding gas are constructed. Detailed results are presented for a cold dark matter universe with Omega = 1 and H(0) = 50 km/s/Mpc, but the present methods are applicable to other models. The present luminosity functions contain significantly more faint galaxies than are observed.

  2. LA COSMOVISIÓN DEL OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO EN LA TRADICIÓN DE TUMBAS DE TIRO CON ÉNFASIS EN LA CULTURA BOLAÑOS (The Worldview of Western Mexico through the Shaft Tomb Tradition, with Emphasis on the Bolaños Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Cabrero G.


    Full Text Available Se propone la presencia de deidades en las tumbas de tiro del Occidente de México a través de una primera interpretación iconográfica de las figurillas huecas depositadas como ofrenda, tanto en las tumbas en general como en las descubiertas en la cultura Bolaños, con base en una posible concepción distinta a la mesoamericana de la cosmovisión y cosmogonía de los creadores de esta tradición. ENGLISH: The presence of deities in Western Mexican shaft tombs is proposed through the first iconographic interpretation of hollow figurines deposited as offerings in the tombs, particularly those of the Bolaños culture. The creators of the shaft tomb tradition may have held a worldview and a cosmogony distinct from those of Mesoamerica.

  3. Why are Halo Density Profiles Stable at Formation?

    CERN Document Server

    González-Casado, G; Salvador-Solé, E


    We analyze the physical justification of the picture proposed by Salvador-Sole et al. in these proceedings for the time evolution of the universal density profile of dark-matter halos. According to this picture, halos have at formation a stable (i.e. independent of mass and time) dimensionless density profile, the characteristic length and density scales of the profile depending on the underlying cosmogony. Subsequent evolution is driven by mass accretion onto the outskirts of halos and can be characterized simply by the increment of halo radius with time and the corresponding decrease of the critical density of the universe. We find this picture to be a reasonable good description of the expected evolution of halos in hierarchical models of structure formation.

  4. Implications of Halo Inside-out Growth on the X-Ray Properties of Nearby Galaxy Systems within the Preheating Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Solanes, J M; Gonzalez-Casado, G; Salvador-Solé, E; Solanes, Jose M.; Manrique, Alberto; Gonzalez-Casado, Guillermo; Salvador-Sole, Eduard


    We present an entirely analytic model for a preheated, polytropic intergalactic medium in hydrostatic equilibrium within a NFW dark halo potential in which the evolution of the halo structure between major merger events proceeds inside-out by accretion. This model is used to explain, within a standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony, the observed X-ray properties of nearby relaxed, non-cooling flow groups and clusters of galaxies. We find that our preferred solution to the equilibrium equations produces scaling relations in excellent agreement with observations, while simultaneously accounting for the typical structural characteristics of the distribution of the diffuse baryons. In the class of preheating models, ours stands out because it offers a unified description of the intrahalo medium for galaxy systems with total masses above $\\sm 2\\times 10^{13}$\\msun, does not produce baryonic configurations with large isentropic cores, and reproduces faithfully the observed behavior of the gas entropy at large radii. All th...

  5. I sing the body dystopic: Utopia and posthuman corporeality in P.D. James’s The Children of Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marks de Marques


    Full Text Available The resurgence of novels dealing with dystopian cosmogonies since the 1990s may reveal a newtrend in Utopian Studies. If classical dystopia was defined by the imposition of collective political and social structures upon the individual and out of which there was no escape (as constructed, mainly, by Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, these contemporary dystopian novels critically construct posthuman societies where the focus is on the development of the dystopian body, which questions andreinvents the very definitions of humanity. This article aims at examining theeffects of posthuman critique upon the construction of the dystopian body in P.D. James’s novel The Children of Men.

  6. Using Schumann Resonance Measurements for Constraining the Water Abundance on the Giant Planets - Implications for the Solar System Formation (United States)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Hamelin, Michel; Klenzing, Jeffrey; Freudenreich, Henry; Beghin, Christian; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Bromund, Kenneth; Grard, Rejean; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Steven; Rowland, Douglas; Sentman, Davis; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Yair, Yoav


    The formation and evolution of the Solar System is closely related to the abundance of volatiles, namely water, ammonia, and methane in the protoplanetary disk. Accurate measurement of volatiles in the Solar System is therefore important to understand not only the nebular hypothesis and origin of life but also planetary cosmogony as a whole. In this work, we propose a new, remote sensing technique to infer the outer planets water content by measuring Tremendously and Extremely Low Frequency (TLF-ELF) electromagnetic wave characteristics (Schumann resonances) excited by lightning in their gaseous envelopes. Schumann resonance detection can be potentially used for constraining the uncertainty of volatiles of the giant planets, mainly Uranus and Neptune, because such TLF-ELF wave signatures are closely related to the electric conductivity profile and water content.

  7. Images du temps mythique/moment d'un itinéraire: fragment de la tradition orale shipibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Le mythe rapporté ici illustre un moment de l'histoire culturelle mythique shipibo. Après avoir rappelé la diversité des modes d'approche du discours mythique, l'auteur, en rendant compte de son parcours de mythographe propose, à partir des données du terrain, une image globale de la cosmogonie shipibo telle que la véhicule la tradition orale. El mito trascrito en este artículo ilustra un momento de la historia cultural mítica shipibo. El autor, luego de hacer recordar la diversidad de los modos de enfoque del discurso mítico, a través de su recorrido de mitógrafo propone, a partir de los datos obtenidos en el terreno, una imagen global de la cosmogonía shipibo tal como la vehicula la tradición oral.

  8. Constraining SN feedback: a tug of war between reionization and the Milky Way satellites (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Frenk, Carlos. S.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Bose, Sownak


    Theoretical models of galaxy formation based on the cold dark matter cosmogony typically require strong feedback from supernova (SN) explosions in order to reproduce the Milky Way satellite galaxy luminosity function and the faint end of the field galaxy luminosity function. However, too strong a SN feedback also leads to the universe reionizing too late, and the metallicities of Milky Way satellites being too low. The combination of these four observations therefore places tight constraints on SN feedback. We investigate these constraints using the semi-analytical galaxy formation model GALFORM. We find that these observations favour a SN feedback model in which the feedback strength evolves with redshift. We find that, for our best-fitting model, half of the ionizing photons are emitted by galaxies with rest-frame far-UV absolute magnitudes MAB(1500Å) 1010 M⊙ and preferentially inhabit haloes with mass Mhalo > 1013 M⊙.

  9. Satellite Galaxies and Fossil Groups in the Millennium Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, L V; Lambas, D G; White, S D M; Croton, D J


    We use a semianalytic galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation to study the satellites of isolated galaxies in the LCDM cosmogony. This sample (~80,000$ bright primaries, surrounded by ~178,000 satellites) allows the characterization, with minimal statistical uncertainty, of the dynamical properties of satellite/primary galaxy systems in a LCDM universe. We find that, overall, the satellite population traces the dark matter rather well: its spatial distribution and kinematics may be approximated by an NFW profile with a mildly anisotropic velocity distribution. Their spatial distribution is also mildly anisotropic, with a well-defined ``anti-Holmberg'' effect that reflects the misalignment between the major axis and angular momentum of the host halo. The isolation criteria for our primaries picks not only galaxies in sparse environments, but also a number of primaries at the centre of ''fossil'' groups. We find that the abundance and luminosity function of these unusual systems are in reaso...

  10. The high redshift galaxy population in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Kitzbichler, M G; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; White, Simon D. M.


    We compare observations of the high redshift galaxy population to the predictions of the galaxy formation model of Croton et al. (2006). This model, implemented on the Millennium Simulation of the concordance LCDM cosmogony, introduces "radio mode" feedback from the central galaxies of groups and clusters in order to obtain quantitative agreement with the luminosity, colour, morphology and clustering properties of the low redshift galaxy population. Here we compare the predictions of this same model to the observed counts and redshift distributions of faint galaxies, as well as to their inferred luminosity and mass functions out to redshift 5. With the exception of the mass functions, all these properties are sensitive to modelling of dust obscuration. A simple but plausible treatment gives moderately good agreement with most of the data, although the predicted abundance of relatively massive (~M*) galaxies appears systematically high at high redshift, suggesting that such galaxies assemble earlier in this mo...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Angus, G. W., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)


    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for ''pink elephants'' like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  12. The formation history of elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    De Lucia, G; White, S D M; Croton, D; Kauffmann, G; Lucia, Gabriella De; Springel, Volker; White, Simon D. M.; Croton, Darren; Kauffmann, Guinevere


    We take advantage of the largest high-resolution simulation of cosmic structure growth ever carried out -- the Millennium Simulation of the concordance LambdaCDM cosmogony -- to study how the star formation histories, ages and metallicities of elliptical galaxies depend on environment and on stellar mass. We concentrate on a galaxy formation model which is tuned to fit the joint luminosity/colour/morphology/clustering distribution of low redshift galaxies. Massive ellipticals in this model have higher metal abundances, older luminosity-weighted ages, shorter star formation timescales, but lower assembly redshifts than less massive systems. Within clusters the typical masses, ages and metal abundances of ellipticals are predicted to decrease, on average, with increasing distance from the cluster centre. We also quantify the effective number of progenitors of ellipticals as a function of present stellar mass, finding typical numbers below 2 for M* < 10^{11} Msun, rising to about 5 for the most massive system...

  13. Galaxy Cluster Bulk Flows and Collision Velocities in QUMOND

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Harley; Teuben, Peter; Angus, G W


    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {\\Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain about 1000 km/s by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {\\Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {\\Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for 'pink elephants' like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  14. Evolution of galaxy stellar masses and star formation rates in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Furlong, M; Theuns, T; Schaye, J; Crain, R A; Schaller, M; Vecchia, C Dalla; Frenk, C S; McCarthy, I G; Helly, J; Jenkins, A; Rosas-Guevara, Y M


    We investigate the evolution of galaxy masses and star formation rates in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These comprise a suite of hydrodynamical simulations in a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. The subgrid feedback was calibrated to reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function and galaxy sizes. Here we demonstrate that the simulations reproduce the observed growth of the stellar mass density to within 20 per cent. The simulation also tracks the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function out to redshift z = 7, with differences comparable to the plausible uncertainties in the interpretation of the data. Just as with observed galaxies, the specific star formation rates of simulated galaxies are bimodal, with distinct star forming and passive sequences. The specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies ar...

  15. Small-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation and scattering by cloudy plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Peebles, P J E


    If the first stars formed soon after decoupling of baryons from the thermal cosmic background radiation (CBR), the radiation may have been last scattered in a cloudy plasma. We discuss the resulting small-scale anisotropy of the CBR in the limit where the plasma clouds are small compared to the mean distance between clouds along a line of sight. This complements the perturbative analysis valid for mildly nonlinear departures from homogeneity at last scattering. We conclude that reasonable choices for the cloud parameters imply CBR anisotropy consistent with the present experimental limits, in agreement with the perturbative approach. This means the remarkable isotropy of the CBR need not contradict the early small-scale structure formation predicted in some cosmogonies.

  16. 伦理虚无%Ethica Nullius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文通过讨论当代诗歌中源于意大利文艺复兴宇宙起源说的理念和转义的延续性,详细阐述了J. H.蒲龄恩后期诗歌中的伦理主题.作为世界的中心和极端的产物,人的宇宙起源形象被重新塑造成灾难性的文字形象.这种思想反映在皮科·德拉·米兰多拉以及现象学家墨罗庞蒂和麦切尔·亨利作品的抽象掩饰中,本文对它们之间的关系进行了梳理.蒲龄恩后期诗歌企图描述与主观性不相容的伦理观.可以说,这种企图对整体宇宙起源说的传统而言是不寻常的.%The article specifies the ethical project of J.H. Prynne's later poetry by discussing the persistence into contemporary poetic thinking of ideas and tropes originating in syncretistic cosmogonies of the Italian Renaissance. The cosmogonic figure of man as the centre of the earth and the extremity of its parturition is recast as catastrophic literalism. Some connections are drawn between this idea in the writing of Pico della Mirandola and its resurfacing in abstract guise in the writings of phenomenologists such as Merleau Ponty and Michel Henry. Prynne's later poetry is described as an attempt to delineate an ethics incommensurable with subjectivity. This attempt is argued to be specific to the tradition of syncretistic cosmogony identified.

  17. Quantum gravity and taoist cosmology: Exploring the ancient origins of phenomenological string theory. (United States)

    Rosen, Steven M


    This paper carries forward the author's contribution to PBMP's previous special issue on Integral Biomathics (Rosen 2015). In the earlier paper, the crisis in contemporary theoretical physics was described and it was demonstrated that the problem can be addressed effectively only by shifting the foundations of physics from objectivist Cartesian philosophy to phenomenological philosophy. To that end, a phenomenological string theory was proposed based on qualitative topology and hypercomplex numbers. The current presentation takes this further by delving into the ancient Chinese origin of phenomenological string theory. First, we discover a deep connection between the Klein bottle, which is crucial to the theory, and the Ho-t'u, an old Chinese number archetype central to Taoist cosmology. The two structures are seen to mirror each other in expressing the curious psychophysical (phenomenological) action pattern at the heart of microphysics. But tackling the question of quantum gravity requires that a whole family of topological dimensions be brought into play. What we find in engaging with these structures is a closely related family of Taoist forebears that, in concert with their successors, provide a blueprint for cosmic evolution. Whereas conventional string theory accounts for the generation of nature's fundamental forces via a notion of symmetry breaking that is essentially static and thus unable to explain cosmogony successfully, phenomenological/Taoist string theory is guided by the dialectical interplay between symmetry and asymmetry inherent in the principle of synsymmetry. This dynamic concept of cosmic change is elaborated on in the three concluding sections of the paper. Here, a detailed analysis of cosmogony is offered, first in terms of the theory of dimensional development and its Taoist (yin-yang) counterpart, then in terms of the evolution of the elemental force particles through cycles of expansion and contraction in a spiraling universe. The paper

  18. « Au fracas de la foudre, les animaux intelligents s'éveillèrent »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bouvier


    Full Text Available Félix Pouchet, dans son Hétérogénie, ou Traité de la génération spontanée qu’il publie en 1859, défend, contre Pasteur et Milne-Edwards, l’idée d’une « force génésique » inhérente à la matière qui aurait présidé à la création et qui continuerait de s’exercer dans la formation et la transformation des espèces. Le livre fait partie des lectures de Flaubert pendant la période de rédaction de Salammbô. Le 5 août 1860, il écrit dans une lettre à madame Jules Sandeau : « J’entremêle mes lectures puniques (qui ne sont pas légères d’autres facéties graves. Je me livre maintenant au volumineux bouquin de mon ami le docteur Pouchet sur les générations spontanées. » C’est la nature de cet entrelacement que nous proposons d’interroger, à travers l’étude génétique d’un passage du chapitre III de Salammbô où Flaubert récrit la cosmogonie phénicienne à la lumière du spontanéisme moderne.Félix Pouchet, in Heterogeny or Spontaneous generation Treatise (1859, argues, against Pasteur and Milne-Edwards, for the existence of a « genesical force » inside matter at the beginning of the universe, still active in the formation and transformation of species. Flaubert read Pouchet’s book when he was writing Salammbô. On August 5th 1860, he wrote to madame Jules Sandeau : « I mingle my Punic readings (which are not light with other serious jokes. I now dedicate myself to my friend doctor Pouchet’s bulky book on spontaneous generations. » This interlacing of archaeology and science is precisely what I will examine in my paper, through the genetic study of a passage of Salammbô (chapter III where Flaubert rewrites the Phoenician cosmogony in the light of modern spontaneism.

  19. Echoes of a not so Mythical Past: Memories of Race in Elizabeth Jolley’s The Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Martin Renes


    Full Text Available Critical discussion of Elizabeth Jolley’s The Well (1986 has largely focused on issues of gender, but little has been said about the racial inscription of the novel. This lack is especially relevant when criticism, despite praising the author’s experimentation with narrative technique and genre, tends to voice dissatisfaction with the novel’s conclusion in medias res, which never solves the tension between a presumed return to the patriarchal norm and the voicing of liberating alternatives. This paper proposes a postcolonial perspective so as to come to terms with this dilemma, and argues that the text signals the impossibility of suppressing the Native from the contemporary Australian land and textscape, whose Gothic articulation in the uncanny shape of the male well-dweller haunts the novel’s engagement with female empowerment. The female protagonist may only start overcoming a crippling gender discourse in the White postcolonial pastoralist setting by inscribing herself into ‘Australianness’. Reconciling her body with the land is significantly staged in terms of an Aboriginal cosmogony, as it is a ‘walkabout’ that allows Hester to start controlling her body and story. Thus, The Well may be understood to be inconclusive because it struggles to map gender across race at a time of Aboriginal-exclusive multiculturalism. Written in the mid 1980s, it announces a point of inflection in thinking about nativenonnative relationships

  20. Ionized Gas in Damped Lyman Alpha Protogalaxies II. Comparison Between Models and the Kinematic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, A M; Wolfe, Arthur M.


    We test semi-analytic models for galaxy formation with accurate kinematic data of damped Lyman alpha protogalaxies (DLAs) presented in the companion paper I. The models envisage centrifugally supported exponential disks at the centers of dark matter halos which are filled with ionized gas undergoing radial infall to the disks. The halo masses are drawn from cross-section weighted mass distributions predicted by CDM cosmogonies, or by the null hypothesis (TF model) that the dark matter mass distribution has not evolved since z ~ 3. In our models, C IV absorption lines detected in DLAs arise in infalling ionized clouds while the low-ion absorption lines arise from neutral gas in the disks. Using Monte Carlo methods we find: (a) The CDM models are incompatible with the low-ion statistics at more than 99% confidence whereas some TF models cannot be excluded at more than 88% confidence. (b) Both CDM and TF models agree with the observed distribution of C IV velocity widths. (c) The CDM models generate differences ...

  1. Variations sur un même ciel

    CERN Document Server


    Des Grecs aux Mayas, des Chinois aux Dogon, d'Anaximandre à Einstein en passant par Buffon, Cyrano de Bergerac, Lemaître, Queneau et tant d'autres encore... tous ont tenté de percer le mystère de la création de l'Univers. Récits mythologiques, cosmogonies traditionnelles, fictions et science-fiction, poésie, bande dessinée... les sources qui éclairent notre vision de la création de l'Univers sont multiples et ne se limitent pas aux travaux scientifiques. Les auteurs de cet ouvrage physiciens, cosmologues, historiens et philosophes de renommée internationale ont puisé dans leur bibliothèque des extraits d'oeuvres scientifiques, littéraires ou artistiques. Ils nous en proposent aujourd'hui des relectures inédites, autant de variations qui retracent et prolongent les plus incroyables manières de raconter et de faire des mondes.

  2. Milestones regarding the Value of Life in Pentateuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Teodorescu


    Full Text Available Over all the centuries, humans have constantly tried to understand the meaning of their own existence, the reason for which they were born, they were living and they had to die, the mythological projections or the philosophical currents of the time trying to propose cosmogonies or valid reasons in this way. What was understood in general, in the common way, was the acceptance of the idea that the human soul comes from the exterior of the seen world, through a creational act which was external to humans, that is (for those who benefit from the supernatural revelation to understand better the truth, from God. The biblical perspective about the creation and, implicitly about life, is summed up in the pages of the Pentateuch. This perspective is totally different from the current perspective of man belonging to the post modernistic period, and his vision must be updated for the general Christian interest to save the lives and souls of those still preoccupied with the human’s spiritual perspective, the religious ideal sown in him since creation.

  3. Introduzione. Su Dio e i suoi uomini e i nostri sacrifici - Introduction. On God and His Men and Our Sacrifices

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    Antonio Luigi Palmisano


    Full Text Available Anthropology has maybe too often confined itself in an analysis of liturgies and rituals – ideal or actual behaviours which are acknowledged by the social actor as addressed to supernatural beings or agents –, providing extraordinarily precise descriptions but renouncing to comprehend and relate the discourse on Man about himself -and implicitly about God- which is nevertheless traceable in all societies. Anthropology has avoided confrontation with the theologies, although present in all societies and inscribed in cosmogonies, theogonies, anthropogonies, ethnogonies, of which amazingly rich mythologies bear much more than plain traces. Anthropology has done so because it has given way to tekhne which is rampant nowadays. It has surrendered to tekhne because tekhne allows the elision of doubt. And yet, no matter how much one technifies it, anthropology does only exist as complementary to theology and vice versa, at least since the beginning of history. This relation was very clear to scholars such as Bronislaw Malinowski, Maurice Leenhard, Marcel Mauss or Meyer Fortes. After all, has there ever been a liturgy without a theology, a ritual without a cosmology? A sacrifice without a God, no matter how small? Sacrifice is a ritual par excellence.

  4. Water, from Gilgamesh Epic to Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman: a look into polywater and the memory of water. (United States)

    De Santo, Luca Salvatore; Bisaccia, Carmela; De Santo, Rosa Maria


    Water is a complex source of imagination, dreams and rituals, where cultural differences ebb and flow, where a plethora of meanings and interpretations interlink and wash over one another. Water has an ambivalent character as stated in most of the ancient cosmogonies and in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Water's composition was discovered by the London scientist Henry Cavendish in about 1781. Although it is an apparently simple molecule (H2O), it has a highly complex and anomalous character. The anomalous properties of water are those where the behavior of liquid water is quite different from what is found with other liquids. As often stated, life depends indeed on these anomalous properties of water. Notably there are 12 phase, 22 density, 12 material, 11 thermodynamic and 9 physical anomalies. A powerful look into the water molecule was given by Nobel Prize recipient Richard P. Feynman as published in Six easy pieces. A look into the most recent quest for more knowledge about water leads us to the concept of pathological science. The cases of "polywater" and "the memory of water" are indeed paradigmatic episodes of fraudulent research published in journals with high impact factors. In conclusion, men came out of water engineered to handle water, and water greatly affects mythology and philosophy and is a strong presence in the arts and science.

  5. Evolution of supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, M


    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies, and the available data show an empirical correlation between bulge luminosity - or stellar velocity dispersion - and black hole mass, suggesting a single mechanism for assembling black holes and forming spheroids in galaxy halos. The evidence is therefore in favour of a co-evolution between galaxies, black holes and quasars. In cold dark matter cosmogonies, small-mass subgalactic systems form first to merge later into larger and larger structures. In this paradigm galaxy halos experience multiple mergers during their lifetime. If every galaxy with a bulge hosts a SMBH in its center, and a local galaxy has been made up by multiple mergers, then a black hole binary is a natural evolutionary stage. The evolution of the supermassive black hole population clearly has to be investigated taking into account both the cosmological framework and the dynamical evolution of SMBHs and their hosts. The seeds of SMBHs have to be looked ...

  6. Measuring the galaxy power spectrum and scale-scale correlations with multiresolution-decomposed covariance; 1, method

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, L Z; Fang, Li-Zhi; Feng, Long-Long


    We present a method of measuring galaxy power spectrum based on the multiresolution analysis of the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT). Since the DWT representation has strong capability of suppressing the off-diagonal components of the covariance for selfsimilar clustering, the DWT covariance for popular models of the cold dark matter cosmogony generally is diagonal, or $j$(scale)-diagonal in the scale range, in which the second scale-scale correlations are weak. In this range, the DWT covariance gives a lossless estimation of the power spectrum, which is equal to the corresponding Fourier power spectrum banded with a logarithmical scaling. In the scale range, in which the scale-scale correlation is significant, the accuracy of a power spectrum detection depends on the scale-scale or band-band correlations. This is, for a precision measurements of the power spectrum, a measurement of the scale-scale or band-band correlations is needed. We show that the DWT covariance can be employed to measuring both the ...

  7. Old and New Testament figures in Mandaean version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Segelberg


    Full Text Available The religion which is commonly called the Mandaean is certainly a most complex entity. There is no standardized doctrine. Neither anthropology, cosmogony nor soteriology have reached that stage of doctrinal clarity which in the West is regarded as desirable. In all these fields of doctrine there are a number of important differences, e.g. as regards such an essential doctrine as the kind or degree of dualism. But however great the doctrinal freedom has been, it has not been too great to prevent Mandaeism from being incorporated into the great flock of Gnostic systems. Some basic features of Mandaean history are known and we are aware to some extent of the components making up the system. Obviously there is a large proportion of biblical, especially Old Testament material, but equally obvious are the Iranian influences. The latter seem to be partly derived from the West, together with the Old Testament and Jewish traditions, and partly incorporated in the tradition when the Mandaeans or Protomandaeans had already settled east of the river Jordan and in Mesopotamia.

  8. The size evolution of galaxy discs formed within Lambda Cold Dark Matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Firmani, C


    By means of galaxy evolutionary models, we explore the direct consequences of the LCDM cosmogony on the size evolution of galactic discs, avoiding intentionally the introduction of intermediate (uncertain) astrophysical processes. Based on the shape of the rotation curves and guided by a simplicity criterion, we adopt an average galaxy mass baryon fraction of 0.03. In order to study general behaviors, only models with the average initial conditions are analyzed. The stellar and B-band effective radii, R* and RB, of individual galaxies grow significantly with time (inside-out disc formation) with laws that are weakly dependent on mass, M*,or luminosity, LB. However, the change of R* with z at fixed M* is slow; for z0.75. We find also that at z=0, R* ~ M*^0.38 and RB ~ LB^0.40, remaining the slopes of these relations almost the same up to z ~ 3. Our predictions are in reasonable agreement with observational inferences on the typical radius change with z of late-type galaxies more luminous (massive) than high va...

  9. CMB Anisotropies Two Years after Cobe: Observations, Theory and the Future - Proceedings of the 1994 Cwru Workshop (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence M.


    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * I. The Experimental Situation Two Years After COBE: Anisotropies, and the CMB Power Spectrum * COBE DMR Data, Signal and Noise: Color Plates * CMB Two Years After the COBE Discovery of Anisotropies * Comparison of Spectral Index Determinations * Two-Point Correlations in the COBE-DMR Two-Year Anisotropy Maps * A Preliminary Analysis of UCSB's South Pole 1993-94 Results * CMB Anisotropy Measurements During the Fourth Flight of MAX * Observations of the Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background by the Firs, SK93, and MSAM-I Experiments * The Python Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiment * II. Theoretical Implications and Cosmology: The Early Universe, Large Scale Structure and Dark Matter * Testing Inflationary Cosmology and Measuring Cosmological Parameters Using the Cosmic Microwave Background * Inflation Confronts the CMB: An Analysis Including the Effects of Foreground * Testing Inflation with MSAM, MAX Tenerife and COBE * CMBR Anisotropy Due to Gravitational Radiation in Inflationary Cosmologies * Black Holes From Blue Spectra * Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies and the Geometry of the Universe * Ω and Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies * CDM Cosmogony in an Open Universe * Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Anisotropy Induced by Cosmic Strings * Temperature Anisotropies in a Universe with Global Defects * The Nature Versus Nurture of Anisotropies * The Existence of Baryons at z = 1000 * Polarization-Temperature Correlations in the Microwave Background * III. Related Issues: BBN Limits on ΩB, and Comparing Theoretical Predictions and Observations * Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and ΩB: A Guide for CMB Interpreters * Quoting Experimental Information

  10. The Celestial Basis of Civilization (United States)

    Masse, W. B.

    Scholars have long puzzled over the reasons for the ubiquity of celestial images in the residue of the world's earliest civilizations: in art, myth, religious cosmology, iconography, cosmogony, eschatological beliefs, and as portents for the conduct of royal and chiefly power. The general consensus is that these images represented a need by early societies to use the fixed celestial heavens in order to regulate ritual and agricultural cycles, and to satisfy a psychological need by people to relate themselves to their surrounding Universe. Such explanations are facile and miss an important aspect of the celestial heavens. The fixed celestial heavens served as the back-drop for a large number of often spectacular temporary naked-eye visible celestial events which animated the night and sometimes the daytime sky, and which created an 'otherworld' for virtually all cultural groups. In this paper I present a model derived from the detailed analysis of Hawaiian oral traditions and culture history in relation to historic astronomical records of temporary celestial events, and then apply this model to cultural traditions from Mesoamerica and other geographic regions in order to demonstrate that novae, supernovae, variable stars, comets, great meteor showers, aurorae, solar and lunar eclipses, and impacting Solar System debris, together played a critical role in the artistic, intellectual, and political development of early civilizations. These data not only provide important insights into the development of civilization, but also provide important details and longitudinal records of astronomical events and phenomena which are otherwise not readily available for scientific scrutiny.

  11. Los modelos etnomatemáticos de representación cosmogónica en los pueblos indígenas Americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jaén Rojas


    Full Text Available Diverse forms of representation used in the past and in the present by American indigenous peoples of many cultures are pointed out and analyzed in this paper. Some representations commonly analyzed as mere decorative motifs, are considered now as parts of a very precise and logical system of expressing and storing cosmological knowledge. Following that aim, multiple indigenous peoples turn to structures and mathematical forms of representation that could allow them to save data related to astronomy, calendars, harvest knowledge, censuses, among others. The resulting myths were integrated as part of their cosmogonic space. Outstanding representations of Stepped fretworks have passed from one culture to another, from Alaska to the Patagonia, in models of representation apparently widespread during centuries before the arrival of the Spaniards to America. The reason why these models are generalized through very long distances and very diverse peoples, is explained by the relation of all their knowledge to the creation of weaved textiles. As far as we know, a majority of the indigenous peoples weaved cotton or other fibers, which created a simple and solid base to save information precisely once the data collection process had started. The examples for computations made using cords, as in the Quipus in South America, are multiple. The art of weaving related to mathematical knowledge has allowed for the saving of varied information related to calendars, astronomy, culture, and others, that were later expressed in a vision of the world and, finally, in a cosmogony.

  12. Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context (United States)

    MacKenzie Brown, C.


    Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution, more often than not traditional assumptions have worked against deep engagement with Darwinism, allowing only for superficial assimilation at best. Three fundamental factors have affected Hindu responses to Darwinism: the great diversity within the tradition spanning evolutionist and creationist perspectives, the encounter with Darwinism in the late nineteenth century as part of an alien culture, and the fact that this encounter occurred within a colonial context. This essay explores the complex interactions of these three factors, beginning with the diversity within the ancient and classical cosmological traditions, followed by consideration of colonial developments and the emergence of four representative Hindu approaches to Darwinism: Modern Vedic Evolutionism, Anthropic Vedic Evolutionism, Reactionary Vedic Evolutionism, and Modern Vedic Creationism. The essay concludes by discussing various epistemological issues in the attempts of modern Hindu apologists to legitimize Vedic world views. These issues include the appeal to modern science to confirm traditional ideals and values, while simultaneously subordinating scientific method to spiritual means of knowledge, or rejecting scientific methodology with its inbuilt skepticism entirely.

  13. Masses for the Local Group and the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yang-Shyang


    We use the very large Millennium Simulation of the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony to calibrate the bias and error distribution of Timing Argument estimators of the masses of the Local Group and of the Milky Way. From a large number of isolated spiral-spiral pairs similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda system, we find the interquartile range of the ratio of timing mass to true mass to be a factor of 1.8, while the 5% and 95% points of the distribution of this ratio are separated by a factor of 5.7. Here we define true mass as the sum of the ``virial'' masses $M_{200}$ of the two dominant galaxies. For current best values of the distance and approach velocity of Andromeda this leads to a median likelihood estimate of the true mass of the Local Group of $5.27\\times 10^{12}\\msun$, or $\\log M_{LG}/M_\\odot = 12.72$, with an interquartile range of $[12.58, 12.83]$ and a 5% to 95% range of $[12.26, 13.01]$. Thus a 95% lower confidence limit on the true mass of the Local Group is $1.81\\times 10^{12}\\msun$. A timing es...

  14. A search for a present-day candidate for the Comet P/Tunguska-1908

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshevski, E M; Drobyshevski, M E


    The reason for the horizontal turn of the Tunguska-1908 bolide trajectory remains difficult to understand. It finds explanation, however, in the New Explosive Cosmogony of minor bodies as having been caused by an explosion of a part (M up to 10^12 g) of the comet nucleus whose ices contained products of its electrolysis, 2H2+O2. In detonation, this part was repelled from the more massive unexploded nucleus remnant, changed the direction of its own motion by ~10^o and imparted its kinetic energy, in expanding and slowing down, to the air in producing an effect of a high-altitude explosion. Because there are no traces of a fall of the more massive remnant, one comes to the conclusion that on passing through the Earth's atmosphere it again entered a heliocentric orbit (the hypothesis of V.Vernadskiy, 1932). A search for this comet, P/Tunguska-1908, among the 6077 known NEAs shows the 2005NB56 object to be the most appropriate candidate for a number of its parameters (a size is ~ 170 m, P = 2.106 y, e = 0.473 and...

  15. Dark Energy and the quietness of the Local Hubble Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, M


    The linearity and quietness of the Local ($< 10 Mpc$) Hubble Flow (LHF) in view of the very clumpy local universe is a long standing puzzle in standard and in open CDM cosmogony. The question addressed in this paper is whether the antigravity component of the recently discovered dark energy can cool the velocity flow enough to provide a solution to this puzzle. We calculate the growth of matter fluctuations in a flat universe containing a fraction $\\Omega_X(t_0)$ of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state $p_X = w \\rho_X$. We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value $v_{rms}\\simeq 40km/sec$ have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters $w$ and $\\Omega_X$. Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies dark energy with time independent equation of state can not by itself explain the quietness and lineari...

  16. GARROTXA cosmological simulations of Milky Way like galaxies - I. Hot gas and the missing baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Colín, Pedro; Figueras, Francesca; Krongold, Yair; Velázquez, Héctor


    We introduce a new set of simulations of a Milky Way like galaxy using the AMR code ART + hydrodynamics in a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony. The simulation series is named GARROTXA and follow the formation of a late type galaxy from z=60 with a final virial mass of \\sim$7.4$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$. This system has no major mergers since z=3 and at z=0 becomes a disk late-type spiral galaxy. Several of its large scale properties fall inside recent observational limits of our Galaxy, like the rotation curve shape, the presence of a stellar bar and flare, and a gaseous disk warp, as well as the stellar and baryonic mass. Here, as a first scientific exploitation of the model we study the total amount and spatial distribution of hot X-ray luminous gas. We do not observe in our models a significant presence of a hot gas thick disk as has been recently discussed in observational studies. The analysis of hot gas mock observations (column density and emission measure) revealed that commonly used hypothesis assumed to deri...

  17. Constraining SN feedback: a tug of war between reionization and the Milky Way satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G; Bose, Sownak


    Theoretical models of galaxy formation based on the cold dark matter cosmogony typically require strong feedback from supernova (SN) explosions in order to reproduce the Milky Way satellite galaxy luminosity function and the faint end of the field galaxy luminosity function. However, too strong a SN feedback also leads to the universe reionizing too late, and the metallicities of Milky Way satellites being too low. The combination of these four observations therefore places tight constraints on SN feedback. We investigate these constraints using the semi-analytical galaxy formation model GALFORM. We find that these observations favour a SN feedback model in which the feedback strength evolves with redshift. We also investigate the sources of the photons responsible for reionization, and find that, for our best fit model, half of the ionizing photons are emitted by galaxies with rest-frame far-UV absolute magnitudes $M_{\\rm AB}(1500{\\rm \\AA})10^{10}\\,{\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ and preferentially inhabit halos with mass ...

  18. Dioniysus or Narcissus? The myth of the loss of identity in Plotinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weiss


    Full Text Available Plotinus' allegorical interpretation linking the Orphic myth of Dionysus with the myth of Narcissus is based on the motif of contemplating one's own image in the mirror or water, which  is common to both.  This motif, an important aspect of Plotinus' contemplation metaphor, is enriched by the additional element of (attempted union with one's reflection. The latter is not to be found in the previous versions of either myth, but is present in the hermetic cosmogony. The creative aspect of this union is adopted by Plotinus and applied to his theory of the soul's descent and embodiment, for which the metaphor of the mirror of Dionysus is used.  The longing of Narcissus, on the other hand, symbolises the gaze or contemplation gone astray, ·with all the fatal consequences. The soul contemplating itself in "the mirror of Dionysus" never loses sight of its principle and origin, thus remaining true to its nature, while "Narcissus" loses his self, drowning in the pool of superficial appearances.

  19. Galaxy clusters and the amplitude of primordial fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.; Efstathiou, G.; Davis, M. (Durham Univ. (England) Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Oxford Univ. (England) California Univ., Berkeley (USA))


    The distributions of velocity dispersion, gas temperature, and mass-to-light ratio for Abell clusters are calculated here in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony in order to test the validity of the hierarchical clustering model for the formation of cosmic structure and to fix the value of the biasing parameter b which quantifies the segregation between galaxies and mass. To compare model predictions with optical data, catalogs of galaxies are constructed from N-body simulations and subjected to projection effects similar to those in Abell's cluster catalog. It is found that a significant fraction of rich clusters identified in projection do not correspond to rich three-dimensional clusters, but result instead from superpositions of foreground groups on poorer clusters. A similar fraction of true rich clusters are missed in the projected catalogs. Combining the simulations with recent hydrodynamical models, it is found that CDM models with b of 2-2.5 provide an acceptable match to present data. 52 refs.

  20. Towards the other mythology--the offspring of darkness: Jocasta's daughters and granddaughters. (United States)

    Lozica, Ivan


    "It all started with the doubt (perhaps exaggerated) that the Gods do not know how to talk". The author presents the situation and tendencies in contemporary mythological research. The article starts out from the mythos-logos antithesis and from the twofold conception of the myth as both a fabricated and a sacred story. The allopersonages as characters of different names, who function as markers for the identical element in the structure, are contrasted by the author with the isopersonages bearing names of the same characters, who simultaneously function as markers for diverse elements or semantic strata in the structure. The term sociogony is introduced in analogy to the terms theogony and cosmogony. On the basis of a review of Croatian and mainstream mythological trends, the author perceives two main orientations in mythological research: the historical reconstruction of the Proto-Slavic myth, and research into the myth, mythic consciousness and mythic language in contemporary everyday life. The author supports the idea of differentiating mythology and religion and analyses the role of the myth, and scholarship on the myth, in forming national and cultural identity. From that aspect, we can also identify the contemporary transitional scholarly myth in today's reconstructions of the unifed Proto-Slavic myth. Remythologisation is part of retraditionalisation: Proto-Slavic fellowship is the spiritual solace by which the East responds to the tearing down of the Berlin Wall.

  1. Music from the heavens - Gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Salcido, Jaime; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John


    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with a model to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the black holes. The EAGLE models predict $\\sim2$ detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between $10^5 \\textrm{M}_{\\odot} h^{-1}$ seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between $z\\sim2.5...

  2. The absolute magnitude distribution of cold classical Kuiper belt objects (United States)

    Petit, Jean-Marc; Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Chen, Ying-Tung; Gladman, Brett; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, JJ; Volk, Kathryn


    We report measurements of the low inclination component of the main Kuiper Belt showing a size freqency distribution very steep for sizes larger than H_r ~ 6.5-7.0 and then a flattening to shallower slope that is still steeper than the collisional equilibrium slope.The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is ongoing and is expected to detect over 500 TNOs in a precisely calibrated and characterized survey. Combining our current sample with CFEPS and the Alexandersen et al. (2015) survey, we analyse a sample of ~180 low inclination main classical (cold) TNOs, with absolute magnitude H_r (SDSS r' like flter) in the range 5 to 8.8. We confirm that the H_r distribution can be approximated by an exponential with a very steep slope (>1) at the bright end of the distribution, as has been recognized long ago. A transition to a shallower slope occurs around H_r ~ 6.5 - 7.0, an H_r mag identified by Fraster et al (2014). Faintward of this transition, we find a second exponential to be a good approximation at least until H_r ~ 8.5, but with a slope significantly steeper than the one proposed by Fraser et al. (2014) or even the collisional equilibrium value of 0.5.The transition in the cold TNO H_r distribution thus appears to occur at larger sizes than is observed in the high inclination main classical (hot) belt, an important indicator of a different cosmogony for these two sub-components of the main classical Kuiper belt. Given the largish slope faintward of the transition, the cold population with ~100 km diameter may dominate the mass of the Kuiper belt in the 40 AU < a < 47 au region.

  3. Music from the heavens - gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations (United States)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John


    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  4. Metáforas de la eclosión y del cultivo. Imaginarios de la agricultura en época ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos, Ricardo


    Full Text Available From a general approach various groups of Iberian images related with the signs of the vegetal world are treated in this paper: those showing an spontaneous generation and those introducing the metaphors of agriculture. We depart from a common Mediterranean thought, but our main interest will be the specificities and singularities of the Iberian examples. It is proposed to link some of these Iberian images with both the cosmogonie vision of the beginnings and the mythical invention of agriculture. In both cases images fulfill a more or less definite role within the society which demands them. The historical context could illuminate a more universal thought.Desde una lectura globalizadora analizamos varios grupos de imágenes ibéricas que se relacionan con los signos del mundo vegetal: las que muestran una generación espontánea, una eclosión, y las que introducen la metáfora del cultivo. Partimos de lo genérico mediterráneo pero buscamos lo diferencial y específico que exige cada ejemplo ibérico. Proponemos asociar estas imágenes por un lado a una visión cosmogónica —un tiempo originario—, por otro, a la invención mítica de la agricultura. En uno y otro caso las imágenes cumplen una función en mayor o menor medida definida dentro de la dialéctica social. El contexto histórico ilumina y enriquece un pensamiento más universal.

  5. X-ray coronae in simulations of disc galaxy formation (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop


    The existence of X-ray luminous gaseous coronae around massive disc galaxies is a long-standing prediction of galaxy formation theory in the cold dark matter cosmogony. This prediction has garnered little observational support, with non-detections commonplace and detections for only a relatively small number of galaxies which are much less luminous than expected. We investigate the coronal properties of a large sample of bright, disc-dominated galaxies extracted from the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations recently presented by Crain et al. Remarkably, the simulations reproduce the observed scalings of X-ray luminosity with K-band luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) and, when account is taken of the density structure of the halo, with disc rotation velocity as well. Most of the star formation in the simulated galaxies (which have realistic stellar mass fractions) is fuelled by gas cooling from a quasi-hydrostatic hot corona. However, these coronae are more diffuse, and of a lower luminosity, than predicted by the analytic models of White & Frenk because of a substantial increase in entropy at z ~ 1-3. Both the removal of low entropy gas by star formation and energy injection from supernovae contribute to this increase in entropy, but the latter is dominant for halo masses M200 <~ 1012.5Msolar. Only a small fraction of the mass of the hot gas is outflowing as a wind but, because of its high density and metallicity, it contributes disproportionally to the X-ray emission. The bulk of the X-ray emission, however, comes from the diffuse quasi-hydrostatic corona which supplies the fuel for ongoing star formation in discs today. Future deep X-ray observations with high spectral resolution (e.g. with NeXT/ASTRO-H or IXO) should be able to map the velocity structure of the hot gas and test this fundamental prediction of current galaxy formation theory.

  6. The Evolution of X-Ray Clusters in a Low-Density Universe (United States)

    Eke, Vincent R.; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.


    We present results of N-body/gasdynamical simulations designed to investigate the evolution of X-ray clusters in a flat, low-density, Λ-dominated cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony. The simulations include self-gravity, pressure gradients, and hydrodynamical shocks, but neglect radiative cooling. The density profile of the dark matter component can be fitted accurately by the simple formula originally proposed by Navarro, Frenk, & White to describe the structure of clusters in a CDM universe with Ω = 1. In projection, the shape of the dark matter radial density profile and the corresponding line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile are in very good agreement with the observed profiles for galaxies in the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology sample of clusters. This suggests that galaxies are not strongly segregated relative to the dark matter in X-ray luminous clusters. The gas in our simulated clusters is less centrally concentrated than the dark matter, and its radial density profile is well described by the familiar β-model. As a result, the average baryon fraction within the virial radius (rvir) is only 85%-90% of the universal value and is lower nearer the center. The total mass and velocity dispersion of our clusters can be accurately inferred (with ~15% uncertainty) from their X-ray emission-weighted temperature. We generalize Kaiser's scale-free scaling relations to arbitrary power spectra and low-density universes and show that simulated clusters generally follow these relations. The agreement between the simulations and the analytical results provides a convincing demonstration of the soundness of our gasdynamical numerical techniques. Although our simulated clusters resemble observed clusters in several respects, the slope of the luminosity-temperature relation implied by the scaling relations, and obeyed by the simulations, is in disagreement with observations. This suggests that nongravitational effects such as preheating or cooling must have

  7. “Who Began This Art? From Whence Did It Emerge?”: A Hermetic Frame Story on the Origins of Alchemy in Pseudo-Ibn Waḥshīya’s The Book of the Ziziphus Tree of the Furthest Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Braun


    Full Text Available This paper explores the context of a Hermetic frame story in the pseudepigraphical alchemical treatise The Book of the Ziziphus Tree of the Furthest Boundary (Kitāb Sidrat almuntahā. The treatise is attributed to a prominent figure in the Arabic occult sciences, Abū Bakr b. Waḥshīya (fl. first half of the 4th/10th century. It was written in the form of a dialogue between the protagonist, Ibn Waḥshīya, and an alchemist from the Islamic West, al-Maghribī al-Qamarī. The last section of the introductory dialogue between these two characters consists of a frame story on the origins of alchemy and a legend of discovery (Fundlegende that introduces a cosmogony and an allegorical depiction of the process of transmutation. Both the frame story and the legend of discovery abound in Hermetic motifs and topoi known from other Greek and Arabic alchemical treatises. The exposition of the different prevailing theories on the beginnings of alchemy reflects, moreover, historical phenomena, such as the Graeco-Arabic translation movement and the shu‘ūbīya controversy. Consistent with the literary tradition of the Arabic Hermetica, Ancient Egypt emerges in this treatise as the cradle of alchemy; however, I suggest that more than merely literary convention, such evocations express a genuine fascination with Ancient Egypt and its surviving material culture. In this respect, the littleknown genre of Arabic books on hidden treasure might shed new light on common Hermetic narratives and their circulation in Arabic occult literature.

  8. On the thermodynamic derivation of differential equations for turbulent flow transfer in a compressible heat-conducting fluid (United States)

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.


    phenomena in various astro- and geophysical applications. In particular, a major application of the proposed approach is the reconstruction of the processes in the preplanetary circumsolar disk, which might help solve the fundamental problems of stellar-planetary cosmogony.

  9. Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe (United States)

    Nevskaya, N. I.

    "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

  10. The Cosmological Origin of the Tully-Fisher Relation (United States)

    Steinmetz, Matthias; Navarro, Julio F.


    We use high-resolution cosmological simulations that include the effects of gasdynamics and star formation to investigate the origin of the Tully-Fisher relation in the standard cold dark matter cosmogony. Stars are assumed to form in collapsing, Jeans-unstable gas clumps at a rate set by the local gas density and the dynamical/cooling timescale. The energetic feedback from stellar evolution is assumed to heat the gas-surrounding regions of ongoing star formation, where it is radiated away very rapidly. The star formation algorithm thus has little effect on the rate at which gas cools and collapses, and, as a result, most galaxies form their stars very early. Luminosities are computed for each model galaxy using their full star formation histories and the latest spectrophotometric models. We find that the stellar mass of model galaxies is proportional to the total baryonic mass within the virial radius of their surrounding halos. Circular velocity then correlates tightly with the total luminosity of the galaxy, which reflects the equivalence between mass and circular velocity of systems identified in a cosmological context. The slope of the relation steepens slightly from the blue to the red bandpasses and is in fairly good agreement with observations. Its scatter is small, decreasing from ~0.38 mag in the U band to ~0.24 mag in the K band. The particular cosmological model we explore here seems unable to account for the zero point of the correlation. Model galaxies are too faint at z=0 (by about 2 mag) if the circular velocity at the edge of the luminous galaxy is used as an estimator of the rotation speed. The model Tully-Fisher relation is brighter in the past by ~0.7 mag in the B band at z=1, which is at odds with recent observations of z~1 galaxies. We conclude that the slope and tightness of the Tully-Fisher relation can be naturally explained in hierarchical models, but that its normalization and evolution depend strongly on the star formation algorithm

  11. Col-OSSOS: A new ugrJ taxonomy for trans-Neptunian objects (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley Cristopher; Bannister, Michele T.; Marsset, Michael; Pike, Rosemary E.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Benecchi, Susan D.; Delsanti, Audrey; Lehner, Matt J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Thirouin, Audrey; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Peixinho, Nuno; Vernazza, Pierre


    The surfaces of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are poorly understood. Very little has been discerned about the compositions of most small TNOs. In recent years however, some concrete knowledge about the surface colour distribution of TNOs has come to light. It is now generally accepted that small TNOs fall into at least three classes of object based on their surface colours and albedo. Despite nearly two decades of gathering TNO surface information however, a taxonomy has still not been agreed upon. From Col-OSSOS u, g, r, and J photometry, we find significantly different clustering of (u-g) colour in the optically red, dynamically cold TNOs as compared to similarly optically coloured dynamically excited TNOs. One of the goals of the Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey is the development of a robust TNO taxonomy. This 4 year program which started in 2014B is simultaneously using the Gemini-North and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes to gather near simultaneous u, g, r, and J spectral photometry of all targets in the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) brighter than r'=23.6 (120 expected). The focus of Col-OSSOS is completeness and consistency, with the same SNR=25 being reached in all bands, for all targets brighter than our depth limit. Col-OSSOS will provide the first brightness-complete, compositional-dynamical map of the Outer Solar System, from which key hypotheses about the Solar System's cosmogony can be tested. After an overview of the survey's design and techniques, we will present the observed colours from the first complete block. Even with just ~30 targets, the precise photometry afforded by Col-OSSOS has already revealed the existence of 3 separate TNO taxons or classes, which become obvious when their (u-g), (g-r), and (r-J) colours are considered together. In particular, the so-called cold classical TNOs, which stand out because of their dynamically quiescent orbits, while possessing similar (g-r) and (r-J) colours as other red TNOs

  12. Review on the Theory of the Tao of Huainanzi%《淮南子》道论思想述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    道论思想在《淮南子》复杂的思想体系中具有重要的地位,无论是其本体论、宇宙论还是养生论都是围绕着“道”展开的。然而,其道论也可以从道之体、道之用以及道之体用关系等三个方面来展开。从道之体来看,其作为宇宙之本原,是万物得以存在的依据,同时也具有其自身的性质;从其形而下之“用”来看,则是“无为”;从道之体用关系来看,《淮南子》中的“无为”与“道”之内涵互为表里,并且使“道”体更加丰富。%"Huai Nan Zi" by the Taoism thought primarily, comprehensive of all the various schools of thought, is a comprehensive grand - scale literary work. The discusses of Taoism in its complex ideology have the important status, regardless of is its ontology, the cosmogony or the keeping in good health discusses all center on "the road" to launch. However, its road discusses the thought to be possible from to say the body, the road and so on three aspects launch with as well as a body with the relations. Looked from a body that, it took source of the universe, is the basis which the myriad things can exist, simultaneously also has its own nature; "Uses" from its performance in physical it to look, then is "the inactivity" ; Looked from a body with the relations that, "Huai Nan Zi the inactivity'and "the road" the connotation is mutually an outside and inside, and causes "the road" the body to be richer.

  13. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  14. The statistics of Λ CDM halo concentrations (United States)

    Neto, Angelo F.; Gao, Liang; Bett, Philip; Cole, Shaun; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian


    We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the statistics of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) halo concentrations at z = 0. Our results confirm that the average halo concentration declines monotonically with mass; the concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law over three decades in mass, up to the most massive objects that form in a ΛCDM universe (~ 1015h-1Msolar). This is in clear disagreement with the predictions of the model proposed by Bullock et al. for these rare objects, and agrees better with the original predictions of Navarro, Frenk & White. The large volume surveyed, together with the unprecedented numerical resolution of the MS, allows us to estimate with confidence the distribution of concentrations and, consequently, the abundance of systems with unusual properties. About one in a hundred cluster haloes (M200 >~ 3 × 1014h-1Msolar) have concentrations exceeding c200 = 7.5, a result that may be useful in interpreting the likelihood of unusually strong massive gravitational lenses, such as Abell 1689, in the ΛCDM cosmogony. A similar fraction of about 1 per cent of galaxy-sized haloes (M200 ~ 1012h-1Msolar) have c200 < 4.5 and this could be relevant to models that attempt to reconcile the ΛCDM cosmology with rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies by appealing to haloes of unexpectedly low concentration. We find that halo concentrations are independent of spin once haloes manifestly out of equilibrium have been removed from the sample. Compared to their relaxed brethren, the concentrations of out-of-equilibrium haloes tend to be lower and have more scatter, while their spins tend to be higher. A number of previously noted trends within the halo population are induced primarily by these properties of unrelaxed systems. Finally, we compare the result of predicting halo concentrations using the mass assembly history of the main progenitor with predictions based on simple arguments regarding the assembly time of all progenitors

  15. Equality and Justice in Early Greek Cosmologies: The Paradigm of the “Line of the Horizon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Salamone


    , placing a «dividing line» (straight or crooked between them. Furthermore, this original conception representing justice as a division of the cosmos into two equal parts, or cosmic dasmós, has its roots in ancient cosmogony not only Greek but also Indo-Iranian, Hindus, Old Persian, Egyptian, Babylonian and Chinese. To conclude, according to my research, also Plato could have used the paradigm of the «Line of the horizon» to explain his cosmological Doctrine of Ideas.

  16. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi


    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin


    Full Text Available Natural-science concepts of rotational movements and the ‘lumpy’ structure of medium are reviewed with a focus on key aspects. Through using torsional traps for hunting and «implementing» mechanical torque for ignition, Homo sapiens developed to man. Vortex movements «impregnated» in spiral structures of shells and torsional movements of toothy whales and fish were intuitively perceived by man as major stable movements of the environment. Based on the above, the ancient philosophy established the concept of the uniform world represented by atomic («noncuttable» structure of medium and vortex movements of ether. Based on conclusive arguments stated by R. Dekart, H. Helmgolz, Lord Kelvin and others within the framework of classical physics and in the first half of the 20th century by scientists in quantum physics and cosmogony, both «quantum structure» («lumpiness» and rotation («vorticity» are integral features of matter – space – time throughout the whole range from elementary particles to galaxies and galactic clusters.Nowadays researchers in natural sciences, particularly in the Earth sciences, call attention again to the problem of structure of matter and its movements. In the 1920s, Chinese geologist Li Siguang established fundamentals of vortex geodynamics. In the second half of the 20th century, Li Siguan’s concepts were developed by geologists O.I. Slenzak and I.V. Melekestsev. Geologist A.V. Peive, mechanic L.I. Sedov and physicist M.A. Sadovsky put forward a concept of block structure of the geo-medium (geological and geophysical medium and proposed a justified assumption that such blocks can move by own torque. This method of movement is confirmed by results of geological and tectonophysical studies, as well as instrumental geophysical measurements obtained from a variety of stations and focal zones of strong earthquakes. Many researchers, including W. Elsasser and V.N. Nikolaevsky, develop fundamentals of

  18. On the universal stellar law (United States)

    Krot, Alexander

    stars. In this connection, comparison with estimations of temperatures using of the regression dependences for multi-planet extrasolar systems [8] testifies the obtained results entirely. References 1. Krot, A.M.:2009, A statistical approach to investigate the formation of the solar system. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals41(3), 1481-1500. 2. Krot, A.M.:2012, A models of forming planets and distribution of planetary distances and orbits in the solar system based on the statistical theory of spheroidal bodies. In:Solar System: Structure, Formation and Exploration, ch.9 (Ed. by Matteo de Rossi). New York, Nova Science Publishers, pp. 201-264. - ISBN: 978-1-62100-057-0. 3. Krot, A. M.:2012, A statistical theory of formation of gravitating cosmogonicbodies. Minsk,Bel. Navuka, 4. 448 p. - ISBN 978-985-08-1442-5 [monograph in Russian]. 5. Eddington, A.S.: 1916,On the radiative equilibrium of the stars.Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.84 (7), 525-528. 6. Jeans, J.: 1929, Astronomy and cosmogony. Cambridge, University Press. 7. Chandrasekhar, S.:1939, An introduction to the study of stellar structure.Cambridge, University Press. 8. Pintr, P., Peřinová, V., Lukš, A., Pathak, A.:2013, Statistical and regression analyses of detected extrasolar systems. Planetary and Space Science, 75(1), 37-45.

  19. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions (United States)

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.


    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from

  20. Criticize the Big-bang Cosmology%“大爆炸宇宙学”批评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    the big-bang cosmogony was based on the Hubble’ s astro-observation,he discovered that the remote celestial bodies are leaving far from us. It is the Hubble’ s theory of expanding cosmography. But this theory lacks sufficient proof,then it should be a product of subjective idealism. Another important argument of the theory of exploded cosmogony is that measurement data on microwave background radia-tion,but the data can’ t indicate that the temperature of microwave background radiation should be the re-sult of once exploding. It is never the spread ember at once exploding of an original celestrial body. Ac-cording to the definity of cosmos,people can’ t say “the age of cosmos”,because we only can say “the age of earth”,“the age of solar system” and“the age of star system”;etc. Then,we are against these ab-surd views of big-bang cosmology categorically,because such theoretical system is full of flaws that both science and philosophy all can’ t hold. Although it seems that the universe is riddled with in explicable forces,the theory of dark matter and dark energy just are two hypothesises. Another hypothesis is the exist of gravitational waves,it is just an estimate,but the actual situation might be different. The velocity of gravity in Newton’ s universal law is infinite,but the gravity propagation speed and the velocity of gravitational waves in Einstein’ s theory are the light speed c. The General relativity( GR) explains these features by suggesting that gravitation ( un-like electromagnetic forces) is a pure geometric effect of curved space-time,not a force of nature that propagates. Moreover,now different gravity models need to be considered. For example,if gravity is once again taken to be a propagating force of nature in flat space-time with the propagation speed indicated by observational evidence and experiments:not less than 2 × 1010c(c is the speed of light in vacuum). Al-though faster-than-light force propagation speeds do

  1. Obituary: Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010) (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu


    planetary cosmogony, which includes formation of solar nebula, solid particle settling, planetesimal formation due to gravitational instability, coalescence of planetesimals, formation of terrestrial and Jovian planets, and, finally, nebula dissipation. It is called the "Kyoto model" and is now considered as a standard model of solar system formation. In his tenure at Kyoto University was 30 years long, Hayashi had many graduate students and thoroughly drummed physics into them. Every Saturday afternoon, Hayashi held a colloquium in his office, but presenting in front of him was the most fearful training for his students. His disciplined methods of education and training, however, resulted in many of his students becoming university professors. Hayashi was honored with many prizes; Eddington Medal from RAS (1970), Imperial Prize of the Japan Academy (1971), Order of Culture (1986), Order of the Sacred Treasure, the first class (1994), the Kyoto Prize of Inamori Foundation (1995), the Bruce Medal for outstanding lifetime contributions from ASP (2004), etc. In 1984 Hayashi retired from Kyoto University. Even after that, Hayashi kept a small private seminar with his former students S. Narita and M. Kiguchi at a guest room of the university once a week and later at his home less frequently, and enjoyed discussion on astrophysics. The seminar lasted for 25 years until he was hospitalized for old age, i.e., a few months before his death.

  2. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula (United States)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando


    This paper is a reflection about the use of History of Science in the curriculum of formal education, through the discussion concerning cultural elements of several ethnic groups in Brazil, in actions related to astronomy education. The work was developed in the framework of an extension course and the analysis undertaken here refers to a meeting that discussed didactic sequences relating to that theme, based on the Brazilian law 11.645/2008, which states the obligation to present the subject "African-brazilian and indigenous History and Culture" in the official curriculum. The extension action was developed with teachers who teach Natural Sciences, in São Paulo state, discussing issues related to the use of History of Science and the relationship with cosmogonies from Iorubá and Tupi peoples, highlighting how they can enhance the work with Astronomy(ies) in the classroom. It was observed that the participants had not yet presented these themes in their classes and also did not participate in training courses that discussed these subjects. Este artículo presenta una reflexión sobre el uso de la historia de la ciencia en el currículo de la educación formal, a través de la discusión sobre el uso de los elementos culturales de los grupos étnicos en Brasil, en acciones relacionadas con la educación en astronomía. El trabajo se desarrolló en el marco de un curso de extensión y el análisis realizado aquí se refiere a un encuentro en el cual se abordaron secuencias didácticas relacionadas con ese tema, sobre la base de la ley brasilera 11.645/2008 que dispone la obligatoriedad del tema "Historia y Cultura africana e indígena en el Brasil" en el currículo oficial. La acción de extensión se desarrolló con los profesores de ciencias naturales en el interior del estado de São Paulo, discutiendo temas relacionados con el uso de la historia de la ciencia y la relación con las cosmogonías de los pueblos Iorubá y Tupi, que muestra cómo se puede mejorar

  3. On the nature of gravity and possible change of Earth mass during geological time (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin


    mass of 1023 times the mass of the Sun. The number of stars systems is approximately 1012. 4. Apparent detectable matter - a tiny part of the whole universe. The basis of it the dark matter, which we have not observed, but guess from indirect evidence. 5. One of the most developed cosmogony concepts - the concept of the Big Bang. The basis for the creation of the concept was still unconfirmed opinion of astronomers, that all the galaxies scatter. According to Friedman, Gamov and their followers - proponents of the Big Bang, our universe began 15 billion years ago. Then it was the size of a proton! Density was 1093 g/cm 3. Its temperature was 1070 degrees. Present these values everyday consciousness is impossible. From this state, our universe began to expand. After one ten-thousandth of a second density has fallen to 1014 g/cm3. There were first the elementary particles. When the age of our universe has reached a 0.3 second the density decreased 107 g/cm 3, temperature up to 30 billion degrees. 6. Big Bang hypothesis is interesting, and, to some extent, is constructive. But she has not acquired the rank of the theory and contains too much unchecked moments. According to the principle of relativity of Poincare and Lorentz, the maximum speed of physical movement in space - the speed of light. The universe is filled with dark matter, which extends, perhaps indefinitely. She has great density and generates a flow of gravity. Chemically, it must consist of hydrogen as a primary element. In the continuum of Dark Matter sometimes cavities appears. One of them is our Universe. Similarly, when our universe came into being as a "psevdocavity" bubble in the continuum of Dark Matter, the material particles are grouped into galaxies, stars and planets. The gravitational field is emitted by all matter of the universe. This hypothesis is toward understanding of continent mobility and both geological and biological evolution of Earth.