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Sample records for cosmic origins spectrograph

  1. THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, James C.; Michael Shull, J.; Snow, Theodore P.; Stocke, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 391-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Beland, Stephane; Burgh, Eric B.; Danforth, Charles; France, Kevin [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ebbets, Dennis [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Heap, Sara H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Leitherer, Claus; Sembach, Kenneth [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Savage, Blair D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Siegmund, Oswald H. W. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Spencer, John; Alan Stern, S. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Welsh, Barry [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2009 May, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F{sub {lambda}} Almost-Equal-To 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} A{sup -1}, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph echelle modes) in 1%-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (2009 September-2011 June) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is nine times than sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of 2011 June. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Ly{alpha} absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the He II reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  2. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James C; Osterman, Steve; Ebbets, Dennis; Heap, Sara H; Linsky, Claus Leitherer Jeffrey L; Savage, Blair D; Sembach, Kenneth; Shull, J Michael; Siegmund, Oswald H W; Snow, Theodore P; Spencer, John; Stern, S Alan; Stocke, John; Welsh, Barry; Beland, Stephane; Burgh, Eric B; Danforth, Charles; France, Kevin; Keeney, Brian; McPhate, Jason; Penton, Steven V; Andrews, John; Brownsberger, Kenneth; Morse, Jon; Wilkinson, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May 2009, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F_lambda ~ 1.0E10-14 ergs/s/cm2/Angstrom, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to STIS echelle modes) in 1-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (September 2009 - June 2011) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is 9 times that sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of June 2011....

  3. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Ebbets, Dennis; Heap, Sara H.; Leitherer, Claus; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth; Shull, J. Michael; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Snow, Theodore P.; Spencer, John; Stern, S. Alan; Stocke, John; Welsh, Barry; Beland, Stephane; Burgh, Eric B.; Danforth, Charles; France, Kevin; Keeney, Brian; McPhate, Jason; Penton, Steven V; Andrews, John; Morse, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May 2009, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F(sub lambda) approximates 1.0 X 10(exp -14) ergs/s/cm2/Angstrom, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to STIS echelle modes) in 1-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (September 2009 - June 2011) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is 9 times that sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of June 2011. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Lya absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the HeII reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  4. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph: On-Orbit Instrument Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Osterman, S; Froning, C; Béland, S; Burgh, E; France, K; Penton, S; Delker, T; Ebbets, D; Sahnow, D; Bacinski, J; Kimble, R; Andrews, J; Wilkinson, E; McPhate, J; Siegmund, O; Ake, T; Aloisi, A; Biagetti, C; Diaz, R; Dixon, W; Friedman, S; Ghavamian, P; Goudfrooij, P; Hartig, G; Keyes, C; Lennon, D; Massa, D; Niemi, S; Oliveira, C; Osten, R; Proffitt, C; Smith, T; Soderblom, D

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) was installed in the Hubble Space Telescope in May, 2009 as part of Servicing Mission 4 to provide high sensitivity, medium and low resolution spectroscopy at far- and near-ultraviolet wavelengths (FUV, NUV). COS is the most sensitive FUV/NUV spectrograph flown to date, spanning the wavelength range from 900{\\AA} to 3200{\\AA} with peak effective area approaching 3000 cm^2. This paper describes instrument design, the results of the Servicing Mission Orbital Verification (SMOV), and the ongoing performance monitoring program.

  5. Cosmic Origins Spectrograph: On-Orbit Performance of Target Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton, Steven V.

    2010-07-01

    COS is a slit-less spectrograph with a very small aperture (R=1.2500). To achieve the desired wavelength accuracies, HST+COS must center the target to within 0.100 of the center of the aperture for the FUV channel, and 0.0400 for NUV. During SMOV and early Cycle 17 we fine-tuned the COS target acquisition (TA) procedures to exceed this accuracy for all three COS TA modes; NUV imaging, NUV spectroscopic, and FUV spectroscopic. In Cycle 17, we also adjusted the COSto- FGS offsets in the SIAF file. This allows us to recommend skipping the time consuming ACQ/SEARCH in cases where the target coordinates are well known. Here we will compare the on-orbit performance of all COS TA modes in terms of centering accuracy, efficiency, and required signal-to-noise (S/N).

  6. Updated Status and Performance of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Mees Bernard; De Rosa, Gisella; Fox, Andrew; Indriolo, Nick; James, Bethan; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Rafelski, Marc; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Snyder, Elaine M.; Taylor, Joanna M.; White, James

    2017-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May 2009. COS was designed to perform high-sensitivity medium and low-resolution spectroscopy of astronomical objects in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelength regimes. Here, we present updates on the time-dependent sensitivities (TDS) for the NUV and FUV detectors, NUV wavelength calibration, and the FUV and NUV dark rates. Additionally, we discuss the move to lifetime position four (LP4) planned for July 2017, including the detector location and impact on resolution.

  7. The FUV detector for the cosmic origins spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J.; Zaninovich, J.; Welsh, B.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J.; Hull, J.; Gaines, G.; Buzasi, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a high throughput spectrometer that will be placed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the last servicing mission in the year 2003. COS will be the most sensitive UV spectrograph ever flown aboard HST and will investigate such fundamental issues as the ionization and baryon content of the intergalactic medium and the origin of large-scale structure of the Universe. The driving design goal for COS is to maximize throughput at a moderate spectral resolution of />20,000 using optics with very few reflections and detectors with high quantum efficiency in two bandpass channels: FUV (1150-1775Å) and NUV (1750-3200Å). The COS FUV detector, a windowless microchannel plate (MCP) detector, consists of two segments each 85mm×10mm concatenated end to end with a 9mm gap between them. The design is based on the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer detectors with identical format and front surface radius of curvature that matches the grating focal plane of the spectrograph. However, enhancements have been made in the design and fabrication of the MCPs, the photocathode, the delay line anode and the readout electronics. We discuss these design enhancements and their significance.

  8. The FUV detector for the cosmic origins spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J; Welsh, B; Siegmund, O; McPhate, J; Hull, J; Gaines, G; Buzasi, D L

    2002-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a high throughput spectrometer that will be placed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the last servicing mission in the year 2003. COS will be the most sensitive UV spectrograph ever flown aboard HST and will investigate such fundamental issues as the ionization and baryon content of the intergalactic medium and the origin of large-scale structure of the Universe. The driving design goal for COS is to maximize throughput at a moderate spectral resolution of >20,000 using optics with very few reflections and detectors with high quantum efficiency in two bandpass channels: FUV (1150-1775 A) and NUV (1750-3200 A). The COS FUV detector, a windowless microchannel plate (MCP) detector, consists of two segments each 85 mmx10 mm concatenated end to end with a 9 mm gap between them. The design is based on the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer detectors with identical format and front surface radius of curvature that matches the grating focal plane of the spectrogra...

  9. Direct Detection of Lyman Continuum Escape from Local Starburst Galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Leitherer, Claus; Lee, Janice C; Oey, M S

    2016-01-01

    We report on the detection of Lyman continuum radiation in two nearby starburst galaxies. Tol 0440-381, Tol 1247-232 and Mrk 54 were observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescopes. The three galaxies have radial velocities of ~13,000 km/s, permitting a ~35 A window on the restframe Lyman continuum shortward of the Milky Way Lyman edge at 912 A. The chosen instrument configuration using the G140L grating covers the spectral range from 912 to 2,000 {\\AA}. We developed a dedicated background subtraction method to account for temporal and spatial background variations of the detector, which is crucial at the low flux levels around 912 A. This modified pipeline allowed us to significantly improve the statistical and systematic detector noise and will be made available to the community. We detect Lyman continuum in all three galaxies. However, we conservatively interpret the emission in Tol 0440-381 as an upper limit due to possible contamination by geocoronal Lyman series lines. ...

  10. A Search for Short-period Rocky Planets around WDs with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhaus, Phoebe H.; Debes, John H.; Ely, Justin; Hines, Dean C.; Bourque, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    The search for transiting habitable exoplanets has broadened to include several types of stars that are smaller than the Sun in an attempt to increase the observed transit depth and hence the atmospheric signal of the planet. Of all spectral types, white dwarfs (WDs) are the most favorable for this type of investigation. The fraction of WDs that possess close-in rocky planets is unknown, but several large angle stellar surveys have the photometric precision and cadence to discover at least one if they are common. Ultraviolet observations of WDs may allow for detection of molecular oxygen or ozone in the atmosphere of a terrestrial planet. We use archival Hubble Space Telescope data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to search for transiting rocky planets around UV-bright WDs. In the process, we discovered unusual variability in the pulsating WD GD 133, which shows slow sinusoidal variations in the UV. While we detect no planets around our small sample of targets, we do place stringent limits on the possibility of transiting planets, down to sub-lunar radii. We also point out that non-transiting small planets in thermal equilibrium are detectable around hotter WDs through infrared excesses, and identify two candidates. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  11. A Search for short-period Rocky Planets around WDs with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS)

    CERN Document Server

    Sandhaus, P H; Ely, J; Hines, D C; Bourque, M

    2016-01-01

    The search for transiting habitable exoplanets has broadened to include several types of stars that are smaller than the Sun in an attempt to increase the observed transit depth and hence the atmospheric signal of the planet. Of all spectral types, white dwarfs are the most favorable for this type of investigation. The fraction of white dwarfs that possess close-in rocky planets is unknown, but several large angle stellar surveys have the photometric precision and cadence to discover at least one if they are common. Ultraviolet observations of white dwarfs may allow for detection of molecular oxygen or ozone in the atmosphere of a terrestrial planet. We use archival Hubble Space Telescope data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to search for transiting rocky planets around UV-bright white dwarfs. In the process, we discovered unusual variability in the pulsating white dwarf GD 133, which shows slow sinusoidal variations in the UV. While we detect no planets around our small sample of targets, we do place st...

  12. The First Observations of Low Redshift Damped Lyman-alpha Systems with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Meiring, Joseph D; Prochaska, Jason X; Tumlinson, Jason; Werk, Jessica; Jenkins, Edward B; Thom, Chris; O'Meara, John M; Sembach, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observations of damped and sub-damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems discovered in a new survey of the gaseous halos of low-redshift galaxies. From observations of 37 sightlines, we have discovered three DLAs and four sub-DLAs. We measure the neutral gas density Omega(HI), and redshift density dN/dz, of DLA and sub-DLA systems at z<0.35. We find dN/dz=0.25 and Omega(HI)=1.4x10^-3 for DLAs, and dN/dz=0.08 with Omega(HI)=4.2x10^-5 for sub-DLAs over a redshift path delta z=11.9. To demonstrate the scientific potential of such systems, we present a detailed analysis of the DLA at z=0.1140 in the spectrum of SDSS J1009+0713. Profile fits to the absorption lines determine log N(H I)=20.68pm0.10 with a metallicity determined from the undepleted element Sulfur of [S/H]=-0.62pm0.18. The abundance pattern of this DLA is similar to that of higher z DLAs, showing mild depletion of the refractory elements Fe and Ti with [S/Fe]=+0.24pm0.22 and [S/Ti]=+0.28pm0.15. Nitro...

  13. Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Observations of the Chemical Composition of LMC N132D

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Keeney, Brian A; Danforth, Charles W; Froning, Cynthia S; Green, James C

    2009-01-01

    We present new far-ultraviolet spectra of an oxygen-rich knot in the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant N132D, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Moderate resolution (v~200 km/s) spectra in the HST far-ultraviolet bandpass (1150 - 1750 A) show emission from several ionization states of oxygen as well as trace amounts of other species. We use the improvements in sensitivity and resolving power offered by COS to separate contributions from different velocity components within the remnant, as well as emission from different species within the oxygen-rich knot itself. This is the first time that compositional and velocity structure in the ultraviolet emission lines from N132D has been resolved, and we use this to assess the chemical composition of the remnant. No nitrogen is detected in N132D and multiple carbon species are found at velocities inconsistent with the main oxygen component. We find helium and silicon to be associated with the oxygen-rich knot, and use the red...

  14. Far-ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Recent Comets with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Combi, Michael R.; Dello Russo, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has served as a platform with unique capabilities for remote observations of comets. Successive generations of imagers and spectrographs have seen large advances in sensitivity and spectral resolution enabling observations of the diverse properties of a representative number of comets during the past 25 years. To date, four comets have been observed in the far-ultraviolet by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), the last spectrograph to be installed in HST, in 2009: 103P/Hartley 2, C/2009 P1 (Garradd), C/2012 S1 (ISON), and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy). COS has unprecedented sensitivity, albeit no spatial resolution, and the principal objective was to determine the relative CO abundance from measurements of the CO Fourth Positive system in the spectral range of 1400 to 1700 Å. In the two brightest comets, nineteen bands of this system were clearly identified. The water production rate was derived from nearly simultaneous observations of the OH (0,0) band at 3085 Å by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The derived CO/H2O production rate ratio ranged from ~0.3% for Hartley 2 (Weaver et al., ApJ 734:L5, 2011) to ~20% for Garradd. In addition, strong partially resolved emission features due to multiplets of S I, centered at 1429 Å and 1479 Å, and of C I at 1561 Å and 1657 Å, were observed in all four comets. Weak emission from several lines of the H2 Lyman band system, excited by solar Lyman-α and Lyman-β pumped fluorescence, were detected in comet Lovejoy.This work is based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Support was provided by NASA through grants from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  15. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B.M.; Ely, J.; Kriss, G.A.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Horne, K.; Korista, K.T.; Netzer, H.; Pogge, R.W.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A.J.; Bentz, M.C.; Brandt, W.N.; Breeveld, A.A.; Brewer, B.J.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Denney, K.D.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Evans, P.A.; Fausnaugh, M.M.; Gehrels, N.; Gelbord, J.M.; Goad, M.R.; Grier, C.J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P.B.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B.C.; Kennea, J.A.; Kochanek, C.S.; Lira, P.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I.M.; Nousek, J.A.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Pei, L.; Schimoia, J.S.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D.; Treu, T.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 171 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and

  16. A HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH SEARCH FOR WARM-HOT BARYONS IN THE Mrk 421 SIGHT LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Penton, Steven V.; Shull, J. Michael; Yao Yangsen; Green, James C., E-mail: danforth@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    Thermally broadened Ly{alpha} absorbers (BLAs) offer an alternate method to using highly ionized metal absorbers (O VI, O VII, etc.) to probe the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM, T = 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K). Until now, WHIM surveys via BLAs have been no less ambiguous than those via far-UV and X-ray metal-ion probes. Detecting these weak, broad features requires background sources with a well-characterized far-UV continuum and data of very high quality. However, a recent Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observation of the z = 0.03 blazar Mrk 421 allows us to perform a metal-independent search for WHIM gas with unprecedented precision. The data have high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N Almost-Equal-To 50 per {approx}20 km s{sup -1} resolution element) and the smooth, power-law blazar spectrum allows a fully parametric continuum model. We analyze the Mrk 421 sight line for BLA absorbers, particularly for counterparts to the proposed O VII WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. based on Chandra/Low Energy Transmission Grating observations. We derive the Ly{alpha} profiles predicted by the X-ray observations. The S/N of the COS data is high (S/N Almost-Equal-To 25 pixel{sup -1}), but much higher S/N can be obtained by binning the data to widths characteristic of the expected BLA profiles. With this technique, we are sensitive to WHIM gas over a large (N{sub H}, T) parameter range in the Mrk 421 sight line. We rule out the claimed Nicastro et al. O VII detections at their nominal temperatures (T {approx} 1-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K) and metallicities (Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun }) at {approx}> 2{sigma} level. However, WHIM gas at higher temperatures and/or higher metallicities is consistent with our COS non-detections.

  17. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Cunningham, N. J.; Hain, M. J., E-mail: astern@swri.edu [Nebraska Wesleyan University, 5000 Saint Paul Avenue, Lincoln, NE 68504 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectral absorption on Charon is also reported.

  18. Spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph of the Southern Nova-like BB Doradus in an Intermediate State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Hubeny, Ivan; de Martino, Domitilla; Pala, Anna F.; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo; Szkody, Paula; Toloza, Odette

    2016-12-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the spectrum from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) of the southern VY Scl nova-like variable BB Doradus, obtained as part of a Cycle 20 HST/COS survey of accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in cataclysmic variables. BB Dor was observed with COS during an intermediate state with a low mass accretion rate, thereby allowing an estimate of the WD temperature. The results of our spectral analysis show that the WD is a significant far-ultraviolet (FUV) component of the spectrum with a temperature of about 35,000-50,000 K, assuming a WD mass of 0.80 {M}⊙ ({log}(g)=8.4). The disk, with a mass accretion rate of ≈ {10}-10 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, contributes about 1/5 to 1/2 of the FUV flux.

  19. The First Observations of Low-Redshift Damped Lyman-{\\alpha} Systems with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph: Chemical Abundances and Affiliated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Battisti, A J; Tripp, T M; Prochaska, J X; Werk, J K; Jenkins, E B; Lehner, N; Tumlinson, J; Thom, C

    2011-01-01

    We present Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) measurements of metal abundances in eight 0.083 < zabs < 0.321 damped Lyman-{\\alpha} (DLA) and sub-damped Ly{\\alpha} absorption systems serendipitously discovered in the COS-Halos survey. We find that these systems show a large range in metallicities, with -1.10 < [Z/H] < 0.31, similar to the spread found at higher redshifts. These low-redshift systems on average have subsolar metallicities, but do show a rise in metallicity over cosmic time when compared to higher-redshift systems. Utilizing our sources and those in the literature, we find the average sub-DLA metallicity is higher than the average DLA metallicity at all redshifts. Nitrogen is underabundant with respect to {\\alpha}-group elements in all but perhaps one of the absorbers. In some cases, [N/{\\alpha}] is significantly below the lowest nitrogen measurements in nearby galaxies; the nitrogen abundances are more similar to those observed in high-redshift DLAs. Systems for which depletion patter...

  20. THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-REDSHIFT DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS WITH THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AND AFFILIATED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, A. J.; Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Jenkins, E. B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, N. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, J.; Thom, C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) measurements of metal abundances in eight 0.083 < z{sub abs} < 0.321 damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems serendipitously discovered in the COS-Halos survey. We find that these systems show a large range in metallicities, with -1.10 < [Z/H] < 0.31, similar to the spread found at higher redshifts. These low-redshift systems on average have subsolar metallicities, but do show a rise in metallicity over cosmic time when compared to higher-redshift systems. We find that the average sub-DLA metallicity is higher than the average DLA metallicity at all redshifts. Nitrogen is underabundant with respect to {alpha}-group elements in all but perhaps one of the absorbers. In some cases, [N/{alpha}] is significantly below the lowest nitrogen measurements in nearby galaxies. Systems for which depletion patterns can be studied show little, if any, depletion, which is characteristic of Milky Way halo-type gas. We also identify affiliated galaxies for three of the sub-DLAs using spectra obtained from a Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS). None of these sub-DLAs arise in the stellar disks of luminous galaxies; instead, these absorbers may exist in galaxy halos at impact parameters ranging from 38 to 92 kpc. Multiple galaxies are present near two of the sub-DLAs, and galaxy interactions may play a role in the dispersal of the gas. Many of these low-redshift absorbers exhibit simple kinematics, but one sub-DLA has a complicated mix of at least 13 components spread over 150 km s{sup -1}. We find three galaxies near this sub-DLA, which also suggests that galaxy interactions roil the gas. This study reinforces the view that DLAs have a variety of origins, and low-redshift studies are crucial for understanding absorber-galaxy connections.

  1. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    De Rosa, G; Ely, J; Kriss, G A; Crenshaw, D M; Horne, Keith; Korista, K T; Netzer, H; Pogge, R W; Arevalo, P; Barth, A J; Bentz, M C; Brandt, W N; Breeveld, A A; Brewer, B J; Bonta, E Dalla; De Lorenzo-Caceres, A; Denney, K D; Dietrich, M; Edelson, R; Evans, P A; Fausnaugh, M M; Gehrels, N; Gelbord, J M; Goad, M R; Grier, C J; Grupe, D; Hall, P B; Kaastra, J; Kelly, B C; Kennea, J A; Kochanek, C S; Lira, P; Mathur, S; McHardy, I M; Nousek, J A; Pancoast, A; Papadakis, I; Pei, L; Schimoia, J S; Siegel, M; Starkey, D; Treu, T; Uttley, P; Vaughan, S; Vestergaard, M; Villforth, C; Yan, H; Young, S; Zu, Y

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 170 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and broad emission lines, with amplitudes ranging from ~30% to a factor of two in the emission lines and a factor of three in the continuum. The variations of all the strong emission lines lag behind those of the continuum, with He II 1640 lagging behind the continuum by ~2.5 days and Lyman alpha 1215, C IV 1550, and Si IV 1400 lagging by ~5-6 days. The relationship between the continuum and emission lines is complex. In particular, during the second half of the campaign, all emission-line lags increased by a factor of 1.3-2 and differences appear in the detailed structure of the continuum and emission-line light curves. Velocity-resolved cross-correlation analysis shows coherent structure in lag versus line-of-sight veloc...

  2. Measurement of Cosmic Shear with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason; Refregier, Alexandre; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Groth, Edward J.; Hill, Robert S.

    2004-04-01

    Weak lensing by large-scale structure allows a direct measure of the dark matter distribution. We have used parallel images taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure weak lensing, or cosmic shear. We measure the shapes of 26,036 galaxies in 1292 STIS fields and measure the shear variance at a scale of 0.51m. The charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of STIS has degraded over time and introduces a spurious ellipticity into galaxy shapes during the readout process. We correct for this effect as a function of signal-to-noise ratio and CCD position. We further show that the detected cosmic shear signal is nearly constant in time over the approximately 4 yr of observation. We detect cosmic shear at the 5.1 σ level, and our measurement of the shear variance is consistent with theoretical predictions in a ΛCDM universe. This provides a measure of the normalization of the mass power spectrum σ8=(1.02+/-0.16)(0.3/Ωm)0.46(0.21/Γ)0.18. The 1 σ error includes noise, cosmic variance, systematics, and the redshift uncertainty of the source galaxies. This is consistent with previous cosmic shear measurements, but tends to favor those with a high value of σ8. It is also consistent with the recent determination of σ8 from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) experiment.

  3. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Cosmic Ray Origins: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, Roger; Simeon, Paul; Yuan, Yajie

    2014-11-01

    Physicists have pondered the origin of cosmic rays for over a hundred years. However the last few years have seen an upsurge in the observation, progress in the theory and a genuine increase in the importance attached to the topic due to its intimate connection to the indirect detection of evidence for dark matter. The intent of this talk is to set the stage for the meeting by reviewing some of the basic features of the entire cosmic ray spectrum from GeV to ZeV energy and some of the models that have been developed. The connection will also be made to recent developments in understanding general astrophysical particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, relativistic jets and gamma ray bursts. The prospects for future discoveries, which may elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, are bright.

  5. Cosmic Ray Origins: An Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Roger; Simeon, Paul; Yuan, Yajie

    2014-11-15

    Physicists have pondered the origin of cosmic rays for over a hundred years. However the last few years have seen an upsurge in the observation, progress in the theory and a genuine increase in the importance attached to the topic due to its intimate connection to the indirect detection of evidence for dark matter. The intent of this talk is to set the stage for the meeting by reviewing some of the basic features of the entire cosmic ray spectrum from GeV to ZeV energy and some of the models that have been developed. The connection will also be made to recent developments in understanding general astrophysical particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, relativistic jets and gamma ray bursts. The prospects for future discoveries, which may elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, are bright.

  6. Cosmic Ray Origins: An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, Roger; Yuan, Yajie

    2014-01-01

    Physicists have pondered the origin of cosmic rays for over a hundred years. However the last few years have seen an upsurge in the observation, progress in the theory and a genuine increase in the importance attached to the topic due to its intimate connection to the indirect detection of evidence for dark matter. The intent of this talk is to set the stage for the meeting by reviewing some of the basic features of the entire cosmic ray spectrum from GeV to ZeV energy and some of the models that have been developed. The connection will also be made to recent developments in understanding general astrophysical particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, relativistic jets and gamma ray bursts. The prospects for future discoveries, which may elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, are bright.

  7. Origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    The first significant cosmic fields, and the seed field for galactic dynamos probably developed after the formation of the first non-linear structures. The history of star formation and the intergalactic medium is controlled, at least in part, by how and when galaxies and their precursors acquired their fields. The amplification of fields behind shocks, and the diffusivity of the magnetic flux, are crucial to the interpretation of radio sources, gamma ray burst afterglows, and other energetic cosmic phenomena. The build-up of magnetic fields is an important aspect of the overall cosmogonic process.

  8. Galactic origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, A.A. [Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Ave., 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    The arrival directions of ultrahigh energy extensive air showers (EAS) by Yakutsk, AGASA, P. Auger array data are analyzed. For the first time, the maps of equal exposition of celestial sphere for the distribution of particles by AGASA and P. Auger arrays data have been constructed. The large-scale anisotropy of cosmic particles at E>4x10{sup 19} eV by Yakutsk, AGASA and P. Auger array data has been detected. The problem of cosmic particle origin is discussed.

  9. Cosmic Origins Program Annual Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bruce Thai; Neff, Susan Gale

    2016-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time.

  10. Cosmic Origin and Theology of the Revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, José Francisco

    2007-04-01

    All along cultural history man has asked himself about the origin of man, the origin of life ante the origin of the cosmos. Regarding the question about the origin of the cosmos, any theological research must settle before any other goal the question of its language: what we understand as scientific, mythical or theological language. The biblical texts on Creation are analyzed in their historical, cultural and theological context. It is concluded that the fundamental religious meanings of the biblical texts are not in opposition to scientific interpretation of cosmic origin.

  11. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the XXVIth International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  12. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  13. Origin of the Cosmic Ray Spectral Hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, N

    2012-01-01

    Recent data from ATIC, CREAM and PAMELA indicate that the cosmic ray energy spectra of protons and nuclei exhibit a remarkable hardening at energies above 100 GeV per nucleon. We propose that the hardening is an interstellar propagation effect that originates from a spatial change of the cosmic ray transport properties in different regions of the Galaxy. The key hypothesis is that the diffusion coefficient is not separable into energy and space variables as usually assumed. Under this scenario, we can reproduce well the observational data. Our model has several implications for the cosmic ray acceleration/propagation physics and can be tested by ongoing experiments such as AMS or Fermi/LAT.

  14. Origin of Cosmic Chemical Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological N-body hydrodynamic computations following atomic and molecular chemistry (e$^-$, H, H$^+$, H$^-$, He, He$^+$, He$^{++}$, D, D$^+$, H$_2$, H$_2^+$, HD, HeH$^+$), gas cooling, star formation and production of heavy elements (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, etc.) from stars covering a range of mass and metallicity are used to explore the origin of several chemical abundance patterns and to study both the metal and molecular content during simulated galaxy assembly. The resulting trends show a remarkable similarity to up-to-date observations of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers at redshift $z\\gtrsim 2$. These exhibit a transient nature and represent collapsing gaseous structures captured while cooling is becoming effective in lowering the temperature below $\\sim 10^4\\,\\rm K$, before they are disrupted by episodes of star formation or tidal effects. Our theoretical results agree with the available data for typical elemental ratios, such as [C/O], [Si/Fe], [O/Fe], [Si/O], [Fe/H], [O/...

  15. Supernova-Remnant Origin of Cosmic Rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Y M; Romero, G E; Dame, T M; Combi, J A; Butt, Yousaf M.; Torres, Diego F.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Dame, Thomas M.; Combi, Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    It is thought that Galactic cosmic ray (CR) nuclei are gradually accelerated to high energies (up to ~300 TeV/nucleon, where 1TeV=10^12eV) in the expanding shock-waves connected with the remnants of powerful supernova explosions. However, this conjecture has eluded direct observational confirmation^1,2 since it was first proposed in 1953 (ref. 3). Enomoto et al.^4 claim to have finally found definitive evidence that corroborates this model, proposing that the very-high-energy, TeV-range, gamma-rays from the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 are due to the interactions of energetic nuclei in this region. Here we argue that their claim is not supported by the existing multiwavelength spectrum of this source. The search for the origin(s) of Galactic cosmic ray nuclei may be closing in on the long-suspected supernova-remnant sources, but it is not yet over.

  16. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  17. On the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2008-04-01

    We review the extensive and controversial literature concerning how the cosmic magnetic fields pervading nearly all galaxies and clusters of galaxies actually got started. Some observational evidence supports a hypothesis that the field is already moderately strong at the beginning of the life of a galaxy and its disc. One argument involves the chemical abundance of the light elements Be and B, while a second one is based on the detection of strong magnetic fields in very young high red shift galaxies. Since this problem of initial amplification of cosmic magnetic fields involves important plasma problems it is obvious that one must know the plasma in which the amplification occurs. Most of this review is devoted to this basic problem and for this it is necessary to devote ourselves to reviewing studies that take place in environments in which the plasma properties are most clearly understood. For this reason the authors have chosen to restrict themselves almost completely to studies of dynamos in our Galaxy. It is true that one can get a much better idea of the grand scope of galactic fields in extragalactic systems. However, most mature galaxies share the same dilemma as ours of overcoming important plasma problems. Since the authors are both trained in plasma physics we may be biased in pursuing this approach, but we feel it is justified by the above argument. In addition we feel we can produce a better review by staying close to that which we know best. In addition we have chosen not to consider the saturation problem of the galactic magnetic field since if the original dynamo amplification fails the saturation question does not arise. It is generally accepted that seed fields, whose strength is of order 10-20 G, easily spring up in the era preceding galaxy formation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to amplify these seed magnetic fields to a coherent structure with the microgauss strengths of the currently observed galactic magnetic fields. The standard

  18. Machian Origin of the Entropic Gravity and Cosmic Acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Kanatchikov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the emergence of relativistic effects in the Machian universe with a global preferred frame and use thermodynamic considerations to clarify the origin of gravity as an entropic force and the origin of dark energy/cosmic acceleration as related to the Hawking-Unruh temperature at the universe's horizon.

  19. ORIGIN: Metal Creation and Evolution from the Cosmic Dawn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herder, J. W. den; Piro, L.; Ohashi, T.

    2011-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z=10, a...

  20. ORIGIN: metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Herder, J.W.; Piro, L.; Ohashi, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartmann, D.H.; Kaastra, J.S.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M.I.; Arnaud, M.; Atteia, J.-L.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barthelmy, S.; Basa, S.; Basso, S.; de Boer, M.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Borgani, S.; Boyarsky, A.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Butler, N.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Ceballos, M.; Christensen, F.; Churazov, E.; Comastri, A.; Colasanti, L.; Cole, R.; Content, R.; Corsi, A.; Costantini, E.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; de Plaa, J.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; De Pasquale, M.; Doriese, R.; Ettori, S.; Evans, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Finger, H.; Figueroa-Feliciano, T.; Friedrich, P.; Fujimoto, R.; Furuzawa, A.; Fynbo, J.; Gatti, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Grindlay, J.; Cocchi, M.; Godet, O.; Guedel, M.; Haardt, F.; Hartog, R.; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hjorth, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holland, A.; Hornstrup, A.; van der Horst, A.; Hoshino, A.; in 't Zand, J.; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Jonker, P.; Kitayama, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P.; Kusenko, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, M.; Macculi, C.; Maiolino, R.; Mas Hesse, M.; Matsushita, K.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Méndez, M.; Mignani, R.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Mushotzky, R.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Pedersen, K.; Perinati, E.; Ponman, T.; Pointecouteau, E.; Predehl, P.; Porter, S.; Rasmussen, A.; Rauw, G.; Röttgering, H.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Quadrini, E.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, K.; Savaglio, S.; Schaye, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Sharples, R.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Sunyaev, R.; Suto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tanvir, N.; Tashiro, M.; Tamura, T.; Tawara, Y.; Troja, E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ullom, J.; Ursino, E.; Verbunt, F.; van de Voort, F.; Viel, M.; Wachter, S.; Watson, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Werner, N.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Zane, S.

    2012-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, an

  1. ORIGIN : Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Ohashi, Takaya; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M. I.; Arnaud, M.; Attéia, J.-L.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barthelmy, S.; Basa, S.; Basso, S.; Boer, M.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Borgani, S.; Boyarsky, A.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Butler, N.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Ceballos, M.; Christensen, F.; Churazov, E.; Comastri, A.; Colasanti, L.; Cole, R.; Content, R.; Corsi, A.; Costantini, E.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; de Plaa, J.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; De Pasquale, M.; Doriese, R.; Ettori, S.; Evans, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Finger, H.; Figueroa-Feliciano, T.; Friedrich, P.; Fujimoto, R.; Furuzawa, A.; Fynbo, J.; Gatti, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Grindlay, J.; Cocchi, M.; Godet, O.; Guedel, M.; Haardt, F.; den Hartog, R.; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hjorth, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holland, A.; Hornstrup, A.; van der Horst, A.; Hoshino, A.; in't Zand, J.; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Jonker, P.; Kitayama, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P.; Kusenko, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, M.; Macculi, C.; Maiolino, R.; Hesse, M. Mas; Matsushita, K.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Méndez, M.; Mignani, R.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Mushotzky, R.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Pedersen, K.; Perinati, E.; Ponman, T.; Pointecouteau, E.; Predehl, P.; Porter, S.; Rasmussen, A.; Rauw, G.; Röttgering, H.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Quadrini, E.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, K.; Savaglio, S.; Schaye, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Sharples, R.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Sunyaev, R.; Suto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tanvir, N.; Tashiro, M.; Tamura, T.; Tawara, Y.; Troja, E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ullom, J.; Ursino, E.; Verbunt, F.; van de Voort, F.; Viel, M.; Wachter, S.; Watson, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Werner, N.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Zane, S.

    2012-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, an

  2. ORIGIN: metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Herder, J.W.A.; Piro, L.; Ohashi, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartmann, D.H.; Kaastra, J.S.; Amati, L.

    2011-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, an

  3. Origin and propagation of galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarsky, Catherine J.; Ormes, Jonathan F.

    1987-01-01

    The study of systematic trends in elemental abundances is important for unfolding the nuclear and/or atomic effects that should govern the shaping of source abundances and in constraining the parameters of cosmic ray acceleration models. In principle, much can be learned about the large-scale distributions of cosmic rays in the galaxy from all-sky gamma ray surveys such as COS-B and SAS-2. Because of the uncertainties in the matter distribution which come from the inability to measure the abundance of molecular hydrogen, the results are somewhat controversial. The leaky-box model accounts for a surprising amount of the data on heavy nuclei. However, a growing body of data indicates that the simple picture may have to be abandoned in favor of more complex models which contain additional parameters. Future experiments on the Spacelab and space station will hopefully be made of the spectra of individual nuclei at high energy. Antiprotons must be studied in the background free environment above the atmosphere with much higher reliability and presion to obtain spectral information.

  4. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  5. Exploring Cosmic Origins with CORE: Cosmological Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Gerbino, Martina; Poulin, Vivian; Bouchet, François R; Lesgourgues, Julien; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Chluba, Jens; Clesse, Sebastien; Delabrouille, Jacques; Dvorkin, Cora; Forastieri, Francesco; Galli, Silvia; Hooper, Deanna C; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Martins, Carlos J A P; Salvati, Laura; Cabass, Giovanni; Caputo, Andrea; Giusarma, Elena; Hivon, Eric; Natoli, Paolo; Pagano, Luca; Paradiso, Simone; Rubino-Martin, Jose Alberto; Achucarro, Ana; Ballardini, Mario; Bartolo, Nicola; Baumann, Daniel; Bartlett, James G; de Bernardis, Paolo; Bonaldi, Anna; Bucher, Martin; Cai, Zhen-Yi; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Diego, Josè Maria; Errard, Josquin; Ferraro, Simone; Finelli, Fabio; Genova-Santos, Ricardo T; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grandis, Sebastian; Greenslade, Josh; Hagstotz, Steffen; Handley, Will; Hindmarsh, Mark; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Kiiveri, Kimmo; Kunz, Martin; Lasenby, Anthony; Liguori, Michele; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Luzzi, Gemma; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mohr, Joseph J; Negrello, Mattia; Paoletti, Daniela; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ringeval, Christophe; Valiviita, Jussi; Van Tent, Bartjan; Vennin, Vincent; Vittorio, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We forecast the main cosmological parameter constraints achievable with the CORE space mission which is dedicated to mapping the polarisation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). CORE was recently submitted in response to ESA's fifth call for medium-sized mission proposals (M5). Here we report the results from our pre-submission study of the impact of various instrumental options, in particular the telescope size and sensitivity level, and review the great, transformative potential of the mission as proposed. Specifically, we assess the impact on a broad range of fundamental parameters of our Universe as a function of the expected CMB characteristics, with other papers in the series focusing on controlling astrophysical and instrumental residual systematics. In this paper, we assume that only a few central CORE frequency channels are usable for our purpose, all others being devoted to the cleaning of astrophysical contaminants. On the theoretical side, we assume LCDM as our general framework and quantify...

  6. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: A Galactic Origin?

    CERN Document Server

    Eichler, David; Kumar, Rahul; Gavish, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    It is suggested that essentially all of the UHECRs we detect, including those at the highest energy, originate in our Galaxy. It is shown that even if the density of sources decreases with Galactic radius, then the anisotropy and composition can be understood. Inward anisotropy, as recently reported by the Auger collaboration can be understood as drift along the current sheet of UHECRs originating outside the solar circle, as predicted in Kumar and Eichler (2014), while those originating within the solar circle exit the Galaxy at high latitudes.

  7. Astrophysical origins of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Diego F [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-413, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Anchordoqui, Luis A [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    In the first part of this review we discuss the basic observational features at the end of the cosmic ray (CR) energy spectrum. We also present there the main characteristics of each of the experiments involved in the detection of these particles. We then briefly discuss the status of the chemical composition and the distribution of arrival directions of CRs. After that, we examine the energy losses during propagation, introducing the Greisen-Zaptsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff, and discuss the level of confidence with which each experiment has detected particles beyond the GZK energy limit. In the second part of the review, we discuss the astrophysical environments that are able to accelerate particles up to such high energies, including active galactic nuclei, large scale galactic wind termination shocks, relativistic jets and hot-spots of Fanaroff-Riley radio galaxies, pulsars, magnetars, quasar remnants, starbursts, colliding galaxies, and gamma ray burst fireballs. In the third part of the review we provide a brief summary of scenarios which try to explain the super-GZK events with the help of new physics beyond the standard model. In the last section, we give an overview on neutrino telescopes and existing limits on the energy spectrum and discuss some of the prospects for a new (multi-particle) astronomy. Finally, we outline how extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes can be used to probe new physics beyond the electroweak scale.

  8. Origin of "cosmic fireworks" further demystified

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Teaning up with colleagues from Europe, Japan, and US, Dr. DENG Jinsong from the National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) has made fresh progress in revealing the mechanism behind the origin of the long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are short-lived,localized, and intense bursts of γradiation originating outside our Milky Way galaxy from sources yet to be understood by astronomers.The work entitled "A neutron-stardriven X-ray flash associated with supernova SN 2006aj" was reported in the August 31 issue of Nature.

  9. Hunting for Cosmic-Ray Origins with SuperTIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    Illustration of cosmic-ray nuclei impacting Earths atmosphere and decaying into lighter particles. [ESA]The SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) experiment flew over Antarctica for 55 days, collecting millions of galactic cosmic rays. What can it tell us about the origins of these high-energy particles?High-Energy ImpactsGalactic cosmic rays are immensely high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that impact our atmosphere, originating from outside of our solar system. Where do they come from, and how are they accelerated? These are both open topics of research.One of the leading theories is that cosmic-ray source material is primarily a mixture of material that has been ejected from massive stars either from supernovae or in stellar wind outflows and normal interstellar medium (ISM). This material is then accelerated to cosmic-ray energies by supernova shocks.Number of nuclei of each element detected by SuperTIGER. Note the change of scale between the two plots (click for a closer look)! [Murphy et al. 2016]How can we test this model? An important step is understanding the composition of galactic cosmic rays: what elemental nuclei are they made up of? If abundances are similar to solar-system abundances, then the material is likely mostly ISM. If the abundances of rarer heavy elements are high, however, then the material is more likely to have come from massive stars in star-forming regions.Balloon-Borne DetectionsEnter SuperTIGER, an experiment designed to collect cosmic rays and measure the abundances of the rare heavy elements those with atomic number between iron (Z=26) and zirconium (Z=40).The path that SuperTIGER took over Antarctica during its flight, with a different color denoting each circuit around the pole. Note where it got stuck in an eddy over the Transarctic Mountains at the end of its second circuit! [Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility]To gather galactic cosmic rays, the detector must be above the Earths atmosphere; interactions with

  10. Origins Space Telescope: Galaxy and Black Hole Evolution over Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to galaxy formation and evolution. Origins will investigate the connection between black hole growth and star formation, understand the role of feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei, probe the multiphase interstellar medium, and chart the rise of metals over cosmic time.

  11. ORIGIN: Metal Creation and Evolution from the Cosmic Dawn

    CERN Document Server

    den Herder, J.W.; Ohashi, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartmann, D.H.; Kaastra, J.S.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M.; Arnaud, M.; Atteia, J-L.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barthelmy, S.; Basa, S.; Basso, S.; Boer, M.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Borgani, S.; Boyarski, O.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Butler, N.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Ceballos, M.; Christensen, F.; Churazov, E.; Comastri, A.; Colasanti, L.; Cole, R.; Content, R.; Corsi, A.; Costantini, E.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; de Plaa, J.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; De Pasquale, M.; Doriese, R.; Ettori, S.; Evans, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Finger, H.; Figueroa-Feliciano, T.; Friedrich, P.; Fujimoto, R.; Furuzawa, A.; Fynbo, J.; Gatti, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Grindlay, J.; Cocchi, M.; Godet, O.; Guedel, M.; Haardt, F.; Hartog, R.den; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hjorth, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holland, A.; Hornstrup, A.; van der Horst, A.; Hoshino, A.; Zand, J.in 't; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Jonker, P.; Kitayama, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P.; Kusenko, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, M.; Macculi, C.; Maiolino, R.; Hesse, M.Mas; Matsushita, K.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Mendez, M.; Mignani, R.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Mushotzky, R.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; de Pasquale, M.; Pedersen, K.; Perinati, E.; Ponman, T.; Pointecouteau, E.; Predehl, P.; Porter, S.; Rasmussen, A.; Rauw, G.; Rottgering, H.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Quadrini, E.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, K.; Savaglio, S.; Schaye, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Sharples, R.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Sunyaev, R.; Suto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tanvir, N.; Tashiro, M.; Tamura, T.; Tawara, Y.; Troja, E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ullom, J.; Ursino, E.; Verbunt, F.; van de Voort, F.; Viel, M.; Wachter, S.; Watson, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Werner, N.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Zane, S.

    2011-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z=10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z ~ 0.2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the ...

  12. On the quantum origin of the seeds of cosmic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Alejandro [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Centre de Physique Theorique, Universite de Marseille (France); Sahlmann, Hanno [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Sudarsky, Daniel [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-04-07

    The current understanding of the quantum origin of cosmic structure is discussed critically. We point out that in the existing treatments a transition from a symmetric quantum state to an (essentially classical) non-symmetric state is implicitly assumed, but not specified or analysed in any detail. In facing this issue, we are led to conclude that new physics is required to explain the apparent predictive power of the usual schemes. Furthermore, we show that the novel way of looking at the relevant issues opens new windows from where relevant information might be extracted regarding cosmological issues and perhaps even clues about aspects of quantum gravity.

  13. Origin of the Cosmic Network: Nature vs Nurture

    CERN Document Server

    Shandarin, Sergei; Heitmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe, as traced by the distribution of galaxies, is now being revealed by large-volume cosmological surveys. The structure is characterized by galaxies distributed along filaments, the filaments connecting in turn to form a percolating network. Our objective here is to quantitatively specify the underlying mechanisms that drive the formation of the cosmic network: By combining percolation-based analyses with N-body simulations of gravitational structure formation, we elucidate how the network has its origin in the properties of the initial density field (nature) and how its contrast is then amplified by the nonlinear mapping induced by the gravitational instability (nurture).

  14. Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays from Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the results of recent measurements of Galactic cosmic ray (GCRs) energy spectra and the spectra of nonthermal emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to determine their consistency with GCR origin in SNRs. It is shown that the measured primary and secondary CR nuclei energy spectra as well as the observed positron-to-electron ratio are consistent with the origin of GCRs up to the energy 10^17 eV in SNRs. Existing SNR emission data provide evidences for efficient CR production in SNRs accompanied by significant magnetic field amplification. In some cases the nature of the detected gamma-ray emission is difficult to determine because key SNR parameters are not known or poorly constrained.

  15. Exploring Cosmic Origins with CORE: Inflation arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, Fabio; Achúcarro, Ana; Ballardini, Mario; Bartolo, Nicola; Baumann, Daniel; Clesse, Sébastien; Errard, Josquin; Handley, Will; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kiiveri, Kimmo; Kunz, Martin; Lasenby, Anthony; Liguori, Michele; Paoletti, Daniela; Ringeval, Christophe; Väliviita, Jussi; Van Tent,Bartjan; Vennin, Vincent; Arroja, Frederico; Ashdown, Marc; Banday, A.J.; Banerji, Ranajoy; Baselmans, Jochem; Bartlett, James G.; de Bernardis, Paolo; Bersanelli, Marco; Bonaldi, Anna; Borril, Julian; Bouchet, François R.; Boulanger, François; Brinckmann, Thejs; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Calvo, Martino; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; D'Amico, Guido; Delabrouille, Jacques; Diego, Jose Maria; De Zotti,Gianfranco; Desjacques, Vincent; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Feeney, Stephen; Fergusson, James R.; Ferraro, Simone; Forastieri, Francesco; Galli, Silvia; García-Bellido, Juan; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Gerbino, Martina; González-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grandis, Sebastian; Greenslade, Josh; Hagstotz, Steffen; Hanany, Shaul; Hazra, Dhiraj K.; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Hivon, Eric; Hu, Bin; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Lesgourgues, Julien; Lizarraga, Joanes; López-Caniego, Marcos; Luzzi, Gemma; Maffei, Bruno; Martins, Carlos J.A.P.; Martínez-González, Enrique; McCarthy, Darragh; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Monfardini, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Oppizzi, Filippo; Pajer, Enrico; Patil, Subodh P.; Piat, Michael; Pisano, Giampaolo; Poulin, Vivian; Ravenni, Andrea; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Renzi, Alessandro; Roest, Diederik; Salvati, Laura; Tartari, Andrea; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Torrado, Jesús; Trappe, Neil; Tucci, Marco; Urrestilla, Jon; Vielva, Patricio; van de Weygaert, Rien

    We forecast the scientific capabilities of CORE, a proposed CMB space satellite submitted in response to the ESA fifth call for a medium-size mission opportunity, to improve our understanding of cosmic inflation. The CORE mission will map the CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization in 19 frequency channels spanning the range 60-600 GHz. CORE will have an aggregate noise sensitivity of $1.7 \\mu$ K$\\cdot \\,$arcmin and an angular resolution of 5' at 200 GHz. We explore the impact of telescope size and noise sensitivity on the inflation science return by making forecasts for several instrumental configurations. This study assumes that the lower and higher frequency channels suffice to remove foreground contaminations and complements other related studies of component separation and systematic effects, which will be reported in other papers of the series "Exploring Cosmic Origins with CORE." We forecast the capability to determine key inflationary parameters, to lower the detection limit for the tensor-to...

  16. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Pre-flight Aperture Model and SIAF.dat File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallo, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    This Instrument Science Report documents the derivation of the final pre-flight COS aperture locations and geometries. It also describes the spreadsheet model and SIAF.dat file containing them. These data will provide the operational pointing parameters for initial COS observations during Servicing Mission Orbital Verification 4 (SMOV4). A future report will describe the onorbit calibration results for COS and subsequent revisions to the spreadsheet model.

  17. Testing the Origin of High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Andrey E; Moskalenko, Igor V; Porter, Troy A

    2011-01-01

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) protons and nuclei by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal: a) unexpected spectral hardening in the spectra of CR species above a few hundred GeV per nucleon, b) a harder spectrum of He compared to protons, and c) softening of the CR spectra just below the break energy. These newly-discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of the observed high-energy Galactic CRs. We discuss possible interpretations of these spectral features and make predictions for the CR isotopic ratios, anisotropy of CRs, and diffuse Galactic {\\gamma}-ray emission in different phenomenological scenarios. Our predictions can be tested by currently running or near-future high-energy astrophysics experiments.

  18. Gamma rays and the origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ona Wilhelmi, Emma

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) are highly energetic nuclei (plus a small fraction of electrons) which fill the Galaxy and carry on average as much energy per unit volume as the energy density of starlight, the interstellar magnetic fields, or the kinetic energy density of interstellar gas. The CR spectrum extends as a featureless power-law up to ~2 PeV (the 'knee') and it is believed to be the result of acceleration of those CRs in Galactic Sources and later diffusion and convection in galactic magnetic fields. Those energetic CRs can interact with the surrounding medium via proton-proton collision resulting in secondary gamma-ray photons, observed from 100 MeV to a few tens of TeV. The results obtained by the current Cherenkov telescopes and gamma-ray satellites with the support of X-ray observations have discovered and identified more than 50 Galactic gamma-ray sources. Among them, the number of Supernova remnants (SNRs) and very-high-energy hard-spectrum sources (natural candidates to originate CRs) are steadily increasing. We expect to increase by a factor 10 at least this population of source with the future CTA experiment. I will review our current knowledge of Galactic gamma-ray sources and their connection with energetic CRs and the scientific prospects for CTA in this field. Those observations, together with a strong multi-wavelenght support from radio to hard X-rays, will finally allow us to establish the origin of the Galactic CRs.

  19. Phantom Cosmic Ray Decreases and their Extraterrestrial Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simon; Owens, Mathew; Lockwood, Mike; Scott, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are extremely high energy charged particles accelerated at extra-solar sources such as supernovae, active galactic nuclei, quasars, and gamma-ray bursts. Upon arrival at Earth's atmosphere, they collide with air molecules to produce a shower of secondary particles. One product of this air shower is energetic neutrons, which can be detected at the Earth's surface. Neutron monitors have been routinely operating for more than half a century and have shown that the cosmic ray flux at the top of the atmosphere is modulated by the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), both at solar cycle time scales and due to shorter-term HMF variations, such as result from coronal mass ejections (CMEs). When a CME passes over the Earth, the neutron monitor counts are reduced sharply and suddenly (in a matter of hours) due to the modulation of cosmic rays by the enhancement in the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF). Such a drop in neutron counts is known as a Forbush Decrease. We present examples of unusual Forbush Decreases where there is no disturbance in the HMF at Earth at the time, which we name 'Phantom Cosmic Ray Decreases' (PCRDs). For recent PCRD events, we examine STEREO in-situ data and in each case, we find a large CME in either STEREO-A or -B. We also study neutron counts for each event from a number of neutron monitors at different longitudes. Differences between the size of the cosmic ray decreases at different longitudes are shown to give information on the location of the cosmic ray modulation source. We thus propose that these PCRDs are caused by CMEs which have missed Earth but which are large and intense enough to block out galactic cosmic rays on trajectories toward Earth.

  20. Cosmic Strings and the Origin of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Alistair; Lin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that cosmic string loops are the seeds about which globular clusters accrete. Fixing the cosmic string tension by demanding that the peak in the distribution of masses of objects accreting onto string loops agrees with the peak in the observed mass distribution of globular clusters in our Milky Way galaxy, we then compute the expected number density and mass function of globular clusters, and compare with observations. Our hypothesis naturally explains why globular clusters are the oldest and most dense objects in a galaxy, and why they are found in the halo of the galaxy.

  1. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  2. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T; Colgate, S; Li, H

    2009-07-01

    Turbulence-driven plasma accelerators produced by magnetized accretion disks around black holes are proposed as the mechanism mainly responsible for observed cosmic ray protons with ultra high energies 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} eV. The magnetized disk produces a voltage comparable to these cosmic ray energies. Here we present a Poynting model in which this voltage provides all of the energy to create the jet-like structures observed to be ejected from accretion disks, and this voltage also accelerates ions to high energies at the top of the expanding structure. Since the inductive electric field E = -v x B driving expansion has no component parallel to the magnetic field B, ion acceleration requires plasma wave generation - either a coherent wave accelerator as recently proposed, or instability-driven turbulence. We find that turbulence can tap the full inductive voltage as a quasi-steady accelerator, and even higher energies are produced by transient events on this structure. We find that both MHD modes due to the current and ion diffusion due to kinetic instability caused by the non-Maxwellian ion distribution contribute to acceleration. We apply our results to extragalactic giant radiolobes, whose synchrotron emissions serve to calibrate the model, and we discuss extrapolating to other astrophysical structures. Approximate calculations of the cosmic ray intensity and energy spectrum are in rough agreement with data and serve to motivate more extensive MHD and kinetic simulations of turbulence that could provide more accurate cosmic ray and synchrotron spectra to be compared with observations. A distinctive difference from previous models is that the cosmic ray and synchrotron emissions arise from different parts of the magnetic structure, thus providing a signature for the model.

  3. On the Origin of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a new estimation of the photodisintegration and propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHCR) nuclei in intergalactic space. The critical interactions for photodisintegration and energy loss of UHCR nuclei occur with photons of the infrared background radiation (IBR). We have reexamined this problem making use of a new determination of the IBR based on empirical data, primarily from IRAS galaxies, and also collateral information from TeV gamma-ray observations of two nearby BL Lac objects. Our results indicate that a 200 EeV Fe nucleus can propagate apx. 100 Mpc through the IBR. We argue that it is possible that the highest energy cosmic rays observed may be heavy nuclei.

  4. Origin of the Cosmic Network: Nature vs Nurture

    OpenAIRE

    Shandarin, Sergei; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe, as traced by the distribution of galaxies, is now being revealed by large-volume cosmological surveys. The structure is characterized by galaxies distributed along filaments, the filaments connecting in turn to form a percolating network. Our objective here is to quantitatively specify the underlying mechanisms that drive the formation of the cosmic network: By combining percolation-based analyses with N-body simulations of gravitational structure fo...

  5. Beyond the myth of the supernova-remnant origin of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Yousaf

    2010-01-01

    The origin of Galactic cosmic-ray ions has remained an enigma for almost a century. Although it has generally been thought that they are accelerated in the shock waves associated with powerful supernova explosions-for which there have been recent claims of evidence-the mystery is far from resolved. In fact, we may be on the wrong track altogether in looking for isolated regions of cosmic-ray acceleration.

  6. Cosmic ray neon, Wolf-Rayet stars, and the superbubble origin of galactic cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Binns, W R; Arnould, M; Cummings, A C; George, J S; Goriely, S; Israel, M H; Leske, R A; Mewaldt, R A; Meynet, G; Scott, L M; Stone, Edward C; Von Rosenvinge, T T

    2005-01-01

    The abundances of neon isotopes in the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are reported using data from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). We compare our ACE-CRIS data for neon and refractory isotope ratios, and data from other experiments, with recent results from two-component Wolf-Rayet (WR) models. The three largest deviations of GCR isotope ratios from solar-system ratios predicted by these models are indeed present in the GCRs. Since WR stars are evolutionary products of OB stars, and most OB stars exist in OB associations that form superbubbles, the good agreement of these data with WR models suggests that superbubbles are the likely source of at least a substantial fraction of GCRs.

  7. Diffusive Origin of the Cosmic-Ray Spectral Hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, N

    2012-01-01

    Recent data from ATIC, CREAM and PAMELA revealed that the energy spectra of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei above 100 GeV/nucleon experience a remarkable hardening with increasing energy. This effect cannot be recovered by the conventional descriptions of CR acceleration and diffusive propagation processes. Using analytical calculations, I show that the hardening effect can be consequence of a spatial change of the CR diffusion properties in different regions of the Galaxy. I discuss the implications of this scenario for the main CR observables and its connections with the open issues of the CR physics.

  8. New look on the origin of cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istomin Ya.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of the flux of high energy particles, E > 3 · 1018 eV, it is shown that the distribution of the power density of extragalactic rays over energy is of the power law, q̅(E ∝ E−2.7, with the same index of 2.7 that has the distribution of Galactic cosmic rays before the so called ‘knee', E 3 · 1015 eV, from the Galaxy because of the dependence of the coefficient of diffusion of cosmic rays on energy, D∝E0.7. The obtained index of the density distribution of particles over energy, N(E∝E−2.7−0.7/2=E−3.05, for E > 3 · 1015 eV agrees well with the observed one, N(E∝E−3.1. The estimated time of the termination of the jet in the Galaxy is 4.2 · 104 years ago.

  9. Origin of the highest energy cosmic rays observed

    CERN Document Server

    Biermann, P L; Medina-Tanco, G A; Stanev, T

    2000-01-01

    Introducing a simple Galactic wind model patterned after the solar wind we show that back-tracing the orbits of the highest energy cosmic events suggests that they may all come from the Virgo cluster, and so probably from the active radio galaxy M87. This confirms a long standing expectation. Those powerful radio galaxies that have their relativistic jets stuck in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, such as 3C147, will then enable us to derive limits on the production of any new kind of particle, expected in some extensions of the standard model in particle physics. New data from HIRES will be crucial in testing the model proposed here.

  10. Observations give us CLUES to Cosmic Flows' origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Jenny; Courtois, H.; Gottloeber, S.; Hoffman, Y.; Pomarede, D.; Tully, R. B.; Flows, Cosmic; CLUES

    2014-01-01

    In an era where the wealth of telescope-data and the development of computer superclusters keep increasing, the knowledge of Large Scale Structures' formation and evolution constitutes a tremendous challenge. Within this context the project Cosmic Flows has recently produced a catalog of peculiar velocities up to 150 Mpc. These velocities, obtained from direct distance measurements, are ideal markers of the underlying gravitational potential. They form a fantastic input to perform constrained simulations of the Local Universe within the CLUES project. A new method has recently been elaborated to achieve these simulations which prove to be excellent replicas of our neighborhood. The Wiener-Filter, the Reverse Zel'dovich Approximation and the Constrained Realization techniques are combined to build Initial Conditions. The resulting second generation of constrained simulations presents us the formidable history of the Great Attractor's and nearby supercluster's formation.

  11. A possible origin of superconducting currents in cosmic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, H; Chavez, Helder; Masperi, Luis

    2002-01-01

    The scattering and capture of right-handed neutrinos by an Abelian cosmic string in the SO(10) grand unification model are considered. The scattering cross-section of neutrinos per unit length due to the interaction with the gauge and Higgs fields of the string is much larger in its scaling regime than in the friction one because of the larger infrared cutoff of the former.The probability of capture in a zero mode of the string accompanied by the emission of a gauge or Higgs boson shows a resonant peak for neutrino momentum of the order of its mass. Considering the decrease of number of strings per unit comoving volume in the scaling epoch the cosmological consequences of the superconducting strings formed in this regime will be much smaller than those which could be produced already in the friction one.

  12. Angular Anisotropies in the Cosmic Gamma-ray Background as a Probe of its Origin

    CERN Document Server

    Miniati, Francesco; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2007-01-01

    Notwithstanding the advent of the Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope, theoretical models predict that a significant fraction of the cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB), at the level of 20% of the currently measured value, will remain unresolved. The angular power spectrum of intensity fluctuations of the CGB contains information on its origin. We show that probing the latter from a few tens of arcmin to several degree scales, together with complementary GLAST observations of gamma-ray emission from galaxy clusters and the blazars luminosity function, can discriminate between a background that originates from unresolved blazars or cosmic rays accelerated at structure formation shocks.

  13. The origin of the universe as revealed through the polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dodelson; . et al.; P. Meerburg

    2009-01-01

    Modern cosmology has sharpened questions posed for millennia about the origin of our cosmic habitat. The age-old questions have been transformed into two pressing issues primed for attack in the coming decade: How did the Universe begin? and what physical laws govern the Universe at the highest ener

  14. Probing the astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with Monte Carlo simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Attallah, Reda

    2016-01-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray electrons reveal some remarkable spectral features, the most noteworthy of which is the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV. Due to strong energy loss during propagation, these particles can reach Earth only from nearby sources. Yet, the exact nature of these sources, which most likely manifest themselves in the observed anomalies, remains elusive. The many explanations put forward to resolve this case range from standard astrophysics to exotic physics. In this paper, we discuss the possible astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons through a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation. This approach takes advantage of the intrinsic random nature of cosmic-ray diffusive propagation. It provides valuable information on the electron-by-electron fluctuations, making it particularly suitable for analyzing in depth the single-source astrophysical scenario.

  15. Probing the astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, R.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray electrons reveal some remarkable spectral features, the most noteworthy of which is the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV. Due to strong energy loss during propagation, these particles can reach Earth only from nearby sources. Yet, the exact nature of these sources, which most likely manifest themselves in the observed anomalies, remains elusive. The many explanations put forward to resolve this case range from standard astrophysics to exotic physics. In this paper, we discuss the possible astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons through a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation. This approach, which takes advantage of the intrinsic random nature of cosmic-ray diffusive propagation, provides valuable information on the electron-by-electron fluctuations, making it particularly suitable for analyzing in depth the single-source scenario.

  16. On The Cosmic Origins Of Carbon And Nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C; Köppen, J

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of N/O and C/O abundance ratios as a function of metallicity as gauged by O/H in large, extant Galactic and extragalactic H II region abundance samples. Numerical chemical evolution models are computed using published stellar yields implied by comparing analytical models to the observations. Our results suggest that carbon and nitrogen originate from separate production sites and are decoupled from one another. Massive stars (M>8M_sun) dominate the production of carbon, while intermediate-mass stars between 4 and 8 solar masses, with a characteristic ejection delay time of 250 Myr after their formation, dominate nitrogen production. Carbon production is positively sensitive to metallicity through mass loss processes in massive stars and has a pseudo-secondary character. Nitrogen production in intermediate mass stars is primary at low metallicity, but clearly secondary (and perhaps tertiary) when 12+log(O/H)>8.3. The observed flat behavior of N/O versus O/H in metal-poor galaxies is exp...

  17. Life's origin: the cosmic, planetary and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.

    1987-01-01

    From elements formed in interstellar furnaces to humans peering back at the stars, the evolution of life has been a long, intricate and perhaps inevitable process. Life as we know it requires a planet orbiting a star at just the right distance so that water can exist in liquid form. It needs a rich supply of chemicals and energy sources. On Earth, the combination of chemistry and energy generated molecules that evolved ways of replicating themselves and of passing information from one generation to the next. Thus, the thread of life began. This chart traces the thread, maintained by DNA molecules for much of its history, as it weaves its way through the primitive oceans, gaining strength and diversity along the way. Organisms eventually moved onto the land, where advanced forms, including humans, ultimately arose. Finally, assisted by a technology of its own making, life has reached back out into space to understand its own origins, to expand into new realms, and to seek other living threads in the cosmos.

  18. Initial Results of a Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Survey of Nearby Star-forming Galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, Keith; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus; Heckman, Timothy M.; France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We present initial results for the HST Cycle 22 proposal 13761. We proposed to observe 75 target star-forming galaxies at a redshift 0.02 COS, spanning a bandpass of 1100 < λ < 2400 angstroms, and have thus far observed 34 of them. The main thrust of this project is to provide a previously unavailable survey of star-forming galaxies in this redshift range, allowing investigation into the factors that determine the Lyman-alpha emission at these low redshifts. We have begun a statistical analysis of the relationship between Lyman-alpha emission and the morphologies of the galaxies, such as absorption line strengths of other species, including various ionization states of oxygen, silicon, and other species to probe intrinsic properties of the emitting galaxy, such as metallicity, the gas-to-dust ratio, and local velocity fields. We have acquired a very rich dataset, with enough samples to try to answer a variety of open questions regarding the far-ultraviolet spectra of bright Lyman-alpha emitters. This work is supported by a NASA Grant HST-GO-13761 to the Johns Hopkins University.

  19. Gamma-ray emitting supernova remnants as the origin of Galactic cosmic rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Tjus, Julia Becker; Kroll, Mike; Nierstenhöfer, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays is one of the long-standing mysteries in physics and astrophysics. Simple arguments suggest that a scenario of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Milky Way as the dominant sources for the cosmic ray population below the knee could work: in a generic calculation, it can be shown that these objects can provide the energy budget necessary to explain the observed flux of cosmic rays. However, this argument is based on the assumption that all sources behave in the same way, i.e.\\ they all have the same energy budget, spectral behavior and maximum energy. In this paper, we investigate if a realistic population of SNRs is capable of producing the cosmic ray flux as it is observed below the knee. We use 21 SNRs that are well-studied from radio wavelengths up to gamma-ray energies. It could be shown previously (Mandelartz & Becker Tjus 2015) that the high-energy bump in the energy spectrum of these 21 sources can be dominated by hadronic emission. Here, gamma-rays are produced via $\\pi^{0}-...

  20. Comment on AMS02 results support the secondary origin of cosmic ray positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Recently Blum, Katz and Waxman have claimed that the flux of high energy cosmic ray (CR) positrons near Earth that has been measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station can be produced in the collisions of Galactic CR protons and nuclei with the ambient matter in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). Their claim was based on an alleged "robust upper limit to the positron flux" which neglected the energy loss of e+'s in the ISM. Inclusion of this energy loss, however, yields a much smaller upper limit, which excludes secondary production in the ISM by the Galactic cosmic rays as the main origin of the CR e^+ flux above 10 GeV.

  1. The Origin of the Universe as Revealed Through the Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Dodelson, S; Hanany, S; McAllister, L; Meyer, S; Page, L; Ade, P; Amblard, A; Ashoorioon, A; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Bartlett, J; Bartolo, N; Baumann, D; Beltran, M; Benford, D; Birkinshaw, M; Bock, J; Bond, D; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F; Bridges, M; Bunn, E; Calabrese, E; Cantalupo, C; Caramete, A; Carbone, C; Carroll, S; Chatterjee, S; Chen, X; Church, S; Chuss, D; Contaldi, C; Cooray, A R; Creminelli, P; Das, S; De Bernardis, F; De Bernardis, P; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F -X; Devlin, M; Dickinson, C; Dicker, S; Di Pirro, M; Dobbs, M; Dore, O; Dotson, J; Dunkley, J; Dvorkin, C; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M Cristina; Finley, D; Finkbeiner, D; Fixsen, D; Flauger, R; Fosalba, P; Fowler, J; Galli, S; Gates, E; Gear, W; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gorski, K; Greene, B; Gruppuso, A

    2009-01-01

    Modern cosmology has sharpened questions posed for millennia about the origin of our cosmic habitat. The age-old questions have been transformed into two pressing issues primed for attack in the coming decade: How did the Universe begin? and What physical laws govern the Universe at the highest energies? The clearest window onto these questions is the pattern of polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which is uniquely sensitive to primordial gravity waves. A detection of the special pattern produced by gravity waves would be not only an unprecedented discovery, but also a direct probe of physics at the earliest observable instants of our Universe. Experiments which map CMB polarization over the coming decade will lead us on our first steps towards answering these age-old questions.

  2. The simulation of TGF origin in lightning leader electric fields by cosmic ray shower electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, P. H.; Atri, D.

    2015-12-01

    With the TGF simulation package LEPTRACK we can easily create all kinds of electric field geometries and electron flux fields to simulate Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches - it is script driven, with the details of high energy scattering physics hidden from the user, and an easily accessible output database for each particle created or scattered. We will show the results of simulating a realistic scenario of TGF origin based on cosmic ray shower electron flux fields in the neighbourhood of electric field geometries expected around lightning leader tips. Electron fluxes are derived from simulations using the CORSIKA cosmic ray simulation package and leader electric field geometry from current models. Presuming a TGF observed at orbital altitudes must come from a lightning leader pointing "upwards", and that cosmic rays enter at angles pointing "downwards" to "horizontal", we will show which combinations allow the electron flux to curve into the compact electric field of the leader and gain sufficient acceleration to create a TGF photon flux observable in orbit.

  3. Prospects of Establishing the Origin of Cosmic Neutrinos using Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, I; Finley, C; Marka, S

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by IceCube will be instrumental in probing the highest-energy astrophysical processes. Nevertheless, the origin of these neutrinos is still unknown. While it would be more straightforward to identify a transient, or galactic source class, finding a population of distant, continuous sources is challenging. Source classification will benefit from using all available information, including catalogs of source candidates. We examine the prospects of using source catalogs to find the neutrinos' origin. Considering a multi-year observation campaign with the proposed IceCube-Gen2, we find that (i) the origin of cosmic neutrinos can be probed if the direction of neutrino track events can be reconstructed with a precision $\\sim0.3^\\circ$ even for the most challenging source populations: starburst galaxies and AGNs; (ii) we quantify the utility of source catalogs as a function of depth; we find that a source catalog of $\\sim100$ Mpc can be sufficient for the most challenging ...

  4. Origin of the cosmic network in ΛCDM: Nature vs nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandarin, Sergei; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin

    2010-05-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe, as traced by the distribution of galaxies, is now being revealed by large-volume cosmological surveys. The structure is characterized by galaxies distributed along filaments, the filaments connecting in turn to form a percolating network. Our objective here is to quantitatively specify the underlying mechanisms that drive the formation of the cosmic network: By combining percolation-based analyses with N-body simulations of gravitational structure formation, we elucidate how the network has its origin in the properties of the initial density field (nature) and how its contrast is then amplified by the nonlinear mapping induced by the gravitational instability (nurture).

  5. Investigating the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays with CRPropa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchachi, Dallel; Attallah, Reda

    2016-07-01

    Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays are the most energetic of any subatomic particles ever observed in nature. Yet, their sources and acceleration mechanisms are still unknown. To better understand the origin of these particles, we carried out extensive numerical simulations of their propagation in extragalactic space. We used the public CRPropa code which considers all relevant particle interactions and magnetic deflections. We examined the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and the distribution of arrival directions under different scenarios. Such a study allows, in particular, to properly interpret the data of modern experiments like "The Pierre Auger Observatory" and "The Telescope Array".

  6. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.;

    2013-01-01

    originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out...... cosmological evolution of the highest energy cosmic-ray sources such as the Fanaroff-Riley type II class of radio galaxies....

  7. Prospects of establishing the origin of cosmic neutrinos using source catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, I.; Ahrens, M.; Finley, C.; Márka, S.

    2017-07-01

    The cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by IceCube will be instrumental in probing the highest-energy astrophysical processes. Nevertheless, the origin of these neutrinos is still unknown. While it would be more straightforward to identify a transient, or galactic source, class, finding a population of distant, continuous sources is challenging. We introduce a source-type classification technique that incorporates all available information from catalogs of source candidates. We show that IceCube-Gen2 can statistically establish the origin of cosmic neutrinos, even for the most challenging source populations-starburst galaxies, AGN, or galaxy clusters-if neutrino track directions can be reconstructed with a precision ˜0.3° . We further show that the source catalog out to ˜100 Mpc can be sufficient for the most challenging source types, allowing for more straightforward source surveys. We also characterize the role of detector properties, namely angular resolution, size, and veto power in order to understand the effects of IceCube-Gen2's design specifics.

  8. AMS-02 results support the secondary origin of cosmic ray positrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kfir; Katz, Boaz; Waxman, Eli

    2013-11-22

    We show that the recent AMS-02 positron fraction measurement is consistent with a secondary origin for positrons and does not require additional primary sources such as pulsars or dark matter. The measured positron fraction at high energy saturates the previously predicted upper bound for secondary production, obtained by neglecting radiative losses. This coincidence, which will be further tested by upcoming AMS-02 data at higher energy, is a compelling indication for a secondary source. Within the secondary model, the AMS-02 data imply a cosmic ray propagation time in the Galaxy of <10(6) yr and an average traversed interstellar matter density of ~1 cm(-3), comparable to the density of the Milky Way gaseous disk, at a rigidity of 300 GV.

  9. AMS02 results support the secondary origin of cosmic ray positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Kfir; Waxman, Eli

    2013-01-01

    We show that the recent AMS02 positron fraction measurement is consistent with a secondary origin for positrons, and does not require additional primary sources such as pulsars or dark matter. The measured positron fraction at high energy saturates the previously predicted upper bound for secondary production (Katz et al 2009), obtained by neglecting radiative losses. This coincidence, which will be further tested by upcoming AMS02 data at higher energy, is a compelling indication for a secondary source. Within the secondary model the AMS02 data imply a cosmic ray propagation time in the Galaxy of < Myr and an average traversed interstellar matter density of order 1/cc, comparable to the density of the Milky Way gaseous disk, at a rigidity of 300 GV.

  10. The Super-TIGER Instrument to Probe Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.; Binns, W. R.; Bose, R, G.; Braun, D. L.; Christian, E. R.; Daniels, W. M; DeNolfo, G. A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; Klemic, J.; Labrador, A. W.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moore, P. R.; Murphy, R. P.; Olevitch, M. A.; Rauch, B. F.; SanSebastian, F.; Sasaki, M.; Simburger, G. E.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is under construction for the first of two planned Antarctic long-duration balloon flights in December 2012. This new instrument will measure the abundances of ultra-heavy elements (30Zn and heavier), with individual element resolution, to provide sensitive tests of the emerging model of cosmic-ray origins in OB associations and models of the mechanism for selection of nuclei for acceleration. Super-TIGER builds on the techniques of TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements 31Ga, 32Ge, and 34Se. Plastic scintillators together with acrylic and silica-aerogel Cherenkov detectors measure particle charge. Scintillating-fiber hodoscopes track particle trajectories. Super-TIGER has an active area of 5.4 sq m, divided into two independent modules. With reduced material thickness to decrease interactions, its effective geometry factor is approx.6.4 times larger than TIGER, allowing it to measure elements up to 42Mo with high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements up to 56Ba. Super-TIGER will also accurately determine the energy spectra of the more abundant elements from l0Ne to 28Ni between 0.8 and 10 GeV/nucleon to test the hypothesis that microquasars or other sources could superpose spectral features. We will discuss the implications of Super-TIGER measurements for the study of cosmic-ray origins and will present the measurement technique, design, status, and expected performance, including numbers of events and resolution. Details of the hodoscopes, scintillators, and Cherenkov detectors will be given in other presentations at this conference.

  11. Implications of supernova remnant origin model of galactic cosmic rays on gamma rays from young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Prabir; Bhadra, Arunava

    2017-06-01

    It is widely believed that Galactic cosmic rays are originated in supernova remnants (SNRs), where they are accelerated by a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process in supernova blast waves driven by expanding SNRs. In recent theoretical developments of the DSA theory in SNRs, protons are expected to accelerate in SNRs at least up to the knee energy. If SNRs are the true generators of cosmic rays, they should accelerate not only protons but also heavier nuclei with the right proportions, and the maximum energy of the heavier nuclei should be the atomic number (Z ) times the mass of the proton. In this work, we investigate the implications of the acceleration of heavier nuclei in SNRs on energetic gamma rays produced in the hadronic interaction of cosmic rays with ambient matter. Our findings suggest that the energy conversion efficiency has to be nearly double for the mixed cosmic ray composition compared to that of pure protons to explain observations. In addition, the gamma-ray flux above a few tens of TeV would be significantly higher if cosmic ray particles could attain energies Z times the knee energy in lieu of 200 TeV, as suggested earlier for nonamplified magnetic fields. The two stated maximum energy paradigms will be discriminated in the future by upcoming gamma-ray experiments like the Cherenkov telescope array (CTA).

  12. Cosmic Rays are originated in Astronomical Jets formed at the Galaxy center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    2016-07-01

    The Particles emerging from Astronomical Jets will have sufficient velocities and they will have direction perpendicular to Galaxy center. As the central plane of Galaxies will have different orientations the directions of astronomical jet also vary. There can be many origins for the Cosmic rays, but this can be another source. This is another result from Dynamic Universe Model. It solves new problems like a. Variable Mass Rocket Trajectory Problem b. Explaining Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations c. Astronomical jets observed from Milkyway Center d. Prediction of Blue shifted Galaxies To support Dynamic Universe Model the we can find the following supporting observations a.Mathematical Prediction of Existence of Blue shifted Galaxies b. SN1987A- Neutrino emission c. The first Redshifted Quasar 3C273 is blue shifted. (Supporting Existence of Blue Shifted Galaxies): d.The most distant Quasar eso1122 found to have a Blue Shift of 0.110473 (Supporting Existence of Blue Shifted Galaxies) Dynamic Universe Model never reduces to General relativity on any condition. It uses a different type of mathematics based on Newtonian physics. This mathematics used here is simple and straightforward. As there are no differential equations present in Dynamic Universe Model, the set of equations give single solution in x y z Cartesian coordinates for every point mass for every time step

  13. The origin of IceCube's neutrinos: Cosmic ray accelerators embedded in star forming calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube collaboration reports a detection of extra-terrestrial neutrinos. The isotropy and flavor content of the signal, and the coincidence, within current uncertainties, of the 50 TeV to 2 PeV flux and the spectrum with the Waxman-Bahcall bound, suggest a cosmological origin of the neutrinos, related to the sources of ultra-high energy, $>10^{10}$ GeV, cosmic-rays (UHECR). The most natural explanation of the UHECR and neutrino signals is that both are produced by the same population of cosmological sources, producing CRs (likely protons) at a similar rate, $E^2d\\dot{n}/dE\\propto E^{0}$, over the [$1$ PeV,$10^{11}$ GeV] energy range, and residing in "calorimetric" environments, like galaxies with high star formation rate, in which $E/Z<100$ PeV CRs lose much of their energy to pion production. A tenfold increase in the effective mass of the detector at $\\gtrsim100$ TeV is required in order to significantly improve the accuracy of current measurements, to enable the detection of a few bright nearby sta...

  14. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins technology development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark; Pham, Thai

    2014-07-01

    NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices, established in 2011, reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The offices serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the programs' technology development activities and technology investment portfolio, funded by NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. We currently fund 19 technology advancements to enable future PCOS and COR missions to help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The programs' goal is to promote and support technology development needed to enable missions envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) Decadal Survey report [1] and the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2]. These include technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and a 4m-class UV/optical telescope to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies, as a post-Hubble observatory with significantly improved sensitivity and capability.

  15. The high SNR rate in the Galactic Center: origin of the cosmic rays excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvin, L.; Lemière, A.; Terrier, R.

    2017-01-01

    The center of our Galaxy hosts a Super-Massive Black Hole (SMBH) of about 4 × 106 M⊙. Since it has been argued that the SMBH might accelerate particles up to very high energies, its current and past activity could contribute to the population of Galactic cosmic-rays (CRs). Additionally, the condition in the Galactic Center (GC) are often compared with the one of a starburst system. The high supernovae (SN) rate associated with the strong massive star formation in the region must create a sustained CR injection in the GC via the shocks produced at the time of their explosion. The presence of an excess of very high energy (VHE) cosmic rays in the inner 100 pc of the Galaxy in close correlation with the massive gas complex known as the central molecular zone (CMZ) has been revealed in 2006 by the H.E.S.S. collaboration. Recently, by analysing 10 years of H.E.S.S. data, the H.E.S.S. collaboration confirmed the presence of this extended VHE diffuse emission and deduced a CR density peaked toward the GC. The origin of the CR over-abundance in the GC still remains mysterious: Is it due to a single accelerator at the center or to multiple accelerators filling the region? In order to investigate the presence of these multiple CR accelerators, and in particular the impact of their spatial distribution on the VHE emission morphology, we build a 3D model of CR injection and diffusive propagation with a realistic 3D gas distribution. We discuss the CR injection in the region by a spectral and morphological comparison with H.E.S.S. data. We show that a peaked γ-ray profile towards the GC center is obtained using a realistic SN spatial distribution taking into account the central massive star clusters. The contribution of theses sources cannot be neglected in particular at high longitudes. In order to fit the very central excess observed with H.E.S.S., another central VHE component is probably necessary.

  16. Investigating the origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, R.

    2017-06-01

    Due to severe radiative energy losses during propagation, high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can reach Earth only from nearby sources. Although these sources clearly manifest themselves in the special features of the energy spectrum observed by recent space-borne experiments, especially the increase in the positron fraction, their exact nature is still a matter of debate. The standard method for interpreting cosmic-ray electron data consists in solving appropriate transport equations. It can be supplemented with a Monte Carlo approach taking advantage of the intrinsic random nature of cosmic-ray diffusive propagation. This analysis gives valuable information on the electron-by-electron fluctuations and hence allows to address the issue from a different angle. Here we show how to implement a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation of the propagation of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons from nearby sources and discuss the “single-source” astrophysical scenario.

  17. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins programs manage Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Thronson, Harley; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-07-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" and "Are we alone?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos2 (PCOS), Cosmic Origins3 (COR), and Exoplanet Exploration Program4 (ExEP) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the

  18. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins Technology Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-01-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the Astrophysics Division's main investment method to mature technologies

  19. Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins and OB Associations: Evidence from SuperTIGER Observations of Elements $_{26}$Fe through $_{40}$Zr

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, R P; Binns, W R; Brandt, T J; Hams, T; Israel, M H; Labrador, A W; Link, J T; Mewaldt, R A; Mitchell, J W; Rauch, B F; Sakai, K; Stone, E C; Waddington, C J; Walsh, N E; Ward, J E; Wiedenbeck, M E

    2016-01-01

    We report abundances of elements from $_{26}$Fe to $_{40}$Zr in the cosmic radiation measured by the SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument during 55 days of exposure on a long-duration balloon flight over Antarctica. These observations resolve elemental abundances in this charge range with single-element resolution and good statistics. These results support a model of cosmic-ray origin in which the source material consists of a mixture of 19$^{+11}_{-6}$\\% material from massive stars and $\\sim$81\\% normal interstellar medium (ISM) material with solar system abundances. The results also show a preferential acceleration of refractory elements (found in interstellar dust grains) by a factor of $\\sim$4 over volatile elements (found in interstellar gas) ordered by atomic mass (A). Both the refractory and volatile elements show a mass-dependent enhancement with similar slopes.

  20. Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins and OB Associations: Evidence from SuperTIGER Observations of Elements 26Fe through 40Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. P.; Sasaki, M.; Binns, W. R.; Brandt, T. J.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; Labrador, A. W.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Rauch, B. F.; Sakai, K.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Walsh, N. E.; Ward, J. E.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    We report abundances of elements from 26Fe to 40Zr in the cosmic radiation measured by the SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument during 55 days of exposure on a long-duration balloon flight over Antarctica. These observations resolve elemental abundances in this charge range with single-element resolution and good statistics. These results support a model of cosmic ray origin in which the source material consists of a mixture of {19}-6+11% material from massive stars and ∼81% normal interstellar medium material with solar system abundances. The results also show a preferential acceleration of refractory elements (found in interstellar dust grains) by a factor of ∼4 over volatile elements (found in interstellar gas) ordered by atomic mass (A). Both the refractory and volatile elements show a mass-dependent enhancement with similar slopes.

  1. On the spectrum of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and the Gamma Ray Burst Origin Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Scully, S T

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can produce the observed flux of cosmic rays at the highest energies. However, recent studies of GRBs indicate that their redshift distribution likely follows that of the average star formation rate and that GRBs were more numerous at high redshifts. As a consequence, we show that photomeson production energy losses suffered by ultrahigh energy cosmic rays coming from GRBs would produce too sharp a spectral high energy cutoff to be consistent with the air shower data.

  2. The Local Bubble in the interstellar medium and the origin of the low energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D; Wolfendale, A W

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the energy spectra of cosmic rays and particularly the precise data from the AMS-02 experiment support the view about the important role of the Local Bubble in the nearby interstellar medium. It is suggested that the bulk of cosmic rays below about 200 GV of rigidity (momentum/charge ratio) comes from the modest number of supernova remnants in the Local Bubble which appear to have occurred some $10^6$ years ago and contributed to its formation. At higher rigidities the contribution from a 'Local Source', a single supernova remnant generated some $10^5$ years ago seems to dominate up to, at least 1000 GV.

  3. Radio galaxies and the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaglia, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    Among the possible sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are the hot-spots of Fanaroff-Rlley II radio galaxies. These regions meet the requirements of size, magnetic field intensity and presence of strong shocks for accelerating particles up to energies that exceed 10{sup 21} eV. On the other hand, the interaction with the photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect, dictates that the sources of particles with energy above 4x10{sup 19} eV must be within 130 Mpc, at most. There are not very many FR II radio galaxies within this distance, i.e. 15 objects. Once the statistics of events for detection of cosmic rays at these energies will have reached reasonable levels (see the Pierre Auger Experiment [J.W. Cronin, Nucl. Phys. B 138 (2005) 465]), looking for the arrival directions will either confirm or rule out the role of FR II hot-spots as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  4. Geneva University: Particle Acceleration in supernova remnants and its implications for the origin of galactic cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 28 March 2012 SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE 11h15 - Science III, Auditoire 1S081 Particle Acceleration in supernova remnants and its implications for the origin of galactic cosmic rays Prof. Pasquale BLASI INAF, Arcetri Observatory, Firenze The process of cosmic ray energization in supernova remnant shocks is described by the theory of non linear diffusive shock acceleration (NLDSA). Such theory is able to describe the acceleration itself, the dynamical reaction of accelerated particles on the shock, and the crucial phenomenon of the magnetic field amplification, the very key to generate high energy cosmic rays. I will illustrate the basic aspects of this theoretical framework, as well as its successes and problems. I will then discuss the observations, in X-rays an...

  5. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    We have searched for extremely high energy neutrinos using data taken with the IceCube detector between May 2010 andMay 2012. Two neutrino-induced particle shower events with energies around 1 PeV were observed, as reported previously. In this work, we investigate whether these events could...... originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out...

  6. Gamma ray astronomy and the origin of the light nuclei. [cosmic ray and interstellar gas reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, H.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by the collisions of the protons and alphas of the galactic cosmic ray with heavy nuclei of the interstellar gas are responsible for the continuous production of the light elements lithium, beryllium, and boron in the galaxy. To better than one order of magnitude, the observed ratios of these abundances to hydrogen abundance and the nuclidic abundance ratios between themselves are accounted for by simply considering the effect of fast protons and alphas with a flux and an energy spectrum as observed in galactic cosmic rays, for a period comparable with the life of our galaxy. The role of gamma ray astronomy in solving problems that occur when accurate agreement is sought with increasingly accurate data is discussed.

  7. Superbubbles, Wolf-Rayet stars, and the origin of galactic cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, W R [Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Wiedenbeck, M E [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Arnould, M [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, U.L.B., Bruxelles, Belgique (Ethiopia); Cummings, A C [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); George, J S [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goriely, S [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, U.L.B., Bruxelles, Belgique (Ethiopia); Israel, M H [Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Leske, R A [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mewaldt, R A [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Meynet, G [Geneva Observatory, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Scott, L M [Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Stone, Ec [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rosenvinge, Tt von [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The abundances of neon and several other isotopic ratios in the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) have been measured using data from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). We have derived the {sup 22}Ne/{sup 20}Ne ratio at the cosmic-ray source using the measured {sup 21}Ne, {sup 19}F, and {sup 17}O abundances as ''tracers'' of secondary isotope production. Using this approach, the {sup 22}Ne/{sup 20}Ne abundance ratio obtained for the cosmic-ray source is 0.387 {+-} 0.007 (stat.) {+-} 0.022 (syst.). This corresponds to an enhancement by a factor of 5.3{+-}0.3 over the {sup 22}Ne/{sup 20}Ne ratio in the solar wind. We compare our data for neon and refractory isotope ratios, and data from other experiments, with recent results from two-component Wolf- Rayet (WR) models. The three largest deviations of GCR isotope ratios from solarsystem ratios predicted by these models, {sup 12}C/{sup 16}O, {sup 22}Ne/{sup 20}Ne, and {sup 58}Fe/{sup 56}Fe, are present in the GCRs. In fact, all of the isotope ratios that we have measured are consistent with a GCR source consisting of about 80% material with solar-system composition and about 20% of WR material. Since WR stars are evolutionary products of O and B stars, and most OB stars exist in OB associations that form superbubbles, the good agreement of these data with WR models suggests that superbubbles are the likely source of at least a substantial fraction of GCRs.

  8. Consequences of the common origin of the knee and ankle in Cosmic Ray Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Codino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The differential energy spectrum of the cosmic radiation from solar modulation energies up to 5x10**19 eV is correctly predicted by a recent theory of the knee and ankle which uses only one normalization point. This remarkable quantitative result, spanning over many decades in energy and intensity, along with the existence of the second knee at 6x10**17 eV, is obtained assuming constant spectral indices of individual ions at the cosmic-ray sources and no other critical hypotheses. In this study the chemical composition of the cosmic radiation is evaluated as a direct consequence of the theory. The computed mean logarithmic mass exhibits a rising trend from 1.8 to 3.0 in the range 10**15-10**17 eV, a maximum value of 3.2 at 3x10**17 eV, and a characteristic lightening above 3x10**17 eV up to 4x10**18 eV. All of these distinctive features are in accord with the data of many experiments. Two additional consequences intrinsic to the theory are qualitatively discussed: (1) some limitative bounds on the mechanism a...

  9. Traces of heavy and superheavy cosmic nuclei in olivines of extraterrestial origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatova, R.; Taneva, T. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Pelas, P.; Stetsenko, S.; Perelgin, V. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    The paths of traces of WH nuclei from cosmic rays have been measured in olivines from the meteorites Maryalakhti, Eagle Stein, Liposki khutor with radiation ages 175, 45 and 220 million years respectively. 3 cm/sup 3/ olivines of these meteorites have been examined and more than 500 traces of nuclei with Z(>=)90 have been found measured including 3 traces 1.5-1.8 times longer than the traces created by the uranium and thorium nuclei. These traces may be left by nuclei with Z(>=)110. The crystals were chosen from localizations situated at 2-7 cm, 8-9 cm and 10-12 cm from the outside atmospheric surface of the meteorite. The abundancy of the Z(>=)50 nuclei in gigantic cosmic rays, averaged for a period of (<=) 200 millions of years has been compared with the distribution of the elements in the substances from the Solar system. A new value has been found for the hypothetical superheavy elements Z(>=)110 in galactic cosmic rays. It is 1.4 x 10 /sup -9/ from that of the iron group nuclei.

  10. OB Associations, Wolf-Rayet Stars, and the Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Binns, W R; Arnould, M; Cummings, A C; De Nolfo, G A; Goriely, S; Israel, M H; Leske, R A; Mewaldt, R A; Meynet, G; Scott, L M; Stone, E C; Von Rosenvinge, T T

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the isotopic abundances of neon and a number of other species in the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) using the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the ACE spacecraft. Our data are compared to recent results from two-component Wolf-Rayet (WR) models. The three largest deviations of galactic cosmic ray isotope ratios from solar-system ratios predicted by these models, 12C/16O, 22Ne/20Ne, and 58Fe/56Fe, are very close to those observed. All of the isotopic ratios that we have measured are consistent with a GCR source consisting of ~20% of WR material mixed with ~80% material with solar-system composition. Since WR stars are evolutionary products of OB stars, and most OB stars exist in OB associations that form superbubbles, the good agreement of our data with WR models suggests that OB associations within superbubbles are the likely source of at least a substantial fraction of GCRs. In previous work it has been shown that the primary 59Ni (which decays only by electron-capture) in GCRs has...

  11. Replicated Spectrographs in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    As telescope apertures increase, the challenge of scaling spectrographic astronomical instruments becomes acute. The next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) strain the availability of glass blanks for optics and engineering to provide sufficient mechanical stability. While breaking the relationship between telescope diameter and instrument pupil size by adaptive optics is a clear path for small fields of view, survey instruments exploiting multiplex advantages will be pressed to find cost-effective solutions. In this review we argue that exploiting the full potential of ELTs will require the barrier of the cost and engineering difficulty of monolithic instruments to be broken by the use of large-scale replication of spectrographs. The first steps in this direction have already been taken with the soon to be commissioned MUSE and VIRUS instruments for the Very Large Telescope and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, respectively. MUSE employs 24 spectrograph channels, while VIRUS has 150 channels. We compa...

  12. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Charles G.; Thomas, Norman L.

    2000-01-01

    A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  13. Origin of the Proton-to-Helium Ratio Anomaly in Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Recent data on Galactic cosmic rays revealed that the helium energy spectrum is harder than the proton spectrum. The AMS experiment has now reported that the proton-to-helium ratio as function of rigidity $R$ (momentum-to-charge ratio) falls off steadily as p/He $\\sim R^\\Delta$, with $\\Delta\\approx$-0.08 between $R\\sim$40 GV and $R\\sim$2 TV. Besides, the single spectra of proton and helium are found to progressively harden at $R\\gtrsim$100 GV. The p/He anomaly is generally ascribed to particle-dependent acceleration mechanisms occurring in Galactic cosmic-ray sources. However, this explanation poses a challenge to the known mechanisms of particle acceleration since they are believed to be "universal", composition blind rigidity mechanisms. Using the new AMS data, we show that the p/He anomaly can be simply explained in terms of a two-component scenario where the GeV-TeV flux is ascribed to a hydrogen-rich source, possibly a nearby supernova remnant, characterized by a soft acceleration spectrum. This simple i...

  14. Constraints on the birth of the universe and origin of cosmic dark flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, G J; Garnavich, P; Rose, B; Ichiki, K; Kajino, T; Yamazaki, D

    2015-01-01

    We summarize three recent efforts to constrain the first few moments of cosmic creation before and during the epoch of inflation. We consider two means to explain a slight dip in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background for multipoles in the range of $\\ell= 10-30$ from both the {\\it Planck} and {\\it WMAP} data. We show that such a dip could be the result of resonant creation of a massive particle that couples to the inflaton field. For best-fit models, the epoch of resonant particle creation reenters the horizon at wave numbers of $k_* \\sim 0.00011 \\pm 0.0004 $ ($h$ Mpc$^{-1}$). The amplitude and location of these features correspond to the creation of a number of degenerate fermion species of mass $\\sim 15/\\lambda^{3/2} $ $m_{pl}$ during inflation where $\\lambda$ is the coupling constant between the inflaton field and the created fermion species. Alternatively, one can explain the existence of such a dip as due to a jump in the inflation generating potential. We show that such a jump can also re...

  15. On the possible origin of the large scale cosmic magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroniti, F. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The possibility that the large scale cosmic magnetic field is directly generated at microgauss, equipartition levels during the reionization epoch by collisionless shocks that are forced to satisfy a downstream shear flow boundary condition is investigated through the development of two models—the accretion of an ionized plasma onto a weakly ionized cool galactic disk and onto a cool filament of the cosmic web. The dynamical structure and the physical parameters of the models are synthesized from recent cosmological simulations of the early reionization era after the formation of the first stars. The collisionless shock stands upstream of the disk and filament, and its dissipation is determined by ion inertial length Weibel turbulence. The downstream shear boundary condition is determined by the rotational neutral gas flow in the disk and the inward accretion flow along the filament. The shocked plasma is accelerated to the downstream shear flow velocity by the Weibel turbulence, and the relative shearing motion between the electrons and ions produces a strong, ion inertial scale current sheet that generates an equipartition strength, large scale downstream magnetic field, ∼10{sup –6} G for the disk and ∼6 × 10{sup –8} G for the filament. By assumption, hydrodynamic turbulence transports the shear-shock generated magnetic flux throughout the disk and filament volume.

  16. Towards a formal description of the collapse approach to the inflationary origin of the seeds of cosmic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Inflation plays a central role in our current understanding of the universe. According to the standard viewpoint the homogeneous and isotropic mode of the inflaton field drove an early phase of nearly exponential expansion of the universe, while the quantum fluctuations (uncertainties) of the other modes gave rise to the seeds of cosmic structure. However, if we accept that the accelerated expansion lead the universe into an essentially homogeneous and isotropic space-time with the state of all the matter fields in their vacuum except for the zero mode of the inflaton field, we can not escape the conclusion that the state of the universe as a whole would remain always homogeneous and isotropic. It was recently proposed in [A. Perez, H. Sahlmann and D. Sudarsky, "On the quantum origin of the seeds of cosmic structure," Class. Quant. Grav. \\textbf{23}, 2317-2354 (2006)] that a collapse (representing physics beyond the established paradigm, and presumably associated with a quantum-gravity effect \\`a la Penrose) ...

  17. Constraints on Cosmic-Ray Origin Theories from TeV $\\gamma$-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lessard, R W; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Burdett, A C; Gordo, J B; Carter-Lewis, D A; Catanese, M; Cawley, M F; Fegan, D J; Finley, J P; Gaidos, J A; Hillas, A M; Krennrich, F; Lamb, R C; Masterson, C; McEnery, J E; Mohanty, G B; Quinn, J; Rodgers, A J; Rose, H J; Samuelson, F W; Sembroski, G H; Srinivasan, R; Weekes, T C; Zweerink, J A

    1997-01-01

    If supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, the associated nuclear interactions should result in observable fluxes of TeV gamma-rays from the nearest SNRs. Measurements of the gamma-ray flux from six nearby, radio-bright, SNRs have been made with the Whipple Observatory gamma-ray telescope. No significant emission has been detected and upper limits on the $>$300 GeV flux are reported. Three of these SNRs (IC443, gamma-Cygni and W44) are spatially coincident with low latitude unidentified sources detected with EGRET. These upper limits weaken the case for the simplest models of shock acceleration and energy dependent propagation.

  18. On origin and destruction of relativistic dust and its implication for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem; Schlickeiser, R

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains may be accelerated to relativistic speeds by radiation pressure of luminous sources, diffusive shocks, and other acceleration mechanisms. Such relativistic grains have been suggested as potential primary particles of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). In this paper, we reexamine this idea by studying in detail different destruction mechanisms for relativistic grains moving with Lorentz factor $\\gamma$ through a variety of environment conditions. For the solar radiation field, we find that sublimation/melting is a dominant destruction mechanism for silicate grains and large graphite grains. Using an improved treatment of photoelectric emission, we calculate the closest distance that relativistic grains can approach the Sun before destroyed by Coulomb explosions. A range of survival parameters for relativistic grains (size $a$ and $\\gamma$) against both sublimation and Coulomb explosions by the solar radiation field is identified. We also study collisional destruction mechanisms, consisting of e...

  19. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Arguelles, C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kriesten, A; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Macías, O; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    We have searched for extremely high energy neutrinos using data taken with the IceCube detector between May 2010 and May 2012. Two neutrino induced particle shower events with energies around 1 PeV were observed, as reported previously. In this work, we investigate whether these events could originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube's large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out the corresponding models at more than 90% confidence level. The model independent quasi-differential 90% CL upper limit, which amounts to $E^2 \\phi_{\

  20. The Multi-Object, Fiber-Fed Spectrographs for SDSS and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smee, Stephen; Uomoto, Alan; Roe, Natalie; Schlegel, David; Rockosi, Constance M; Carr, Michael A; Leger, French; Dawson, Kyle S; Olmstead, Matthew D; Brinkmann, Jon; Owen, Russell; Barkhouser, Robert H; Honscheid, Klaus; Harding, Paul; Long, Dan; Lupton, Robert H; Loomis, Craig; Anderson, Lauren; Annis, James; Bernardi, Mariangela; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bolton, Adam S; Brewington, Howard; Briggs, John W; Burles, Scott; Burns, James G; Castander, Francisco; Connolly, Andrew; Davenport, James R; Ebelke, Garrett; Epps, Harland; Feldman, Paul D; Friedman, Scott; Frieman, Joshua; Heckman, Timothy; Hull, Charles L; Knapp, Gillian R; Lawrence, David M; Loveday, Jon; Mannery, Edward J; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Merrelli, Aronne; Muna, Demitri; Newman, Peter; Nichol, Robert C; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pope, Adrian C; Ricketts, Paul G; Shelden, Alaina; Sandford, Dale; Siegmund, Walter; Simmons, Audrey; Smith, D; Snedden, Stephanie; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael; SubbaRao, Mark; Tremonti, Christy; Waddell, Patrick; York, Donald G

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5-m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 square degrees of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the Universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber sp...

  1. Sagittarius A* as an Origin of the Galactic TeV-PeV Cosmic Rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Yutaka; Kimura, Shigeo S

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility that Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), which is the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of the Milky Way Galaxy, significantly contributes to the observed TeV-PeV cosmic rays (CRs) as a Galactic PeV particle accelerator ("Pevatron"). In our previous study (Fujita et al. Phys. Rev. D 92, 023001), we investigated Sgr A* as a Pevatron and studied neutrino and gamma-ray emissions from escaping CRs. In this work, we show that a large number of TeV-PeV CRs may have been injected from Sgr A*, and that those CRs may have filled in the Galactic halo and some of them may have entered the Galactic disk. Based on a diffusion-halo model, we solve diffusion equations for the CRs and compare the results with the CR spectrum and the anisotropy observed on the Earth as well as the diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) surrounding Sgr A*. We find that the CR spectrum, the anisotropy and the recent gamma-ray observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) can be expla...

  2. Divine Emanation As Cosmic Origin: Ibn Sînâ and His Critics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsuddin Arif

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of cosmic beginning has always attracted considerable attention from serious thinkers past and present. Among many contesting theories that have emerged, that of emanation was appropriated by Muslim philosophers like Ibn Sînâ in order to reconcile the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of matter with the teaching of al-Qur’ân on the One Creator-God. According to this theory, the universe, which comprises a multitude of  entities, is generated from a transcendent Being, the One, that is unitary, through the medium of  a hierarchy of  immaterial substances. While the ultimate source is undiminished, the beings which are emanated are progressively less perfect as they are further removed from the first principle. The process is conceived as being atemporal and often compared to the efflux of light from a luminous body, or to water flowing from a spring. This metaphysical theory has enabled Ibn Sînâ to solve the vexed problem: given an eternally existing world and one eternally existing God, how can the two necessarily co-exist without having the perfect, simple unity of God destroyed by contact with the multiplicity of material things? The following essay delineates and evaluates both Ibn Sînâ’s arguments as well as the counter-arguments of  his critics.

  3. The Nature and Origin of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Biermann, Peter L; Fraschetti, Federico; Gergely, Laszlo A; Harms, Benjamin C; Kun, Emma; Lundquist, Jon Paul; Meli, Athina; Nath, Biman B; Seo, Eun-Suk; Stanev, Todor; Tjus, Julia Becker

    2016-01-01

    We outline two concepts to explain Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), one based on radio galaxies and their relativistic jets and terminal hot spots, and one based on relativistic Super-Novae (SNe) or Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in starburst galaxies, one matching the arrival direction data in the South (the radio galaxy Cen A) and one in the North (the starburst galaxy M82). Ubiquitous neutrino emission follows accompanied by compact TeV photon emission, detectable more easily if the direction is towards Earth. The ejection of UHECRs is last. We have observed particles up to ZeV, neutrinos up to PeV, photons up to TeV, 30 - 300 Hz GW events, and hope to detect soon of order Hz to mHz GW events. Energy turnover in single low frequency GW events may be of order 10^63 erg. How can we further test these concepts? First of all by associating individual UHECR events, or directional groups of events, with chemical composition in both the Telescope Array (TA) Coll. and the Auger Coll. data. Second by identifying mo...

  4. The Origin and Evolution of (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR>10^12 L_sun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  5. Selected Theoretical Studies Group contributions to the 14th International Cosmic Ray conference. [including studies on galactic molecular hydrogen, interstellar reddening, and on the origin of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The galactic distribution of H2 was studied through gamma radiation and through X-ray, optical, and infrared absorption measurements from SAS-2 and other sources. A comparison of the latitude distribution of gamma-ray intensity with reddening data shows reddening data to give the best estimate of interstellar gas in the solar vicinity. The distribution of galactic cosmic ray nucleons was determined and appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution. Interactions between ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray nuclei and intergalactic photon radiation fields were calculated, using the Monte Carlo method.

  6. Towards a formal description of the collapse approach to the inflationary origin of the seeds of cosmic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: alberto.diez@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., A.P. 70-543, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Inflation plays a central role in our current understanding of the universe. According to the standard viewpoint, the homogeneous and isotropic mode of the inflaton field drove an early phase of nearly exponential expansion of the universe, while the quantum fluctuations (uncertainties) of the other modes gave rise to the seeds of cosmic structure. However, if we accept that the accelerated expansion led the universe into an essentially homogeneous and isotropic space-time, with the state of all the matter fields in their vacuum (except for the zero mode of the inflaton field), we can not escape the conclusion that the state of the universe as a whole would remain always homogeneous and isotropic. It was recently proposed in [A. Perez, H. Sahlmann and D. Sudarsky, {sup O}n the quantum origin of the seeds of cosmic structure{sup ,} Class. Quant. Grav. 23 (2006) 2317–2354] that a collapse (representing physics beyond the established paradigm, and presumably associated with a quantum-gravity effect à la Penrose) of the state function of the inflaton field might be the missing element, and thus would be responsible for the emergence of the primordial inhomogeneities. Here we will discuss a formalism that relies strongly on quantum field theory on curved space-times, and within which we can implement a detailed description of such a process. The picture that emerges clarifies many aspects of the problem, and is conceptually quite transparent. Nonetheless, we will find that the results lead us to argue that the resulting picture is not fully compatible with a purely geometric description of space-time.

  7. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV FROM LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY SEARCHES IN DATA OF THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (INAF), Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Ahlers, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahn, E. J. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Albuquerque, I. F. M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Allard, D. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Allison, P. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Almela, A. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castillo, J. Alvarez [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alves Batista, R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, IFGW, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Aminaei, A. [IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Anchordoqui, L. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Antici' c, T. [Rudjer Boskovi' c Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Arganda, E. [IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  8. Million object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  9. The evolving universe and the origin of life the search for our cosmic roots

    CERN Document Server

    Teerikorpi, Pekka; Lehto, Harry; Chernin, Arthur; Byrd, Gene; Lehto, K

    2008-01-01

    Sir Isaac Newton famously said, regarding his discoveries, "If I have seen further it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life describes, complete with fascinating biographical details of the thinkers involved, the ascent to the metaphorical shoulders accomplished by the greatest minds in history. For the first time, a single book can take the reader on a journey through the history of the universe as interpreted by the expanding body of knowledge of humankind. From subatomic particles to the protein chains that form life, and expanding in scale to the entire universe, this book covers the science that explains how we came to be. The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life contains a great breadth of knowledge, from astronomy to physics, from chemistry to biology. It includes over 350 figures that enhance the comprehension of concepts both basic and advanced, and is a non-technical, easy-to-read text at an introductory college level that is ideal for anyone i...

  10. Comets: Cosmic connections with carbonaceous meteorites, interstellar molecules and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.

    1979-01-01

    The ions, radicals, and molecules observed in comets may be derived intact or by partial decomposition from parent compounds of the sort found either in the interstellar medium or in carbonaceous meteorites. The early loss of highly reducing primitive atmosphere and its replacement by a secondary atmosphere dominated by H2O, CO2, and N2, as depicted in current models of the earth's evolution, pose a dilemma for the origin of life: the synthesis of organic compounds necessary for life from components of the secondary atmosphere appears to be difficult, and plausible mechanisms have not been evaluated. Both comets and carbonaceous meteorites are implicated as sources for the earth's atmophilic and organogenic elements. A mass balance argument involving the estimated ratios of hydrogen to carbon in carbonaceous meteorites, comets, and the crust and upper mantle suggests that comets supplied the earth with a large fraction of its volatiles. The probability that comets contributed significantly to the earth's volatile inventory suggests a chemical evolutionary link between comets, prebiotic organic synthesis, and the origin of life.

  11. WES - Weihai Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Dong-Yang; Cao, Chen; Hu, Shao-Ming; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Hu, Zhong-Wen; Grupp, Frank; Kellermann, Hanna; Li, Kai; Guo, Di-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The Weihai Echelle Spectrograph (WES) is the first fiber-fed echelle spectrograph for astronomical observation in China. It is primarily used for chemical abundance and asteroseismology studies of nearby bright stars, as well as radial velocity detections for exoplanets. The optical design of WES is based on the widely demonstrated and well-established white-pupil concept. We describe the WES in detail and present some examples of its performance. A single exposure echelle image covers the spectral region 371-1,100 nm in 107 spectral orders over the rectangular CCD. The spectral resolution $R=\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda$ changes from 40,600 to 57,000 through adjusting the entrance slit width from full to 2.2 pixels sampling at the fiber-exit. The limiting magnitude scales to $V=8$ with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of more than 100 in $V$ for an hour exposure, at the spectral resolution R$\\approx$40,000 in the median seeing of 1.7$^{\\prime\\prime}$ at Weihai Observatory (WHO) for the 1-meter telescope. The radial ve...

  12. A decisive test for the young pulsar origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Ke; Murase, Kohta; Olinto, Angela V

    2013-01-01

    We present a decisive test to probe the young pulsar origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the next decade, with the IceCube neutrino detector. Pulsars, especially for those spinning close to millisecond periods at birth, are good candidate sources for the production of UHECRs. We demonstrated that it is possible with the extragalactic pulsar population to explain the measurements of the Auger Observatory consistently. Here we calculate the diffusive neutrino flux, produced inevitably while particles cross the supernova ejecta, associated with this pulsar scenario. We predict that the pulsar population should produce a diffusive neutrino flux that lies considerably above the IceCube-5 years sensitivity in the 10^18 eV energy range, and is below the current IceCube sensitivity. Even in the most pessimistic case, one expects a minimum flux of neutrinos, detectable with IceCube within a decade. This conclusion stands for any pulsar scenario that explains the UHECR data, regardless of the uncerta...

  13. THE ORIGIN OF THE COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND IN THE MeV RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, c/. Serrano 121, E-28006, Madrid (Spain); The, Lih-Sin; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Ajello, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Canal, Ramon [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), c/. Martí i Franqués 1, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Röpke, Friedrich K.; Ohlmann, Sebastian T. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Würzburg, D-97074, Würzburg (Germany); Hillebrandt, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    There has been much debate about the origin of the diffuse γ-ray background in the MeV range. At lower energies, AGNs and Seyfert galaxies can explain the background, but not above ≃0.3 MeV. Beyond ∼10 MeV blazars appear to account for the flux observed. That leaves an unexplained gap for which different candidates have been proposed, including annihilations of WIMPS. One candidate is Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Early studies concluded that they were able to account for the γ-ray background in the gap, while later work attributed a significantly lower contribution to them. All those estimates were based on SN Ia explosion models that did not reflect the full 3D hydrodynamics of SN Ia explosions. In addition, new measurements obtained since 2010 have provided new, direct estimates of high-z SN Ia rates beyond z ∼ 2. We take into account these new advances to see the predicted contribution to the gamma-ray background. We use here a wide variety of explosion models and a plethora of new measurements of SN Ia rates. SNe Ia still fall short of the observed background. Only for a fit, which would imply ∼150% systematic error in detecting SN Ia events, do the theoretical predictions approach the observed fluxes. This fit is, however, at odds at the highest redshifts with recent SN Ia rate estimates. Other astrophysical sources such as flat-spectrum radio quasars do match the observed flux levels in the MeV regime, while SNe Ia make up to 30%–50% of the observed flux.

  14. An introduction to the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanutz, S.; Barnstedt, J.; Diebold, S.; Elsener, H. R.; Ganz, P. R.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kappelmann, N.; Pfeifer, M.; Tanirah, O.; Sachkov, M.; Schaadt, D. M.; Schanz, T.; Shustov, B. M.; Werner, K.

    2012-09-01

    The World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a multinational mission under the leadership of Russia with contributions of Spain and Germany. The mission is part of the Spektrum series and launch is currently scheduled for 2016. It consists of a 1.7m mirror focusing on spectrographs in the range of 102-310 nm withh a resolution of R >= 55,000 for high resolution spectral observations, a long-slit-spectrograph for spatially resolved observations and an imager. According to the Phase-B-Study all spectrographs will use the same detectors built by the IAAT. These spectrographs are designed to observe cosmic plasma with temperatures of several ten thousands Kelvin and atomic transition lines of all important atoms and molecuules like H2, CO, OH eetc. In knowledge about the formation of galaxies and analyze the atmospheres of extrasolar planets and protoplanetary discs. To achieve these goals the IAAT designed in cooperation with the Leibniz-Institute for Analytical Sciences (ISAS Berlin) the spectrographs. In addition Tubingen develops and builds a new type of michrchannel plate detector based on gallim nitride cathods and a cross-strip-anode.

  15. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: spectrograph design

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Anna M; Barton, Elizabeth J; Crampton, David; Delacroix, Alex; Larkin, James E; Simard, Luc; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wright, Shelley A

    2010-01-01

    The Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is one of the three first light instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and is the only one to directly sample the diffraction limit. The instrument consists of a parallel imager and off-axis Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) for optimum use of the near infrared (0.84um-2.4um) Adaptive Optics corrected focal surface. We present an overview of the IRIS spectrograph that is designed to probe a range of scientific targets from the dynamics and morphology of high-z galaxies to studying the atmospheres and surfaces of solar system objects, the latter requiring a narrow field and high Strehl performance. The IRIS spectrograph is a hybrid system consisting of two state of the art IFS technologies providing four plate scales (4mas, 9mas, 25mas, 50mas spaxel sizes). We present the design of the unique hybrid system that combines the power of a lenslet spectrograph and image slicer spectrograph in a configuration where major hardware is shared. The result is a powerful...

  16. Possible primary-electron-spectrum hardening at $\\sim 240$ GeV: Implications for AMS-02 observation and the physical origin of cosmic ray excesses

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Lei; He, Hao-Ning; Dong, Tie-Kuang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Chang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The data collected by ATIC, CREAM and PAMELA all display remarkable cosmic-ray-nuclei spectrum hardening above the magnetic rigidity $\\sim$ 240 GV. One natural speculation is that the primary electron spectrum also gets hardened at $\\sim 240$ GeV, which can partly account for the electron/positron total spectrum excess discovered by ATIC, HESS and Fermi-LAT. The subsequent positron-to-electron ratio may get flattened or even decreased, depending on the degree of the primary electron spectrum hardening. Such modification is detectable for AMS-02, a mission dedicated to measure the high energy cosmic ray spectra with unprecedented accuracy. The spectrum hardening of both primary-electrons and nuclei at $\\sim 240$ GV, if confirmed by AMS-02 in the future, is likely attributed to a "nearby" supernova-remnant-like source with a lifetime $\\lesssim 10^{13}$ s. Possible dark matter origin of the positron excess revealed by PAMELA is also investigated.

  17. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  18. Prime focus spectrograph: Subaru's future

    OpenAIRE

    Sugai, Hajime; Dekany, Richard G.; Ellis, Richard S.; Seiffert, Michael D.; Smith, Roger M.

    2012-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project has been endorsed by Japanese community as one of the main future instruments of the Subaru 8.2-meter telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph targets cosmology with galaxy surveys, Galactic archaeology, and studies of galaxy/AGN evolution. Taking advantage of Subaru’s wide field of view, which is further extended with the recently completed Wide Fie...

  19. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  20. Construction of pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Hu, Zhongwen; Dai, Songxin

    2015-10-01

    The pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph is a multi-function unit. The main function is to direct the incoming light from the coudé path to the entrance slit of the spectrograph. The specific functions includes maintaining exit pupil stable, fast guiding and telescope focus corrections. The original optics of this pre-slit system were designed by Aarhus University in Denmark. We built the system and designed the software for it. This system holds a guide/slit-viewing camera, a pupil-viewing camera, two tip-tilt mirrors and its tip-tilt controllers. So it includes two sets of the fast-steering mirror systems applied to image tracking and correction. When this image tracking and correction systems is running, the real-time software algorithm will be presented and simulated simultaneously. From the images taken with camera, a closed loop signals are generated for the tip-tilt mirror to correct image motion. When the camera exposure time is 25ms,the correcting frequency of slit imge tip-tilt motion is about 30Hz. The correcting frequency of pupil imge tip-tilt motion is about 1Hz. In addition, a temperature control system surrounding the spectrograph is necessary to keep spectrograph at a constant temperature. The test results shows that the error is about +/-0.005°C in 69.4 hours. The results prove that the pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph is effective and feasible.

  1. On Gamma Ray Burst and Blazar AGN Origins of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays in Light of First Results from Auger

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D

    2007-01-01

    The discoveries of the GZK cutoff with the HiRes and Auger Observatories and the discovery by Auger of clustering of >~60 EeV ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) towards nearby <~75 Mpc) AGNs along the supergalactic plane establishes the astrophysical origin of the UHECRs. The likely sources of the UHECRs are gamma-ray bursts and radio-loud AGNs because: (1) they are extragalactic; (2) they are sufficiently powerful; (3) acceleration to ultra-high energies can be achieved in their relativistic ejecta; (4) anomalous X-ray and $\\gamma$-ray features can be explained by nonthermal hadron acceleration in relativistic blast waves; and (5) sources reside within the GZK radius. Two arguments for acceleration to UHE are presented, and limits on UHECR ion acceleration are set. UHECR ions are shown to be able to survive without photodisintegrating while passing through the AGN scattered radiation field, even if launched deep in the broad line region. UHECR injection throughout cosmic time fits the measured energy ...

  2. Origin of the ankle in the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum and of the extragalactic protons below it

    CERN Document Server

    Farrar, Glennys R; Anchordoqui, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The sharp change in slope of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) spectrum around 10^{18.6} eV (the ankle), combined with evidence of a light but extragalactic component near and below the ankle which evolves to intermediate composition above, has proved exceedingly challenging to understand theoretically. We show that for a range of source conditions, photo-disintegration of ultra-high energy nuclei in the region surrounding a UHECR accelerator naturally accounts for the observed spectrum and composition of the entire extragalactic component, which dominates above about 10^{17.5} eV. The mechanism has a clear signature in the spectrum and flavors of neutrinos.

  3. Is there a common origin for the cosmic. gamma. -ray lines at 0. 51 and 1. 81 MeV near the galactic centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, W.R.; Schoenfelder, V.; Diehl, R.

    1986-10-23

    The authors consider the possibility that the cosmic 0.51 MeV positron annihilation line and the 1.81 MeV /sup 26/Al decay line near the galactic centre have a common origin. The relationship between the two lines may involve an initial decay of /sup 26/Al to /sup 26/Mg with the most probable emission of a positron which eventually annihilates producing the 0.51 MeV line, followed by the decay of /sup 26/Mg to the ground state with the emission of the 1.81 MeV line. This hypothesis is discussed with respect to the time-integrated intensities of the lines. Also the properties of the lines are examined to determine their possible common source region. (U.K.).

  4. Prime Focus Spectrograph - Subaru's future -

    CERN Document Server

    Sugai, Hajime; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Shimono, Atsushi; Ohyama, Youichi; Ueda, Akitoshi; Ling, Hung-Hsu; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Barkhouser, Robert H; Bennett, Charles L; Bickerton, Steve; Braun, David F; Bruno, Robin J; Carr, Michael A; Oliveira, João Batista de Carvalho; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Dekany, Richard G; Dominici, Tania Pereira; Ellis, Richard S; Fisher, Charles D; Gunn, James E; Heckman, Timothy M; Ho, Paul T P; Hu, Yen-Shan; Jaquet, Marc; Karr, Jennifer; Kimura, Masahiko; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Mignant, David Le; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H; Madec, Fabrice; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Martin, Laurent; Murayama, Hitoshi; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; Orndorff, Joe D; Vilaça, Rodrigo de Paiva; Macanhan, Vanessa Bawden de Paula; Prieto, Eric; Santos, Jesulino Bispo dos; Seiffert, Michael D; Smee, Stephen A; Smith, Roger M; Sodré, Laerte; Spergel, David N; Surace, Christian; Vives, Sebastien; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yan, Chi-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project has been endorsed by Japanese community as one of the main future instruments of the Subaru 8.2-meter telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph targets cosmology with galaxy surveys, Galactic archaeology, and studies of galaxy/AGN evolution. Taking advantage of Subaru's wide field of view, which is further extended with the recently completed Wide Field Corrector, PFS will enable us to carry out multi-fiber spectroscopy of 2400 targets within 1.3 degree diameter. A microlens is attached at each fiber entrance for F-ratio transformation into a larger one so that difficulties of spectrograph design are eased. Fibers are accurately placed onto target positions by positioners, each of which consists of two stages of piezo-electric rotary motors, through iterations by using back-illuminated fiber position measurements with a wide-field metrology camera. Fibers then carry l...

  5. Nuclear cascades in Saturn's rings - Cosmic ray albedo neutron decay and origins of trapped protons in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The nearly equatorial trajectory of the Pioneer 11 spacecraft through Saturn's high energy proton radiation belts and under the main A-B-C rings provided a unique opportunity to study the radial dependence of the greater than 30 MeV proton intensities in the belts in terms of models for secondary nucleon production by cosmic ray interactions in the rings, in situ proton injection in the radiation belts by neutron beta decay, magnetospheric diffusion, and absorption by planetary rings and satellites. Maximum trapped proton intensities measured by Pioneer 11 in the radiation belts are compared with calculated intensities and found consistent with trapping times of roughly 40 years and a radial diffusion coefficient of about 10 to the -15th L to the 9th R sub s squared/s. Differential energy spectra proportional to E to the -2 estimated from integral measurements of trapped photons with E greater than 100 MeV are consistent with the beta decay model, but an inferred turndown of the spectra toward lower energies and reported integral proton anisotropies of a specified form both indicate the need for more realistic calculations of the neutron source from the rings and the radiation belt loss processes.

  6. Gamma ray emission from SNR RX J1713.7-3946 and the origin of galactic cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Blasi, P

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the flux of non-thermal radiations from the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946 in the context of the non-linear theory of particle acceleration at shocks, which allows us to take into account self-consistently the dynamical reaction of the accelerated particles, the generation of magnetic fields in the shock proximity and the dynamical reaction of the magnetic field on the plasma. When the fraction of particles which get accelerated is of order $\\sim 10^{-4}$, we find that the strength of the magnetic field obtained as a result of streaming instability induced by cosmic rays is compatible with the interpretation of the X-ray emitting filaments being produced by strong synchrotron losses in $\\sim 100 \\mu G$ magnetic fields. If the X-ray filaments are explained in alternative ways, the constraint on the magnetic field downstream of the shock disappears and the HESS data can be marginally fit with ICS of relativistic electrons off a complex population of photons, tailored to comprise CMB and ambient ...

  7. The SCR flare of 16 February 1984 as recorded by the Sayan spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslov, S. A.; Pakhomov, N. I.; Shapovalova, L. A.; Yanchukovsky, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sayan cosmic ray (CR) spectrograph recorded an SCR flare that occurred on 16 February 1984. Data from both 1-hour and 110-minute duration measurements in 10 channels with different energy sensitivity (of neutron monitors HM-64 located at different depths in the atmosphere, and of a neutron, multiple neutron and rigid mumeson component lead-less detector) is presented. The parameters of the SCR variation spectrum are evaluated and it is shown that the recording of multiple neutrons at the same geographic point and at the same level in the atmosphere provides information similar to that from a spectrographic complex of instruments.

  8. KIDSpec: an MKID based medium resolution integral field spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kieran; Thatte, Niranjan; Mazin, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    We present a novel concept for a highly sensitive, medium spectral resolution optical through near-IR spectrograph. KIDSpec, the Kinetic Inductance Detector Spectrograph, uses the intrinsic energy resolving capability of an array of optical/IR-sensitive MKIDs to distinguish multiple orders from a low line-density (echelle) grating. MKID arrays have a wide bandpass (0.1-2.5um) and good quantum efficiency, making them strong candidates for replacing CCDs in many astronomical instruments. By acting as an `order resolver', the MKID array replaces the cross-disperser in an echelle spectrograph. This greatly simplifies the optical layout of the spectrograph and enables longer slits than are possible with cross-dispersed instruments. KIDSpec would have similar capabilities to ESO's X-shooter instrument. It would provide an R=4000-10,000 spectrum covering the entire optical and near-IR spectral range. In addition to a `long-slit' mode, the IFU would provide a small (~50 spaxel) field-of-view for spatially resolved sources. In addition, the photon-counting operation of MKIDs and their photon-energy resolving ability enable a read-noise free spectrum with perfect cosmic ray removal. The spectral resolution would be sufficient to remove the bright night-sky lines without the additional pixel noise, making the instrument more sensitive than an equivalent semiconductor-based instrument. KIDSpec would enhance many existing high-profile science cases, including transient (GRB, SNe, etc.) follow-up, redshift determination of faint objects and transit spectroscopy of exoplanets. In addition it will enable unique science cases, such as dynamical mass estimates of the compact objects in ultra-compact binaries.

  9. On the Instrument Profile of Slit Spectrographs

    OpenAIRE

    Casini, R.; de Wijn, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the instrument profile of a slit spectrograph, also known as the line spread function. While this problem is not new, our treatment relies on the operatorial approach to the description of diffractive optical systems, which provides a general framework for the analysis of the performance of slit spectrographs under different illumination conditions. Based on our results, we propose an approximation to the spectral resolution of slit spectrographs, taking i...

  10. Cosmic-ray origin in OB associations and preferential acceleration of refractory elements: Evidence from abundances of elements 26Fe through 34Se

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, B F; Lodders, K; Israel, M H; Barbier, L M; Binns, W R; Christian, E R; Cummings, J R; De Nolfo, G A; Geier, S; Mewaldt, R A; Mitchell, J W; Schindler, S M; Scott, L M; Stone, E C; Streitmatter, R E; Waddington, C J; Wiedenbeck, M E

    2009-01-01

    We report abundances of elements from 26Fe to 34Se in the cosmic radiation measured during fifty days of exposure of the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) balloon-borne instrument. These observations add support to the concept that the bulk of cosmic-ray acceleration takes place in OB associations, and they further support cosmic-ray acceleration models in which elements present in interstellar grains are accelerated preferentially compared with those found in interstellar gas.

  11. A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Tobias; Curto, Gaspare Lo; Probst, Rafael A; Steinmetz, Tilo; Manescau, Antonio; Pasquini, Luca; González Hernández, Jonay I; Rebolo, Rafael; Hänsch, Theodor W; Udem, Thomas; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2012-05-30

    The best spectrographs are limited in stability by their calibration light source. Laser frequency combs are the ideal calibrators for astronomical spectrographs. They emit a spectrum of lines that are equally spaced in frequency and that are as accurate and stable as the atomic clock relative to which the comb is stabilized. Absolute calibration provides the radial velocity of an astronomical object relative to the observer (on Earth). For the detection of Earth-mass exoplanets in Earth-like orbits around solar-type stars, or of cosmic acceleration, the observable is a tiny velocity change of less than 10 cm s(-1), where the repeatability of the calibration--the variation in stability across observations--is important. Hitherto, only laboratory systems or spectrograph calibrations of limited performance have been demonstrated. Here we report the calibration of an astronomical spectrograph with a short-term Doppler shift repeatability of 2.5 cm s(-1), and use it to monitor the star HD 75289 and recompute the orbit of its planet. This repeatability should make it possible to detect Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of star or even to measure the cosmic acceleration directly.

  12. Near Ultraviolet Spectrograph for Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aickara Gopinathan, Sreejith; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Suresh, Ambily; Kaippacheri, Nirmal; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2017-01-01

    We have designed a near ultraviolet (200 - 400 nm) spectrograph to fit into a 2U CubeSat and planned for flight in mid-2017 with a scientific goal of obtaining NUV spectra of bright sources (procurement delays and cost. Our baseline optical design consists of a collecting mirror with a 70 mm diameter which reflects light onto a concave reflection grating with a spacing of 1200 lines per mm. The grating focuses the light onto a linear array back-thinned FFT CCD with a pixel size of 14-μm × 14-μm.We will present the design of the payload and the choices forced on us by the restrictive CubeSat environment and the short lead times. This payload is a part of our program to build payloads that will address limited scientific goals but making full use of the opportunities that are arising for CubeSat class missions.

  13. Cosmic Ray ^3He Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mewaldt, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray ^3He/^4He observations, including a new measurement at ~65 MeV/nucleon from ISEE-3, are compared with interstellar propagation and solar modulation models in an effort to understand the origin of cosmic ray He nuclei.

  14. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J.W. III; Forney, R.W.; Carrabba, M.M. [EIC Labs, Norwood, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This project entails the development of a compact raman spectrograph for field screening and monitoring of a wide variety of wastes, pollutants, and corrosion products in tanks, and environmental materials. The design of a fiber optic probe for use with the spectrograph is also discussed.

  15. The Behavior of Warm Molecules in Planet-forming Disks and CHESS: a Pathfinder UV Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of gas over the lifetime of protoplanetary disks provides us with important clues about how planet formation mechanisms drive the diversity of exoplanetary systems observed to date. In the first part of my talk, I will discuss how we use emission line observations of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the far-ultraviolet (far-UV) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the warm molecular regions (a disks. We compare the observations with analytic disk models that produce synthetic H2 profiles, and we statistically determine the disk representations that best replicate the data. I will discuss the results of our comparisons and how the modeled radial distributions of H2 in the disk help provide important constraints on the effective density of gas left in the inner disk of protoplanetary disks at various disk evolutionary stages. Finally, I will talk about follow-up studies that look to connect the warm, UV-pumped molecular populations of the inner disk to thermally-excited molecules observed in similar regions of the disk in the near- to mid-IR.In the second part of my talk, I will discuss the observational requirements in the UV and IR band passes to gain further insights into the behavior of the warm, gaseous protoplanetary disk, focusing specifically on a spectrograph concept for the next-generation LUVOIR Surveyor. I will discuss a testbed instrument, the Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), built as a demonstration of one component of the LUVOIR spectrograph and new technological improvements to UV optical components for the next generation of near- to far-UV astrophysical observatories. CHESS is a far-UV sounding rocket experiment designed to probe the warm and cool atoms and molecules near sites of recent star formation in the local interstellar medium. I will talk about the science goals, design, research and development (R&D) components, and calibration of the CHESS

  16. Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Vachaspati, Tanmay; Steer, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    This article, written for Scolarpedia, provides a brief introduction into the subject of cosmic strings, together with a review of their main properties, cosmological evolution and observational signatures.

  17. Simulation study on original characteristic spectrum of gamma radiation field cosmic-induced on lunabase rocks%月表岩石诱发γ辐射场原始谱特征模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵剑锟; 葛良全; 张庆贤; 卢贞瑞; 罗耀耀

    2015-01-01

    Background: With large differences in mass density, Basalt, KREEP and Dunite are representative and widely distributed on lunar surface. Cosmic-inducedg-ray is produced after energetic particles (Galactic Cosmic Rays, GCR; Solar Particle Event, SPE) impacting on lunabase rocks.Purpose:This study aims at discovering the factors of cosmic-inducedg-ray spectrum and then utilizing the gamma ray data for lunar exploration more efficiency.Methods: A Monte Carlo model for proton-induced gamma ray is designed for the FLUKA simulation software to research cosmic-induced gamma original spectrum. Data analysis is applied to find the relationship between the characteristic spectrum and the densities of lunabase rocks.Results: The model is appropriate to simulate cosmic-inducedg-ray original spectrum. A great variety of original spectrum characteristics, such as energies of main elements, positron annihilation peak and radiation balanced peak, are acquired.Conclusion: A positive correlation is found between mass density of lunabase rock and characteristic peak intensity. These researches for original spectrum can be applied to comparing different lunar gamma-ray spectrum and rock mass density mapping on lunar surface as a reference.%玄武岩、克里普岩、橄榄岩在月球表面广泛分布,并具有一定的代表性,并且岩石密度差异较大,高能粒子(Galactic Cosmic Rays, GCR;Solar Particle Event, SPE)与岩石相互作用后激发g射线。利用蒙特卡罗软件FLUKA开展了月表高能质子诱发g射线的研究,获取了月表多种成岩主元素的特征g射线能量峰、正电子湮灭峰和g辐射平衡峰等原始谱特征信息。通过数据分析表明特征峰强度与月表岩石密度呈正相关。原始谱特征的研究不仅可以为不同系列绕月g数据的对比研究提供参考,也可为在全月表面进行基于核辐射方法的岩石密度填图研究提供理论支撑。

  18. Cosmic Magnification

    CERN Document Server

    Ménard, B

    2002-01-01

    I present the current status of the cosmic magnification produced by systematic amplification of background sources by large-scale structures. After introducing its principle, I focus on its interests for cosmology and underline its complementary aspect to cosmic shear and galaxy auto-correlations. I finally discuss recent investigations using higher-order statistics.

  19. Cosmic superstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2008-08-28

    Cosmic superstrings are expected to be formed at the end of brane inflation, within the context of brane-world cosmological models inspired from string theory. By studying the properties of cosmic superstring networks and comparing their phenomenological consequences against observational data, we aim to pin down the successful and natural inflationary model and get an insight into the stringy description of our Universe.

  20. On the Instrument Profile of Slit Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, R

    2014-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the instrument profile of a slit spectrograph, also known as the line spread function. While this problem is not new, our treatment relies on the operatorial approach to the description of diffractive optical systems, which provides a general framework for the analysis of the performance of slit spectrographs under different illumination conditions. Based on our results, we propose an approximation to the spectral resolution of slit spectrographs, taking into account diffraction effects and sampling by the detector, which improves upon the often adopted approximation based on the root-sumsquare of the individual contributions from the slit, the grating, and the detector pixel.

  1. The Schmidt-Czerny-Turner spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jason P.

    2014-09-01

    Since the invention of the CCD detector in 1969 by George Smith and Willard Boyle, incremental innovations to the dispersive imaging spectrograph have slowly materialized in response the abounding advances in CCD detector technology. The modern Czerny-Turner type spectrograph, arguably the most commonly used instrument in optical spectroscopy, fails to uphold the ever increasing needs today's researchers demand, let alone tomorrow's. This paper discusses an innovative solution to the Czerny-Turner imaging spectrograph bridging a more than 20 year gap in development and understanding. A manifold of techniques in optical spectroscopy both advantaged and enabled by this innovation are expounded upon.

  2. NIR Camera/spectrograph: TEQUILA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, E.; Sohn, E.; Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Salas, L.; Parraga, A.; Torres, R.; Perez, M.; Cobos, F.; Tejada, C.; Iriarte, A.

    1998-11-01

    We describe the configuration and operation modes of the IR camera/spectrograph called TEQUILA, based on a 1024X1024 HgCdTe FPA (HAWAII). The optical system will allow three possible modes of operation: direct imaging, low and medium resolution spectroscopy and polarimetry. The basic system is being designed to consist of the following: 1) A LN$_2$ dewar that allocates the FPA together with the preamplifiers and a 24 filter position cylinder. 2) Control and readout electronics based on DSP modules linked to a workstation through fiber optics. 3) An optomechanical assembly cooled to -30oC that provides an efficient operation of the instrument in its various modes. 4) A control module for the moving parts of the instrument. The opto-mechanical assembly will have the necessary provisions to install a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and an adaptive optics correction system. The final image acquisition and control of the whole instrument is carried out in a workstation to provide the observer with a friendly environment. The system will operate at the 2.1 m telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir, B.C. (Mexico), and is intended to be a first-light instrument for the new 7.8 m Mexican Infrared-Optical Telescope (TIM).

  3. Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  4. Interaction of cosmic rays with cold clouds in galactic haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua; Oh, S. Peng; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the effects of cosmic ray (CR) dynamics on cold, dense clouds embedded in a hot, tenuous galactic halo. If the magnetic field does not increase too much inside the cloud, the local reduction in Alfvén speed imposes a bottleneck on CRs streaming out from the star-forming galactic disc. The bottleneck flattens the upstream CR gradient in the hot gas, implying that multiphase structure could have global effects on CR-driven winds. A large CR pressure gradient can also develop on the outward-facing edge of the cloud. This pressure gradient has two independent effects. The CRs push the cloud upwards, imparting it with momentum. On smaller scales, the CRs pressurize cold gas in the fronts, reducing its density, consistent with the low densities of cold gas inferred in recent Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observations of local L* galaxies. They also heat the material at the cloud edge, broadening the cloud-halo interface and causing an observable change in interface ionic abundances. Due to the much weaker temperature dependence of CR heating relative to thermal-conductive heating, CR mediated fronts have a higher ratio of low-to-high ions compared to conduction fronts, in better agreement with observations. We investigate these effects separately using 1D simulations and analytic techniques.

  5. NRES: The Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverd, Robert; Brown, Timothy M.; Henderson, Todd; Hygelund, John; Barnes, Stuart; Bowman, Mark; De Vera, Jon; Eastman, Jason D.; Kirby, Annie; Norbury, Martin; Smith, Cary; Taylor, Brook; Tufts, Joseph; Van Eyken, Julian C.

    2017-06-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) is building the Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs (NRES), which will consist of four to six identical, optical (390 - 860 nm) high-precision spectrographs, each fiber-fed simultaneously by up to two 1-meter telescopes and a Thorium-Argon calibration source. We plan to install one at up to 6 observatory sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, creating a single, globally-distributed, autonomous spectrograph facility using up to ten 1-m telescopes. Simulations suggest we will achieve long-term radial velocity precision of 3 m/s in less than an hour for stars brighter than V = 11 or 12. Following a few months of on-sky evaluation at our BPL test facility, the first spectrograph unit was shipped to CTIO in late 2016 and installed in March 2017. Barring serious complications, we expect regular scheduled science observing to begin in mid-2017. Three additional units are in building or testing phases and slated for deployment in late 2017. Acting in concert, these four spectrographs will provide a new, unique facility for stellar characterization and precise radial velocities. We will briefly overview the LCO telescope network, the NRES spectrograph design, the advantages it provides, and development challenges we encountered along the way. We will further discuss real-world performance from our first unit, initial science results, and the ongoing software development effort needed to automate such a facility for a wide array of science cases.

  6. Microslices and low-cost spectrographs for million element integral field spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Robert; Morris, Simon L.; Dubbeldam, Marc

    2003-02-01

    We describe a new concept for an integral field unit that allows the collection of a very large number of spectra. We also describe a complementary low cost spectrograph. Both are necessary for the design of integral field spectrographs with huge numbers of spatial elements. These concepts were developed for the Million Element Integral Field Unit and Spectrograph (MEIFUS) that we are proposing for an 8-m and a larger version for an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT, a 30-m telescope). The 8-m version of this spectrograph would give 2.2 million spectra, each 200 pixels long, covering a field of view of 5.2' x 5.2'. The ELT version would give 1.5 million spectra, each 600 pixels long, with a field of 2.7" x 3". The new concept of microslices for integral field units allows us to pack a large number of short spectra tightly on the detector without oversizing the spectrograph. It uses a series of independent cylindrical microlens arrays, as opposed to spherical or "simulated spherical using cylindrical" microlenses. We used the specific characteristics of our instrument, especially the short spectra, to develop a concept of a low cost spectrograph. We show that MEIFUS fills a technological gap between other integral field systems and Fabry-Perot instruments. We believe that integral field spectrographs with such a large number of spatial elements would be too expensive if they were to use fibers, typical slicer systems or typical spectrograph designs.

  7. Cosmic web imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shahinur; Martin, Chris; McLean, Ryan; Matuszewski, Matt; Chang, Daphne

    2006-06-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) to detect and map emission from the intergalactic medium (IGM). CWI will observe the strong, redshift UV resonance lines of Lyα 1216, CIV 1550, and OVI 1033 over 3600-9000 Å to trace IGM at 1 view of 60 × 40 arcsec2 for observing extended emission over a large region. The spectrograph using Volume-Phase Holographic gratings have high peak diffraction efficiency and are tunable for covering a large bandpass with a single grating. A low read noise CCD combined with source/background shiftand-nod allowing control of systematics and Poisson-imited sky subtraction to observe the low surface brightness universe. With a resolution of R=10,000 CWI is sensitive to limiting surface brightness ranging from 25 - 27.5 mag/arcsec2 (10 min - 8 hours integration). Recent high resolution simulations predict Lyα Fluorescence from IGM at 100 - 1000 LU1. CWI with sensitivity of ~200 LU improves the current observational effort by an order of magnitude and enables us to explore wide range of overdensity (δ ~ 30 - 104) testing the standard model of structure formation in the universe. CWI also serves as the counter part to the balloon borne integral-field spectrograph Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL) currently being built and planned to be launched in Summer 2007. FIREBALL will observe Lyα Fluorescence from IGM at z = 0.7. CWI combined with FIREBALL will enable us to observe the evolution of IGM and the low surface brightness universe.

  8. A spectrograph instrument concept for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) on Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Vives, Sébastien; Madec, Fabrice; Jaquet, Marc; Prieto, Eric; Martin, Laurent; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Gunn, James; Carr, Michael; Smee, Stephen; Barkhouser, Robert; Sugai, Hajime; Tamura, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    We describe the conceptual design of the spectrograph opto-mechanical concept for the SuMIRe Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) being developed for the SUBARU telescope. The SuMIRe PFS will consist of four identical spectrographs, each receiving 600 fibers from a 2400 fiber robotic positioner at the prime focus. Each spectrograph will have three channels covering in total, a wavelength range from 380 nm to 1300 nm. The requirements for the instrument are summarized in Section 1. We present the optical design and the optical performance and analysis in Section 2. Section 3 introduces the mechanical design, its requirements and the proposed concepts. Finally, the AIT phases for the Spectrograph System are described in Section 5.

  9. 4MOST: the high-resolution spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, W.; Xu, W.; Buschkamp, P.; Feiz, C.; Saviauk, A.; Barden, S.; Quirrenbach, A.; Mandel, H.

    2016-08-01

    4MOST (4-meter Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope) is a wide-field, fiber-feed, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility to be installed on the 4-meter ESO telescope VISTA in Chile. It consists of two identical low resolution spectrographs and one high resolution spectrograph. The instrument is presently in the preliminary design phase and expected to get operational end of 2022. The high resolution spectrograph will afford simultaneous observations of up to 812 targets - over a hexagonal field of view of 4.1 sq.degrees on sky - with a spectral resolution R>18,000 covering a wavelength range from 393 to 679nm in three channels. In this paper we present the optical and mechanical design of the high resolution spectrograph (HRS) as prepared for the review at ESO, Garching. The expected performance including the highly multiplexed fiber slit concept is simulated and its impact on the optical performance given. We show the thermal and finite element analyses and the resulting stability of the spectrograph under operational conditions.

  10. Curved VPH gratings for novel spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. Christopher; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Dunlap, Bart H.

    2014-07-01

    The introduction of volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings into astronomy over a decade ago opened new possibilities for instrument designers. In this paper we describe an extension of VPH grating technology that will have applications in astronomy and beyond: curved VPH gratings. These devices can disperse light while simultaneously correcting aberrations. We have designed and manufactured two different kinds of convex VPH grating prototypes for use in off-axis reflecting spectrographs. One type functions in transmission and the other in reflection, enabling Offnerstyle spectrographs with the high-efficiency and low-cost advantages of VPH gratings. We will discuss the design process and the tools required for modelling these gratings along with the recording layout and process steps required to fabricate them. We will present performance data for the first convex VPH grating produced for an astronomical spectrograph.

  11. IFSRED: Data Reduction for Integral Field Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupke, David S. N.

    2014-09-01

    IFSRED is a general-purpose library for reducing data from integral field spectrographs (IFSs). For a general IFS data cube, it contains IDL routines to: (1) find and apply a zero-point shift in a wavelength solution on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis, using sky lines; (2) find the spatial coordinates of a flux peak; (3) empirically correct for differential atmospheric refraction; (4) mosaic dithered exposures; (5) (integer) rebin; and (6) apply a telluric correction. A sky-subtraction routine for data from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph and Imager (GMOS) that can be easily modified for any instrument is also included. IFSRED also contains additional software specific to reducing data from GMOS and the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS).

  12. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: data reduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walth, Gregory; Wright, Shelley A.; Weiss, Jason; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Chapin, Edward L.; Do, Tuan; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Marshall, Daniel; Riddle, Reed L.; Simard, Luc; Sohn, Ji Man; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James

    2016-08-01

    IRIS (InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph) is the diffraction-limited first light instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that consists of a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 μm) imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS). The IFS makes use of a lenslet array and slicer for spatial sampling, which will be able to operate in 100's of different modes, including a combination of four plate scales from 4 milliarcseconds (mas) to 50 mas with a large range of filters and gratings. The imager will have a field of view of 34×34 arcsec2 with a plate scale of 4 mas with many selectable filters. We present the preliminary design of the data reduction system (DRS) for IRIS that need to address all of these observing modes. Reduction of IRIS data will have unique challenges since it will provide real-time reduction and analysis of the imaging and spectroscopic data during observational sequences, as well as advanced post-processing algorithms. The DRS will support three basic modes of operation of IRIS; reducing data from the imager, the lenslet IFS, and slicer IFS. The DRS will be written in Python, making use of open-source astronomical packages available. In addition to real-time data reduction, the DRS will utilize real-time visualization tools, providing astronomers with up-to-date evaluation of the target acquisition and data quality. The quick look suite will include visualization tools for 1D, 2D, and 3D raw and reduced images. We discuss the overall requirements of the DRS and visualization tools, as well as necessary calibration data to achieve optimal data quality in order to exploit science cases across all cosmic distance scales.

  13. Single Mode, Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Christian; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Betters, Christopher H.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2014-04-01

    The `holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Horton 2006, Bland-Hawthorn et al. 2010) and adaptive optics (AO) enable single mode fiber (SMF) fed, high resolution spectrographs, which can realize the next step in precision. SMF feeds have intrinsic advantages over multimode fiber or slit coupled spectrographs: The intensity distribution at the fiber exit is extremely stable, and as a result the line spread function of a well-designed spectrograph is fully decoupled from input coupling conditions, like guiding or seeing variations (Ihle et al. 2010). Modal noise, a limiting factor in current multimode fiber fed instruments (Baudrand & Walker 2001), can be eliminated by proper design, and the diffraction limited input to the spectrograph allows for very compact instrument designs, which provide excellent optomechanical stability. A SMF is the ideal interface for new, very precise wavelength calibrators, like laser frequency combs (Steinmetz et al. 2008, Osterman et al. 2012), or SMF based Fabry-Perot Etalons (Halverson et al. 2013). At near infrared wavelengths, these technologies are ready to be implemented in on-sky instruments, or already in use. We discuss a novel concept for such a spectrograph.

  14. Performance estimates for spectrographs using photonic reformatters

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Robert J; Lemke, Ulrike; MacLachlan, David G; Thomson, Robert R; Reffert, Sabine; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Using a photonic reformatter to eliminate the effects of conventional modal noise could greatly improve the stability of a high resolution spectrograph. However the regimes where this advantage becomes clear are not yet defined. Here we will look at where modal noise becomes a problem in conventional high resolution spectroscopy and what impact photonic spectrographs could have. We will theoretically derive achievable radial velocity measurements to compare photonic instruments and conventional ones. We will discuss the theoretical and experimental investigations that will need to be undertaken to optimize and prove the photonic reformatting concept.

  15. Performance estimates for spectrographs using photonic reformatters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert J.; Labadie, Lucas; Lemke, Ulrike; MacLachlan, David G.; Thomson, Robert R.; Reffert, Sabine; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Using a photonic reformatter to eliminate the effects of conventional modal noise could greatly improve the stability of a high resolution spectrograph. However the regimes where this advantage becomes clear are not yet defined. Here we will look at where modal noise becomes a problem in conventional high resolution spectroscopy and what impact photonic spectrographs could have. We will theoretically derive achievable radial velocity measurements to compare photonic instruments and conventional ones. We will discuss the theoretical and experimental investigations that will need to be undertaken to optimize and prove the photonic reformatting concept.

  16. HETDEX: VIRUS Spectrographs Assembly and Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Boster, E.; Meador, W.; Allen, R.; Hill, G. J.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We describe the assembly and optical alignment process used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the accuracy, interchangeability, time and cost constraints, a production line will be set up to construct and test modular subassemblies in parallel. To facilitate the VIRUS production, fixtures and adjustment mechanisms have been designed to aid in assembly and alignment. This poster describes the details and operations of the camera mirror, collimator mirror and grating adjustment mechanisms, as well as the fold flat mirror alignment fixture.

  17. VIRUS spectrograph assembly and alignment procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Boster, Emily; DePoy, D. L.; Herbig, Benjamin; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martin, Emily C.; Meador, William; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the mechanical assembly and optical alignment processes used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the instrument's manufacturing constraints, a production line will be set up to build subassemblies in parallel. To aid in the instrument's assembly and alignment, specialized fixtures and adjustment apparatuses have been developed. We describe the design and operations of the various optics alignment apparatuses, as well as the mirrors' alignment and bonding fixtures.

  18. Mauna Kea Spectrographic Explorer (MSE): a conceptual design for multi-object high resolution spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yongtian; Hu, Zhongwen

    2016-08-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project will transform the CFHT 3.6m optical telescope into a 10m class dedicated multi-object spectroscopic facility, with an ability to simultaneously measure thousands of objects with a spectral resolution range spanning 2,000 to 40,000. MSE will develop two spectrographic facilities to meet the science requirements. These are respectively, the Low/Medium Resolution spectrographs (LMRS) and High Resolution spectrographs (HRS). Multi-object high resolution spectrographs with total of 1,156 fibers is a big challenge, one that has never been attempted for a 10m class telescope. To date, most spectral survey facilities work in single order low/medium resolution mode, and only a few Wide Field Spectrographs (WFS) provide a cross-dispersion high resolution mode with a limited number of orders. Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT) propose a conceptual design with the use of novel image slicer arrays and single order immersed Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating for the MSE multi-object high resolution spectrographs. The conceptual scheme contains six identical fiber-link spectrographs, each of which simultaneously covers three restricted bands (λ/30, λ/30, λ/15) in the optical regime, with spectral resolution of 40,000 in Blue/Visible bands (400nm / 490nm) and 20,000 in Red band (650nm). The details of the design is presented in this paper.

  19. Cosmic Rays at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological

  20. Cosmic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    The continuous 1D defects of an isotropic homogeneous material in an Euclidean 3D space are classified by a construction method, the Volterra process (VP). We employ the same method to classify the continuous 2D defects (which we call \\textit{cosmic forms}) of a vacuum in a 4D maximally symmetric spacetime. These defects fall into three different classes: i)- $m$-forms, akin to 3D space disclinations, related to ordinary rotations and analogous to Kibble's global cosmic strings (except that being continuous any deficit angle is allowed); ii)- $t$-forms, related to Lorentz boosts (hyperbolic rotations); iii)- $r$-forms, never been considered so far, related to null rotations. A detailed account of their metrics is presented. Their inner structure in many cases appears as a non-singular \\textit{core} separated from the outer part by a timelike hypersurface with distributional curvature and/or torsion, yielding new types of geometrical interactions with cosmic dislocations and other cosmic disclinations. Whereas...

  1. Single mode, extreme precision Doppler spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Schwab, Christian; Betters, Christopher H; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2012-01-01

    The 'holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Horton 2006, Bland-Hawthorn et al. 2010) and adaptive optics (AO) enable single mode fiber (SMF) fed, high resolution spectrographs, which can realize the next step in precision. SMF feeds have intrinsic advantages over multimode fiber or slit coupled spectrographs: The intensity distribution at the fiber exit is extremely stable, and as a result the line spread function of a well-designed spectrograph is fully decoupled from input coupling conditions, like guiding or seeing variations (Ihle et al. 2010). Modal noise, a...

  2. Fibre positioning algorithms for the WEAVE spectrograph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terrett, David L.; Lewis, Ian J.; Dalton, Gavin; Abrams, Don Carlos; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Middleton, Kevin; Trager, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick and place" fibre fed spectrograph with more than one thousand fibres, similar in concept to the Australian Astronomical Observ

  3. Tomographic extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs: TESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D M; Stephan, A; Cook, T; Vickers, J; Taylor, V; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-08-01

    We describe the system of Tomographic Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) SpectrographS (TESS) that are the primary instruments for the Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources (TERRIERS) satellite. The spectrographs were designed to make high-sensitivity {80 counts/s)/Rayleigh [one Rayleigh is equivalent to 10(6) photons/(4pi str cm(2)s)}, line-of-sight measurements of the oi 135.6- and 91.1-nm emissions suitable for tomographic inversion. The system consists of five spectrographs, four identical nightglow instruments (for redundancy and added sensitivity), and one instrument with a smaller aperture to reduce sensitivity and increase spectral resolution for daytime operation. Each instrument has a bandpass of 80-140 nm with approximately 2- and 1-nm resolution for the night and day instruments, respectively. They utilize microchannel-plate-based two-dimensional imaging detectors with wedge-and-strip anode readouts. The instruments were designed, fabricated, and calibrated at Boston University, and the TERRIERS satellite was launched on 18 May 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  4. Quantitative spectrally resolved imaging through a spectrograph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, RAL; Sijtsema, NM; ter Meulen, JJ; Dam, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    A grating spectrograph can be used for spectrally selective two-dimensional imaging if it is operated with a broad entrance slit. The resulting intensity distribution in its exit plane is a one-dimensional convolution of the spatial and spectral distributions of incident light. We present a dedicate

  5. Cosmic Tidal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Er, Xinzhong; Chen, Xuelei

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational coupling of a long wavelength tidal field with small scale density fluctuations leads to anisotropic distortions of the locally measured small scale matter correlation function. Since the local correlation function is statistically isotropic in the absence of such tidal interactions, the tidal distortions can be used to reconstruct the long wavelength tidal field and large scale density field in analogy with the cosmic microwave background lensing reconstruction. In this paper we present in detail a formalism for the cosmic tidal reconstruction and test the reconstruction in numerical simulations. We find that the density field on large scales can be reconstructed with good accuracy and the cross correlation coefficient between the reconstructed density field and the original density field is greater than 0.9 on large scales ($k\\lesssim0.1h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$). This is useful in the 21cm intensity mapping survey, where the long wavelength radial modes are lost due to foreground subtraction proces...

  6. Cosmic confusion

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    1994-01-01

    We propose to minimise the cosmic confusion between Gaussian and non Gaussian theories by investigating the structure in the m's for each multipole of the cosmic radiation temperature anisotropies. We prove that Gaussian theories are (nearly) the only theories which treat all the m's equally. Hence we introduce a set of invariant measures of ``m-preference'' to be seen as non-Gaussianity indicators. We then derive the distribution function for the quadrupole ``m-preference'' measure in Gaussian theories. A class of physically motivated toy non Gaussian theories is introduced as an example. We show how the quadrupole m-structure is crucial in reducing the confusion between these theories and Gaussian theories.

  7. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, J. N.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A.; Barenthien, N.; Barkhausen, M.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertaina, M. E.; Biermann, P. L.; Bilhaut, R.; Billoir, P.; Blaes, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bolz, H.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifaz, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Borodai, N.; Bracci, F.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Camin, D.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Castera, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chiosso, M.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Colombo, E.; Colonges, S.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Courty, B.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, C.; Dolron, P.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Epele, L. N.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Fujii, T.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Geenen, H.; Gemmeke, H.; Genolini, B.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Giudice, N.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gotink, W.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Grygar, J.; Guardone, N.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guglielmi, L.; Habraken, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Hucker, H.; Huege, T.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Kopmann, A.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martina, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, N.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Nicotra, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Ohnuki, T.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; PakkSelmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Porter, T.; Pouryamout, J.; Pouthas, J.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Pryke, C. L.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Randriatoamanana, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenua, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schreuder, F.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schuessler, F.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Sequeiros, G.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Speelman, R.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Sutter, M.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Trung, T. N.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Tusi, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varnav, D. M.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verkooijen, H.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vitali, G.; Vlcek, B.; Vorenholt, H.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Widom, A.; Wiebusch, C.; Wiencke, L.; Wijnen, T.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wild, N.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Woerner, G.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Silva, M. Zimbres; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 10(17) eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic par

  8. Cosmic Ether

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1998-01-01

    A prerelativistic approach to particle dynamics is explored in an expanding Robertson-Walker cosmology. The receding galactic background provides a distinguished frame of reference and a unique cosmic time. In this context the relativistic, purely geometric space-time concept is criticized. Physical space is regarded as a permeable medium, the cosmic ether, which effects the world-lines of particles and rays. We study in detail a Robertson-Walker universe with linear expansion factor and negatively curved, open three-space; we choose the permeability tensor of the ether in such a way that the semiclassical approximation is exact. Galactic red-shifts depend on the refractive index of the ether. In the local Minkowskian limit the ether causes a time variation of mass, which scales inversely proportional to cosmic time. In the globally geodesic rest frames of galactic observers the ether manifests itself in an unbounded speed of signal transfer, in bifurcations of world-lines, and in time inversion effects.

  9. Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    We review the main observational and theoretical facts about acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays in supernova remnants, discussing the arguments in favor and against a connection between cosmic rays and supernova remnants, the so-called supernova remnant paradigm for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. Recent developments in the modeling of the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration are discussed, with emphasis on the role of 1) magnetic field amplification, 2) acceleration of nuclei heavier than hydrogen, 3) presence of neutrals in the circumstellar environment. The status of the supernova-cosmic ray connection in the time of Fermi-LAT and Cherenkov telescopes is also discussed.

  10. TAIPAN fibre feed and spectrograph: engineering overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Nicholas F.; Lawrence, Jon; Zhelem, Ross; Content, Robert; Churilov, Vladimir; Case, Scott; Brown, Rebecca; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kuehn, Kyler; Pai, Naveen; Klauser, Urs; Nichani, Vijay; Waller, Lew

    2016-07-01

    TAIPAN will conduct a stellar and galaxy survey of the Southern sky. The TAIPAN positioner is being developed as a prototype for the MANIFEST instrument on the GMT. The TAIPAN Spectrograph is an AAO designed all-refractive 2-arm design that delivers a spectral resolution of R>2000 over the wavelength range 370-870 nm. It is fed by a custom fibre cable from the TAIPAN Starbugs positioner. The design for TAIPAN incorporates 150 optical fibres (with an upgrade path to 300). Presented is an engineering overview of the UKST Fibre Cable design used to support Starbugs, the custom slit design, and the overall design and build plan for the TAIPAN Spectrograph.

  11. Numerical simulation of space UV spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkin, Maksim; Fatkhullin, Timur; Panchuk, Vladimir; Sachkov, Mikhail; Kanev, Evgeny

    2016-07-01

    Based on the ray tracing method, we developed algorithms for constructing numerical model of spectroscopic instrumentation. The Software is realized in C ++ using nVidia CUDA technology. The software package consists of three separate modules: the ray tracing module, a module for calculating energy efficiency and module of CCD image simulation. The main objective of this work was to obtain images of the spectra for the cross-dispersed spectrographs as well as segmented aperture Long Slit Spectrograph. The software can be potentially used by WSO-UV project. To test our algorithms and the software package we have performed simulations of the ground cross-dispersed Nasmyth Echelle Spectrometer (NES) installed on the platform of the Nasmyth focus of the Russian 6-meter BTA telescope. The comparison of model images of stellar spectra with observations on this device confirms that the software works well. The high degree of agreement between the theoretical and real spectra is shown.

  12. Applications of Integrated Photonic Spectrographs in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Robert James

    2012-01-01

    One of the problems of producing instruments for Extremely Large Telescopes is that their size (and hence cost) scales rapidly with telescope aperture. To try to break this relation alternative new technologies have been proposed, such as the use of the Integrated Photonic Spectrograph (IPS). Due to their diffraction-limited nature the IPS is claimed to defeat the harsh scaling law applying to conventional instruments. In contrast to photonic applications, devices for astronomy are not usually used at the diffraction limit. Therefore to retain throughput and spatial information, the IPS requires a photonic lantern (PL) to decompose the input multimode light into single modes. This is then fed into either numerous Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWGs) or a conventional spectrograph. We investigate the potential advantage of using an IPS instead of conventional monolithic optics for a variety of capabilities represented by existing instruments and others planned for Extremely Large Telescopes. We show that a full I...

  13. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: New Physics or Old Physics?

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    2004-01-01

    We consider the advantages of and the problems associated with hypotheses to explain the origin of ulthrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR: E > 10 EeV) and the "trans GZK" cosmic rays (TGZK: E > 100 EeV), both through "old physics" (acceleration in cosmic sources) and "new physics" (new particles, topological defects, fat neutrino cross sections, Lorentz invariance violation).

  14. Cosmic Rays Astrophysics: The Discipline, Its Scope, and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the discipline surrounding cosmic ray astrophysics. It includes information on recent assertions surrounding cosmic rays, exposure levels, and a short history with specific information on the origin, acceleration, transport, and modulation of cosmic rays.

  15. Re-evaluation of cosmic ray cutoff terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. J.; Humble, J. E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Lund, N.; Rasmussen, I. L.; Byrnak, B.; Goret, P.; Petrou, N.

    1985-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray access to locations inside the geomagnetic field has evolved in a manner that has led to some misunderstanding and misapplication of the terminology originally developed to describe particle access. This paper presents what is believed to be a useful set of definitions for cosmic ray cutoff terminology for use in theoretical and experimental cosmic ray studies.

  16. CARMENES: the VIS channel spectrograph in operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, W.; Xu, W.; Stahl, O.; Hagen, H. J.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Veredas, G.; Caballero, J. A.; Guardia, J.; Helmling, J.; Hernandez, L.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Tulloch, S.; Kaminski, A.; Zechmeister, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Mandel, H.

    2016-08-01

    CARMENES is a fiber-fed high-resolution Echelle spectrograph for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope. The instrument is built by a German-Spanish consortium under the lead of the Landessternwarte Heidelberg. The search for planets around M dwarfs with a radial velocity of 1 m/s is the main focus of the planned science. Two channels, one for the visible, another for the near-infrared, will allow observations in the complete wavelength range from 550 to 1700 nm. To ensure the stability, the instrument is working in vacuum in a thermally controlled environment. The VIS channel spectrograph is covering the visible wavelength range from 0.55 to 0.95 μm with a spectral resolution of R=93,400 in a thermally and pressure-wise very stable environment. The VIS channel spectrograph started science operation in January 2016. Here we present the opto-mechanical and system design of the channel with the focus on the (re-)integration phase at the observatory and the measured performance during the testing and commissioning periods, including the lessons learned.

  17. GYES, a multifibre spectrograph for the CFHT

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Dournaux, J -L; François, P; Caffau, E; Royer, F; Babusiaux, C; Arenou, F; Balkowski, C; Bienaymé, O; Briot, D; Carlberg, R; Cohen, M; Dalton, G B; Famaey, B; Fasola, G; Frémat, Y; Gómez, A; Haywood, M; Hill, V; Huet, J -M; Katz, D; Horville, D; Kudritzky, R; Lallement, R; Laporte, Ph; de Laverny, P; Lemasle, B; Lewis, I J; Martayan, C; Monier, R; Mourard, D; Nardetto, N; Blanco, A Recio; Robichon, N; Robin, A C; Rodrigues, M; Soubiran, C; Turon, C; Venn, K; Viala, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have chosen the name of GYES, one of the mythological giants with one hundred arms, offspring of Gaia and Uranus, for our instrument study of a multifibre spectrograph for the prime focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Such an instrument could provide an excellent ground-based complement for the Gaia mission and a northern complement to the HERMES project on the AAT. The CFHT is well known for providing a stable prime focus environment, with a large field of view, which has hosted several imaging instruments, but has never hosted a multifibre spectrograph. Building upon the experience gained at GEPI with FLAMES-Giraffe and X-Shooter, we are investigating the feasibility of a high multiplex spectrograph (about 500 fibres) over a field of view 1 degree in diameter. We are investigating an instrument with resolution in the range 15000 to 30000, which should provide accurate chemical abundances for stars down to 16th magnitude and radial velocities, accurate to 1 km/s for fainter stars. The study is le...

  18. Cosmic rays and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K; Resconi, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated for the second edition, this book introduces the growing and dynamic field of particle astrophysics. It provides an overview of high-energy nuclei, photons and neutrinos, including their origins, their propagation in the cosmos, their detection on Earth and their relation to each other. Coverage is expanded to include new content on high energy physics, the propagation of protons and nuclei in cosmic background radiation, neutrino astronomy, high-energy and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, sources and acceleration mechanisms, and atmospheric muons and neutrinos. Readers are able to master the fundamentals of particle astrophysics within the context of the most recent developments in the field. This book will benefit graduate students and established researchers alike, equipping them with the knowledge and tools needed to design and interpret their own experiments and, ultimately, to address a number of questions concerning the nature and origins of cosmic particles that have arisen in recent resea...

  19. SUBARU prime focus spectrograph: integration, testing and performance for the first spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, F.; Le Fur, A.; Le Mignant, D.; Dohlen, K.; Barrette, R.; Belhadi, M.; Pascal, S.; Smee, S.; Gunn, J.; Le Merrer, J.; Lorred, M.; Jaquet, M.; Balard, P.; Blanchard, P.; Tao, W.; Lapere, V.; Gabriel, J. F.; Loomis, C.; Golebiowski, M.; Hart, M.; Oliveira, L.; Oliveira, A.; Tamura, N.; Shimono, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project for Subaru telescope consists in four identical spectrographs fed by 600 fibers each. Each spectrograph is composed by an optical entrance unit that creates a collimated beam and distributes the light to three channels, two visibles and one near infrared. This paper presents the on-going effort for the tests and integration process for the first spectrograph channel: we have developed a detailed Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) plan, as well as the methods, detailed processes and I and T tools. We describe the tools we designed to assemble the parts and to test the performance of the spectrograph. We also report on the thermal acceptance tests we performed on the first visible camera unit. We also report on and discuss the technical difficulties that did appear during this integration phase. Finally, we detail the important logistic process that is require to transport the components from other country to Marseille.

  20. SUBARU prime focus spectrograph: integration, testing and performance for the first spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Madec, F; Mignant, D Le; Dohlen, K; Barrette, R; Belhadi, M; Pascal, S; Smee, S; Gunn, J; Merrer, J Le; Lorred, M; Jaquet, M; Balard, P; Blanchard, P; Thao, W; Roman, F; Lapere, V; Gabriel, JF; Loomis, C; Golebiowski, M; Hart, M; Oliveira, L; Oliveira, A; Tamura, N; Shimono, A

    2016-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project for Subaru telescope consists in four identical spectrographs fed by 600 fibers each. Each spectrograph is composed by an optical entrance unit that creates a collimated beam and distributes the light to three channels, two visibles and one near infrared. This paper presents the on-going effort for the tests & integration process for the first spectrograph channel: we have developed a detailed Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) plan, as well as the methods, detailed processes and I&T tools. We describe the tools we designed to assemble the parts and to test the performance of the spectrograph. We also report on the thermal acceptance tests we performed on the first visible camera unit. We also report on and discuss the technical difficulties that did appear during this integration phase. Finally, we detail the important logistic process that is require to transport the components from other country t...

  1. Cosmic radioactivities

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M; Arnould, Marcel; Prantzos, Nikos

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides with half-lives ranging from some years to billions of years presumably synthesized outside of the solar system are now recorded in ``live'' or ``fossil'' form in various types of materials, like meteorites or the galactic cosmic rays. They bring specific astrophysical messages the deciphering of which is briefly reviewed here, with special emphasis on the contribution of Dave Schramm and his collaborators to this exciting field of research. Short-lived radionuclides are also present in the Universe today, as directly testified by the gamma-ray lines emitted by the de-excitation of their daughter products. A short review of recent developments in this field is also presented.

  2. Cosmic radioactivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Marcel; Prantzos, Nikos

    1999-07-01

    Radionuclides with half-lives ranging from some years to billions of years presumably synthesized outside of the solar system are now recorded in "live" or "fossil" form in various types of materials, like meteorites or the galactic cosmic rays. They bring specific astrophysical messages, the deciphering of which is briefly reviewed here, with special emphasis on the contribution of Dave Schramm and his collaborators to this exciting field of research. Short-lived radionuclides are also present in the Universe today, as directly testified by the γ-ray lines emitted by the de-excitation of their daughter products. A short review of recent developments in this field is also presented.

  3. Wormhole cosmic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, G

    1995-01-01

    We construct regular multi-wormhole solutions to a gravitating \\sigma model in three space-time dimensions, and extend these solutions to cylindrical traversable wormholes in four and five dimensions. We then discuss the possibility of identifying wormhole mouths in pairs to give rise to Wheeler wormholes. Such an identification is consistent with the original field equations only in the absence of the \\sigma-model source, but with possible naked cosmic string sources. The resulting Wheeler wormhole space-times are flat outside the sources and may be asymptotically Minkowskian.

  4. Garden of cosmic speculation

    CERN Document Server

    Jencks, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This book tells the story of one of the most important gardens in Europe, created by the architectural critic and designer Charles Jencks and his late wife, the landscape architect and author Maggie Keswick. The Garden of Cosmic Speculation is a landscape that celebrates the new sciences of complexity and chaos theory and consists of a series of metaphors exploring the origins, the destiny and the substance of the Universe. The book is illustrated with year-round photography, bringing the garden's many dimensions vividly to life.

  5. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  6. Upgrade of the area II spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Bolduc, C.

    1995-08-01

    Because of the low beam energies required for experiments of astrophysical interest, the first test experiments with radioactive {sup 18}F beams can be performed in Area II. Because of the shorter distances between ion source and detector this also results in higher transmission efficiencies. The Enge split-pole spectrograph, which was not used during the last 8 years, was equipped with a new cryopump system, upgrades to the magnet power supply and the NMR system were performed. A rotating target system was built which should alleviate target deterioration effects that were observed in first test experiments.

  7. Photometric Calibrations for the SIRTF Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, P W; Herter, T L; Armus, L; Houck, J; Sloan, G

    2002-01-01

    The SIRTF InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) is faced with many of the same calibration challenges that were experienced in the ISO SWS calibration program, owing to similar wavelength coverage and overlapping spectral resolutions of the two instruments. Although the IRS is up to ~300 times more sensitive and without moving parts, imposing unique calibration challenges on their own, an overlap in photometric sensitivities of the high-resolution modules with the SWS grating sections allows lessons, resources, and certain techniques from the SWS calibration programs to be exploited. We explain where these apply in an overview of the IRS photometric calibration planning.

  8. Origins Space Telescope: Cosmology and Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin D.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.A core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization (EoR). OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation. OST will provide a detailed astrophysical probe into the condition of the intergalactic medium at z > 6 and the galaxies which dominate the epoch of reionization.

  9. Field Raman Spectrograph for Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvia, J.M.; Haas, J.W.; Spencer, K.M.; Carrabba, M.M.; Rauh, R.D.; Forney, R.W.; Johnston, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    The widespread contamination found across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has received considerable attention from the government and public alike. A massive site characterization and cleanup effort has been underway for several years and is expected to continue for several decades more. The scope of the cleanup effort ranges from soil excavation and treatment to complete dismantling and decontamination of whole buildings. To its credit, DOE has supported research and development of new technologies to speed up and reduce the cost of this effort. One area in particular has been the development of portable instrumentation that can be used to perform analytical measurements in the field. This approach provides timely data to decision makers and eliminates the expense, delays, and uncertainties of sample preservation, transport, storage, and laboratory analysis. In this program, we have developed and demonstrated in the field a transportable, high performance Raman spectrograph that can be used to detect and identify contaminants in a variety of scenarios. With no moving parts, the spectrograph is rugged and can perform many Raman measurements in situ with flexible fiber optic sampling probes. The instrument operates under computer control and a software package has been developed to collect and process spectral data. A collection of Raman spectra for 200 contaminants of DOE importance has been compiled in a searchable format to assist in the identification of unknown contaminants in the field.

  10. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  11. LOTUS: A low cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, I A; Jermak, H E; Barnsley, R M; Bates, S D; Clay, N R; Fitzsimmons, A; Jehin, E; Jones, G; Mottram, C J; Smith, R J; Snodgrass, C; de Val-Borro, M

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of LOTUS; a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5x95 arcsec) and wide (5x25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Angstroms with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependant spectral resolution of R=225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is less than 2 Angstroms rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its ...

  12. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)

    CERN Document Server

    De Pontieu, B; Lemen, J; Kushner, G D; Akin, D J; Allard, B; Berger, T; Boerner, P; Cheung, M; Chou, C; Drake, J F; Duncan, D W; Freeland, S; Heyman, G F; Hoffman, C; Hurlburt, N E; Lindgren, R W; Mathur, D; Rehse, R; Sabolish, D; Seguin, R; Schrijver, C J; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J -P; Wolfson, C J; Yanari, C; Mudge, J; Nguyen-Phuc, N; Timmons, R; van Bezooijen, R; Weingrod, I; Brookner, R; Butcher, G; Dougherty, B; Eder, J; Knagenhjelm, V; Larsen, S; Mansir, D; Phan, L; Boyle, P; Cheimets, P N; DeLuca, E E; Golub, L; Gates, R; Hertz, E; McKillop, S; Park, S; Perry, T; Podgorski, W A; Reeves, K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Tian, H; Weber, M; Dunn, C; Eccles, S; Jaeggli, S A; Kankelborg, C C; Mashburn, K; Pust, N; Springer, L; Carvalho, R; Kleint, L; Marmie, J; Mazmanian, E; Pereira, T M D; Sawyer, S; Strong, J; Worden, S P; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J; Wiesmann, M; Aloise, J; Chu, K -C; Bush, R I; Scherrer, P H; Brekke, P; Martinez-Sykora, J; Lites, B W; McIntosh, S W; Uitenbroek, H; Okamoto, T J; Gummin, M A; Auker, G; Jerram, P; Pool, P; Waltham, N

    2014-01-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer spacecraft provides simultaneous spectra and images of the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with 0.33-0.4 arcsec spatial resolution, 2 s temporal resolution and 1 km/s velocity resolution over a field-of-view of up to 175 arcsec x 175 arcsec. IRIS was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit on 27 June 2013 using a Pegasus-XL rocket and consists of a 19-cm UV telescope that feeds a slit-based dual-bandpass imaging spectrograph. IRIS obtains spectra in passbands from 1332-1358, 1389-1407 and 2783-2834 Angstrom including bright spectral lines formed in the chromosphere (Mg II h 2803 Angstrom and Mg II k 2796 Angstrom) and transition region (C II 1334/1335 Angstrom and Si IV 1394/1403 Angstrom). Slit-jaw images in four different passbands (C II 1330, Si IV 1400, Mg II k 2796 and Mg II wing 2830 Angstrom) can be taken simultaneously with spectral rasters that sample regions up to 130 arcsec x 175 arcsec at a variety of spatial sa...

  13. Cosmic ray escape from supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Gabici, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are believed to be accelerated at supernova remnants via diffusive shock acceleration. Though this mechanism gives fairly robust predictions for the spectrum of particles accelerated at the shock, the spectrum of the cosmic rays which are eventually injected in the interstellar medium is more uncertain and depends on the details of the process of particle escape from the shock. Knowing the spectral shape of these escaping particles is of crucial importance in order to assess the validity of the supernova remnant paradigm for cosmic ray origin. Moreover, after escaping from a supernova remnant, cosmic rays interact with the surrounding ambient gas and produce gamma rays in the vicinity of the remnant itself. The detection of this radiation can be used as an indirect proof of the fact that the supernova remnant was indeed accelerating cosmic rays in the past.

  14. Design, construction, and implementation of a ground-based solar spectrograph for the National Student Solar Spectrograph Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, E.; Moen, D.; Peck, C.; Zimny, C.; Repasky, K.

    2012-10-01

    A solar spectrograph is an instrument that takes incoming sunlight over a specified portion of the sun's emitted electromagnetic spectrum and separates the light into its constituent frequency components, or spectrum. The components are then sent to a detector that measures intensity, which reveals the location of spectral properties of the light such as absorption and emission lines. The National Student Solar Spectrograph Competition (NSSSC) is a Montana Space Grant Consortium sponsored competition where undergraduate student teams from across the country design, build, and implement a ground-based solar spectrograph to perform any solar related task and demonstrate their spectrographs for the competition in May 2012 in Bozeman, MT. Each team is given a 2,000-dollar budget to build their spectrograph, which cannot be exceeded, and all spectrographs must follow regulations in the NSSSC guidelines. This team designed a spectrograph to be capable of imaging the sun across the visible spectrum using spatial filters and a standard photo detector rather than a traditional charge-coupled device due to budget limitations. The spectrograph analyzes the spectrum of small sections of the sun to determine how the spectrum varies across solar features such as the corona, active regions, and quiet regions. In addition to solar imaging, the spectrograph will also analyze atmospheric absorption of the solar spectrum by comparing the measured spectrum to the theoretical spectrum calculated from the blackbody equation.

  15. Cosmological surveys with multi-object spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Colless, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy has been a key technique contributing to the current era of 'precision cosmology'. From the first exploratory surveys of the large-scale structure and evolution of the universe to the current generation of superbly detailed maps spanning a wide range of redshifts, multi-object spectroscopy has been a fundamentally important tool for mapping the rich structure of the cosmic web and extracting cosmological information of increasing variety and precision. This will continue to be true for the foreseeable future, as we seek to map the evolving geometry and structure of the universe over the full extent of cosmic history in order to obtain the most precise and comprehensive measurements of cosmological parameters. Here I briefly summarize the contributions that multi-object spectroscopy has made to cosmology so far, then review the major surveys and instruments currently in play and their prospects for pushing back the cosmological frontier. Finally, I examine some of the next generation ...

  16. New Results from Fermi-LAT and Their Implications for the Nature of Dark Matter and the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The measured spectrum is compatible with a power law within our current systematic errors. The spectral index (-3.04) is harder than expected from previous experiments and simple theoretical considerations. "Pre-Fermi" diffusive model requires a harder electron injection spectrum (by 0.12) to fit the Fermi data, but inconsistent with positron excess reported by Pamela if it extends to higher energy. Additional component of electron flux from local source(s) may solve the problem; its origin, astrophysical or exotic, is still unclear. Valuable contribution to the calculation of IC component of diffuse gamma radiation.

  17. Near ultraviolet spectrograph for balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2015-06-01

    Small and compact scientific payloads may be easily designed constructed and own on high altitude balloons. Despite the fact that large orbital observatories provide accurate observations and statistical studies of remote and/or faint space sources, small telescopes on board balloons or rockets are still attractive because of their low cost and rapid response time. We describe here a near ultraviolet (NUV) spectrograph designed to be own on a high{altitude balloon platform. Our basic optical design is a modified Czerny-Turner system using off the shelf optics. We compare different methods of aberration corrections in such a system. We intend the system to be portable and scalable to different telescopes. The use of reflecting optics reduces the transmission loss in UV. We plan on using an image intensified CMOS sensor operating in photon counting mode as the detector of choice.

  18. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph. 1. Principles and theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Mooij, J.M.; Maassen, J.D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-based optical diagnostics, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence and, especially, Raman imaging, often require selective spectral filtering. We advocate the use of an imaging spectrograph with a broad entrance slit as a spectral filter for two-dimensional imaging. A spectrograph in this mo

  19. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph. 1. Principles and theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Mooij, J.M.; Maassen, J.D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-based optical diagnostics, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence and, especially, Raman imaging, often require selective spectral filtering. We advocate the use of an imaging spectrograph with a broad entrance slit as a spectral filter for two-dimensional imaging. A spectrograph in this mo

  20. First light results from the Hermes spectrograph at the AAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheinis, A.; Barden, S.; Birchall, M.; Carollo, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brzeski, J.; Case, S.; Cannon, R.; Churilov, V.; Couch, W.; Dean, R.; De Silva, G.; D'Orazi, V.; Farrell, T.; Fiegert, K.; Freeman, K.; Frost, G.; Gers, L.; Goodwin, M.; Gray, D.; Heald, R.; Heijmans, J.A.C.; Jones, D.; Keller, S.; Klauser, U.; Kondrat, Y.; Lawrence, J.; Lee, S.; Mali, S.; Martell, S.; Mathews, D.; Mayfield, D.; Miziarski, S.; Muller, R.; Pai, N.; Patterson, R.; Penny, E.; Orr, D.; Shortridge, K.; Simpson, J.; Smedley, S.; Smith, G.; Stafford, D.; Staszak, N.; Vuong, M.; Waller, L.; Wylie de Boer, E.; Xavier, P.; Zheng, J.; Zhelem, R.; Zucker, D.

    2014-01-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph, HERMES is an facility-class optical spectrograph for the AAT. It is designed primarily for Galactic Archeology [21], the first major attempt to create a detailed understanding of galaxy formation and evolution by studying the history of

  1. First light results from the Hermes spectrograph at the AAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheinis, A.; Barden, S.; Birchall, M.; Carollo, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brzeski, J.; Case, S.; Cannon, R.; Churilov, V.; Couch, W.; Dean, R.; De Silva, G.; D'Orazi, V.; Farrell, T.; Fiegert, K.; Freeman, K.; Frost, G.; Gers, L.; Goodwin, M.; Gray, D.; Heald, R.; Heijmans, J.A.C.; Jones, D.; Keller, S.; Klauser, U.; Kondrat, Y.; Lawrence, J.; Lee, S.; Mali, S.; Martell, S.; Mathews, D.; Mayfield, D.; Miziarski, S.; Muller, R.; Pai, N.; Patterson, R.; Penny, E.; Orr, D.; Shortridge, K.; Simpson, J.; Smedley, S.; Smith, G.; Stafford, D.; Staszak, N.; Vuong, M.; Waller, L.; Wylie de Boer, E.; Xavier, P.; Zheng, J.; Zhelem, R.; Zucker, D.

    2014-01-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph, HERMES is an facility-class optical spectrograph for the AAT. It is designed primarily for Galactic Archeology [21], the first major attempt to create a detailed understanding of galaxy formation and evolution by studying the history of

  2. Cosmic rays: a review for astrobiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Franco; Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    Cosmic rays represent one of the most fascinating research themes in modern astronomy and physics. Significant progress is being made toward an understanding of the astrophysics of the sources of cosmic rays and the physics of interactions in the ultrahigh-energy range. This is possible because several new experiments in these areas have been initiated. Cosmic rays may hold answers to a great number of fundamental questions, but they also shape our natural habitat and influence the radiation environment of our planet Earth. The importance of the study of cosmic rays has been acknowledged in many fields, including space weather science and astrobiology. Here, we concentrate on the astrobiological aspects of cosmic rays with regard to the enormous amount of new data available, some of which may, in fact, improve our knowledge about the radiation of cosmic origin on Earth. We focus on fluxes arriving at Earth and doses received, and will guide the reader through the wealth of scientific literature on cosmic rays. We have prepared a concise and self-contained source of data and recipes useful for performing interdisciplinary research in cosmic rays and their effects on life on Earth.

  3. Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabaza, O., E-mail: ovidio@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Department of Systems and Automatic Engineering, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Zeman, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Technicka 2, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Sabau-Graziati, L. [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

  4. Origins Space Telescope: Interstellar Medium, Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cara; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to the Interstellar Medium (ISM), the Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies. Origins will enable a comprehensive view of magnetic fields, turbulence, and the multi-phase ISM; connecting physics at all scales, from galaxies to protostellar cores. With unprecedented sensitivity, Origins will measure and characterize the mechanisms of feedback from star formation and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) over cosmic time and trace the trail of water from interstellar clouds, to protoplanetary disks, to Earth itself in order to understand the abundance and availability of water for habitable planets.

  5. The Cosmic DUNE dust astronomy mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grun, E.; Srama, R.; Cosmic Dune Team

    A dust astronomy mission aims at the simultaneous measurement of the origin and the chemical composition of individual dust grains in space. Interstellar dust traversing the solar system constitutes the galactic solid phase of matter from which stars and planetary systems form. Interplanetary dust, from comets and asteroids, represents remnant material from bodies at different stages of early solar system evolution. Thus, studies of interstellar and interplanetary dust with Cosmic DUNE (Cosmic Dust Near Earth) will provide a comparison between the composition of the interstellar medium and primitive planetary objects. Cosmic DUNE will prepare the way for effective collection in near-Earth space of interstellar and interplanetary dust for subsequent return to Earth and analysis in laboratories. Cosmic DUNE establishes the next logical step beyond NASA's Stardust mission, with four major advancements in cosmic dust research: (1) Analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of individual cosmic dust grains, (2) determination of the size distribution of interstellar dust, (3) characterization of the interstellar dust flow through the planetary system, and (4) analysis of interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. This mission goal will be reached with novel dust instrumentation. A dust telescope trajectory sensor has been developed which is capable of obtaining precision trajectories of sub-micron sized particles in space. A new high mass resolution dust analyzer of 0.1m2 impact area can cope with the low fluxes expected in interplanetary space. Cosmic DUNE will be proposed to ESA in response to its upcoming call for mission ideas.

  6. Design and Construction of VUES: the Vilnius University Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Jurgenson, Colby; McCracken, Tyler; Sawyer, David; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Giguere, Matt; Santoro, Fernando; Muller, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In February of 2014 the Yale Exoplanet Laboratory was commissioned to design, build, and deliver a high resolution (R = 60,000) spectrograph for the 1.65-meter telescope at the Moletai Astronomical Observatory. The observatory is operated by the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy at Vilnius University. The Vilnius University Echelle Spectrograph (VUES) is a white-pupil design that is fed via an octagonal fiber from the telescope and has an operational bandpass from 400 to 880 nm. VUES incorporates a novel modular optomechanical design that allows for quick assembly and alignment on commercial optical tables. This approach allowed the spectrograph to be assembled and commissioned at Yale using lab optical tables and then reassembled at the observatory on a different optical table with excellent repeatability. The assembly and alignment process for the spectrograph was reduced to a few days, allowing the spectrograph to be completely disassembled for shipment to Lithuania, and then installed at the ...

  7. Recent developments in cosmic ray physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 50125 Firenze (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale F. Crispi 6, 60100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    The search for a theory of the origin of cosmic rays that may be considered as a standard, agreeable model is still ongoing. On one hand, much circumstantial evidence exists of the fact that supernovae in our Galaxy play a crucial role in producing the bulk of cosmic rays observed on Earth. On the other hand, important questions about their ability to accelerate particles up to the knee remain unanswered. The common interpretation of the knee as a feature coinciding with the maximum energy of the light component of cosmic rays and a transition to a gradually heavier mass composition is mainly based on KASCADE results. Some recent data appear to question this finding: YAC1 – Tibet Array and ARGO-YBJ find a flux reduction in the light component at ∼ 700 TeV, appreciably below the knee. Whether the maximum energy of light nuclei is as high as 3000 TeV or rather as low as a few hundred TeV has very important consequences on the supernova remnant paradigm for the origin of cosmic rays, as well on the crucial issue of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. In such a complex phenomenological situation, it is important to have a clear picture of what is really known and what is not. Here I will discuss some solid and less solid aspects of the theory (or theories) for the origin of cosmic rays and the implications for future searches in this field.

  8. Interacting Cosmic Rays with Molecular Clouds: A Bremsstrahlung Origin of Diffuse High Energy Emission from the Inner 2deg by 1deg of the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Wardle, M; Tatischeff, V; Roberts, D; Cotton, W; Uchiyama, H; Nobukawa, M; Tsuru, T G; Heinke, C; Royster, M

    2012-01-01

    The high energy activity in the inner few degrees of the Galactic center is traced by diffuse radio, X-ray and gamma-ray emission. The physical relationship between different components of diffuse gas emitting at multiple wavelengths is a focus of this work. We first present radio continuum observations using Green Bank Telescope and model the nonthermal spectrum in terms of a broken power-law distribution of GeV electrons emitting synchrotron radiation. We show that the emission detected by Fermi is primarily due to nonthermal bremsstrahlung produced by the population of synchrotron emitting electrons in the GeV energy range interacting with neutral gas. The extrapolation of the electron population measured from radio data to low and high energies can also explain the origin of FeI 6.4 keV line and diffuse TeV emission, as observed with Suzaku, XMM-Newton, Chandra and the H.E.S.S. observatories. The inferred physical quantities from modeling multi-wavelength emission in the context of bremsstrahlung emission...

  9. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  10. The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Overview of innovative science programs

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Shelley A; Moore, Anna M; Do, Tuan; Simard, Luc; Adamkovics, Mate; Armus, Lee; Barth, Aaron J; Barton, Elizabeth; Cooke, Hope Boyce Jeffrey; Cote, Patrick; Davidge, Timothy; Ellerbroek, Brent; Ghez, Andrea; Liu, Michael C; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce A; Mao, Shude; Marois, Christian; Schoeck, Mathias; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tan, Jonathan C; Treu, Tommaso; Wang, Lianqi; Weiss, Jason

    2014-01-01

    IRIS (InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph) is a first light near-infrared diffraction limited imager and integral field spectrograph being designed for the future Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is optimized to perform astronomical studies across a significant fraction of cosmic time, from our Solar System to distant newly formed galaxies (Barton et al. [1]). We present a selection of the innovative science cases that are unique to IRIS in the era of upcoming space and ground-based telescopes. We focus on integral field spectroscopy of directly imaged exoplanet atmospheres, probing fundamental physics in the Galactic Center, measuring 10^4 to 10^10 Msun supermassive black hole masses, resolved spectroscopy of young star-forming galaxies (1 < z < 5) and first light galaxies (6 < z < 12), and resolved spectroscopy of strong gravitational lensed sources to measure dark matter substructure. For each of these science cases we use the IRIS simulator (Wright et al. [2], Do et al. [3]) to explore IRIS capabi...

  11. Exploring variations in the fundamental constants with ELTs: the CODEX spectrograph on OWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, Paolo; Murphy, Michael T.; Levshakov, Sergei A.

    Cosmological variations in the fine structure constant, α, can be probed through precise velocity measurements of metallic absorption lines from intervening gas clouds seen in spectra of distant quasars. Data from the Keck/HIRES instrument support a variation in α of 6 parts per million. Such a variation would have profound implications, possibly providing a window into the extra spatial dimensions required by unified theories such as string/M-theory. However, recent results from VLT/UVES suggest no variation in α. The COsmic Dynamics EXperiment (CODEX) spectrograph currently being designed for the ESO OWL telescope (Pasquini et al. 2005) with a resolution high enough to properly resolve even the narrowest of metallic absorption lines, R > 150000, will achieve a 2-to-3 order-of-magnitude precision increase in Δα/α. This will rival the precision available from the Oklo natural fission reactor and upcoming satellite-borne atomic clock experiments. Given the vital constraints on fundamental physics possible, the ELT community must consider such a high-resolution optical spectrograph like CODEX.

  12. Acceleration of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhko, E [Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Ave., 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: berezhko@ikfia.ysn.ru

    2008-07-15

    Cosmic ray (CR) origin problem is briefly discussed. It is argued that CRs with energies up to 10{sup 17} eV are produced in galactic supernova remnants, whereas ultra high energy CRs are extragalactic. CR composition strongly changes within the transition from galactic to extragalactic CR component, therefore precise measurements of CR composition at energies 10{sup 17} - 10{sup 19} eV are needed for the reliable determination of this transition. The possible sources of extragalactic CRs are briefly discussed. It is argued that CR acceleration at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei has to be considered as a prime candidate for the sources of extragalactic CRs.

  13. Cosmic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  14. A small-scale dynamo in feedback-dominated galaxies as the origin of cosmic magnetic fields - I. The kinematic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Teyssier, Romain

    2016-04-01

    The origin and evolution of magnetic fields in the Universe is still an open question. Their observations in galaxies suggest strong magnetic fields already at high redshift as well as at present time. However, neither primordial magnetic fields nor battery processes can account for such high field strengths, which implies the presence of a dynamo process with rapid growth rates in high-redshift galaxies and subsequent maintenance against decay. We investigate the particular role played by feedback mechanisms in creating strong fluid turbulence, allowing for a magnetic dynamo to emerge. Performing magnetohydrodynamic simulations of isolated cooling gas haloes, we compare the magnetic field evolution for various initial field topologies and various stellar feedback mechanisms. We find that feedback can indeed drive strong gas turbulence and dynamo action. We see typical properties of Kolmogorov turbulence with a k-5/3 kinetic energy spectrum, as well as a small-scale dynamo, with a k3/2 magnetic energy spectrum predicted by Kazantsev dynamo theory. We also investigate simulations with a final quiescent phase. As turbulence decreases, the galactic fountain settles into a thin, rotationally supported disc. The magnetic field develops a large-scale well-ordered structure with even symmetry, which is in good agreement with magnetic field observations of nearby spirals. Our findings suggest that weak initial seed fields were first amplified by a small-scale dynamo during a violent feedback-dominated early phase in the galaxy formation history, followed by a more quiescent evolution, where the fields have slowly decayed or were maintained via large-scale dynamo action.

  15. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pontieu, B.; Title, A. M.; Lemen, J. R.; Kushner, G. D.; Akin, D. J.; Allard, B.; Berger, T.; Boerner, P.; Cheung, M.; Chou, C.; Drake, J. F.; Duncan, D. W.; Freeland, S.; Heyman, G. F.; Hoffman, C.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Lindgren, R. W.; Mathur, D.; Rehse, R.; Sabolish, D.; Seguin, R.; Schrijver, C. J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wülser, J.-P.; Wolfson, C. J.; Yanari, C.; Mudge, J.; Nguyen-Phuc, N.; Timmons, R.; van Bezooijen, R.; Weingrod, I.; Brookner, R.; Butcher, G.; Dougherty, B.; Eder, J.; Knagenhjelm, V.; Larsen, S.; Mansir, D.; Phan, L.; Boyle, P.; Cheimets, P. N.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Gates, R.; Hertz, E.; McKillop, S.; Park, S.; Perry, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Reeves, K.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Tian, H.; Weber, M.; Dunn, C.; Eccles, S.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Mashburn, K.; Pust, N.; Springer, L.; Carvalho, R.; Kleint, L.; Marmie, J.; Mazmanian, E.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Sawyer, S.; Strong, J.; Worden, S. P.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. H.; Leenaarts, J.; Wiesmann, M.; Aloise, J.; Chu, K.-C.; Bush, R. I.; Scherrer, P. H.; Brekke, P.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Lites, B. W.; McIntosh, S. W.; Uitenbroek, H.; Okamoto, T. J.; Gummin, M. A.; Auker, G.; Jerram, P.; Pool, P.; Waltham, N.

    2014-07-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer spacecraft provides simultaneous spectra and images of the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with 0.33 - 0.4 arcsec spatial resolution, two-second temporal resolution, and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution over a field-of-view of up to 175 arcsec × 175 arcsec. IRIS was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit on 27 June 2013 using a Pegasus-XL rocket and consists of a 19-cm UV telescope that feeds a slit-based dual-bandpass imaging spectrograph. IRIS obtains spectra in passbands from 1332 - 1358 Å, 1389 - 1407 Å, and 2783 - 2834 Å, including bright spectral lines formed in the chromosphere (Mg ii h 2803 Å and Mg ii k 2796 Å) and transition region (C ii 1334/1335 Å and Si iv 1394/1403 Å). Slit-jaw images in four different passbands (C ii 1330, Si iv 1400, Mg ii k 2796, and Mg ii wing 2830 Å) can be taken simultaneously with spectral rasters that sample regions up to 130 arcsec × 175 arcsec at a variety of spatial samplings (from 0.33 arcsec and up). IRIS is sensitive to emission from plasma at temperatures between 5000 K and 10 MK and will advance our understanding of the flow of mass and energy through an interface region, formed by the chromosphere and transition region, between the photosphere and corona. This highly structured and dynamic region not only acts as the conduit of all mass and energy feeding into the corona and solar wind, it also requires an order of magnitude more energy to heat than the corona and solar wind combined. The IRIS investigation includes a strong numerical modeling component based on advanced radiative-MHD codes to facilitate interpretation of observations of this complex region. Approximately eight Gbytes of data (after compression) are acquired by IRIS each day and made available for unrestricted use within a few days of the observation.

  16. Cosmic rays on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allkofer, O. C.; Grieder, P. K. F.

    Contents: Cosmic rays in the atmosphere: Charged hadron data. Neutron data. Gamma-ray data. Electron data. Muon data. Data on nuclei. Data on antiparticles. Cosmic rays at sea level: Muon data. Charged hadron data.Neutron data. Electron data. Gamma-ray data. Data on nuclei. Cosmic rays underground: Muon data. Neutrino data.

  17. Cosmic Censorship for Gowdy Spacetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringström, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Due to the complexity of Einstein's equations, it is often natural to study a question of interest in the framework of a restricted class of solutions. One way to impose a restriction is to consider solutions satisfying a given symmetry condition. There are many possible choices, but the present article is concerned with one particular choice, which we shall refer to as Gowdy symmetry. We begin by explaining the origin and meaning of this symmetry type, which has been used as a simplifying assumption in various contexts, some of which we shall mention. Nevertheless, the subject of interest here is strong cosmic censorship. Consequently, after having described what the Gowdy class of spacetimes is, we describe, as seen from the perspective of a mathematician, what is meant by strong cosmic censorship. The existing results on cosmic censorship are based on a detailed analysis of the asymptotic behavior of solutions. This analysis is in part motivated by conjectures, such as the BKL conjecture, which we shall therefore briefly describe. However, the emphasis of the article is on the mathematical analysis of the asymptotics, due to its central importance in the proof and in the hope that it might be of relevance more generally. The article ends with a description of the results that have been obtained concerning strong cosmic censorship in the class of Gowdy spacetimes.

  18. A spectrograph for studying pulsed infrared laser spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, G.B.; Filippov, V.N.; Komissarova, I.I.; Ostrobskii, U.I.; Ostrovskaya, G.V.; Paritskii, L.G.; Shevova, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    A spectrograph used to record the pulsed infrared spectra in a wavelength range which exceeds the sensitivity limits of standard photographic materials is described. The spectrograph is built using a standard scheme with mirror optics (f = 60 centimeters) and a diffraction grating 50 lines per millimeter. The recording process involves exposing the photomaterial to a pulsed emission source which is synchronized with a reference infrared emission source created using a purple relief photomaterial. The recording sensitivity is 10exp-2 joules per square centimeter. An interlaced pulsed CO2 laser emission spectrum is derived using the spectrograph.

  19. Fibre positioning algorithms for the WEAVE spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrett, David L.; Lewis, Ian J.; Dalton, Gavin; Abrams, Don Carlos; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Middleton, Kevin; Trager, Scott C.

    2014-07-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick and place" fibre fed spectrograph with more than one thousand fibres, similar in concept to the Australian Astronomical Observatory's 2dF1 instrument with two observing plates, one of which is observing the sky while other is being reconfigured by a robotic fibre positioner. It will be capable of acquiring more than 10000 star or galaxy spectra a night. The WEAVE positioner concept uses two robots working in tandem in order to reconfigure a fully populated field within the expected 1 hour dwell-time for the instrument (a good match between the required exposure times and the limit of validity for a given configuration due to the effects of differential refraction). This presents additional constraints and complications for the software that determines the optimal path from one configuration to the next, particularly given the large number of fibre crossings implied by the 1000 fibre multiplex. This paper describes the algorithms and programming techniques used in the prototype implementations of the field configuration tool and the fibre positioner robot controller developed to support the detailed design of WEAVE.

  20. Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1985-08-01

    The design and fabrication of an objective-grating echelle spectrograph to fly on sounding rockets and record spectra of stars from approximately 920 to 1120A with a resolving power lambda/delta lambda = 200,000 is discussed. The scientific purpose of the program is to observe, with ten times better velocity resolution than before, the plentiful absorption lines in this spectral region produced by atoms, ions and molecules in the interstellar medium. In addition, an important technical goal is to develop and flight-quality a new ultraviolet, photon-counting image sensor which has a windowless, opaque photocathode and a CCD bombarded directly by the accelerated photoelectrons. Except for some initial difficulties with the performance of CCDs, the development of the payload instrument is relatively straightforward and our overall design goals are satisfied. The first flight occurred in late 1984, but no data were obtained because of an inrush of air degraded the instrument's vacuum and caused the detector's high voltage to arc. A second flight in early 1985 was a complete success and obtained a spectrum of pi Sco. Data from this mission are currently being reduced; quick-look versions of the spectra indicate that excellent results will be obtained. Currently, the payload is being reconfigured to fly on a Spartan mission in 1988.

  1. Cosmic antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D

    2012-01-01

    Possibility of gravitational repulsion in General Relativity is discussed and astronomical data in favor of cosmological acceleration are described. The problem of vacuum energy is emphasized and possible ways of its solution are indicated. The main attention is payed to adjustment mechanism which in principle could compensate originally huge vacuum energy down to cosmologically acceptable value and to solve the coincidence problem of a close magnitudes of the non-compensated remnants of vacuum energy and the energy density of the universe at the present time. Finally possible modifications of gravity at large scales which could induce accelerated cosmological expansion are considered.

  2. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  3. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  4. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity is (essence and 4 stages of evolution: 1. Humanity living on Earth, sensing, knowing, understanding its cosmic origin, relationship with the cosmos and cosmic destiny. 2. Humanity living on Earth, leading aerospace activity for the purposes of exploration and use of aerospace space (Heaven, Space for survival and development. 3. Humanity living on Earth and outside the Earth — in the solar system, preserving the Earth and mastering the Cosmos for survival and development. 4. Humanity, settled and living in the Cosmos. Now humanity is in the process of transition from the second to the third stage. In the process of this evolution, a complex transformation of man and society takes place. The problem-semantic field of cosmic humanity is described and its general model is presented. The meta-goal-setting is the justification of cosmic humanity with the application of the anthropic principle and its “active” super (post anthropic supplement: “Cosmic humanity has an evolutionary purpose to actively manage evolution: change man, humanity and the universe.” The evolution of the “cosmic dream”, goals and technologies of space activities is formalized in the form of a conceptual model. Challenges and negative trends are considered in connection with the crisis of space activity, criticism and attempts to limit the flights of people into space. The prototype of cosmic humanity, its basis and acting model is the cosmonauts’ community. The main

  5. The Photonic TIGER: a multicore fiber-fed spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-01-01

    We present a proof of concept compact diffraction limited high-resolution fiber-fed spectrograph by using a 2D multicore array input. This high resolution spectrograph is fed by a 2D pseudo-slit, the Photonic TIGER, a hexagonal array of near-diffraction limited single-mode cores. We study the feasibility of this new platform related to the core array separation and rotation with respect to the dispersion axis. A 7 core compact Photonic TIGER fiber-fed spectrograph with a resolving power of around R~31000 and 8 nm bandwidth in the IR centered on 1550 nm is demonstrated. We also describe possible architectures based on this concept for building small scale compact diffraction limited Integral Field Spectrographs (IFS).

  6. Bayesian Cosmic Web Reconstruction: BARCODE for Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, E G Patrick; Kitaura, Francisco; Cautun, Marius

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Bayesian BARCODE formalism that has been designed towards the reconstruction of the Cosmic Web in a given volume on the basis of the sampled galaxy cluster distribution. Based on the realization that the massive compact clusters are responsible for the major share of the large scale tidal force field shaping the anisotropic and in particular filamentary features in the Cosmic Web. Given the nonlinearity of the constraints imposed by the cluster configurations, we resort to a state-of-the-art constrained reconstruction technique to find a proper statistically sampled realization of the original initial density and velocity field in the same cosmic region. Ultimately, the subsequent gravitational evolution of these initial conditions towards the implied Cosmic Web configuration can be followed on the basis of a proper analytical model or an N-body computer simulation. The BARCODE formalism includes an implicit treatment for redshift space distortions. This enables a direct reconstruction on the ...

  7. Cosmic ray physics with ARGO-YBJ

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The ARGO--YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for more than five years at the Yangbajing cosmic ray observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l.). The detector collected about $5\\times10^{11}$ events in a wide energy range from few TeVs up to the PeV region. In this work we summarize the latest results in cosmic ray physics particularly focusing on the cosmic ray energy spectrum. The results of the measurement of the all-particle and proton plus helium energy spectra in the energy region between $10^{12} - 10^{16}$ eV are discussed. A precise measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition in this energy region allows a better understanding of the origin of the knee and provides a powerful cross-check among different experimental techniques.

  8. An integral field spectrograph utilizing mirrorlet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-09-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 mÅ) across a 15 Å spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  9. An Integral Field Spectrograph Utilizing Mirrorlet Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-01-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 m) across a 15 spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  10. Prime Focus Spectrograph for the Subaru telescope: massively multiplexed optical and near-infrared fiber spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Sugai, Hajime; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Takato, Naruhisa; Kimura, Masahiko; Ohyama, Youichi; Ueda, Akitoshi; Aghazarian, Hrand; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Barkhouser, Robert H; Bennett, Charles L; Bickerton, Steve; Bozier, Alexandre; Braun, David F; Bui, Khanh; Capocasale, Christopher M; Carr, Michael A; Castilho, Bruno; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Chou, Richard C Y; Dawson, Olivia R; Dekany, Richard G; Ek, Eric M; Ellis, Richard S; English, Robin J; Ferrand, Didier; Ferreira, Décio; Fisher, Charles D; Golebiowski, Mirek; Gunn, James E; Hart, Murdock; Heckman, Timothy M; Ho, Paul T P; Hope, Stephen; Hovland, Larry E; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Hu, Yen-Shan; Huang, Pin Jie; Jaquet, Marc; Karr, Jennifer E; Kempenaar, Jason G; King, Matthew E; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Mignant, David Le; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H; Madec, Fabrice; Mao, Peter; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Ménard, Brice; Morantz, Chaz; Murayama, Hitoshi; Murray, Graham J; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; Orndorff, Joe D; Vilaça, Rodrigo de Paiva; Partos, Eamon J; Pascal, Sandrine; Pegot-Ogier, Thomas; Reiley, Daniel J; Riddle, Reed; Santos, Leandro; Santos, Jesulino Bispo dos; Schwochert, Mark A; Seiffert, Michael D; Smee, Stephen A; Smith, Roger M; Steinkraus, Ronald E; Sodré, Laerte; Spergel, David N; Surace, Christian; Tresse, Laurence; Vidal, Clément; Vives, Sebastien; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Wu, Amy C; Wyse, Rosie; Yan, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is an optical/near-infrared multifiber spectrograph with 2394 science fibers distributed across a 1.3-deg diameter field of view at the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. The wide wavelength coverage from 0.38 {\\mu}m to 1.26 {\\mu}m, with a resolving power of 3000, simultaneously strengthens its ability to target three main survey programs: cosmology, galactic archaeology and galaxy/AGN evolution. A medium resolution mode with a resolving power of 5000 for 0.71 {\\mu}m to 0.89 {\\mu}m will also be available by simply exchanging dispersers. We highlight some of the technological aspects of the design. To transform the telescope focal ratio, a broad-band coated microlens is glued to each fiber tip. A higher transmission fiber is selected for the longest part of the cable system, optimizing overall throughput; a fiber with low focal ratio degradation is selected for the fiber-positioner and fiber-slit components, minimizing the effects of fiber movements and fiber bending. Fiber positioning ...

  11. Modelling high resolution Echelle spectrographs for calibrations: Hanle Echelle spectrograph, a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani

    2015-01-01

    We present a modelling scheme that predicts the centroids of spectral line features for a high resolution Echelle spectrograph to a high accuracy. Towards this, a computing scheme is used, whereby any astronomical spectrograph can be modelled and controlled without recourse to a ray tracing program. The computations are based on paraxial ray trace and exact corrections added for certain surface types and Buchdahl aberration coefficients for complex modules. The resultant chain of paraxial ray traces and corrections for all relevant components is used to calculate the location of any spectral line on the detector under all normal operating conditions with a high degree of certainty. This will allow a semi-autonomous control using simple in-house, programming modules. The scheme is simple enough to be implemented even in a spreadsheet or in any scripting language. Such a model along with an optimization routine can represent the real time behaviour of the instrument. We present here a case study for Hanle Echel...

  12. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Alessandro [INFN and Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, I-33100 Udine (Italy); LIP/IST Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  13. Supernova Remnants as the Sources of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays holds still manymysteries hundred years after they were first discovered. Supernova remnants have for long been the most likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. I discuss here some recent evidence that suggests that supernova remnants can indeed efficiently accelerate cosmi

  14. Supernova Remnants as the Sources of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vink

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays holds still manymysteries hundred years after they were first discovered. Supernova remnants have for long been the most likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. I discuss here some recent evidence that suggests that supernova remnants can indeed efficiently accelerate cosmi

  15. On The Cosmic Origins Of Carbon & Nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C; Köppen, J

    2001-01-01

    We employ analytical and numerical chemical evolution models to study observed trends in abundance ratios involving carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Several sets of published stellar yields for both intermediate-mass and massive stars are considered, and the most appropriate sets are selected through the use of analytical models. These yields are then used in the numerical models to match observed data trends in C/O, N/O, and O/H. We conclude that the principal production site for carbon is massive stars, while that for nitrogen is intermediate-mass stars.

  16. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Blanc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV integral field unit (IFU spectrograph in the world (1.7′×1.7′. It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16′ diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX. Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormously. Here I review the contributions of the Mitchell Spectrograph to the study of nearby galaxies, from the investigation the spatial distribution of dark matter and the properties of supermassive black holes, to the studies of the process of star formation and the chemical composition of stars and gas in the ISM, which provide important information regarding the formation and evolution of these systems. I highlight the fact that wide field integral field spectrographs on small and medium size telescopes can be powerful cost effective tools to study the astrophysics of galaxies. Finally I briefly discuss the potential of HETDEX for conducting studies on nearby galaxies. The survey parameters make it complimentary and competitive to ongoing and future surveys like SAMI and MANGA.

  17. 4MOST low-resolution spectrograph: design and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, F.; Kosmalski, Johan; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Pécontal, Arlette; Richard, Johan; Barden, Samuel C.; Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Frey, Steffen; Saviauk, Allar

    2016-08-01

    4MOST, the 4m Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope, is an upcoming optical, fibre-fed, MOS facility for the VISTA telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile. Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, highenergy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. The preliminary design of 4MOST features 2436 fibres split into lowresolution (1624 fibres, 370-950 nm, R > 4000) and high-resolution spectrographs (812 fibres, three arms, 44-69 nm coverage each, R >18000) with a fibre positioner and covering an hexagonal field of view of 4.1 deg2. The 4MOST consortium consists of several institutes in Europe and Australia under leadership of the Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik, Potsdam (AIP). 4MOST is currently in its Preliminary Design Phase with an expected start of science operations in 2021. Two third of fibres go to two Low Resolution Spectrographs with three channels per spectrograph. Each low resolution spectrograph is composed of 812 scientific and 10 calibration fibres using 85μm core fibres at f/3, a 200mm beam for an off-axis collimator associated to its Schmidt corrector, 3 arms with f/1.73 cameras and standard 6k x 6k 15μm pixel detectors. CRAL has the responsibility of the Low Resolution Spectrographs. In this paper, the optical design and performances of 4MOST Low Resolution Spectrograph designed for 4MOST PDR in June, 2016 will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on the Low Resolution Spectrograph system budget and performance analysis.

  18. A Common Solution of Two Cosmic Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, which was measured with the large area telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite at energy below 820 GeV, and of the diffuse cosmic background of neutrinos, which was observed at much higher energies with the IceCube detector deep under the south pole ice, are among the current unsolved major cosmic puzzles. Here we show that their properties indicate a common origin: the decay of mesons produced in collisions of cosmic rays accelerated in relativistic jets with matter in/near source. Moreover, their properties are those expected if their common source is the highly relativistic jets that produce the long duration gamma ray bursts in core collapse supernovae of type Ic, which take place mostly in the densest regions of giant molecular clouds in star forming galaxies.

  19. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  20. AN INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH FIRST VIEW ON SOLAR SPICULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, T. M. D.; De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Tarbell, T. D.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Wülser, J. P.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Kleint, L. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Tian, H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jaeggli, S.; Kankelborg, C., E-mail: tiago.pereira@astro.uio.no [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Solar spicules have eluded modelers and observers for decades. Since the discovery of the more energetic type II, spicules have become a heated topic but their contribution to the energy balance of the low solar atmosphere remains unknown. Here we give a first glimpse of what quiet-Sun spicules look like when observed with NASA's recently launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Using IRIS spectra and filtergrams that sample the chromosphere and transition region, we compare the properties and evolution of spicules as observed in a coordinated campaign with Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. Our IRIS observations allow us to follow the thermal evolution of type II spicules and finally confirm that the fading of Ca II H spicules appears to be caused by rapid heating to higher temperatures. The IRIS spicules do not fade but continue evolving, reaching higher and falling back down after 500-800 s. Ca II H type II spicules are thus the initial stages of violent and hotter events that mostly remain invisible in Ca II H filtergrams. These events have very different properties from type I spicules, which show lower velocities and no fading from chromospheric passbands. The IRIS spectra of spicules show the same signature as their proposed disk counterparts, reinforcing earlier work. Spectroheliograms from spectral rasters also confirm that quiet-Sun spicules originate in bushes from the magnetic network. Our results suggest that type II spicules are indeed the site of vigorous heating (to at least transition region temperatures) along extensive parts of the upward moving spicular plasma.

  1. Maria Montessori's Cosmic Vision, Cosmic Plan, and Cosmic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This classic position of the breadth of Cosmic Education begins with a way of seeing the human's interaction with the world, continues on to the grandeur in scale of time and space of that vision, then brings the interdependency of life where each growing human becomes a participating adult. Mr. Grazzini confronts the laws of human nature in…

  2. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Guillermo A

    2014-01-01

    The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV) integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph in the world (1.7'x1.7'). It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16' diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormous...

  3. Design and Construction of VUES: The Vilnius University Echelle Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgenson, Colby; Fischer, Debra; McCracken, Tyler; Sawyer, David; Giguere, Matt; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Santoro, Fernando; Muller, Gary

    2016-03-01

    In February 2014, the Yale Exoplanet Laboratory was commissioned to design, build, and deliver a high resolution (R=60,000) spectrograph for the 1.65m telescope at the Molėtai Astronomical Observatory. The observatory is operated by the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy at Vilnius University. The Vilnius University Echelle Spectrograph (VUES) is a white-pupil design that is fed via an octagonal fiber from the telescope and has an operational bandpass from 400nm to 880nm. VUES incorporates a novel modular optomechanical design that allows for quick assembly and alignment on commercial optical tables. This approach allowed the spectrograph to be assembled and commissioned at Yale using lab optical tables and then reassembled at the observatory on a different optical table with excellent repeatability. The assembly and alignment process for the spectrograph was reduced to a few days, allowing the spectrograph to be completely disassembled for shipment to Lithuania, and then installed at the observatory during a 10-day period in June of 2015.

  4. High resolution spectrograph for the 4MOST facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Shan; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Cohen, Mathieu; Horville, David; Jagourel, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    4MOST (4-metre Multi-Object Spectrograph Telescope) is a wide field and high multiplex fibre-fed spectroscopic facility continuously running a public survey on one of ESO's 4-metre telescopes (NTT or VISTA). It is currently undergoing a concept study and comprises a multi-object (300) high resolution (20 000) spectrograph whose purpose is to provide detailed chemical information in two wavelength ranges (395-456.5 nm and 587-673 nm). It will complement the data produced by ESA's space mission Gaia to form an unprecedented galactic-archaeology picture of the Milky Way as the result of the public survey. Building on the developments carried out for the GYES1 instrument on the Canada- France-Hawaii Telescope in 2010, the spectrograph is intended as being athermal and not featuring any motorised parts for high reliability and minimum maintenance, thereby allowing it to operate every night for five years. In addition to the fixed configuration which allows fine-tuning the spectrograph to a precise need, it features a dual-arm architecture with volume-phase holographic gratings to achieve the required dispersion at a maximum efficiency in each channel. By combining high yield time-wise and photon-wise, the spectrograph is expected to deliver more than a million spectra and make the most out of the selected 4-metre telescope.

  5. Interactions of cosmic superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to (p; q)-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.

  6. Cosmic rays on earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted.

  7. Accurate Sky Continuum Subtraction with Fibre-fed Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yanbin; Puech, Mathieu; Flores, Hector; Royer, Frederic; Disseau, Karen; Gonçalves, Thiago; Hammer, François; Cirasuolo, Michele; Evans, Chris; Causi, Gianluca Li; Maiolino, Roberto; Melo, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Fibre-fed spectrographs now have throughputs equivalent to slit spectrographs. However, the sky subtraction accuracy that can be reached has often been pinpointed as one of the major issues associated with the use of fibres. Using technical time observations with FLAMES-GIRAFFE, two observing techniques, namely dual staring and cross beam-switching, were tested and the resulting sky subtraction accuracy reached in both cases was quantified. Results indicate that an accuracy of 0.6% on sky subtraction can be reached, provided that the cross beam-switching mode is used. This is very encouraging with regard to the detection of very faint sources with future fibre-fed spectrographs, such as VLT/MOONS or E-ELT/MOSAIC.

  8. The construction, alignment, and installation of the VIRUS spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian; Noyola, Eva; Drory, Niv; Cornell, Mark; Peterson, Trent; Chonis, Taylor; Allen, Richard; Dalton, Gavin; DePoy, Darren; Edmonston, Doug; Fabricius, Maximillian; Haynes, Dionne; Kelz, Andreas; Landriau, Martin; Lesser, Michael; Leach, Bob; Marshall, Jennifer; Murphy, Jeremy; Perry, David; Prochaska, Travis; Ramsey, Jason; Savage, Richard

    2014-07-01

    VIRUS is the massively replicated fiber-fed spectrograph being built for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope to support HETDEX (the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment). The instrument consists of 156 identical channels, fed by 34,944 fibers contained in 78 integral field units, deployed in the 22 arcminute field of the upgraded HET. VIRUS covers 350-550nm at R ≍ 700 and is built to target Lyman α emitters at 1.9 VIRUS spectrographs, including their alignment and plans for characterization. We briefly discuss plans for installation on the telescope. The spectrographs are being installed on the HET in several stages, and the instrument is due for completion by the end of 2014.

  9. Characteristics of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory's stellar spectrograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince Ištvan I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the main features of the new SpectraPro-750 spectrograph of Belgrade Astronomical Observatory are described. The instrumental profile of the spectrograph for the 1200 l/mm grating is determined using a fiber optic bundle with fibers arranged in a pseudo-slit pattern. This instrumental profile is compared to the instrumental profiles obtained when the same fiber optic bundle illuminates the entrance slit with different widths. From appropriate instrumental profiles the practical spectral purities and the spectral resolutions for different entrance slit widths are obtained. The variation of the reciprocal linear dispersion with wavelength in the spectral range 350 - 600 nm is determined. A proposal for a link between telescope and the spectrograph is given.

  10. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello

    2003-03-01

    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  11. Extreme Precision Environmental Control for Next Generation Radial Velocity Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Gudmundur K.; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad; Nelson, Matt; Halverson, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Extreme radial velocity precisions of order 10cm/s will enable the discoveries of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars. Temperature and pressure variations inside a spectrograph can lead to thermomechanical instabilities in the optics and mounts, and refractive index variations in both the optical elements as well as the surrounding air. Together, these variations can easily induce instrumental drifts of several tens to hundreds of meters per second. Enclosing the full optical train in thermally stabilized high-vacuum environments minimizes such errors. In this talk, I will discuss the Environmental Control System (ECS) for the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) spectrograph: a near infrared (NIR) facility class instrument we will commission at the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2016. The ECS will maintain the HPF optical bench stable at 180K at the sub milli-Kelvin level on the timescale of days, and at the few milli-Kelvin level over months to years. The entire spectrograph is kept under high-quality vacuum (compensated for with an actively controlled radiation shield outfitted with custom feedback electronics. High efficiency Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blankets, and a passive external thermal enclosure further isolate the optics from ambient perturbations. This environmental control scheme is versatile, suitable to stabilize both next generation NIR, and optical spectrographs. I will show how we are currently testing this control system for use with our design concept of the Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrograph (EPDS), the next generation optical spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. Our most recent results from full-scale stability tests will be presented.

  12. The image slicer for the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Tajitsu, Akito; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2012-01-01

    We report on the design, manufacturing, and performance of the image slicer for the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) on the Subaru Telescope. This instrument is a Bowen-Walraven type image slicer providing five 0.3 arcsec x 1.5 arcsec images with a resolving power of R= 110,000. The resulting resolving power and line profiles are investigated in detail, including estimates of the defocusing effect on the resolving power. The throughput in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm is higher than 80%, thereby improving the efficiency of the spectrograph by a factor of 1.8 for 0.7 arcsec seeing.

  13. Using a new, free spectrograph program to critically investigate acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Edward; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an online spectrograph program with a bank of over 30 audio clips to visualise a variety of sounds. Our audio library includes everyday sounds such as speech, singing, musical instruments, birds, a baby, cat, dog, sirens, a jet, thunder, and screaming. We provide a link to a video of the sound sources superimposed with their respective spectrograms in real time. Readers can use our spectrograph program to view our library, open their own desktop audio files, and use the program in real time with a computer microphone.

  14. An integral field spectrograph for SNAP supernova studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ealet, Anne; Prieto, E.; Bonissent, A.; Malina, R.; Basa, S.; LeFevre, O.; Mazure, A.; Tarle, G.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amidei, D.E.; Astier, P.; Baden, A.R.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bernstein, G.M.; Bower, C.R.; Campbell, M.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Curtis, D.W.; Deustua, S.E.; Edwards, W.R.; Ellis, R.S.; Fruchter, A.; Frye, B.L.; Genat, J.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Goodman, J.A.; Graham, J.R.; Hardin, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Honeycutt, R.; Holland, S.E.; Hook, I.; Huterer, D.; Kasen, D.N.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Lafever, R.; Lampton, M.L.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Levy, J.M.; Lidman, C.; Lin, R.P.; Linder, E.V.; Loken, S.C.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Metzger, M.R.; Miquel, R.; Mourao, A.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.A.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Pankow, D.H.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Refregier, A.; Rich, J.; Robinson, K.E.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schubnell, M.S.; Spadafora, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Sullivan, G.W.; Tomasch, A.D.; SNAP Collaboration

    2002-07-29

    A well-adapted spectrograph concept has been developed for the SNAP (SuperNova/Acceleration Probe) experiment. The goal is to ensure proper identification of Type Ia supernovae and to standardize the magnitude of each candidate by determining explosion parameters. An instrument based on an integral field method with the powerful concept of imager slicing has been designed and is presented in this paper. The spectrograph concept is optimized to have very high efficiency and low spectral resolution (R {approx} 100), constant through the wavelength range (0.35-1.7{micro}m), adapted to the scientific goals of the mission.

  15. CHISL: the combined high-resolution and imaging spectrograph for the LUVOIR surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; Hoadley, Keri

    2016-07-01

    NASA is currently carrying out science and technical studies to identify its next astronomy flagship mission, slated to begin development in the 2020s. It has become clear that a Large Ultraviolet/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission (dprimary ≍ 12 m, Δλ ≍ 1000 Å - 2 μm spectroscopic bandpass) can carry out the largest number of NASA's exoplanet and astrophysics science goals over the coming decades. The science grasp of a LUVOIR Surveyor is broad, ranging from the direct detection of potential biomarkers on rocky planets to the flow of matter into and out of galaxies and the history of star-formation across cosmic time. There are technical challenges for several aspects of the LUVOIR Surveyor concept, including component level technology readiness maturation and science instrument concepts for a broadly capable ultraviolet spectrograph. We present the scientific motivation for, and a preliminary design of, a multiplexed ultraviolet spectrograph to support both the exoplanet and astrophysics goals of the LUVOIR Surveyor mission concept, the Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor (CHISL). CHISL includes a highresolution (R ≍ 120,000; 1000 - 1700Å) point-source spectroscopy channel and a medium resolution (R >= 14,000 from 1000 - 2000 Å in a single observation and R 24,000 - 35,000 in multiple grating settings) imaging spectroscopy channel. CHISL addresses topics ranging from characterizing the composition and structure of planet-forming disks to the feedback of matter between galaxies and the intergalactic medium. We present the CHISL concept, a small sample of representative science cases, and the primary technological hurdles. Technical challenges include high-efficiency ultraviolet coatings and high-quantum efficiency, large-format, photon counting detectors. We are actively engaged in laboratory and flight characterization efforts for all of these enabling technologies as components on sounding rocket payloads under

  16. Cosmic multimuon bundles detected by DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Rídky, J

    2004-01-01

    The DELPHI detector located at LEP accelerator has been used also to measure multimuon bundles originated from cosmic ray interactions. Two subdetectors-hadron calorimeter and time projection chamber, are used for this purpose. The 1999 and 2000 data are analyzed over wide range of multiplicities. The multiplicity distribution is compared with prediction of Monte Carlo simulation based on CORSIKA/QGSJET. The Monte-Carlo does not describe the large multiplicity part of data. Even the extreme assumption on the cosmic ray composition (pure iron nuclei) hardly predicts comparable number of high-multiplicity events.

  17. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    pix - 766k] Caption to ESO PR Photo 37c/99 : This false-colour image has been extracted from another UVES echelle spectrum of SN 1987A, similar to the one shown in PR Photo 37b/99 , but with a slit width of 1 arcsec only. The upper part shows the emission lines of nitrogen, sulfur and hydrogen, as recorded in some of the spectral orders. The pixel coordinates (X,Y) in the original frame are indicated; the red colour indicates the highest intensities. Below is a more detailed view of the complex H-alpha emission line, with the corresponding velocities and the position along the spectrograph slit indicated. Several components of this line can be distinguished. The bulk of the emission (here shown in red colour) comes from the ring surrounding the supernova; the elongated shape here is due to the differential velocity exhibited by the near (to us) and far sides of the ring. The two bright spots on either side are emission from two outer rings (not immediately visible in PR Photo 37a/99 ). The extended emission in the velocity direction originates from material inside the ring upon which the fastest moving ejecta from the supernova have impacted (As seen in VLT data obtained previously with the ANTU/ISAAC combination (cf. PR Photo 11/99 ), exciting times now lie ahead for SN 1987A. The ejecta moving at 30,000 km/s (1/10th the speed of light) have now, 12 years after the explosion, reached the ring of material and the predicted "fireworks" are about to be ignited.) Finally, there is a broad emission extending all along the spectrograph slit (here mostly yellow) upon which the ring emission is superimposed. This is not associated with the supernova itself, but is H-alpha emission by diffuse gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in which SN 1987A is located. UVES First Light: QSO HE2217-2818 The power of UVES is demonstrated by this two-hour test exposure of the southern quasar QSO HE2217-2818 with U-magnitude = 16.5 and a redshift of z = 2.4. It was discovered a few years

  18. Eleventh European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific program was organized under three main headings: cosmic rays in the heliosphere, cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, and properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Selected short communications out of 114 contributed papers were indexed separately for the INIS database.

  19. Light scattering by cosmic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Min, M.

    2008-01-01

    We define cosmic particles as particles outside the Earth. Two types of cosmic particles can be distinguished, namely liquid and solid particles. The solid particles are often called grains or cosmic dust particles. Cosmic particles occur in a great variety of astronomical objects and environments.

  20. Supermassive cosmic string compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Reina, Borja; Sousa, Kepa; Urrestilla, Jon, E-mail: josejuan.blanco@ehu.es, E-mail: borja.reina@ehu.es, E-mail: kepa.sousa@ehu.es, E-mail: jon.urrestilla@ehu.es [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    The space-time dimensions transverse to a static straight cosmic string with a sufficiently large tension (supermassive cosmic strings) are compact and typically have a singularity at a finite distance form the core. In this paper, we discuss how the presence of multiple supermassive cosmic strings in the 4d Abelian-Higgs model can induce the spontaneous compactification of the transverse space and explicitly construct solutions where the gravitational background becomes regular everywhere. We discuss the embedding of this model in N = 1 supergravity and show that some of these solutions are half-BPS, in the sense that they leave unbroken half of the supersymmetries of the model.

  1. Supermassive Cosmic String Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Sousa, Kepa; Urrestilla, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The space-time dimensions transverse to a static straight cosmic string with a sufficiently large tension (supermassive cosmic strings) are compact and typically have a singularity at a finite distance form the core. In this paper, we discuss how the presence of multiple supermassive cosmic strings in the 4D Abelian-Higgs model can induce the spontaneous compactification of the transverse space and explicitly construct solutions where the gravitational background becomes regular everywhere. We discuss the embedding of this model in N=1 supergravity and show that some of these solutions are half-BPS, in the sense that they leave unbroken half of the supersymmetries of the model.

  2. Cosmic Strings and Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, Edmund J

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic strings are predicted by many field-theory models, and may have been formed at a symmetry-breaking transition early in the history of the universe, such as that associated with grand unification. They could have important cosmological effects. Scenarios suggested by fundamental string theory or M-theory, in particular the popular idea of brane inflation, also strongly suggest the appearance of similar structures. Here we review the reasons for postulating the existence of cosmic strings or superstrings, the various possible ways in which they might be detected observationally, and the special features that might discriminate between ordinary cosmic strings and superstrings.

  3. He-3 in galactic cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewaldt, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    Cosmic-ray He-3/He-4 observations, including a new measurement around 65 MeV per nucleon from ISEE-3, are compared with interstellar propagation and solar modulation calculations in an effort to understand the origin of cosmic-ray He nuclei. A survey of spacecraft and balloon observations of the He-3/He-4 ratio shows improved consistency among measurements in the 50-300 MeV per nucleon energy range when a previously neglected contribution from atmospheric secondary He-3 is taken into account. These low-energy observations imply a mean escape length of 6-8 g/sq cm in the standard leaky box model for cosmic-ray propagation in the Galaxy, a value consistent with that derived from studies of heavier nuclei. No evidence is found for an excess of low-energy He-3 such as that reported at high energies. 42 references.

  4. Cosmic ray antiprotons at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Cosmic ray antiprotons provide a powerful tool to probe dark matter annihilations in our galaxy. The sensitivity of this important channel is, however, diluted by sizable uncertainties in the secondary antiproton background. In this work, we improve the calculation of secondary antiproton production with a particular focus on the high energy regime. We employ the most recent collider data and identify a substantial increase of antiproton cross sections with energy. This increase is driven by the violation of Feynman scaling as well as by an enhanced strange hyperon production. The updated antiproton production cross sections are made publicly available for independent use in cosmic ray studies. In addition, we provide the correlation matrix of cross section uncertainties for the AMS-02 experiment. At high energies, the new cross sections improve the compatibility of the AMS-02 data with a pure secondary origin of antiprotons in cosmic rays.

  5. High Energy Cosmic Rays From Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays are charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with extremely high energies, providing striking evidence of the existence of effective accelerators in the Universe. Below an energy around $\\sim 10^{17}$ eV cosmic rays are believed to be produced in the Milky Way while above that energy their origin is probably extragalactic. In the early '30s supernovae were already identified as possible sources for the Galactic component of cosmic rays. After the '70s this idea has gained more and more credibility thanks to the the development of the diffusive shock acceleration theory, which provides a robust theoretical framework for particle energization in astrophysical environments. Afterwards, mostly in recent years, much observational evidence has been gathered in support of this framework, converting a speculative idea in a real paradigm. In this Chapter the basic pillars of this paradigm will be illustrated. This includes the acceleration mechanism, the non linear effects produced by accelerate...

  6. The Astrobiological Case for Our Cosmic Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    With steadily mounting evidence that points to a cosmic origin of terrestrial life, a cultural barrier prevails against admitting that such a connection exists. Astronomy continues to reveal the presence of organic molecules and organic dust on a huge cosmic scale, amounting to a third of interstellar carbon tied up in this form. Just as the overwhelming bulk of organics on Earth stored over geological timescales are derived from the degradation of living cells, so it seems most likely that interstellar organics in large measure also derive from biology. As we enter a new decade -- the year 2010 -- a clear pronouncement of our likely alien ancestry and of the existence of extraterrestrial life on a cosmic scale would seem to be overdue.

  7. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico

    1998-07-01

    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  8. CCD Readout Electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Hope, Stephen C; Loomis, Craig P; Fitzgerald, Roger E; Peacock, Grant O

    2014-01-01

    We present details of the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire band from 380 nm to 1260 nm through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k x 4k, 15 um pixel, detector format. The two visible cameras use a pair of Hamamatsu 2k x 4k CCDs with readout provided by custom electronics, while the NIR camera uses a single Teledyne HgCdTe 4k x 4k detector and ASIC Sidecar to read the device. The CCD readout system is a custom design comprised of three electrical subsystems: the Back End Electronics (BEE), the Front End Electronics (FEE), and a Pre-amplifier. The BEE is an off-the-shelf PC104 computer, with an auxiliary Xilinx FPGA module. The computer serves as the main...

  9. Optical Design of the SuMIRe PFS Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Pascal, Sandrine; Barkhouser, Robert; Gunn, James

    2014-01-01

    The SuMIRe Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS), developed for the 8-m class SUBARU telescope, will consist of four identical spectrographs, each receiving 600 fibers from a 2394 fiber robotic positioner at the telescope prime focus. Each spectrograph includes three spectral channels to cover the wavelength range 0.38-1.26 um with a resolving power ranging between 2000 and 4000. A medium resolution mode is also implemented to reach a resolving power of 5000 at 0.8 um. Each spectrograph is made of 4 optical units: the entrance unit which produces three corrected collimated beams and three camera units (one per spectral channel). The beam is split by using two large dichroics; and in each arm, the light is dispersed by large VPH gratings. The proposed optical design was optimized to achieve the requested image quality while simplifying the manufacturing of the whole optical system. The camera design consists in an innovative Schmidt camera observing a large field-of-view (10 degrees) with a very fast beam. To achieve...

  10. Galactic Archaeology with the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Masashi; Cohen, Judith; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present an overview of our Galactic Archaeology (GA) survey program with the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) for Subaru. Following successful design reviews, the instrument is now under construction with first light anticipated in 2018. Main characteristics of PFS and the science goals in our PFS/GA program are described.

  11. First Light Results from the Hermes Spectrograph at the AAT

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinis, Andrew; Asplund, Martin; Bacigalupo, Carlos; Barden, Sam; Birchall, Michael; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brzeski, Jurek; Cannon, Russell; Carollo, Daniela; Case, Scott; Casey, Andrew; Churilov, Vladimir; Warrick, Couch; Dean, Robert; De Silva, Gayandhi; D'Orazi, Valentina; Duong, Ly; Farrell, Tony; Fiegert, Kristin; Freeman, Kenneth; Gabriella, Frost; Gers, Luke; Goodwin, Michael; Gray, Doug; Green, Andrew; Heald, Ron; Heijmans, Jeroen; Ireland, Michael; Jones, Damien; Kafle, Prajwal; Keller, Stefan; Klauser, Urs; Kondrat, Yuriy; Kos, Janez; Lawrence, Jon; Lee, Steve; Mali, Slavko; Martell, Sarah; Mathews, Darren; Mayfield, Don; Miziarski, Stan; Muller, Rolf; Pai, Naveen; Patterson, Robert; Penny, Ed; Orr, David; Schlesinger, Katharine; Sharma, Sanjib; Shortridge, Keith; Simpson, Jeffrey; Smedley, Scott; Smith, Greg; Stafford, Darren; Staszak, Nicholas; Vuong, Minh; Waller, Lewis; de Boer, Elizabeth Wylie; Xavier, Pascal; Zheng, Jessica; Zhelem, Ross; Zucker, Daniel; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph, HERMES, is a facility-class optical spectrograph for the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). It is designed primarily for Galactic Archaeology, the first major attempt to create a detailed understanding of galaxy formation and evolution by studying the history of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The goal of the GALAH survey is to reconstruct the mass assembly history of the Milky Way through a detailed chemical abundance study of one million stars. The spectrograph is based at the AAT and is fed by the existing 2dF robotic fiber positioning system. The spectrograph uses volume phase holographic gratings to achieve a spectral resolving power of 28,000 in standard mode and also provides a high-resolution mode ranging between 40,000 and 50,000 using a slit mask. The GALAH survey requires an SNR greater than 100 for a star brightness of V ?= 14 in an exposure time of one hour. The total spectral coverage of the four channels is about 100 nm between 370 an...

  12. The Development of WIFIS: a Wide Integral Field Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Moon, Dae-Sik; Ma, Ke; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Eikenberry, Stephen S; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Sang Chul; Raines, Steven N; Eisner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We present the current results from the development of a wide integral field infrared spectrograph (WIFIS). WIFIS offers an unprecedented combination of etendue and spectral resolving power for seeing-limited, integral field observations in the 0.9-1.8 um range and is most sensitive in the 0.9-1.35 um range. Its optical design consists of front-end re-imaging optics, an all-reflective image slicer-type, integral field unit (IFU) called FISICA, and a long-slit grating spectrograph back-end that is coupled with a HAWAII 2RG focal plane array. The full wavelength range is achieved by selecting between two different gratings. By virtue of its re-imaging optics, the spectrograph is quite versatile and can be used at multiple telescopes. The size of its field-of-view is unrivalled by other similar spectrographs, offering a 4.5" x 12" integral field at a 10-meter class telescope (or 20" x 50" at a 2.3-meter telescope). The use of WIFIS will be crucial in astronomical problems which require wide-field, two-dimensiona...

  13. Fibre positioning concept for the WEAVE spectrograph at the WHT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, Ian J.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Brock, Matthew; Gilbert, James; Abrams, Don C.; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Middleton, Kevin; Trager, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick and place" fibre fed spectrograph with more than one thousand fibres behind a new dedicated 2° prime focus corrector, This is

  14. First light results from the HERMES spectrograph at the AAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2016-08-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph, HERMES is a facility-class optical spectrograph for the AAT. It is designed primarily for Galactic Archeology, the first major attempt to create a detailed understanding of galaxy formation and evolution by studying the history of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The goal of the Galactic Archeology with Hermes (GALAH) survey is to reconstruct the mass assembly history of the Milky Way, through a detailed spatially tagged abundance study of one million stars. The spectrograph is based at the Anglo Australian Telescope (AAT) and is fed by the existing 2dF robotic fiber positioning system. The spectrograph uses VPH-gratings to achieve a spectral resolving power of 28,000 in standard mode and also provides a high-resolution mode ranging between 40,000 to 50,000 using a slit mask. The GALAH survey requires a SNR greater than 100 for a star brightness of V=14. The total spectral coverage of the four channels is about 100nm between 370 and 1000nm for up to 392 simultaneous targets within the 2- degree field of view. Hermes was commissioned in late 2013, with the GALAH Pilot starting in parallel with the commissioning. The GALAH survey started in early 2014 is currently about 33% complete. We present a description of the motivating science; an overview the instrument; and a status report on GALAH Survey.

  15. A comparative performance evaluation of micro-Raman spectrograph using holographic notch filter and dielectric filter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R P Shukla; Sanjiva Kumar; A K Sinha; Manika Mallick; S Thakur; N K Sahoo

    2006-08-01

    An indigenously designed and developed micro-Raman spectrograph, consisting of a diode-pumped solid-state green laser for the excitation of Raman scattering, a Raman imaging microscope, CCD as a detector and a notch filter, has been extensively studied to evaluate its performance. A dielectric edge filter (having 27 alternate layers of SiO2 and TiO2) and a holographic notch filter (Oriel make) have been used to block the Rayleigh scattered light from the sample to the entrance slit of the spectrograph. Holographic notch filter is found to be able to record the Raman shifts below 700 cm-1 conveniently whereas dielectric edge filter (27 layers) has enabled the spectrograph to record the Raman spectra very efficiently after a wave-number shift of 700 cm-1. It has also been observed that the instrument using the edge filter provides a peculiar spectrum consisting of three spectral lines having Raman shifts as 569, 1328 and 1393 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of a weakly scattering sample with large reflectivity. Similarly, a spectrum consisting of multiple lines has been observed when the instrument is being operated using a holographic notch filter. These spectral lines are not observed in the case of liquid samples such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ethanol, diethyl ether etc. The origin of these peculiar spectral lines has been briefly discussed in the paper. Additionally, a major motivation for this work is to utilize the results for the selection of an appropriate filter depending on the type of the sample, i.e. weakly scattered and highly reflecting sample or highly scattered and low reflecting sample.

  16. Electrons and Positrons in Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Panov, A D

    2013-01-01

    This review concentrates on the results obtained, over the last ten years, on the astrophysics of high-energy cosmic ray electrons and positrons. The anomalies, observed in the data of recent experiments (possible bump in the electron spectrum and the PAMELA anomaly in the positron fraction) are discussed through the systematic use of simple analytical solutions of the transport equations for cosmic ray electrons. Three main ways of explaining the origin of the anomalies are considered: the conservative way supposing the positrons to be pure secondary particles; the nearby sources like pulsars origin; and the dark matter origin. This review discusses, also, the inability to select the pulsars model or the dark matter model to explain the electron anomalies on the basis of the electron spectra with the usual large energy binning ($\\gtrsim15%$). It is argued that the signature of nearby pulsars origin of the anomalies against the dark matter origin could be the fine structure of the cosmic ray electron spectrum...

  17. Performing simulations for the WSO-UV Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Perea Abarca, B.; Sachkov, M.

    2017-03-01

    The World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a space telescope, equipped with a high resolution spectrograph (WUVS - WSO UltraViolet Spectrograph) that provides high resolution spectroscopy (R˜55,000) in two channels VUVES and UVES. VUVES is a far UV echelle spectrograph designed to observe point sources in the range 1020-1800 Å. UVES is the near UV echelle spectrograph, working in the range 1740-3100 Å. These instruments can be evaluated, in terms of performance, from an appropriate overall instrument model through simulations of the expected observations. Since it is not feasible to build and test a prototype of a space-based instrument, numerical simulations performed by an end-to-end simulator are used to model the noise level expected to be present in the observations. The performance of the instrument can be evaluated in terms of noise source response, data quality, and fine-tuning of the instrument design for different types of configurations and observing strategies. The WUVS Simulator has been implemented as a further development of the PLATO Simulator, adapting it to an echelle spectrograph and the WUVS instrument specific characteristics. It has been designed to generate synthetic time series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the jitter movements of the spacecraft and all important natural noise sources. We provide a detailed description of several noise sources and discuss their properties, in connection with the optical design, the quantum efficiency of the detectors, etc. The expected overall noise budget of the output spectra is evaluated as a function of different sets of input parameters describing the instrument properties.

  18. Bayesian Cosmic Web Reconstruction: BARCODE for Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E. G. Patrick; van de Weygaert, Rien; Kitaura, Francisco; Cautun, Marius

    2016-10-01

    We describe the Bayesian \\barcode\\ formalism that has been designed towards the reconstruction of the Cosmic Web in a given volume on the basis of the sampled galaxy cluster distribution. Based on the realization that the massive compact clusters are responsible for the major share of the large scale tidal force field shaping the anisotropic and in particular filamentary features in the Cosmic Web. Given the nonlinearity of the constraints imposed by the cluster configurations, we resort to a state-of-the-art constrained reconstruction technique to find a proper statistically sampled realization of the original initial density and velocity field in the same cosmic region. Ultimately, the subsequent gravitational evolution of these initial conditions towards the implied Cosmic Web configuration can be followed on the basis of a proper analytical model or an N-body computer simulation. The BARCODE formalism includes an implicit treatment for redshift space distortions. This enables a direct reconstruction on the basis of observational data, without the need for a correction of redshift space artifacts. In this contribution we provide a general overview of the the Cosmic Web connection with clusters and a description of the Bayesian BARCODE formalism. We conclude with a presentation of its successful workings with respect to test runs based on a simulated large scale matter distribution, in physical space as well as in redshift space.

  19. Review article: Cosmology with cosmic shear observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as ...

  20. Xenia: A Probe of Cosmic Chemical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Piro, L.

    2008-01-01

    Xenia is a concept study for a medium-size astrophysical cosmology mission addressing the Cosmic Origins key objective of NASA's Science Plan. The fundamental goal of this objective is to understand the formation and evolution of structures on various scales from the early Universe to the present time (stars, galaxies and the cosmic web). Xenia will use X-and y-ray monitoring and wide field X-ray imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy to collect essential information from three major tracers of these cosmic structures: the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), Galaxy Clusters and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Our goal is to trace the chemo-dynamical history of the ubiquitous warm hot diffuse baryon component in the Universe residing in cosmic filaments and clusters of galaxies up to its formation epoch (at z =0-2) and to map star formation and galaxy metal enrichment into the re-ionization era beyond z 6. The concept of Xenia (Greek for "hospitality") evolved in parallel with the Explorer of Diffuse Emission and GRB Explosions (EDGE), a mission proposed by a multinational collaboration to the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015. Xenia incorporates the European and Japanese collaborators into a U.S. led mission that builds on the scientific objectives and technological readiness of EDGE.

  1. Habitability and cosmic catastrophes

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold; McKay, Christopher P

    2008-01-01

    Catastrophic cosmic events such as asteroid impacts appear in the range of some 100 million years and have drastically affected evolution. The author discusses whether and how such events could have occurred in recently found extrasolar planetary systems.

  2. Astrophysics: Cosmic jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andy

    2010-02-01

    In some galaxies, matter falling onto a supermassive black hole is ejected in narrow jets moving at close to the speed of light. New observations provide insight into the workings of these cosmic accelerators.

  3. Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed that the highest energy $\\sim 10^{20}$eV cosmic ray primaries are protons, decay products of a long-lived progenitor whose high kinetic energy arises from decay of a distant (cosmological) superheavy particle, G. Such a scenario can occur in e.g. SU(15) grand unification and in some preon models, but is more generic; if true, these unusual cosmic rays provide a window into new physics.

  4. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  5. Forming Stars From the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Scientists have recently identified a connection between metal-poor regions in a set of dwarf galaxies and bursts of star-formation activity within them. These observations provide long-awaited evidence supporting predictions of how stars formed in the early universe and in dwarf galaxies today. Metal-Poor Clues: The primary driver of star formation over cosmic history is thought to be the accretion onto galaxies of cold gas streaming from the cosmic web. The best way to confirm this model would be to observe a cloud of cosmic gas flowing into an otherwise-quiescent galaxy and launching a wave of star formation. But because cold gas doesnt emit much radiation, its difficult to detect directly.Now, a team of scientists have found a clever way around this problem: they searched galaxies for a correlation between areas of active star formation and metal-poor regions. Why? Because metal-poor regions could be a smoking gun indicating a recently accreted cloud of cold gas from the cosmic web. Impacting Clouds: Distribution of metallicity along the major axis of one of the target galaxies. The red bar in the top image shows the position of the spectrograph slit along the galaxy, with the arrow showing the direction of growing distance in the plot below. The plot shows the metallicity variation (red symbols) and star-formation rate (blue line) along the galaxys major axis. The metallicity drop coincides with the brightest knot of the galaxy. [Snchez Almeida et al. 2015]The authors of this study, led by Jorge Snchez Almeida (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and University of La Laguna, Spain), used the Great Canary Telescope to obtain high-quality spectra of ten dwarf galaxies with especially low average metallicities. They aligned the spectrograph slit along the major axes of the galaxies in order to measure abundances as a function of position within each galaxy.The team found that, in nine out of the ten cases, the galaxies displayed sharp drops (by factors of 310

  6. Exploring variations in the fundamental constants with ELTs: The CODEX spectrograph on OWL

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P; Levshakov, S; Molaro, Paolo; Murphy, Michael T.; Levshakov, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Cosmological variations in the fine structure constant, alpha, can be probed through precise velocity measurements of metallic absorption lines from intervening gas clouds seen in spectra of distant quasars. Data from the Keck/HIRES instrument support a variation in alpha of 6 parts per million. Such a variation would have profound implications, possibly providing a window into the extra spatial dimensions required by unified theories such as string/M-theory. However, recent results from VLT/UVES suggest no variation in alpha. The COsmic Dynamics EXperiment (CODEX) spectrograph currently being designed for the ESO OWL telescope (Pasquini et al 2005) with a resolution high enough to properly resolve even the narrowest of metallic absorption lines, R>150,000, will achieve a 2-to-3 order-of-magnitude precision increase in Delta\\alpha/alpha. This will rival the precision available from the Oklo natural fission reactor and upcoming satellite-borne atomic clock experiments. Given the vital constraints on fundamenta...

  7. Recent developments in cosmic ray physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blasi, P

    2014-01-01

    The search for a theory of the origin of cosmic rays that may be considered as a standard, agreeable model is still ongoing. On one hand, much circumstantial evidence exists of the fact that supernovae in our Galaxy play a crucial role in producing the bulk of cosmic rays observed on Earth. On the other hand, important questions about their ability to accelerate particles up to the knee remain unanswered. The common interpretation of the knee as a feature coinciding with the maximum energy of the light component of cosmic rays and a transition to a gradually heavier mass composition is mainly based on KASCADE results. Some recent data appear to question this finding: YAC1 - Tibet Array and ARGO-YBJ find a flux reduction in the light component at $\\sim 700$ TeV, appreciably below the knee. Whether the maximum energy of light nuclei is as high as $3000$ TeV or rather as low as a few hundred TeV has very important consequences on the supernova remnant paradigm for the origin of cosmic rays, as well on the crucia...

  8. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  9. AMS results on positrons and antiprotons in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the cosmic ray particles are presented with the emphasis on the measurements of positrons and antiprotons. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of AMS.

  10. Latest AMS Results on elementary particles in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of all elementary charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the elementary cosmic ray particles are presented. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.

  11. Cosmic perspectives in space physics

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Sukumar

    2000-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, Victor Hess of Germany flew instruments in balloons and so discovered in 1912 that an extra-~errestial radiation of unknown origin is incident on the earth with an almost constant intensity at all times. These penetrating non­ solar radiations which were called Cosmic Rays by Millikan, USA, opened the new frontier of space physics and many leading scientists were attracted to it. At the end of World War II a number of space vehicles, e.g. stratospheric balloons, rockets and satellites were developed. In 1950 and onwards, these vehicles enabled spectacular advances in space physics and space astrophysics. New horizons were opened in the explorations of cosmic rays, the earth's magnetosphere, the Sun and the heliosphere, the moon and the planets. Using space-borne instruments, exciting discoveries were made of stars, and galaxies in the infra-red, ultra violet, x-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. In this text book these fascinating new findings are presented in depth a...

  12. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, J; Cooray, A R; Kawada, M; Keating, B; Lange, A; Lee, D H; Matsumoto, T; Matsuura, S; Pak, S; Renbarger, T; Sullivan, I; Tsumura, K; Wada, T; Watabe, T; Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100 times fainter than IRTS/DIRBE. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near-infrared background, accurately assessing the contribution of local (z = 1-3) galaxies to the observed background fluctuations, allowing a de...

  13. The Integral Field Spectrograph for the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, James E; Aliado, Theodore; Bauman, Brian J; Brims, George; Canfield, John M; Cardwell, Andrew; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Graham, James R; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Johnson, Christopher A; Kress, Evan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Macintosh, Bruce A; Magnone, Kenneth G; Maire, Jérôme; McLean, Ian S; Palmer, David; Perrin, Marshall D; Quiroz, Carlos; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Serio, Andrew; Thibault, Simon; Thomas, Sandrine J; Vallee, Philippe; Weiss, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a complex optical system designed to directly detect the self-emission of young planets within two arcseconds of their host stars. After suppressing the starlight with an advanced AO system and apodized coronagraph, the dominant residual contamination in the focal plane are speckles from the atmosphere and optical surfaces. Since speckles are diffractive in nature their positions in the field are strongly wavelength dependent, while an actual companion planet will remain at fixed separation. By comparing multiple images at different wavelengths taken simultaneously, we can freeze the speckle pattern and extract the planet light adding an order of magnitude of contrast. To achieve a bandpass of 20%, sufficient to perform speckle suppression, and to observe the entire two arcsecond field of view at diffraction limited sampling, we designed and built an integral field spectrograph with extremely low wavefront error and almost no chromatic aberration. The spectrograph is fully cr...

  14. Metrology Camera System of Prime Focus Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chang, Yin-Chang; Huang, Pin-Jie; Hu, Yen-Sang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Gunn, James E; Karr, Jennifer; Yan, Chi-Hung; Mao, Peter; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. The metrology camera system of PFS serves as the optical encoder of the COBRA fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. The 380mm diameter aperture metrology camera will locate at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS sensor. The metrology camera is designed to provide the fiber position information within 5{\\mu}m error over the 45cm focal plane. The positions of all fibers can be obtained within 1s after the exposure is finished. This enables the overall fiber configuration to be less than 2 minutes.

  15. GNOMOS: The Gemini NIR-Optical Multi Object Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavon, Ricardo P; Chiboucas, Kristin; Diaz, Ruben; Geballe, Tom; Gimeno, German; Gomez, Percy; Hibon, Pascale; Hirst, Paul; Jorgensen, Inger; Labrie, Kathleen; Leggett, Sandy; Lemoine-Busserolle, Marie; Levenson, Nancy; Mason, Rachel; McDermid, Richard; Miller, Bryan; Nitta, Atsuko; Pessev, Peter; Rodgers, Bernadette; Schirmer, Mischa; Trujillo, Chad; Turner, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to a call for white papers solicited by Gemini Observatory and its Science and Technology Advisory Committee, to help define the science case and requirements for a new Gemini instrument, envisaged to consist of a single-object spectrograph at medium resolution simultaneously covering optical and near-infrared wavelengths. In this white paper we discuss the science case for an alternative new instrument, consisting instead of a multi-object, medium-resolution, high-throughput spectrograph, covering simultaneously the optical and near-infrared slices of the electromagnetic spectrum. We argue that combination of wide wavelength coverage at medium resolution with moderate multiplexing power is an innovative path that will enable the pursuit of fundamental science questions in a variety of astrophysical topics, without compromise of the science goals achievable by single-object spectroscopy on a wide baseline. We present a brief qualitative discussion of the main features of a notional ha...

  16. Astrophotonic micro-spectrographs in the era of ELTs

    CERN Document Server

    Blind, N; Kern, P; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT), with diameters up to 39 meters, will start opera- tion in the next decade and promises new challenges in the development of instruments. The growing field of astrophotonics (the use of photonic technologies in astronomy) can partly solve this problem by allowing mass production of fully integrated and robust instruments combining various optical functions, with the potential to reduce the size, complexity and cost of instruments. In this paper, we focus on developments in integrated micro-spectrographs and their potential for ELTs. We take an inventory of the identified technologies currently in development, and compare the performance of the different concepts. We show that in the current context of single-mode instruments, integrated spectrographs making use of, e.g., a photonic lantern can be a solution to reach the desired performance. However, in the longer term, there is a clear need to develop multimode devices to improve overall the throughput a...

  17. Modelling the application of integrated photonic spectrographs to astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, R J

    2012-01-01

    One of the well-known problems of producing instruments for Extremely Large Telescopes is that their size (and hence cost) scales rapidly with telescope aperture. To try to break this relation alternative new technologies have been proposed, such as the use of the Integrated Photonic Spectrograph (IPS). Due to their diffraction limited nature the IPS is claimed to defeat the harsh scaling law applying to conventional instruments. The problem with astronomical applications is that unlike conventional photonics, they are not usually fed by diffraction limited sources. This means in order to retain throughput and spatial information the IPS will require multiple Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWGs) and a photonic lantern. We investigate the implications of these extra components on the size of the instrument. We also investigate the potential size advantage of using an IPS as opposed to conventional monolithic optics. To do this, we have constructed toy models of IPS and conventional image sliced spectrographs to c...

  18. Very fast transmissive spectrograph designs for highly multiplexed fiber spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, Will

    2016-01-01

    Very fast (f/1.2 and f/1.35) transmissive spectrograph designs are presented for Hector and MSE. The designs have 61mm x 61mm detectors, 4 or 5 camera lenses of aperture less than 228mm, with just 6 air/glass surfaces, and rely on extreme aspheres for their imaging performance. The throughput is excellent, because of the i-line glasses used, the small number of air/glass surfaces.

  19. PRAXIS: a near infrared spectrograph optimised for OH suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bauer, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Case, S.; Content, R.; Fechner, T.; Giannone, D.; Haynes, R.; Hernandez, E.; Horton, A. J.; Klauser, U.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Lindley, E.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Min, S.-S.; Pai, N.; Roth, M.; Shortridge, K.; Staszak, Nicholas F.; Tims, Julia; Xavier, Pascal; Zhelem, Ross

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric emission from OH molecules is a long standing problem for near-infrared astronomy. PRAXIS is a unique spectrograph, currently in the build-phase, which is fed by a fibre array that removes the OH background. The OH suppression is achieved with fibre Bragg gratings, which were tested successfully on the GNOSIS instrument. PRAXIS will use the same fibre Bragg gratings as GNOSIS in the first implementation, and new, less expensive and more efficient, multicore fibre Bragg gratings in the second implementation. The OH lines are suppressed by a factor of 1000, and the expected increase in the signal-to-noise in the interline regions compared to GNOSIS is a factor of 9 with the GNOSIS gratings and a factor of 17 with the new gratings. PRAXIS will enable the full exploitation of OH suppression for the first time, which was not achieved by GNOSIS due to high thermal emission, low spectrograph transmission, and detector noise. PRAXIS will have extremely low thermal emission, through the cooling of all significantly emitting parts, including the fore-optics, the fibre Bragg gratings, a long length of fibre, and a fibre slit, and an optical design that minimises leaks of thermal emission from outside the spectrograph. PRAXIS will achieve low detector noise through the use of a Hawaii-2RG detector, and a high throughput through an efficient VPH based spectrograph. The scientific aims of the instrument are to determine the absolute level of the interline continuum and to enable observations of individual objects via an IFU. PRAXIS will first be installed on the AAT, then later on an 8m class telescope.

  20. The development of WIFIS: a wide integral field infrared spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Chou, Richard C. Y.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Ma, Ke; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Sang Chul; Raines, Steven N.; Eisner, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    We present the current results from the development of a wide integral field infrared spectrograph (WIFIS). WIFIS offers an unprecedented combination of etendue and spectral resolving power for seeing-limited, integral field observations in the 0.9 - 1.8 μm range and is most sensitive in the 0.9 - 1.35 μ,m range. Its optical design consists of front-end re-imaging optics, an all-reflective image slicer-type, integral field unit (IFU) called FISICA, and a long-slit grating spectrograph back-end that is coupled with a HAWAII 2RG focal plane array. The full wavelength range is achieved by selecting between two different gratings. By virtue of its re-imaging optics, the spectrograph is quite versatile and can be used at multiple telescopes. The size of its field-of-view is unrivalled by other similar spectrographs, offering a 4.511x 1211 integral field at a 10-meter class telescope (or 2011 x 5011 at a 2.3-meter telescope). The use of WIFIS will be crucial in astronomical problems which require wide-field, two-dimensional spectroscopy such as the study of merging galaxies at moderate redshift and nearby star/planet-forming regions and supernova remnants. We discuss the final optical design of WIFIS, and its predicted on-sky performance on two reference telescope platforms: the 2.3-m Steward Bok telescope and the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We also present the results from our laboratory characterization of FISICA. IFU properties such as magnification, field-mapping, and slit width along the entire slit length were measured by our tests. The construction and testing of WIFIS is expected to be completed by early 2013. We plan to commission the instrument at the 2.3-m Steward Bok telescope at Kitt Peak, USA in Spring 2013.

  1. LAMOST Spectrograph Response Curves: Stability and Application to Flux Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Luo, A.-Li; Kong, Xiao; Zhang, Jian-Nan; Guo, Yan-Xin; Cook, Neil James; Hou, Wen; Yang, Hai-Feng; Li, Yin-Bi; Song, Yi-Han; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zuo, Fang; Wu, Ke-Fei; Wang, Meng-Xin; Wu, Yue; Wang, You-Fen; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-12-01

    The task of flux calibration for Large sky Area Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) spectra is difficult due to many factors, such as the lack of standard stars, flat-fielding for large field of view, and variation of reddening between different stars, especially at low Galactic latitudes. Poor selection, bad spectral quality, or extinction uncertainty of standard stars not only might induce errors to the calculated spectral response curve (SRC) but also might lead to failures in producing final 1D spectra. In this paper, we inspected spectra with Galactic latitude | b| ≥slant 60^\\circ and reliable stellar parameters, determined through the LAMOST Stellar Parameter Pipeline (LASP), to study the stability of the spectrograph. To guarantee that the selected stars had been observed by each fiber, we selected 37,931 high-quality exposures of 29,000 stars from LAMOST DR2, and more than seven exposures for each fiber. We calculated the SRCs for each fiber for each exposure and calculated the statistics of SRCs for spectrographs with both the fiber variations and time variations. The result shows that the average response curve of each spectrograph (henceforth ASPSRC) is relatively stable, with statistical errors ≤10%. From the comparison between each ASPSRC and the SRCs for the same spectrograph obtained by the 2D pipeline, we find that the ASPSRCs are good enough to use for the calibration. The ASPSRCs have been applied to spectra that were abandoned by the LAMOST 2D pipeline due to the lack of standard stars, increasing the number of LAMOST spectra by 52,181 in DR2. Comparing those same targets with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the relative flux differences between SDSS spectra and LAMOST spectra with the ASPSRC method are less than 10%, which underlines that the ASPSRC method is feasible for LAMOST flux calibration.

  2. Automated model-based calibration of imaging spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosec, Matjaž; Bürmen, Miran; Tomaževič, Dejan; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-03-01

    Hyper-spectral imaging has gained recognition as an important non-invasive research tool in the field of biomedicine. Among the variety of available hyperspectral imaging systems, systems comprising an imaging spectrograph, lens, wideband illumination source and a corresponding camera stand out for the short acquisition time and good signal to noise ratio. The individual images acquired by imaging spectrograph-based systems contain full spectral information along one spatial dimension. Due to the imperfections in the camera lens and in particular the optical components of the imaging spectrograph, the acquired images are subjected to spatial and spectral distortions, resulting in scene dependent nonlinear spectral degradations and spatial misalignments which need to be corrected. However, the existing correction methods require complex calibration setups and a tedious manual involvement, therefore, the correction of the distortions is often neglected. Such simplified approach can lead to significant errors in the analysis of the acquired hyperspectral images. In this paper, we present a novel fully automated method for correction of the geometric and spectral distortions in the acquired images. The method is based on automated non-rigid registration of the reference and acquired images corresponding to the proposed calibration object incorporating standardized spatial and spectral information. The obtained transformation was successfully used for sub-pixel correction of various hyperspectral images, resulting in significant improvement of the spectral and spatial alignment. It was found that the proposed calibration is highly accurate and suitable for routine use in applications involving either diffuse reflectance or transmittance measurement setups.

  3. First Light results from PARAS: The PRL Echelle Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Roy, Arpita; Pathan, Fazalahmed M; Shah, Vishal; Richardson, Eric H; Ubale, Girish; Shah, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    We present the first light commissioning results from the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) optical fiber-fed high resolution cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph. It is capable of a single- shot spectral coverage of 3700A to 8600A at R ~ 63,000 and is under very stable conditions of temperature (0.04{\\deg}C at 23{\\deg}C). In the very near future pressure control will also be achieved by enclosing the entire spectrograph in a low-pressure vacuum chamber (~0.01mbar). It is attached to a 1.2m telescope using two 50micron core optical fibers (one for the star and another for simultaneous Th-Ar spectral calibration). The 1.2m telescope is located at Mt. Abu, India, and we are guaranteed about 80 to 100 nights a year for observations with the spectrograph. The instrument will be ultimately used for radial-velocity searches of exoplanets around 1000 dwarf stars, brighter than 10th magnitude, for the next 5 years with a precision of 3 to 5m/s using the simultaneous Th-Ar spectral lamp reference technique. The spect...

  4. Conceptual design of IR multi-IFU spectrograph with MOAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Daigo; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Nishimura, Tetsuo

    2008-07-01

    To study properties of cold dark matter (CDM), which can only be observed through its gravitational interaction with galaxies, spatially resolved spectra at least to the K-band are desirable. We started designing a spectrograph which observes multiple targets spatially resolved in a telescope field of view fed with multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO). The current design either places field lenses on the telescope field of view to image the pupil onto steering mirrors, or uses a single set of field lens to deliver beams to pick-off arms. The steering mirror on the pupil image tilts and selects a sub-field from each of the telescope field of view physically split by the field lenses. This allows cheaper and more robust construction of a method to select the target fields with a limitation in selections of the target fields. On the other hand, the pick-off arm implementation allows more flexibility in assigning targets to fields of the integral field units (IFUs) especially when targets are clustered. The IFU arranges spatial elements of each of sub-field of view to be fed into the spectrograph. If enough pixels are afforded, using microlens arrays, which image pupils of spatial elements onto the object plane of the spectrograph is ideal in robustness. Otherwise, an image slicer is to be located to arrange the sub-field of view onto the entrance slit. The instrument should be built as modules to allow expeditious scientific results.

  5. PRAXIS: low thermal emission high efficiency OH suppressed fibre spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Content, Robert; Ellis, Simon; Gers, Luke; Haynes, Roger; Horton, Anthony; Lawrence, Jon; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Lindley, Emma; Min, Seong-Sik; Shortridge, Keith; Staszac, Nick; Xavier, Pascal; Zhelen, Ross

    2014-01-01

    PRAXIS is a second generation instrument that follows on from GNOSIS, which was the first instrument using fibre Bragg gratings for OH background suppression. The Bragg gratings reflect the NIR OH lines while being transparent to light between the lines. This gives a much higher signal-noise ratio at low resolution but also at higher resolutions by removing the scattered wings of the OH lines. The specifications call for high throughput and very low thermal and detector noise so that PRAXIS will remain sky noise limited. The optical train is made of fore-optics, an IFU, a fibre bundle, the Bragg grating unit, a second fibre bundle and a spectrograph. GNOSIS used the pre-existing IRIS2 spectrograph while PRAXIS will use a new spectrograph specifically designed for the fibre Bragg grating OH suppression and optimised for 1470 nm to 1700 nm (it can also be used in the 1090 nm to 1260 nm band by changing the grating and refocussing). This results in a significantly higher transmission due to high efficiency coati...

  6. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Aceituno, J; Grupp, F; Lillo, J; Hernan-Obispo, M; Benitez, D; Montoya, L M; Thiele, U; Pedraz, S; Barrado, D; Dreizler, S; Bean, J

    2013-01-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alem\\'an (CAHA). CAFE is a single fiber, high-resolution ($R\\sim$70000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800\\AA. It was built on the basis of the common design for Echelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to $V\\sim$13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of $m s^{-1}$. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, so the wavelentgth coverage; no filter wheel, one slit and so on, with a particular care taken in the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the red...

  7. Cosmic signatures in earth's seismic tremor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Even in absence of earthquakes, each site on earth experiences continuous elastic vibrations which are mostly traced to the nonlinear interactions of ocean waves. However, the fine structure of the spectrum at mHz frequencies shows many persistent and highly significant narrow bandwidth peaks in surprising coincidence with solar acoustic eigenmodes. The feasibility of a common cosmic origin is evaluated through an estimate of the gravitational wave cross-section of the earth, combined with its elastic response and with the stochastic amplification produced by the interference of the cosmic signal with tremor of oceanic origin. The measured spectral peaks appear compatible with a gravitational monochromatic illumination at strains h ≳ 10-20, larger than those expected for any known gravitational stellar source. Hence, a gravitational source attribution to the tremor spectral peaks would call for a population of unknown non-luminous sources with well-defined mass-distance ratios.

  8. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from beta-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured, and complement conventional supernova observations with measurements of their prime energy sources. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massi...

  9. A Cosmic Baby-Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Large Population of Galaxies Found in the Young Universe with ESO's VLT The Universe was a more fertile place soon after it was formed than has previously been suspected. A team of French and Italian astronomers [1] made indeed the surprising discovery of a large and unknown population of distant galaxies observed when the Universe was only 10 to 30% its present age. ESO PR Photo 29a/05 ESO PR Photo 29a/05 New Population of Distant Galaxies [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 424 pix - 191k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 847 pix - 449k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2269 x 2402 pix - 2.0M] ESO PR Photo 29b/05 ESO PR Photo 29b/05 Average Spectra of Distant Galaxies [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 506 pix - 141k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1012 pix - 320k] This breakthrough is based on observations made with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) as part of the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). The VVDS started early 2002 on Melipal, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope Array [2]. In a total sample of about 8,000 galaxies selected only on the basis of their observed brightness in red light, almost 1,000 bright and vigorously star forming galaxies were discovered that were formed between 9 and 12 billion years ago (i.e. about 1,500 to 4,500 million years after the Big Bang). "To our surprise, says Olivier Le Fèvre, from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France) and co-leader of the VVDS project, "this is two to six times higher than had been found previously. These galaxies had been missed because previous surveys had selected objects in a much more restrictive manner than we did. And they did so to accommodate the much lower efficiency of the previous generation of instruments." While observations and models have consistently indicated that the Universe had not yet formed many stars in the first billion years of cosmic time, the discovery announced today by scientists calls for a significant change in this picture. The astronomers indeed find that stars formed two to three times

  10. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  11. Constraints On Cosmic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mbonye, M R

    2003-01-01

    Observationally, the universe appears virtually critical. Yet, there is no simple explanation for this state. In this article we advance and explore the premise that the dynamics of the universe always seeks equilibrium conditions. Vacuum-induced cosmic accelerations lead to creation of matter-energy modes at the expense of vacuum energy. Because they gravitate, such modes constitute inertia against cosmic acceleration. On the other extreme, the would-be ultimate phase of local gravitational collapse is checked by a phase transition in the collapsing matter fields leading to a de Sitter-like fluid deep inside the black hole horizon, and at the expense of the collapsing matter fields. As a result, the universe succumbs to neither vacuum-induced run-away accelerations nor to gravitationally induced spacetime curvature singularities. Cosmic dynamics is self-regulating. We discuss the physical basis for these constraints and the implications, pointing out how the framework relates and helps resolve standing puzzl...

  12. Mapping the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Steven

    The following sections are included: * A Brief History of Our Universe: From Soup to Galaxies * The Hidden Cosmic Dawn * The Solution: Flipping Spins * The Spin-Flip Transition as an Astronomical Tool * Foiled!: Early Cosmology with the Spin-Flip Transition * Spin-Flip Radiation Holds the Key to Observing the Cosmic Dawn * The Spin-Flip Background: The First Stars * The Spin-Flip Background: The First Black Holes * The Spin-Flip Background: The Epoch of Reionization * FM Radio Antennae as Cosmic Observatories * Piles and Tiles of Antennae: Mapping the Spin-Flip Background * Mountains to Scale: Challenges to Observing the Spin-Flip Background * Sound and Fury, Signifying Statistics * An Explosion of Telescopes * Dreams for the Future * An Unfinished Story

  13. A cosmic book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P. J. E.; Silk, Joseph

    1988-10-01

    A system of assigning odds to the basic elements of cosmological theories is proposed in order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the theories. A figure of merit for the theories is obtained by counting and weighing the plausibility of each of the basic elements that is not substantially supported by observation or mature fundamental theory. The magnetized strong model is found to be the most probable. In order of decreasing probability, the ranking for the rest of the models is: (1) the magnetized string model with no exotic matter and the baryon adiabatic model; (2) the hot dark matter model and the model of cosmic string loops; (3) the canonical cold dark matter model, the cosmic string loops model with hot dark matter, and the baryonic isocurvature model; and (4) the cosmic string loops model with no exotic matter.

  14. Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Asantha; Burgarella, Denis; Chary, Ranga; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Doré, Olivier; Fazio, Giovanni; Ferrara, Andrea; Gong, Yan; Santos, Mario; Silva, Marta; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper is a "Probe Class" mission concept for reionization studies of the universe. It will be capable of spectroscopic imaging observations between 0.7 to 6-7 microns in the near-Infrared. The primary observational objective is pioneering observations of spectral emission lines of interest throughout the cosmic history, but especially from the first generation of distant, faint galaxies when the universe was less than 800 million years old. With spectro-imaging capabilities, using a set of linear variable filters (LVFs), CDIM will produce a three-dimensional tomographic view of the epoch of reionization (EoR). CDIM will also study galaxy formation over more than 90% of the cosmic history and will move the astronomical community from broad-band astronomical imaging to low-resolution (R=200-300) spectro-imaging of the universe.

  15. The cosmic messengers; Les messagers cosmiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizot, E. [Paris-7 Denis Diderot Univ., Lab. Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC), 75 (France); Boratav, M. [Paris-6 Univ., Lab. de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies, 75 (France); Suomijarvi, T. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Stolarczyk, Th. [CEA Saclay, IRFU, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Degrange, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, CRNS/IN2P3, Lab. Leprince-Ringuet, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Sol, H. [Observatoire de Paris, CRNS/INSU, Lab. Univers et Theories, 92 - Meudon (France); Peter, P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Physique Theorique, 75 (France); Jacquemont, G

    2009-01-15

    This series of brief articles, that are popular works, presents the issue of cosmic radiations: their origin and their detection on earth. The Pierre-Auger Observatory that detects atmospheric showers and the Antares detector that is the first underwater neutrino detector are described. Another article deals with the issue of dark matter and its detection. The last article deals with cosmology. (A.C.)

  16. Ultrahigh-energy particles from cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, P. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Astronomy and Astrophysics Center Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The idea of production of ultrahigh-energy particles in the present universe due to annihilation or collapse of topological defects is discussed. Topological defects, formed in symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe, can survive till today owing to their topological stability. However, under certain circumstances, topological defects may be physically destroyed. When topological defects are destroyed, the energy contained in the defects can be released in the form of massive gauge- and Higgs bosons of the underlying spontaneously broken gauge theory. Subsequent decay of these massive particles can give rise to energetic particles ranging up to an energy on the order of the mass of the original particles released from the defects. This may give us a natural'' mechanism of production of extremely energetic cosmic ray particles in the universe today, without the need for any acceleration mechanism. To illustrate this idea, I describe in detail the calculation of the expected ultrahigh-energy proton spectrum due to a specific process which involves collapse or multiple self-intersections of a class of closed cosmic string loops formed in a phase transition at a grand unification energy scale. I discuss the possibility that some of the highest-energy cosmic ray particles are of this origin. By comparing with the observational results on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, we derive an upper limit to the average fraction of the total energy in all primary'' cosmic string loops that may be released in the form of particles due to collapse or multiple self-intersections of these loops. No nuclei such as {alpha}'s or Fe's are in the spectrum. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Protostars: forge of cosmic rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, M; Hennebelle, P; Ferrière, K

    2016-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (CR) are particles presumably accelerated in supernova remnant shocks that propagate in the interstellar medium up to the densest parts of molecular clouds, losing energy as well as their ionisation efficiency because of the presence of magnetic fields and collisions with molecular hydrogen. Recent observations hint at high levels of ionisation and to the presence of synchrotron emission in protostellar systems, therefore leading to an apparent contradiction. We want to explain the origin of these CRs accelerated within young protostars as suggested by observations. Our modelling consists of a set of conditions that has to be satisfied in order to have an efficient CR acceleration through diffusive shock acceleration. We analyse three main acceleration sites, then we follow the propagation of these particles through the protostellar system up to the hot spot region. We find that jet shocks can be strong accelerators of CR protons, which can be boosted up to relativistic energies. Another ...

  18. A disintegrating cosmic string

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, J B

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple sandwich gravitational wave of the Robinson-Trautman family. This is interpreted as representing a shock wave with a spherical wavefront which propagates into a Minkowski background minus a wedge. (i.e. the background contains a cosmic string.) The deficit angle (the tension) of the string decreases through the gravitational wave, which then ceases. This leaves an expanding spherical region of Minkowski space behind it. The decay of the cosmic string over a finite interval of retarded time may be considered to generate the gravitational wave.

  19. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  20. Dynamic Cosmic Strings, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Sjodin, K R P; Vickers, J A

    2001-01-01

    The field equations for a time dependent cylindrical cosmic string coupled togravity are reformulated in terms of geometrical variables defined on a2+1-dimensional spacetime by using the method of Geroch decomposition. Unlikethe 4-dimensional spacetime the reduced case is asymptotically flat. Anumerical method for solving the field equations which involves conformallycompactifying the space and including null infinity as part of the grid isdescribed. It is shown that the code reproduces the results of a number ofvacuum solutions with one or two degrees of freedom. In the final section theinteraction between the cosmic string and a pulse of gravitational radiation isbriefly described. This will be fully analysed in the sequel.

  1. Digital TV-echelle spectrograph for simultaneous multielemental analysis using microcomputer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.B.; Case, A.L.

    1980-12-01

    A digital TV-echelle spectrograph with microcomputer control was developed for simultaneous multielemental analysis. The optical system is a commercially available unit originally equipped for film and photomultiplier (single element) readout. The film port was adapted for the intensifier camera. The camera output is digitized and stored in a microcomputer-controlled, 512 x 512 x 12 bit memory and image processor. Multiple spectra over the range of 200 to 800 nm are recorded in a single exposure. Spectra lasting from nanoseconds to seconds are digitized and stored in 0.033 s and displayed on a TV monitor. An inexpensive microcomputer controls the exposure, reads and displays the intensity of predetermined spectral lines, and calculates wavelengths of unknown lines. The digital addresses of unknown lines are determined by superimposing a cursor on the TV display. The microcomputer also writes into memory wavelength fiducial marks for alignment of the TV camera.

  2. Creating Data that Never Die: Building a Spectrograph Data Pipeline in the Virtual Observatory Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, D. J.; Wyatt, W. F.; Roll, J. B.; Tokarz, S. P.; Conroy, M. A.; Caldwell, N.; Kurtz, M.; Geller, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Data pipelines for modern complex astronomical instruments do not begin when the data is taken and end when it is delivered to the user. Information must flow between the observatory and the observer from the time a project is conceived and between the observatory and the world well past the time when the original observers have extracted all the information they want from the data. For the 300-fiber Hectospec low dispersion spectrograph on the MMT, the SAO Telescope Data Center is constructing a data pipeline which provides assistance from preparing and submitting observing proposals through observation, reduction, and analysis to publication and an afterlife in the Virtual Observatory. We will describe our semi-automatic pipeline and how it has evolved over the first nine months of operation.

  3. Thinking outside the halo: Tracing the large-scale distribution of diffuse cosmic metals with semi-analytic models

    CERN Document Server

    Shattow, Genevieve M; Bibiano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    With the installation of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, measurements of the metal content of the low redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) are now available. Using a new grid-based model for diffuse gas coupled to the SAGE semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, we examine the impact of supernova feedback on the pollution of the IGM. We consider different assumptions for the reheating and ejection of gas by supernovae and their dependence on galaxy circular velocity and gas surface density. Where metals are present, we find the most likely metallicity to be $-1.5 < $log$_{10}$(Z/Z$_{\\odot}$)$< -1.0$ at $z = 0$, consistent with both observations and more sophisticated hydrodynamic simulations. Our model predicts that the regions of the IGM with the highest metallicities will be near galaxies with M$_{\\star} \\sim 10^{10.5}h^{-1}$M$_{\\odot}$ and in environments of densities $\\sim 10 \\times$ the mean. We also find that 90% of IGM metals at $z = 0$ are ejected by galaxies with ...

  4. Cosmic rays during great geomagnetic storms in cycle 23 of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, M. V.; Sdobnov, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Variations in the cosmic ray intensity (specifically, Forbush effects) and in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity planetary system during powerful geomagnetic disturbances in cycle 23 were studied based on worldwide station network data by the global spectrographic survey method. The cosmic ray variation spectra during these periods and the spectral indices of these variations when the spectrum was approximated by the power function of the particle rigidity varying from 10 to 50 GV during different Forbush effect development phases are presented. It was indicated that the spectral indices of cosmic ray variations during spectrum approximation by the power function of the particle rigidity are larger during the maximal modulation phase than during the cosmic ray intensity decline and recovery phases. The fact that the amplitude of the second harmonic of the cosmic ray pitch angle anisotropy did not increase on November 20, 2003, confirms that the Earth fell into a Sun-independent spheromark magnetic cloud. The increased amplitudes of the second harmonic of the cosmic ray pitch angle anisotropy during other Forbush effects in July 2000, March-April 2001, October 2003, and November 2004 indicate that the Earth was in the coronal mass ejection region, in which the interplanetary magnetic field structure was loop-like during these periods.

  5. Cosmic Ray Monitoring and Space Dangerous Phenomena, 2. Methods of Cosmic Ray Using For Forecasting of Major Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. V.; Dorman, L. I.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Iucci, N.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Villoresi, G.; Yanke, V. G.; Zukerman, I. G.

    We present developing of methods (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999) for forecasting on the basis of neutron monitor hourly on-line data (as well as on-line muon tele- scopes hourly data from different directions) geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3- hour index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales). These geomagnetic storms are dangerous for peo- ple technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). We show that for especially dangerous geo- magnetic storms can be used global-spectrographic method if on-line will be avail- able 35-40 NM and muon telescopes. In this case for each hour can be determined CR anisotropy vector, and the specifically behavior of this vector before SC of ge- omagnetic storms G5, G4 or G3 (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales) can be used as important factor for forecast. The second factor what can be used for SC forecast is specifically behavior of CR density (CR intensity) for about 30-15 hours before SC (caused mainly by galactic CR particles acceleration during interaction with shock wave moved from the Sun). The third factor is effect of cosmic ray pre- decreasing, caused by magnetic connection of the Earth with the region behind the shock wave. We demonstrate developing methods on several examples of major ge- omagnetic storms. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting fea- tures for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 49A, pp. 136-144. (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction", Proc. of 26-th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, Vol. 6, p. 476-479, (1999).

  6. Optical design of MEMS-based infrared multi-object spectrograph concept for the Gemini South Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Sivanandam, Suresh; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the optical design of an infrared multi-object spectrograph (MOS) concept that is designed to take advantage of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) corrected field at the Gemini South telescope. This design employs a unique, cryogenic MEMS-based focal plane mask to select target objects for spectroscopy by utilizing the Micro-Shutter Array (MSA) technology originally developed for the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The optical design is based on all spherical refractive optics, which serves both imaging and spectroscopic modes across the wavelength range of 0.9-2.5 μm. The optical system consists of a reimaging system, MSA, collimator, volume phase holographic (VPH) grisms, and spectrograph camera optics. The VPH grisms, which are VPH gratings sandwiched between two prisms, provide high dispersing efficiencies, and a set of several VPH grisms provide the broad spectral coverage at high throughputs. The imaging mode is implemented by removing the MSA and the dispersing unit out of the beam. We optimize both the imaging and spectrographic modes simultaneously, while paying special attention to the performance of the pupil imaging at the cold stop. Our current design provides a 1' ♢ 1' and a 0.5' ♢ 1' field of views for imaging and spectroscopic modes, respectively, on a 2048 × 2048 pixel HAWAII-2RG detector array. The spectrograph's slit width and spectral resolving power are 0.18'' and 3,000, respectively, and spectra of up to 100 objects can be obtained simultaneously. We present the overall results of simulated performance using optical model we designed.

  7. A database of charged cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, D.; Melot, F.; Taillet, R.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: This paper gives a description of a new online database and associated online tools (data selection, data export, plots, etc.) for charged cosmic-ray measurements. The experimental setups (type, flight dates, techniques) from which the data originate are included in the database, along with the references to all relevant publications. Methods: The database relies on the MySQL5 engine. The web pages and queries are based on PHP, AJAX and the jquery, jquery.cluetip, jquery-ui, and table-sorter third-party libraries. Results: In this first release, we restrict ourselves to Galactic cosmic rays with Z ≤ 30 and a kinetic energy per nucleon up to a few tens of TeV/n. This corresponds to more than 200 different sub-experiments (i.e., different experiments, or data from the same experiment flying at different times) in as many publications. Conclusions: We set up a cosmic-ray database (CRDB) and provide tools to sort and visualise the data. New data can be submitted, providing the community with a collaborative tool to archive past and future cosmic-ray measurements. http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/crdb; Contact: crdatabase@lpsc.in2p3.fr

  8. Cosmic ray propagation with CRPropa 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Batista, R.; Erdmann, M.; Evoli, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kuempel, D.; Mueller, G.; Sigl, G.; Van Vliet, A.; Walz, D.; Winchen, T.

    2015-05-01

    Solving the question of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) requires the development of detailed simulation tools in order to interpret the experimental data and draw conclusions on the UHECR universe. CRPropa is a public Monte Carlo code for the galactic and extragalactic propagation of cosmic ray nuclei above ∼ 1017 eV, as well as their photon and neutrino secondaries. In this contribution the new algorithms and features of CRPropa 3, the next major release, are presented. CRPropa 3 introduces time-dependent scenarios to include cosmic evolution in the presence of cosmic ray deflections in magnetic fields. The usage of high resolution magnetic fields is facilitated by shared memory parallelism, modulated fields and fields with heterogeneous resolution. Galactic propagation is enabled through the implementation of galactic magnetic field models, as well as an efficient forward propagation technique through transformation matrices. To make use of the large Python ecosystem in astrophysics CRPropa 3 can be steered and extended in Python.

  9. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  10. Simulating Cosmic Reionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlik, Andreas Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The first stars formed a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only a small fraction of its present age. Their radiation transformed the previously cold and neutral hydrogen that filled intergalactic space into the hot and ionised cosmic plasma that is observed today. T

  11. Simulating Cosmic Reionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlik, Andreas Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The first stars formed a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only a small fraction of its present age. Their radiation transformed the previously cold and neutral hydrogen that filled intergalactic space into the hot and ionised cosmic plasma that is observed today.

  12. Antarctic Cosmic Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duldig, Marc

    Cosmic ray observations related to Antarctica commenced in the austral summer of 1947-48 from sub-Antarctic Heard and Macquarie Islands and from the HMAS Wyatt Earp. Muon telescope observations from Mawson station Antarctica commenced in 1955. The International Geophysical Year was the impetus for the installation of a number of neutron monitors around Antarctica observing the lowest energy cosmic rays accessible by ground based instruments. In 1971 a new observatory was built at Mawson including the only underground muon telescope system at polar latitudes in either hemisphere. In the 1980s the South Pole Air Shower Experiment (SPASE) opened the highest energy cosmic ray window over Antarctica and this was followed by the in-ice neutrino experiment AMANDA. Over more than half a century cosmic ray astronomy has been undertaken from Antarctica and its surrounding regions and these observations have been critical to our growing understanding of nearby astrophysical structures. For example the Parker spiral magnetic field of the sun was confirmed through Mawson observations of a Solar flare induced Ground Level Enahncement in 1960 long before spacecraft were able to directly observe the interplanetary magnetic field. A summary of the Antarctic instrumental developments and the scientific advances that resulted will be presented.

  13. Hydrology and Cosmic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mie

    and calibration. Yet, soil moisture measurements are traditionally provided on either point or kilometer scale from electromagnetic based sensors and satellite retrievals, respectively. Above the ground surface, the cosmic-ray neutron intensity (eV range) is inversely correlated to all hydrogen present...

  14. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Inside the new chamber the CLOUD team will be able to recreate the conditions of any part of the atmosphere, from the polar stratosphere to the low level tropics (top). The new chamber safely in position in the East hall. Once carefully cleaned the chamber will be turned sideways onto its legs ready for the beam of 'cosmic rays' (bottom).

  15. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  16. Long-term modulation of the cosmic ray fluctuation spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starodubtsev, S.A.; Grigoryev, A.V. [Yu.G. Shafer Inst. of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, SB RAS, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Usoskin, I.G. [Sodankylae Geophysical Observatory, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Mursula, K. [Dept. of Physical Sciences, Univ of Oulu (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    Here we study the power level of rapid cosmic ray fluctuations in the frequency range of 10{sup -4}-1.67 . 10{sup -3} Hz (periods from 10 min to about 3h), using measurements by space-borne instruments for the period since 1974. We find that the power level of these fluctuations varies over the solar cycle, but the phase of this variation depends on the energy of cosmic ray particles. While the power level of these fluctuations in the higher energy channels (corresponding to galactic cosmic rays) changes in phase with the solar cycle, the fluctuation level for lower energy channels (predominantly of solar/interplanetary origin) is roughly in an opposite phase with the solar cycle. The results prove conclusively that these fluctuations originate in the near-Earth space, excluding their atmospheric or magnetospheric origin. We present these new results and discuss a possible scenario explaining the observed energy-dependence. (orig.)

  17. Long-term modulation of the cosmic ray fluctuation spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Starodubtsev

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the power level of rapid cosmic ray fluctuations in the frequency range of 10-4-1.67·10-3 Hz (periods from 10 min to about 3 h, using measurements by space-borne instruments for the period since 1974. We find that the power level of these fluctuations varies over the solar cycle, but the phase of this variation depends on the energy of cosmic ray particles. While the power level of these fluctuations in the higher energy channels (corresponding to galactic cosmic rays changes in phase with the solar cycle, the fluctuation level for lower energy channels (predominantly of solar/interplanetary origin is roughly in an opposite phase with the solar cycle. The results prove conclusively that these fluctuations originate in the near-Earth space, excluding their atmospheric or magnetospheric origin. We present these new results and discuss a possible scenario explaining the observed energy-dependence.

  18. Most Efficient Spectrograph to Shoot the Southern Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    instrument to use for a detailed study. Thanks to X-shooter, astronomers won't have to go through this first observing step. This is particularly relevant for gamma-ray bursts, which fade away very quickly and where being fast is the key to understanding the nature of these elusive cosmic sources. "I am very confident that X-shooter will discover the most distant gamma-ray bursts in the Universe, or in other words, the first objects that formed in the young Universe," says François Hammer, who leads the French efforts in X-shooter. X-shooter was built by a consortium of 11 institutes in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands, together with ESO. In total 68 person-years of work by engineers, technicians and astronomers and a global budget of six million Euros were required. The development time was remarkably fast for a project of this complexity, which was completed in just over five years, starting from the kick-off meeting held in December 2003. "The success of X-shooter and its relatively short completion time are a tribute to the quality and dedication of the many people involved in the project," says Alan Moorwood, ESO Director of Programmes. The instrument was installed at the telescope at the end of 2008 and the first observations in its full configuration were made on 14 March 2009, demonstrating that the instrument works efficiently over the full spectral range with unprecedented resolution and quality. X-shooter has already proved its full capability by obtaining the complete spectra of low metallicity stars, of X-ray binaries, of distant quasars and galaxies, of the nebulae associated with Eta Carinae and the supernova 1987A, as well as with the observation of a distant gamma-ray burst that coincidently exploded at the time of the commissioning run. X-shooter will be offered to the astronomical community from 1 October 2009. The instrument is clearly answering a need in the scientific community as about 150 proposals were received for the first runs of X

  19. Optical design of a multi-resolution, single shot spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Henault, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Multi-object or integral field spectrographs are recognized techniques for achieving simultaneous spectroscopic observations of different or extended sky objects with a high multiplex factor. In this communication is described a complementary approach for realizing similar measurements under different spectral resolutions at the same time. We describe the basic principle of this new type of spectrometer, that is based on the utilization of an optical pupil slicer. An optical design inspired from an already studied instrument is then presented and commented for the sake of illustration. Technical issues about the pupil slicer and diffractive components are also discussed. We finally conclude on the potential advantages and drawbacks of the proposed system.

  20. The SAURON project. I. The panoramic integral-field spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, R; Monnet, G; Miller, B W; Allington-Smith, J R; Bureau, M; Carollo, C M; Davies, R L; Emsellem, E; Kuntschner, H; Peletier, R F; Verolme, E K; De Zeeuw, P T; Miller, Bryan W.; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2001-01-01

    A new integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, is described. It is based on the Tiger principle, and uses a lenslet array. SAURON has a large field of view and high throughput, and allows simultaneous sky subtraction. Its design is optimized for studies of the stellar kinematics, gas kinematics, and line-strength distributions of nearby early-type galaxies. The instrument design and specifications are described, as well as the extensive analysis software which was developed to obtain fully calibrated spectra, and the associated kinematic and line-strength measurements. A companion paper reports on the first results obtained with SAURON on the William Herschel Telescope.

  1. Exoplanets search and characterization with the SOPHIE spectrograph at OHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébrard G.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several programs of exoplanets search and characterization have been started with SOPHIE at the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, France. SOPHIE is an environmentally stabilized echelle spectrograph dedicated to high-precision radial velocity measurements. The objectives of these programs include systematic searches for exoplanets around different types of stars, characterizations of planet-host stars, studies of transiting planets through RossiterMcLaughlin effect, follow-up observations of photometric surveys. The instrument SOPHIE and a review of its latest results are presented here.

  2. Fiber Assignment in Next-generation Wide-field Spectrographs

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Isaac; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Azzaro, Marco; Prada, Francisco; Sanchez, Justo; Becerril, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm for assigning fibers to targets in next-generation fiber-fed multi-object spectrographs. The method, that we named draining algorithm, ensures that the maximum number of targets in a given target field is observed in the first few tiles. Using randomly distributed targets and mock galaxy catalogs we have estimated that the gain provided by the draining algorithm as compared to a random assignment can be as much as 2% for the first tiles. This would imply for ...

  3. Design of the KOSMOS oil-coupled spectrograph camera lenses

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, Thomas P; Martini, Paul; Poczulp, Gary

    2014-01-01

    We present the design details of oil-coupled lens groups used in the KOSMOS spectrograph camera. The oil-coupled groups use silicone rubber O-rings in a unique way to accurately center lens elements with high radial and axial stiffness while also allowing easy assembly. The O-rings robustly seal the oil within the lens gaps to prevent oil migration. The design of an expansion diaphragm to compensate for differential expansion due to temperature changes is described. The issues of lens assembly, lens gap shimming, oil filling and draining, bubble mitigation, material compatibility, mechanical inspection, and optical testing are discussed.

  4. 14 GHz visible supercontinuum generation: calibration sources for astronomical spectrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, S P; Steinmetz, T; Probst, R A; Hundertmark, H; Wilken, T; Hänsch, T W; Udem, Th; Russell, P St J; Holzwarth, R

    2011-08-15

    We report the use of a specially designed tapered photonic crystal fiber to produce a broadband optical spectrum covering the visible spectral range. The pump source is a frequency doubled Yb fiber laser operating at a repetition rate of 14 GHz and emitting sub-5 pJ pulses. We experimentally determine the optimum core diameter and achieve a 235 nm broad spectrum. Numerical simulations are used to identify the underlying mechanisms and explain spectral features. The high repetition rate makes this system a promising candidate for precision calibration of astronomical spectrographs.

  5. Data reduction pipeline for the MMT Magellan Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, Igor; Fabricant, Daniel; McLeod, Brian; Roll, John; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We describe principal components of the new spectroscopic data pipeline for the multi-object MMT/Magellan Infrared Spectrograph (MMIRS). The pipeline is implemented in IDL and C++. The performance of the data processing algorithms is sufficient to reduce a single dataset in 2--3 min on a modern PC workstation so that one can use the pipeline as a quick-look tool during observations. We provide an example of the spectral data processed by our pipeline and demonstrate that the sky subtraction quality gets close to the limits set by the Poisson photon statistics.

  6. Cosmic Evolution: The History of an Idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Cosmic evolution has become the conceptual framework within which modern astronomy is undertaken, and is the guiding principle of major NASA programs such as Origins and Astrobiology. While there are 19th- and early 20th century antecedents, as in the work of Robert Chambers, Herbert Spencer and Lawrence Henderson, it was only at mid-20th century that full-blown cosmic evolution began to be articulated and accepted as a research paradigm extending from the Big Bang to life, intelligence and the evolution of culture. Harlow Shapley was particularly important in spreading the idea to the public in the 1950s, and NASA embraced the idea in the 1970s as part of its SETI program and later its exobiology and astrobiology programs. Eric Chaisson, Carl Sagan and others were early proponents of cosmic evolution, and it continues to be elaborated in ever more subtle form as a research program and a philosophy. It has even been termed "Genesis for the 21st century." This paper documents the origin and development of the idea and offers a glimpse of where it could lead if cultural evolution is taken seriously, possibly leading to the concept of a postbiological universe.

  7. Atmospheric ionization and cosmic rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  8. The science case of the PEPSI high-resolution echelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Pallavicini, R.; Rice, J. B.; Andersen, M. I.

    2004-05-01

    We lay out the scientific rationale for and present the instrumental requirements of a high-resolution adaptive-optics Echelle spectrograph with two full-Stokes polarimeters for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona. Magnetic processes just like those seen on the Sun and in the space environment of the Earth are now well recognized in many astrophysical areas. The application to other stars opened up a new field of research that became widely known as the solar-stellar connection. Late-type stars with convective envelopes are all affected by magnetic processes which give rise to a rich variety of phenomena on their surface and are largely responsible for the heating of their outer atmospheres. Magnetic fields are likely to play a crucial role in the accretion process of T-Tauri stars as well as in the acceleration and collimation of jet-like flows in young stellar objects (YSOs). Another area is the physics of active galactic nucleii (AGNs) , where the magnetic activity of the accreting black hole is now believed to be responsible for most of the behavior of these objects, including their X-ray spectrum, their notoriously dramatic variability, and the powerful relativistic jets they produce. Another is the physics of the central engines of cosmic gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful explosions in the universe, for which the extreme apparent energy release are explained through the collimation of the released energy by magnetic fields. Virtually all the physics of magnetic fields exploited in astrophysics is somehow linked to our understanding of the Sun's and the star's magnetic fields.

  9. The glacial cycles and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Müller, R A

    2004-01-01

    The cause of the glacial cycles remains a mystery. The origin is widely accepted to be astronomical since paleoclimatic archives contain strong spectral components that match the frequencies of Earth's orbital modulation. Milankovitch insolation theory contains similar frequencies and has become established as the standard model of the glacial cycles. However, high precision paleoclimatic data have revealed serious discrepancies with the Milankovitch model that fundamentally challenge its validity and re-open the question of what causes the glacial cycles. We propose here that the ice ages are initially driven not by insolation cycles but by cosmic ray changes, probably through their effect on clouds. This conclusion is based on a wide range of evidence, including results presented here on speleothem growth in caves in Austria and Oman, and on a record of cosmic ray flux over the past 220 kyr obtained from the 10Be composition of deep-ocean sediments.

  10. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above $10^{17}$ eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water-Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km$^2$ overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km$^2$, 61 detector infill array. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km$^2$ sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Auger Observatory.

  11. Sunyaev-Zeldovich and Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Burigana, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Since its original formulation the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect has been recognized as a ``powerful laboratory'' for our comprehension of physical processes in cosmic structures and to derive crucial information on some general properties of the universe. After a discussion of the fundamental concepts and of some well established applications of the SZ effect towards galaxy clusters, I will focus on dedicated themes related to the SZ effect and other features in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of particular interest in the view of the extremely high angular resolution observations achievable in the future with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). SKA will allow the mapping of the thermal and density structure of clusters of galaxies at radio and centimetre bands with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity and with an extremely accurate control of extragalactic radio source contamination. The signatures from SZ effects and free-free emission at galactic scales and in the intergalactic medium probe the st...

  12. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  13. Spectrographs and Large Telescopes: A Study of Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Haley Diane; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Uomoto, Alan K.; Hare, Tyson

    2017-01-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a telescope in possession of a large aperture, must be in want of a high resolution spectrograph. Subsystems of these instruments require testing and upgrading to ensure that they can continue to be scientifically productive and usher in a new era of astronomical research. The Planet Finder Spectrograph (PFS) and Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE), both on the Magellan II Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) are examples of such instruments. Bluer flat field lamps were designed for PFS and MIKE to replace lamps no longer available in order to ensure continued, efficient functionality. These newly designed lamps will result in better flat fielding and calibration of data, and thus result in increased reduction of instrument noise. When it is built and installed in 2022, G-CLEF will be be fed by a tertiary mirror on the GMT. Stepper motors attached to the back of this mirror will be used to correct misalignments in the optical relay system. These motors were characterized to ensure that they function as expected to an accuracy of a few microns. These projects incorporate several key aspects of astronomical instrumentation: designing, building, and testing.

  14. The Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS)

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael; McGregor, Peter; Oates, Patrick; Bloxham, Gabe; Jones, Damien

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) under construction at the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) of the Australian National University (ANU) for the ANU 2.3m telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory. WiFeS is a powerful integral field, double-beam, concentric, image-slicing spectrograph designed to deliver excellent thoughput, wavelength stability, spectrophotometric performance and superb image quality along with wide spectral coverage throughout the 320-950 nm wavelength region. It provides a 25x38 arcsec. field with 0.5 arcsec. sampling along each of twenty five 38X1 arcsec slitlets. The output format is optimized to match the 4096x4096 pixel CCD detectors in each of two cameras individually optimized for the blue and the red ends of the spectrum, respectively. A process of "interleaved nod-and-shuffle" will be applied to permit quantum noise-limited sky subtraction. Using VPH gratings, spectral resolutions of 3000 and 7000 are provided. The full spectral range is c...

  15. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Data Reduction System

    CERN Document Server

    Walth, Gregory; Weiss, Jason; Larkin, James E; Moore, Anna M; Chapin, Edward L; Do, Tuan; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Marshall, Daniel; Riddle, Reed L; Simard, Luc; Sohn, Ji Man; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincensten, James

    2016-01-01

    IRIS (InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph) is the diffraction-limited first light instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that consists of a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 $\\mu$m) imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS). The IFS makes use of a lenslet array and slicer for spatial sampling, which will be able to operate in 100's of different modes, including a combination of four plate scales from 4 milliarcseconds (mas) to 50 mas with a large range of filters and gratings. The imager will have a field of view of 34$\\times$34 arcsec$^{2}$ with a plate scale of 4 mas with many selectable filters. We present the preliminary design of the data reduction system (DRS) for IRIS that need to address all of these observing modes. Reduction of IRIS data will have unique challenges since it will provide real-time reduction and analysis of the imaging and spectroscopic data during observational sequences, as well as advanced post-processing algorithms. The DRS will support three basic modes of operation of IRIS; reduc...

  16. A fast new cadioptric design for fiber-fed spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, Will

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of massively multiplexed multi-object spectrographs (DESpec, SUMIRE, BigBOSS, 4MOST, HECTOR) demand fast, efficient and affordable spectrographs, with higher resolutions (R = 3000-5000) than current designs. Beam-size is a (relatively) free parameter in the design, but the properties of VPH gratings are such that, for fixed resolution and wavelength coverage, the effect on beam-size on overall VPH efficiency is very small. For alltransmissive cameras, this suggests modest beam-sizes (say 80-150mm) to minimize costs; while for cadioptric (Schmidt-type) cameras, much larger beam-sizes (say 250mm+) are preferred to improve image quality and to minimize obstruction losses. Schmidt designs have benefits in terms of image quality, camera speed and scattered light performance, and recent advances such as MRF technology mean that the required aspherics are no longer a prohibitive cost or risk. A new Schmidt/Maksutov-derived design is presented, which differs from previous designs in having the det...

  17. Fireball multi object spectrograph: as-built optic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, R.; Milliard, B.; Lemaitre, G.; Quiret, S.; Pascal, S.; Origné, A.; Hamden, E.; Schiminovich, D.

    2016-07-01

    Fireball (Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon) is a NASA/CNES balloon-borne experiment to study the faint diffuse circumgalactic medium from the line emissions in the ultraviolet (200 nm) above 37 km flight altitude. Fireball relies on a Multi Object Spectrograph (MOS) that takes full advantage of the new high QE, low noise 13 μm pixels UV EMCCD. The MOS is fed by a 1 meter diameter parabola with an extended field (1000 arcmin2) using a highly aspherized two mirror corrector. All the optical train is working at F/2.5 to maintain a high signal to noise ratio. The spectrograph (R 2200 and 1.5 arcsec FWHM) is based on two identical Schmidt systems acting as collimator and camera sharing a 2400 g/mm aspherized reflective Schmidt grating. This grating is manufactured from active optics methods by double replication technique of a metal deformable matrix whose active clear aperture is built-in to a rigid elliptical contour. The payload and gondola are presently under integration at LAM. We will present the alignment procedure and the as-built optic performances of the Fireball instrument.

  18. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: sensitivities and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Shelley A; Larkin, James E; Moore, Anna M; Crampton, David; Simard, Luc

    2010-01-01

    We present sensitivity estimates for point and resolved astronomical sources for the current design of the InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) on the future Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS, with TMT's adaptive optics system, will achieve unprecedented point source sensitivities in the near-infrared (0.84 - 2.45 {\\mu}m) when compared to systems on current 8-10m ground based telescopes. The IRIS imager, in 5 hours of total integration, will be able to perform a few percent photometry on 26 - 29 magnitude (AB) point sources in the near-infrared broadband filters (Z, Y, J, H, K). The integral field spectrograph, with a range of scales and filters, will achieve good signal-to-noise on 22 - 26 magnitude (AB) point sources with a spectral resolution of R=4,000 in 5 hours of total integration time. We also present simulated 3D IRIS data of resolved high-redshift star forming galaxies (1 < z < 5), illustrating the extraordinary potential of this instrument to probe the dynamics, assembly, and chemical abunda...

  19. Metrology Camera System of Prime Focus Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Huang, Pin-Jie; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Karr, Jennifer; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Gunn, James E; Reiley, Dan J; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Shimono, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover a 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capabilities of Hyper SuprimeCam. To retain high throughput, the final positioning accuracy between the fibers and observing targets of PFS is required to be less than 10um. The metrology camera system (MCS) serves as the optical encoder of the fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. MCS provides the fiber positions within a 5um error over the 45 cm focal plane. The information from MCS will be fed into the fiber positioner control system for the closed loop control. MCS will be located at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope in order to to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS camera. It is a 380mm Schmidt type telescope which generates a uniform spot size with a 10 micron FWHM across the field for reasonable sampling of PSF. Carbon fiber tubes are ...

  20. Initial results from the fast imaging solar spectrograph (FISS)

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This collection of papers describes the instrument and initial results obtained from the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS),  one of the post-focus instruments of the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The FISS primarily aims at investigating structures and dynamics of  chromospheric features. This instrument is a dual-band Echelle spectrograph optimized for the simultaneous recording of the H I 656.3 nm band and the Ca II 854.2 nm band. The imaging is done with the fast raster scan realized by the linear motion of a two-mirror scanner, and its quality is determined by the performance of the adaptive optics of the telescope.    These papers illustrate the capability of the early FISS observations in the study of chromospheric features. Since the imaging quality has been improved a lot with the advance of the adaptive optics, one can obtain much better data with the current FISS observations.        This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in...

  1. X-shooter near infra-red spectrograph cryogenic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ronald; Albers, Peter; Lizon, Jean-Louis; van Dael, Pieter; Elswijk, Eddy; Groot, Paul; Hanenburg, Hiddo; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramon; Tromp, Niels; Wulterkens, Gerben

    2008-07-01

    X-shooter is a high-efficiency spectrograph capable of simultaneously observing the complete spectral range of 300- 2500 nm. The instrument will be located at the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs. To allow sky back ground limited observations the 120 kg Optical Bench of the NIR Spectrograph and the HAWAII-2RG detector are cooled to 105 K and 82 K respectively. To ensure vibrationless operation the cooling is performed by a LN2 bath-cryostat. The thermal stability requirements for the Optical Box are very tight (order of 100 mK) considering that the NIR-cryostat is subject to telescope movement and LN2 level variations. Large glass optics are limiting the cooldown. To speed up the cooldown the cooling concept of the Optical Box includes the utilization of LN2 heat exchangers. To avoid asymptotic stabilizing times the Optical Box is cooled below the operating temperature. When the optics reach a temperature slightly above the operating temperature the temperature of the Optical Box is quickly brought back to stabilize the optics. Dedicated controllers, strapping and heaters are used for temperature stabilization during steady state. A cryostat hold time of 24 hours with the minimum amount of LN2 in view of the tight mass budget requires strict control of the power budget and careful control of the design margins. This is ensured by precise modeling of the temperature behavior. The thermal model is compared with the actual measured thermal behavior.

  2. Dual Phase Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Shurtleff, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A calculation based on flat spacetime symmetries shows how there can be two quantum phases. For one, extreme phase change determines a conventional classical trajectory and four-momentum, i.e. mass times four-velocity. The other phase occurs in an effective particle state, with the effective energy and momentum being the rate of change of the phase with respect to time and distance. A cosmic ray proton moves along a classical trajectory, but exists in an effective particle state with an effective energy that depends on the local gravitational potential. Assumptions are made so that a cosmic ray proton in an ultra-high energy state detected near the Earth was in a much less energetic state in interstellar space. A 300 EeV proton incident on the Earth was a 2 PeV proton in interstellar space. The model predicts such protons are in states with even more energy near the Sun than when near the Earth.

  3. Cosmic structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edumund

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the prevailing paradigm for how galaxies and larger structures formed in the universe: gravitational instability. Basic observational facts are summarized to motivate the standard cosmological framework underlying most detailed investigations of structure formation. The observed univers approaches spatial uniformity on scales larger than about 10(exp 26) cm. On these scales gravitational dynamics is almost linear and therefore relatively easy to relate to observations of large-scale structure. On smaller scales cosmic structure is complicated not only by nonlinear gravitational clustering but also by nonlinear nongravitational gas dynamical processes. The complexity of these phenomena makes galaxy formation one of the grand challenge problems of the physical sciences. No fully satisfactory theory can presently account in detail for the observed cosmic structure. However, as this article summarizes, significant progress has been made during the last few years.

  4. Understanding the cosmic web

    CERN Document Server

    Cautun, Marius; Jones, Bernard J T; Frenk, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the characteristics and the time evolution of the cosmic web from redshift, z=2, to present time, within the framework of the NEXUS+ algorithm. This necessitates the introduction of new analysis tools optimally suited to describe the very intricate and hierarchical pattern that is the cosmic web. In particular, we characterize filaments (walls) in terms of their linear (surface) mass density. This is very good in capturing the evolution of these structures. At early times the cosmos is dominated by tenuous filaments and sheets, which, during subsequent evolution, merge together, such that the present day web is dominated by fewer, but much more massive, structures. We also show that voids are more naturally described in terms of their boundaries and not their centres. We illustrate this for void density profiles, which, when expressed as a function of the distance from void boundary, show a universal profile in good qualitative agreement with the theoretical shell-crossing framework of expandin...

  5. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  6. Note on cosmic censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, F. J.

    1985-05-01

    A number of recent theorems by Krolak (1983) and Newman (1983) purport to prove cosmic censorship by showing that strong-curvature singularities must be hidden behind horizons. It is shown that the 'null strong-curvature' condition which Newman imposes on certain classes of null geodesics to restrict curvature growth in the space-time does not hold in many physically realistic space-times: it is not satisfied by any null geodesic in the relevant class in any open Friedmann cosmological model, nor does it hold for any null geodesic in the relevant class in maximal Schwarzschild space. More generally it is argued that the singularity predicted by the Penrose singularity theorem is unlikely to be of the type eliminated by Newman. Thus the Newman theorems are probably without physical significance. The Krolak theorems, although based on a physically significant definition of strong curvature singularity, are mathematically invalid, and this approach cannot be used to obtain a cosmic-censorship theorem.

  7. Stable charged cosmic strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18)  m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

  8. Cosmic Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P

    2004-04-26

    Recently we proposed a new cosmic acceleration mechanism which was based on the wakefields excited by the Alfven shocks in a relativistically owing plasma. In this paper we include some omitted details, and show that there exists a threshold condition for transparency below which the accelerating particle is collision-free and suffers little energy loss in the plasma medium. The stochastic encounters of the random accelerating-decelerating phases results in a power-law energy spectrum: f({epsilon}) {proportional_to} 1/{epsilon}{sup 2}. As an example, we discuss the possible production of super-GZK ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the atmosphere of gamma ray bursts. The estimated event rate in our model agrees with that from UHECR observations.

  9. Cosmic Strings and Quintessence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段一士; 任继荣; 杨捷

    2003-01-01

    Using torsion two-form we present a new Lorentz gauge invariant U (1) topological field theory in Riemann-Cartan space-time manifold U4. By virtue of the decomposition theory of U(1) gauge potential and the φ-mapping topological current theory, it is proven that the U(1) complex scalar field φ(x) can be looked upon as the order parameter field in our Universe, and a set of zero points of φ(x) create the cosmic strings as the space-time defects in the early Universe. In the standard cosmology, this complex scalar order parameter field possesses negative pressure, provides an accelerating expansion of Universe, and be able to explain the inflation in the early Universe. Therefore this complex scalar field is not only the order parameter field created the cosmic strings in the early universe, but also reasonably behaves as the quintessence, the dark energy.

  10. Modeling cosmic void statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the internal structure and spatial distribution of cosmic voids is crucial when considering them as probes of cosmology. We present recent advances in modeling void density- and velocity-profiles in real space, as well as void two-point statistics in redshift space, by examining voids identified via the watershed transform in state-of-the-art ΛCDM n-body simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The simple and universal characteristics that emerge from these statistics indicate the self-similarity of large-scale structure and suggest cosmic voids to be among the most pristine objects to consider for future studies on the nature of dark energy, dark matter and modified gravity.

  11. Absolute calibration of space-resolving soft X-ray spectrograph for plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Kawamori, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Watabe, C.; Yamaguchi, N.; Tamano, T.

    2001-07-01

    A grazing incidence flat-field soft X-ray (20-350 Å) spectrograph was constructed and applied for impurity diagnostics in the GAMMA 10 fusion plasma. The spectrograph consisted of a limited height entrance slit, an aberration-corrected concave grating, a microchannel-plate intensified detector and an instant camera/a high speed solid state camera. An absolute calibration experiment for the SX spectrograph was performed at the Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization with monitoring the incident synchrotron beam intensity by using an absolutely calibrated XUV silicon photodiode. From the results of absolute calibration of the spectrograph, the radiation loss from the plasma was obtained.

  12. Absolute calibration of space-resolving soft X-ray spectrograph for plasma diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, M; Kawamori, E; Watanabe, Y; Watabe, C; Yamaguchi, N; Tamano, T

    2001-01-01

    A grazing incidence flat-field soft X-ray (20-350 A) spectrograph was constructed and applied for impurity diagnostics in the GAMMA 10 fusion plasma. The spectrograph consisted of a limited height entrance slit, an aberration-corrected concave grating, a microchannel-plate intensified detector and an instant camera/a high speed solid state camera. An absolute calibration experiment for the SX spectrograph was performed at the Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization with monitoring the incident synchrotron beam intensity by using an absolutely calibrated XUV silicon photodiode. From the results of absolute calibration of the spectrograph, the radiation loss from the plasma was obtained.

  13. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome

    2000-08-01

    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  14. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  15. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-06

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  16. Frontiers in Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Ringwald, Andreas; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Dermer, Charles D.; Ringwald, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    This rapporteur review covers selected results presented in the Parallel Session HEA2 (High Energy Astrophysics 2) of the 10th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2003. The subtopics are: ultra high energy cosmic ray anisotropies, the possible connection of these energetic particles with powerful gamma ray bursts, and new exciting scenarios with a strong neutrino-nucleon interaction in the atmosphere.

  17. Cosmic ray modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  18. Using the Westerbork Radio Observatory to detect UHE cosmic particles interacting on the moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacelar, J.; Scholten, O.; De Bruyn, A. G.; Falcke, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) particles of cosmological origin (cosmic-rays and neutrinos), carry information on the most spectacular events known. These extremely energetic (energies larger than 1 ZeV = 10.(21) eV) cosmic-rays or neutrinos initiate in the lunar regolith a cascade of charged particles whi

  19. Using the Westerbork Radio Observatory to Detect UHE Cosmic Particles Interacting on the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacelar, J.; Scholten, O.; Bruyn, A.G. de; Falcke, H.D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) particles of cosmological origin (cosmic-rays and neutrinos), carry information on the most spectacular events known. These extremely energetic (energies larger than 1 ZeV= 1021 eV) cosmic-rays or neutrinos initiate in the lunar regolith a cascade of charged partic

  20. Lunar detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bray, J. D.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Buitink, S.; Dagkesamanskii, R. D.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; Gayley, K. G.; Huege, T.; James, C. W.; Mevius, M.; Mutel, R. L.; Protheroe, R. J.; Scholten, O.; Spencer, R. E.; ter Veen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the most energetic particles in nature, the ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays, is still a mystery. Due to their extremely low flux, even the 3,000 km^2 Pierre Auger detector registers only about 30 cosmic rays per year with sufficiently high energy to be used for directional studies.

  1. A Cosmic Microwave Background feature consistent with a cosmic texture

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M.; Turok, N.; Vielva, P.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Hobson, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background provides our most ancient image of the Universe and our best tool for studying its early evolution. Theories of high energy physics predict the formation of various types of topological defects in the very early universe, including cosmic texture which would generate hot and cold spots in the Cosmic Microwave Background. We show through a Bayesian statistical analysis that the most prominent, 5 degree radius cold spot observed in all-sky images, which is otherw...

  2. Canny Algorithm, Cosmic Strings and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danos, Rebecca J.; Brandenberger, Robert H.

    We describe a new code to search for signatures of cosmic strings in cosmic microwave anisotropy maps. The code implements the Canny algorithm, an edge detection algorithm designed to search for the lines of large gradients in maps. Such a gradient signature which is coherent in position-space is produced by cosmic strings via the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We test the power of our new code to set limits on the tension of the cosmic strings by analyzing simulated data, with and without cosmic strings. We compare maps with a pure Gaussian scale-invariant power spectrum with maps which have a contribution of a distribution of cosmic strings obeying a scaling solution. The maps have angular scale and angular resolution comparable to what current and future ground-based small-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy experiments will achieve. We present tests of the codes, indicate the limits on the string tension which could be set with the current code, and describe various ways to refine the analysis. Our results indicate that when applied to the data of ongoing cosmic microwave experiments such as the South Pole Telescope project, the sensitivity of our method to the presence of cosmic strings will be more than an order of magnitude better than the limits from existing analyses.

  3. High-energy cosmic rays: Puzzles, models, and giga-ton neutrino telescopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Waxman

    2004-02-01

    The existence of cosmic rays of energies exceeding 1020 eV is one of the mysteries of high-energy astrophysics. The spectrum and the high energy to which it extends rule out almost all suggested source models. The challenges posed by observations to models for the origin of high-energy cosmic rays are reviewed, and the implications of recent new experimental results are discussed. Large area high-energy cosmic ray detectors and large volume high-energy neutrino detectors currently under construction may resolve the high-energy cosmic ray puzzle, and shed light on the identity and physics of the most powerful accelerators in the Universe.

  4. Progress with the Prime Focus Spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope: a massively multiplexed optical and near-infrared fiber spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Sugai, Hajime; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Takato, Naruhisa; Kimura, Masahiko; Ohyama, Youichi; Ueda, Akitoshi; Aghazarian, Hrand; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Barkhouser, Robert H; Bennett, Charles L; Bickerton, Steve; Bozier, Alexandre; Braun, David F; Bui, Khanh; Capocasale, Christopher M; Carr, Michael A; Castilho, Bruno; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Chou, Richard C Y; Dawson, Olivia R; Dekany, Richard G; Ek, Eric M; Ellis, Richard S; English, Robin J; Ferrand, Didier; Ferreira, Décio; Fisher, Charles D; Golebiowski, Mirek; Gunn, James E; Hart, Murdock; Heckman, Timothy M; Ho, Paul T P; Hope, Stephen; Hovland, Larry E; Hsuc, Shu-Fu; Hu, Yen-Shan; Huang, Pin Jie; Jaquet, Marc; Karr, Jennifer E; Kempenaar, Jason G; King, Matthew E; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Mignant, David Le; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H; Madec, Fabrice; Mao, Peter; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Ménard, Brice; Morantz, Chaz; Murayama, Hitoshi; Murray, Graham J; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; Orndorff, Joe D; Vilaça, Rodrigo de Paiva; Partos, Eamon J; Pascal, Sandrine; Pegot-Ogier, Thomas; Reiley, Daniel J; Riddle, Reed; Santos, Leandro; Santos, Jesulino Bispo dos; Schwochert, Mark A; Seiffert, Michael D; Smee, Stephen A; Smith, Roger M; Steinkraus, Ronald E; Sodré, Laerte; Spergel, David N; Surace, Christian; Tresse, Laurence; Vidal, Clément; Vives, Sebastien; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Wu, Amy C; Wyse, Rosie; Yan, Chi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is an optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph with 2394 science fibers, which are distributed in 1.3 degree diameter field of view at Subaru 8.2-meter telescope. The simultaneous wide wavelength coverage from 0.38 um to 1.26 um, with the resolving power of 3000, strengthens its ability to target three main survey programs: cosmology, Galactic archaeology, and galaxy/AGN evolution. A medium resolution mode with resolving power of 5000 for 0.71 um to 0.89 um also will be available by simply exchanging dispersers. PFS takes the role for the spectroscopic part of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts project, while Hyper Suprime-Cam works on the imaging part. To transform the telescope plus WFC focal ratio, a 3-mm thick broad-band coated glass-molded microlens is glued to each fiber tip. A higher transmission fiber is selected for the longest part of cable system, while one with a better FRD performance is selected for the fiber-positioner and fiber-slit componen...

  5. The Rosetta Alice Ultraviolet Spectrograph Investigation: The First UV Spectrograph to Reach a Comet—Results Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan; Parker, Joel Wm.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Feaga, Lori M.; Feldman, Paul D.; Keeney, Brian A.; Noonan, John; Schindhelm, Eric; Steffl, Andrew; Weaver, Harold A.

    2016-10-01

    Numerous scientific results have been obtained from the exploration of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the ESA/NASA Rosetta mission. The Alice far/extreme-UV spectrograph aboard Rosetta is one of three US instruments provided by NASA to this mission; it is the first UV spectrograph to reach any comet. We will summarize the main results obtained by the Alice instrument to date, including both surface and coma studies. Notable results we will highlight will include: the discovery of electron impact excitation as the dominant UV emission mechanism near the comet, the detection of molecular oxygen at surprisingly high abundance in the coma, the lack of strong water-ice signatures on the comet's surface during the approach to perihelion, numerous results concerning cometary outbursts, and a large database of systematics relating to atomic and molecular species abundances as the comet approached and then receded from the Sun over a span of two year surrounding the comet's August 2015 perihelion.

  6. Effect of cosmic ray on global high cloud from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-S.; Choi, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth's climate is affected by not only internal forcings but also external forcings related with solar activities. The energetic particles called "cosmic rays" from outer space have been considered as a potentially important external climate forcing since the first report by Svensemark and Friis-Christensen (1997) which showed a significant correlation between cloudiness and cosmic ray. This correlation is a basis of a couple of hypotheses in microphysical processes: ion-aerosol clear-air mechanism and ion-aerosol near-cloud mechanism. These mechanisms have been either supported or objected by many successive studies, most of which correlated long-term trends of cloud and cosmic ray. However, it is most likely that such methodology is not suitable to find actual connection, because long-term trends of clouds may invite affection by many factors other than cosmic ray. It is therefore necessary to find the relation at shorter time scale, since cosmic ray affect the process of cloud formation in a moment. Here we show spatial distributions of correlation between global high cloud fraction data from MODIS and cosmic ray of neutron monitor data from McMurdo, Antarctic. We removed 3-month running means from the original data in order to get high frequency fluctuations. As results, positive correlations are dominant in the spatial distribution, especially over lands on the northern hemisphere and oceans on the Southern hemisphere. On the other hand, negative correlations exist over limited area including the Indian Ocean. According to the cross-correlation (with time lags), the areas with positive correlation is widely distributed at zero lag. At ±1 month lags, the signs of correlations become the opposite of that at zero lag. Furthermore, the correlation between relative high cloud amount to total cloud and cosmic ray shows similar distribution to the correlation between absolute high cloud amount and cosmic ray, implying stronger high cloud response to cosmic ray

  7. A fast new cadioptric design for fiber-fed spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Will

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of massively multiplexed multi-object spectrographs (DESpec, SUMIRE, BigBOSS, 4MOST, HECTOR) demand fast, efficient and affordable spectrographs, with higher resolutions (R = 3000-5000) than current designs. Beam-size is a (relatively) free parameter in the design, but the properties of VPH gratings are such that, for fixed resolution and wavelength coverage, the effect on beam-size on overall VPH efficiency is very small. For alltransmissive cameras, this suggests modest beam-sizes (say 80-150mm) to minimize costs; while for cadioptric (Schmidt-type) cameras, much larger beam-sizes (say 250mm+) are preferred to improve image quality and to minimize obstruction losses. Schmidt designs have benefits in terms of image quality, camera speed and scattered light performance, and recent advances such as MRF technology mean that the required aspherics are no longer a prohibitive cost or risk. The main objections to traditional Schmidt designs are the inaccessibility of the detector package, and the loss in throughput caused by it being in the beam. With expected count rates and current read-noise technology, the gain in camera speed allowed by Schmidt optics largely compensates for the additional obstruction losses. However, future advances in readout technology may erase most of this compensation. A new Schmidt/Maksutov-derived design is presented, which differs from previous designs in having the detector package outside the camera, and adjacent to the spectrograph pupil. The telescope pupil already contains a hole at its center, because of the obstruction from the telescope top-end. With a 250mm beam, it is possible to largely hide a 6cm × 6cm detector package and its dewar within this hole. This means that the design achieves a very high efficiency, competitive with transmissive designs. The optics are excellent, as least as good as classic Schmidt designs, allowing F/1.25 or even faster cameras. The principal hardware has been costed at $300K per

  8. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph on the Europa Mission (Europa-UVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Steffl, A.; Davis, M. W.; Feldman, P. D.; McGrath, M. A.; Roth, L.; Saur, J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, S. A.; Pope, S.; Freeman, M. A.; Persyn, S. C.; Araujo, M. F.; Cortinas, S. C.; Monreal, R. M.; Persson, K. B.; Trantham, B. J.; Versteeg, M. H.; Walther, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Europa multi-flyby mission is designed to provide a diversity of measurements suited to enrich our understanding of the potential habitability of this intriguing ocean world. The Europa mission's Ultraviolet Spectrograph, Europa-UVS, is the sixth in a series of successful ultraviolet imaging spectrographs (Rosetta-Alice, New Horizons Pluto-Alice, LRO-LAMP) and, like JUICE-UVS (now under Phase B development), is largely based on the most recent of these to fly, Juno-UVS. Europa-UVS observes photons in the 55-210 nm wavelength range, at moderate spectral and spatial resolution along a 7.5° slit. Three distinct apertures send light to the off-axis telescope mirror feeding the long-slit spectrograph: i) a main entrance airglow port is used for most observations (e.g., airglow, aurora, surface mapping, and stellar occultations); ii) a high-spatial-resolution port consists of a small hole in an additional aperture door, and is used for detailed observations of bright targets; and iii) a separate solar port allows for solar occultations, viewing at a 60° offset from the nominal payload boresight. Photon event time-tagging (pixel list mode) and programmable spectral imaging (histogram mode) allow for observational flexibility and optimal science data management. As on Juno-UVS, the effects of penetrating electron radiation on electronic parts and data quality are mitigated through contiguous shielding, filtering of pulse height amplitudes, management of high-voltage settings, and careful use of radiation-hard parts. The science goals of Europa-UVS are to: 1) Determine the composition & chemistry, source & sinks, and structure & variability of Europa's atmosphere, from equator to pole; 2) Search for and characterize active plumes in terms of global distribution, structure, composition, and variability; 3) Explore the surface composition & microphysics and their relation to endogenic & exogenic processes; and 4) Investigate how energy and mass flow in the Europa

  9. Cosmic evolution: the context for astrobiology and its cultural implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-10-01

    Astrobiology must be seen in the context of cosmic evolution, the 13.7 billion-year master narrative of the universe. The idea of an evolving universe dates back only to the 19th century, and became a guiding principle for astronomical research only in the second half of the 20th century. The modern synthesis in evolutionary biology hastened the acceptance of the idea in its cosmic setting, as did the confirmation of the Big Bang theory for the origin of the universe. NASA programmes such as Origins incorporated it as a guiding principle. Cosmic evolution encompasses physical, biological and cultural evolution, and may result in a physical, biological or postbiological universe, each with its own implications for long-term human destiny, and each imbuing the meaning of life with different values. It has the status of an increasingly accepted worldview that is beginning to have a profound effect not only in science but also in religion and philosophy.

  10. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Ankle

    CERN Document Server

    Haungs, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of the energy spectrum as well as the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of PeVto EeV are important for understanding both, the origin of the galactic and the extragalactic cosmic rays. Recently, three modern experimental installations (KASCADE-Grande, IceTop, Tunka-133), dedicated to investigate this primary energy range, have published new results on the all-particle energy spectrum. In this short review these results are presented and the similarities and differences discussed. In addition, the effects of using different hadronic interaction models for interpreting the measured air-shower data will be examined. Finally, a brief discussion on the question if the present results are in agreement or in contradiction with astrophysical models for the transition from galactic to 10 pagesextragalactic origin of cosmic rays completes this paper.

  11. Cosmic ray driven Galactic winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, S.; Blasi, P.; Morlino, G.

    2016-11-01

    The escape of cosmic rays from the Galaxy leads to a gradient in the cosmic ray pressure that acts as a force on the background plasma, in the direction opposite to the gravitational pull. If this force is large enough to win against gravity, a wind can be launched that removes gas from the Galaxy, thereby regulating several physical processes, including star formation. The dynamics of these cosmic ray driven winds is intrinsically non-linear in that the spectrum of cosmic rays determines the characteristics of the wind (velocity, pressure, magnetic field) and in turn the wind dynamics affects the cosmic ray spectrum. Moreover, the gradient of the cosmic ray distribution function causes excitation of Alfvén waves, that in turn determines the scattering properties of cosmic rays, namely their diffusive transport. These effects all feed into each other so that what we see at the Earth is the result of these non-linear effects. Here, we investigate the launch and evolution of such winds, and we determine the implications for the spectrum of cosmic rays by solving together the hydrodynamical equations for the wind and the transport equation for cosmic rays under the action of self-generated diffusion and advection with the wind and the self-excited Alfvén waves.

  12. Cosmic rays and molecular clouds

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the cosmic-ray penetration into molecular clouds and with the related gamma--ray emission. High energy cosmic rays interact with the dense gas and produce neutral pions which in turn decay into two gamma rays. This makes molecular clouds potential sources of gamma rays, especially if they are located in the vicinity of a powerful accelerator that injects cosmic rays in the interstellar medium. The amplitude and duration in time of the cosmic--ray overdensity around a giv...

  13. Highlights from e-EPS: Cosmic Day / FEL for SuperB / Assessment Assessed

    CERN Multimedia

    Ian Randall, Bénédicte Huchet and EPS

    2012-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   International Cosmic Day The first International Cosmic Day will be held on 26 September this year. During this event, students and teachers worldwide will come together in research institutions, universities and classrooms to learn about cosmic particle research. The event will celebrate the centenary of Victor Franz Hess’ discovery of cosmic rays – particles which originate in outer space and spread through the whole universe, often at extremely high energies. On the day, students will tackle such questions as: what are cosmic particles? … where do they come from? … and how can they be measured? Participants will be encouraged to undertake their own cosmic particle experiments: analysing and evaluating the...

  14. MARS A Cosmic Stepping Stone Uncovering Humanity’s Cosmic Context

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The questions of our origin and cosmic abundance of life are among the most compelling facing humanity. We have determined much about the nature and origin of the Universe and our place in it, but with virtually all evidence of our origin long since gone from our world and an unimaginably vast Universe still to explore, defining answers are difficult to obtain. For all of the difficulties facing us however, the planet Mars may act as a ‘cosmic stepping stone’ in uncovering some of the answers. Although different today, the origin and early history of both Earth and Mars may have been similar enough to consider an origin to life on both. But because Mars’ planetary processes collapsed over three billion years ago – just as life was beginning to flourish on Earth – a significant and unique record of activity from that era perhaps relevant to the origin of life still resides there today. In recognition of this, both the US and Europe are currently engaged in one of the most ambitious programs of explor...

  15. Transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays and cosmic ray anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigl G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This talk based on results of ref. [1], where we constrain the energy at which the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs by computing the anisotropy at Earth of cosmic rays emitted by Galactic sources. Since the diffusion approximation starts to loose its validity for E/Z ≳ 10(16−17 eV, we propagate individual cosmic rays using Galactic magnetic field models and taking into account both their regular and turbulent components. The turbulent field is generated on a nested grid which allows spatial resolution down to fractions of a parsec. If the primary composition is mostly light or intermediate around E ∼ 1018 eV, the transition at the ankle is ruled out, except in the unlikely case of an extreme Galactic magnetic field with strength >10 μG. Therefore, the fast rising proton contribution suggested by KASCADE-Grande data between 1017 eV and 1018 eV should be of extragalactic origin. In case heavy nuclei dominate the flux at E > 1018 eV, the transition energy can be close to the ankle, if Galactic cosmic rays are produced by sufficiently frequent transients as e.g. magnetars.

  16. Exceptional Colloquium: The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    In the 1980s many people were excited by the concept that cosmic strings, as relics of the Grand Unified Era, could be responsible for the formation of cosmic structure. In the 1990s the cosmic string concept steadily lost ground to the Inflationary model both as a result of the difficulty of calculations and more definitively through observations of the CMB. About the time many expected the new WMAP data to deliver the coup de grace, the concepts of cosmic strings as major physical phenomena (not so important in structure formation) has begun a renaissance. This new interest is motivated by one of the original ideas that topological defects are inevitable in symmetry breaking by the Kibble (1976) mechanism and the introduction of new ideas such as brane-cosmology/inflation and the realization that cosmic strings may be the only acceptable such defect. We find ourselves back in the business of trying to detect or limit and understand cosmic strings once again for the insight and constraints they put on p...

  17. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Instrument Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, James E; Barton, Elizabeth J; Bauman, Brian; Bui, Khanh; Canfield, John; Crampton, David; Delacroix, Alex; Fletcher, Murray; Hale, David; Loop, David; Niehaus, Cyndie; Phillips, Andrew C; Reshetov, Vladimir; Simard, Luc; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Usuda, Tomonori; Wright, Shelley A

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the design of IRIS, an infrared (0.85 - 2.5 micron) integral field spectrograph and imaging camera for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). With extremely low wavefront error (<30 nm) and on-board wavefront sensors, IRIS will take advantage of the high angular resolution of the narrow field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS) to dissect the sky at the diffraction limit of the 30-meter aperture. With a primary spectral resolution of 4000 and spatial sampling starting at 4 milliarcseconds, the instrument will create an unparalleled ability to explore high redshift galaxies, the Galactic center, star forming regions and virtually any astrophysical object. This paper summarizes the entire design and basic capabilities. Among the design innovations is the combination of lenslet and slicer integral field units, new 4Kx4k detectors, extremely precise atmospheric dispersion correction, infrared wavefront sensors, and a very large vacuum cryogenic system.

  18. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Instrument Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Anna M; Wright, Shelley A; Bauman, Brian; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Phillips, Andrew C; Simard, Luc; Suzuki, Ryuji; Zhang, Kai; Aliado, Ted; Brims, George; Canfield, John; Chen, Shaojie; Dekany, Richard; Delacroix, Alex; Do, Tuan; Herriot, Glen; Ikenoue, Bungo; Johnson, Chris; Meyer, Elliot; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Pazder, John; Reshetov, Vladimir; Riddle, Reed; Saito, Sakae; Smith, Roger; Sohn, Ji Man; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Usuda, Tomonori; Wang, Eric; Wang, Lianqi; Weiss, Jason; Wooff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the design of IRIS, an infrared (0.84 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph and imaging camera for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). With extremely low wavefront error (<30 nm) and on-board wavefront sensors, IRIS will take advantage of the high angular resolution of the narrow field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS) to dissect the sky at the diffraction limit of the 30-meter aperture. With a primary spectral resolution of 4000 and spatial sampling starting at 4 milliarcseconds, the instrument will create an unparalleled ability to explore high redshift galaxies, the Galactic center, star forming regions and virtually any astrophysical object. This paper summarizes the entire design and basic capabilities. Among the design innovations is the combination of lenslet and slicer integral field units, new 4Kx4k detectors, extremely precise atmospheric dispersion correction, infrared wavefront sensors, and a very large vacuum cryogenic system.

  19. Calibrating echelle spectrographs with Fabry-Perot etalons

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Florian F; Reiners, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades hollow-cathode lamps have been calibration standards for spectroscopic measurements. Advancing to cm/s radial velocity precisions with the next generation of instruments requires more suitable calibration sources with more lines and less dynamic range problems. Fabry-Perot interferometers provide a regular and dense grid of lines and homogeneous amplitudes making them good candidates for next generation calibrators. We investigate the usefulness of Fabry-Perot etalons in wavelength calibration, present an algorithm to incorporate the etalon spectrum in the wavelength solution and examine potential problems. The quasi periodic pattern of Fabry-Perot lines is used along with a hollow-cathode lamp to anchor the numerous spectral features on an absolute scale. We test our method with the HARPS spectrograph and compare our wavelength solution to the one derived from a laser frequency comb. The combined hollow-cathode lamp/etalon calibration overcomes large distortion (50 m/s) in the wavelengt...

  20. Updated Multichannel Infrared Solar Spectrograph at Purple Mountain Observatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎辉; 尤建圻; 吴琴娣; 于兴凤

    2002-01-01

    We describe the newly updated multichannel infrared solar spectrograph at the Purple Mountain Observatory that now uses three Apogee APTp grade i scientific CCDs as its detectors and works at three wavelengths, He I 10830 , Call 8542 and Ha, simultaneously. The spectral resolutions of these lines are 0.04776, 0.05113 and 0.05453 per pixel, respectively. Some observation examples are presented. The observed profiles of the three lines demonstrate that redshift and asymmetry exist in the impulsive phase of the given disc flare and both blueshift and redshift exist in the presented flare spray in the impulsive phase of a limb flare. They also indicate that horizontal expansion exists in addition to the quick radial motion in the flare spray.

  1. Spectrographic Polarimeter and Method of Recording State of Polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, William B. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A single-shot real-time spectropolarimeter for use in astronomy and other sciences that captures and encodes some or all of the Stokes polarization parameters simultaneously using only static, robust optical components with no moving parts is described. The polarization information is encoded onto the spectrograph at each wavelength along the spatial dimension of the 2D output data array. The varying embodiments of the concept include both a two-Stokes implementation (in which any two of the three Stokes polarization parameters are measured) and a full Stokes implementation (in which all three of the Stokes polarization parameters are measured), each of which is provided in either single beam or dual beam forms.

  2. Raman Imaging with a Fiber-Coupled Multichannel Spectrograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Schmälzlin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Until now, spatially resolved Raman Spectroscopy has required to scan a sample under investigation in a time-consuming step-by-step procedure. Here, we present a technique that allows the capture of an entire Raman image with only one single exposure. The Raman scattering arising from the sample was collected with a fiber-coupled high-performance astronomy spectrograph. The probe head consisting of an array of 20 × 20 multimode fibers was linked to the camera port of a microscope. To demonstrate the high potential of this new concept, Raman images of reference samples were recorded. Entire chemical maps were received without the need for a scanning procedure.

  3. Speckle Suppression with the Project 1640 Integral Field Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R; Zimmerman, Neil; Hinkley, Sasha; Parry, Ian; King, David; Vasisht, Gautam; Beichman, Charles; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Dekany, Richard; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Roberts, Lewis C; Bouchez, Antonin; Roberts, Jenny; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    Project 1640 is a high-contrast imaging instrument recently commissioned at Palomar observatory. A combination of a coronagraph with an integral field spectrograph (IFS), Project 1640 is designed to detect and characterize extrasolar planets, brown dwarfs, and circumstellar material orbiting nearby stars. In this paper, we present our data processing techniques for improving upon instrument raw sensitivity via the removal of quasi-static speckles. Our approach utilizes the chromatic image diversity provided by the IFS in combination with the locally-optimized combination of images (LOCI) algorithm to suppress the intensity of residual contaminating light in close angular proximity to target stars. We describe the Project 1640 speckle suppression pipeline (PSSP) and demonstrate the ability to detect companions with brightness comparable to and below that of initial speckle intensities using on-sky commissioning data. Our preliminary results indicate that suppression factors of at least one order of magnitude a...

  4. Monitoring evolved stars for binarity with the HERMES spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlova, N; Vos, J; Ostensen, R H; Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S; Ikonnikova, N

    2014-01-01

    Binarity is often invoked to explain peculiarities that can not be explained by the standard theory of stellar evolution. Detecting orbital motion via the Doppler effect is the best method to test binarity when direct imaging is not possible. However, when the orbital period exceeds the duration of a typical observing run, monitoring often becomes problematic. Placing a high-throughput spectrograph on a small semi- robotic telescope allowed us to carry out a radial-velocity survey of various types of peculiar evolved stars. In this review we highlight some findings after the first four years of observations. Thus, we detect eccentric binaries among hot subdwarfs, barium, S stars, and post- AGB stars with disks, which are not predicted by the standard binary interaction theory. In disk objects, in addition, we find signs of the on- going mass transfer to the companion, and an intriguing line splitting, which we attribute to the scattered light of the primary.

  5. Spectrographic analysis of pain cry in neonates with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsson, K; Sirviö, P; Koivisto, M; Sovijärvi, A; Wasz-Höckert, O

    1975-01-01

    52 phonations of 13 cleft palate neonates were analyzed by sound spectrographic methods. 17 phonetical attributes were included in the study and the first signal after the pain stimulus was analyzed. The cries of the cleft palate infants were compared with the crying of 75 normal babies of the same age. No change in the fundamental frequency, melody type and duration of the cries was seen in association with these anatomical defects. Two of the characteristics studied, vibrato and the 'tonal pit', occurred significantly more often in cries of the cleft palate infants than in cries of the control series. The changes in the qualities seen in association with cleft palate and/or cleft lip do not mimic the abnormalities produced by brain damage.

  6. Design and Performance of the ICON EUV Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirk, Martin M.; Korpela, Eric J.; Ishikawa, Yuzo; Edelstein, Jerry; Wishnow, Edward H.; Smith, Christopher; McCauley, Jeremy; McPhate, Jason B.; Curtis, James; Curtis, Travis; Gibson, Steven R.; Jelinsky, Sharon; Lynn, Jeffrey A.; Marckwordt, Mario; Miller, Nathan; Raffanti, Michael; Van Shourt, William; Stephan, Andrew W.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2017-07-01

    We present the design, implementation, and on-ground performance measurements of the Ionospheric Connection Explorer EUV spectrometer, ICON EUV, a wide field ( 17° × 12°) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrograph designed to observe the lower ionosphere at tangent altitudes between 100 and 500 km. The primary targets of the spectrometer, which has a spectral range of 54-88 nm, are the Ouc(ii) emission lines at 61.6 nm and 83.4 nm. Its design, using a single optical element, permits a imaging resolution perpendicular to the spectral dispersion direction with a large ( 12° ) acceptance parallel to the dispersion direction while providing a slit-width dominated spectral resolution of R˜25 at 58.4 nm. Pre-flight calibration shows that the instrument has met all of the science performance requirements.

  7. Fibre positioning concept for the WEAVE spectrograph at the WHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ian J.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Brock, Matthew; Gilbert, James; Abrams, Don C.; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Middleton, Kevin; Trager, Scott C.

    2014-07-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick and place" fibre fed spectrograph with more than one thousand fibres behind a new dedicated 2° prime focus corrector, This is similar in concept to the Australian Astronomical Observatory's 2dF instrument1 with two observing plates, one of which is observing the sky while other is being reconfigured by a robotic fibre positioner. It will be capable of acquiring more than 10000 star or galaxy spectra a night. The WEAVE positioner concept uses two robots working in tandem in order to reconfigure a fully populated field within the expected 1 hour dwell-time for the instrument (a good match between the required exposure times and the limit of validity for a given configuration due to the effects of differential refraction).

  8. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Instrument Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, James E; Wright, Shelley A; Wincentsen, James E; Anderson, David; Chisholm, Eric M; Dekany, Richard G; Dunn, Jennifer S; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Hayano, Yutaka; Phillips, Andrew C; Simard, Luc; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Weber, Robert W; Weiss, Jason L; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    IRIS is a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 microns) integral field spectrograph and wide-field imager being developed for first light with the Thirty Meter (TMT). It mounts to the advanced optics (AO) system NFIRAOS and has integrated on-instrument wavefront sensors (OIWFS) to achieve diffraction-limited spatial resolution at wavelengths longer than 1 micron. With moderate spectral resolution (R ~4,000 - 8,000) and large bandpass over a continuous field of view, IRIS will open new opportunities in virtually every area of astrophysical science. It will be able to resolve surface features tens of kilometers across Titan, while also mapping the distant galaxies at the scale of an individual star forming region. This paper summarizes the entire design and capabilities, and includes the results from the nearly completed preliminary design phase.

  9. Sound spectrographic analysis of pain cry in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsson, K; Järvenpää, A L; Rinne, A

    1983-07-01

    Sound spectrographic cry analysis was performed on 302 cries of 48 preterm infants born at 30-37 gestational weeks. The cries were recorded during the first week of life and thereafter weekly until the infants were discharged. The control series comprised 54 cries from 27 fullterm healthy infants. The results showed that the cries of the smallest prematures compared with the controls were shorter, more high-pitched, and included bi-phonation and glide more often. The cry characteristics changed with increasing conceptual age and the older the child the more the cry pattern resembled that of the fullterm. The cries of the preterm infants when they had reached 38 conceptual weeks were similar to those of newly born fullterm infants. The results indicate that the gestational age should be taken into consideration in cry analysis.

  10. The Emergence of Cosmic Education. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Sr. Christina Marie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the influence of Hindu, Moslem, and Buddhist metaphysics on Maria Montessori's own pedagogical philosophy of Cosmic Education, which she regarded as the core of all learning experiences, after her visit to India. Considers the relationship between Montessori's ideas of child development and Cosmic Education, and the effect of Indian…

  11. Removing the Fringes from Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Slitless Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumuth, Eliot M.; Hill, Robert S.; Gull, Ted; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Plait, Phil; Blouke, Morley

    2003-02-01

    Using what is known about the physical and chemical structure of the CCD detector on the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and over 50 calibration images taken with different wavelength mappings onto the detector, we have devised a model function that allows us to predict the fringing of any spectral image taken with the STIS CCD. This function is especially useful for spectra taken without a slit with the G750L grating. The STIS parallel observing program uses this ``slitless spectroscopy'' mode extensively. The arbitrary mapping of wavelength versus position that results from each source's chance position in the field renders direct calibration of the fringe amplitudes in this mode impossible. However, we find that correcting observed data using our semiempirical fringing model produces a substantial reduction in the fringe amplitudes. Tests using the flux calibration white dwarf standard G191-B2B show that we can reduce the fringe amplitude in the 9000-10000 Å region from about 20% peak to peak (10% rms) to about 4% peak to peak (2% rms) using the model, while a standard calibration using a ``fringe flat'' reduces the fringe amplitudes to 3.3% peak to peak (1.7% rms). The same technique is applicable to other astronomical CCDs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Funding of this activity was through the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Guaranteed Time Observations.

  12. Fibre assignment in next-generation wide-field spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Isaac; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Azzaro, Marco; Prada, Francisco; Sánchez, Justo; Becerril, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm for assigning fibres to targets in next-generation fibre-fed multi-object spectrographs. The method, which we have called the draining algorithm, ensures that the maximum number of targets in a given target field is observed in the first few tiles. Using randomly distributed targets and mock galaxy catalogues, we have estimated that the gain provided by the draining algorithm, compared to a random assignment, can be as much as 2 per cent for the first tiles. For a survey such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BigBOSS), this would imply saving for observation several hundred thousand objects or, alternatively, reducing the covered area in ˜350 deg2. An important advantage of this method is that the fibre collision problem can be solved easily and in an optimal way. We also discuss the additional optimizations of the fibre-positioning process. In particular, we show that if we allow for the rotation of the focal plane, we can improve the efficiency of the process by ˜3.5-4.5 per cent, even if only small adjustments are permitted (up to 2°). For instruments that allow large rotations of the focal plane, the expected gain increases to ˜5-6 per cent. Therefore, these results strongly support the use of focal plane rotation in future spectrographs, as far as the efficiency of the fibre-positioning process is concerned. Finally, we discuss the implications of our optimizations and provide some basic hints for an optimal survey strategy, based on the number of targets per positioner.

  13. The Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopita, Michael; Hart, John; McGregor, Peter; Oates, Patrick; Bloxham, Gabe; Jones, Damien

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) under construction at the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) of the Australian National University (ANU) for the ANU 2.3 m telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory. WiFeS is a powerful integral field, double-beam, concentric, image-slicing spectrograph designed to deliver excellent throughput, wavelength stability, spectrophotometric performance and superb image quality along with wide spectral coverage throughout the 320 950 nm wavelength region. It provides a 25×38 arcsec field with 0.5 arcsec sampling along each of twenty five 38×1 arcsec slitlets. The output format is optimized to match the 4096×4096 pixel CCD detectors in each of two cameras individually optimized for the blue and the red ends of the spectrum, respectively. A process of “interleaved nod-and-shuffle” will be applied to permit quantum noise-limited sky subtraction. Using VPH gratings, spectral resolutions of 3000 and 7000 are provided. The full spectral range is covered in a single exposure at R=3000, and in two exposures in the R=7000 mode. The use of transmissive coated optics, VPH gratings and optimized mirror coatings ensures a throughput (including telescope atmosphere and detector) >30% over a wide spectral range. The concentric image-slicer design ensures an excellent and uniform image quality across the full field. To maximize scientific return, the whole instrument is configured for remote observing, pipeline data reduction, and the accumulation of calibration image libraries.

  14. MEGARA: a new generation optical spectrograph for GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.; Vílchez, J. M.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Arrillaga, X.; Carrera, M. A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Ferrusca, D.; González-Guardia, E.; Lefort, B.; Maldonado, M.; Marino, R. A.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Morales Durán, I.; Mujica, E.; Páez, G.; Pascual, S.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Sánchez-Penim, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; Zamorano, J.; Aguerri, A. L.; Barrado y Naváscues, D.; Bertone, E.; Cardiel, N.; Cava, A.; Cenarro, J.; Chávez, M.; García, M.; Guichard, J.; Gúzman, R.; Herrero, A.; Huélamo, N.; Hughes, D.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Mayya, Y. D.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Peimbert, M.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pérez Montero, E.; Rodríguez, M.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Rosa-González, D.; Sánchez-Almeida, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez Moreno, F. M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sarajedini, A.; Serena, F.; Silich, S.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Torres-Peimbert, S.; Trujillo, I.; Tsamis, Y.; Vega, O.; Villar, V.

    2014-07-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) designed for the GTC 10.4m telescope in La Palma. MEGARA offers two IFU fiber bundles, one covering 12.5x11.3 arcsec2 with a spaxel size of 0.62 arcsec (Large Compact Bundle; LCB) and another one covering 8.5x6.7 arcsec2 with a spaxel size of 0.42 arcsec (Small Compact Bundle; SCB). The MEGARA MOS mode will allow observing up to 100 objects in a region of 3.5x3.5 arcmin2 around the two IFU bundles. Both the LCB IFU and MOS capabilities of MEGARA will provide intermediate-to-high spectral resolutions (RFWHM~6,000, 12,000 and 18,700, respectively for the low-, mid- and high-resolution Volume Phase Holographic gratings) in the range 3650-9700ÅÅ. These values become RFWHM~7,000, 13,500, and 21,500 when the SCB is used. A mechanism placed at the pseudo-slit position allows exchanging the three observing modes and also acts as focusing mechanism. The spectrograph is a collimator-camera system that has a total of 11 VPHs simultaneously available (out of the 18 VPHs designed and being built) that are placed in the pupil by means of a wheel and an insertion mechanism. The custom-made cryostat hosts an E2V231-84 4kx4k CCD. The UCM (Spain) leads the MEGARA Consortium that also includes INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain), and UPM (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under a contract between GRANTECAN and UCM. The detailed design, construction and AIV phases are now funded and the instrument should be delivered to GTC before the end of 2016.

  15. Developing scanning-slit spectrograph for imaging the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, Hemanth; Ramesh, K. B.; Dhara, Sajal Kumar; Ravindra, B.

    2016-08-01

    For moderate resolution spectroscopy of the Sun, an imaging spectrograph is being developed at Indian Institute of Astrophysics. With this instrument images of the region of interest of the Sun can be obtained with low spatial and moderate spectral resolution. Dopplergrams can also be obtained with the acquired data to get line of sight velocity maps. The instrument is a back-end for a telescope with tracking system i.e. stable image of the Sun is projected onto the focal plane at all times. Modular approach is followed in the design, keeping sections of the instruments fairly independent. Scanning-slit assembly is a module that can linearly move in one direction to sweep the region of interest in the image. Spectrograph assembly consists of another slit, optics and dispersing element along with the detector so that spectral information about spatial locations on the slit can be obtained. This module is designed to obtain Intensity vs. (x,λ) (x is along the slit) and as the scanning-slit is swept along the y-direction, Intensity vs. (x,y,λ) information is built. The spatial resolution will be seeing limited as there's no correction system. Field of view is 6 arc minute along the slit direction, as the features of interest include sunspots and surrounding region. For testing, a front end system of 100mm clear aperture with f/22.5 is being used. The dispersing element is a reflecting grating with 1200 grooves/mm. For 6563 Å(H-alpha line) spectral resolution is 35 mÅ in second order. Linear dispersion is about 38 mÅ /pixel for the pixel size of 7.5μm, indicating that slit-width limited spectral resolution can be obtained.

  16. Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) Observations of Jupiter during Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Randy; Versteeg, Maarten; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Hue, Vincent; Davis, Michael; Gerard, Jean-Claude; Grodent, Denis; Bonfond, Bertrand

    2016-10-01

    We present the initial results from Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) observations of Jupiter obtained during approach in June 2016. Juno-UVS is an imaging spectrograph with a bandpass of 70hour, acquired during 2016 June 3-30) with in situ solar wind observations, as well as related Jupiter observations obtained from Earth.

  17. Quantitative planar Raman imaging through a spectrograph: visualisation of a supersonic wedge flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Bakker, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Planar Raman imaging through a spectrograph is demonstrated as a diagnostic tool for quantitative flow visualisation of internal supersonic wedge flow. A dedicated Bayesian deconvolution filter is used to remove the spectral structure that is introduced by the spectrograph. The 2D density field is d

  18. HARMONI: a single-field wide-band integral-field spectrograph for the European ELT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Mathias; Clarke, Fraser; Davies, Roger L.; Remillieux, Alban; Bacon, Roland; Lunney, David; Arribas, Santiago; Mediavilla, Evencio; Gago, Fernando; Bezawada, Naidu; Ferruit, Pierre; Fragoso, Ana; Freeman, David; Fuentes, Javier; Fusco, Thierry; Gallie, Angus; Garcia, Adolfo; Goodsall, Timothy; Gracia, Felix; Jarno, Aurelien; Kosmalski, Johan; Lynn, James; McLay, Stuart; Montgomery, David; Pecontal, Arlette; Schnetler, Hermine; Smith, Harry; Sosa, Dario; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Bowles, Neil; Colina, Luis; Emsellem, Eric; Garcia-Perez, Ana; Gladysz, Szymon; Hook, Isobel; Irwin, Patrick; Jarvis, Matt; Kennicutt, Robert; Levan, Andrew; Longmore, Andy; Magorrian, John; McCaughrean, Mark; Origlia, Livia; Rebolo, Rafael; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Ryan, Sean; Swinbank, Mark; Tanvir, Nial; Tolstoy, Eline; Verma, Aprajita

    2010-01-01

    We describe the results of a Phase A study for a single field, wide band, near-infrared integral field spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). HARMONI, the High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical & Nearinfrared Integral field spectrograph, provides the E-ELT's core spectr

  19. HARMONI : A single-field wide-band integral-field spectrograph for the European ELT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Mathias; Clarke, Fraser; Davies, Roger L.; Remillieux, Alban; Bacon, Roland; Lunney, David; Arribas, Santiago; Mediavilla, Evencio; Gago, Fernando; Bezawada, Naidu; Ferruit, Pierre; Fragoso, Ana; Freeman, David; Fuentes, Javier; Fusco, Thierry; Gallie, Angus; Garcia, Adolfo; Goodsall, Timothy; Gracia, Felix; Jarno, Aurelien; Kosmalski, Johan; Lynn, James; McLay, Stuart; Montgomery, David; Pecontal, Arlette; Schnetler, Hermine; Smith, Harry; Sosa, Dario; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Bowles, Neil; Colina, Luis; Emsellem, Eric; Garcia-Perez, Ana; Gladysz, Szymon; Hook, Isobel; Irwin, Patrick; Jarvis, Matt; Kennicutt, Robert; Levan, Andrew; Longmore, Andy; Magorrian, John; McCaughrean, Mark; Origlia, Livia; Rebolo, Rafael; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Ryan, Sean; Swinbank, Mark; Tanvir, Nial; Tolstoy, Eline; Verma, Aprajita

    2010-01-01

    We describe the results of a Phase A study for a single field, wide band, near-infrared integral field spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). HARMONI, the High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical & Nearinfrared Integral field spectrograph, provides the E-ELT's core spectr

  20. Wide-band mass measurements with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Schury, P; Wada, M; Wollnik, H

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the mass bandwidth of the a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph, showing both the functional and useful mass bandwidth. We then demonstrate the use of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph to perform mass measurements in mass bands much wider than the mass bandwidth.

  1. Scientific Design of a High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Ground based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics systems and specialized science cameras are now capable of directly detecting extrasolar planets. We present the scientific design for a high contrast integral field spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope. This lenslet based integral field spectrograph will be implemented into the new extreme adaptive optics system at Subaru, called SCExAO.

  2. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  3. Wormhole cosmic censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Tonatiuh; Ureña-López, L. Arturo; Miranda, Galaxia

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the properties of a Kerr-like wormhole supported by phantom matter, which is an exact solution of the Einstein-phantom field equations. It is shown that the solution has a naked ring singularity which is unreachable to null geodesics falling freely from the outside. Similarly to Roger Penrose's cosmic censorship, that states that all naked singularities in the Universe must be protected by event horizons, here we conjecture from our results that a naked singularity can also be fully protected by the intrinsic properties of a wormhole's throat.

  4. Cosmic baldness and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchapakesan, N.; Lohiya, D.

    1985-04-01

    The stability of the de Sitter metric and the relevance of the initial state of a domain which approaches a de Sitter universe asymptotically are investigated analytically, adapting the one-dimensional wave equation with effective potential derived by Khanal and Panchapakesan (1981), for the perturbations of the de Sitter-Schwarzschild metric, to the de Sitter case. It is demonstrated that initial nonspherical perturbations do not increase exponentially with time but rather decay, the frozen modes exponentially and the backscattered perturbations of finite angular momentum l as t to the -(2l - l). It is concluded that the cosmic horizon is stable and has no hair. 14 references.

  5. Pulsars: Cosmic Permanent 'Neutromagnets'?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    We argue that pulsars may be spin-polarized neutron stars, i.e. cosmic permanent magnets. This would simply explain several observational facts about pulsars, including the 'beacon effect' itself i.e. the static/stable misalignment of rotational and magnetic axes, the extreme temporal stability of the pulses and the existence of an upper limit for the magnetic field strength - coinciding with the one observed in "magnetars". Although our model admittedly is speculative, this latter fact seems to us unlikely to be pure coincidence.

  6. Discovery of cosmic fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    This is the first book to present the fascinating new results on the largest fractal structures in the universe. It guides the reader, in a simple way, to the frontiers of astronomy, explaining how fractals appear in cosmic physics, from our solar system to the megafractals in deep space. It also offers a personal view of the history of the idea of self-similarity and of cosmological principles, from Plato's ideal architecture of the heavens to Mandelbrot's fractals in the modern physical cosmos. In addition, this invaluable book presents the great fractal debate in astronomy (after Luciano Pi

  7. Cosmic γ-rays found to be from an old supernova remnant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of cosmic rays, discovered by Nobel Prize winner Dr. Victor Hess in 1912, has received extensive studies on its composition, radiotive mechanism and propagation effects. However, the origin of these mysterious rays stays unsolved over the past century.

  8. Recombination Ghosts in Littrow Configuration: Implications for Spectrographs Using Volume Phase Holographic Gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Burgh, Eric B; Westfall, Kyle B; Nordsieck, Kenneth H

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of optical ghosts generated when using Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings in spectrographs employing the Littrow configuration. The ghost is caused by light reflected off the detector surface, recollimated by the camera, recombined by, and reflected from, the grating and reimaged by the camera onto the detector. This recombination can occur in two different ways. We observe this ghost in two spectrographs being developed by the University of Wisconsin - Madison: the Robert Stobie Spectrograph for the Southern African Large Telescope and the Bench Spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. The typical ratio of the brightness of the ghost relative to the integrated flux of the spectrum is of order 10^-4, implying a recombination efficiency of the VPH gratings of order 10^-3 or higher, consistent with the output of rigorous coupled wave analysis. Any spectrograph employing VPH gratings, including grisms, in Littrow configuration will suffer from this ghost, though the general effect i...

  9. Carl Sagan: Cosmic Evolution vs. the Creationist Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Considers the dichotomy between the cosmic perspective and the creationist view. Presents an overview of various current explanations of the origin and nature of the universe, including scientific explanations, fundamentalist beliefs, and creation myths from other cultures. The article is based on comments made by Carl Sagan at the American…

  10. Cosmic signatures in earth's seismic tremor?

    CERN Document Server

    Mulargia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Even in absence of earthquakes, each site on earth experiences continuous elastic vibrations which are mostly traced to the non-linear interactions of sea waves. However, the fine structure of the spectrum at mHz frequencies shows hundreds of highly significant narrow bandwidth peaks, with a persistence and a coincidence with solar acoustic eigenmodes which are incompatible with any geophysical origin. The feasibility of a common cosmic origin is evaluated through an estimate of the gravitational wave cross-section of the earth, combined with its elastic response and with the stochastic amplification produced by the interference of the cosmic signal with tremor of oceanic origin. The measured spectral peaks appear compatible with a gravitational monochromatic illumination at strains $h \\gtrsim 10^{-20} $. We analize in detail the band around 2.614 mHz, where the binary white dwarf J0651+2844 - which is the second strongest known gravitational stellar source - is expected to emit. Compatible spectral tremor pe...

  11. Self--gravitating cosmic rings

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, Gérard

    1998-01-01

    The classical Einstein--Maxwell field equations admit static horizonless wormhole solutions with only a circular cosmic string singularity. We show how to extend these static solutions to exact rotating asymptotically flat solutions. For a suitable range of parameter values, these solutions describe charged or neutral rotating closed cosmic strings, with a perimeter of the order of their Schwarzschild radius.

  12. George's cosmic treasure hunt

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    George and Annie explore the galaxy in this cosmic adventure from Stephen Hawking and Lucy Hawking, complete with essays from Professor Hawking about the latest in space travel. George is heartbroken when he learns that his friend Annie and her father are moving to the US. Eric has a new job working for the space program, looking for signs of life in the Universe. Eric leaves George with a gift—a book called The User’s Guide to the Universe. But Annie and Eric haven’t been gone for very long when Annie believes that she is being contacted by aliens, who have a terrible warning for her. George joins her in the US to help her with her quest—and before he knows it, he, Annie, Cosmos, and Annie’s annoying cousin Emmett have been swept up in a cosmic treasure hunt, spanning the whole galaxy and beyond. Lucy Hawking's own experiences in zero-gravity flight and interviews with astronauts at Cape Kennedy and the Johnson Space Center lend the book a sense of realism and excitement that is sure to fire up ima...

  13. Note on cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1985-05-01

    A number of recent theorems by Krolak and Newman purport to prove cosmic censorship by showing that ''strong curvature'' singularities must be hidden behind horizons. It is proved that Newman's ''null, strong curvature'' condition, which is imposed on certain classes of null geodesics to restrict curvature growth in the space-time, does not hold in many physically realistic space-times: it is not satisfied by any null geodesic in the relevant class in any open Friedmann cosmological model, nor does it hold for any null geodesic in the relevant class in maximal Schwarzschild space. More generally, it is argued that the singularity predicted by the Penrose singularity theorem is unlikely to be of the type eliminated by Newman. Thus the Newman theorems are probably without physical significance. The Krolak theorems, although based on a physically significant definition of strong curvature singularity, are mathematically invalid, and this approach cannot be used to obtain a cosmic censorship theorem. (author).

  14. Evolution Of Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Vanchurin, V

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of finite loops and infinite strings as a part of a complete cosmic string network. We give dynamical arguments showing that the structures on infinite strings should obey a scaling law. We perform a simulation of the network which uses functional forms for the string position and thus is exact to the limits of computer arithmetic. The effective box size of our simulation is at least two orders of magnitude larger than what was previously reached. Our results confirm that the wiggles on the strings obey a scaling law described by universal power spectrum. The average distance between long strings also scales accurately with the time. Production functions of string loops do not show scaling. With low intercommutation probability p the true scaling régime is not reached until very late cosmic times, which makes it difficult to simulate such evolutions. Via the expansion of the box technique, we were able to reach scaling with a wide range of p. The physical correlation ...

  15. Cosmic particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Fisica, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The most popular mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays, which is thought to operate in supernova remnant shocks as well as at heliospheric shocks, is the diffusive shock acceleration, which is a Fermi mechanism based on normal diffusion. On the other hand, in the last few years it has been shown that the transport of plasma particles in the presence of electric and magnetic turbulence can be superdiffusive rather than normal diffusive. The term 'superdiffusive' refers to the mean square displacement of particle positions growing superlinearly with time, as compared to the normal linear growth. In particular, superdiffusion is characterized by a non Gaussian statistical process called Levy random walk. We show how diffusive shock acceleration is modified by superdiffusion, and how this yields new predictions for the cosmic ray spectral index, for the acceleration time, and for the spatial profile of energetic particles. A comparison with observations of particle acceleration at heliospheric shocks and at supernova remnant shocks is done. We discuss how superdiffusive shock acceleration allows to explain the observations of hard ion spectra at the solar wind termination shock detected by Voyager 2, of hard radio spectra due to synchrotron emission of electrons accelerated at supernova remnant shocks, and how it can help to explain the observations of 'thin rims' in the X-ray synchrotron emission.

  16. Genuine cosmic hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    We show that asymptotically future de Sitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry ‘genuine’ cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new ‘cosmological tension’ charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential de Sitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a ‘cosmological volume’ contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference in expansion rates between two directions at late times is related in a simple way to their difference at early times. Hence information about the very early universe can be inferred from cosmic hair, which is potentially observable in a late time de Sitter phase. Cosmological tension charges and related quantities are evaluated for Kasner–de Sitter spacetimes, which serve as our primary examples.

  17. L3 + Cosmics Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE4 %title\\\\ \\\\The L3+C experiment takes advantage of the unique properties of the L3 muon spectrometer to get an accurate measurement of cosmic ray muons 30 m underground. A new muon trigger, readout and DAQ system have been installed, as well as a scintillator array covering the upper surfaces of the L3 magnet for timing purposes. The acceptance amounts to 200 $m^2 sr$. The data are collected independently in parallel with L3 running. In spring 2000 a scintillator array will be installed on the roof of the SX hall in order to estimate the primary energy of air showers associated with events observed in L3+C.\\\\ \\\\The cosmic ray muon momentum spectrum, the zenith angular dependence and the charge ratio are measured with high accuracy between 20 and 2000 GeV/c. The results will provide new information about the primary composition, the shower development in the atmosphere, and the inclusive pion and kaon (production-) cross sections (specifically the "$\\pi$/K ratio") at high energies. These data will also hel...

  18. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  19. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  20. Spatially-Resolved Spectroscopy of a Balmer-Dominated Shock in the Cygnus Loop: An Extremely Thin Cosmic-Ray Precursor?

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuda, Satoru; Ohira, Yutaka; Yatsu, Yoichi; Mori, Koji; Aoki, Wako; Morihana, Kumiko; Raymond, John C; Ghavamian, Parviz; Lee, Jae-Joon; Shimoda, Jiro; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution long-slit spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated shock in the northeastern limb of the Cygnus Loop with the Subaru high dispersion spectrograph. By setting the slit angle along the shock normal, we investigate variations of the flux and profile of the H-alpha line from preshock to postshock regions with a spatial resolution of about 4 times 10^{15} cm. The H-alpha line profile can be represented by a narrow (28.9+/-0.7 km/s) Gaussian in a diffuse region ahead of the shock, i.e., a photoionization precursor, and narrow (33.1+/-0.2 km/s) plus broad (130-230 km/s) Gaussians at the shock itself. We find that the width of the narrow component abruptly increases up to 33.1+/-0.2 km/s, or 38.8+/-0.4 km/s if we eliminate projected emission originating from the photoionization precursor, in an unresolved thin layer (< 4 times 10^{15} cm at a distance of 540 pc) at the shock. We show that the sudden broadening can be best explained by heating via damping of Alfven waves in a thin cosmic-ray pr...

  1. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  2. Gemini Near Infrared Field Spectrograph Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Mrk 573: In Situ Acceleration of Ionized and Molecular Gas Off Fueling Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Travis C; Diniz, Marlon R; Crenshaw, D Michael; Kraemer, Steven B; Riffel, Rogemar A; Schmitt, Henrique R; Baron, Fabien; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Straughn, Amber N; Revalski, Mitchell; Pope, Crystal L

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in a 700 x 2100 pc^2 circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region (NLR) are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  3. Gemini Near Infrared Field Spectrograph Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Mrk 573: In Situ Acceleration of Ionized and Molecular Gas off Fueling Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Machuca, C.; Diniz, M. R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Riffel, R. A.; Schmitt, H. R.; Baron, F.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A. N.; Revalski, M.; Pope, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in a ∼700 × 2100 pc2 circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  4. Inhomogeneous Reionization and the Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller

    1999-12-10

    In a universe with inhomogeneous reionization, the ionized patches create a second-order signal in the cosmic microwave background polarization anisotropy. This signal originates in the coupling of the free-electron fluctuation to the quadruple moment of the temperature anisotropy. We examine the contribution from a simple inhomogeneous reionization model and find that the signal from such a process is below the detectable limits of the Planck Surveyor mission. However, the signal is above the fundamental uncertainty limit from cosmic variance, so that a future detection with a high-accuracy experiment on subarcminute scales is possible.

  5. Primary Cosmic-Ray Spectra in the Knee Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Antonyan, Samvel V.; Biermann, P. L.

    2003-07-01

    Using EAS inverse approach and KASCADE EAS data the primary energy spectra for different primary nuclei at energies 1015 - 1017 eV are obtained in the framework of multi-comp onent model of primary cosmic ray origin and QGSJET and SIBYLL interaction models. The rigidity-dep endent behavior of spectra is the same for two interaction models. The extrap olation of the obtained primary spectra in a 1017 - 1018 eV energy range displays a presence of the extragalactic component of primary cosmic rays.

  6. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kotera, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of the gravitational wave source GW150914 by the LIGO collaboration motivates a speculative source for the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as a possible byproduct of the immense energies achieved in black hole mergers, provided that the black holes have spin as seems inevitable and there are relic magnetic fields and disk debris remaining from the formation of the black holes or from their accretion history. We argue that given the modest efficiency $< 0.01$ required per event per unit of gravitational wave energy release, merging black holes potentially provide an environment for accelerating cosmic rays to ultrahigh energies.

  7. Gemini GMOS and WHT SAURON integral-field spectrograph observations of the AGN-driven outflow in NGC 1266

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Bureau, Martin; Sarzi, Marc; Nyland, Kristina; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    We use the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae and Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral-field spectrographs to observe the active galactic nucleus (AGN) powered outflow in NGC 1266. This unusualgalaxy is relatively nearby (D = 30 Mpc), allowing us to investigate the proces

  8. Gemini GMOS and WHT SAURON integral-field spectrograph observations of the AGN-driven outflow in NGC 1266

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Bureau, Martin; Sarzi, Marc; Nyland, Kristina; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    We use the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae and Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral-field spectrographs to observe the active galactic nucleus (AGN) powered outflow in NGC?1266. This unusual galaxy is relatively nearby (D = 30?Mpc), allowing us to investigate the proce

  9. Metrology camera system of prime focus spectrograph for Suburu telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chou, Richard C. Y.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Karr, Jennifer; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Gunn, James E.; Reiley, Dan J.; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Shimono, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover a 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capabilities of Hyper SuprimeCam. To retain high throughput, the final positioning accuracy between the fibers and observing targets of PFS is required to be less than 10 microns. The metrology camera system (MCS) serves as the optical encoder of the fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. MCS provides the fiber positions within a 5 microns error over the 45 cm focal plane. The information from MCS will be fed into the fiber positioner control system for the closed loop control. MCS will be located at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope in order to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS camera. It is a 380mm Schmidt type telescope which generates a uniform spot size with a 10 micron FWHM across the field for reasonable sampling of the point spread function. Carbon fiber tubes are used to provide a stable structure over the operating conditions without focus adjustments. The CMOS sensor can be read in 0.8s to reduce the overhead for the fiber configuration. The positions of all fibers can be obtained within 0.5s after the readout of the frame. This enables the overall fiber configuration to be less than 2 minutes. MCS will be installed inside a standard Subaru Cassgrain Box. All components that generate heat are located inside a glycol cooled cabinet to reduce the possible image motion due to heat. The optics and camera for MCS have been delivered and tested. The mechanical parts and supporting structure are ready as of spring 2016. The integration of MCS will start in the summer of 2016. In this report, the performance of the MCS components, the alignment and testing procedure as well as the status of the PFS MCS will be presented.

  10. Critical decisions on Cosmic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Eddington had two aims, both remarkable and very pertinent to front-line astronomical interests. The first was to look for Earth-like planets outside our solar system - one of the key goals in the search to understand how life came to be, how it is that we live where we do in the universe and whether there are other potential life-supporting environments 'out there'. At the same time it was going to follow the path that the ESA-NASA mission SOHO had taken with the Sun of using astroseismology to look 'inside' stars. In the longer term, the loss of this one mission will not stop ESA and the scientific community pursuing the grand quests to which it would have contributed. The loss of the BepiColombo lander is also hard to take scientifically. ESA, in conjunction with the Japanese space agency, JAXA, will still put two orbiters around Mercury but the ‘ground truth’ provided by the lander is a big loss. However, to land on a planet so near the Sun is no small matter and was a bridge too far in present circumstances, and this chance for Europe to be first has probably been lost. The origins of the problems were recognised at the ESA Council meeting held in June. Several sudden demands on finance occurred in the spring, the most obvious and public being the unforeseen Ariane 5 grounding in January, delaying the launches of Rosetta and Smart-1. A temporary loan of EUR 100 million was granted, but must be paid back out of present resources by the end of 2006. ESA's SPC was therefore caught in a vice. Immediate mission starts had to be severely limited and the overall envelope of the programme contained. With this week’s decisions, the SPC has brought the scope of the Cosmic Vision programme down to a level that necessarily reflects the financial conditions rather than the ambitions of the scientific community. A long and painful discussion during the SPC meeting resulted in the conclusion that only one new mission can be started at this time, namely LISA Pathfinder

  11. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  12. Cosmic ray driven Galactic winds

    CERN Document Server

    Recchia, S; Morlino, G

    2016-01-01

    The escape of cosmic rays from the Galaxy leads to a gradient in the cosmic ray pressure that acts as a force on the background plasma, in the direction opposite to the gravitational pull. If this force is large enough to win against gravity, a wind can be launched that removes gas from the Galaxy, thereby regulating several physical processes, including star formation. The dynamics of these cosmic ray driven winds is intrinsically non-linear in that the spectrum of cosmic rays determines the characteristics of the wind (velocity, pressure, magnetic field) and in turn the wind dynamics affects the cosmic ray spectrum. Moreover, the gradient of the cosmic ray distribution function causes excitation of Alfven waves, that in turn determine the scattering properties of cosmic rays, namely their diffusive transport. These effects all feed into each other so that what we see at the Earth is the result of these non-linear effects. Here we investigate the launch and evolution of such winds, and we determine the impli...

  13. Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Alarcon, Walter Demetrio Gonzalez; Echer, Ezequiel; Lago, Alisson dal; Lucas, Aline de [National Institute for Space Research - INPE-MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Guarnieri, Fernando Luis [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE-MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Munakata, Kazuoki, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: gonzalez@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: eecher@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: delucas@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: levieira@univap.br, E-mail: guarnieri@univap.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: kmuna00@gipac.shinshu-u.ac.jp [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In this work we present an analysis on the correction efficiency of atmospheric effects on cosmic ray Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data. We use a Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays time series to show the main periodicities present in the corrected and uncorrected data for the atmospheric effects. This kind of correction is very important when intends to study cosmic rays variations of extra-terrestrial origin. (author)

  14. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.

  15. Microphysics of cosmic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei; Cargill, Peter; Dendy, Richard; Wit, Thierry; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    This title presents a review of the detailed aspects of the physical processes that underlie the observed properties, structures and dynamics of cosmic plasmas. An assessment of the status of understanding of microscale processes in all astrophysical collisionless plasmas is provided. The topics discussed include  turbulence in astrophysical and solar system plasmas as a phenomenological description of their dynamic properties on all scales; observational, theoretical and modelling aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection; the formation and dynamics of shock waves; and a review and assessment of microprocesses, such as the hierarchy of plasma instabilities, non-local and non-diffusive transport processes and ionisation and radiation processes.  In addition, some of the lessons that have been learned from the extensive existing knowledge of laboratory plasmas as applied to astrophysical problems are also covered.   This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmi...

  16. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  17. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  18. Cosmic string loop shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Shlaer, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the shapes of cosmic string loops found in large-scale simulations of an expanding-universe string network. The simulation does not include gravitational back reaction, but we model that process by smoothing the loop using Lorentzian convolution. We find that loops at formation consist of generally straight segments separated by kinks. We do not see cusps or any cusp-like structure at the scale of the entire loop, although we do see very small regions of string that move with large Lorentz boosts. However, smoothing of the string almost always introduces two cusps on each loop. The smoothing process does not lead to any significant fragmentation of loops that were in non-self-intersecting trajectories before smoothing.

  19. Simulating Cosmic Structure Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, D H; Hernquist, L E; Weinberg, David H.; Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars

    1997-01-01

    We describe cosmological simulation techniques and their application to studies of cosmic structure formation, with particular attention to recent hydrodynamic simulations of structure in the high redshift universe. Collisionless N-body simulations with Gaussian initial conditions produce a pattern of sheets, filaments, tunnels, and voids that resembles the observed large scale galaxy distribution. Simulations that incorporate gas dynamics and dissipation form dense clumps of cold gas with sizes and masses similar to the luminous parts of galaxies. Models based on inflation and cold dark matter predict a healthy population of high redshift galaxies, including systems with star formation rates of 20 M_{\\sun}/year at z=6. At z~3, most of the baryons in these models reside in the low density intergalactic medium, which produces fluctuating Lyman-alpha absorption in the spectra of background quasars. The physical description of this ``Lyman-alpha forest'' is particularly simple if the absorption spectrum is viewe...

  20. Cosmic Light EDU kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In 2015 we celebrate the International Year of Light, a great opportunity to promote awareness about the importance of light coming from the Cosmos and what messages it is bringing to mankind. In parallel a unique moment to attract the attention of stakeholders on the dangers of light pollution and its impact in our lives and our pursuit of more knowledge. In this presentation I want to present one of the conrnerstones of IYL2015, a partnership between the Galileo Teacher Training Program, Universe Awareness and Globe at Night, the Cosmic Light EDU kit. The aim of this project is to assemble a core set of tools and resources representing our basic knowledge pilars about the Universe and simple means to preserve our night sky.

  1. On Strong Cosmic Censorship

    CERN Document Server

    Isenberg, James

    2015-01-01

    For almost half of the one hundred year history of Einstein's theory of general relativity, Strong Cosmic Censorship has been one of its most intriguing conjectures. The SCC conjecture addresses the issue of the nature of the singularities found in most solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations: Are such singularities generically characterized by unbounded curvature? Is the existence of a Cauchy horizon (and the accompanying extensions into spacetime regions in which determinism fails) an unstable feature of solutions of Einstein's equations? In this short review article, after briefly commenting on the history of the SCC conjecture, we survey some of the progress made in research directed either toward supporting SCC or toward uncovering some of its weaknesses. We focus in particular on model versions of SCC which have been proven for restricted families of spacetimes (e.g., the Gowdy spacetimes), and the role played by the generic presence of Asymptotically Velocity Term Dominated behavior in th...

  2. Cosmic ray synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    In laboratories, cosmic rays have been the subject of scientific research for many years. A more recent development is their appearance in schools, as educational tools. A recent workshop at CERN, organised by ASPERA in collaboration with EPPOG and EPPCN, had the goal of bringing together ideas and initiatives with a view to setting up a future common project.   Presentation at the workshop on 15 October. In research, as in education, you can sometimes get things done more rapidly and easily by joining forces. For roughly the past decade, physicists have been taking their particle detectors to secondary schools. “The challenge now is to bring all of these existing projects together in a network,” says Arnaud Marsollier, in charge of communication for the ASPERA network and organiser of the workshop. The workshop held on Friday, 15 October was attended by representatives of major European educational projects and members of the European Particle Physics Communication Network...

  3. Genuine Cosmic Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    We show that asymptotically future deSitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry 'genuine' cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new 'cosmological tension' charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential deSitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a 'cosmological volume' contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference i...

  4. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farook Rahaman; Subenoy Chakraborty; K Maity

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.

  5. A cosmic microwave background feature consistent with a cosmic texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; Turok, N; Vielva, P; Martínez-González, E; Hobson, M

    2007-12-07

    The Cosmic Microwave Background provides our most ancient image of the universe and our best tool for studying its early evolution. Theories of high-energy physics predict the formation of various types of topological defects in the very early universe, including cosmic texture, which would generate hot and cold spots in the Cosmic Microwave Background. We show through a Bayesian statistical analysis that the most prominent 5 degrees -radius cold spot observed in all-sky images, which is otherwise hard to explain, is compatible with having being caused by a texture. From this model, we constrain the fundamental symmetry-breaking energy scale to be (0) approximately 8.7 x 10(15) gigaelectron volts. If confirmed, this detection of a cosmic defect will probe physics at energies exceeding any conceivable terrestrial experiment.

  6. Auroral spectrograph data annals of the international geophysical year, v.25

    CERN Document Server

    Carrigan, Anne; Norman, S J

    1964-01-01

    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 25: Auroral Spectrograph Data is a five-chapter text that contains tabulations of auroral spectrograph data. The patrol spectrograph built by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation for the Aurora and Airglow Program of the IGY is a high-speed, low-dispersion, automatic instrument designed to photograph spectra of aurora occurring along a given magnetic meridian of the sky. Data from each spectral frame were recorded on an IBM punched card. The data recorded on the cards are printed onto the tabulations in this volume. These tabulations are available

  7. Spherical Orbifolds for Cosmic Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Harmonic analysis is a tool to infer cosmic topology from the measured astrophysical cosmic microwave background CMB radiation. For overall positive curvature, Platonic spherical manifolds are candidates for this analysis. We combine the specific point symmetry of the Platonic manifolds with their deck transformations. This analysis in topology leads from manifolds to orbifolds. We discuss the deck transformations of the orbifolds and give basis functions for the harmonic analysis as linear combinations of Wigner polynomials on the 3-sphere. They provide new tools for detecting cosmic topology from the CMB radiation.

  8. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability...... in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...... in cosmic ray intensities. Such changes are in agreement with the sign of cloud radiative forcing associated with cosmic ray variability as estimated from satellite observations....

  9. Mathematical model of orbital and ground-based cross-dispersion spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkin, M. V.; Fatkhullin, T. A.; Panchuk, V. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present the technique and algorithm of numerical modeling of high-resolution spectroscopic equipment. The software is implemented in C++ using nVidia CUDA technology. We report the results of currently developedmodeling of new-generation echelle spectrographs. To validate the algorithms used to construct the mathematical model, we present the results of modeling of NES spectrograph of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A comparison of simulated and real images of the spectra acquired with NES spectrograph demonstrates good agreement between the model constructed and experimental data.

  10. LAMOST Spectrograph Response Curves: Stability and Application to flux calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Bing; Bai, Zhong-Rui; Kong, Xiao; Zhang, Jian-Nan; Guo, Yan-Xin; Cook, Neil James; Hou, Wen; Yang, Hai-Feng; Li, Yin-Bi; Song, Yi-Han; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zuo, Fang; Wu, Ke-Fei; Wang, Meng-Xin; Wang, You-Fen; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-01-01

    The task of flux calibration for LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope) spectra is difficult due to many factors. For example, the lack of standard stars, flat fielding for large field of view, and variation of reddening between different stars especially at low galactic latitudes etc. Poor selection, bad spectral quality, or extinction uncertainty of standard stars not only might induce errors to the calculated spectral response curve (SRC), but also might lead to failures in producing final 1D spectra. In this paper, we inspected spectra with Galactic latitude |b|>=60 degree and reliable stellar parameters, determined through the LAMOST Stellar Parameter Pipeline (LASP), to study the stability of the spectrograph. To guarantee the selected stars had been observed by each fiber, we selected 37,931 high quality exposures of 29,000 stars from LAMOST DR2, and more than 7 exposures for each fiber. We calculated the SRCs for each fiber for each exposure, and calculated the statistics of SRCs...

  11. Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

    In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

  12. Fiber Assignment in Next-generation Wide-field Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Isaac; Azzaro, Marco; Prada, Francisco; Sanchez, Justo; Becerril, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm for assigning fibers to targets in next-generation fiber-fed multi-object spectrographs. The method, that we named draining algorithm, ensures that the maximum number of targets in a given target field is observed in the first few tiles. Using randomly distributed targets and mock galaxy catalogs we have estimated that the gain provided by the draining algorithm as compared to a random assignment can be as much as 2% for the first tiles. This would imply for a survey like BigBOSS saving for observation several hundred thousand objects or, alternatively, reducing the covered area in ~350 sq. deg. An important advantage of this method is that the fiber collision problem can be solved easily and in an optimal way. We also discuss additional optimizations of the fiber positioning process. In particular, we show that allowing for rotation of the focal plane can improve the efficiency of the process in ~3.5-4.5% even if only small adjustments are permitted (up to 2 deg). For instru...

  13. Spectrophotometry with Hectospec, the MMT's Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Fabricant, Daniel G; Geller, Margaret J; Caldwell, Nelson; Woods, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    We describe techniques for photometric calibration of optical spectra obtained with the MMT's fiber-fed spectrograph, Hectospec. The atmospheric dispersion compensation prisms built into the MMT's f/5 wide field corrector effectively eliminate errors due to differential refraction, and simplify the calibration procedure. The procedures that we describe here are applicable to all 220,000+ spectra obtained to date with Hectospec because the instrument response is stable. We estimate the internal error in the Hectospec measurements by comparing duplicate measurements of $\\sim$1500 galaxies. For a sample of 400 galaxies in the Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS) with a median z=0.10, we compare line and continuum fluxes measured by Hectospec through a 1.5 arcsec diameter optical fiber with those measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) through a 3 arcsec diameter optical fiber. Agreement of the [OII] and H alpha SHELS and SDSS line fluxes, after scaling by the R band flux in the different aperture...

  14. An Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph first view on Solar Spicules

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, T M D; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; Tarbell, T D; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Wülser, J P; Martínez-Sykora, J; Kleint, L; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Tian, H; Jaeggli, S; Kankelborg, C

    2014-01-01

    Solar spicules have eluded modelers and observers for decades. Since the discovery of the more energetic type II, spicules have become a heated topic but their contribution to the energy balance of the low solar atmosphere remains unknown. Here we give a first glimpse of what quiet Sun spicules look like when observed with NASA's recently launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Using IRIS spectra and filtergrams that sample the chromosphere and transition region we compare the properties and evolution of spicules as observed in a coordinated campaign with Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. Our IRIS observations allow us to follow the thermal evolution of type II spicules and finally confirm that the fading of Ca II H spicules appears to be caused by rapid heating to higher temperatures. The IRIS spicules do not fade but continue evolving, reaching higher and falling back down after 500-800 s. Ca II H type II spicules are thus the initial stages of violent and hotter events that mostly...

  15. Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) entrance aperture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimets, P.; Park, S.; Bergner, H.; Chou, C.; Gates, R.; Honsa, M.; Podgorski, W.; Yanari, C.

    2014-07-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is a complementary follow-on to Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) and funded as a member of the NASA SMEX program. This paper presents the thermal design of the IRIS telescope front end, with a focus on the IRIS door and entrance aperture assembly. The challenge of the IRIS entrance aperture, including the door design, was to manage the solar flux, both before and after the door was opened. This is especially a problem with instruments that are permanently pointed directly at the sun. Though there is an array of effective flux-rejecting coatings, they are expensive, hard to apply, harder to measure, delicate, prone to unpredictable performance decay with exposure, and very often a source of contamination. This paper presents a thermal control and protection method based on robust, inexpensive coatings and materials, combined to produce high thermal and structural isolation. The end result is a first line of thermal protection whose performance is easy to predict and well isolated from the instrument it is protecting.

  16. Qsys NOC-based MPSOC design for LAMOST Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongyi; Wang, Jianing; Zeng, Yizhong

    2012-09-01

    At present, FPGA-based SOPC was used to design the China's LAMOST telescope spectrograph control system. But with the increase of the controlled objects and requirement of telescope’s accuracy, the problems like system performance, I/O source shortage, real-time multi-task processing, Fmax, Logic Element (LE) Usage have to be solved immediately. The combination of multi-processor (NIOS II) method and NOC technology can meet this requirement effectively. This article mainly introduced how to realize the NOC-based MPSOC in the Altera’s Cyclone III FPGA experimental board by Qsys tool. According to the function of task, the system was divided into several subsystems which also include two NIOS II CPU subsystems (implement the control strategies and remote update tasks separately). These different subsystems are interconnected by NOC hierarchical interconnection idea. The results illustrate that this solution can improve system performance, double the Fmax, decrease LE usage, and save the maintenance cost compared with the previous SOPC-based approach. The motor control system designed by this approach also can be applied to other astronomy equipments and industrial control fields.

  17. Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph System in New Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.-D.; Kim, Y. H.; Chae, J.; Goode, P. R.; Cho, K. S.; Park, H. M.; Nah, J. K.; Jang, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    In 2004, Big Bear Solar Observatory in California, USA launched a project for construction of the world's largest aperture solar telescope (D = 1.6m) called New Solar Telescope(NST). University of Hawaii (UH) and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute(KASI) partly collaborate on the project. NST is a designed off-axis parabolic Gregorian reflector with very high spatial resolution(0.07 arcsec at 5000A) and is equipped with several scientific instruments such as Visible Imaging Magnetograph (VIM), InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph IRIM), and so on. Since these scientific instruments are focused on studies of the solar photosphere, we need a post-focus instrument for the NST to study the fine structures and dynamic patterns of the solar chromosphere and low Transition Region (TR) layer, including filaments/prominences, spicules, jets, micro flares, etc. For this reason, we developed and installed a fast imaging solar spectrograph(FISS) system on the NST withadvantages of achieving compact design with high spectral resolution and small aberration as well as recording many solar spectral lines in a single and/or dual band mode. FISS was installed in May, 2010 and now we carry out a test observation. In this talk, we introduce the FISS system and the results of the test observation after FISS installation.

  18. NEO Characterization Science Case For a Low Resolution Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and dead comets comprise the vast majority of the population of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) detected to date. Less is known of their physical properties than of the much larger population of main-belt asteroids. Due to the faintness and short duration of visibility of NEOs, many characterization studies use broadband filters in 3 to 8 colors for taxonomic classification and to study surface chemical composition. A spectrograph with low spectral resolution R~30 used in a campaign or a continuing program on a small telescope (1-2m class) would vastly improve the quantity and quality of data on NEOs. The proposed baseline instrument would work in the visible using a CCD detector, with a possible upgrade to include a second, near-IR (NIR) channel extending coverage to 2.5 \\mum or beyond. The optical design needs to optimize overall optical throughput to permit observation of the faintest possible objects on small telescopes at acceptable signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. An imaging mode to o...

  19. The Radial Velocity Precision of Fiber-fed Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, G A H; Bohlender, D A; Yang, S; Walker, Gordon A.H.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Bohlender, David A.; Yang, Stephenson

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the radial velocities of five 51 Peg-type stars and one star with constant velocity. Our measurements, on 20 \\AA centered at 3947 \\AA, were conventional using Th/Ar comparison spectra taken every 20 or 40 minutes between the stellar exposures. Existing IRAF routines were used for the reduction. We find $\\sigma_{RV}$ $\\leq$ 20 m s$^{-1}$, provided 4 measurements (out of 72) with residuals $>5\\sigma_{RV}$ are neglected. The observations were made with the CFHT Gecko spectrograph, fiber-fed with the CAFE system (R$\\sim$110,000). $\\sigma_{RV}$ $\\leq$10 m s$^{-1}$ seems possible with additional care. This study was incidental to the main program and so not exhaustive but the small value of $\\sigma_{RV}$ implies that the fiber feed/image slicer system on Gecko + CAFE, essentially eliminates the long standing problem of guiding errors in radial velocity measurements. We are not suggesting this conventional approach for serious Doppler planet searches (especially with Gecko which has such a small mul...

  20. Cosmic-ray Propagation and Interactions in the Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew W.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ptuskin, Vladimir S.; /Troitsk, IZMIRAN

    2007-01-22

    We survey the theory and experimental tests for the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy up to energies of 10{sup 15} eV. A guide to the previous reviews and essential literature is given, followed by an exposition of basic principles. The basic ideas of cosmic-ray propagation are described, and the physical origin of its processes are explained. The various techniques for computing the observational consequences of the theory are described and contrasted. These include analytical and numerical techniques. We present the comparison of models with data including direct and indirect--especially gamma-ray--observations, and indicate what we can learn about cosmic-ray propagation. Some particular important topics including electrons and antiparticles are chosen for discussion.