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Sample records for corticospinal tract correlates

  1. Structural damage to the corticospinal tract correlates with bilateral sensorimotor cortex reorganization in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judith D; Perdue, Katherine L; Wang, Ruopeng

    2008-02-01

    Damage to the corticospinal tract (CST) in stroke patients has been associated with functional reorganization in the ipsilesional and contralesional sensorimotor cortices. However, it is unknown whether a quantitative relationship exists between the extent of structural damage to the CST and functional reorganization in stroke patients. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between structural CST damage and motor task-related cortical activity in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients. In 10 chronic hemiparetic stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions, CST damage was quantified using conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging and tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during repetitive flexion/extension movements of the digits. We found that the two measures of CST damage were strongly correlated. Moreover, greater CST damage was significantly and linearly correlated with increased activation during affected hand movement in the hand area of the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1) and in the ipsilesional M1/S1 ventral to the hand area. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a quantitative relationship between the extent of structural damage to the CST and functional reorganization in stroke patients. This relationship was observed in stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions, suggesting that CST damage is a factor relevant to the variation in functional reorganization in the clinical population.

  2. Correlation between ambulatory function and clinical factors in hemiplegic patients with intact single lateral corticospinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To define the relationship between the complete destruction of 1 lateral corticospinal tract (CST), as demonstrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, and ambulatory function 6 months following stroke. Twenty-six adults (17 male, 9 female) with poststroke hemiplegia who were transferred to the physical medicine and rehabilitation department. Participants underwent DTI tractography, which showed that 1 lateral CST had been clearly destroyed. Functional ambulation classification (FAC) scores at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the patients’ ability to walk. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Korean version of the modified Barthel index (K-MBI) at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the degree of functional recovery. Of the 26 patients, 18 were nonambulatory (FAC level 1–3), and 8 were able to walk without support (FAC level 4–6). The type of stroke (infarction or hemorrhage), site of the lesion, spasticity of lower extremities, cranioplasty, and the time taken from onset to MRI were not statistically significantly correlated with the ability to walk. However, statistically significant correlations were found in relation to age, K-MBI scores, and initial NIHSS scores. Despite the complete damage to the lesion site and the preservation of 1 unilateral CST, as shown by DTI, good outcomes can be predicted on the basis of younger age, low NIHSS scores, and high MBI scores at onset. PMID:27495041

  3. [Correlation between corticospinal tract degeneration through magnetic resonance imaging, and functional scale (ALSFRS) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Larissa Nery; Silva, Alexandre Vallota da; Carrete, Henrique; Favero, Francis Meire; Fontes, Sissy Veloso; Moneiro, Marcelo Tavares; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle de

    2007-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the corticospinal tract. ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS) is a questionnaire that quantifies motor deficits, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) evaluates the integrity of fibers through the fractional anisotropy (FA). In the present study, seven ALS patients were evaluated by ALSFRS and immediately submitted to DTI, getting FA values in the following regions: cerebral peduncle (PC), internal capsule (CI) and the white matter under the primary motor cortex (M1), secondary motor cortex (M2) and somesthetic cortex (SI). A control group was constituted by twelve healthy individuals. FA values in patients were significantly lower when compared with controls, with a tendency to higher reductions in the right hemisphere and more inferior regions. Interestingly, FA values were reduced in somesthetic area. No correlation was observed between symptoms duration and FA values. Despite the correlation observed between ALSFRS scores and degeneration in PC and CI, our results suggest that this subjective scale is not a good parameter for the evaluation of the structural damage in encephalic portions of the corticospinal tract.

  4. Correlation between ambulatory function and clinical factors in hemiplegic patients with intact single lateral corticospinal tract: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-08-01

    To define the relationship between the complete destruction of 1 lateral corticospinal tract (CST), as demonstrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, and ambulatory function 6 months following stroke.Twenty-six adults (17 male, 9 female) with poststroke hemiplegia who were transferred to the physical medicine and rehabilitation department. Participants underwent DTI tractography, which showed that 1 lateral CST had been clearly destroyed.Functional ambulation classification (FAC) scores at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the patients' ability to walk. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Korean version of the modified Barthel index (K-MBI) at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the degree of functional recovery.Of the 26 patients, 18 were nonambulatory (FAC level 1-3), and 8 were able to walk without support (FAC level 4-6). The type of stroke (infarction or hemorrhage), site of the lesion, spasticity of lower extremities, cranioplasty, and the time taken from onset to MRI were not statistically significantly correlated with the ability to walk. However, statistically significant correlations were found in relation to age, K-MBI scores, and initial NIHSS scores.Despite the complete damage to the lesion site and the preservation of 1 unilateral CST, as shown by DTI, good outcomes can be predicted on the basis of younger age, low NIHSS scores, and high MBI scores at onset.

  5. MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in assessing correlation of activation of cortical motor function and manifestations of corticospinal tract with muscle strength in patients with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqian Chen; Hui Xiao; Biyun Zhang; Gennian Qian; Ping Ni; Xizhang Yang

    2006-01-01

    brain was observed. ② The DTI image was processed with the dTV.Ⅱ.R1 software part of the anisotropic image and color anisotropic image were shown,and the three-dimensional white matter image of bilateral corticospinal tracts of the patients were reconstructed. ③ The muscle strength of the affected hand of the stroke patients was judged with the Brunnstorm standard.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The manifestations of MRI,DTI and corticospinal tracts of the 9 stroke patients were mainly observed.RESULTS: All the 9 stroke patients and 9 healthy subjects were involved in the analysis of results. ① Results of MRI examination: The handed exercise of the healthy subjects mainly activated contralateral sensorimotor cortex, posterior parietal cortex and bilateral supplementary motor areas. For the exercise of ipsilateral hand of 7 stroke patients, contralateral sensorimotor cortex was weakly activated, but ipsilateral posterial parietal cortex was obviously activated, and the activation of cerebrum was observed in 3 of them. For the other two patients, bilateral sensorimotor cortexes were activated during the exercise of ipsilateral hand, and the ipsilateral activated area was greater than the controlateral one.The exercise of contralateral hand activated contralateral sensorimotor cortex, posterior parietal cortex and contralateral supplementary motor area, and no obvious ipsilateral activated area was observed. ② Results of DTI examination: The anisotropic values of the infarcted area were obviously lower than those of the contralateral part (t=4.570, P < 0.01). The anisotropic value of the infarcted area were obviously was obviously correlated with bilateral muscle strength (t=0.888,P < 0.05). ③ Results of the examination for corticospinal tracts: The reconstruction of bilateral corticospinal tracts, contralateral anatomic form were generally identical with those of normal subjects, the consistency of each continuous form from anterior central gyrus downward to

  6. CSF neurofilament light chain reflects corticospinal tract degeneration in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Ricarda A L; Gray, Elizabeth; Lu, Ching-Hua; Kuhle, Jens; Talbot, Kevin; Malaspina, Andrea; Turner, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to white matter tract pathology. A core signature involving the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) has been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Raised neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to reflect axonal damage in a range of neurological disorders. The relationship between these two measures was explored. Methods CSF and serum NfL concentrations and DTI acquired at 3 Tesla on the same day were obtained from ALS patients (n = 25 CSF, 40 serum) and healthy, age-similar controls (n = 17 CSF, 25 serum). Within-group correlations between NfL and DTI measures of microstructural integrity in major white matter tracts (CSTs, superior longitudinal fasciculi [SLF], and corpus callosum) were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Results NfL levels were higher in patients compared to controls. CSF levels correlated with clinical upper motor neuron burden and rate of disease progression. Higher NfL levels were significantly associated with lower DTI fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity in the CSTs of ALS patients, but not in controls. Interpretation Elevated CSF and serum NfL is, in part, a result of CST degeneration in ALS. This highlights the wider potential for combining neurochemical and neuroimaging-based biomarkers in neurological disease. PMID:26273687

  7. Corticospinal tract recovery in a patient with traumatic transtentorial herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Seok Yeo; Sung Ho Jang

    2013-01-01

    Transtentorial herniation is one of the causes of motor weakness in traumatic brain injury. In this study, we report on a patient who underwent decompressive craniectomy due to traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Brain CT images taken after surgery showed intracerebral hemorrhage in the left fronto-temporal lobe and left transtentorial herniation. The patient presented with severe paralysis of the right extremities at the time of intracerebral hemorrhage onset, but the limb motor function recovered partially at 6 months after onset and to nearly normal level at 27 months. Through diffusion tensor tractography, the left corticospinal tract was disrupted below the cerebral peduncle at 1 month after onset and the disrupted left corticospinal tract was reconstructed at 27 months. These findings suggest that recovery of limb motor function in a patient with traumatic transtentorial herniation can come to be true by recovery of corticospinal tract.

  8. Biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing of the canine corticospinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Han; Guangming Lv; Huiqun Wu; Dafeng Ji; Zhou Sun; Yaofu Li; Lemin Tang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was microinjected into the left cortical motor area of the canine brain. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that a large amount of BDA-labeled pyramidal cells were visible in the left cortical motor area after injection. In the left medulla oblongata, the BDA-labeled corticospinal tract was evenly distributed, with green fluorescence that had a clear boundary with the surrounding tissue. The BDA-positive corticospinal tract entered into the right lateral funiculus of the spinal cord and descended into the posterior part of the right lateral funiculus, close to the posterior horn, from cervical to sacral segments. There was a small amount of green fluorescence in the sacral segment. The distribution of BDA labeling in the canine central nervous system was consistent with the course of the corticospinal tract. Fluorescence labeling for BDA gradually diminished with time after injection. Our findings indicate that the BDA anterograde tracing technique can be used to visualize the localization and trajectory of the corticospinal tract in the canine central nervous system.

  9. CSF neurofilament light chain reflects corticospinal tract degeneration in ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Menke, Ricarda A.L.; Gray, Elizabeth; Lu, Ching-Hua; Kuhle, Jens; Talbot, Kevin; Malaspina, Andrea; Turner, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to white matter tract pathology. A core signature involving the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) has been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Raised neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to reflect axonal damage in a range of neurological disorders. The relationship between these two measures was explored. Methods CSF and serum NfL concentrations and DTI acquired at 3?Tesla on the same da...

  10. Stathmin is enriched in the developing corticospinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Heidi R; Slade, Robert; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša; Babić, Mirjana; Sedmak, Goran; Šimić, Goran; Fuszard, Matthew A; Shirran, Sally L; Botting, Catherine H; Gates, Monte A

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intra- and extracellular proteins involved in the development of the corticospinal tract (CST) may offer insights into how the pathway could be regenerated following traumatic spinal cord injury. Currently, however, little is known about the proteome of the developing corticospinal system. The present study, therefore, has used quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics to detail the protein profile of the rat CST during its formation in the spinal cord. This analysis identified increased expression of 65 proteins during the early ingrowth of corticospinal axons into the spinal cord, and 36 proteins at the period of heightened CST growth. A majority of these proteins were involved in cellular assembly and organization, with annotations being most highly associated with cytoskeletal organization, microtubule dynamics, neurite outgrowth, and the formation, polymerization and quantity of microtubules. In addition, 22 proteins were more highly expressed within the developing CST in comparison to other developing white matter tracts of the spinal cord of age-matched animals. Of these differentially expressed proteins, only one, stathmin 1 (a protein known to be involved in microtubule dynamics), was both highly enriched in the developing CST and relatively sparse in other developing descending and ascending spinal tracts. Immunohistochemical analyses of the developing rat spinal cord and fetal human brain stem confirmed the enriched pattern of stathmin expression along the developing CST, and in vitro growth assays of rat corticospinal neurons showed a reduced length of neurite processes in response to pharmacological perturbation of stathmin activity. Combined, these findings suggest that stathmin activity may modulate axonal growth during development of the corticospinal projection, and reinforces the notion that microtubule dynamics could play an important role in the generation and regeneration of the CST.

  11. Biotinylated dextran amine is an ideal anterograde tracer for the corticospinal tract in a goat model of ischemic corticospinal tract injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Yang; Yufei Gao; Zhigang Qin; Xia Cao; Xinquan Gu

    2011-01-01

    Existing visualized tracer studies of the corticospinal tract have been focused on rodents, which have markedly different spinal cord structures compared with humans. In this study, the segmental artery feeding the spinal cord was embolized with digital subtraction angiography to establish a goat model of ischemic spinal cord injury. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the motor function areas of the cortex in goats with ischemic spinal cord injury. The corticospinal tract originates from the cerebral cortex motor function area, and travels towards the lateral funiculus at the contralateral spinal dorsal horn after decussation at the pyramid. The number of corticospinal tract positive fibers was found to be gradually reduced. These findings indicate that digital subtraction angiography can be applied to a goat model of ischemic spinal cord injury. Biotinylated dextran amine visualizes the course of the goat corticospinal tract in the spinal cord, which is similar to the human spinal cord. Biotinylated dextran amine is an ideal tracer for the corticospinal tract.

  12. The corticospinal tract in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an MRI study

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    Hofmann, E.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Ochs, G.; Pelzl, A. [Department of Neurology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Cortical motor neurone loss and corticospinal tract (CST) degeneration are typical of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It is a matter of debate whether qualitative assessment of the CST by MRI is useful in the diagnosis. It is also an open question whether quantitative determination of the T2 relaxation times can improve its value. Signal intensity along the CST on 14 consecutive slices was assessed using arbitrary visual rating on double-echo T2-weighted and proton-density spin-echo images of 21 patients with ALS and 21 age- and sex-matched controls. T2 was determined quantitatively. On the T2-weighted images the patients` ratings did not differ from that of controls. The T2 of patients and controls showed no statistical difference in any slice. There was no correlation between T2 and patient age, duration of the disease, or predominant bulbar, lower or upper motor neurone signs. The only correlation between MRI findings and disease was on the proton-density images: all cases in which the CST was poorly seen were controls; a clearly high-signal CST was seen only in the patients. High conspicuity of the CST was thus specific but not sensitive for the diagnosis of ALS. T2-weighted images and measurement of T2 were not useful for diagnosis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs.

  13. Encoding of Forelimb Forcesby Corticospinal Tract Activity in the Rat

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    Yi eGuo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In search of a solution to the long standing problems encountered in traditional brain computer interfaces (BCI, the lateral descending tracts of the spinal cord present an alternative site for taping into the volitional motor signals. Due to the convergence of the cortical outputs into a final common pathway in the descending tracts of the spinal cord, neural interfaces with the spinal cord can potentially acquire signals richer with volitional information in a smaller anatomical region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of extracting motor control signals from the corticospinal tract (CST of the rat spinal cord. Flexible substrate, multi-electrode arrays (MEA were implanted in the CST of rats trained for a lever pressing task. This novel use of flexible substrate MEAs allowed recording of CST activity in behaving animals for up to three weeks with the current implantation technique. Time-frequency and principal component analyses (PCA were applied to the neural signals to reconstruct isometric forelimb forces. Computed regression coefficients were then used to predict isometric forces in additional trials. The correlation between measured and predicted forces in the vertical direction averaged across six animals was 0.67 and R-squared value was 0.44. Force regression in the horizontal directions was less successful, possibly due to the small amplitude of forces. Neural signals above and near the high gamma band made the largest contributions to prediction of forces. The results of this study support the feasibility of a spinal cord computer interface (SCCI for generation of command signals in paralyzed individuals.

  14. ADC evaluation of the corticospinal tract in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Mikail; Unal, Birsen; Kala, Ibrahim; Turkel, Yakup; Bilgili, Yasemin Karadeniz

    2015-06-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) provide important information about tissues. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ADC values in the corticospinal tract regions in multiple sclerosis (MS). The ADC values of 42 patients with multiple sclerosis and 46 healthy people were measured. The ADC values in the corticospinal tract at the capsula interna posterior crus from six points and mesencephalon from three points bilaterally in MS patients were compared with those of controls. An ANOVA post hoc test was used to analyse the differences in mean ADC values between the MS and control groups. The mean ADC values of the right (p = 0.008) and left internal capsules (p = 0.000) and right (p = 0.002) and left mesencephalons (p = 0.044) in MS patients were significantly lower than in the control group. There was no significant difference between the right and left side ADC values in MS (p = 0.313 vs. p = 0.223) and control groups (p = 0.756 vs. p = 0.105), respectively. The mean ADC values of the corticospinal tract in MS patients were significantly lower than in the control group. This decreased diffusion may be the result of cellular infiltration due to inflammation, cytotoxic oedema, demyelination or remyelination processes.

  15. Impaired transmission in the corticospinal tract and gait disability in spinal cord injured persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundell, Hans Magnus Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    of foot drop. Spinal cord injured participants who exhibited a large foot drop had little or no MEP at rest in the TA muscle and had little or no coherence in the same muscle during walking. Gait speed was correlated to foot drop, and was the lowest in participants with no MEP at rest. The data confirm......Rehabilitation following spinal cord injury is likely to depend on recovery of corticospinal systems. Here we investigate whether transmission in the corticospinal tract may explain foot drop (inability to dorsiflex ankle) in persons with spinal cord lesion. The study was performed in 24 persons...... with incomplete spinal cord lesion (C1 to L1) and 15 healthy controls. Coherence in the 10-20 Hz frequency band between paired tibialis anterior muscle (TA) electromyographic recordings obtained in the swing phase of walking, which is taken as a measure of motor unit synchronization, was significantly correlated...

  16. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury : comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Zubiaurre Elorza, Leire; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Merchant, Nazakat; Porter, Emma; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A. David; Rutherford, Mary A.; Cowan, Frances M.; Counsell, Serena J.

    2012-01-01

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor fun

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging detects Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract early after cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiman Xie; Min Fang; Linjiang Zhou; Shanghua Fan; Jianying Liu; Hongbo Quan; Man Luo; Dongying Qiu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and time window of early detection of Wallerian degeneration in the corticospinal tract after middle cerebral artery infarction, 23 patients were assessed using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging at 3.0T within 14 days after the infarction. The fractional anisotropy values of the affected corticospinal tract began to decrease at 3 days after onset and decreased in all cases at 7 days. The diffusion coefficient remained unchanged. Experimental findings indicate that diffusion tensor imaging can detect the changes associated with Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract as early as 3 days after cerebral infarction.

  18. Can fully automated detection of corticospinal tract damage be used in stroke patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Leff, Alexander P.; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Kou, Nancy; Park, Chang-hyun; Ward, Nick S.

    2013-01-01

    We compared manual infarct definition, which is time-consuming and open to bias, with an automated abnormal tissue detection method in measuring corticospinal tract-infarct overlap volumes in chronic stroke patients to help predict motor outcome.

  19. Characters of MR diffusion tensor imaging in cerebral ischemic corticospinal tract injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqian Chen; Ping Ni; Hui Xiao; Youqiang Ye; Gennian Qian; Shangwen Xu; Xizhang Yang; Jinhua Chen; Biyun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is one of the noninvasive methods to study the morphological structure of brain white matter fibrous bands in vivo, and it has been applied primarily in clinic. DTI is acknowledged as the more effective imaging method to diagnose ultra-acute and/or acute cerebral infarction.OBJECTIVE: To observe the anisotropic characters of cerebral white matter fibrous bands in patients with ischemic stroke by using DTI, and investigate the correlation between the damage of corticospinal tract and muscle strength in patients with ischemic stroke at acute period.DESIGN: A case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Medical Imaging, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIpANTS: Nine inpatients with injury of motor function induced by acute ischemic stroke (patient group) at 6 hours to 2 weeks after the attack were selected from the Department of Neurology, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from September 2005 to March 2006,and they all accorded with the present diagnostic standard for cerebrovascular disease in China. There were 5 males and 4 females, aged 16-87 years. At the same time, nine healthy right-handed physical examinees matched by age and sex with the patients were taken as the control group, and they all had no nervous disease, mental diseases, cerebrovascular abnormalities and injury history, etc. All the subjects were informed with the detected items and agreed to participate in the study.METHODS: All the 9 patients with ischemic stroke at acute period and 9 healthy subjects were examined with MRI, T1 weighted imaging, T2 weighted imaging and DTI. And the data were processed offline with dTV.Ⅱ software, the images of fractional anisotropy and directional encoded color (DEC) were obtained, and the three-dimensional fibrous band images of bilateral corticospinal tracts were reconstructed. In the control group, the values of fractional anisotropy

  20. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    OpenAIRE

    Carmel, Jason B; John eMartin

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-d...

  1. Biodegradable biomatrices and bridging the injured spinal cord: the corticospinal tract as a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Elbert A J

    2012-07-01

    Important advances in the development of smart biodegradable implants for axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury have recently been reported. These advances are evaluated in this review with special emphasis on the regeneration of the corticospinal tract. The corticospinal tract is often considered the ultimate challenge in demonstrating whether a repair strategy has been successful in the regeneration of the injured mammalian spinal cord. The extensive know-how of factors and cells involved in the development of the corticospinal tract, and the advances made in material science and tissue engineering technology, have provided the foundations for the optimization of the biomatrices needed for repair. Based on the findings summarized in this review, the future development of smart biodegradable bridges for CST regrowth and regeneration in the injured spinal cord is discussed.

  2. Functional implications of corticospinal tract impairment on gait after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Knudsen, Hanne; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Maximum toe elevation during walking is an objective measure of foot drop and reflects the impairment of the corticospinal tract (CST) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine if this measurement is functionally relevant to ambulatory abilities, we correlated maximum toe...... elevation with clinical physiotherapy tests.Setting:Cross-sectional study, laboratory and clinical settings.Methods:A total of 24 individuals with SCI (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale D) were recruited. Maximum toe elevation during the swing phase of treadmill gait was measured...... with a kinematic system. CST function was assessed in a sitting position by measuring the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced in tibialis anterior muscle with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex. Clinical tests performed were 10-m and 6-min walk test (6MWT), Timed-Up and Go (TUG), Walking...

  3. Intraoperative tractography and motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring in surgery for gliomas around the corticospinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesawa, Satoshi; Fujii, Masazumi; Nakahara, Norimoto; Watanabe, Tadashi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Jun

    2010-07-01

    Our goal is to indicate the importance of combining intraoperative tractography with motor-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring for glioma surgery in motor eloquent areas. Tumor removal was performed in 28 patients with gliomas in and around the corticospinal tract (CST), in an operation theater equipped with an integrated high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and a neuronavigation system. Diffusion-tensor imaging-based tractography of the CST was implemented preoperatively and intraoperatively. When the surgically manipulated area came close to the corticospinal pathway, MEP responses were elicited by subcortical stimulation. Responsive areas were compared with the locations of fibers traced by preoperative and intraoperative tractography. Imaging and functional outcomes were reviewed. Intraoperative tractography demonstrated significant inward or outward shift during surgery. MEP responses were observed around the tract at various intensities, and the distance between MEP responsive sites and intraoperative tractography was significantly correlated with the stimulation intensity (P < 0.01). The distance from preoperative tractography was not correlated. A more than subtotal resection was achieved in 24 patients (85.7%). Transient motor deterioration was seen in 12 patients (42.8%), and a permanent deficit was seen in 1 patient (3.5%). We found that intraoperative tractography demonstrated the location of the CST more accurately than preoperative tractography. The results of the linear regression between distance and stimulation intensity were informative for guiding approaches to tumor remnants without impinging on the CST. The combination of intraoperative tractography and MEP monitoring can enhance the quality of surgery for gliomas in motor eloquent areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative measures of walking and strength provide insight into brain corticospinal tract pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Keller, Jennifer; Calabresi, Peter A; Zackowski, Kathleen M

    2017-01-01

    At least 85% of individuals with multiple sclerosis report walking dysfunction as their primary complaint. Walking and strength measures are common clinical measures to mark increasing disability or improvement with rehabilitation. Previous studies have shown an association between strength or walking ability and spinal cord MRI measures, and strength measures with brainstem corticospinal tract magnetization transfer ratio. However, the relationship between walking performance and brain corticospinal tract magnetization transfer imaging measures and the contribution of clinical measurements of walking and strength to the underlying integrity of the corticospinal tract has not been explored in multiple sclerosis. The objectives of this study were explore the relationship of quantitative measures of walking and strength to whole-brain corticospinal tract-specific MRI measures and to determine the contribution of quantitative measures of function in addition to basic clinical measures (age, gender, symptom duration and Expanded Disability Status Scale) to structural imaging measures of the corticospinal tract. We hypothesized that quantitative walking and strength measures would be related to brain corticospinal tract-specific measures, and would provide insight into the heterogeneity of brain pathology. Twenty-nine individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (mean(SD) age 48.7 (11.5) years; symptom duration 11.9(8.7); 17 females; median[range] Expanded Disability Status Scale 4.0 [1.0-6.5]) and 29 age and gender-matched healthy controls (age 50.8(11.6) years; 20 females) participated in clinical tests of strength and walking (Timed Up and Go, Timed 25 Foot Walk, Two Minute Walk Test ) as well as 3 T imaging including diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging. Individuals with multiple sclerosis were weaker (p = 0.0024) and walked slower (p = 0.0013) compared to controls. Quantitative measures of walking and strength were

  5. Fine motor skill training enhances functional plasticity of the corticospinal tract after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following central nervous system injury, axonal sprouts form distal to the injury site and extend into the denervated area, reconstructing neural circuits through neural plasticity. How to facilitate this plasticity has become the key to the success of central nervous system repair. It remains controversial whether fine motor skill training contributes to the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury. Therefore, we established a rat model of unilateral corticospinal tract injury using a pyramidal tract cutting method. Horizontal ladder crawling and food ball grasping training procedures were conducted 2 weeks before injury and 3 days after injury. The neurological function of rat forelimbs was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Axon growth was observed with biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing in the healthy corticospinal tract of the denervated area at different time periods. Our results demonstrate that compared with untrained rats, functional recovery was better in the forelimbs and forepaws of trained rats. The number of axons and the expression of growth associated protein 43 were increased at the injury site 3 weeks after corticospinal tract injury. These findings confirm that fine motor skill training promotes central nervous system plasticity in spinal cord injury rats.

  6. Assessment of the contralesional corticospinal tract in early-onset pediatric hemiplegia: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawe, Rachel L; Dewald, Jules P A

    2014-01-01

    While pediatric hemiplegia results from a unilateral lesion, the immature state of the brain at the time of injury increases the likelihood of observing changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere as well. The purpose of this preliminary study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the contralesional corticospinal tracts in individuals with early-onset pediatric hemiplegia. Twelve individuals with pediatric hemiplegia and ten age-matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corticospinal projections were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography for both the lesioned and contralesional side in pediatric hemiplegia as well as the dominant and non-dominant sides in control subjects. The contralesional tract was found to have decreased white matter integrity relative to control subjects. Compared to controls, the contralesional tract also showed increased tract volume. The increase in volume suggests the presence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere that are maintained during development to control the paretic extremities. Decreases in integrity may be explained by diffuse damage or incomplete maturation. The findings of this study support the notion of bilateral motor involvement in pediatric hemiplegia, and the need to address bilateral neural changes as well as motor deficits in this population.

  7. MRI of the intracranial corticospinal tracts in amyotrophic and primary lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretti-Viton, P.; Brunel, H.; Daniel, C.; Salazard, B.; Salamon, G. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille (France); Azulay, J.P.; Trefouret, S.; Pouget, J.; Serratrice, G. [Dept. of Neurology and Neuromuscular Diseases, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille (France); Viton, J.M. [Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille (France); Flori, A. [Medical Informatics Dept., Hopital Nord, Marseille (France)

    1999-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the corticospinal tracts (CST) in motor neurone disease, using MRI, and to correlate findings with clinical data. We studied 31 patients with amyotrophic (ALS) and eight with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). The signal from the CST was classified into four grades on T2-weighted images, and compared to T2-weighted images of 37 age-matched control subjects. No abnormalities were seen in the CST on T1-weighted images and were rarely evident on proton-density weighting. Variable high signal in the CST was found on T2-weighted images in 35 patients, and in 29 control subjects. Our grades 0 and 1 were more frequent in control subjects, grades 2 and 3 more frequent in patients. We found no correlation between the high signal and clinical data, including the duration of the illness. We therefore conclude that this technique is neither sensitive nor specific except in grade 3 which is quite specific for ALS. In half the patients we found atrophy of the superior parietal gyrus, which merits further study. (orig.)

  8. Biotinylated dextran amine as a neural tracer in the rat corticospinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Gong; Changqing Li; Xiaofeng Li; Ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The corticospinal tract is the core structure of cerebral control of extremity movement and plasticity, which are prerequisites for movement rehabilitation after brain injury. The measurement and assessment of plasticity changes within the corticospinal tract has become one of the key goals in this field.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) as a neural tracer in the rat corticospinal tract and the possibilities of assessing plasticity within the corticospinal tract.DESIGN: An observational experiment.SETTING: Department of Acupuncture of Chinese Medical College, Chongqing Medical University, Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University.MATERIALS: Eighteen male adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of clean grade, weighing 200-250 g, were provided by the experimental animal center of Chongqing Medical University. The animal procedures in this study were in accordance with the animal ethics standards. BDA was provided by Vector Laboratories Company (USA, catalogue Sp-1140; serial number R0721).METHODS: This experiment was performed in the Laboratory of Chongqing Medical University between September and December 2006. Adult SD rats were used in the experiment and 15% BDA was injected slowly with a mini-syringe through two round (3 mm diameter) holes into the left sensory and motor cortex. The center of one hole was located 3 mm anterior from the anterior fontanel and 1.5 mm left of the midline; the second hole was located 1.5 mm posterior from the anterior fontanel and 4 mm left of the midline. Three injections were made at each hole at three different levels: 1.4, 1.2, and 1 mm ventral from the surface of the flat skull. After 14 days, the brains and spinal cords were removed and frozen. Sections were cut on a cryostat and BDA transportation absorbed by axons was observed under a fluorescence microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Axonal absorption and transportation of BDA was observed under

  9. Contribution of corticospinal tract and functional connectivity in hand motor impairment after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rosso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor outcome after stroke is associated with reorganisation of cortical networks and corticospinal tract (CST integrity. However, the relationships between motor severity, CST damage, and functional brain connectivity are not well understood. Here, the main objective was to study the effect of CST damage on the relationship between functional motor network connectivity and hand motor function in two groups of stroke patients: the severely (n=8 and the mildly impaired (n=14. METHODS: Twenty-two carotid stroke patients with motor deficits were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 3 weeks, at 3 and 6 months. Healthy subjects (n=28 were scanned once. The CST injury was assessed by fractional anisotropy values. Functional connectivity was studied from a whole-hand grip task fMRI in a cortical and cerebellar motor network. Functional connectivity indexes were computed between these regions at each time point. The relationship between hand motor strength, ipsilesional CST damage and functional connectivity from the primary motor cortex (M1 was investigated using global and partial correlations. FINDINGS: In mildly impaired patients, cortico-cortical connectivity was disturbed at three weeks but returned to a normal pattern after 3 months. Cortico-cerebellar connectivity was still decreased at 6 months. In severely impaired patients, the cortico-cortical connectivity tended to return to a normal pattern, but the cortico-cerebellar connectivity was totally abolished during the follow-up. In the entire group of patients, the hand motor strength was correlated to the ipsilesional functional connectivity from M1. Partial correlations revealed that these associations were not anymore significant when the impact of CST damage was removed, except for the ipsilesional M1-contralateral cerebellum connectivity. CONCLUSION: Functional brain connectivity changes can be observed, even in severely impaired patients with no recovery. Upper limb

  10. Score for neonatal acute physiology-II and neonatal pain predict corticospinal tract development in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jill G; Grunau, Ruth E; Adams, Elysia; Chau, Vann; Brant, Rollin; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Synnes, Anne; Miller, Steven P

    2013-02-01

    Premature infants are at risk for adverse motor outcomes, including cerebral palsy and developmental coordination disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for abnormal development of the corticospinal tract, the major voluntary motor pathway, during the neonatal period. In a prospective cohort study, 126 premature neonates (24-32 weeks' gestational age) underwent serial brain imaging near birth and at term-equivalent age. With diffusion tensor tractography, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract were measured to reflect microstructural development. Generalized estimating equation models examined associations of risk factors on corticospinal tract development. The perinatal risk factor of greater early illness severity (as measured by the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II [SNAP-II]) was associated with a slower rise in fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract (P = 0.02), even after correcting for gestational age at birth and postnatal risk factors (P = 0.009). Consistent with previous findings, neonatal pain adjusted for morphine and postnatal infection were also associated with a slower rise in fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Lessening illness severity in the first hours of life might offer potential to improve motor pathway development in premature newborns.

  11. Three-dimensional white matter tractography by diffusion tensor imaging in ischaemic stroke involving the corticospinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunimatsu, A.; Aoki, S.; Masutani, Y.; Abe, O.; Mori, H.; Ohtomo, K. [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo University, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8655, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) provides information on diffusion anisotropy, which can be expressed with three-dimensional (3D) white matter tractography. We used 3D white matter tractography to show the corticospinal tract in eight patients with acute or early subacute ischaemic stroke involving the posterior limb of the internal capsule or corona radiata and to assess involvement of the tract. Infarcts and the tract were shown simultaneously, providing information on their spatial relationships. In five of the eight patients, 3D fibre tract maps showed the corticospinal tract in close proximity to the infarct but not to pass through it. All these patients recovered well, with maximum improvement from the lowest score on manual muscle testing (MMT) up to the full score through rehabilitation. In the other three patients the corticospinal tract was shown running through the infarct; reduction in MMT did not necessarily improve favourably or last longer, other than in one patient. As 3D white matter tractography can show spatial relationships between the corticospinal tract and an infarct, it might be helpful in prognosis of gross motor function. (orig.)

  12. Involvement of the corticospinal tract in the control of human gait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Grey, Michael James; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2011-01-01

    Given the inherent mechanical complexity of human bipedal locomotion, and that complete spinal cord lesions in human leads to paralysis with no recovery of gait, it is often suggested that the corticospinal tract (CST) has a more predominant role in the control of walking in humans than in other...... animals. However, what do we actually know about the contribution of the CST to the control of gait? This chapter will provide an overview of this topic based on the premise that a better understanding of the role of the CST in gait will be essential for the design of evidence-based approaches...

  13. Corticospinal Tract Compression by Hematoma in a Patient with Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Functional MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Mi Young; Ahn, Sang Ho; Kim, Joong Hwi; Jeong, Dong-Hoon; Choi, Byung Yeun; Lee, Dong Gyu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate corticospinal tract compression that was due to a hematoma by using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and functional MRI (fMRI) in a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A 23-year-old right-handed woman presented with severe paralysis of her right extremities at the onset of a spontaneous ICH. Over the first three days from onset, the motor function of the affected upper and lower extremities rapidly recovered to the extent that she was able to overcome applied resistance to the affected limbs, and her limbs regained normal function 3 weeks after onset. The tract of the right hemisphere originated from the primary sensori-motor cortex (SM1) and it passed through the known corticospinal tract pathway. However, the tract of the left hemisphere was similar to that of the right hemisphere except that it was displaced to the antero-medial side by the hematoma at the cerebral peduncle. Only the contralateral SM1 area centered on the precentral knob was activated during affected (right) or unaffected (left) hand movements, respectively. In conclusion, fMRI and DTT demonstrated a corticospinal tract compression due to hematoma in this patient. We conclude that the combined use of these two modalities appears to improve the accuracy of investigating the state of the corticospinal tract. PMID:16502496

  14. Investigation of Motor Cortical Plasticity and Corticospinal Tract Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Patients with Parkinsons Disease and Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ming; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Ziemann, Ulf; Chen, Jui-Cheng; Chiou, Shang-Ming; Tsai, Chon-Haw

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) are characterized with motor dysfunctions. Motor circuit dysfunctions can be complementarily investigated by paired associative stimulation (PAS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corticospinal tract (CST). Three groups of twelve subjects with moderate severity PD, ET with intention tremor and healthy controls (HC) were studied. The primary motor cortex (M1) excitability, measured by motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and by short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and LICI) was compared between the three groups before and after PAS. The DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were acquired. PAS effects and DTI data were simultaneously examined between groups. PAS increased MEP amplitude in HC but not in PD and ET. SICI and LICI were significantly reduced after PAS irrespective of groups. No significant differences of the mean FA and MD were found between groups. There was no significant correlation between the PAS effects and the DTI measures. Findings suggest that both PD and ET with intention tremor have impairment of the associative LTP-like corticospinal excitability change in M1. The microstructure of the CST is not relevant to the deficiency of M1 associative plasticity in PD and ET. PMID:27603204

  15. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury.

  16. The corticospinal tract lesion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Shin-ichi; Sobue, Gen; Mitsuma, Terunori (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan)); Yasuda, Takeshi; Kachi, Teruhiko

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging by gradient echo method demonstrated lesions of the lateral corticospinal tract at cervical cord levels in three ALS patients. Patient 1 was a 43-year-old woman with common from of ALS. She developed right-side predominant pyramidal signs, and right-side predominant prolongation of central motor conduction time. MRI showed hypersignal intensity areas in the dorsal region of the lateral column at the 4th and 5th cervical segments with right-side predominacy. Patient 2 was a 65-year-old man with pseudopolyneuritic from of ALS, who showed lower motor neuron signs without a pyramidal sign. MRI of the 3rd and 4th cervical cord segments demonstrated bilateral hypersignal intensity areas in the dorsal part of the lateral column. Patient 3 was a 62-year-old man with common form of ALS, who showed marked bilateral pyramidal signs with Babinski's sign. MRI of the 5th cervical spinal cord segment demonstrated bilateral hypersignal intensity areas in the dorsolateral column. MR images of the spinal cord thus obtained corresponded well to the postmortem confirmed degeneration of the spinal corticospinal tract. MRI of the spinal cord performed by gradient echo method would provide additional information on the upper motor neuron involvement in ALS. (author).

  17. Fully automated detection of corticospinal tract damage in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Yang, Ya-ru; Li, Hui-jun; Lu, Xue-song; Shi, Yong-mei; Liu, Bin; Chen, Hua-jun; Teng, Gao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Structural integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke is closely linked to the degree of motor impairment. However, current methods for measurement of fractional atrophy (FA) of CST based on region of interest (ROI) are time-consuming and open to bias. Here, we used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) together with a CST template with healthy volunteers to quantify structural integrity of CST automatically. Two groups of patients after ischemic stroke were enrolled, group 1 (10 patients, 7 men, and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores ⩽ 50) and group 2 (12 patients, 12 men, and FMA scores = 100). CST of FA(ipsi), FA(contra), and FA(ratio) was compared between the two groups. Relative to group 2, FA was decreased in group 1 in the ipsilesional CST (P stroke, which would facilitate implementation of clinical practice.

  18. Evaluation of corticospinal tract injury with three-dimensional diffusion tensor tract in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xiao; Ziqian Chen; Biyun Zhang; Ping Ni

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional diffusion tensor tract (DTT) is the newest imaging to describe the structure of white matter fiber in three-dimensions, it has great significance in dividing the concrete anatomic site of gray and white matter lesions, displaying the correlation with fibrous band and judging clinical prognosis, which is incomparable by other imagings.OBJECTTVE: To observe the conditions of corticospinal tract (CST) in acute cerebral ischemic stroke patients,and analyze the relationship between motor function and the severity of CST injury.DESIGN: A case-control observation.SETTTNG: Department of Medical Imaging, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTTCTPANTS: Fifteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were selected from Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from February to December in 2005. They all suffered from acute attack and motor disorder of hemiplegic limbs to different extent, and were conformed by CT or MRI.There were 9 males and 6 females, aging 16-87 years old, the median age was 51.7 years, and all were right handed. Fifteen right-handed normal subjects, who were matched by age and sex with the patients in the cerebral infarction group, were selected from the relatives of patients and physicians of the Imaging Department as the control group. All the subjects were informed and agreed with the study.METHODS: The patients with acute cerebral infarction and subjects in the control group received MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with GE 1.5 T nuclear magnetic resonance system, fiber tracking with the software of dTV- Ⅱ. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and three-dimensional tractography of bilateral CST of all patients were created. Displacement, continuity and destroy of fibrous bands were observed. At the same time, muscle strength of ipsilateral hand of patients with cerebral infarction was measured with Brunnstrom standard. The correlation between the severity

  19. Fluoro-ruby retrograde tracing and three- dimensional visualization of the corticospinal tract in the guinea pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Han; Lemin Tang; Lulian Xu; Yue Wu; Hua Xun; Jinxiu Pan; Yingying Huang; Dafeng Ji; Huiqun Wu; Guangming Lv

    2012-01-01

    Fluoro-ruby was injected into the posterior funiculus of the spinal cord in the cervical (C5-T2) and lumbar (L3-6) segments of adult guinea pigs. The spinal cord was cut into serial frozen sections. The Fluoro-ruby labeling was clearly delineated from the surrounding structure. The labeling traversed the cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments, and was located on the ventral portion of the posterior funiculus on the injected side, proximal to the intermediate zone of the dorsal gray matter. The fluorescence area narrowed rostro-caudally. The spinal cord, spinal cord gray matter and corticospinal tract were reconstructed using 3D-DOCTOR 4.0 software, resulting in a robust three-dimensional profile. Using functionality provided by the reconstruction software, free multi-angle observation and sectioning could be conducted on the spinal cord and corticospinal tract. Our experimental findings indicate that the Fluoro-ruby retrograde fluorescent tracing technique can accurately display the anatomical location of corticospinal tract in the guinea pig and that three-dimensional reconstruction software can be used to provide a three-dimensional image of the corticospinal tract.

  20. The effect of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract on motor units of the human biceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2002-01-01

    In healthy human subjects, descending motor pathways including the corticospinal tract were stimulated electrically at the level of the cervicomedullary junction to determine the effects on the discharge of motoneurones innervating the biceps brachii. Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) were co...

  1. Corticospinal Tract Tracing in the Marmoset with a Clinical Whole-Body 3T Scanner Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Boris; Davoust, Carole; Plas, Benjamin; Bolan, Faye; Boulanouar, Kader; Renaud, Luc; Darmana, Robert; Vaysse, Laurence; Vieu, Christophe; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been described as a powerful tool to depict the architecture of neuronal circuits. In this study we investigated the potential use of in vivo MRI detection of manganese for tracing neuronal projections from the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus). We determined the optimal dose of manganese chloride (MnCl2) among 800, 400, 40 and 8 nmol that led to manganese-induced hyperintensity furthest from the injection site, as specific to the corticospinal tract as possible, and that would not induce motor deficit. A commonly available 3T human clinical MRI scanner and human knee coil were used to follow hyperintensity in the corticospinal tract 24h after injection. A statistical parametric map of seven marmosets injected with the chosen dose, 8 nmol, showed the corticospinal tract and M1 connectivity with the basal ganglia, substantia nigra and thalamus. Safety was determined for the lowest dose that did not induce dexterity and grip strength deficit, and no behavioral effects could be seen in marmosets who received multiple injections of manganese one month apart. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time in marmosets, a reliable and reproducible way to perform longitudinal ME-MRI experiments to observe the integrity of the marmoset corticospinal tract on a clinical 3T MRI scanner.

  2. Changes in perceptual speed and white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract are associated in very old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdén, Martin; Köhncke, Ylva; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Salami, Alireza; Li, Tie-Qiang; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2014-11-15

    The integrity of the brain's white matter is important for neural processing and displays age-related differences, but the contribution of changes in white matter to cognitive aging is unclear. We used latent change modeling to investigate this issue in a sample of very old adults (aged 81-103 years) assessed twice with a retest interval of 2.3 years. Using diffusion-tensor imaging, we probed white matter microstructure by quantifying mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of six major white matter tracts. Measures of perceptual speed, episodic memory, letter fluency, category fluency, and semantic memory were collected. Across time, alterations of white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract were associated with decreases of perceptual speed. This association remained significant after statistically controlling for changes in white matter microstructure in the entire brain, in the other demarcated tracts, and in the other cognitive abilities. Changes in brain volume also did not account for the association. We conclude that white matter microstructure is a potent correlate of changes in sensorimotor aspects of behavior in very old age, but that it is unclear whether its impact extends to higher-order cognition.

  3. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roze, Elise [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University Medical Center Groningen, Division of Neonatology, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University of Barcelona, Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Porter, Emma [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Rutherford, Mary A. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  4. Development of the Corticospinal and Callosal Tracts from Extremely Premature Birth up to 2 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Roze, Elise; Ball, Gareth; Merchant, Nazakat; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, David; Rueckert, Daniel; Counsell, Serena J

    2015-01-01

    White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic tractography, and iii. to assess the development of these tracts throughout this critical period of neurodevelopment. We found evidence for asymmetric development across the fiber bundles studied, with the corticospinal tracts showing earlier maturation (as measured by fractional anisotropy) but slower volumetric growth compared to the callosal fibers. We also found evidence for an anterior to posterior gradient in white matter microstructure development (as measured by mean diffusivity) in the callosal fibers, with the posterior forceps major developing at a faster rate than the anterior forceps minor in this age range. Finally, we report a protocol for delineating callosal and corticospinal fibers in extremely premature cohorts, and make available population-averaged registration templates and a probabilistic tract atlas which we hope will be useful for future neonatal and infant white-matter imaging studies.

  5. Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract in the brain stem; MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Onomura, Kentaro; Ohno, Masato (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract in the brain stem was studied in 25 patients with chronic supratentorial vascular accidents. In the relatively early stages, at least three months after ictus, increased signal intensities in axial T{sub 2}-weighted images - with or without decreased signal intensities in axial T{sub 1}-weighted images - were observed in the brain stem ipsilaterally. In later stages, at least six months after ictus, shrinkage of the brain stem ipsilaterally - with or without decreased signal intensities - was clearly observed in axial T{sub 1}-weighted images. MRI is therefore regarded a sensitive diagnostic modality for evaluating wallerian degeneration in the brain stem. (author).

  6. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B; Martin, John H

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system-with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) - is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  7. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Carmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST—is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that ten days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

  8. Identification of the primary motor area by three-dimensional reconstruction of the corticospinal tract using diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Deng; Luo Li; Guimei Chen; Erming Zeng; Xiangzuo Xiao; Meihua Li; Tao Hong; Donghai Li

    2011-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used as a non-invasive method for the evaluation of pre-operation motor function. However, patients with cortical function impairment, such as those with hemiparesis, can rarely achieve hand clenching, a typical fMRI task for central sulcus identification, and the method is also of limited use in uncooperative children. Thus, it is important to develop a new method for identifying primary motor areas (PMA) in such individuals. This study used corticospinal tractography to identify the PMA in 20 patients with deep-seated brain tumor. Two regions of interest were set within the brainstem for corticospinal tract (CST) fiber tracking: one at the level of the pons and the other at the level of the cerebral peduncle. The CST fiber tracking results and fMRI activation signals were merged with three-dimensional anatomic MRI findings. The consistency of identifying the PMA by CST and fMRI was analyzed. fMRI activation signals were distributed mainly in the contralateral central sulcus around the omega-shaped hand knob. The CST consistently propagated from the pons and cerebral peduncle to the suspected PMA location. There was a good correlation between CST fiber tracking results and fMRI activation signals in terms of their abilities to identify the PMA. The differences between fMRI and CST fiber tracking findings may result from our functional task, which consisted only of hand movements. Our results indicate that diffusion tensor imaging is a useful brain mapping technique for identifying the PMA in paralyzed patients and uncooperative children.

  9. Application of Luxol Fast Blue staining in locating the corticospinal tract in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Guangyu Shen; Guangming Lü; Xiaosong Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for myelin staining,mordant,or the special reaction of osmic acid with lipoid is used according to different principles.The commonly used methods are classic Well staining ,classic lithium carbonate-haematine staining,fast green staining,silver staining ,etc.Luxol Fast Blue can brightly stain myelin sheath,and has certain specificity .The background can be very clean if there is proper differentiation,whereas Luxol Fast Blue is cheap and convenient to operate,thus it is an ideal staining reagent for routine myelin sheath.OBJECTIVE: To show the coricospinal tract of normal adult rats with Luxol Fast Blue shaining method.DESIGN:A repetitive measurement design.SETTINGS: Institute of Nuerobiology,Nantong University;Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University.MATERIALS: Six healthy adult male SD rats of clean dergree,weighing averagely 300 g.were provided by the experimental animal center of Nantong University.1 g/L Luxol Fast Blue solution was provided by Sigma Company;Leica CM1900 cryostat microtome by Leica Company;Leica DMR microscope by Leica Company.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Staff Room of Human Anatomy,Nantong University in May 2005.The rats were given intraperitoneal injection of combined anesthetic(2 mL/kg),then the chest was open for perfusing saline and phosphate buffer containing formamint via heart. Brain and spinal cord were removed after 1 hour then fixed,then changed to phosphate buffer(pH 7.4)containing 300 g/L saccharu at 4 ℃.and stayed overnight,tissue blocks at pyramid,decussation of pyramid and cervical,thoracic,lumbar and sacral segments of spinal cord were removed to prepare continuous horizontal frozen sections(30 μm) after sedimentation,the sections were dried at room temperature.The corticospinal tract of normal adult rats were shown with Luxol Fast Blue staining method,and observed under Leica DMR microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Positive fibers in

  10. Fully Automated Detection of Corticospinal Tract Damage in Chronic Stroke Patients

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    Ming Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST after stroke is closely linked to the degree of motor impairment. However, current methods for measurement of fractional atrophy (FA of CST based on region of interest (ROI are time-consuming and open to bias. Here, we used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS together with a CST template with healthy volunteers to quantify structural integrity of CST automatically. Two groups of patients after ischemic stroke were enrolled, group 1 (10 patients, 7 men, and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA scores ⩽ 50 and group 2 (12 patients, 12 men, and FMA scores = 100. CST of FAipsi, FAcontra, and FAratio was compared between the two groups. Relative to group 2, FA was decreased in group 1 in the ipsilesional CST (P<0.01, as well as the FAratio (P<0.01. There was no significant difference between the two subgroups in the contralesional CST (P=0.23. Compared with contralesional CST, FA of ipsilesional CST decreased in group 1 (P<0.01. These results suggest that the automated method used in our study could detect a surrogate biomarker to quantify the CST after stroke, which would facilitate implementation of clinical practice.

  11. The Corticospinal Tract: A Biomarker to Categorize Upper Limb Functional Potential in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Ellen; Byblow, Winston D.; Feys, Hilde; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) typically present with largely divergent upper limb sensorimotor deficits and individual differences in response to upper limb rehabilitation. This review summarizes how early brain damage can cause dramatic deviations from the normal anatomy of sensory and motor tracts, resulting in unique “wiring patterns” of the sensorimotor system in CP. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that corticospinal tract (CST) anatomy and integrity constrains sensorimotor function of the upper limb and potentially also the response to treatment. However, it is not possible to infer CST (re)organization from clinical presentation alone and conventional biomarkers, such as time of insult, location, and lesion extent seem to have limited clinical utility. Here, we propose a theoretical framework based on a detailed examination of the motor system using behavioral, neurophysiological, and magnetic resonance imaging measures, akin to those used to predict potential for upper limb recovery of adults after stroke. This theoretical framework might prove useful because it provides testable hypotheses for future research with the goal to develop and validate a clinical assessment flowchart to categorize children with unilateral CP. PMID:26779464

  12. Corticospinal tract integrity and lesion volume play different roles in chronic hemiparesis and its improvement through motor practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Dean, Phil J A; Szameitat, Andre J; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Shen, Shan

    2014-05-01

    Initial evidence suggests that the integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke is strongly related to motor function in the chronic state but not the treatment gain induced by motor rehabilitation. We examined the association of motor status and treatment benefit by testing patients with a wide range of severity of hemiparesis of the left and right upper extremity. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 22 patients beyond 12 months after onset of stroke with severe to moderate hemiparesis. Motor function was tested before and after 2 weeks of modified constraint-induced movement therapy. CST integrity, but not lesion volume, correlated with the motor ability measures of the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Motor Activity Log. No differences were found between left and right hemiparesis. Motor performance improved significantly with the treatment regime, and did so equally for patients with left and right arm paresis. However, treatment benefit was not associated with either CST integrity or lesion volume. CST integrity correlated best in this small trial with chronic long-term status but not treatment-induced improvements. The CST may play a different role in the mechanisms mediating long-term outcome compared to those underlying practice-induced gains after a chronic plateau in motor function.

  13. SDF1 in the dorsal corticospinal tract promotes CXCR4+ cell migration after spinal cord injury

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    Jung Hosung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1 and its major signaling receptor, CXCR4, were initially described in the immune system; however, they are also expressed in the nervous system, including the spinal cord. After spinal cord injury, the blood brain barrier is compromised, opening the way for chemokine signaling between these two systems. These experiments clarified prior contradictory findings on normal expression of SDF1 and CXCR4 as well as examined the resulting spinal cord responses resulting from this signaling. Methods These experiments examined the expression and function of SDF1 and CXCR4 in the normal and injured adult mouse spinal cord primarily using CXCR4-EGFP and SDF1-EGFP transgenic reporter mice. Results In the uninjured spinal cord, SDF1 was expressed in the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST as well as the meninges, whereas CXCR4 was found only in ependymal cells surrounding the central canal. After spinal cord injury (SCI, the pattern of SDF1 expression did not change rostral to the lesion but it disappeared from the degenerating dCST caudally. By contrast, CXCR4 expression changed dramatically after SCI. In addition to the CXCR4+ cells in the ependymal layer, numerous CXCR4+ cells appeared in the peripheral white matter and in the dorsal white matter localized between the dorsal corticospinal tract and the gray matter rostral to the lesion site. The non-ependymal CXCR4+ cells were found to be NG2+ and CD11b+ macrophages that presumably infiltrated through the broken blood-brain barrier. One population of macrophages appeared to be migrating towards the dCST that contains SDF1 rostral to the injury but not towards the caudal dCST in which SDF1 is no longer present. A second population of the CXCR4+ macrophages was present near the SDF1-expressing meningeal cells. Conclusions These observations suggest that attraction of CXCR4+ macrophages is part of a programmed response to injury and that modulation of the

  14. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

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    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  15. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-12-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  16. Influence of Corticospinal Tracts from Higher Order Motor Cortices on Recruitment Curve Properties in Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Varnerin, Nicole M.; Cunningham, David A.; Roelle, Sarah M.; Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Bonnett, Corin E.; Machado, Andre G.; Conforto, Adriana B.; Sakaie, Ken; Plow, Ela B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recruitment curves (RCs) acquired using transcranial magnetic stimulation are commonly used in stroke to study physiologic functioning of corticospinal tracts (CST) from M1. However, it is unclear whether CSTs from higher motor cortices contribute as well. Objective: To explore whether integrity of CST from higher motor areas, besides M1, relates to CST functioning captured using RCs. Methods: RCs were acquired for a paretic hand muscle in patients with chronic stroke. Metrics describing gain and overall output of CST were collected. CST integrity was defined by diffusion tensor imaging. For CST emerging from M1 and higher motor areas, integrity (fractional anisotropy) was evaluated in the region of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the length of CST and in the region of the stroke lesion. Results: We found that output and gain of RC was related to integrity along the length of CST emerging from higher motor cortices but not the M1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that RC parameters in chronic stroke infer function primarily of CST descending from the higher motor areas but not M1. RCs may thus serve as a simple, in-expensive means to assess re-mapping of alternate areas that is generally studied with resource-intensive neuroimaging in stroke. PMID:27013942

  17. Facilitation of corticospinal tract excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation combined with voluntary grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Wook; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2013-08-26

    Previous studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a powerful technique for the deliberate manipulation of the activity of human cerebral cortex. Moreover, it has also been shown that the non-exhausted voluntary motor exercise increases the excitability of corticospinal tract. We conducted this study to define the facilitation effect following anodal tDCS combined with the voluntary grip exercise as compared with single use of tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. Our result showed that the combination of anodal tDCS with voluntary grip exercise produced a 2-fold increase in the amplitude of MEP as compared with single use of anodal tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. In conclusion, our result could indicate that the treatment outcomes of brain and neurorehabilitation using tDCS would be better when tDCS is combined with the appropriate method of voluntary exercise as compared with single use of tDCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deterioration of pre-existing hemiparesis due to injury of the ipsilateral anterior corticospinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2013-05-29

    The anterior corticospinal tract (CST) has been suggested as one of the ipsilateral motor pathways, which contribute to motor recovery following stroke. In this study, we report on a patient who showed deterioration of pre-existing hemiparesis due to an injury of the ipsilateral anterior CST following a pontine infarct, as evaluated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 55-year-old male patient showed quadriparesis after the onset of an infarct in the right pontine basis. He had history of an infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory 7 years ago. Consequently, he showed right hemiparesis before onset of the right pontine infarct. Following this, his right hemiparesis deteriorated whereas his left hemiparesis newly developed. The DTTs for whole CST of the right hemisphere in the patient and both hemispheres in control subjects descended through the known CST pathway. By contrast, the DTT for the left whole CST of the patient showed a complete injury finding. The DTTs for the anterior CST of control subjects passed through the known pathway of the CST from cerebral cortex to medulla and terminated in the anterior funiculus of the upper cervical cord. However, the DTT for right anterior CST in the patient showed discontinuation below the right pontine infarct. It appeared that the deterioration of the pre-existing right hemiparesis was ascribed to an injury of the right anterior CST due to the right pontine infarct.

  19. Imaging corticospinal tract connectivity in injured rat spinal cord using manganese-enhanced MRI

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    Bilgen Mehmet

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEI offers a novel neuroimaging modality to trace corticospinal tract (CST in live animals. This paper expands this capability further and tests the utility of MEI to image axonal fiber connectivity in CST of injured spinal cord (SC. Methods A rat was injured at the thoracic T4 level of the SC. The CST was labeled with manganese (Mn injected intracortically at two weeks post injury. Next day, the injured SC was imaged using MEI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI modalities. Results In vivo MEI data obtained from cervical SC confirmed that CST was successfully labeled with Mn. Ex vivo MEI data obtained from excised SC depicted Mn labeling of the CST in SC sections caudal to the lesion, which meant that Mn was transported through the injury, possibly mediated by viable CST fibers present at the injury site. Examining the ex vivo data from the injury epicenter closely revealed a thin strip of signal enhancement located ventrally between the dorsal horns. This enhancement was presumably associated with the Mn accumulation in these intact fibers projecting caudally as part of the CST. Additional measurements with DTI supported this view. Conclusion Combining these preliminary results collectively demonstrated the feasibility of imaging fiber connectivity in experimentally injured SC using MEI. This approach may play important role in future investigations aimed at understanding the neuroplasticity in experimental SCI research.

  20. Relação entre degeneração do trato córtico-espinhal através de ressonância magnética e escala funcional (ALSFRS em pacientes com esclerose lateral amiotrófica Correlation between corticospinal tract degeneration through magnetic resonance imaging, and functional scale (ALSFRS in patients whit amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Nery Garcia

    2007-09-01

    lower when compared with controls, with a tendency to higher reductions in the right hemisphere and more inferior regions. Interestingly, FA values were reduced in somestetic area. No correlation was observed between symptoms duration and FA values. Despite the correlation observed between ALSFRS scores and degeneration in PC and CI, our results suggest that this subjective scale is not a good parameter for the evaluation of the structural damage in encephalic portions of the corticospinal tract.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of corticospinal tract metabolites in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using whole-brain 1H MR spectroscopy.

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    Varan Govind

    Full Text Available Changes in the distribution of the proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS observed metabolites N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, total-choline (Cho, and total-creatine (Cre in the entire intracranial corticospinal tract (CST including the primary motor cortex were evaluated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The study included 38 sporadic definite-ALS subjects and 70 age-matched control subjects. All received whole-brain MR imaging and spectroscopic imaging scans at 3T and clinical neurological assessments including percentage maximum forced vital capacity (FVC and upper motor neuron (UMN function. Differences in each individual metabolite and its ratio distributions were evaluated in the entire intracranial CST and in five segments along the length of the CST (at the levels of precentral gyrus (PCG, centrum semiovale (CS, corona radiata (CR, posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC and cerebral peduncle (CP. Major findings included significantly decreased NAA and increased Cho and Cho/NAA in the entire intracranial CST, with the largest differences for Cho/NAA in all the groups. Significant correlations between Cho/NAA in the entire intracranial CST and the right finger tap rate were noted. Of the ten bilateral CST segments, significantly decreased NAA in 4 segments, increased Cho in 5 segments and increased Cho/NAA in all the segments were found. Significant left versus right CST asymmetries were found only in ALS for Cho/NAA in the CS. Among the significant correlations found between Cho/NAA and the clinical assessments included the left-PCG versus FVC and right finger tap rate, left -CR versus FVC and right finger tap rate, and left PLIC versus FVC and right foot tap rate. These results demonstrate that a significant and bilaterally asymmetric alteration of metabolites occurs along the length of the entire intracranial CST in ALS, and the MRS metrics in the segments correlate with measures of disease severity and UMN function.

  2. Congenital absence of corticospinal tract does not severely affect plastic changes of the developing postnatal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Xian, Q; Shen, N; Shi, L; Qu, Y; Zhou, L

    2015-08-20

    The arrival and refinement of corticospinal afferents are likely to influence the maturation of the spinal cord and sensory-motor networks. To understand this better, we studied the revision of monosynaptic muscle afferents, the expression of activity-related genes, neurotrophins and their receptors in the cervical spinal cord from postnatal day (P) 0 to 21. We compared control and Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which corticospinal axons never develop. The corticospinal tract (CST), labeled by anti-protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) antibody in the dorsal funiculus, increased gradually in the control, but was never visible in the mutant. Using anti-parvalbumin and choline acetyltransferase double immunostaining, close contacts between proprioceptive afferent fibers and spinal motor neurons appeared at P0 and were gradually eliminated thereafter, with no difference between control and mutant mice. In both genotypes, the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons increased similarly from P7 to P21, and a comparable upregulation of c-Jun protein was seen at P7. Contrary to control samples, in which ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protein levels increased from P0 to P7 and gradually decreased after P14, CNTF concentrations were time-invariant in mutant samples. The dynamic profile of neurotrophin-3 (NT3) expression was also moderately affected in mutant mice. In control spinal cord, NT3 was increased at P7 and decreased at P14, but remained more stable in mutant samples. In contrast, expression profiles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) B, TrkC, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were similar in both genotypes. In conclusion, with the possible exception of CNTF and NT3 expression, most events that accompany maturation of the spinal cord appear largely independent of corticospinal inputs.

  3. Change in connection between corticospinal tract and Broca's area during motor recovery in a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyeok Gyu Kwon; Sung Ho Jang

    2011-01-01

    The present study reported a 42-year-old male patient who underwent conservative management for a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the left corona radiata and the basal ganglia. The patient presented with complete weakness of the right upper and lower extremities at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage; however, he showed progressive motor recovery to the level that he was able to extent the affected extremities against some resistance at 5 weeks after onset. The corticospinal tract of the affected (left) hemisphere connected to the left Broca's area at 3 weeks after onset as shown by diffusion tensor tractography. By contrast, this connection had disappeared at 5 weeks after onset as shown by diffusion tensor tractogaphy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation study showed that no motor evoked potential was elicited from the affected (left) hemisphere at 3 weeks after onset, but motor evoked potentials were elicited at 5 weeks after onset. These findings suggest that the connection between the injured corticospinal tract and Broca's area in this patient appears to be a compensation for severe motor weakness; consequently, the connection seems to disappear with motor recovery.

  4. Age-related changes of the corticospinal tract in the human brain A diffusion tensor imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Ho Jang; Sang-Hyun Cho; Mi Young Lee; Yong Hyun Kwon; Min Cheul Chang

    2011-01-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is one of the most important neural tracts for motor function in the human brain. Little is known about age-related changes of the CST. In this study, we tried to evaluate age-related changes of the CST using diffusion tensor imaging in 60 healthy subjects. The diffusion tensor imaging result revealed that the tract number and fractional anisotropy value were decreased, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was increased with aging. The distribution showed a semilog pattern for tract number, fractional anisotropy and ADC of the CST, and the pattern of each graph was near-linear. When compared with the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of subjects in the 20 s age group, tract number and fractional anisotropy values were significantly decreased in the 50 s–70 s age groups. Likewise, the ADC value was significantly higher in the 50 s–70 s age groups. The CST in the brain of normal subjects degenerated continuously from the 20 s to the 70 s, with a near-linear pattern, and degeneration of the CST began to manifest significantly in the subjects in their 50 s, compared with the subjects in their 20 s.

  5. Assessment of the corticospinal tract alterations before and after resection of brainstem lesions using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and tractography at 3 T

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    Kovanlikaya, Ilhami, E-mail: ilk2002@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Firat, Zeynep [Department of Radiology, Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Kovanlikaya, Arzu [Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Ulug, Aziz M. [Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey); Cihangiroglu, M. Mutlu [Department of Radiology, Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); John, Majnu [Department of Public Health, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Bingol, Canan Aykut; Ture, Ugur [Institute of Neurological Sciences, Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT) on the corticospinal tract alterations due to space occupying lesions in the brainstem before and after surgical resection. Pre- and post-surgical DTI data were acquired in 14 patients undergoing surgical resection of brainstem lesions. Patterns of corticospinal tract (CST) alteration on DTT were compared with the neurological exams of the patients pre- and post-operatively. DTT, especially in 3D movie format, seemed very helpful for evaluating the relationship of the lesions with the corticospinal tracts for surgical approach. None of the patients developed additional motor deficit related to surgery except one patient who presented with cerebellar ataxia after surgery. All of the patients with normal CST on DTT presented without motor deficit on neurological exam. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of DTT before surgery were 100%, 63.6%, 42.9% and 100%, and the corresponding values after surgery were 100%, 96%, 75% and 100% respectively. Although it has low specificity before surgery, DTT is a potentially useful technique in evaluating the effects of brainstem lesions and surgical resection on the relevant corticospinal tracts with high negative predictive value and higher specificity after surgery.

  6. Is Remodelling of Corticospinal Tract Terminations Originating in the Intact Hemisphere Associated with Recovery following Transient Ischaemic Stroke in the Rat?

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    Emma J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Following large strokes that encompass the cerebral cortex, it has been suggested that the corticospinal tract originating from the non-ischaemic hemisphere reorganises its pattern of terminal arborisation within the spinal cord to compensate for loss of function. However many strokes in humans predominantly affect subcortical structures with minimal involvement of the cerebral cortex. The aim of the present study was to determine whether remodelling of corticospinal terminals arising from the non-ischaemic hemisphere was associated with spontaneous recovery in rats with subcortical infarcts. Rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery and 28 days later, when animals exhibited functional recovery, cholera toxin b subunit was injected into the contralesional, intact forelimb motor cortex in order to anterogradely label terminals within cervical spinal cord segments. Infarcts were limited to subcortical structures and resulted in partial loss of corticospinal tract axons from the ischaemic hemisphere. Quantitative analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the numbers of terminals on the contralesional side of the spinal grey matter between ischaemic and sham rats. The results indicate that significant remodelling of the corticospinal tract from the non-ischaemic hemisphere is not associated with functional recovery in animals with subcortical infarcts.

  7. Microstructural changes of the corticospinal tract in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a comparison of diffusion tensor and diffusional kurtosis imaging

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    Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hori, Masaaki; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Fukunaga, Issei [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Health Science, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Arakawa, Tokyo (Japan); Masutani, Yoshitaka [The University of Tokyo, Division of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Takaaki, Hattori [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Department of Neurology and Neurological Science, Graduate School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Miyajima, Masakazu [Juntendo University, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The goals of this study were to examine the usefulness of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) for assessing microstructural changes in the compressed corticospinal tract (CST) among patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Eleven patients with iNPH (mean age: 73.6 years, range: 65-84), who underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging, including DKI before surgery, were recruited. Six age-matched, healthy subjects (mean age: 69.8 years, range: 60-75) served as the control group. DKI and diffusion tensor imaging parameters were calculated and compared between the iNPH and the control groups using tract-specific analysis of the CST at the level of the lateral ventricle. Mean diffusional kurtosis (DK) and axial diffusion kurtosis were significantly lower in iNPH patients. However, apparent diffusion coefficient, fractional anisotropy, and axial eigenvalue ({lambda} {sub 1}) were significantly higher in the iNPH group than in the control group. The mechanical pressure caused by ventricular enlargement in iNPH patients might induce formation of well-aligned fiber tracts and increased fiber density in the CST, resulting in decreased DK. DKI is able to depict both the altered microstructure and water molecule movement within neural axons and intra- or extracellular space. In addition, the investigated DKI parameters provide different information about white matter relative to conventional diffusional metrics for iNPH. (orig.)

  8. A change in injured corticospinal tract originating from the premotor cortex to the primary motor cortex in a patient with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Seok Yeo; Sung Ho Jang

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to elucidate the motor recovery mechanism of stroke, but the majority of these studies focus on cerebral infarct and relatively little is known about the motor recovery mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage. In this study, we report on a patient with intracerebral hemorrhage who displayed a change in injured corticospinal tract originating from the premotor cortex to the primary motor cortex on diffusion tensor imaging. An 86-year-old woman presented with complete paralysis of the right extremities following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontoparietal cortex. The patient showed motor recovery, to the extent of being able to extend affected fingers against gravity and to walk independently on even ground at 5 months after onset. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that the left corticospinal tract originated from the premotor cortex at 1 month after intracerebral hemorrhage and from the left primary motor cortex and premotor cortex at 5 months after intracerebral hemorrhage. The change of injured corticospinal tract originating from the premotor cortex to the primary motor cortex suggests motor recovery of intracerebral hemorrhage.

  9. Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareen, N; Shinozaki, M; Ryan, D; Alexander, H; Amer, A; Truong, D Q; Khadka, N; Sarkar, A; Naeem, S; Bikson, M; Martin, J H

    2017-08-10

    Cervical injuries are the most common form of SCI. In this study, we used a neuromodulatory approach to promote skilled movement recovery and repair of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a moderately severe C4 midline contusion in adult rats. We used bilateral epidural intermittent theta burst (iTBS) electrical stimulation of motor cortex to promote CST axonal sprouting and cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to enhance spinal cord activation to motor cortex stimulation after injury. We used Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling to direct tsDCS to the cervical enlargement. Combined iTBS-tsDCS was delivered for 30min daily for 10days. We compared the effect of stimulation on performance in the horizontal ladder and the Irvine Beattie and Bresnahan forepaw manipulation tasks and CST axonal sprouting in injury-only and injury+stimulation animals. The contusion eliminated the dorsal CST in all animals. tsDCS significantly enhanced motor cortex evoked responses after C4 injury. Using this combined spinal-M1 neuromodulatory approach, we found significant recovery of skilled locomotion and forepaw manipulation skills compared with injury-only controls. The spared CST axons caudal to the lesion in both animal groups derived mostly from lateral CST axons that populated the contralateral intermediate zone. Stimulation enhanced injury-dependent CST axonal outgrowth below and above the level of the injury. This dual neuromodulatory approach produced partial recovery of skilled motor behaviors that normally require integration of posture, upper limb sensory information, and intent for performance. We propose that the motor systems use these new CST projections to control movements better after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-12-01

    Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right-left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11-16 years). Participants were asked to fluently draw superimposed circles with their right dominant and left non-dominant hand. Temporal regularity of circle drawing movements was assessed for each hand using a digitizing tablet. Although all participants were right-handed, there was substantial inter-individual variation regarding the relative right-hand advantage for fluent circle drawing. All subjects underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging at 3 Tesla. The right and left CST were defined as regions-of-interest and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity values were calculated for right and left CST. On average, mean FA values were higher in the left CST relative to right CST. The degree of right-left FA asymmetry showed a linear relationship with right-left asymmetry in fluent circle drawing after correction for age and gender. The higher the mean FA values were in the left dominant CST relative to the right non-dominant CST, the stronger was the relative right-hand advantage for regular circle drawing. These findings show that right-left differences in manual proficiency are highly variable in right-handed adolescents and that this variation is associated with a right-left microstructural asymmetry of the CST.

  11. Motor recovery in a patient with an infarct in the medullary pyramid via the corticospinal tract passing through the small spared area within the infarcted medullary pyramid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyeok Gyu Kwon; Sung Ho Jang

    2011-01-01

    The present study reported a 58-year-old male patient who exhibited complete paralysis of the right extremities at stroke onset.Brain MR images showed an infarct in the left medullary pyramid and a small spared area on the medial side of the infarct.He gained the ability to extend the affected fingers against gravity and to dorsiflex the affected ankle without gravity at 3 months after stroke onset.Diffusion tensor imaging results showed that at 6 months after stroke onset,the corticospinal tract of the affected (left) hemisphere descended through the small spared area of the infarcted medullary pyramid.No motor-evoked potential was elicited from the affected (left) hemisphere at 2 weeks after stroke onset;however,motor-evoked potential was elicited at 6 months as shown by transcranial magnetic stimulation results.The motor function of the affected side of this patient appears to have been recovered via the corticospinal tract that passed through the small spared area within the infarcted medullary pyramid.

  12. Right lower limb apraxia in a patient with left supplementary motor area infarction: intactness of the corticospinal tract confirmed by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Cheol Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported a 50-year-old female patient with left supplementary motor area infarction who presented right lower limb apraxia and investigated the possible causes using transcranial magnetic stimulation. The patient was able to walk and climb stairs spontaneously without any assistance at 3 weeks after onset. However, she was unable to intentionally move her right lower limb although she understood what she supposed to do. The motor evoked potential evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation from the right lower limb was within the normal range, indicating that the corticospinal tract innervating the right lower limb was uninjured. Thus, we thought that her motor dysfunction was not induced by motor weakness, and confirmed her symptoms as apraxia. In addition, these results also suggest that transcranial magnetic stimulation is helpful for diagnosing apraxia.

  13. Muscular weakness in individuals with HIV associated with a disorganization of the cortico-spinal tract: a multi-modal MRI investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bernard

    Full Text Available Motor impairment is highly prevalent in HIV-infected patients. Here, we assess associations between peripheral muscular deficits as evaluated by the 5 sit-to-stand test (5STS and structural integrity of the motor system at a central level. Eighty-six HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy and with no major cerebral events, underwent an MRI scan and the 5STS. Out of 86 participants, forty presented a score greater than two standard deviations above mean normative scores calculated for the 5STS and were therefore considered as motor-impaired. MRI-structural cerebral parameters were compared to the unimpaired participants. Fractional Anisotropy (FA, Axial Diffusivity (AD and Radial Diffusivity (RD, reflecting microstructural integrity, were extracted from Diffusion-Tensor MRI. Global and regional cerebral volumes or thicknesses were extracted from 3D-T1 morphological MRI. Whereas the two groups did not differ for any HIV variables, voxel-wise analysis revealed that motor-impaired participants present low FA values in various cortico-motor tracts and low AD in left cortico-spinal tract. However, they did not present reduced volumes or thicknesses of the precentral cortices compared to unimpaired participants. The absence of alterations in cortical regions holding motor-neurons might argue against neurodegenerative process as an explanation of White Matter (WM disorganization.

  14. Motor-evoked potential gain is a helpful test for the detection of corticospinal tract dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Y; Grapperon, A M; Jouve, E; Truillet, R; Zemmour, C; Verschueren, A; Pouget, J; Attarian, S

    2017-02-01

    The detection of upper motor neuron (UMN) dysfunction is necessary for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, signs of UMN dysfunction may be difficult to establish. This study aimed to determine whether motor-evoked potential (MEP) gain (MEP area/background electromyographic activity) represents an efficient alternative to assess UMN dysfunction. MEP area, MEP/compound muscle action potential (CMAP) area ratio, and MEP gain were tested at different force levels in healthy control subjects and ALS patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses was used to determine the diagnostic utility of MEP gain and compare it to alternative techniques, namely, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the triple stimulation technique (TST). MEP gain revealed a significant difference between the patients and healthy control subjects in contrast to MEP area and MEP/CMAP area ratio. The diagnostic utility of MEP gain was comparable with that of TST and superior to that of DTI. MEP gain can distinguish ALS patients from control subjects and may be helpful for the diagnosis of ALS. MEP gain appears to be a useful adjunct test and noninvasive method for the assessment of corticospinal dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intramuscular Neurotrophin-3 normalizes low threshold spinal reflexes, reduces spasms and improves mobility after bilateral corticospinal tract injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathe, Claudia; Hutson, Thomas Haynes; McMahon, Stephen Brendan; Moon, Lawrence David Falcon

    2016-01-01

    Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity. Neurotrophin-3 normalized the short latency Hoffmann reflex to a treated hand muscle as well as low threshold polysynaptic spinal reflexes involving afferents from other treated muscles. Neurotrophin-3 also enhanced locomotor recovery. Furthermore, the balance of inhibitory and excitatory boutons in the spinal cord and the level of an ion co-transporter in motor neuron membranes required for normal reflexes were normalized. Our findings pave the way for Neurotrophin-3 as a therapy that treats the underlying causes of spasticity and not only its symptoms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18146.001 PMID:27759565

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging for long-term follow-up of corticospinal tract degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, S.; Ehrenreich, H. [Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Georg-August-University, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, 37075, Goettingen (Germany); Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Georg-August-University, Goettingen (Germany); Finsterbusch, J.; Frahm, J. [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Georg-August-University, Goettingen (Germany); Weishaupt, J.H. [Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Georg-August-University, Goettingen (Germany); Khorram-Sefat, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August-University, Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a predominantly clinical and electromyographic diagnosis. Conventional MRI reveals atrophy of the motor system, particularly the pyramidal tract, in the advanced stages but does not provide a sensitive measure of disease progression. Three patients with different principal symptoms of ALS, i.e., with predominant involvement of the upper (UMN) or lower (UMN) motor neurons, or bulbar disease, respectively, underwent serial clinical examination including lung function tests, conventional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). MRI demonstrated changes in of the pyramidal tract without measurable variation on follow-up. The patient with UMN involvement showed remarkable progressive loss of diffusion anisotropy in the pyramidal tract. DTI might be useful, together with clinical follow-up, as an objective morphological marker in therapeutic trials. (orig.)

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of corticospinal tract in patients with resected brainstem cavernous malformations using high-definition fiber tractography and diffusion connectometry analysis: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Amir H; Abhinav, Kumar; Jarbo, Kevin; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Shin, Samuel S; Pathak, Sudhir; Hirsch, Barry E; Schneider, Walter; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Friedlander, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    Brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) are challenging due to a higher symptomatic hemorrhage rate and potential morbidity associated with their resection. The authors aimed to preoperatively define the relationship of CMs to the perilesional corticospinal tracts (CSTs) by obtaining qualitative and quantitative data using high-definition fiber tractography. These data were examined postoperatively by using longitudinal scans and in relation to patients' symptomatology. The extent of involvement of the CST was further evaluated longitudinally using the automated "diffusion connectometry" analysis. Fiber tractography was performed with DSI Studio using a quantitative anisotropy (QA)-based generalized deterministic tracking algorithm. Qualitatively, CST was classified as being "disrupted" and/or "displaced." Quantitative analysis involved obtaining mean QA values for the CST and its perilesional and nonperilesional segments. The contralateral CST was used for comparison. Diffusion connectometry analysis included comparison of patients' data with a template from 90 normal subjects. Three patients (mean age 22 years) with symptomatic pontomesencephalic hemorrhagic CMs and varying degrees of hemiparesis were identified. The mean follow-up period was 37.3 months. Qualitatively, CST was partially disrupted and displaced in all. Direction of the displacement was different in each case and progressively improved corresponding with the patient's neurological status. No patient experienced neurological decline related to the resection. The perilesional mean QA percentage decreases supported tract disruption and decreased further over the follow-up period (Case 1, 26%-49%; Case 2, 35%-66%; and Case 3, 63%-78%). Diffusion connectometry demonstrated rostrocaudal involvement of the CST consistent with the quantitative data. Hemorrhagic brainstem CMs can disrupt and displace perilesional white matter tracts with the latter occurring in unpredictable directions. This requires the

  18. Axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction of the corticospinal tract in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus measured by q-space imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei Kamiya

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that compression and stretching of the corticospinal tract (CST potentially cause treatable gait disturbance in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH. Measurement of axon diameter with diffusion MRI has recently been used to investigate microstructural alterations in neurological diseases. In this study, we investigated alterations in the axon diameter and intra-axonal fraction of the CST in iNPH by q-space imaging (QSI analysis. METHODS: Nineteen patients with iNPH and 10 age-matched controls were recruited. QSI data were obtained with a 3-T system by using a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence with the diffusion gradient applied parallel to the antero-posterior axis. By using a two-component low-q fit model, the root mean square displacements of intra-axonal space ( =  axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction of the CST were calculated at the levels of the internal capsule and body of the lateral ventricle, respectively. RESULTS: Wilcoxon's rank-sum test revealed a significant increase in CST intra-axonal volume fraction at the paraventricular level in patients (p<0.001, whereas no significant difference was observed in the axon diameter. At the level of the internal capsule, neither axon diameter nor intra-axonal volume fraction differed significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that in patients with iNPH, the CST does not undergo irreversible axonal damage but is rather compressed and/or stretched owing to pressure from the enlarged ventricle. These analyses of axon diameter and intra-axonal fraction yield insights into microstructural alterations of the CST in iNPH.

  19. Variable laterality of corticospinal tract axons that regenerate after spinal cord injury as a result of PTEN deletion or knock-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Rafer; Zukor, Katherine; Liu, Kai; He, Zhigang; Steward, Oswald

    2016-09-01

    Corticospinal tract (CST) axons from one hemisphere normally extend and terminate predominantly in the contralateral spinal cord. We previously showed that deleting the gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the sensorimotor cortex enables CST axons to regenerate after spinal cord injury and that some regenerating axons extend along the "wrong" side. Here, we characterize the degree of specificity of regrowth in terms of laterality. PTEN was selectively deleted via cortical adeno-associated virus (AAV)-Cre injections in neonatal PTEN-floxed mice. As adults, mice received dorsal hemisection injuries at T12 or complete crush injuries at T9. CST axons from one hemisphere were traced by unilateral biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injections in PTEN-deleted mice with spinal cord injury and in noninjured PTEN-floxed mice that had not received AAV-Cre. In noninjured mice, 97.9 ± 0.7% of BDA-labeled axons in white matter and 88.5 ± 1.0% of BDA-labeled axons in gray matter were contralateral to the cortex of origin. In contrast, laterality of CST axons that extended past a lesion due to PTEN deletion varied across animals. In some cases, regenerated axons extended predominantly on the ipsilateral side; in other cases, axons extended predominantly contralaterally, and in others, axons were similar in numbers on both sides. Similar results were seen in analyses of cases from previous studies using short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated PTEN knock-down. These results indicate that CST axons that extend past a lesion due to PTEN deletion or knock-down do not maintain the contralateral rule of the noninjured CST, highlighting one aspect of how the resultant circuitry from regenerating axons may differ from that of the uninjured CST. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2654-2676, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Vector-induced NT-3 expression in rats promotes collateral growth of injured corticospinal tract axons far rostral to a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaupt, N; Mason, A L O; Hurd, C; May, Z; Zmyslowski, D C; Galleguillos, D; Sipione, S; Fouad, K

    2014-07-11

    Rewiring the injured corticospinal tract (CST) by promoting connections between CST axons and spared neurons is a strategy being explored experimentally to achieve improved recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reliable interventions to promote and direct growth of collaterals from injured CST axons are in high demand to promote functionally relevant detour pathways. A promising tool is neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which has shown growth-stimulating and chemo-attractive effects for spared CST axons caudal to a CST lesion. Yet, efforts to promote growth of injured CST axons rostral to a SCI with NT-3 have been less successful to date. Evidence indicates that immune activation in the local growth environment, either intrinsic or induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can play a decisive role in the CST's responsiveness to NT-3. Here, we test the potential of NT-3 as a tool to enhance and direct collateral growth from the injured CST rostral to a SCI (1) using long-term expression of NT-3 by adeno-associated viral vectors, (2) with and without stimulating the immune system with LPS. Our results indicate that inducing a growth response from injured CST axons into a region of vector-mediated NT-3 expression is possible in the environment of the spinal cord rostral to a SCI, but seems dependent on the distance between the responding axon and the source of NT-3. Our findings also suggest that injured CST axons do not increase their growth response to NT-3 after immune activation with LPS in this environment. In conclusion, this is to our knowledge the first demonstration that NT-3 can be effective at promoting growth of injured CST collaterals far rostral to a SCI. Making NT-3 available in close proximity to CST target axons may be the key to success when using NT-3 to rewire the injured CST in future investigations.

  1. Altered microstructure in corticospinal tract in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: comparison with Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, T; Yuasa, T; Aoki, S; Sato, R; Sawaura, H; Mori, T; Mizusawa, H

    2011-10-01

    Previous neuropathologic studies in chronic hydrocephalus have suggested the presence of white matter damage, presumably from mechanical pressure due to ventricular enlargement and metabolic derangement. This study aimed to investigate the diffusional properties of the CST in patients with iNPH by using DTI and to determine whether this method could be used as a new diagnostic tool to differentiate patients with iNPH from those with AD and PDD and control subjects. We enrolled 18 patients with iNPH, 11 patients with AD, 11 patients with PDD, and 19 healthy control subjects. Diffusion tensor metrics of the segmented CST, including FA values, axial eigenvalues, and radial eigenvalues, were evaluated by using tract-specific analysis. The anisotropy color-coding tractography of the CST was visually evaluated. The DTI findings were compared among groups. Tract-specific analysis of the CST showed that FA values and axial eigenvalues were significantly increased (P < .001), whereas radial eigenvalues were not significantly altered, in patients with iNPH compared with other subjects. The CST tractographic images in patients with iNPH was visually different from those in other subjects (P < .001). In discriminating patients with iNPH from other subjects, the CST FA values had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 80% at a cutoff value of 0.59. Our results suggest that patients with iNPH have altered microstructures in the CST. Quantitative and visual CST evaluation by using DTI may be useful for differentiating patients with iNPH from patients with AD or PDD or healthy subjects.

  2. Selective stimulation of dendrite outgrowth from identified corticospinal neurons by homotopic astrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Dijkstra, S.; Bar, P.R.; Joosten, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Corticospinal neurons were identified in primary cultures of cortical neurons established from rats that had been injected with a fluorescent tracer to retrogradely label the corticospinal tract. We measured neurite outgrowth from corticospinal neurons after they had been co-cultured with astrocytes

  3. Descending corticospinal control of intersegmental dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Kalaska, John F; Cisek, Paul

    2011-08-17

    To make an accurate movement, the CNS has to overcome the inherent complexities of the multijoint limb. For example, interaction torques arise when motion of individual arm segments propagates to adjacent segments causing their movement without any muscle contractions. Since these passive joint torques significantly add to the overall torques generated by active muscular contractions, they must be taken into account during planning or execution of goal-directed movements. We investigated the role of the corticospinal tract in compensating for the interaction torques during arm movements in humans. Twelve subjects reached to visual targets with their arm supported by a robotic exoskeleton. Reaching to one target was accompanied by interaction torques that assisted the movement, while reaching to the other target was accompanied by interaction torques that resisted the movement. Corticospinal excitability was assessed at different times during movement using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the upper-arm region of M1 (primary motor cortex). We found that TMS responses in shoulder monoarticular and elbow-shoulder biarticular muscles changed together with the interaction torques during movements in which the interaction torques were resistive. In contrast, TMS responses did not correlate with assistive interaction torques or with co-contraction. This suggests that the descending motor command includes compensation for passive limb dynamics. Furthermore, our results suggest that compensation for interaction torques involves the biarticular muscles, which span both shoulder and elbow joints and are in a biomechanically advantageous position to provide such compensation.

  4. The modulatory effect of electrical stimulation on the excitability of the corticospinal tract varies according to the type of muscle contraction being performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kei; Sugawara, Kenichi; Miyaguchi, Shota; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Afferent input caused by electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve increases corticospinal excitability during voluntary contractions, indicating that proprioceptive sensory input arriving at the cortex plays a fundamental role in modulating corticospinal excitability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effect of electrical stimulation on the corticospinal excitability varies according to the type of muscle contraction being performed. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during a shortening contraction, an isometric contraction, or no contraction of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. In some trials, electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve was performed at 110% of the sensory threshold or 110% of the motor threshold prior to TMS. Electrical stimulation involved either a train of 50 pulses at 10 Hz or a single pulse. Shortening contraction with the train of electrical stimuli significantly increased MEP amplitudes, and the increase was dependent on the type of stimulation. Isometric contraction with the train of electrical stimuli and electrical stimulation without voluntary contraction did not affect MEP amplitudes. A single pulse of electrical stimulation did not affect MEP amplitudes in any condition. Thus, electrical-stimulation-induced modulation of corticospinal excitability varied according to the type of muscle contraction performed and the type of stimulation. These results show that the type of contraction should be considered when using electrical stimulation for rehabilitation in patients with central nervous system lesions.

  5. SENSORIMOTOR INTEGRATION BY CORTICOSPINAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunuen eMoreno-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal (CS tract is a complex system which targets several areas of the spinal cord. In particular, the CS descending projection plays a major role in motor command, which results from direct and indirect control of spinal cord pre-motor interneurons as well as motoneurons. But in addition, this system is also involved in a selective and complex modulation of sensory feedback. Despite recent evidence confirms that CS projections drive distinct segmental neural circuits that are part of the sensory and pre-motor pathways, little is known about the spinal networks engaged by the corticospinal tract, the organization of CS projections, the intracortical microcircuitry, and the synaptic interactions in the sensorimotor cortex that may encode different cortical outputs to the spinal cord. Here is stressed the importance of integrated approaches for the study of sensorimotor function of CS system, in order to understand the functional compartmentalization and hierarchical organization of layer 5 output neurons, who are key elements for motor control and hence, of behavior.

  6. 卒中后皮质脊髓束Waller变性的DTI表现及其与运动功能受损的关系%Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tracts on diffusion tensor imaging after stroke and its relationship with impaired motor function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方珉; 谢瑞满; 周林江

    2009-01-01

    皮质脊髓束Waller变性是由于其上运动神经元或轴突损伤引起的远端轴突和髓鞘顺行性变性.卒中是引起皮质脊髓束Waller变性的最常见原因.皮质脊髓束Waller变性的常规MRI显示为与原发病灶相连的符合皮质脊髓束走行的条状异常信号,但常规MRI无法显示卒中发生后4周内的Waller变性.MRI弥散张量成像(diffusion tensor imaging,DTI)可早期检测皮质脊髓束Waller变性,且可动态观察从亚急性早期到慢性期的病理变化过程.文章综述了DTI在显示卒中后皮质脊髓束Waller变性,尤其是早期Waller变性中的作用,以及在卒中患者预后判断和后期康复中的价值.%Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tracts is the anterograde degener-ation of distal axons and myelin caused by the upper motor neuron injury or axonal injury.Stroke is the most common cause of Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tracts is a linear abnormal signal that connects the original lesion along the corticospinal tracts, but the conventional MRI signal does not reveal Wallerian degeneration until 4 weeks after stroke. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) detects early Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tracts, and dynamically observes the process of pathological changes from early subacute stage to chronic stage. 1his article reviews Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tracts on DTI after stroke, especially the effect in early Wallerian degeneration, as well as the values in predicting prognosis and late rehabilitation in patients with stroke.

  7. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated global anterograde delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor to the spinal cord: comparison of rubrospinal and corticospinal tracts in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Kevin D; Flotte, Terence R; Reier, Paul J; Mandel, Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive loss of spinal lower motoneurons. Gene delivery is a promising strategy to deliver therapeutic molecules to these vulnerable cells. However, definition of an optimal route of delivery capable of accessing neurons over a considerable extent of the neuraxis represents a significant logistical problem. Intramuscular vector injections are not ideal as this approach would involve hundreds of injections to completely treat an ALS patient and also would be dependent on retrograde transport of the viral platform of choice. Alternatively, upper motoneurons could deliver trophic factors over considerable distances by anterograde transport after a relatively localized intracerebral injection. To test this approach, the present study was designed to compare the corticospinal (CST) and rubrospinal (RST) tracts for their ability to transport recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-derived green fluorescent protein (GFP) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to the spinal cord. Unilateral injections of rAAV5-GFP into the red nucleus (RN) or motor cortex of normal rats produced GFP-positive fibers in the appropriate descending tracts extending to the lumbar spinal cord. For both tracts, GFP-positive axonal projections into the spinal gray matter were consistently observed. GDNF immunohistochemistry demonstrated that confirmed RN injections resulted in GDNF-positive fibers projecting into spinal gray matter as seen in the GFP group. In contrast, confirmed cortical rAAV5-GDNF injections resulted in less evident staining in spinal cord. Spinal cord GDNF levels were elevated at distances up to 72 mm from the injection sites, and confirmed that RST-related GDNF transport to spinal cord surpassed CST-associated delivery.

  8. Corticospinal contribution to arm muscle activity during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    potentials (MEPs) elicited in the posterior deltoid muscle (PD) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were modulated during the gait cycle in parallel with changes in the background EMG activity. There was no significant difference in the size of the MEPs at a comparable level of background EMG during...... walking and during static PD contraction. Short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI; 2 ms interval) studied by paired-pulse TMS was diminished during bursts of PD EMG activity. This could not be explained only by changes in background EMG activity and/or control MEP size, since SICI showed...... no correlation to the level of background EMG activity during static PD contraction. Finally, TMS at intensity below the threshold for activation of corticospinal tract fibres elicited a suppression of the PD EMG activity during walking. Since TMS at this intensity is likely to only activate intracortical...

  9. Integration of Corticospinal Tractography Reduces Motor Complications After Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Tomoyuki, E-mail: kouga-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shin, Masahiro; Maruyama, Keisuke; Kamada, Kyousuke; Ota, Takahiro [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kunii, Naoto [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Aoki, Shigeki; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Igaki, Hiroshi; Onoe, Tsuyoshi [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Nobuhito [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the use of diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) of the corticospinal tract could reduce motor complications after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the deep frontal lobe, deep parietal lobe, basal ganglia, and thalamus who had undergone radiosurgery since 2000 and were followed up for more than 3 years were studied. DTT of the corticospinal tract had been integrated into treatment planning of SRS since 2004, and the maximum dose received by the corticospinal tract was attempted to be less than 20 Gy. Treatment outcomes before (28 patients, Group A) and after (24 patients, Group B) the introduction of this technique were compared. Results: There were no statistical differences between the two groups (Group A vs. Group B) in patients' age (34 years vs. 33 years, p = 0.76), percentage of patients with hemorrhagic events before treatment (50% vs. 29%, p = 0.12), or percentage of AVM involving the basal ganglia and thalamus (36% vs. 46%, p = 0.46). Obliteration rates were 69% and 76% at 4 years in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.68), which were not significantly different. Motor complications were observed in 5 patients in Group A (17.9%) but only in 1 patient in Group B (4.2%), which was significantly less frequent (p = 0.021). Conclusion: Integrating DTT of the corticospinal tract into treatment planning contributed to reduction of motor complications without compromising the obliteration rate for AVM adjacent to the corticospinal tract.

  10. Corticospinal modulations during bimanual movement with different relative phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi eNomura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate corticospinal modulation of bimanual movement with different relative phases (RPs. The participants rhythmically abducted and adducted the right index finger (unimanual movement or both index fingers (bimanual movement with a cyclic duration of 1 s. The RP of bimanual movement, defined as the time difference between one hand movement and the other hand movement, was 0°, 90°, or 180°. Motor evoked potentials in the right flexor dorsal interosseous muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation were obtained during unimanual or bimanual movement. Corticospinal excitability in the first dorsal interosseous muscle during bimanual movement with 90° RP was higher than that during unimanual movement or bimanual movement with 0° or 180° RP. The correlation between muscle activity level and corticospinal excitability during bimanual movement with 90° RP was smaller than that during unimanual movement or bimanual movement with 0° or 180° RP. The higher corticospinal excitability during bimanual movement with 90° RP may be caused by the greater effort expended to execute a difficult task, the involvement of interhemispheric interaction, a motor binding process, or task acquisition. The lower dependency of corticospinal excitability on the muscle activity level during bimanual movement with 90° RP may reflect the minor corticospinal contribution to bimanual movement with an RP that is not in the attractor state.

  11. Brain microstructural correlates of visuospatial choice reaction time in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The corticospinal tracts and the basal ganglia continue to develop during childhood and adolescence, and indices of their maturation can be obtained using diffusion-weighted imaging. Here we show that a simple measure of visuomotor function is correlated with diffusion parameters in the corticosp...

  12. Synchronous EMG activity in the Piper frequency band reveals the corticospinal demand of walking tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David J.; Kautz, Steven A.; Bauer, Andrew R.; Chen, Yen-Ting; Evangelos A Christou

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the frequency-domain characteristics of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals are modulated according to the contributing sources of neural drive. Modulation of inter-muscular EMG synchrony within the Piper frequency band (30–60Hz) during movement tasks has been linked to drive from the corticospinal tract. However, it is not known whether EMG synchrony is sufficiently sensitive to detect task-dependent differences in the corticospinal contribution to leg muscle activat...

  13. Triggered Urine Interleukin-6 Correlates to Severity of Symptoms in Nonfebrile Lower Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Fredrik; Butler, Daniel; Wullt, Björn

    2017-07-01

    Objective diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infections in patients prone to asymptomatic bacteriuria is compromised by local host responses that are already present and the positive urine culture. We investigated interleukin-6 as a biomarker for nonfebrile urinary tract infection severity and diagnostic thresholds for interleukin-6 and 8, and neutrophils to differentiate between asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. Patients with residual urine and neurogenic bladders due to spinal lesions included in a long-term Escherichia coli 83972 asymptomatic bacteriuria inoculation trial were monitored for 2 years. Symptom scoring and urine sampling to estimate interleukin-6 and 8, and neutrophils were performed regularly monthly and at urinary tract infection episodes. Patients were followed in the complete study for a mean of 19 months (range 10 to 27) and those with asymptomatic bacteriuria with E. coli 83972 were followed a mean of 11 months (range 4 to 19). A total of 37 nonfebrile urinary tract infection episodes with complete data on interleukin-6 and 8, neutrophils and symptom scoring were documented. Interleukin-6 was the only marker that persistently increased during urinary tract infection compared to asymptomatic bacteriuria in pooled and paired intra-individual comparisons (p urinary tract infection symptoms (p urinary tract infection episodes. However, in urinary tract infections with worse symptoms interleukin-6 and neutrophils demonstrated equal good/excellent outcomes. Triggered interleukin-6 correlated to urinary tract infection symptom severity and demonstrated a promising differential diagnostic capacity to discriminate urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Future studies should explore interleukin-6 as a biomarker of urinary tract infection severity and assess the treatment indication in nonfebrile urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  14. Structural white matter changes in descending motor tracts correlate with improvements in motor impairment after undergoing a treatment course of tDCS and physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor impairment after stroke has been related to the structural and functional integrity of corticospinal tracts including multisynaptic motor fibers and tracts such as the cortico-rubral-spinal and the cortico-tegmental-spinal tract. Furthermore, studies have shown that the concurrent use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS with peripheral sensorimotor activities can improve motor impairment. We examined microstructural effects of concurrent non-invasive bi-hemipheric stimulation and physical/occupational therapy for 10 days on the structural components of the CST as well as other descending motor tracts which will be referred to here as alternate motor fibers (aMF. In this pilot study, ten chronic patients with a uni-hemispheric stroke underwent Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessments (UE-FM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for determining diffusivity measures such as the fractional anisotropy (FA before and after treatment in a section of the CST and aMF that spanned between the lower end of the internal capsule (below each patient’s lesion and the upper pons region on the affected and unaffected hemisphere. The treated group (tDCS+PT/OT showed significant increases in the proportional UE-FM scores (+21%; SD 10%, while no significant changes were observed in an untreated comparison group. Significant increases in FA (+0.007; SD 0.0065 were found in the ipsilesional aMF in the treated group while no significant changes were found in the contralesional aMF, in either CST, or in any tracts in the untreated group. The FA changes in the ipsilesional aMF significantly correlated with the proportional change in the UE-FM (r=0.65; p<0.05. The increase in FA might indicate an increase in motor fiber alignment, myelination, and overall fiber integrity. Crossed and uncrossed fibers from multiple cortical regions might be one reason why the aMF fiber system showed more plastic structural changes that correlate with motor improvements than

  15. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    Force field adaptation of locomotor muscle activity is one way of studying the ability of the motor control networks in the brain and spinal cord to adapt in a flexible way to changes in the environment. Here, we investigate whether the corticospinal tract is involved in this adaptation. We...... be explained by changes in background TA EMG activity. These effects seemed specific to walking, as similar changes in TA MEP were not seen when seated subjects were tested during static dorsiflexion. These observations suggest that the corticospinal tract contributes to the adaptation of walking...

  16. Synchronous EMG activity in the piper frequency band reveals the corticospinal demand of walking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Kautz, Steven A; Bauer, Andrew R; Chen, Yen-Ting; Christou, Evangelos A

    2013-08-01

    Evidence indicates that the frequency-domain characteristics of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals are modulated according to the contributing sources of neural drive. Modulation of inter-muscular EMG synchrony within the Piper frequency band (30-60 Hz) during movement tasks has been linked to drive from the corticospinal tract. However, it is not known whether EMG synchrony is sufficiently sensitive to detect task-dependent differences in the corticospinal contribution to leg muscle activation during walking. We investigated this question in seventeen healthy older men and women. It was hypothesized that, relative to typical steady state walking, Piper band EMG synchrony of the triceps surae muscle group would be reduced for dual-task walking (because of competition for cortical resources), similar for fast walking (because walking speed is directed by an indirect locomotor pathway rather than by the corticospinal tract), and increased when taking a long step (because voluntary gait pattern modifications are directed by the corticospinal tract). Each of these hypotheses was confirmed. These findings support the use of frequency-domain analysis of EMG in future investigations into the corticospinal contribution to control of healthy and disordered human walking.

  17. Synchronous EMG activity in the Piper frequency band reveals the corticospinal demand of walking tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J.; Kautz, Steven A.; Bauer, Andrew R.; Chen, Yen-Ting; Christou, Evangelos A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the frequency-domain characteristics of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals are modulated according to the contributing sources of neural drive. Modulation of inter-muscular EMG synchrony within the Piper frequency band (30–60Hz) during movement tasks has been linked to drive from the corticospinal tract. However, it is not known whether EMG synchrony is sufficiently sensitive to detect task-dependent differences in the corticospinal contribution to leg muscle activation during walking. We investigated this question in seventeen healthy older men and women. It was hypothesized that, relative to typical steady state walking, Piper band EMG synchrony of the triceps surae muscle group would be reduced for dual-task walking (because of competition for cortical resources), similar for fast walking (because walking speed is directed by an intermediate locomotor pathway rather than by the corticospinal tract), and increased when taking a long step (because voluntary gait pattern modifications are directed by the corticospinal tract). Each of these hypotheses was confirmed. These findings support the use of frequency-domain analysis of EMG in future investigations into the corticospinal contribution to control of healthy and disordered human walking. PMID:23740367

  18. Extensive Spinal Decussation and Bilateral Termination of Cervical Corticospinal Projections in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    To examine neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying fine motor control of the primate hand, adult Rhesus monkeys underwent injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the right motor cortex. Spinal axonal anatomy was examined using detailed serial-section reconstruction and modified stereological quantification. 87% of corticospinal tract (CST) axons decussated in the medullary pyramids and descended through the contralateral dorsolateral tract of the spinal cord. 11% of CST axons projec...

  19. Corticospinal mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraskov, A; Philipp, R; Waldert, S; Vigneswaran, G; Quallo, M M; Lemon, R N

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the properties of neurons with mirror-like characteristics that were identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) and recorded in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and primary motor cortex (M1) of three macaque monkeys. We analysed the neurons' discharge while the monkeys performed active grasp of either food or an object, and also while they observed an experimenter carrying out a similar range of grasps. A considerable proportion of tested PTNs showed clear mirror-like properties (52% F5 and 58% M1). Some PTNs exhibited 'classical' mirror neuron properties, increasing activity for both execution and observation, while others decreased their discharge during observation ('suppression mirror-neurons'). These experiments not only demonstrate the existence of PTNs as mirror neurons in M1, but also reveal some interesting differences between M1 and F5 mirror PTNs. Although observation-related changes in the discharge of PTNs must reach the spinal cord and will include some direct projections to motoneurons supplying grasping muscles, there was no EMG activity in these muscles during action observation. We suggest that the mirror neuron system is involved in the withholding of unwanted movement during action observation. Mirror neurons are differentially recruited in the behaviour that switches rapidly between making your own movements and observing those of others.

  20. Brain microstructural correlates of visuospatial choice reaction time in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C; Skimminge, Arnold;

    2011-01-01

    anisotropy (FA) in the corticospinal tracts, after controlling for age, gender, and handedness. Mean MD and/or FA were extracted from the right and left corticospinal tracts, putamen, and caudate nuclei. As predicted, faster 5-choice RTs were associated with lower MD in the corticospinal tracts, putamen......, and caudate. MD effects on RT were bilateral in the corticospinal tracts and putamen, whilst right caudate MD was more strongly related to performance than was left caudate MD. Our results suggest a link between motor performance variability in children and diffusivity in the motor system, which may...

  1. Lentiviral vectors express chondroitinase ABC in cortical projections and promote sprouting of injured corticospinal axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong-Rong; Muir, Elizabeth M; Alves, João Nuno; Rickman, Hannah; Allan, Anna Y; Kwok, Jessica C; Roet, Kasper C D; Verhaagen, Joost; Schneider, Bernard L; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Ahmed, Sherif G; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Keynes, Roger J; Fawcett, James W; Rogers, John H

    2011-09-30

    Several diseases and injuries of the central nervous system could potentially be treated by delivery of an enzyme, which might most effectively be achieved by gene therapy. In particular, the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC is beneficial in animal models of spinal cord injury. We have adapted the chondroitinase gene so that it can direct secretion of active chondroitinase from mammalian cells, and inserted it into lentiviral vectors. When injected into adult rat brain, these vectors lead to extensive secretion of chondroitinase, both locally and from long-distance axon projections, with activity persisting for more than 4 weeks. In animals which received a simultaneous lesion of the corticospinal tract, the vector reduced axonal die-back and promoted sprouting and short-range regeneration of corticospinal axons. The same beneficial effects on damaged corticospinal axons were observed in animals which received the chondroitinase lentiviral vector directly into the vicinity of a spinal cord lesion.

  2. Unilateral practice of a ballistic movement causes bilateral increases in performance and corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Timothy J; Lee, Michael; Hsu, Marlene; Sayde, Janel

    2008-06-01

    It has long been known that practicing a task with one limb can result in performance improvements with the opposite, untrained limb. Hypotheses to account for cross-limb transfer of performance state that the effect is mediated either by neural adaptations in higher order control centers that are accessible to both limbs, or that there is a "spillover" of neural drive to the opposite hemisphere that results in bilateral adaptation. Here we address these hypotheses by assessing performance and corticospinal excitability in both hands after unilateral practice of a ballistic finger movement. Participants (n = 9) completed 300 practice trials of a ballistic task with the right hand, the aim of which was to maximize the peak abduction acceleration of the index finger. Practice caused a 140% improvement in right-hand performance and an 82% improvement for the untrained left hand. There were bilateral increases in the amplitude of responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation, but increased corticospinal excitability was not correlated with improved performance. There were no significant changes in corticospinal excitability or task performance for a control group that did not train (n = 9), indicating that performance testing for the left hand alone did not induce performance or corticospinal effects. Although the data do not provide conclusive evidence whether increased corticospinal excitability in the untrained hand is causally related to the cross-transfer of ballistic performance, the finding that ballistic practice can induce bilateral corticospinal adaptations may have important clinical implications for movement rehabilitation.

  3. Enteral nutrition volume is not correlated with lower respiratory tract infection in patients on mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomar, A; Guardiola, B; Llompart-Pou, J A; Ayestarán, I; Rodríguez-Pilar, J; Ferreruela, M; Raurich, J M

    To evaluate the effect of enteral nutrition volume, gastrointestinal function and the type of acid suppressive drug upon the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). A retrospective secondary analysis was carried out. The Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital. Patients≥18-years-old expected to need MV for more than four days, and receiving enteral nutrition by nasogastric tube within 24h of starting MV. We correlated enteral nutrition volume administered during the first 10 days, gastrointestinal function and the type of acid suppressive therapy with the episodes of lower respiratory tract infection up until day 28. Cox proportional hazards ratios in univariate and adjusted multivariate models were used. Statistical significance was considered for p<0.05. Lower respiratory tract infection episodes. Sixty-six out of 185 patients (35.7%) had infection; 27 patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia; and 39 presented ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis. Uninfected and infected groups were similar in terms of enteral nutrition volume (54±12 and 54±9mL/h; p=0.94) and caloric intake (19.4±4.9 and 19.6±5.2kcal/kg/d; p=0.81). The Cox proportional hazards model showed neurological indication of MV to be the only independent variable related to infection (p=0.001). Enteral nutrition volume, the type of acid suppressive therapy, and the use of prokinetic agents were not significantly correlated to infection. Enteral nutrition volume and caloric intake, gastrointestinal dysfunction and the type of acid suppressive therapy used were not associated to lower respiratory tract infection in patients on MV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Corticospinal tract injuries in subacute phase intracerebral hemorrhage:a diffusion tensor imaging study%自发性脑出血亚急性期皮质脊髓束损伤的MR扩散张量成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昌尧; 刘龙生; 周春

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过测量亚急性期自发性脑出血(ICH)患者皮质脊髓束(CST)脑桥基底部水平的扩散张量成像(DTI)指标,评估患者CST损伤程度及其与功能水平之间的关系。材料与方法搜集发病7~21 d (亚急性期)、Glasgow昏迷量表>12分,且出血灶位于基底节区的ICH患者26例,采用NIHSS、mRS和BI量表评估患者功能水平。通过1.5 T磁共振仪采集DTI图像,测量CST脑桥基底部λ1、λ2、λ3值,然后计算得到FA、MD和λ23值,最后计算病灶侧与正常侧DTI各项指标的比率,即rFA、rMD、rλ1和rλ23。通过SPSS 18.0对CST两侧的FA、MD、λ1和λ23行配对样本t检验,对DTI指标比率和NIHSS、mRS、BI量表评分行Spearman相关分析。结果病灶侧FA、MD、λ1值显著降低(P<0.05),λ23值无显著差异(P>0.05)。rFA值与NIHSS评分呈显著负相关(rs=–0.694,P=0.000),与mRS评分呈显著负相关(rs=–0.633,P=0.001),与BI评分呈显著正相关(rs=0.674,P=0.000)。结论 ICH亚急性期CST发生以华勒变性为主要特点的白质完整性受损,脑桥基底部DTI指标rFA值可对CST损伤导致的运动功能水平下降进行有效评估。%Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impairment of corticospinal tract (CST) at basilar part of pons level and its relationship with function level using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) obtained in subacute phase intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH)patients.Materials and Methods:Twenty-sixbasalganglia hemorrhage patients in subacute phase (7—21 days after the onset of ICH) and Glasgow Coma Scale score>12 were recruited in the study. Function level of all patients was evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin scale (mRS), and Barthel Index (BI). DTI data were also obtained by 1.5 T MR scanner for the eigenvalues λ1、λ2、λ3 of CST at basilar part of pons. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) andλ23 were

  5. Corticospinal excitability in human voluntary movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elswijk, G.A.F. van

    2008-01-01

    The research described in this thesis addressed the neurophysiologic changes in the human corticospinal system during preparation and execution of voluntary hand movements. The experiments involved transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex combined with electromyography (EMG) and e

  6. Corticospinal beta-range coherence is highly dependent on the pre-stationary motor state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Wolfgang; Patino, Luis; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2011-06-01

    During steady muscle contractions, the human sensorimotor cortex generates oscillations in the beta-frequency range (15-30 Hz) that are coherent with the activity of contralateral spinal motoneurons. This corticospinal coherence is thought to favor stationary motor states, but its mode of operation remains elusive. We hypothesized that corticospinal beta-range coherence depends on the sensorimotor processing state before a steady force task and may thus increase after sensorimotor tuning to dynamic force generation. To test this hypothesis we instructed 16 human subjects to compensate static force after rest as well as after compensating predictable or unpredictable dynamic force with their right index finger. We calculated EEG-EMG coherence, cortical motor spectral power, and the motor performance during the force conditions. Corticospinal beta-coherence during stationary force was excessively elevated if the steady-state contraction was preceded by predictable dynamic force instead of rest, and was highest after unpredictable dynamic force. The beta-power decreased from rest to predictable dynamic force, and was lowest during unpredictable dynamic force. The increase in corticospinal beta-coherence showed a significant negative correlation with the preceding change in beta-power. The tuning to dynamic force did not entail an inferior motor performance during static force. The results imply a correlation between corticospinal beta-range coherence and the computational load of the preceding isometric motor engagement. We suggest beta-range coherence provides a functional corticospinal gateway for steady force-related processing that can override cortical states tuned to dynamic force. The modulation of corticospinal beta-range coherence might thus ensure comparable precision of static force in various motor contexts.

  7. Corticospinal Excitability in Children with Congenital Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ying Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS can be used as an assessment or intervention to evaluate or influence brain activity in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP commonly caused by perinatal stroke. This communication report analyzed data from two clinical trials using TMS to assess corticospinal excitability in children and young adults with hemiparetic CP. The results of this communication revealed a higher probability of finding a motor evoked potential (MEP on the non-lesioned hemisphere compared to the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0.005. The resting motor threshold (RMT was lower on the non-lesioned hemisphere than the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0.013. There was a significantly negative correlation between age and RMT (rs = −0.65, p = 0.003. This communication provides information regarding MEP responses, motor thresholds (MTs and the association with age during TMS assessment in children with hemiparetic CP. Such findings contribute to the development of future pediatric studies in neuroplasticity and neuromodulation to influence motor function and recovery after perinatal stroke.

  8. Clinical Investigation on the Correlation between Lower Urinary Tract Infection and Cystitis Glandularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 叶章群; 曾伟

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to study the association between lower urinary tract infection and cystitis glandularis (CG), 120 cases of CG were diagnosed by cystoscopic biopsy in the suspicious foci of the bladder. Among them, 72 cases were subjected to bacterial counting culture of urine and microscopic examination of urinary sediment, and 60 cases to fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) assay to detect HPV, CMV and HSV DNA in urine samples. In the 72 cases of CG, the positive rate of bacterial counting culture of urine was 15.3 % (11/72), and gray zone rate was 18.1 % (13/72). 31.9 % (23/72) patients were positive in bacterioscopy of urinary sediment.There was statistically significant difference as compared with the control group (P<0.01). Only 4 of 60 urine samples were positive by FQ-PCR in detection of the three viruses mentioned above with the positive rate being 6.67 %. Compared with the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0.05). It was concluded that the genesis of CG was closely correlated with the chronic lower urinary tract infection, especially caused by Esch coli.

  9. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of the corticospinal system as a reference for CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, C. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)]|[University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kretschmann, H.J. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical computer-graphics model of the corticospinal system acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of six intracranially-fixed human brains. This model is part of a neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) which enables 3D visualization of the brain and shows the relationship of its components such as anatomical structures, functional fibre tracts and arteries. Sections through the models can be matched with corresponding CT or MR images. This allows the probable localisation of corticospinal fibres on CT or MRI. (orig.) (orig.) With 18 figs., 3 tabs., 40 refs.

  10. Correlation between electrophysiological properties, morphological maturation, and olig gene changes during postnatal motor tract development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Zhang, Zoe Z; Liu, Naikui; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Feng, Shi-Qing; Shields, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated electrophysiological and histological changes as well as alterations of myelin relevant proteins of descending motor tracts in rat pups. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) represent descending conducting responses following stimulation of the motor cortex to responses being elicited from the lower extremities. MEP responses were recorded biweekly from postnatal (PN) week 1 to week 9 (adult). MEP latencies in PN week 1 rats averaged 23.7 ms and became shorter during early maturation, stabilizing at 6.6 ms at PN week 4. During maturation, the conduction velocity (CV) increased from 2.8 ± 0.2 at PN week 1 to 35.2 ± 3.1 mm/ms at PN week 8. Histology of the spinal cord and sciatic nerves revealed progressive axonal myelination. Expression of the oligodendrocyte precursor markers PDGFRα and NG2 were downregulated in spinal cords, and myelin-relevant proteins such as GalC, CNP, and MBP increased during maturation. Oligodendrocyte-lineage markers Olig2 and MOG, expressed in myelinated oligodendrocytes, peaked at PN week 3 and were downregulated thereafter. A similar expression pattern was observed in neurofilament M/H subunits that were extensively phosphorylated in adult spinal cords but not in neonatal spinal cords, suggesting an increase in axon diameter and myelin formation. Ultrastructural morphology in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) showed axon myelination of the VLF axons (99.3%) at PN week 2, while 44.6% were sheathed at PN week 1. Increased axon diameter and myelin thickness in the VLF and sciatic nerves were highly correlated to the CV (rs > 0.95). This suggests that MEPs could be a predicator of morphological maturity of myelinated axons in descending motor tracts.

  11. Corticospinal excitability of the ankle extensor muscles is enhanced in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Sakiko; Obata, Hiroki; Endoh, Takashi; Kuno-Mizumura, Mayumi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2014-09-01

    We tested the corticospinal excitability of the soleus muscle in ballet dancers to clarify whether the presumed long-term repetition of the specific plantarflexion results in changes of excitability in this neural pathway. We compared motor evoked potentials of the soleus muscle at rest and during isometric contraction of the plantar flexors in dancers and non-dancers. The amplitudes of motor evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation during contraction were examined against the background electromyographic activity. A regression line was calculated for each subject. Results showed that the slope of the regression line is significantly greater in the dancer group than in the control group, suggesting that the corticospinal tract of ballet dancers has adapted to long-term repetition of plantarflexion in daily ballet training.

  12. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moréh Zsuzsanna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI. Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  13. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation modulates human corticospinal system excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, Tommaso; Marceglia, Sara; Vergari, Maurizio; Cognetto, Valeria; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Priori, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of thoracic anodal and cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on upper and lower limb corticospinal excitability. Although there have been studies assessing how thoracic tsDCS influences the spinal ascending tract and reflexes, none has assessed the effects of this technique over upper and lower limb corticomotor neuronal connections. In 14 healthy subjects we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from abductor hallucis (AH) and hand abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles before (baseline) and at different time points (0 and 30 min) after anodal or cathodal tsDCS (2.5 mA, 20 min, T9-T11 level). In 8 of the 14 subjects we also tested the soleus H reflex and the F waves from AH and ADM before and after tsDCS. Both anodal and cathodal tsDCS left the upper limb MEPs and F wave unchanged. Conversely, while leaving lower limb H reflex unchanged, they oppositely affected lower limb MEPs: whereas anodal tsDCS increased resting motor threshold [(mean ± SE) 107.33 ± 3.3% increase immediately after tsDCS and 108.37 ± 3.2% increase 30 min after tsDCS compared with baseline] and had no effects on MEP area and latency, cathodal tsDCS increased MEP area (139.71 ± 12.9% increase immediately after tsDCS and 132.74 ± 22.0% increase 30 min after tsDCS compared with baseline) without affecting resting motor threshold and MEP latency. Our results show that tsDCS induces polarity-specific changes in corticospinal excitability that last for >30 min after tsDCS offset and selectively affect responses in lower limb muscles innervated by lumbar and sacral motor neurons.

  14. Cystic Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Multimodality Imaging with Pathologic Correlations

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    Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Shin, Bong Kyung; Lee, Soon Jin; Choi, Dong Il [Korea University College of Medicine Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kee Taek [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    The cystic lesions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract demonstrate the various pathologic findings. Some lesions may present a diagnostic challenge because of non-specific imaging features; however, other lesions are easily diagnosed using characteristic radiologic features and anatomic locations. Cystic masses from the GI tract can be divided into several categories: congenital lesions, neoplastic lesions (cystic neoplasms, cystic degeneration of solid neoplasms), and other miscellaneous lesions. In this pictorial review, we describe the pathologic findings of various cystic lesions of the GI tract as well as the radiologic features of GI cystic lesions from several imaging modalities including a barium study, transabdominal ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging

  15. Is there a correlation between the size of the BCG scar and renal scar of urinary tract infections in children?

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    Salih Kavukçu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pyelonephritis cause cellular death, and developmentof scars in kidneys. The aim of this study is todemonstrate a correlation (if any between renal scar, andsize of the scar induced by BCG vaccine in children whohad experienced urinary tract infections. In case of detectionof any correlation, BCG scar formation can be usedas a determinative marker of renal scars, which developfollowing urinary tract infection.Methods: Patients with a history of urinary tract infectionat least 4 months old who had undergone 99mTcDMSAscanning were included in this study. Vertical and horizontaldiameters of BCG scars of the patients in the studygroup were measured. For statistical analysis the greatestdiameter was taken into consideration, and the patientswere divided into 2 subgroups based on the greatest diameterof their BCG scars (Subgroups 1, ≤5 mm, and 2,>5 mm. The patients were also evaluated in 2 groupsas those with (Group 1 or without (Group 2 scars. Bothgroups were compared with subgroups with the largestscar diameters of ≤ 5mm or >5 mmResults: Study population included 108 (82 girls patients.DMSA detected scars in a total of 51 patients.Mean ages of the patients with and without scars were notdifferent (p=0.414. No significant difference was found insize of the BCG scars between renal scar positive andnegative groups (p>0.05.Conclusion: No correlation was found between developmentof renal scar and the size of BCG scar in childrenafter urinary tract infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (1:8-12Key words: BCG scar, renal scar, urinary tract infection,children

  16. Correlation of Prostate Gland Size and Uroflowmetry in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Deepak; Sankaran, Ponnusamy Kasirajan; Raghunath, Gunapriya; Vijayalakshmi, S; Vijayakumar, J; Yuvaraj, Maria Francis; Kumaresan, Munnusamy; Begum, Zareena

    2017-05-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a common entity among men over 40 years of age with significant disability. It is a condition that occurs when the enlarged prostate gland compresses the urethra leading to Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO). To correlate the size of the prostate gland and uroflowmetry parameters in patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). One hundred and twenty randomly selected male patients, from the ages of 41 to 70 years, with LUTS, and underwent trans abdominal sonogram and uroflowmetry were included in the study. The samples were divided into three groups according to the age; Group 1: 41 to 50 years, Group 2: 51 to 60 years, Group 3: 61 to 70 years. In Group 1 (41 to 50 years), there were totally 28 patients with LUTS, out of which seven patients had BPH, indicating that about 5% of patients with LUTS have BPH. In Group 2 (51-60 years) there were totally 31 patients with LUTS, out of which 10 patients had BPH, indicating that 8% of patients with LUTS have BPH. In Group 3 (61-70 years) there were totally 61 patients with LUTS, out of which 33 patients had BPH, indicating that 27% of patients with LUTS had BPH. The mean age of patients with LUTS was 60 years with mean prostate size of 45 cm(3). Enlarged prostate gland was present in 41% of patients with mean Q max of 14 ml/sec and post voidal volume of 48 ml. This study concludes that the LUTS in older patients are mostly due to BPH leading to BOO. Also, patients with BPH in early ages can lead to increased Post voidal Residual Volume (PVR) following uroflowmetry. Thus, screening male patients with LUTS, at 40 years and above, is an ideal way to detect prostatic problems at an early stage.

  17. Sensory and motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy born preterm correlate with diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities in thalamocortical pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOON, ALEXANDER H; STASHINKO, ELAINE E; NAGAE, LIDIA M; LIN, DORIS DM; KELLER, JENNIFER; BASTIAN, AMY; CAMPBELL, MICHELLE L; LEVEY, ERIC; MORI, SUSUMU; JOHNSTON, MICHAEL V

    2010-01-01

    AIM Cerebral palsy (CP) is frequently linked to white matter injury in children born preterm. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful technique providing precise identification of white matter microstructure. We investigated the relationship between DTI-observed thalamocortical (posterior thalamic radiation) injury, motor (corticospinal tract) injury, and sensorimotor function. METHOD Twenty-eight children born preterm(16 males, 12 females; mean age 5y 10mo, SD 2y 6mo, range 16mo–13y; mean gestational age at birth 28wks, SD 2.7wks, range 23–34wks) were included in this case–control study. Twenty-one children had spastic diplegia, four had spastic quadriplegia, two had hemiplegia, and one had ataxic hypotonic CP; 15 of the participants walked independently. Normative comparison data were obtained from 35 healthy age-matched children born at term(19 males, 16 females; mean age 5y 9mo, SD 4y 4mo, range 15mo–15y). Two-dimensional DTI color maps were created to evaluate 26 central white matter tracts, which were graded by a neuroradiologist masked to clinical status. Quantitative measures of touch, proprioception, strength (dynamometer), and spasticity (modified Ashworth scale) were obtained from a subset of participants. RESULTS All 28 participants with CP had periventricular white-matter injury on magnetic resonance imaging. Using DTI color maps, there was more severe injury in the posterior thalamic radiation pathways than in the descending corticospinal tracts. Posterior thalamic radiation injury correlated with reduced contralateral touch threshold, proprioception, and motor severity, whereas corticospinal tract injury did not correlate with motor or sensory outcome measures. INTERPRETATION These findings extend previous research demonstrating that CP in preterm children reflects disruption of thalamocortical connections as well as descending corticospinal pathways. PMID:19416315

  18. Correlation of urinary lactic dehydrogenase with polymorphonuclear leukocytes in urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, G M; Canawati, H N; Keyser, A J; Ibrahim, M Z; Montgomerie, J Z

    1983-01-01

    A number of indirect methods have been developed to determine the site of urinary tract infection, including the measurement of LDH in urine [1]. Although LDH has been thought to be from the kidneys, it has also been noted that leukocytes could contribute LDH isoenzymes 4 and 5 [2]. Seventeen patients with injured spinal cords and significant bacteriuria were included in this study. Urine specimens obtained by urethral catheter were cultured, and PMNLs identified with Sternheimer-Malbin stain were counted in a hemacytometer. A positive test for antibody-coated bacteria and the lack of patient response to five to 10 days of antibiotic therapy were used as an indication of upper urinary tract infection. Levels of LDH isoenzymes 4 and 5 (cathodal) correlated with the number of PMNLs in the urine (r = 0.63, P less than 0.01). There was no correlation of PMNLs with LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2 (r = 0.18). In addition, there was no correlation of LDH isoenzymes 4 and 5 with the level of urinary tract infection. These results suggest that the PMNLs in the urine are the source of the LDH isoenzymes 4 and 5.

  19. Spatial distribution of child pedestrian injuries along census tract boundaries: Implications for identifying area-based correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jacqueline W

    2017-01-01

    Census tracts are often used to investigate area-based correlates of a variety of health outcomes. This approach has been shown to be valuable in understanding the ways that health is shaped by place and to design appropriate interventions that account for community-level processes. Following this line of inquiry, it is common in the study of pedestrian injuries to aggregate the point level locations of these injuries to the census tracts in which they occur. Such aggregation enables investigation of the relationships between a range of socioeconomic variables and areas of notably high or low incidence. This study reports on the spatial distribution of child pedestrian injuries in a mid-sized U.S. city over a three-year period. Utilizing a combination of geospatial approaches, Near Analysis, Kernel Density Estimation, and Local Moran's I, enables identification, visualization, and quantification of close proximity between incidents and tract boundaries. Specifically, results reveal that nearly half of the 100 incidents occur within roads that are also census tract boundaries. Results also uncover incidents that occur on tract boundaries, not merely near them. This geographic pattern raises the question of the utility of associating area-based census data from any one tract to the injuries occurring in these border zones. Furthermore, using a standard spatial join technique in a Geographic Information System (GIS), these points located on the border are counted as falling into census tracts on both sides of the boundary, which introduces uncertainty in any subsequent analysis. Therefore, two additional approaches of aggregating points to polygons were tested in this study. Results differ with each approach, but without any alert of such differences to the GIS user. This finding raises a fundamental concern about techniques through which points are aggregated to polygons in any study using point level incidents and their surrounding census tract socioeconomic data to

  20. Functional Assessment of Corticospinal System Excitability in Karate Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Moscatelli

    Full Text Available To investigate the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1 in the coordination performance of karate athletes through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS.Thirteen right-handed male karate athletes (25.0±5.0 years and 13 matched non-athlete controls (26.7±6.2 years were enrolled. A single-pulse TMS was applied using a figure-eight coil stimulator. Resting motor threshold (rMT was determined. Surface electromyography was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Motor evoked potential (MEP latencies and amplitudes at rMT, 110%, and 120% of rMT were considered. Functional assessment of the coordination performance was assessed by in-phase (IP and anti-phase (AP homolateral hand and foot coordination tasks performed at 80, 120, and 180 bpm.Compared to controls, athletes showed lower rMT (p<0.01, shorter MEP latency (p<0.01 and higher MEP amplitude (p<0.01, with a significant correlation (r = 0.50, p<0.01 between rMT and MEP latency. Coordination decreased with increasing velocity, and better IP performances emerged compared to AP ones (p<0.001. In general, a high correlation between rMT and coordination tasks was found for both IP and AP conditions.With respect to controls, karate athletes present a higher corticospinal excitability indicating the presence of an activity-dependent alteration in the balance and interactions between inhibitory and facilitatory circuits determining the final output from the M1. Furthermore, the high correlation between corticospinal excitability and coordination performance could support sport-specific neurophysiological arrangements.

  1. Pyramidal tract activation due to subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Akram, Harith; Georgiev, Dejan; Tripoliti, Elina; Candelario, Joseph; Zacharia, Andre; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hyam, Jonathan; Hariz, Marwan; Foltynie, Thomas; Rothwell, John C; Limousin, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but can have side effects caused by stimulus spread to structures outside the target volume such as the pyramidal tract. To assess the relevance of pyramidal tract activation with STN-DBS in PD. In a multimodal, blinded study in 20 STN-DBS patients, we measured stimulation thresholds for evoking electromyographic activity in orbicularis oris and first dorsal interosseous muscles at each of 150 electrode sites. We also modeled the electric field spread and calculated its overlap with the estimated anatomical location of corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts from primary motor cortex using 3 Tesla MRI probabilistic tractography. Mean resting motor thresholds were significantly lower for the contralateral orbicularis oris (3.5 ± 1.0 mA) compared with ipsilaterally (4.1 ± 1.1 mA) and with the contralateral first dorsal interosseous (4.0 ± 1.2 mA). The modeled volumes of corticobulbar and corticospinal tract activated correlated inversely with the resting motor threshold of the contralateral orbicularis oris and first dorsal interosseous, respectively. Active motor thresholds were significantly lower compared with resting motor thresholds by around 30% to 35% and correlated with the clinically used stimulation amplitude. Backward multiple regression in 12 individuals with a "lateral-type" speech showed that stimulation amplitude, levodopa equivalent dose reduction postsurgery, preoperative speech intelligibility, and first dorsal interosseous resting motor thresholds explained 79.9% of the variance in postoperative speech intelligibility. Direct pyramidal tract activation can occur at stimulation thresholds that are within the range used in clinical routine. This spread of current compromises increase in stimulation strengths and is related to the development of side effects such as speech disturbances with chronic stimulation. © 2017 International

  2. Passive listening to preferred motor tempo modulates corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Kelly; Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms are an essential characteristic of our lives, and auditory-motor coupling affects a variety of behaviors. Previous research has shown that the neural regions associated with motor system processing are coupled to perceptual rhythmic and melodic processing such that the perception of rhythmic stimuli can entrain motor system responses. However, the degree to which individual preference modulates the motor system is unknown. Recent work has shown that passively listening to metrically strong rhythms increases corticospinal excitability, as indicated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Furthermore, this effect is modulated by high-groove music, or music that inspires movement, while neuroimaging evidence suggests that premotor activity increases with tempos occurring within a preferred tempo (PT) category. PT refers to the rate of a hypothetical endogenous oscillator that may be indicated by spontaneous motor tempo (SMT) and preferred perceptual tempo (PPT) measurements. The present study investigated whether listening to a rhythm at an individual's PT preferentially modulates motor system excitability. SMT was obtained in human participants through a tapping task in which subjects were asked to tap a response key at their most comfortable rate. Subjects listened a 10-beat tone sequence at 11 log-spaced tempos and rated their preference for each (PPT). We found that SMT and PPT measurements were correlated, indicating that preferred and produced tempos occurred at a similar rate. Crucially, single-pulse TMS delivered to left M1 during PPT judgments revealed that corticospinal excitability, measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), was modulated by tempos traveling closer to individual PT. However, the specific nature of this modulation differed across individuals, with some exhibiting an increase in excitability around PT and others exhibiting a decrease. These findings suggest that auditory-motor coupling induced by rhythms is preferentially

  3. Extensive Spinal Decussation and Bilateral Termination of Cervical Corticospinal Projections in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Brock, John H.; Culbertson, Maya D.; Lu, Paul; Moseanko, Rod; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Havton, Leif A.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    To examine neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying fine motor control of the primate hand, adult Rhesus monkeys underwent injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the right motor cortex. Spinal axonal anatomy was examined using detailed serial-section reconstruction and modified stereological quantification. 87% of corticospinal tract (CST) axons decussated in the medullary pyramids and descended through the contralateral dorsolateral tract of the spinal cord. 11% of CST axons projected through the dorsolateral CST ipsilateral to the hemisphere of origin, and 2% of axons projected through the ipsilateral ventromedial CST. Notably, corticospinal axons decussated extensively across the spinal cord midline. Remarkably, nearly two-fold more CST axons decussated across the cervical spinal cord midline (~12,000 axons) than were labeled in all descending components of the CST (~6,700 axons). These findings suggest that CST axons extend multiple segmental collaterals. Furthermore, serial-section reconstructions revealed that individual axons descending in either the ipsilateral or contralateral dorsolateral CST can: 1) terminate in the gray matter ipsilateral to the hemisphere of origin; 2) terminate in the gray matter contralateral to the hemisphere of origin; or 3) branch in the spinal cord and terminate on both sides of the spinal cord. These results reveal a previously unappreciated degree of bilaterality and complexity of corticospinal projections in the primate spinal cord. This bilaterality is more extensive than that of the rat CST, and may resemble human CST organization. Thus, augmentation of sprouting of these extensive bilateral CST projections may provide a novel target for enhancing recovery after spinal cord injury. PMID:19125408

  4. Brain-Computer Interface Therapy after Stroke Affects Patterns of Brain-Behavior Relationships in Corticospinal Motor Fibers

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    Brittany Mei Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain-computer interface (BCI devices are being investigated for their application in stroke rehabilitation, but little is known about how structural changes in the motor system relate to behavioral measures with the use of these systems. Objective. This study examined relationships among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-derived metrics and with behavioral changes in stroke patients with and without BCI training. Methods. Stroke patients (n=19 with upper extremity motor impairment were assessed using Stroke Impact Scale (SIS, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT, and DTI scans. Ten subjects completed four assessments over a control period during which no training was administered. Seventeen subjects, including eight who completed the control period, completed four assessments over an experimental period during which subjects received interventional BCI training. Fractional anisotropy (FA values were extracted from each corticospinal tract (CST and transcallosal motor fibers for each scan. Results. No significant group by time interactions were identified at the group level in DTI or behavioral measures. During the control period, increases in contralesional CST FA and in asymmetric FA (aFA correlated with poorer scores on SIS and 9-HPT. During the experimental period (with BCI training, increases in contralesional CST FA were correlated with improvements in 9-HPT while increases in aFA correlated with improvements in ARAT but with worsening 9-HPT performance; changes in transcallosal motor fibers positively correlated with those in the contralesional CST. All correlations p<0.05 corrected. Conclusions. These findings suggest that the integrity of the contralesional CST may be used to track individual behavioral changes observed with BCI training after stroke.

  5. Glycomic analysis of human respiratory tract tissues and correlation with influenza virus infection.

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    Trevenan Walther

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in influenza infection of the human respiratory tract is binding of the virus to sialic (Sia acid terminated receptors. The binding of different strains of virus for the receptor is determined by the α linkage of the sialic acid to galactose and the adjacent glycan structure. In this study the N- and O-glycan composition of the human lung, bronchus and nasopharynx was characterized by mass spectrometry. Analysis showed that there was a wide spectrum of both Sia α2-3 and α2-6 glycans in the lung and bronchus. This glycan structural data was then utilized in combination with binding data from 4 of the published glycan arrays to assess whether these current glycan arrays were able to predict replication of human, avian and swine viruses in human ex vivo respiratory tract tissues. The most comprehensive array from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics contained the greatest diversity of sialylated glycans, but was not predictive of productive replication in the bronchus and lung. Our findings indicate that more comprehensive but focused arrays need to be developed to investigate influenza virus binding in an assessment of newly emerging influenza viruses.

  6. Motor Skill Learning and Corticospinal Excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse

    Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... Stimulation. Prior work has demonstrated such a change to very different extents with and without causally linking it to the improvements in motor performance. Objectives The aim of this PhD project has been to explore the relation between changes in CSE and motor performance over the time course of learning...... a novel visuomotor skill. I hypothesized that changes in CSE accompanying long-term motor practice relate to the process of learning rather than repetitive practice on an acquired skill and investigated this by incrementally increasing task difficulty and thus postponing saturation of learning...

  7. Motor Skill Learning and Corticospinal Excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse

    Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... Stimulation. Prior work has demonstrated such a change to very different extents with and without causally linking it to the improvements in motor performance. Objectives The aim of this PhD project has been to explore the relation between changes in CSE and motor performance over the time course of learning...... a novel visuomotor skill. I hypothesized that changes in CSE accompanying long-term motor practice relate to the process of learning rather than repetitive practice on an acquired skill and investigated this by incrementally increasing task difficulty and thus postponing saturation of learning...

  8. Correlation between overactive bladder symptom score and neuropsychological parameters in Alzheimer’s disease patients with lower urinary tract symptom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores. PMID:27802001

  9. Corticospinal state variability and hemispheric asymmetries in motivational tendencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Hofman, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study examined interrelations between asymmetrical hemispheric differences in the degree of variability of corticospinal excitability levels and motivational tendencies. The relative standard deviation in motor evoked potentials (MEP) to single pulse TMS

  10. Resting-state interhemispheric motor connectivity and white matter integrity correlate with motor impairment in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce L Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional and structural reorganization in the brain occurs after stroke. The ability to predict motor outcomes may depend on patterns of brain functional and structural connectivity. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in motor transcallosal and corticospinal connections correlate with motor impairment in patients with chronic stroke. Eleven ischemic stroke patients underwent the Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer assessment, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging. Twelve healthy control subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging. We assessed the temporal coupling in neural activity between interhemispheric motor cortex, and white matter integrity by means of fractional anisotropy, in the transcallosal motor fibers and corticospinal tract. Partial correlation analyses were performed to determine whether these connectivity measures correlate with Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer scores. Patients compared to controls had reduced fractional anisotropy in common voxels of transcallosal motor and ipsilesional corticospinal fibers. Within the patient group those with higher interhemispheric motor cortex connectivity and higher fractional anisotropy in the transcallosal motor fibers were less impaired. The results show that markers of functional and structural motor cortex connectivity correlate with motor impairment in the chronic stage of stroke.

  11. Functional motor recovery from motoneuron axotomy is compromised in mice with defective corticospinal projections.

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    Yuetong Ding

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injury (BPI and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5-C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG, than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI.

  12. Prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections in Central China.

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    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Almost 2 million children die from ARTIs each year, and most of them are from developing countries. The prevalence and correlation of pathogens in ARTIs are poorly understood, but are critical for improving case prevention, treatment, and management. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in children with ARTIs. A total of 39,756 children with one or more symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, herpangina, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, were enrolled in the study. All patients were hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2012, and were evaluated for infectious agents. Pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii, were screened simultaneously in patient blood samples using anti-pathogen IgM tests. Regression analysis was used to reveal correlations among the pathogens. Our results showed that one or more pathogens were identified in 10,206 patients, and that Mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenoviruses, and influenza B virus were the leading infectious agents. Mixed-infections of pathogens were detected in 2,391 cases, with Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the most frequent pathogen. The most common agents in the co-infections were Mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza B virus. Regression analysis revealed a linear correlation between the proportion of mixed infections and the incidence of multi-pathogen infections. The prevalence of infectious agents in children with ARTIs was determined. Equations were established to estimate multiple infections by single-pathogen detection. This revealed a linear correlation for

  13. The frontal aslant tract underlies speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a pathway that connects the inferior frontal gyrus with the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. The FAT was recently identified and introduced as part of a "motor stream" that plays an important role in speech production. In this study, we use diffusion imaging to examine the hypothesis that the FAT underlies speech fluency, by studying its properties in individuals with persistent developmental stuttering, a speech disorder that disrupts the production of fluent speech. We use tractography to quantify the volume and diffusion properties of the FAT in a group of adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. Additionally, we use tractography to extract these measures from the corticospinal tract (CST), a well-known component of the motor system. We compute diffusion measures in multiple points along the tracts, and examine the correlation between these diffusion measures and behavioral measures of speech fluency. Our data show increased mean diffusivity in bilateral FAT of AWS compared with controls. In addition, the results show regions within the left FAT and the left CST where diffusivity values are increased in AWS compared with controls. Last, we report that in AWS, diffusivity values measured within sub-regions of the left FAT negatively correlate with speech fluency. Our findings are the first to relate the FAT with fluent speech production in stuttering, thus adding to the current knowledge of the functional role that this tract plays in speech production and to the literature of the etiology of persistent developmental stuttering.

  14. Novel antiseptic urinary catheters for prevention of urinary tract infections: correlation of in vivo and in vitro test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Ray; Reitzel, Ruth; Borne, Agatha; Jiang, Ying; Tinkey, Peggy; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Raad, Issam

    2009-12-01

    Urinary catheters are widely used for hospitalized patients and are often associated with high rates of urinary tract infection. We evaluated in vitro the antiadherence activity of a novel antiseptic Gendine-coated urinary catheter against several multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were compared to silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters. Bacterial biofilm formation was assessed by quantitative culture and scanning electron microscopy. These data were further correlated to an in vivo rabbit model. We challenged 31 rabbits daily for 4 days by inoculating the urethral meatus with 1.0 x 10(9) CFU streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli per day. In vitro, Gendine-coated urinary catheters reduced the CFU of all organisms tested for biofilm adherence compared with uncoated and silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.004). Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that a thick biofilm overlaid the control catheter and the silver hydrogel-coated catheters but not the Gendine-coated urinary catheter. Similar results were found with the rabbit model. Bacteriuria was present in 60% of rabbits with uncoated catheters and 71% of those with silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.01) but not in those with Gendine-coated urinary catheters. No rabbits with Gendine-coated urinary catheters had invasive bladder infections. Histopathologic assessment revealed no differences in toxicity or staining. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were more efficacious in preventing catheter-associated colonization and urinary tract infections than were silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters.

  15. Correlation between white matter microstructure and executive functions suggests early developmental influence on long fibre tracts in preterm born adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Brigitte; Lundequist, Aiko; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Nagy, Zoltan; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Forssberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are frequently a weakness in children born preterm. We examined associations of executive functions and general cognitive abilities with brain structure in preterm born adolescents who were born with appropriate weight for gestational age and who have no radiological signs of preterm brain injury on neuroimaging. The Stockholm Neonatal Project (SNP) is a longitudinal, population-based study of children born preterm (born and 94 full term participants underwent psychological assessment (general intelligence, executive function measures). Of these, 71 preterm and 63 full term participants underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at mean 15.2 years (range 12-18 years), including 3D T1-weighted images for volumetric analyses and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) for assessment of white matter microstructure. Group comparisons of regional grey and white matter volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA, as a measure of white matter microstructure) and, within each group, correlation analyses of cognitive measures with MRI metrics were carried out. Significant differences in grey and white matter regional volumes and widespread differences in FA were seen between the two groups. No significant correlations were found between cognitive measures and brain volumes in any group after correction for multiple comparisons. However, there were significant correlations between FA in projection fibres and long association fibres, linking frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and measures of executive function and general cognitive abilities in the preterm born adolescents, but not in the term born adolescents. In persons born preterm, in the absence of perinatal brain injury on visual inspection of MRI, widespread alterations in regional brain tissue volumes and microstructure are present in adolescence/young adulthood. Importantly, these alterations in WM tracts are correlated with measures of executive function and general cognitive abilities. Our

  16. Correlation of Visual Prostate Symptom Score with International Prostate Symptom Score and Uroflowmetry Parameters in Nepalese Male Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomi, K K; Subedi, N; Panta, P P

    2017-01-01

    International prostate symptom score is a validated questionnaire used to evaluate the lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Visual prostate symptom score is a new simplified symptom score with pictograms to evaluate the same. We evaluated the correlation of visual prostate symptom score with international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry parameters in Nepalese male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Male patients aged ≥40 years attending the Urology clinic were enrolled in the study. They were given international prostate symptom score and visual prostate symptom score questionnaires to complete providing assistance whenever needed. Demographic data, examination findings and uroflowmetry parameters were noted. Correlation and regression analysis was used to identify correlation of the two scoring systems and uroflowmetry parameters. Among the 66 patients enrolled, only 10 (15.15%) patients were able to understand English language. There was a statistically significant correlation between total visual prostate symptom score and international prostate symptom score (r= 0.822; Pcorrelations between individual scores of the two scoring systems related to force of urinary stream, frequency, nocturia and quality of life were also statistically significant. There was also a statistically significant correlation of both scores with maximum flow rate and average flow rate. There is a statistically significant correlation of visual prostate symptom score with international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry parameters. IPSS can be replaced with simple VPSS in evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly male patients.

  17. Executive deficits, not processing speed relates to abnormalities in distinct prefrontal tracts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Lewis D; Bastin, Mark E; Smith, Colin; Bak, Thomas H; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Abrahams, Sharon

    2013-11-01

    , uncinate fasciculus and hippocampal portion of the cingulum bundles. Significant differences also emerged in the anterior corona radiata as well as in white matter underlying the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyri and the temporal gyri. Dual-task performance significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy measures in the middle frontal gyrus white matter and anterior corona radiata. Letter fluency indices significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy measures of the inferior frontal gyrus white matter and corpus callosum in addition to the corticospinal tracts and mean diffusivity measures in the white matter of the superior frontal gyrus. The current study demonstrates that cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to generic slowing of processing speed. Moreover, different executive deficits are related to distinct prefrontal tract involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dual-task impairment associating with dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction and letter fluency showing greater dependence on inferolateral prefrontal dysfunction.

  18. Clinical Significance of Renal Pelvic Dilatation less than 10 mm in Neonates: Correlation with Urinary Tract Infection and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woong Hee; Kim, Young Tong; Jo, Sung Sik; Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyung Cheol; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We wanted to evaluate the correlation of mild renal pelvic dilatation (RPD) that is observed to be less than 10 mm on ultrasound (US) with urinary tract infection (UTI) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in neonates. We reviewed 137 kidneys of 107 neonates who had RPD less than 10 mm on US. All the kidneys were divided into two groups: Group I (RPD <= 5.0 mm) and Group II (RPD > 5.0 mm), and we statistically analyzed the RPD change according to UTI and VUR. Seven neonates had VUR (5.1%), and there was no statistical significance between Group I (6 neonates, 5.6%) and Group II (1 neonate, 3.3%). Thirty seven cases (27%) had UTI and there was no statistical significance between Group I (30 cases, 28.0%) and Group II (7 cases, 23.3%). The RPD did not change in 81.8% of the cases, it increased in 4.4% of the cases and it decreased in 13.9% of the cases on follow up US. The incidence of VUR and UTI were not different according to the change of RPD. There were no statistical differences between the changes of RPD and the incidences of UTI and VUR in neonates with mild RPD less than 10 mm. Most of RPD did not change on the follow up US

  19. Fiber tracking: A qualitative and quantitative comparison between four different software tools on the reconstruction of major white matter tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Samiotis, Kostantinos; Bisdas, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables in vivo reconstruction of white matter (WM) pathways. Considering the emergence of numerous models and fiber tracking techniques, we herein aimed to compare, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the fiber tracking results of four DTI software (Brainance, Philips FiberTrak, DSI Studio, NordicICE) on the reconstruction of representative WM tracts. Ten healthy participants underwent 30-directional diffusion tensor imaging on a 3T-Philips Achieva TX MR-scanner. All data were analyzed by two independent sites of experienced raters with the aforementioned software and the following WM tracts were reconstructed: corticospinal tract (CST); forceps major (Fmajor); forceps minor (Fminor); cingulum bundle (CB); superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF); inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). Visual inspection of the resulted tracts and statistical analysis (inter-rater and betweensoftware agreement; paired t-test) on fractional anisotropy (FA), axial and radial diffusivity (Daxial, Dradial) were applied for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of DTI software results. Qualitative evaluation of the extracted tracts confirmed anatomical landmarks at least for the core part of each tract, even though differences in the number of fibers extracted and the whole tract were evident, especially for the CST, Fmajor, Fminor and SLF. Descriptive values did not deviate from the expected range of values for healthy adult population. Substantial inter-rater agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], Bland-Altman analysis) was found for all tracts (ICC; FA: 0.839-0.989, Daxial: 0.704-0.991, Dradial: 0.972-0.993). Low agreement for FA, Daxial and Dradial (ICC; Bland-Altman analysis) and significant paired t-test differences (p Qualitative comparison of four different DTI software in addition to substantial inter-rater but poor between-software agreement highlight the differences on existing fiber tracking methodologies and several

  20. Correlation between urine analysis and urine culture in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in Yazd central laboratory

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    Khalili M B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The misdiagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI may lead to kidney deficiency and even pyelonephritis. Since different species may cause this disease, urine culture (UC and antibiogram of the isolated species should be performed and results compared to urine analysis (UA parameters to obtain the best diagnosis."nMethods: The urine specimens from 1509 patients (1195 women and 314 men were processed for UA, UC and antibiogram. First of all, the sterile urine samples were cultured using differential media, including EMB and blood agar. After 24 hr incubation, the colonies were identified and differentiated by biochemical tests. Antibiograms for all isolated species were determined using Muller Hinton agar. All results obtained from this survey were analyzed using SPSS software."nResults: Of the 1509 samples, 986 (65.3% were positive for pathogenic bacteria, 170 (17.2% of which were from men and 816 (82.8% from women. E. coli was the most prevalent with 591 cases (58.7%, followed by Enterobacter 115 (11.4% and Klebsiella 88 (8.8%. Data analysis revealed that the correlations between the WBC, RBC, nitrite, crystal, and protein were significantly higher in culture-positive samples. Of the antibiotics tested, isolated species were most sensitive to amikacin and most resistant to ampicillin."nConclusion: The present study revealed a correlation between pyuria and bacteruria; however, it should be noted that the clinical signs and the presence of WBC in urine could not be used to confirm the UTI. In addition, since different bacterial species are able to cause UTI, in order to administer proper treatment while controlling improper use of antibiotics, thorough testing, including UA and UC together with antibiogram, is strongly recommended.

  1. Assessment of right ventricular outflow tract in children by two-dimensional echocardiography using a new subcostal view. Angiocardiographic and morphologic correlative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaaz, K; Cloez, J L; Danchin, N; Marçon, F; Worms, A M; Pernot, C

    1985-09-15

    Evaluation of the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract in congenital heart disease is extremely important for surgical management. Therefore, the value of 2-dimensional echocardiography (2-D echo) to assess the RV outflow tract was studied using a new approach: the subcostal elongated right oblique view. Twenty normal children and 49 children with congenital heart disease, aged 1 day to 11 years, were studied. Significant pulmonary infundibular obstruction was present in 22 patients with conotruncal malformations. To obtain the subcostal elongated right oblique view from the short-axis view at the aortic valve level, the transducer was slightly rotated clockwise with an anterior angulation of about 30 degrees so that the ascending aorta was seen in its long axis, providing an image similar to that obtained by a right ventriculogram in the elongated right anterior oblique view. The deviation of infundibular septum was appreciated by measurement of the angle alpha, defined by the long axis of the infundibular septum and the plane of aortic cusps. This view could be obtained in 64 patients (92%). In correlation with angiographic or anatomic data, the subcostal elongated right oblique view permitted recognition of several types of RV outflow tract: type I--normally formed RV outflow tract; type II--disorganized RV outflow tract with obstruction (alpha less than 90 degrees); type III and IV--disorganized RV outflow tract with obstruction (alpha greater than 90 degrees). This view could visualize the crista supraventricularis in type I, but also the anatomic components of RV outflow tract that may contribute to obstruction in the other types: infundibular septum, septoparietal trabeculations and trabecula septomarginalis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Harnessing neural activity to promote repair of the damaged corticospinal system after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Martin

    2016-01-01

    As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST) is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paraly-sis. To restore motor function after injury will require repair of the damaged CST. In this review, I discuss how knowledge of activity-dependent development of the CST—which establishes connectional speci-ifcity through axon pruning, axon outgrowth, and synaptic competition among CST terminals—informed a novel activity-based therapy for promoting sprouting of spared CST axons after injur in mature animals. This therapy, which comprises motor cortex electrical stimulation with and without concurrent trans-spi-nal direct current stimulation, leads to an increase in the gray matter axon length of spared CST axons in the rat spinal cord and, after a pyramidal tract lesion, restoration of skilled locomotor movements. I discuss how this approach is now being applied to a C4 contusion rat model.

  3. Harnessing neural activity to promote repair of the damaged corticospinal system after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paralysis. To restore motor function after injury will require repair of the damaged CST. In this review, I discuss how knowledge of activity-dependent development of the CST-which establishes connectional specificity through axon pruning, axon outgrowth, and synaptic competition among CST terminals-informed a novel activity-based therapy for promoting sprouting of spared CST axons after injur in mature animals. This therapy, which comprises motor cortex electrical stimulation with and without concurrent trans-spinal direct current stimulation, leads to an increase in the gray matter axon length of spared CST axons in the rat spinal cord and, after a pyramidal tract lesion, restoration of skilled locomotor movements. I discuss how this approach is now being applied to a C 4 contusion rat model.

  4. Atlasing location, asymmetry and inter-subject variability of white matter tracts in the human brain with MR diffusion tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Ffytche, Dominic H; Bizzi, Alberto; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Allin, Matthew; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin; Williams, Steven C; Murphy, Declan G M; Catani, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a white matter atlas of the human brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and to describe the constant and variable features of the major pathways. DTI was acquired from 40 healthy right-handed adults and reconstructed tracts mapped within a common reference space (MNI). Group effect maps of each tract defined constant anatomical features while overlap maps were generated to study inter-subject variability and to compare DTI derived anatomy with a histological atlas. Two patients were studied to assess the localizing validity of the atlas. The DTI-derived maps are overall consistent with a previously published histological atlas. A statistically significant leftward asymmetry was found for the volume and number of streamlines of the cortico-spinal tract and the direct connections between Broca's and Wernicke's territories (long segment). A statistically significant rightward asymmetry was found for the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the fronto-parietal connections (anterior segment) of the arcuate fasciculus. Furthermore, males showed a left lateralization of the fronto-temporal segment of the arcuate fasciculus (long segment), while females had a more bilateral distribution. In two patients with brain lesions, DTI was acquired and tractography used to show that the tracts affected by the lesions were correctly identified by the atlas. This study suggests that DTI-derived maps can be used together with a previous histological atlas to establish the relationship of focal lesions with nearby tracts and improve clinico-anatomical correlation.

  5. STUDY OF URINE PH, HYPERCALCIURIA, URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STONE COMPOSITION IN BHOPAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This prospective case control study is an attempt to study the importance and significance of urinary pH, urinary tract infection (Urinary Culture and hypercalciuria and its correlation with stone composition in patients of urolithiasis. METHODS: This prospective cases control study is done at the Department of Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal (M.P. India from October 2013 to October 2014. We have included 25 healthy persons as control group for the comparison of study group i.e. patients of urolithiasis. RESULTS: Total (43.5% persons were having stones in upper urinary tract. The mean age (+/-SD of the study group was 31.5 for the males and 34.5 for the females. In control group it was 30.4 males and 30.2 for the females. The overall ratio of M/F was 1.5:1.0 in stone former (Study group group and 2.1:1.0 in control group. Most (82.5% of stone former persons were in lower and middle socioeconomic group. 65.2% persons in stone former group were taking water less than 2 liters per day while in normal control group it was 48%. Milk and milk products consumption was very high in stone formers i.e. 34/46(73.9%. Pain in the flanks is the first symptom of upper urinary tract calculi. Haematuria and burning during micturition were present in 75% and 50% patients respectively. Pain during micturition was in 75% of the stone formers. Urinary pH was mostly acidic in stone formers. The pH of urine in stone formers was 5.40±0.05 whereas in control group it was 6.34±0.08. In our study we found that most of the stones formed in normal acidic urine pH were composed of mainly calcium oxalate as dominant component while in alkaline urine at pH 6 to 8 triple phosphate is the major stone component. Uric acid is mainly present in stones formed in acidic urine. 24 Hours urine volume was significantly low in stone formers (750±156ml than in normal individuals (1250±250ml. S. Calcium level was also raised marginally

  6. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.

  7. BDNF promotes connections of corticospinal neurons onto spared descending interneurons in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrek, R; Girgis, J; Tetzlaff, W; Hiebert, G W; Fouad, K

    2006-06-01

    Although regeneration of injured axons is inhibited within the adult CNS, moderate recovery can be found in patients and animals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This can be partly attributed to sprouting of spared and injured axons, rostral and caudal to the lesion, respectively. Recently, it has been reported that following a thoracic SCI such sprouting can result in indirect reconnections of the lesioned axons to caudal targets via propriospinal interneurons (PrI). Here, we attempted to further promote this spontaneous repair mechanism by applying the neurotrophic factor BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), in the vicinity of the cell bodies of lesioned corticospinal neurons or NT-3, intrathecally to the cervical spinal cord. We performed a dorsal over-hemisection at the thoracic spinal cord sparing only the left ventrolateral quadrant. This type of lesion did not promote sprouting of injured corticospinal axons or re-routing via commissural PrI. Also, in rats that received NT-3 at the cervical enlargement, no increase in sprouting was found. However, animals receiving BDNF at the cell bodies of lesioned corticospinal neurons showed a significant increase in collateral sprouting and in the number of contacts with PrI. This was not observed when BDNF was administered to unlesioned animals. Although no statistical difference in the horizontal ladder walking was found between the groups, the increase in collateral sprouting and in the number of contacts correlated with the functional recovery. Hence, cell body treatment can promote plasticity of the injured CNS and may be a valuable treatment approach in conjunction with local regeneration promoting strategies.

  8. The correlation between LDH serum levels and clinical outcome in advanced biliary tract cancer patients treated with first line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faloppi, Luca; Del Prete, Michela; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Santini, Daniele; Silvestris, Nicola; Bianconi, Maristella; Giampieri, Riccardo; Valgiusti, Martina; Brunetti, Oronzo; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Lai, Eleonora; Dessì, Alessandra; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2016-04-11

    LDH may represent an indirect marker of neo-angiogenesis and worse prognosis in many tumour types. We assessed the correlation between LDH and clinical outcome for biliary tract cancer (BTC) patients treated with first-line chemotherapy. Overall, 114 advanced BTC patients treated with first-line gemcitabine and cisplatin were included. Patients were divided into two groups (low vs. high LDH), according to pre-treatment LDH values. Patients were also classified according to pre- and post-treatment variation in LDH serum levels (increased vs. decreased). Median progression free survival (PFS) was 5.0 and 2.6 months respectively in patients with low and high pre-treatment LDH levels (p = 0.0042, HR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37-0.87). Median overall survival (OS) was 7.7 and 5.6 months (low vs. high LDH) (p = 0.324, HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.54-1.24). DCR was 71% vs. 43% (low vs. high LDH) (p = 0.002). In 38 patients with decreased LDH values after treatment, PFS and OS were respectively 6.2 and 12.1 months, whereas in 76 patients with post-treatment increased LDH levels, PFS and OS were respectively 3.0 and 5.1 months (PFS: p = 0.0009; HR = 0.49; 95% IC: 0.33-0.74; OS: p < 0.0001; HR = 0.42; 95% IC: 0.27-0.63). Our data seem to suggest that LDH serum level may predict clinical outcome in BTC patients receiving first-line chemotherapy.

  9. Cerebral activation is correlated to regional atrophy of the spinal cord and functional motor disability in spinal cord injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Christensen, Mark Schram; Barthélemy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of function following lesions in the nervous system requires adaptive changes in surviving circuitries. Here we investigate whether changes in cerebral activation are correlated to spinal cord atrophy and recovery of functionality in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). 19...... in the tibialis anterior muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between motor score or spinal cord dimensions and the volume of the cortical motor areas. The observations show that lesion of descending tracts in the lateral...... to the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials...

  10. Assessment of global and regional diffusion changes along white matter tracts in parkinsonian disorders by MR tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Surova

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT in parkinsonian disorders using a recently developed method for normalization of diffusion data and tract size along white matter tracts. Furthermore, the use of DTT in selected white matter tracts for differential diagnosis was assessed. METHODS: We quantified global and regional diffusion parameters in major white matter tracts in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA, progressive nuclear palsy (PSP, idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD and healthy controls. Diffusion tensor imaging data sets with whole brain coverage were acquired at 3 T using 48 diffusion encoding directions and a voxel size of 2×2×2 mm(3. DTT of the corpus callosum (CC, cingulum (CG, corticospinal tract (CST and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP was performed using multiple regions of interest. Regional evaluation comprised projection of fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, radial diffusivity (RD and the apparent area coefficient (AAC onto a calculated mean tract and extraction of their values along each structure. RESULTS: There were significant changes of global DTT parameters in the CST (MSA and PSP, CC (PSP and CG (PSP. Consistent tract-specific variations in DTT parameters could be seen along each tract in the different patient groups and controls. Regional analysis demonstrated significant changes in the anterior CC (MD, RD and FA, CST (MD and CG (AAC of patients with PSP compared to controls. Increased MD in CC and CST, as well as decreased AAC in CG, was correlated with a diagnosis of PSP compared to IPD. CONCLUSIONS: DTT can be used for demonstrating disease-specific regional white matter changes in parkinsonian disorders. The anterior portion of the CC was identified as a promising region for detection of neurodegenerative changes in patients with PSP, as well as for differential diagnosis between PSP and IPD.

  11. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18) learned to perform three short melodies on a piano keyboard in a pure audio-motor training condition (vision of their own fingers was occluded). Initial learning times ranged from 17 to 120 min (mean ± SD: 62 ± 29 min). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter microstructural arrangement. A correlation analysis revealed that higher FA values were associated with faster learning of piano melodies. These effects were observed in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, bundles of axons relevant for the execution of voluntary movements, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract important for audio-motor transformations. These results suggest that the speed with which novel complex audio-motor skills can be acquired may be determined by variability in structural properties of white matter fiber tracts connecting brain areas functionally relevant for audio-motor learning. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Congenital optic tract hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Fujio, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Taylor, David

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of isolated unilateral optic tract hypoplasia, described only twice previously. Bilateral optic disk hypoplasia was seen ophthalmoscopically and visual field studies showed an incongruous right homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral hypoplasia of both optic nerves and the left optic tract. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography mapping correlated well with the visual field studies.

  13. Abnormal modulation of corticospinal excitability in adults with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay; Eldaief, Mark; Fecteau, Shirley; Ifert-Miller, Fritz; Tormos, Jose Maria; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-09-01

    Most candidate genes and genetic abnormalities linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to play a role in developmental and experience-dependent plasticity. As a possible index of plasticity, we assessed the modulation of motor corticospinal excitability in individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We measured the modulatory effects of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by single-pulse TMS in individuals with AS as compared with age-, gender- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls. The effect of TBS lasted significantly longer in the AS group. The duration of the TBS-induced modulation alone enabled the reliable classification of a second study cohort of subjects as AS or neurotypical. The alteration in the modulation of corticospinal excitability in AS is thought to reflect aberrant mechanisms of plasticity, and might provide a valuable future diagnostic biomarker for the disease and ultimately offer a target for novel therapeutic interventions.

  14. Changes in corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurones following tablet-based practice of manual dexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Højkjær; Jensen, Thor; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2016-01-01

    The use of touch screens, which require a high level of manual dexterity, has exploded since the development of smartphone and tablet technology. Manual dexterity relies on effective corticospinal control of finger muscles, and we therefore hypothesized that corticospinal drive to finger muscles ...... practice is associated with changes in the common corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurons involved in manual dexterity. Tablet-based motor practice may be a motivating training tool for stroke patients who struggle with loss of dexterity....

  15. Viewing instructions accompanying action observation modulate corticospinal excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David James Wright

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Action observation interventions may have the potential to contribute to improved motor function in motor (relearning settings by promoting functional activity and plasticity in the motor regions of the brain. Optimal methods for delivering such interventions, however, have yet to be established. This experiment investigated the effect on corticospinal excitability of manipulating the viewing instructions provided to participants (N = 21 prior to action observation. Specifically, motor evoked potential responses measured from the right hand muscles following single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left motor cortex were compared when participants were instructed to observe finger-thumb opposition movement sequences: (i passively; (ii with the intent to imitate the observed movement; or (iii whilst simultaneously and actively imagining that they were performing the movement as they observed it. All three action observation viewing instructions facilitated corticospinal excitability to a greater extent than did observation of a static hand. In addition, the extent to which corticospinal excitability was facilitated was greater during combined observation and imagery, compared to passive observation. These findings have important implications for the design of action observation interventions in motor (relearning settings, where instructions that encourage observers to simultaneously imagine themselves performing the observed movement may offer the current optimal method for improving motor function through action observation.

  16. Phase- and Workload-Dependent Changes in Corticospinal Excitability to the Biceps and Triceps Brachii during Arm Cycling

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    Alyssa-Joy Spence

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to examine corticospinal excitability (CSE to antagonistic muscle groups during arm cycling. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the motor cortex and transmastoid electrical stimulation (TMES of the corticospinal tract were used to assess changes in supraspinal and spinal excitability, respectively. TMS induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs and TMES induced cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEPs were recorded from the biceps and triceps brachii at two positions, mid-elbow flexion and extension, while cycling at 5% and 15% of peak power output. While phase-dependent modulation of MEP and CMEP amplitudes occurred in the biceps brachii, there was no difference between flexion and extension for MEP amplitudes in the triceps brachii and CMEP amplitudes were higher during flexion than extension. Furthermore, MEP amplitudes in both biceps and triceps brachii increased with increased workload. CMEP amplitudes increased with higher workloads in the triceps brachii, but not biceps brachii, though the pattern of change in CMEPs was similar to MEPs. Differences between changes in CSE between the biceps and triceps brachii suggest that these antagonistic muscles may be under different neural control during arm cycling. Putative mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Human neural stem cells promote corticospinal axons regeneration and synapse reformation in injured spinal cord of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Peng; JIN Lian-hong; LIANG Tao; LIU En-zhong; ZHAO Shi-guang

    2006-01-01

    Background Axonal regeneration in lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. This paper studied the action of neural stem cell (NSC) in promoting corticospinal axons regeneration and synapse reformation in rats with injured spinal cord.Methods NSCs were isolated from the cortical tissue of spontaneous aborted human fetuses in accordance with the ethical request. The cells were discarded from the NSC culture to acquire NSC-conditioned medium. Sixty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=15 in each): NSC graft, NSC medium, graft control and medium control groups. Microsurgical transection of the spinal cord was performed in all the rats at the T11. The NSC graft group received stereotaxic injections of NSCs suspension into both the spinal cord stumps immediately after transection; graft control group received DMEM injection. In NSC medium group,NSC-conditioned medium was administered into the spinal cord every week; NSC culture medium was administered to the medium control group. Hindlimb motor function was assessed using the BBB Locomotor Rating Scale. Regeneration of biotin dextran amine (BDA) labeled corticospinal tract was assessed. Differentiation of NSCs and the expression of synaptophysin at the distal end of the injured spinal cord were observed under a confocal microscope. Group comparisons of behavioral data were analyzed with ANOVA.Results NSCs transplantation resulted in extensive growth of corticospinal axons and locomotor recovery in adult rats after complete spinal cord transection, the mean BBB scores reached 12.5 in NSC graft group and 2.5 in graft control group (P< 0.05). There was also significant difference in BBB score between the NSC medium (11.7) and medium control groups (3.7, P< 0.05). BDA traces regenerated fibers sprouted across the lesion site and entered the caudal part of the spinal cord. Synaptophysin expression

  18. Research progress in three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat spinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqun Wu; Guangming Lü

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the corticospinal tract has been attempted in treatment for corticospinal tract injury. However, results remain unsatisfactory. OBJECTIVE: This manuscript reviews technique progress and problems in 3D reconstruction of rat spinal tracts, as well as 3D reconstruction of human spinal tracts. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the keywords "rat, spinal tracts, three-dimensional reconstruction", the PubMed database was searched for English articles pertaining to 3D reconstruction of the rat spinal tract that were published between January 1996 and January 2007. Meanwhile, the above-mentioned keywords in Chinese were also used to search the CNKI database for articles that were published between January 1999 and January 2007. Inclusion criteria: manuscripts that addressed the study of 3D reconstruction of the rat spinal tract and review articles. Exclusion criteria: old and repetitive articles. All manuscripts were initially evaluated, followed by extensive review.LITERATURE EVALUATION: A total of 154 related manuscripts were collected; a total of 27 were evaluated and reviewed for the present review. One manuscript assessed rat behavioral functions, four were experimental reports addressing micro-3D reconstruction techniques, ten were experiment reports about image analysis of rat corticospinal tracts, and twelve were experiment articles related to image processing of serial spinal cord sections. DATA SYNTHESIS: Rat spinal cord sections were obtained through section staining or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, specifically localizing the inner tracts. Software was used to construct 3D reconstruction from the serial sections to observe and analyze rat spinal cord structures. The rat spinal cord is small, with complicated inner tracts, which makes accurate 3D reconstruction difficult.CONCLUSION: The assembly of 3D reconstructions from rat spinal cord serial sections and the visualization of the inner tracts

  19. A novel approach with "skeletonised MTR" measures tract-specific microstructural changes in early primary-progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Benedetta; Cercignani, Mara; Toosy, Ahmed; De Stefano, Nicola; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2014-02-01

    We combined tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging to assess white matter (WM) tract-specific short-term changes in early primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and their relationships with clinical progression. Twenty-one PPMS patients within 5 years from onset underwent MT and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at baseline and after 12 months. Patients' disability was assessed. DTI data were processed to compute fractional anisotropy (FA) and to generate a common WM "skeleton," which represents the tracts that are "common" to all subjects using TBSS. The MT ratio (MTR) was computed from MT data and co-registered with the DTI. The skeletonization procedure derived for FA was applied to each subject's MTR image to obtain a "skeletonised" MTR map for every subject. Permutation tests were used to assess (i) changes in FA, principal diffusivities, and MTR over the follow-up, and (ii) associations between changes in imaging parameters and changes in disability. Patients showed significant decreases in MTR over one year in the corpus callosum (CC), bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), thalamic radiations, and superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. These changes were located both within lesions and the normal-appearing WM. No significant longitudinal change in skeletonised FA was found, but radial diffusivity (RD) significantly increased in several regions, including the CST bilaterally and the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. MTR decreases, RD increases, and axial diffusivity decreases in the CC and CST correlated with a deterioration in the upper limb function. We detected tract-specific multimodal imaging changes that reflect the accrual of microstructural damage and possibly contribute to clinical impairment in PPMS. We propose a novel methodology that can be extended to other diseases to map cross-subject and tract-specific changes in MTR.

  20. Probing the corticospinal link between the motor cortex and motoneurones: some neglected aspects of human motor cortical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E.; Taylor, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review considers the operation of the corticospinal system in primates. There is a relatively widespread cortical area containing corticospinal outputs to a single muscle and thus a motoneurone pool receives corticospinal input from a wide region of cortex. In addition, corticospina...

  1. Whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging in correlation to visual-evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis: a tract-based spatial statistics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobsien, D; Ettrich, B; Sotiriou, K; Classen, J; Then Bergh, F; Hoffmann, K-T

    2014-01-01

    Functional correlates of microstructural damage of the brain affected by MS are incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations of visual-evoked potentials with microstructural brain changes as determined by DTI in patients with demyelinating central nervous disease. Sixty-one patients with clinically isolated syndrome or MS were prospectively recruited. The mean P100 visual-evoked potential latencies of the right and left eyes of each patient were calculated and used for the analysis. For DTI acquisition, a single-shot echo-planar imaging pulse sequence with 80 diffusion directions was performed at 3T. Fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity were calculated and correlated with mean P100 visual-evoked potentials by tract-based spatial statistics. Significant negative correlations between mean P100 visual-evoked potentials and fractional anisotropy and significant positive correlations between mean P100 visual-evoked potentials and radial diffusivity were found widespread over the whole brain. The highest significance was found in the optic radiation, frontoparietal white matter, and corpus callosum. Significant positive correlations between mean P100 visual-evoked potentials and axial diffusivity were less widespread, notably sparing the optic radiation. Microstructural changes of the whole brain correlated significantly with mean P100 visual-evoked potentials. The distribution of the correlations showed clear differences among axial diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and radial diffusivity, notably in the optic radiation. This finding suggests a stronger correlation of mean P100 visual-evoked potentials to demyelination than to axonal damage. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Plasminogen deficiency causes reduced corticospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after stroke in mice.

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    Zhongwu Liu

    Full Text Available Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg into plasmin. In this study, using plasminogen knockout (Plg-/- mice and their Plg-native littermates (Plg+/+, we investigated the role of Plg in axonal remodeling and neurological recovery after stroke. Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice (n = 10/group were subjected to permanent intraluminal monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the corticospinal tract (CST. Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after stroke. Neurite outgrowth was also measured in primary cultured cortical neurons harvested from Plg+/+ and Plg-/- embryos. In Plg+/+ mice, the motor functional deficiency after stroke progressively recovered with time. In contrast, recovery in Plg-/- mice was significantly impaired compared to Plg+/+ mice (p0.82, p<0.01. Plg-/- neurons exhibited significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Our data suggest that plasminogen-dependent proteolysis has a beneficial effect during neurological recovery after stroke, at least in part, by promoting axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord.

  3. Linking white matter tracts to associated cortical grey matter: a tract extension methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, D J; Chard, D T; Bodini, B; Ciccarelli, O; Miller, D H; Thompson, A J; Wheeler-Kingshott, C A M

    2012-02-15

    Quantitative diffusion analysis of white matter (WM) tracts has been utilised in many diseases for determining damage to, and changes in, WM tracts throughout the brain. However, there are limited studies investigating associations between quantitative measures in WM tracts and anatomically linked grey matter (GM), due to the difficulty in determining GM regions connected with a given WM tract. This work describes a straightforward method for extending a WM tract through GM based on geometry. The tract is extended by following a straight line from each point on the tract boundary to the outer boundary of the cortex. A comparison between a multiplanar 2D approach and a 3D method was made. This study also tested an analysis pipeline from tracking WM tracts to quantifying magnetisation transfer ratios (MTR) in the associated cortical GM, and assessed the applicability of the method to healthy control subjects. Tract and associated cortical volumes and MTR values for the cortico-spinal tracts, genu and body of the corpus callosum were extracted; the between-subjects standard deviation was calculated. It was found that a multiplanar 2D approach produced a more anatomically plausible volume of GM than a 3D approach, at the expense of possible overestimation of the GM volume. The between-subjects standard deviation of the tract specific quantitative measurements (from both the WM and GM masks) ranged between 1.2 and 7.3% for the MTR measures, and between 10 and 45% for the absolute volume measures. The results show that the method can be used to produce anatomically plausible extensions of the WM tracts through the GM, and regions defined in this way yield reliable estimates of the MTR from the regions.

  4. Mapping genetic influences on the corticospinal motor system in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheeran, B J; Ritter, C; Rothwell, J C

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic variations account for a certain amount of variance in the acquisition and maintenance of different skills. Until now, several levels of genetic influences were examined, ranging from global heritability estimates down to the analysis...... of the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and variable number tandem repeats. In humans, the corticospinal motor system is essential to the acquisition of fine manual motor skills which require a finely tuned coordination of activity in distal forelimb muscles. Here we review recent brain mapping...

  5. Brain-robot interface driven plasticity: Distributed modulation of corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Dominic; Naros, Georgios; Bauer, Robert; Leão, Maria Teresa; Ziemann, Ulf; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-15

    Brain-robot interfaces (BRI) are studied as novel interventions to facilitate functional restoration in patients with severe and persistent motor deficits following stroke. They bridge the impaired connection in the sensorimotor loop by providing brain-state dependent proprioceptive feedback with orthotic devices attached to the hand or arm of the patients. The underlying neurophysiology of this BRI neuromodulation is still largely unknown. We investigated changes of corticospinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation in thirteen right-handed healthy subjects who performed 40min of kinesthetic motor imagery receiving proprioceptive feedback with a robotic orthosis attached to the left hand contingent to event-related desynchronization of the right sensorimotor cortex in the β-band (16-22Hz). Neural correlates of this BRI intervention were probed by acquiring the stimulus-response curve (SRC) of both motor evoked potential (MEP) peak-to-peak amplitudes and areas under the curve. In addition, a motor mapping was obtained. The specificity of the effects was studied by comparing two neighboring hand muscles, one BRI-trained and one control muscle. Robust changes of MEP amplitude but not MEP area occurred following the BRI intervention, but only in the BRI-trained muscle. The steep part of the SRC showed an MEP increase, while the plateau of the SRC showed an MEP decrease. MEP mapping revealed a distributed pattern with a decrease of excitability in the hand area of the primary motor cortex, which controlled the BRI, but an increase of excitability in the surrounding somatosensory and premotor cortex. In conclusion, the BRI intervention induced a complex pattern of modulated corticospinal excitability, which may boost subsequent motor learning during physiotherapy.

  6. Increased population use of medications for male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia correlates with changes in indications for transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimarsson, Johann P; Isaksson, Helgi J; Sigbjarnarson, Hermann P; Gudmundsson, Jens; Geirsson, Gudmundur

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are correlations between medication use for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostate hypertrophy (LUTS/BPH) and alteration in incidence and indications for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The number of TURP patients between 1984 and 2008 in Iceland was obtained from hospital registries. The number of defined daily doses (DDDs) of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) and alpha-blockers (ABs) sold was obtained from the Icelandic Medicines Control Agency. Charts of all surgical BPH patients in Iceland from 1998 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcomes measures were: DDDs sold of 5aRIs and ABs, total numbers of TURP, indications for TURP and complications. After the introduction of ABs and 5aRIs, sales increased annually at a near linear rate. TURP rates peaked in 1992, then declined. In 2008, 81 and 3.4 of 1000 men over the age of 50 used LUTS/BPH medications or underwent TURP, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between LUTS/BPH medication use and (i) overall TURP (R(2) = 0.85), (ii) TURP done for absolute indications (R(2) = 0.91), and (iii) LUTS with (R(2) = 0.77) and (iv) without previous medical therapy (R(2) = 0.75). As medication use rose, fewer TURPs were performed for previous history of urinary retention, and more for recurrent urinary tract infections. Increased use of ABs and 5aRIs in the Icelandic population correlated with decreasing incidences of TURP procedures for both LUTS and absolute indications. The sequelae of BPH and indications for TURP are changing as medication use increases, although a clear causative link is hard to establish.

  7. Highways of the emotional intellect: white matter microstructural correlates of an ability-based measure of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisner, Derek A; Smith, Ryan; Alkozei, Anna; Klimova, Aleksandra; Killgore, William D S

    2017-06-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to understand emotional information and apply that understanding to make decisions and solve problems effectively - a construct known as Emotional Intelligence (EI). While considerable evidence supports the importance of EI in social and occupational functioning, the neural underpinnings of this capacity are relatively unexplored. We used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to determine the white matter correlates of EI as measured by the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Participants included 32 healthy adults (16 men; 16 women), aged 18-45 years. White matter integrity in key tracts was positively correlated with the Strategic Area branches of the MSCEIT (Understanding Emotions and Managing Emotions), but not the Experiential branches (Perceiving and Facilitating Emotions). Specifically, the Understanding Emotions branch was associated with greater fractional anisotropy (FA) within somatosensory and sensory-motor fiber bundles, particularly those of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and corticospinal tract. Managing Emotions was associated with greater FA within frontal-affective association tracts including the anterior forceps and right uncinate fasciculus, along with frontal-parietal cingulum and interhemispheric corpus callosum tracts. These findings suggest that specific components of EI are directly related to the structural microarchitecture of major axonal pathways.

  8. Identification of the pyramidal tract by neuronavigation based on intraoperative magnetic resonance tractography: correlation with subcortical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzao, Alessandro; Romano, Andrea; Calabria, Luigi Fausto; Coppola, Valeria; Fantozzi, Luigi Maria [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Neuroradiology, Rome (Italy); Angelini, Albina; D' Andrea, Giancarlo; Mastronardi, Luciano; Ferrante, Luigi [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    To demonstrate the accuracy of magnetic resonance tractography (MRT) in localizing the cortical spinal tract (CST) close to brain tumours by using intraoperative electric subcortical stimulation. Nine patients with intra-axial brain tumours underwent neurosurgery. Planning was based on analysis of the course of streamlines compatible with the CST. After tumour removal, intraoperative MRT was reacquired. Sites at various distance from the CST were repeatedly stimulated to assess whether registered motor evoked potential (MEP) could be elicited. All patients were assessed clinically both pre- and postoperatively. The motor function was preserved in all patients. In all patients intraoperative MRT demonstrated shift of the bundle position caused by the surgical procedure. The distance between the estimated intraoperative CST and the point of elicited MEP was 1 cm or less in all nine patients. At distances greater than 2 cm, no patient reported positive MEP. Intraoperative MRT is a reliable technique for localization of CST. In all patients MEP were elicited by direct subcortical electrical stimulation at a distance below 1 cm from the CST as represented by MRT. Brain shifting might impact this evaluation since CST position may change during surgery in the range of 8 mm. (orig.)

  9. Tract specific analysis in patients with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yaqiong; Coloigner, Julie; Qu, Xiaoping; Choi, Soyoung; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Vu, Chau; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder in which the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells is abnormal. It affects numerous people in the world and leads to a shorter life span, pain, anemia, serious infections and neurocognitive decline. Tract-Specific Analysis (TSA) is a statistical method to evaluate white matter alterations due to neurocognitive diseases, using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images. Here, for the first time, TSA is used to compare 11 major brain white matter (WM) tracts between SCD patients and age-matched healthy subjects. Alterations are found in the corpus callosum (CC), the cortico-spinal tract (CST), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and uncinated fasciculus (UNC). Based on previous studies on the neurocognitive functions of these tracts, the significant areas found in this paper might be related to several cognitive impairments and depression, both of which are observed in SCD patients.

  10. Paired Stimulation to Promote Lasting Augmentation of Corticospinal Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Y. Harel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After injury, electrical stimulation of the nervous system can augment plasticity of spared or latent circuits through focal modulation. Pairing stimulation of two parts of a spared circuit can target modulation more specifically to the intended circuit. We discuss 3 kinds of paired stimulation in the context of the corticospinal system, because of its importance in clinical neurorehabilitation. The first uses principles of Hebbian plasticity: by altering the stimulation timing of presynaptic neurons and their postsynaptic targets, synapse function can be modulated up or down. The second form uses synchronized presynaptic inputs onto a common synaptic target. We dub this a “convergent” mechanism, because stimuli have to converge on a common target with coordinated timing. The third form induces focal modulation by tonic excitation of one region (e.g., the spinal cord during phasic stimulation of another (e.g., motor cortex. Additionally, endogenous neural activity may be paired with exogenous electrical stimulation. This review addresses what is known about paired stimulation of the corticospinal system of both humans and animal models, emphasizes how it qualitatively differs from single-site stimulation, and discusses the gaps in knowledge that must be addressed to maximize its use and efficacy in neurorehabilitation.

  11. Early changes in corticospinal excitability when seeing fearful body expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Vitale, Francesca; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-09-21

    Quick inhibition of approach tendencies in response to signals of potential threats is thought to promote survival. However, little is known about the effect of viewing fearful expressions on the early dynamics of the human motor system. We used the high temporal resolution of single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex to assess corticospinal excitability (CSE) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) during observation of happy, fearful and neutral body postures. To test motor circuits involved in approach tendencies, CSE and ICF were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), a muscle involved in grasping, and the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), which served as a control. To test early motor dynamics, CSE and ICF were measured 70-90 ms after stimulus onset. We found a selective reduction in CSE in the FDI when participants observed fearful body expressions. No changes in ICF or in the excitability of APB were detected. Our study establishes an extremely rapid motor system reaction to observed fearful body expressions. This motor modulation involves corticospinal downstream projections but not cortical excitatory mechanisms, and appears to reflect an inhibition of hand grasping. Our results suggest a fast visuo-motor route that may rapidly inhibit inappropriate approaching actions.

  12. Combined action observation and imagery facilitates corticospinal excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David James Wright

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Observation and imagery of movement both activate similar brain regions to those involved in movement execution. As such, both are recommended as techniques for aiding the recovery of motor function following stroke. Traditionally, action observation and movement imagery have been considered as independent intervention techniques. Researchers have however begun to consider the possibility of combining the two techniques into a single intervention strategy. This study investigated the effect of combined action observation and movement imagery on corticospinal excitability in comparison to either observation or imagery alone. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the hand representation of the left motor cortex during combined action observation and movement imagery, passive observation, or movement imagery of right index finger abduction-adduction movements or control conditions. Motor evoked potential (MEPs were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI and abductor digiti minimi (ADM muscles of the right hand. The combined action observation and movement imagery condition produced MEPs of larger amplitude than were obtained during passive observation and control conditions. This effect was only present in the FDI muscle, indicating the facilitation of corticospinal excitability during the combined condition was specific to the muscles involved in the observed/imagined task. These findings have implications for stroke rehabilitation, where combined action observation and movement imagery interventions may prove to be more effective than observation or imagery alone.

  13. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shin-Yi; Gottardi, Sam E A; Hodges, Paul W; Strutton, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement) and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA)) during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF), static shoulder flexion (SSF), and static trunk extension (STE). The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF) and goal-directed voluntary (STE) activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function.

  14. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yi Chiou

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1 is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES and rectus abdominis (RA during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF, static shoulder flexion (SSF, and static trunk extension (STE. The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF and goal-directed voluntary (STE activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function.

  15. Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli in Women with Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection Do Not Correlate with Emergency Department Antibiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michelle C; Al-Salamah, Tareq; Heil, Emily L; Mallemat, Haney; Witting, Michael D; Johnson, Jennifer K; Winters, Michael E; Hayes, Bryan D

    2015-12-01

    Urine cultures are not always performed for female Emergency Department (ED) patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Accordingly, hospital, and even ED-specific, antibiograms might be skewed toward elderly patients with many comorbidities and relatively high rates of antimicrobial resistance, and thus do not accurately reflect otherwise healthy women. Our ED antibiogram indicates Escherichia coli resistance rates for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) of 42%, 26%, and 33%, respectively. This study aims to compare resistance rates of urinary E. coli from otherwise healthy women with uncomplicated UTI and pyelonephritis in the ED to rates in our ED antibiogram. Females > 18 years old with acute onset of urinary frequency, urgency, or dysuria with pyuria identified on urinalysis (white blood cell count > 10/high-power field) were prospectively enrolled in the ED of an urban, academic medical center. Exclusion criteria indicating a complicated UTI were consistent with Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. Susceptibility patterns of E. coli to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and TMP-SMX in the study group were compared to our ED antibiogram. Forty-five patients grew E. coli. Pyelonephritis was suspected in nine (20%) subjects. Compared with the ED antibiogram, significantly lower rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin (2% vs. 42%, p < 0.001), levofloxacin (2% vs. 26%, p < 0.001), and TMP-SMX (16% vs. 33%, p = 0.016) were observed. Six patients grew non-E. coli uropathogens. All were susceptible to both levofloxacin and TMP-SMX. ED antibiograms may overestimate resistance rates for uropathogens causing uncomplicated UTIs. In cases where nitrofurantoin cannot be used, fluoroquinolones and possibly TMP-SMX may remain viable options for treatment of uncomplicated UTI and pyelonephritis in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyramidal tract abnormalities in the human fetus and infant with trisomy 18 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hajime; Miyata, Mio; Ohama, Eisaku

    2014-06-01

    Trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome is known to exhibit various developmental abnormalities in the central nervous system. We report dominant uncrossed pyramidal tract in trisomy 18 syndrome, based on the postmortem neuropathologic study of eight consecutive autopsied fetuses and infants with trisomy 18 ranging in age from 16 to 39 weeks of gestation, including six males and two females, along with autopsy cases of a stillborn triploid infant with 69XXX and two stillborn infants without chromosomal or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Five out of eight cases with trisomy 18 showed a larger proportion of uncrossed than crossed pyramidal tract. All of these cases were male, and the anterior corticospinal tract on one side was constantly larger than the contralateral lateral corticospinal tract in the spinal cord on both sides, while the pyramidal tract was hypoplastic in female cases with trisomy 18 and a case with 69XXX. Abnormal pyramidal decussation has been found in cases with posterior fossa malformations such as occipital encephaloceles, Dandy-Walker malformation, Joubert syndrome and Möbius syndrome, but has not been described in cases with trisomy 18. Our data, together with the previous reports describing uncrossed aberrant ipsilateral pyramidal tract in patients with congenital mirror movements caused by DCC gene mutation in chromosome 18, and hypolasia and hyperplasia of the pyramidal tract in X-linked recessive disorders caused by L1CAM and Kal1 gene mutations, respectively, suggest a role of trisomy 18 in association with X-chromosome in the abnormal development of the pyramidal tract.

  17. Corticospinal tract degeneration and possible pathogenesis in ALS evaluated by MR diffusion tensor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, Merete; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Wiegell, Mette R.;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) appears to be a powerful method to investigate the neuronal and axonal fibre distribution in the human brain. Changes in diffusion characteristics of water molecules in the white matter can be estimated as the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and ...

  18. Resolving crossings in the corticospinal tract by two-tensor streamline tractography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qazi, Arish Asif; Radmanesh, Alireza; O'Donnell, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    An inherent drawback of the traditional diffusion tensor model is its limited ability to provide detailed information about multidirectional fiber architecture within a voxel. This leads to erroneous fiber tractography results in locations where fiber bundles cross each other. This may lead to th...

  19. Corticospinal tract degeneration and possible pathogenesis in ALS evaluated by MR diffusion tensor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, Merete; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Wiegell, Mette R.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) appears to be a powerful method to investigate the neuronal and axonal fibre distribution in the human brain. Changes in diffusion characteristics of water molecules in the white matter can be estimated as the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and ...

  20. Corticospinal tract degeneration and possible pathogenesis in ALS evaluated by MR diffusion tensor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, Merete; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Wiegell, Mette R.;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) appears to be a powerful method to investigate the neuronal and axonal fibre distribution in the human brain. Changes in diffusion characteristics of water molecules in the white matter can be estimated as the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC...

  1. Changes in corticospinal transmission following 8 weeks of ankle joint immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leukel, Christian; Taube, Wolfgang; Rittweger, Jörn;

    2015-01-01

    ) of the primary motor cortex (Hcond). This method allows assessment of transmission in fast (monosynaptic) and slow(er) (polysynaptic) corticospinal pathways. METHODS: 9 subjects underwent 8weeks of unilateral ankle joint immobilization during daytime, 7 subjects served as controls. The measures obtained before...... immobilization. Importantly, Hcond revealed significant facilitation of conditioned reflexes, but only for longer conditioning intervals, suggesting that immobilization increased excitability only of slower, indirect corticospinal pathways. No changes were observed in the control group. Immobilization had...... no significant effects on spinal reflex measures. CONCLUSIONS: 8weeks of ankle joint immobilization was accompanied by pathway-specific modulation of corticospinal transmission. SIGNIFICANCE: It is particularly interesting that fast corticospinal projections were unaffected as these are involved in controlling...

  2. Corticospinal adaptations and strength maintenance in the immobilized arm following 3 weeks unilateral strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, A J; Hendy, A; Bowen, W A; Kidgell, D J

    2013-12-01

    Cross-education strength training has being shown to retain strength and muscle thickness in the immobilized contralateral limb. Corticospinal mechanisms have been proposed to underpin this phenomenon; however, no transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) data has yet been presented. This study used TMS to measure corticospinal responses following 3 weeks of unilateral arm training on the contralateral, immobilize arm. Participants (n = 28) were randomly divided into either immobilized strength training (Immob + train) immobilized no training (Immob) or control. Participants in the immobilized groups had their nondominant arm rested in a sling, 15 h/day for 3 weeks. The Immob + train group completed unilateral arm curl strength training, while the Immob and control groups did not undertake training. All participants were tested for corticospinal excitability, strength, and muscle thickness of both arms. Immobilization resulted in a group x time significant reduction in strength, muscle thickness and corticospinal excitability for the untrained limb of the Immob group. Conversely, no significant change in strength, muscle thickness, or corticospinal excitability occurred in the untrained limb of the Immob + train group. These results provide the first evidence of corticospinal mechanisms, assessed by TMS, underpinning the use of unilateral strength training to retain strength and muscle thickness following immobilization of the contralateral limb.

  3. Tract profiles of white matter properties: automating fiber-tract quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Yeatman

    Full Text Available Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further

  4. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the pyramidal tract in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol induces a relative increase in the numbers of pyramidal tract axons relative to the number of corticospinal projection neurons in somatosensory/motor cortices in the adult rat. The present study examines the effects of ethanol on the numbers of axons in the developing caudal pyramidal tract, i.e., corticospinal axons. Electron microscopic analyses of the pyramidal tracts of the offspring of pregnant rat dams fed a control diet ad libitum, pair-fed a liquid control diet, or fed an ethanol-containing diet ad libitum were performed. The pups were 5-, 15-, 30- and 90-days-old. The numbers of axons in control rats fell precipitously after postnatal day (P) 15 and the frequency of myelinated axons rose dramatically between P15 and P90. Ethanol exposure had no significant effect on the numbers of pyramidal tract axons at any age. Moreover, no ethanol-induced differences in the numbers of axons in different stages of myelination, i.e., axons that were "free" of glial associations, glia-engulfed, invested by 1-2 layers of myelin, or myelinated by 3+ layers of myelin, were detected on P15. Thus, it appears that (a) pyramidal tract axons are lost or pruned during the first two postnatal weeks and (b) postnatal development of pyramidal tract axons (e.g., pruning and myelination) is not affected by ethanol. The implications are that the ethanol-induced increase in the number of axons relative to the number of somata of corticospinal neurons detected in pups and adults results from the effects of ethanol on early stages (initiation) of axogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Measuring mimicry: general corticospinal facilitation during observation of naturalistic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, J E; Sacheli, L M; Bekkering, H; Toni, I; Aglioti, S M

    2017-07-01

    Mimicry of others' postures and behaviours forms an implicit yet indispensable component of social interactions. However, whereas numerous behavioural studies have investigated the occurrence of mimicry and its social sensitivity, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal facilitation during a naturalistic behaviour observation task adapted from the behavioural mimicry literature. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in participants' right hands were measured as they observed stimulus videos of a confederate describing photographs. MEPs were recorded while confederates were and were not carrying out hand and leg behaviours that also differed in spatial extent (i.e. large behaviours: face rubbing and leg crossing; small behaviours: finger tapping and foot bouncing). Importantly, the cover task instructions did not refer to the behaviours but instead required participants to focus on the confederates' photograph descriptions in order to later perform a recognition test. A general arousal effect was found, with higher MEPs during stimulus video observation than during a fixation-cross baseline, regardless of whether or not the confederate was carrying out a behaviour at the time of the pulse. When controlling for this general arousal effect, results showed that MEPs during observation of the larger two behaviours were significantly higher than the smaller two behaviours, irrespective of effector. Thus, using a controlled yet naturalistic paradigm, this study suggests that general sensorimotor arousal during social interactions could play a role in implicit behavioural mimicry. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Corticospinal activity during dual tasking: a systematic review and meta-analysis of TMS literature from 1995 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, Daniel T; Lum, Jarrad A G; Tooley, Gregory A; Pearce, Alan J

    2014-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted across studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate corticospinal excitability and inhibition in response to a dual task (DT). Quantitative analysis was performed on eleven controlled studies that had included healthy participants over the age of 18 years. Results showed a small effect size for increased corticospinal excitability for DT conditions (SMD=0.207; p=.217, and a small effect size (SMD=-0.253) demonstrating a significant decrease in corticospinal inhibition for DT conditions (p=.019). Meta-regression demonstrated that neither age, task type, or task prioritisation accounted for the high variability in effect sizes between studies. A number of possible sources of within study bias are identified, which reduced the level of evidence for study findings. The results show overall changes in corticospinal responses between ST and DT conditions; however further research is necessary to investigate variables that could account for differences in corticospinal responses between studies.

  7. Disrupted white matter in language and motor tracts in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connally, Emily L; Ward, David; Howell, Peter; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    White matter tracts connecting areas involved in speech and motor control were examined using diffusion-tensor imaging in a sample of people who stutter (n=29) who were heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. The goals were to replicate previous findings in developmental stuttering and to extend our knowledge by evaluating the relationship between white matter differences in people who stutter and factors such as age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. We replicated previous findings that showed reduced integrity in white matter underlying ventral premotor cortex, cerebral peduncles and posterior corpus callosum in people who stutter relative to controls. Tractography analysis additionally revealed significantly reduced white matter integrity in the arcuate fasciculus bilaterally and the left corticospinal tract and significantly reduced connectivity within the left corticobulbar tract in people who stutter. Region-of-interest analyses revealed reduced white matter integrity in people who stutter in the three pairs of cerebellar peduncles that carry the afferent and efferent fibers of the cerebellum. Within the group of people who stutter, the higher the stuttering severity index, the lower the white matter integrity in the left angular gyrus, but the greater the white matter connectivity in the left corticobulbar tract. Also, in people who stutter, handedness and age predicted the integrity of the corticospinal tract and peduncles, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine which of these white matter differences relate to the neural basis of stuttering and which reflect experience-dependent plasticity.

  8. Local connections of layer 5 GABAergic interneurons to corticospinal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo H Tanaka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the local circuit of the cerebral cortex, GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are considered to work in collaboration with excitatory neurons. Although many interneuron subgroups have been described in the cortex, local inhibitory connections of each interneuron subgroup are only partially understood with respect to the functional neuron groups that receive these inhibitory connections. In the present study, we morphologically examined local inhibitory inputs to corticospinal neurons (CSNs in motor areas using transgenic rats in which GABAergic neurons expressed fluorescent protein Venus. By analysis of biocytin-filled axons obtained with whole-cell recording/staining in cortical slices, we classified fast-spiking (FS neurons in layer (L 5 into two types, FS1 and FS2, by their high and low densities of axonal arborization, respectively. We then investigated the connections of FS1, FS2, somatostatin-immunopositive (SOM and other (non-FS/non-SOM interneurons to CSNs that were retrogradely labeled in a Golgi-like manner in motor areas. When close appositions between the axon boutons of the intracellularly labeled interneurons and the somata/dendrites of the retrogradely labeled CSNs were examined electron-microscopically, 74% of these appositions made symmetric synaptic contacts. The axon boutons of single FS1 neurons were 2–4-fold more frequent in appositions to the somata/dendrites of CSNs than those of FS2, SOM and non-FS/non-SOM neurons. Axosomatic appositions were most frequently formed with axon boutons of FS1 and FS2 neurons (approximately 30% and least frequently formed with those of SOM neurons (7%. In contrast, SOM neurons most extensively sent axon boutons to the apical dendrites of CSNs. These results might suggest that motor outputs are controlled differentially by the subgroups of L5 GABAergic interneurons in cortical motor areas. 

  9. Corticospinal excitability underlying digit force planning for grasping in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Pranav; Davare, Marco; McGurrin, Patrick; Santello, Marco

    2014-06-15

    Control of digit forces for grasping relies on sensorimotor memory gained from prior experience with the same or similar objects and on online sensory feedback. However, little is known about neural mechanisms underlying digit force planning. We addressed this question by quantifying the temporal evolution of corticospinal excitability (CSE) using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during two reach-to-grasp tasks. These tasks differed in terms of the magnitude of force exerted on the same points on the object to isolate digit force planning from reach and grasp planning. We also addressed the role of intracortical circuitry within primary motor cortex (M1) by quantifying the balance between short intracortical inhibition and facilitation using paired-pulse TMS on the same tasks. Eighteen right-handed subjects were visually cued to plan digit placement at predetermined locations on the object and subsequently to exert either negligible force ("low-force" task, LF) or 10% of their maximum pinch force ("high-force" task, HF) on the object. We found that the HF task elicited significantly smaller CSE than the LF task, but only when the TMS pulse coincided with the signal to initiate the reach. This force planning-related CSE modulation was specific to the muscles involved in the performance of both tasks. Interestingly, digit force planning did not result in modulation of M1 intracortical inhibitory and facilitatory circuitry. Our findings suggest that planning of digit forces reflected by CSE modulation starts well before object contact and appears to be driven by inputs from frontoparietal areas other than M1.

  10. The nature of corticospinal paths driving human motoneurones during voluntary contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Jane E; Larsen, Thomas S; Gandevia, Simon C

    2007-01-01

    The properties of the human motor cortex can be studied non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Stimulation at high intensity excites corticospinal cells with fast conducting axons that make direct connections to motoneurones of human upper limb muscles, while low-intensity ......The properties of the human motor cortex can be studied non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Stimulation at high intensity excites corticospinal cells with fast conducting axons that make direct connections to motoneurones of human upper limb muscles, while low...

  11. gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  12. Corticospinal Excitability in the Hand Muscles is Decreased During Eye Movement with Visual Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Yuta; Jono, Yasutomo; Tani, Keisuke; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles decreases during smooth pursuit eye movement. The present study tested a hypothesis that the decrease in corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles at rest during eye movement is not caused by visual feedback but caused by motor commands to the eye muscles. Healthy men (M age = 28.4 yr., SD = 5.2) moved their eyes to the right with visual occlusion (dark goggles) while their arms and hands remained at rest. The motor-evoked potential in the hand muscles was suppressed by 19% in the third quarter of the eye-movement period, supporting a view that motor commands to the eye muscles are the cause of the decrease in corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles. The amount of the suppression was not significantly different among the muscles, indicating that modulation of corticospinal excitability in one muscle induced by eye movement is not dependent on whether eye movement direction and the direction of finger movement when the muscle contracts are identical. Thus, the finding failed to support a hypothetical view that motor commands to the eye muscles concomittantly produce motor commands to the hand muscles. Moreover, the amount of the suppression was not significantly different between the forearm positions, indicating that the suppression was not affected by proprioception of the forearm muscles when visual feedback is absent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Changes in corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurones following visuo-motor skill learning in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2006-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated an increase in the excitability of the leg motor cortical area in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor task in healthy humans. It remains unknown whether the interaction between corticospinal drive and spinal motoneurones is also modulated following motor skill...

  14. Corticospinal responses of resistance-trained and un-trained males during dynamic muscle contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallent, J.; Goodall, S.; Hortobagyi, T.; Gibson, A. St Clair; Howatson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding the modulation and the plasticity of the neural pathway interconnecting elements of the central nervous system and skeletal muscle in resistant-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare corticospinal and spinal responses measured during dynamic muscle contrac

  15. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability during voluntary contraction with concurrent electrical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomofumi Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available While previous studies have assessed changes in corticospinal excitability following voluntary contraction coupled with electrical stimulation (ES, we sought to examine, for the first time in the field, real-time changes in corticospinal excitability. We monitored motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and recorded the MEPs using a mechanomyogram, which is less susceptible to electrical artifacts. We assessed the MEPs at each level of muscle contraction of wrist flexion (0%, 5%, or 20% of maximum voluntary contraction during voluntary wrist flexion (flexor carpi radialis (FCR voluntary contraction, either with or without simultaneous low-frequency (10 Hz ES of the median nerve that innervates the FCR. The stimulus intensity corresponded to 1.2 × perception threshold. In the FCR, voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation significantly increased corticospinal excitability compared with FCR voluntary contraction without median nerve stimulation (p<0.01. In addition, corticospinal excitability was significantly modulated by the level of FCR voluntary contraction. In contrast, in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR, FCR voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation significantly decreased corticospinal excitability compared with FCR voluntary contraction without median nerve stimulation (p<0.05. Thus, median nerve stimulation during FCR voluntary contraction induces reciprocal changes in cortical excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles. Finally we also showed that even mental imagery of FCR voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation induced the same reciprocal changes in cortical excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles. Our results support the use of voluntary contraction coupled with ES in neurorehabilitation therapy for patients.

  16. Differences in corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii between arm cycling and tonic contraction are not evident at the immediate onset of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Davis A; Philpott, Devin T G; Button, Duane C; Power, Kevin E

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to examine changes in corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii during the onset of arm cycling from a resting position to a point when steady-state arm cycling was obtained. Supraspinal and spinal excitability were assessed using motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation and cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEPs) elicited via transmastoid electrical stimulation, respectively. Evoked responses were recorded from the biceps brachii during elbow flexion (6 o'clock relative to a clock face) for both arm cycling and an intensity-matched tonic contraction at three separate periods: (1) immediately at the onset of motor output and after completion of the (2) 4th revolution and (3) 9th revolution. There was no difference during initiation between tasks for MEP (P = 0.79) or CMEP amplitudes (P = 0.57). However, MEP amplitudes were significantly larger during arm cycling than an intensity-matched tonic contraction after the completion of the 4th (Cycling 76.48 ± 17.35 % of M max, Tonic 63.45 ± 18.45 % of M max, P Cycling 72.37 ± 15.96 % of M max, Tonic 58.1 ± 24.23 % of M max, P Cycling 49.6 ± 25.4 % of M max, Tonic 41.6 ± 11.2 % of M max, P = 0.31) or the 9th revolution (Cycling 47.2 ± 17.0 % of M max, Tonic 40.8 ± 13.6 % of M max, P = 0.29). These results demonstrate that corticospinal excitability is not different between arm cycling and a tonic contraction at motor output onset, but supraspinal excitability is enhanced during steady-state arm cycling. This suggests a similarity in the way the corticospinal tract initiates motor outputs in humans, regardless of the differences that present themselves in the later, steady-state stages.

  17. Motor cortex electrical stimulation promotes axon outgrowth to brain stem and spinal targets that control the forelimb impaired by unilateral corticospinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B; Kimura, Hiroki; Berrol, Lauren J; Martin, John H

    2013-04-01

    We previously showed that electrical stimulation of motor cortex (M1) after unilateral pyramidotomy in the rat increased corticospinal tract (CST) axon length, strengthened spinal connections, and restored forelimb function. Here, we tested: (i) if M1 stimulation only increases spinal axon length or if it also promotes connections to brain stem forelimb control centers, especially magnocellular red nucleus; and (ii) if stimulation-induced increase in axon length depends on whether pyramidotomy denervated the structure. After unilateral pyramidotomy, we electrically stimulated the forelimb area of intact M1, to activate the intact CST and other corticofugal pathways, for 10 days. We anterogradely labeled stimulated M1 and measured axon length using stereology. Stimulation increased axon length in both the spinal cord and magnocellular red nucleus, even though the spinal cord is denervated by pyramidotomy and the red nucleus is not. Stimulation also promoted outgrowth in the cuneate and parvocellular red nuclei. In the spinal cord, electrical stimulation caused increased axon length ipsilateral, but not contralateral, to stimulation. Thus, stimulation promoted outgrowth preferentially to the sparsely corticospinal-innervated and impaired side. Outgrowth resulted in greater axon density in the ipsilateral dorsal horn and intermediate zone, resembling the contralateral termination pattern. Importantly, as in spinal cord, increase in axon length in brain stem also was preferentially directed towards areas less densely innervated by the stimulated system. Thus, M1 electrical stimulation promotes increases in corticofugal axon length to multiple M1 targets. We propose the axon length change was driven by competition into an adaptive pattern resembling lost connections. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Beta-range cortical motor spectral power and corticomuscular coherence as a mechanism for effective corticospinal interaction during steady-state motor output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, Rumyana; Patino, Luis; Omlor, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    The steady-state motor output, occurring during static force, is characterized by synchronization between oscillatory cortical motor and muscle activity confined to the beta frequency range (15-30 Hz). The functional significance of this beta-range coherence remains unclear. We hypothesized that if the beta-range coherence had a functional role, it would have a behavioral correlate; specifically, it would be related to the precision of the steady-state motor output. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the corticomuscular (EEG-EMG) coherence in eight healthy subjects during steady-state motor output in a visuomotor task, in which the subjects exerted a static force with their right index finger to keep a visual cursor within a target zone. We show that the beta-range EEG-EMG coherence is related to the behavioral performance, i.e. the error signal between target and exerted force. Furthermore, we show that the amplitude of the cortical spectral power is also related to the performance. Moreover, we provide evidence that the EEG-EMG coherence and the cortical spectral power are not completely independent phenomena. Together, our findings indicate that higher beta-range cortical spectral power and increased corticospinal coherence in the beta-range improve motor performance during steady-state motor output. This suggests that the beta-range cortical motor spectral power and corticomuscular coherence may promote effective corticospinal interaction.

  19. Digestive Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    8.1 Stomach and duodenum2004380 Increased expression of heparanase mRNA is correlated with metastasis of gastric carcinoma and is probably correlated with c-met protein. CAIYongguo (蔡永国),et al. 3rd Milk Univ.Dept Gas-troenterol, South-West Hosp, Chongqing 400038. 2004;84(12):974-978.

  20. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of ... UTI spreads to your kidneys. Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to ...

  2. Biopsy - biliary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  3. Changes in corticospinal motor excitability induced by non-motor linguistic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, I; Filipović, S R; Whurr, R; Rothwell, J C; Jahanshahi, M

    2004-01-01

    The excitability of the corticospinal motor pathways to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be differentially modulated by a variety of motor tasks. However, there is emerging evidence that linguistic tasks may alter excitability of the corticospinal motor pathways also. In this study we evaluated the effect of several movement-free, low-level linguistic processes involved in reading and writing on the excitability of the bilateral corticospinal motor pathways in a group of right-handed subjects. The study included two series of tasks, visual searching/matching and imaginal writing/drawing. The tasks were designed to roughly correspond with elemental aspects of the reading and writing, grapheme recognition and grapheme generation, respectively. Each task series included separate blocks with different task targets: letters, digits, semantically easy-to-code (i.e. geometric) shapes, and semantically hard-to-code shapes, as well as control blocks with no task. During task performance, TMS was delivered randomly over the hand area of either the left or right motor cortex and the modulation of the excitability of the corticospinal motor pathways was measured bilaterally through changes of the size of the motor-evoked potential (MEP) induced in the relaxed right and left first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles. We found that the size of the MEP in hand muscles increased during visual searching/matching tasks, particularly when targets were letters or geometric shapes, and the increase was significant for the dominant hand (left hemisphere) only. No such consistent effects were seen across subjects during imaginal tasks. This study provides evidence that even the performance of certain low-level linguistic tasks can modulate the excitability of the corticospinal motor pathways, particularly those originating from the left (dominant) hemisphere, despite the absence of overt motor activity. Moreover, in the light of the recently increased awareness of the role of

  4. Phase-dependent modulation of corticospinal excitability during the observation of the initial phase of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Uchida, Natsuko; Yoshida, Mami; Liang, Nan; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the temporal characteristics of corticospinal excitability of tibialis anterior muscle during the observation of the initial phase of gait. For this purpose, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during the observation of the second step of an actor's first three steps of gait initiation with (complex gait) or without (normal gait) an obstacle and unstable surface. The results demonstrate that (1) MEPs during the observation of the initial phase of normal gait were significantly increased only at early swing phase, but not other phases (mid-swing, heel contact, mid-stance, and heel off) and (2) MEPs during the observation of the initial phase of complex gait were significantly increased at early swing and also at mid-swing and heel contact phases. These findings provide the first evidence that corticospinal excitability during the observation of gait, especially the initial phase, is modulated in phase- and motor-demanded-dependent manners.

  5. Corticospinal excitability changes to anodal tDCS elucidated with NIRS-EEG joint-imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindal, Utkarsh; Sood, Mehak; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy;

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate corticospinal excitability. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) - electroencephalography (EEG) joint-imaging during and after anodal tDCS to measure changes in mean cerebral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2) along...... with changes in the log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5 Hz - 11.25 Hz. In two separate studies, we investigated local post-tDCS alterations from baseline at the site of anodal tDCS using NIRS-EEG/tDCS joint-imaging as well as local post-tDCS alterations in motor evoked potentials (MEP...... that the innovative technologies for portable NIRS-EEG neuroimaging may be leveraged to objectively quantify the progress (e.g., corticospinal excitability alterations) and dose tDCS intervention as an adjuvant treatment during neurorehabilitation....

  6. Upper extremity rehabilitation of stroke: Facilitation of corticospinal excitability using virtual mirror paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several experimental studies in stroke patients suggest that mirror therapy and various virtual reality programs facilitate motor rehabilitation. However, the underlying mechanisms for these therapeutic effects have not been previously described. Objectives We attempted to delineate the changes in corticospinal excitability when individuals were asked to exercise their upper extremity using a real mirror and virtual mirror. Moreover, we attempted to delineate the role of visual modulation within the virtual environment that affected corticospinal excitability in healthy subjects and stroke patients. Methods A total of 18 healthy subjects and 18 hemiplegic patients were enrolled into the study. Motor evoked potential (MEP)s from transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded in the flexor carpi radialis of the non-dominant or affected upper extremity using three different conditions: (A) relaxation; (B) real mirror; and (C) virtual mirror. Moreover, we compared the MEPs from the virtual mirror paradigm using continuous visual feedback or intermittent visual feedback. Results The rates of amplitude increment and latency decrement of MEPs in both groups were higher during the virtual mirror task than during the real mirror. In healthy subjects and stroke patients, the virtual mirror task with intermittent visual feedback significantly facilitated corticospinal excitability of MEPs compared with continuous visual feedback. Conclusion Corticospinal excitability was facilitated to a greater extent in the virtual mirror paradigm than in the real mirror and in intermittent visual feedback than in the continuous visual feedback, in both groups. This provides neurophysiological evidence supporting the application of the virtual mirror paradigm using various visual modulation technologies to upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke patients. PMID:23035951

  7. Upper extremity rehabilitation of stroke: Facilitation of corticospinal excitability using virtual mirror paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Youn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several experimental studies in stroke patients suggest that mirror therapy and various virtual reality programs facilitate motor rehabilitation. However, the underlying mechanisms for these therapeutic effects have not been previously described. Objectives We attempted to delineate the changes in corticospinal excitability when individuals were asked to exercise their upper extremity using a real mirror and virtual mirror. Moreover, we attempted to delineate the role of visual modulation within the virtual environment that affected corticospinal excitability in healthy subjects and stroke patients. Methods A total of 18 healthy subjects and 18 hemiplegic patients were enrolled into the study. Motor evoked potential (MEPs from transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded in the flexor carpi radialis of the non-dominant or affected upper extremity using three different conditions: (A relaxation; (B real mirror; and (C virtual mirror. Moreover, we compared the MEPs from the virtual mirror paradigm using continuous visual feedback or intermittent visual feedback. Results The rates of amplitude increment and latency decrement of MEPs in both groups were higher during the virtual mirror task than during the real mirror. In healthy subjects and stroke patients, the virtual mirror task with intermittent visual feedback significantly facilitated corticospinal excitability of MEPs compared with continuous visual feedback. Conclusion Corticospinal excitability was facilitated to a greater extent in the virtual mirror paradigm than in the real mirror and in intermittent visual feedback than in the continuous visual feedback, in both groups. This provides neurophysiological evidence supporting the application of the virtual mirror paradigm using various visual modulation technologies to upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke patients.

  8. Changes in corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurones following tablet-based practice of manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lisbeth H; Jensen, Thor; Christensen, Mark S; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Langberg, Henning; Nielsen, Jens B

    2016-02-01

    The use of touch screens, which require a high level of manual dexterity, has exploded since the development of smartphone and tablet technology. Manual dexterity relies on effective corticospinal control of finger muscles, and we therefore hypothesized that corticospinal drive to finger muscles can be optimized by tablet-based motor practice. To investigate this, sixteen able-bodied females practiced a tablet-based game (3 × 10 min) with their nondominant hand requiring incrementally fast and precise pinching movements involving the thumb and index fingers. The study was designed as a semirandomized crossover study where the participants attended one practice- and one control session. Before and after each session electrophysiological recordings were obtained during three blocks of 50 precision pinch movements in a standardized setup resembling the practiced task. Data recorded during movements included electroencephalographic (EEG) activity from primary motor cortex and electromyographic (EMG) activity from first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles. Changes in the corticospinal drive were evaluated from coupling in the frequency domain (coherence) between EEG-EMG and EMG-EMG activity. Following motor practice performance improved significantly and a significant increase in EEG-EMGAPB and EMGAPB-EMGFDI coherence in the beta band (15-30 Hz) was observed. No changes were observed after the control session. Our results show that tablet-based motor practice is associated with changes in the common corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurons involved in manual dexterity. Tablet-based motor practice may be a motivating training tool for stroke patients who struggle with loss of dexterity.

  9. Dynamics of corticospinal changes during and after high-intensity quadriceps exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Mathieu; Temesi, John; Rupp, Thomas; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2014-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that during fatiguing quadriceps exercise, supraspinal fatigue develops late, is associated with both increased corticospinal excitability and inhibition and recovers quickly. Eight subjects performed 20 s contractions [15 s at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 5 s MVC] separated by a 10 s rest period until task failure. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical femoral nerve stimulation (PNS) were delivered ∼ 2 s apart during 50% MVC, during MVC and after MVC in relaxed muscle. Voluntary activation was assessed by TMS (VATMS) immediately before and after exercise and then three times over a 6 min recovery period. During exercise, MVC and twitch force evoked by PNS in relaxed muscle decreased progressively to 48 ± 8 and 36 ± 16% of control values, respectively (both P MVC were observed during the last quarter of exercise only (from 96.4 ± 1.7 to 86 ± 13%, P = 0.03 and from 0.76 ± 0.8 to 4.9 ± 4.7% MVC, P = 0.02, from baseline to task failure, respectively). The TMS-induced silent period increased linearly during both MVC (by ∼ 79 ms) and 50% MVC (by ∼ 63 ms; both P MVC and twitch force evoked by PNS in relaxed muscle recovered to only 84 ± 9 and 73 ± 17% of control values 6 min after exercise, respectively. In conclusion, high-intensity single-joint quadriceps exercise induces supraspinal fatigue near task failure, with increased intracortical inhibition and, in contrast to previous upper-limb results, unchanged corticospinal excitability. These changes recover rapidly after task failure, emphasizing the need to measure corticospinal adaptations immediately at task failure to avoid underestimation of exercise-induced corticospinal changes.

  10. Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability during Acquisition of Action Sequences by Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Moriyama, Noriyoshi; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Excitability of the corticospinal pathway increases during observation of an action. However, how corticospinal excitability changes during observation of sequential actions in the course of acquiring novel skills (observational learning) remains unexplored. To investigate this, we used a previously unpracticed sequence of ten hand postures. Participants were asked to repeat observation and replication of the sequence. This block of observation and replication was repeated 5 times. During observation of a given hand posture (OK sign), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from hand muscles. In experiment 1, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position of the sequence. Almost all participants could replicate the OK sign only at the 5th block of the experiment. MEP amplitude was greater than that in the control, and decreased with the stages. This suggested that during observational learning of sequential hand postures MEP changed with the progress of the learning. To evaluate this idea, we performed two additional experiments. In experiment 2, the OK sign appeared in the 2nd position. Almost all participants replicated the OK sign even in the 1st block. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. In experiment 3, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position, but the order of other signs was randomized in every stage. Many participants were not able to replicate the OK sign even during the 5th block of the experiment. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. These results suggest that: (1) During observational learning modulation of corticospinal excitability is associated with the learning process. (2) Corticospinal excitability decreases as learning progresses. PMID:22615889

  11. Upper extremity rehabilitation of stroke: facilitation of corticospinal excitability using virtual mirror paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youn Joo; Park, Hae Kyung; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lim, Taeo; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Sangwoo; Kim, Sun I; Park, Eun Sook

    2012-10-04

    Several experimental studies in stroke patients suggest that mirror therapy and various virtual reality programs facilitate motor rehabilitation. However, the underlying mechanisms for these therapeutic effects have not been previously described. We attempted to delineate the changes in corticospinal excitability when individuals were asked to exercise their upper extremity using a real mirror and virtual mirror. Moreover, we attempted to delineate the role of visual modulation within the virtual environment that affected corticospinal excitability in healthy subjects and stroke patients. A total of 18 healthy subjects and 18 hemiplegic patients were enrolled into the study. Motor evoked potential (MEP)s from transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded in the flexor carpi radialis of the non-dominant or affected upper extremity using three different conditions: (A) relaxation; (B) real mirror; and (C) virtual mirror. Moreover, we compared the MEPs from the virtual mirror paradigm using continuous visual feedback or intermittent visual feedback. The rates of amplitude increment and latency decrement of MEPs in both groups were higher during the virtual mirror task than during the real mirror. In healthy subjects and stroke patients, the virtual mirror task with intermittent visual feedback significantly facilitated corticospinal excitability of MEPs compared with continuous visual feedback. Corticospinal excitability was facilitated to a greater extent in the virtual mirror paradigm than in the real mirror and in intermittent visual feedback than in the continuous visual feedback, in both groups. This provides neurophysiological evidence supporting the application of the virtual mirror paradigm using various visual modulation technologies to upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke patients.

  12. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeno eGoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of the soleus MEPs. Only trials in which background EMG level, ankle angle, and ankle velocity were similar among the movement conditions were included for data analysis. In addition, only trials with a similar M-wave were included for data analysis in the experiment evoking H-reflexes. Results showed that H reflex and MEP amplitudes in the soleus muscle during discrete movement were not significantly different from those during rhythmic movement. MEP amplitude in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement was significantly larger than that during the initial cycle of the rhythmic movement or during discrete movement. Higher corticospinal excitability in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement may reflect changes in corticospinal control from the initial cycle to the later cycles of rhythmic movement.

  13. Effect of Experimental Hand Pain on Training-Induced Changes in Motor Performance and Corticospinal Excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, Nicolas; Neige, Cécilia; Gagné, Martin; Reilly, Karen T.; Mercier, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Pain influences plasticity within the sensorimotor system and the aim of this study was to assess the effect of pain on changes in motor performance and corticospinal excitability during training for a novel motor task. A total of 30 subjects were allocated to one of two groups (Pain, NoPain) and performed ten training blocks of a visually-guided isometric pinch task. Each block consisted of 15 force sequences, and subjects modulated the force applied to a transducer in order to reach one of five target forces. Pain was induced by applying capsaicin cream to the thumb. Motor performance was assessed by a skill index that measured shifts in the speed–accuracy trade-off function. Neurophysiological measures were taken from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Overall, the Pain group performed better throughout the training (p = 0.03), but both groups showed similar improvements across training blocks (p < 0.001), and there was no significant interaction. Corticospinal excitability in the NoPain group increased halfway through the training, but this was not observed in the Pain group (Time × Group interaction; p = 0.01). These results suggest that, even when pain does not negatively impact on the acquisition of a novel motor task, it can affect training-related changes in corticospinal excitability. PMID:28165363

  14. Effect of Experimental Hand Pain on Training-Induced Changes in Motor Performance and Corticospinal Excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mavromatis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain influences plasticity within the sensorimotor system and the aim of this study was to assess the effect of pain on changes in motor performance and corticospinal excitability during training for a novel motor task. A total of 30 subjects were allocated to one of two groups (Pain, NoPain and performed ten training blocks of a visually-guided isometric pinch task. Each block consisted of 15 force sequences, and subjects modulated the force applied to a transducer in order to reach one of five target forces. Pain was induced by applying capsaicin cream to the thumb. Motor performance was assessed by a skill index that measured shifts in the speed–accuracy trade-off function. Neurophysiological measures were taken from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Overall, the Pain group performed better throughout the training (p = 0.03, but both groups showed similar improvements across training blocks (p < 0.001, and there was no significant interaction. Corticospinal excitability in the NoPain group increased halfway through the training, but this was not observed in the Pain group (Time × Group interaction; p = 0.01. These results suggest that, even when pain does not negatively impact on the acquisition of a novel motor task, it can affect training-related changes in corticospinal excitability.

  15. Changes in corticospinal excitability during consolidation predict acute exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadan, Fatemeh; Centeno, Carla; Daloze, Jean-Felix; Frenn, Mira; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Roig, Marc

    2016-12-01

    A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor task improves the long-term retention of the skill through an optimization of memory consolidation. However, the specific brain mechanisms underlying the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on procedural memory are poorly understood. We sought to determine if a single bout of exercise modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the early stages of memory consolidation. In addition, we investigated if changes in CSE are associated with exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory. Participants practiced a serial reaction time task followed by either a short bout of acute exercise or a similar rest period. To monitor changes in CSE we used transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) at baseline, 15, 35, 65 and 125min after exercise or rest. Participants in the exercise condition showed larger (∼24%) improvements in procedural memory through consolidation although differences between groups did not reach statistical significance. Exercise promoted an increase in CSE, which remained elevated 2h after exercise. More importantly, global increases in CSE following exercise correlated with the magnitude of off-line gains in skill level assessed in a retention test performed 8h after motor practice. A single bout of exercise modulates short-term neuroplasticity mechanisms subserving consolidation processes that predict off-line gains in procedural memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Velocity of Joint Mobilization on Corticospinal Excitability in Individuals With a History of Ankle Sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Beth E; Piraino, Andrew; Lee, Ya-Yun; Smith, Jo Armour; Johnson, Sean; Davenport, Todd E; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Joint mobilization and manipulation decrease pain and improve patient function. Yet, the processes underlying these changes are not well understood. Measures of corticospinal excitability provide insight into potential mechanisms mediated by the central nervous system. Objectives To investigate the differential effects of joint mobilization and manipulation at the talocrural joint on corticospinal excitability in individuals with resolved symptoms following ankle sprain. Methods Twenty-seven participants with a history of ankle sprain were randomly assigned to the control, joint mobilization, or thrust manipulation group. The motor-evoked potential (MEP) and cortical silent period (CSP) of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius were obtained with transcranial magnetic stimulation at rest and during active contraction of the tibialis anterior. The slopes of MEP/CSP input/output curves and the maximal MEP/CSP values were calculated to indicate corticospinal excitability. Behavioral measures, including ankle dorsiflexion and dynamic balance, were evaluated. Results A repeated-measures analysis of variance of the MEP slope showed a significant group-by-time interaction for the tibialis anterior at rest (P = .002) and during active contraction (P = .042). After intervention, the thrust manipulation group had an increase in corticospinal excitability, while the corticospinal excitability decreased in the mobilization group. The thrust manipulation group, but not other groups, also demonstrated a significant increase in the maximal MEP amplitude of the tibialis anterior after intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that joint manipulation and mobilization have different effects on corticospinal excitability. The increased corticospinal excitability following thrust manipulation may provide a window for physical therapists to optimize muscle recruitment and subsequently movement. The trial was registered at

  17. Differential modulation of corticospinal excitability by different current densities of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andisheh Bastani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have been developed in recent years. TDCS-induced corticospinal excitability changes depend on two important factors current intensity and stimulation duration. Despite clinical success with existing tDCS parameters, optimal protocols are still not entirely set. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The current study aimed to investigate the effects of four different anodal tDCS (a-tDCS current densities on corticospinal excitability. METHODS: Four current intensities of 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2 mA resulting in current densities (CDs of 0.013, 0.029, 0.058 and 0.083 mA/cm(2 were applied on twelve right-handed (mean age 34.5±10.32 yrs healthy individuals in different sessions at least 48 hours apart. a-tDCS was applied continuously for 10 minute, with constant active and reference electrode sizes of 24 and 35 cm(2 respectively. The corticospinal excitability of the extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR was measured before and immediately after the intervention and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. RESULTS: Post hoc comparisons showed significant differences in corticospinal excitability changes for CDs of 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.029 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.003. There were no significant differences between excitability changes for the 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.058 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.080 or 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.083 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.484 conditions. CONCLUSION: This study found that a-tDCS with a current density of 0.013 mA/cm(2 induces significantly larger corticospinal excitability changes than CDs of 0.029 mA/cm(2. The implication is that might help to avoid applying unwanted amount of current to the cortical areas.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of the structural integrity of white matter correlates with impulsivity in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Liu, Linlin; Yang, Yongxin; Qi, Xin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jiyu; Du, Guijin; Dai, Shouping; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2017-08-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is usually defined as the inability of an individual to control internet gaming resulting in serious negative consequences, and trait impulsivity has been viewed as a hallmark feature of IGD. Recent studies have suggested that the structural integrity of the white matter (WM) plays an important role in the neuromediation of an individual's impulsivity. However, no study has examined the association between WM integrity and impulsivity in IGD adolescents. In this study, 33 adolescents with IGD and 32 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the intergroup differences in the relationships between impulsivity and fractional anisotropy (FA) values across the whole brain WM were investigated using voxel-wise correlation analyses. Our results revealed significant intergroup differences in the correlations between impulsivity and the FA values of the right corticospinal tract (CST) and the right occipital WM. Region of interest-based tests revealed that the FA values of these clusters were positive or insignificantly correlated with impulsivity in the IGD adolescents contrasted to the significantly negative correlation in the HCs. This altered correlations in the IGD adolescents might reflect potential WM microstructural changes which may be associated with the greater impulsivity of IGD adolescents and provide possible therapeutic targets for interventions in this population.

  19. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal tract by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Schubert, Martin

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is extensively used to study cognitive and motor function in humans and might be of value in the treatment of various disorders. For a better understanding of the effects of rTMS and its more efficient application it is crucial to identify...... is the synapses of the corticomotoneuronal neurones on the spinal motoneurones. Perez et al. (2005). Exp Brain Res 162, 202-212. Speer et al. (2003). Biol Psychiatry 54, 818-825....

  20. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    at 3 Tesla. The right and left CST were defined as regions-of-interest and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity values were calculated for right and left CST. On average, mean FA values were higher in the left CST relative to right CST. The degree of right-left FA asymmetry showed a linear...

  1. DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Esophagus2007092 Expression of CD80, CD86, TGF-β1 and IL-10 mRNA in the esophageal carcinoma. YANG Wenfeng(杨文锋), et al. Dept Thorac Surg Shandong Cancer Hosp, Jinan 250117. Chin J Oncol 2006;28(10):762-765. Objective To investigate the correlation of CD80 and CD86 mRNA expression with the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 mRNA (TGF-β1 ) and interleukin-10 mRNA (IL-10) in the esophageal cancer. To explore the reason of impaired immunological function of dentritic cell (DC) and the mechanism of cancer cell escaption from body immunity system in the esophageal cancer patient.

  2. Bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract microbiota correlated with improved growth and feed conversion: Challenges presented for the identification of performance enhancing probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana eStanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of bacteria associated with desirable productivity outcomes in animals may offer a direct approach to the identification of probiotic bacteria for use in animal production. We performed three controlled chicken trials (n=96 to investigate caecal microbiota differences between the best and poorest performing birds using four performance measures; Feed Conversion Rate (FCR, utilisation of energy from the feed measured as Apparent Metabolisable Energy (AME, gain rate (GR and amount of feed eaten (FE. The shifts in microbiota composition associated with the performance measures were very different between the three trials. Analysis of the caecal microbiota revealed that the high and low FCR birds had significant differences in the abundance of some bacteria as demonstrated by shifts in microbiota alpha and beta diversity. Trials 1 and 2 showed significant overall community shifts, however the microbial changes driving the difference between good and poor performers were very different. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae families and genera Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and multiple lineages of genus Clostridium (from families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae were highly abundant in good FCR birds in Trial 1. Different microbiota was associated with FCR in Trial 2; Catabacteriaceae and unknown Clostridiales family members were increased in good FCR and genera Clostridium (from family Clostridiaceae and Lactobacillus were associated with poor FCR. Trial 3 had only mild microbiota differences associated with all 4 performance measures. Overall, the genus Lactobacillus was correlated with feed intake which resulted in poor FCR performance. The genus Faecalibacterium correlated with improved FCR, increased GR and reduced FE. There was overlap in phylotypes correlated with improved FCR and GR, while different microbial cohorts appeared to be correlated with FE. Even under controlled conditions

  3. Do not resonate with actions: sentence polarity modulates cortico-spinal excitability during action-related sentence reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tullio Liuzza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theories of embodied language suggest that the motor system is differentially called into action when processing motor-related versus abstract content words or sentences. It has been recently shown that processing negative polarity action-related sentences modulates neural activity of premotor and motor cortices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether reading negative polarity sentences brought about differential modulation of cortico-spinal motor excitability depending on processing hand-action related or abstract sentences. Facilitatory paired-pulses Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pp-TMS was applied to the primary motor representation of the right-hand and the recorded amplitude of induced motor-evoked potentials (MEP was used to index M1 activity during passive reading of either hand-action related or abstract content sentences presented in both negative and affirmative polarity. Results showed that the cortico-spinal excitability was affected by sentence polarity only in the hand-action related condition. Indeed, in keeping with previous TMS studies, reading positive polarity, hand action-related sentences suppressed cortico-spinal reactivity. This effect was absent when reading hand action-related negative polarity sentences. Moreover, no modulation of cortico-spinal reactivity was associated with either negative or positive polarity abstract sentences. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that grammatical cues prompting motor negation reduce the cortico-spinal suppression associated with affirmative action sentences reading and thus suggest that motor simulative processes underlying the embodiment may involve even syntactic features of language.

  4. The Cerebro-Morphological Fingerprint of a Progeroid Syndrome: White Matter Changes Correlate with Neurological Symptoms in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassubek, Jan; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Pinkhardt, Elmar H.; Unrath, Alexander; Müller, Hans-Peter; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Ludolph, Albert C.; Berneburg, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive progeroid syndrome. It has recently been shown that the underlying DNA repair defect plays a central role in the aging process. In addition to skin symptoms, various premature neurological abnormalities have been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the clinical neurological phenotype in 14 XP patients (seven subtypes), in seven of these patients together with conventional and multiparametric advanced MRI data to assess the macrostructural and microstructural cerebral morphology in comparison to controls, including volumetric measurements, MR spectroscopy (1H MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Clinical hallmarks were spinocerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract signs, and mild cognitive deficits. DTI demonstrated significantly reduced WM directionality in all regions investigated, i.e. the thalamus, the corticospinal tracts and the dorsal corpus callosum. Single patients showed a marked relative hippocampal volume reduction, but the patients were not different from controls in the volumetric measurements of hippocampal and whole brain volumes at group level. However, 1H MRS demonstrated that the hippocampal formation was metabolically altered. Conclusions The most prominent feature was the white matter affectation, as assessed by DTI, with volume and directionality reductions of the fiber projections involving both the craniocaudal fibers and the interhemispheric connections. These findings, although heterogeneous among the study sample, could be correlated with the clinico-neurological symptoms. The imaging findings support the position that myelin structures degrade prematurely in the brain of XP patients. PMID:22363517

  5. The cerebro-morphological fingerprint of a progeroid syndrome: white matter changes correlate with neurological symptoms in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kassubek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive progeroid syndrome. It has recently been shown that the underlying DNA repair defect plays a central role in the aging process. In addition to skin symptoms, various premature neurological abnormalities have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present the clinical neurological phenotype in 14 XP patients (seven subtypes, in seven of these patients together with conventional and multiparametric advanced MRI data to assess the macrostructural and microstructural cerebral morphology in comparison to controls, including volumetric measurements, MR spectroscopy ((1H MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Clinical hallmarks were spinocerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract signs, and mild cognitive deficits. DTI demonstrated significantly reduced WM directionality in all regions investigated, i.e. the thalamus, the corticospinal tracts and the dorsal corpus callosum. Single patients showed a marked relative hippocampal volume reduction, but the patients were not different from controls in the volumetric measurements of hippocampal and whole brain volumes at group level. However, (1H MRS demonstrated that the hippocampal formation was metabolically altered. CONCLUSIONS: The most prominent feature was the white matter affectation, as assessed by DTI, with volume and directionality reductions of the fiber projections involving both the craniocaudal fibers and the interhemispheric connections. These findings, although heterogeneous among the study sample, could be correlated with the clinico-neurological symptoms. The imaging findings support the position that myelin structures degrade prematurely in the brain of XP patients.

  6. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  7. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  8. Paired associative transcranial alternating current stimulation increases the excitability of corticospinal projections in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNickle, Emmet; Carson, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    Many types of non-invasive brain stimulation alter corticospinal excitability (CSE). Paired associative stimulation (PAS) has attracted particular attention as its effects ostensibly adhere to Hebbian principles of neural plasticity. In prototypical form, a single electrical stimulus is directed to a peripheral nerve in close temporal contiguity with transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered to the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). Repeated pairing of the two discrete stimulus events (i.e. association) over an extended period either increases or decreases the excitability of corticospinal projections from M1, contingent on the interstimulus interval. We studied a novel form of associative stimulation, consisting of brief trains of peripheral afferent stimulation paired with short bursts of high frequency (≥80 Hz) transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over contralateral M1. Elevations in the excitability of corticospinal projections to the forearm were observed for a range of tACS frequency (80, 140 and 250 Hz), current (1, 2 and 3 mA) and duration (500 and 1000 ms) parameters. The effects were at least as reliable as those brought about by PAS or transcranial direct current stimulation. When paired with tACS, muscle tendon vibration also induced elevations of CSE. No such changes were brought about by the tACS or peripheral afferent stimulation alone. In demonstrating that associative effects are expressed when the timing of the peripheral and cortical events is not precisely circumscribed, these findings suggest that multiple cellular pathways may contribute to a long term potentiation-type response. Their relative contributions will differ depending on the nature of the induction protocol that is used.

  9. Motor simulation without motor expertise: enhanced corticospinal excitability in visually experienced dance spectators.

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    Corinne Jola

    Full Text Available The human "mirror-system" is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or "novices" who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities

  10. Aberrant crossed corticospinal facilitation in muscles distant from a spinal cord injury.

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    Karen L Bunday

    Full Text Available Crossed facilitatory interactions in the corticospinal pathway are impaired in humans with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI. The extent to which crossed facilitation is affected in muscles above and below the injury remains unknown. To address this question we tested 51 patients with neurological injuries between C2-T12 and 17 age-matched healthy controls. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation we elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the resting first dorsal interosseous, biceps brachii, and tibialis anterior muscles when the contralateral side remained at rest or performed 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC into index finger abduction, elbow flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion, respectively. By testing MEPs in muscles with motoneurons located at different spinal cord segments we were able to relate the neurological level of injury to be above, at, or below the location of the motoneurons of the muscle tested. We demonstrate that in patients the size of MEPs was increased to a similar extent as in controls in muscles above the injury during 70% of MVC compared to rest. MEPs remained unchanged in muscles at and within 5 segments below the injury during 70% of MVC compared to rest. However, in muscles beyond 5 segments below the injury the size of MEPs increased similar to controls and was aberrantly high, 2-fold above controls, in muscles distant (>15 segments from the injury. These aberrantly large MEPs were accompanied by larger F-wave amplitudes compared to controls. Thus, our findings support the view that corticospinal degeneration does not spread rostral to the lesion, and highlights the potential of caudal regions distant from an injury to facilitate residual corticospinal output after SCI.

  11. Volitional muscle activity paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation increases corticospinal excitability

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    Matthew A Edwardson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of activity-dependent stimulation in non-human primates suggest that pairing each instance of volitional muscle activity with immediate intracortical stimulation causes long-term-potentiation-like effects. This technique holds promise for clinical rehabilitation, yet few investigators have tested activity-dependent stimulation in human subjects. In addition, no one has studied activity-dependent stimulation on the cortical representation for two separate target muscles in human subjects. We hypothesized that 40 min of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS triggered from ballistic muscle activity at a mean repetition rate of 1 Hz would cause greater increases in corticospinal excitability than TMS-cued muscle activity, and that these changes would be specific to the muscle of study. Ten healthy human subjects participated in 4 separate sessions in this crossover study: (1 visually cued volitional activation of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB muscle triggering TMS (APB-Triggered TMS, (2 volitional activation of APB in response to TMS delivered from a recording of the prior APB-Triggered TMS session (TMS-Cued APB, (3 visually cued volitional activation of the extensor digitorum (ED triggering TMS (ED-Triggered TMS, and (4 volitional activation of ED in response to TMS delivered from a recording of the prior ED-Triggered TMS session (TMS-Cued ED. Contrary to our hypothesis, we discovered evidence of increased corticospinal excitability for all conditions as measured by change in area of the motor evoked potential. We conclude that single TMS pulses paired either before or after muscle activity may increase corticospinal excitability and that further studies are needed to clarify the optimal time window for inducing neural plasticity with activity-dependent stimulation. These findings will inform the design of future activity-dependent stimulation protocols for clinical rehabilitation.

  12. Hemispheric differences in corticospinal excitability and in transcallosal inhibition in relation to degree of handedness.

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    Travis Davidson

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined hemispheric differences in corticospinal excitability and in transcallosal inhibition in a selected group of young adults (n = 34 grouped into three handedness categories (RH: strongly right-handed, n = 17; LH: strongly left-handed, n = 10; MH: mixed-handed, n = 7 based on laterality quotients (LQ derived from the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Performance measures were also used to derive a laterality index reflecting right-left asymmetries in manual dexterity (Dextli and in finger tapping speed (Speedli. Corticospinal excitability was assessed in each hemisphere by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS using the first dorsal interosseus as the target muscle. TMS measures consisted of resting motor threshold (rMT, motor evoked potential (MEP recruitment curve (RC and the contralateral silent period (cSP with the accompanying MEP facilitation. Hemispheric interactions were assessed by means of the ipsilateral silent period (iSP to determine the onset latency and the duration of transcallosal inhibition (i.e., LTI and DTI. Analysis of hemispheric variations in measures of corticospinal excitability revealed no major asymmetries in relation to degrees of laterality or handedness, with the exception of a rightward increase in rMTs in the LH group. Similarly, no clear asymmetries were found when looking at hemispheric variations in measures of transcallosal inhibition. However, a large group effect was detected for LTI measures, which were found to be significantly shorter in the MH group than in either the LH or RH group. MH participants also tended to show longer DTI than the other participants. Further inspection of overall variations in LTI and DTI measures as a function of LQs revealed that both variables followed a non-linear relationship, which was best described by a 2(nd order polynomial function. Overall, these findings provide converging evidence for a link between mixed-handedness and more efficient

  13. Motor Simulation without Motor Expertise: Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability in Visually Experienced Dance Spectators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jola, Corinne; Abedian-Amiri, Ali; Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Pollick, Frank E.; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The human “mirror-system” is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or “novices” who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities heighten

  14. Changes in tibialis anterior corticospinal properties after acute prolonged muscle vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabet, Adrien; Souron, Robin; Millet, Guillaume Y; Lapole, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged local vibration is known to impair muscle performance. While involved mechanisms were previously evidenced at the spinal level, changes at the cortical level were also hypothesized. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of 30 min of 100-Hz tibialis anterior muscle vibration on force production capacities and to further identify the respective changes in spinal loop properties, descending voluntary drive and corticospinal properties. Thirteen subjects were tested before and after a vibration condition, and before and after a resting control condition. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in dorsiflexion was measured. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was superimposed during MVCs to assess cortical voluntary activation (VATMS), motor-evoked potential amplitude (MEP) and cortical silent period length (CSP). MEP and CSP were also measured during 50 and 75 % MVC contractions. Spinal excitability was investigated by mean of H-reflex. There were no vibration effects on MVC (p = 0.805), maximal EMG activity (p = 0.653), VATMS (p = 1), and CSP (p = 0.877). Vibration tended to decrease MEP amplitude (p = 0.117). H-reflex amplitude was depressed following vibration (p = 0.008). Dorsiflexion maximal force production capacities were unaffected by 30 min of tibialis anterior muscle vibration, despite spinal loop and corticospinal excitabilities being reduced. These findings suggest that acute prolonged vibration has the potential to modulate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles without a concomitant functional consequence.

  15. Structural brain correlates associated with professional handball playing.

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    Jürgen Hänggi

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands.We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM of the corticospinal tract (CST and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand.Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women.Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic adaptations rather than a genetic predisposition for a

  16. Respi ratory tract infection pneumonia mycoplasma survey and its correlation with seasonal factor%呼吸道感染肺炎支原体调查与季节因素的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史云菊; 柳璐; 李肖静; 郭红霞; 张秋君

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨呼吸道感染肺炎支原体与季节因素的相关性,了解季节对呼吸道感染的影响。方法收集2012年1月-2015年1月就诊的2323例呼吸道感染临床资料,分析甲型流感病毒(IN FA )、副流感病毒(PIV )、乙型流感病毒(INFB)、呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、腺病毒(ADV)、肺炎支原体(MP)、肺炎衣原体(CP)、嗜肺军团菌(LP)8种病原体血清IgM检测结果。结果有1253例IgM 阳性,阳性率53.94%,其中INFA、INFB、MP、LP、PIV、ADV、CP、RSV阳性率分别为17.78%、13.00%、9.34%、5.81%、3.53%、2.20%、1.42%、0.86%;男性,18~60岁、下呼吸道感染患者M P‐Ig M阳性率分别为10.52%、14.07%、11.43%,高于女性,>60~80岁、>80岁、上呼吸道感染患者M P‐Ig M阳性率,比较差异有统计学意义;冬季、春季、秋季及夏季M P‐Ig M阳性率分别为12.03%、10.81%、6.79%、4.98%,其中M P‐IgM阳性率冬季、春季均高于秋季、夏季,比较差异无统计学意义;Spe‐raman相关分析研究年度内气温与患者MP‐IgM阳性率间有负相关性(P<0.05)。结论成人呼吸道感染病原体中MP感染较为常见,男性、中青年人及下呼吸道感染患者MP感染率相对较高,气温与MP感染关系密切,夏秋季气温较高的季节MP感染率相对低于冬春季气温较低季节,低气温可能是影响MP流行的主要气象学因素。%OBJECTIVE To discuss respiratory tract mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and its correlation with sea‐sonal factor ,and understand the influence of the season for respiratory tract infections .METHODS Clinical data of 2323 patients with respiratory tract infections in hospital from Jan .2012 to Jan .2012 were collected .The serum IgM antibody test results of eight kinds of pathogens were analyzed ,including influenza a virus (INFA ) ,parain

  17. 消化道肿瘤患者术前PG-SGA评分与人体成分的相关性研究%The correlation between PG-SGA and body composition in preoperative patients with digestive tract cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟泽民; 郭剑; 张蓓蕾; 张燕忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and the index of body composition in nutritional assessment of patients with digestive tract cancer.Methods The nutritional status of 101 patients with digestive tract cancer were evaluated by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), and in the meantime, the body composition was measured by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, then take correlation analysis on the result.Results 65 cases were malnutrition, the rate is 64.36%. The incidence of gastric cancer patients with PG-SGA scores more than 4 was 76%, signiifcantly higher than 52.95% of patients with colorectal cancer (P0.05). The correlation between PG-SGA score and body mass, BMI, body fat mass and body fat percentage was higher than other body composition indexes.Conclusions The incidence of malnutrition was high in digestive tract cancer patients especially in gastric cancer patients. The body weight , body fat mass ,lean body mass and other indexes were signiifcantly decreased in the patients with malnutrition. There was a good correlation between PG-SGA score and body composition index, the combination of them can provide a more accurate assessment of preoperative nutritional status in order to provide the exact evidence for nutritional support.%目的探讨患者主观整体评估(PG-SGA)与人体成分指标在消化道肿瘤患者营养评估中的相关性。方法对101例消化道肿瘤患者应用PG-SGA进行术前营养状况评估,同时应用多频生物电阻抗分析法测定人体成分,将结果进行相关性分析。结果术前营养不良(PG-SGA≥4分)患者65例占64.36%。胃癌患者营养不良的发生率为76%,明显高于结直肠癌患者的52.95%(P<0.05)。营养不良组患者体重、BMI、体脂肪量、体脂百分比、瘦体组织、身体水分含量、细胞外液均低于非营养不良组(P<0.05),两组蛋

  18. Cortical overexpression of neuronal calcium sensor-1 induces functional plasticity in spinal cord following unilateral pyramidal tract injury in rat.

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    Ping K Yip

    Full Text Available Following trauma of the adult brain or spinal cord the injured axons of central neurons fail to regenerate or if intact display only limited anatomical plasticity through sprouting. Adult cortical neurons forming the corticospinal tract (CST normally have low levels of the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS1 protein. In primary cultured adult cortical neurons, the lentivector-induced overexpression of NCS1 induces neurite sprouting associated with increased phospho-Akt levels. When the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway was pharmacologically inhibited the NCS1-induced neurite sprouting was abolished. The overexpression of NCS1 in uninjured corticospinal neurons exhibited axonal sprouting across the midline into the CST-denervated side of the spinal cord following unilateral pyramidotomy. Improved forelimb function was demonstrated behaviourally and electrophysiologically. In injured corticospinal neurons, overexpression of NCS1 induced axonal sprouting and regeneration and also neuroprotection. These findings demonstrate that increasing the levels of intracellular NCS1 in injured and uninjured central neurons enhances their intrinsic anatomical plasticity within the injured adult central nervous system.

  19. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients

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    Xue-mei Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri, right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri, right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus, right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  20. Kinesio-Taping Application and Corticospinal Excitability at the Ankle Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Francois; Karam, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    Context Physiotherapists and athletic trainers often use Kinesio Taping (KT) to prevent and treat musculoskeletal injuries in athletes, yet evidence about its effects on neuromuscular performance is conflicting. Objective To investigate the influence of a KT application directed at the ankle joint on measures of corticospinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twelve healthy young women (age = 23.1 ± 1.9 years; range, 19–26 years). Intervention(s) Participants were tested under no-tape and KT conditions according to a random sequence order. The KT was applied to the skin overlying the dorsiflexor and plantar-flexor muscles of the ankle. Main Outcome Measure(s) We assessed changes in the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials elicited at rest and during movement and changes in the silent period and background muscle activity during movement. Results Taping conditions had no effect on motor-evoked potential amplitude at rest or during movement or on the silent-period duration and background muscle activity. Conclusions Our results concur with other recent reports, showing KT applications have little influence at the neuromuscular level. Alterations in sensory feedback ascribed to elastic taping are likely insufficient to modulate corticospinal excitability in a functionally meaningful manner. PMID:26090708

  1. Characteristics of corticospinal projections to the intrinsic hand muscles in skilled harpists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, Alison R; Kennedy, Niamh C; Carson, Richard G

    2016-01-26

    The process of learning to play a musical instrument necessarily alters the functional organisation of the cortical motor areas that are involved in generating the required movements. In the case of the harp, the demands placed on the motor system are quite specific. During performance, all digits with the sole exception of the little finger are used to pluck the strings. With a view to elucidating the impact of having acquired this highly specialised musical skill on the characteristics of corticospinal projections to the intrinsic hand muscles, focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in three muscles (of the left hand): abductor pollicis brevis (APB); first dorsal interosseous (FDI); and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) in seven harpists. Seven non-musicians served as controls. With respect to the FDI muscle-which moves the index finger, the harpists exhibited reliably larger MEP amplitudes than those in the control group. In contrast, MEPs evoked in the ADM muscle-which activates the little finger, were smaller in the harpists than in the non-musicians. The locations on the scalp over which magnetic stimulation elicited discriminable responses in ADM also differed between the harpists and the non-musicians. This specific pattern of variation in the excitability of corticospinal projections to these intrinsic hand muscles exhibited by harpists is in accordance with the idiosyncratic functional demands that are imposed in playing this instrument. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasticity of Corticospinal Neural Control after Locomotor Training in Human Spinal Cord Injury

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    Maria Knikou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal lesions substantially impair ambulation, occur generally in young and otherwise healthy individuals, and result in devastating effects on quality of life. Restoration of locomotion after damage to the spinal cord is challenging because axons of the damaged neurons do not regenerate spontaneously. Body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT is a therapeutic approach in which a person with a spinal cord injury (SCI steps on a motorized treadmill while some body weight is removed through an upper body harness. BWSTT improves temporal gait parameters, muscle activation patterns, and clinical outcome measures in persons with SCI. These changes are likely the result of reorganization that occurs simultaneously in supraspinal and spinal cord neural circuits. This paper will focus on the cortical control of human locomotion and motor output, spinal reflex circuits, and spinal interneuronal circuits and how corticospinal control is reorganized after locomotor training in people with SCI. Based on neurophysiological studies, it is apparent that corticospinal plasticity is involved in restoration of locomotion after training. However, the neural mechanisms underlying restoration of lost voluntary motor function are not well understood and translational neuroscience research is needed so patient-orientated rehabilitation protocols to be developed.

  3. Decreased Corticospinal Excitability after the Illusion of Missing Part of the Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilteni, Konstantina; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Veciana De Las Heras, Misericordia; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on body ownership illusions have shown that under certain multimodal conditions, healthy people can experience artificial body-parts as if they were part of their own body, with direct physiological consequences for the real limb that gets 'substituted.' In this study we wanted to assess (a) whether healthy people can experience 'missing' a body-part through illusory ownership of an amputated virtual body, and (b) whether this would cause corticospinal excitability changes in muscles associated with the 'missing' body-part. Forty right-handed participants saw a virtual body from a first person perspective but for half of them the virtual body was missing a part of its right arm. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied before and after the experiment to left and right motor cortices. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) of each hand. We found that the stronger the illusion of amputation and arm ownership, the more the reduction of MEP amplitudes of the EDC muscle for the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. In contrast, no association was found for the EDC amplitudes in the ipsilateral cortex and for the FDI amplitudes in both contralateral and ipsilateral cortices. Our study provides evidence that a short-term illusory perception of missing a body-part can trigger inhibitory effects on corticospinal pathways and importantly in the absence of any limb deafferentation or disuse.

  4. Decreased corticospinal excitability after the illusion of missing part of the arm

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    Konstantina eKilteni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on body ownership illusions have shown that under certain multimodal conditions, healthy people can experience artificial body-parts as if they were part of their own body, with direct physiological consequences for the real limb that gets ‘substituted’. In this study we wanted to assess (a whether healthy people can experience ‘missing’ a body-part through illusory ownership of an amputated virtual body, and (b whether this would cause corticospinal excitability changes in muscles associated with the ‘missing’ body-part. Forty right-handed participants saw a virtual body from a first person perspective but for half of them the virtual body was missing a part of its right arm. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied before and after the experiment to left and right motor cortices. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI and the extensor digitorum communis (EDC of each hand. We found that the stronger the illusion of amputation and arm ownership, the more the reduction of MEP amplitudes of the EDC muscle for the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. In contrast, no association was found for the EDC amplitudes in the ipsilateral cortex and for the FDI amplitudes in both contralateral and ipsilateral cortices. Our study provides evidence that a short-term illusory perception of missing a body-part can trigger inhibitory effects on corticospinal pathways and importantly in the absence of any limb deafferentation or disuse.

  5. Decreased Corticospinal Excitability after the Illusion of Missing Part of the Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilteni, Konstantina; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Veciana De Las Heras, Misericordia; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on body ownership illusions have shown that under certain multimodal conditions, healthy people can experience artificial body-parts as if they were part of their own body, with direct physiological consequences for the real limb that gets ‘substituted.’ In this study we wanted to assess (a) whether healthy people can experience ‘missing’ a body-part through illusory ownership of an amputated virtual body, and (b) whether this would cause corticospinal excitability changes in muscles associated with the ‘missing’ body-part. Forty right-handed participants saw a virtual body from a first person perspective but for half of them the virtual body was missing a part of its right arm. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied before and after the experiment to left and right motor cortices. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) of each hand. We found that the stronger the illusion of amputation and arm ownership, the more the reduction of MEP amplitudes of the EDC muscle for the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. In contrast, no association was found for the EDC amplitudes in the ipsilateral cortex and for the FDI amplitudes in both contralateral and ipsilateral cortices. Our study provides evidence that a short-term illusory perception of missing a body-part can trigger inhibitory effects on corticospinal pathways and importantly in the absence of any limb deafferentation or disuse. PMID:27148005

  6. Symmetric corticospinal excitability and representation of vastus lateralis muscle in right-handed healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sawah, Mohomad; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Cao, Yisheng; D'Antoni, Anthony V; Chusid, Eileen; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the size and location of the representations of the anterior thigh muscles on the human motor cortex in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis (rVL, lVL) muscles. A total of ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in the study. In a single session experiment, we investigated VL muscle corticospinal excitability (motor threshold, MEP size, short interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation) and cortical representation (map area, volume, and location) in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. The motor threshold, MEPs, and intracortical excitability did not differ significantly between the hemispheres (P > 0.05). Furthermore, no difference between sides was found in the location of VL motor representation (mediolateral and anteroposterior axis) or in map area and volume (P > 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle corticospinal excitability and cortical map were symmetrical in right-handed subjects. Future studies on patients with unilateral lower extremity injuries could examine side-to-side plastic reorganization in corticomotor output and map location in both hemispheres.

  7. Motor imagery of voluntary muscle relaxation induces temporal reduction of corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kouki; Watanabe, Jun; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Voluntary muscle relaxation is an "active process" requiring cortical activation. However, cortical activation during motor imagery of muscle relaxation has not been well understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify time-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability during the imagery of muscle relaxation. Ten participants imagined volitional muscle relaxation from an imagined pinching with their right index finger and thumb in response to an auditory cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied at the left primary motor area of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at different time intervals after the auditory cue. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right hand and forearm muscles. The MEP amplitudes of the FDI and the synergist temporally decreased after the auditory cue as compared with those present in the resting condition. Our finding indicates that motor imagery of muscle relaxation induces a temporal reduction of the corticospinal excitability related to the targeted muscle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 2. Genetic parameters of excretion traits and correlations with anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvoix Séverine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry production has been widely criticized for its negative environmental impact related to the quantity of manure produced and to its nitrogen and phosphorus content. In this study, we investigated which traits related to excretion could be used to select chickens for lower environmental pollution. The genetic parameters of several excretion traits were estimated on 630 chickens originating from 2 chicken lines divergently selected on apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen (AMEn at constant body weight. The quantity of excreta relative to feed consumption (CDUDM, the nitrogen and phosphorus excreted, the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio and the water content of excreta were measured, and the consequences of such selection on performance and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT characteristics estimated. The genetic correlations between excretion, GIT and performance traits were established. Results Heritability estimates were high for CDUDM and the nitrogen excretion rate (0.30 and 0.29, respectively. The other excretion measurements showed low to moderate heritability estimates, ranging from 0.10 for excreta water content to 0.22 for the phosphorus excretion rate. Except for the excreta water content, the CDUDM was highly correlated with the excretion traits, ranging from -0.64 to -1.00. The genetic correlations between AMEn or CDUDM and the GIT characteristics were very similar and showed that a decrease in chicken excretion involves an increase in weight of the upper part of the GIT, and a decrease in the weight of the small intestine. Conclusion In order to limit the environmental impact of chicken production, AMEn and CDUDM seem to be more suitable criteria to include in selection schemes than feed efficiency traits.

  9. Correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with extended spectrum beta lactamase production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from the patients suspected of urinary tract infections visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Neupane

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the most predominant causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI. Recently, increase in drug resistance among the uropathogenic bacteria has caused great problem in treatment of UTI. The main objective of this research is to determine the correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with extended spectrum beta lactamase production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Methods The urine samples collected from the patients suspected of urinary tract infections (visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal between July to December 2013 were cultured in cystine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED agar by using semi quantitative culture technique. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL production was detected by combined disc diffusion technique and biofilm formation was detected by Congo red agar method. Chi-square test was applied and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Out of 1480 urine samples, E. Coli was isolated from 208 (14.1 % samples. Of total 69 (33.2 % ESBL producing uropathogenic strains of E. coli, 20 (29 % were strong biofilm producers, 22 (31.9 % were moderate biofilm producers, 11 (15.9 % were weak biofilm producers and 16 (23.2 % were biofilm non producers. Whereas among 139 ESBL non producing E. coli, 22 (15.8 % were strong biofilm producers, 20 (14.4 % were moderate biofilm producers, 13 (9.4 % were weak biofilm producers and 84 (60.4 % were biofilm non producers. Among total 108 biofilm producing E. coli, maximum resistance was observed toward cephalexin followed by amoxicillin and highest susceptibility was seen toward amikacin. Conclusion The ability of biofilm formation was found to be significantly higher in ESBL producing strains of E. coli than that in ESBL non producing strains (p < 0.05. There was higher resistance rate to antimicrobial agents among biofilm

  10. Intensity dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on corticospinal excitability in chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynda M; Edwards, Dylan J; Ruffini, Giulio; Labar, Douglas; Stampas, Argyrios; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Cortes, Mar

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) intensity on corticospinal excitability and affected muscle activation in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Single-blind, randomized, sham-controlled, crossover study. Medical research institute and rehabilitation hospital. Volunteers (N = 9) with chronic SCI and motor dysfunction in wrist extensor muscles. Three single session exposures to 20 minutes of a-tDCS (anode over the extensor carpi radialis [ECR] muscle representation on the left primary motor cortex, cathode over the right supraorbital area) using 1 mA, 2 mA, or sham stimulation, delivered at rest, with at least 1 week between sessions. Corticospinal excitability was assessed with motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the ECR muscle using surface electromyography after transcranial magnetic stimulation. Changes in spinal excitability, sensory threshold, and muscle strength were also investigated. Mean MEP amplitude significantly increased by approximately 40% immediately after 2mA a-tDCS (pre: 0.36 ± 0.1 mV; post: 0.47 ± 0.11 mV; P = .001), but not with 1 mA or sham. Maximal voluntary contraction measures remained unaltered across all conditions. Sensory threshold significantly decreased over time after 1mA (P = .002) and 2mA (P = .039) a-tDCS and did not change with sham. F-wave persistence showed a nonsignificant trend for increase (pre: 32% ± 12%; post: 41% ± 10%; follow-up: 46% ± 12%) after 2 mA stimulation. No adverse effects were reported with any of the experimental conditions. The a-tDCS can transiently raise corticospinal excitability to affected muscles in patients with chronic SCI after 2 mA stimulation. Sensory perception can improve with both 1 and 2 mA stimulation. This study gives support to the safe and effective use of a-tDCS using small electrodes in patients with SCI and highlights the importance of stimulation intensity. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  11. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  12. Differences in corticospinal system activity and reaction response between karate athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Messina, Giovanni; Valenzano, Anna; Petito, Annamaria; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Viggiano, Andrea; De Luca, Vincenzo; Capranica, Laura; Monda, Marcellino; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters over the hand region of the motor cortex, such as resting motor threshold (rMT) and motor evoked potential (MEP) latency, predict the behavioural performance of karate athletes in the response time (RT) test. Twenty-five male karate athletes (24.9 ± 4.9 years) and 25 matched non-athletes (26.2 ± 4.5 years) were recruited. Using TMS, we investigated cortico-spinal system excitability. Compared with controls, the athletes showed faster RT (p rMT (p rMT (p rMT and the shorter MEP latency observed in athletes support the effects of training in determining specific brain organizations to meet specific sport challenges.

  13. Age and muscle-dependent variations in corticospinal excitability during standing tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Remaud

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated how modulation in corticospinal excitability elicited in the context of standing tasks varies as a function of age and between muscles. Changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in tibialis anterior (TA and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL were monitored while participants (young, n = 10; seniors, n = 11 either quietly stood (QS or performed a heel raise (HR task. In the later condition, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses were delivered at three specific time points during the task: 1 250 ms before the "go" cue (preparatory (PREP phase, 2 100 ms before the heel rise (anticipatory postural adjustment (APA phase, and 3 200 ms after heel rise (execution (EXEC phase. In each task and each phase, variations in MEP characteristics were analysed for age and muscle-dependent effects. Variations in silent period (SP duration were also examined for certain phases (APA and EXEC. Our analysis revealed no major difference during QS, as participants exhibited very similar patterns of modulation in both TA and GL, irrespective of their age group. During the HR task, young adults exhibited a differential modulation in the PREP phase with enhanced responses in TA relative to GL, which was not seen in seniors. Finally, besides differences in MEP latency, age had little influence on MEP modulation during the APA and EXEC phases, where amplitude was largely a function of background muscle activity associated with each phase (i.e., APA: TA; EXEC: GL. No age or muscle effects were detected for SP measurements. Overall, our results revealed no major differences between young adults and healthy seniors in the ability to modulate corticospinal facilitation destined to ankle muscles during standing tasks, with maybe the exception of the ability to prime muscle synergies in the preparatory phase of action.

  14. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki; Osawa, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Sugawara, Kenichi

    2017-09-29

    To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion (Increasing phase), the peak value of the sine wave, during the gradual reduction (Decreasing phase), and after completion of the task. The MEP ratio, as the ratio of imaged MEPs to resting-state, was compared between pre- and post-training at each time point. In the ECR muscle, the MEP ratio significantly increased during the Increasing phase and at the peak force of dorsiflexion imagery after training. Moreover, the MEP ratio was significantly greater in the Increasing phase than in the Decreasing phase. In the FCR, there were no significant consistent changes. Corticospinal excitability during motor imagery in an isometric contraction task was modulated in relation to the phase of force control after image construction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corticospinal activity evoked and modulated by non-invasive stimulation of the intact human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John C

    2014-10-01

    A number of methods have been developed recently that stimulate the human brain non-invasively through the intact scalp. The most common are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electric stimulation (TES) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS). They are widely used to probe function and connectivity of brain areas as well as therapeutically in a variety of conditions such as depression or stroke. They are much less focal than conventional invasive methods which use small electrodes placed on or in the brain and are often thought to activate all classes of neurones in the stimulated area. However, this is not true. A large body of evidence from experiments on the motor cortex shows that non-invasive methods of brain stimulation can be surprisingly selective and that adjusting the intensity and direction of stimulation can activate different classes of inhibitory and excitatory inputs to the corticospinal output cells. Here we review data that have elucidated the action of TMS and TES, concentrating mainly on the most direct evidence available from spinal epidural recordings of the descending corticospinal volleys. The results show that it is potentially possible to test and condition specific neural circuits in motor cortex that could be affected differentially by disease, or be used in different forms of natural behaviour. However, there is substantial interindividual variability in the specificity of these protocols. Perhaps in the future it will be possible, with the advances currently being made to model the electrical fields induced in individual brains, to develop forms of stimulation that can reliably target more specific populations of neurones, and open up the internal circuitry of the motor cortex for study in behaving humans.

  16. The nature of corticospinal paths driving human motoneurones during voluntary contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jane E; Larsen, Thomas S; Gandevia, Simon C; Petersen, Nicolas T

    2007-10-15

    The properties of the human motor cortex can be studied non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Stimulation at high intensity excites corticospinal cells with fast conducting axons that make direct connections to motoneurones of human upper limb muscles, while low-intensity stimulation can suppress ongoing EMG. To assess whether these cells are used in normal voluntary contractions, we used TMS at very low intensities to suppress the firing of single motor units in biceps brachii (n = 14) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI, n = 6). Their discharge was recorded with intramuscular electrodes and cortical stimulation was delivered at multiple intensities at appropriate times during sustained voluntary firing at approximately 10 Hz. For biceps, high-intensity stimulation produced facilitation at 17.1 +/- 2.1 ms (lasting 2.4 +/- 0.9 ms), while low-intensity stimulation (below motor threshold) produced suppression (without facilitation) at 20.2 +/- 2.1 ms (lasting 7.6 +/- 2.2 ms). For FDI, high-intensity stimulation produced facilitation at 23.3 +/- 1.2 ms (lasting 1.8 +/- 0.4 ms), with suppression produced by low-intensity stimulation at 25.2 +/- 2.6 ms (lasting 7.5 +/- 2.6 ms). The difference between the onsets of facilitation and suppression was short: 3.1 +/- 1.2 ms for biceps and 2.0 +/- 1.5 ms for FDI. This latency difference is much less than that previously reported using surface EMG recordings ( approximately 10 ms). These data suggest that low-intensity cortical stimulation inhibits ongoing activity in fast-conducting corticospinal axons through an oligosynaptic (possibly disynaptic) path, and that this activity is normally contributing to drive the motoneurones during voluntary contractions.

  17. Corticospinal excitability is dependent on the parameters of peripheral electric stimulation: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipchase, Lucy S; Schabrun, Siobhan M; Hodges, Paul W

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of 6 electric stimulation paradigms on corticospinal excitability. Using a same subject pre-post test design, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure the responsiveness of corticomotor pathway to biceps and triceps brachii muscles before and after 30 minutes of electric stimulation over the biceps brachii. Six different electric stimulation paradigms were applied in random order, at least 3 days apart. Motor control research laboratory. Healthy subjects (N=10; 5 women, 5 men; mean age ± SD, 26 ± 3.6y). Six different electric stimulation paradigms with varied stimulus amplitude, frequency, and ramp settings. Amplitudes of TMS-induced motor evoked potentials at biceps and triceps brachii normalized to maximal M-wave amplitudes. Electric stimulation delivered at stimulus amplitude sufficient to evoke a sensory response at both 10 Hz and 100 Hz, and stimulus amplitude to create a noxious response at 10 Hz decreased corticomotor responsiveness (all PStimulation sufficient to induce a motor contraction (30 Hz) applied in a ramped pattern to mimic a voluntary activation increased corticomotor responsiveness (P=0.002), whereas constant low- and high-intensity motor stimulation at 10 Hz did not. Corticomotor excitability changes were similar for both the stimulated muscle and its antagonist. Stimulus amplitude (intensity) and the nature (muscle flicker vs contraction) of motor stimulation have a significant impact on changes in corticospinal excitability induced by electric stimulation. Here, we demonstrate that peripheral electric stimulation at stimulus amplitude to create a sensory response reduces corticomotor responsiveness. Conversely, stimulus amplitude to create a motor response increases corticomotor responsiveness, but only the parameters that create a motor response that mimics a voluntary muscle contraction. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Existing Motor State Is Favored at the Expense of New Movement during 13-35 Hz Oscillatory Synchrony in the Human Corticospinal System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Thomas; Lalo, Elodie; Doyle, Louise; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Cioni, Beatrice; Brown, Peter

    2005-01-01

    .... Three experiments were performed. First, healthy subjects were instructed to make reaction time movements of the outstretched index finger in response to imperative cues triggered by transient increases in corticospinal synchrony...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What ...

  20. Understanding mirror neurons: evidence for enhanced corticospinal excitability during the observation of transitive but not intransitive hand gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G; Kennedy, Hayley A; Bradshaw, John L; Rinehart, Nicole J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2010-07-01

    Putative measures of mirror neuron activity suggest that mirror neurons respond preferentially to biological motion, but it remains unclear whether enhanced cortical activity occurs during the observation of any behaviour, or whether that behaviour needs to be associated with a particular object or goal. Forty-three healthy adults completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability while viewing intransitive and transitive hand gestures (compared with the presentation of a static hand). Visual presentations were designed to control for motoric and stimulus properties. A significant increase in corticospinal excitability (putatively reflecting mirror neuron activation) was seen only during the observation of transitive behaviour. These findings are consistent with the notion that human hand-related mirror neurons are sensitive to object- and goal-directed behaviour, rather than biological motion per se. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pronounced: meh-DUH-luh) has 10 to 15 fan-shaped structures called pyramids . These drain urine into ... tract, especially in the bladder and urethra. Teen girls are more likely to develop UTIs than boys; ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E.; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrim...

  3. Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability and Volitional Drive in Response to Shortening and Lengthening Strength Training and Changes Following Detraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallent, Jamie; Goodall, Stuart; Gibbon, Karl C.; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited understanding of the neurological adaptations responsible for changes in strength following shortening and lengthening resistance training and subsequent detraining. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in corticospinal and spinal responses to resistance training of the tibialis anterior muscle between shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for 4 weeks and after 2 weeks of detraining. Thirty-one untrained individuals were assigned to either shortening or lengthening isokinetic resistance training (4 weeks, 3 days/weeks) or a non-training control group. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) were used to assess corticospinal and spinal changes, respectively, at pre-, mid-, post-resistance training and post detraining. Greater increases changes (P MVC were found from the respective muscle contraction training. Motor evoked potentials (expressed relative to background EMG) significantly increased in lengthening resistance training group under contraction intensities ranging from 25 to 80% of the shortening and lengthening contraction intensity (P MVC and V-wave did not change (P > 0.05), although MEP amplitude decreased during the detraining period (P < 0.01). No changes in H-reflex were found pre to post resistance training or post detraining. Modulation in V-wave appeared to be contraction specific, whereby greatest increases occurred following lengthening resistance training. Strength and volitional drive is maintained following 2 weeks detraining, however corticospinal excitability appears to decrease when the training stimulus is withdrawn. PMID:28223941

  4. Xenografts of expanded primate olfactory ensheathing glia support transient behavioral recovery that is independent of serotonergic or corticospinal axonal regeneration in nude rats following spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J D; Herrera, L; Margitich, I; Oliveria, M; Marcillo, A; Casas, C E

    2008-08-01

    Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OEG) may improve the outcome from spinal cord injury. Proof-of-principle studies in primates are desirable and the feasibility and efficacy of using in vitro expanded OEG should be tested. An intermediate step between the validation of rodent studies and human clinical trials is to study expanded primate OEG (POEG) xenografts in immunotolerant rodents. In this study the time course to generate purified POEG was evaluated as well as their survival, effect on damaged axons of the corticospinal and serotonergic systems, tissue sparing, and chronic locomotor recovery following transplantation. Fifty-seven nude rats underwent T9/10 spinal cord transection. Thirty-eight rats received POEG, 19 controls were injected with cell medium, and 10 received lentivirally-GFP-transfected POEG. Histological evaluation was conducted at 6 weeks, 8 weeks, 14 weeks and 23-24 weeks. Of these 57 rats, 18 were studied with 5-HT immunostaining, 16 with BDA anterograde CST labeling, and six were used for transmission electron microscopy. In grafted animals, behavioral recovery, sprouting and limited regeneration of 5-HT fibers, and increased numbers of proximal collateral processes but not regeneration of CST fibers was observed. Grafted animals had less cavitation in the spinal cord stumps than controls. Behavioral recovery peaked at three months and then declined. Five POEG-transplanted animals that had shown behavioral recovery underwent retransection and behavioral scores did not change significantly, suggesting that long tract axonal regeneration did not account for the locomotor improvement. At the ultrastructural level presumptive POEG were found to have direct contacts with astrocytes forming the glia limitans, distinct from those formed by Schwann cells. At 6 weeks GFP expression was detected in cells within the lesion site and within nerve roots but did not match the pattern of Hoechst nuclear labeling. At 3.5 months only GFP

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Urinary Tract Infections Print A ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  6. Research advances of the correlation between chronic rhinosinusitis and lower respiratory tract diseases%慢性鼻-鼻窦炎与下呼吸道疾病的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱旭利; 高静

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract, and has an important impact on the lower respiratory tract diseases. Epidemiological and clinical studies have proved that the upper and lower respiratory tract inflammatory diseases are usually combined. The view of the"united airway disease"is widely accepted by the medical community. The upper and lower respiratory tract are continued in anatomical structure, and have similar morphology and physiological function, so that the inlfammation can be mutually involved. In this paper, the relationship and possible mechanisms between chronic rhinosinusitis and lower respiratory tract diseases are reviewed, which provide theoretical basis for the comprehensive treatment and prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract diseases.%慢性鼻-鼻窦炎作为上呼吸道炎症性疾病,对下呼吸道疾病有重要影响。流行病学和临床研究已证明上、下呼吸道炎性疾病通常合并存在,“联合气道疾病”观点随着研究的深入,逐渐得到医学界的广泛认同。上、下呼吸道各部在解剖结构上延续,组织形态及生理功能上相似,所以炎症发生时可以相互累及。本文就慢性鼻-鼻窦炎与下呼吸道疾病的相关关系及可能机制进行综述,为上、下呼吸道疾病的综合治疗和预防提供理论依据。

  7. Corticospinal excitability measurements using transcranial magnetic stimulation are valid with intramuscular electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Muscular targets that are deep or inaccessible to surface electromyography (sEMG) require intrinsic recording using fine-wire electromyography (fEMG). It is unknown if fEMG validly record cortically evoked muscle responses compared to sEMG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the validity and agreement of fEMG compared to sEMG to quantify typical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures pre and post repetitive TMS (rTMS). The hypotheses were that fEMG would demonstrate excellent validity and agreement compared with sEMG. Materials and methods In ten healthy volunteers, paired pulse and cortical silent period (CSP) TMS measures were collected before and after 1200 pulses of 1Hz rTMS to the motor cortex. Data were simultaneously recorded with sEMG and fEMG in the first dorsal interosseous. Concurrent validity (r and rho) and agreement (Tukey mean-difference) were calculated. Results fEMG quantified corticospinal excitability with good to excellent validity compared to sEMG data at both pretest (r = 0.77–0.97) and posttest (r = 0.83–0.92). Pairwise comparisons indicated no difference between sEMG and fEMG for all outcomes; however, Tukey mean-difference plots display increased variance and questionable agreement for paired pulse outcomes. CSP displayed the highest estimates of validity and agreement. Paired pulse MEP responses recorded with fEMG displayed reduced validity, agreement and less sensitivity to changes in MEP amplitude compared to sEMG. Change scores following rTMS were not significantly different between sEMG and fEMG. Conclusion fEMG electrodes are a valid means to measure CSP and paired pulse MEP responses. CSP displays the highest validity estimates, while caution is warranted when assessing paired pulse responses with fEMG. Corticospinal excitability and neuromodulatory aftereffects from rTMS may be assessed using fEMG. PMID:28231250

  8. Reversed Effects of Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation following Motor Training That Vary as a Function of Training-Induced Changes in Corticospinal Excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Stöckel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS has the potential to enhance corticospinal excitability (CSE and subsequent motor learning. However, the effects of iTBS following motor learning are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of iTBS on CSE and performance following motor learning. Therefore twenty-four healthy participants practiced a ballistic motor task for a total of 150 movements. iTBS was subsequently applied to the trained motor cortex (STIM group or the vertex (SHAM group. Performance and CSE were assessed before motor learning and before and after iTBS. Training significantly increased performance and CSE in both groups. In STIM group participants, subsequent iTBS significantly reduced motor performance with smaller reductions in CSE. CSE changes as a result of motor learning were negatively correlated with both the CSE changes and performance changes as a result of iTBS. No significant effects of iTBS were found for SHAM group participants. We conclude that iTBS has the potential to degrade prior motor learning as a function of training-induced CSE changes. That means the expected LTP-like effects of iTBS are reversed following motor learning.

  9. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  10. Overt orienting of spatial attention and corticospinal excitability during action observation are unrelated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Sonia; Castiello, Umberto; Guerra, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Observing moving body parts can automatically activate topographically corresponding motor representations in the primary motor cortex (M1), the so-called direct matching. Novel neurophysiological findings from social contexts are nonetheless proving that this process is not automatic as previously thought. The motor system can flexibly shift from imitative to incongruent motor preparation, when requested by a social gesture. In the present study we aim to bring an increase in the literature by assessing whether and how diverting overt spatial attention might affect motor preparation in contexts requiring interactive responses from the onlooker. Experiment 1 shows that overt attention—although anchored to an observed biological movement—can be captured by a target object as soon as a social request for it becomes evident. Experiment 2 reveals that the appearance of a short-lasting red dot in the contralateral space can divert attention from the target, but not from the biological movement. Nevertheless, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over M1 combined with electromyography (EMG) recordings (Experiment 3) indicates that attentional interference reduces corticospinal excitability related to the observed movement, but not motor preparation for a complementary action on the target. This work provides evidence that social motor preparation is impermeable to attentional interference and that a double dissociation is present between overt orienting of spatial attention and neurophysiological markers of action observation. PMID:28319191

  11. Corticospinal Reorganization after Locomotor Training in a Person with Motor Incomplete Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Hajela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent plasticity as a result of reorganization of neural circuits is a fundamental characteristic of the central nervous system that occurs simultaneously in multiple sites. In this study, we established the effects of subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the primary motor cortex region on the tibialis anterior (TA long-latency flexion reflex. Neurophysiological tests were conducted before and after robotic gait training in one person with a motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI while at rest and during robotic-assisted stepping. The TA flexion reflex was evoked following nonnociceptive sural nerve stimulation and was conditioned by TMS at 0.9 TA motor evoked potential resting threshold at conditioning-test intervals that ranged from 70 to 130 ms. Subthreshold TMS induced a significant facilitation on the TA flexion reflex before training, which was reversed to depression after training with the subject seated at rest. During stepping, corticospinal facilitation of the flexion reflex at early and midstance phases before training was replaced with depression at early and midswing followed by facilitation at late swing after training. These results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence that locomotor training reorganizes the cortical control of spinal interneuronal circuits that generate patterned motor activity, modifying spinal reflex function, in the chronic lesioned human spinal cord.

  12. Cortical and corticospinal output modulations during reaching movements with varying directions and magnitudes of interaction torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, M J; Bailey, A Z; Nelson, A J

    2015-12-17

    The neural command required to coordinate a multi-joint movement is inherently complex. During multi-joint movement of the limb, the force created from movement at one joint may create a torque at a second joint known as an interaction torque. Interaction torques may be assistive or resistive thereby aiding or opposing the motion of the second joint, respectively. For movement to be effectively controlled, the central nervous system should modulate neural output to the muscles to appropriately account for interaction torques. The present study examined the neural output from the primary motor cortex before and during reaching movements that required different combinations of assistive and resistive interaction torques occurring at the shoulder and elbow joints. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe neural output from the primary motor cortex, results indicate that corticospinal output controlling the upper arm is related to resistive interaction torques occurring at the shoulder joint. Further, cortical output to bi-articular muscles is associated with interaction torque and this may be driven by the fact that these muscles are in an advantageous position to control torques produced between inter-connection segments. Humans have a tendency to avoid reaching movements that involve resistive interaction torques and this may be driven by the requirement of increased neural output associated with these movements.

  13. Muscle relaxation of the foot reduces corticospinal excitability of hand muscles and enhances intracortical inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eKato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to clarify the effects of foot muscle relaxation on activity in the primary motor cortex of the hand area. Subjects were asked to volitionally relax the right foot from sustained contraction of either the dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior; TA relaxation or plantarflexor (soleus; SOL relaxation in response to an auditory stimulus. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was delivered to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex at different time intervals before and after the onset of TA or SOL relaxation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR and flexor carpi radialis (FCR. MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR caused by single-pulse TMS temporarily decreased after TA and SOL relaxation onset, respectively, as compared with those of the resting control. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI of ECR evaluated with paired-pulse TMS temporarily increased after TA relaxation onset. Our findings indicate that muscle relaxation of the dorsiflexor reduced corticospinal excitability of the ipsilateral hand muscles. This is most likely caused by an increase in intracortical inhibition.

  14. Optimization of the transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol by defining a reliable estimate for corticospinal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Cuypers

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to optimize the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS protocol for acquiring a reliable estimate of corticospinal excitability (CSE using single-pulse TMS. Moreover, the minimal number of stimuli required to obtain a reliable estimate of CSE was investigated. In addition, the effect of two frequently used stimulation intensities [110% relative to the resting motor threshold (rMT and 120% rMT] and gender was evaluated. Thirty-six healthy young subjects (18 males and 18 females participated in a double-blind crossover procedure. They received 2 blocks of 40 consecutive TMS stimuli at either 110% rMT or 120% rMT in a randomized order. Based upon our data, we advise that at least 30 consecutive stimuli are required to obtain the most reliable estimate for CSE. Stimulation intensity and gender had no significant influence on CSE estimation. In addition, our results revealed that for subjects with a higher rMT, fewer consecutive stimuli were required to reach a stable estimate of CSE. The current findings can be used to optimize the design of similar TMS experiments.

  15. Optimization of the transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol by defining a reliable estimate for corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Koen; Thijs, Herbert; Meesen, Raf L J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to optimize the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol for acquiring a reliable estimate of corticospinal excitability (CSE) using single-pulse TMS. Moreover, the minimal number of stimuli required to obtain a reliable estimate of CSE was investigated. In addition, the effect of two frequently used stimulation intensities [110% relative to the resting motor threshold (rMT) and 120% rMT] and gender was evaluated. Thirty-six healthy young subjects (18 males and 18 females) participated in a double-blind crossover procedure. They received 2 blocks of 40 consecutive TMS stimuli at either 110% rMT or 120% rMT in a randomized order. Based upon our data, we advise that at least 30 consecutive stimuli are required to obtain the most reliable estimate for CSE. Stimulation intensity and gender had no significant influence on CSE estimation. In addition, our results revealed that for subjects with a higher rMT, fewer consecutive stimuli were required to reach a stable estimate of CSE. The current findings can be used to optimize the design of similar TMS experiments.

  16. Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; Saunier, Ghislain; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; De Oliveira, Laura A. S.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Vargas, Claudia D.

    2016-01-01

    The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system. PMID:27625602

  17. Corticospinal excitability during the processing of handwritten and typed words and non-words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chelsea L; Spivey, Michael J; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-06-09

    A number of studies have suggested that perception of actions is accompanied by motor simulation of those actions. To further explore this proposal, we applied Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left primary motor cortex during the observation of handwritten and typed language stimuli, including words and non-word consonant clusters. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to measure cortico-spinal excitability during written text perception. We observed a facilitation in MEPs for handwritten stimuli, regardless of whether the stimuli were words or non-words, suggesting potential motor simulation during observation. We did not observe a similar facilitation for the typed stimuli, suggesting that motor simulation was not occurring during observation of typed text. By demonstrating potential simulation of written language text during observation, these findings add to a growing literature suggesting that the motor system plays a strong role in the perception of written language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscle Relaxation of the Foot Reduces Corticospinal Excitability of Hand Muscles and Enhances Intracortical Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kouki; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Kento; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study was to clarify the effects of foot muscle relaxation on activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) of the hand area. Subjects were asked to volitionally relax the right foot from sustained contraction of either the dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior; TA relaxation) or plantarflexor (soleus; SOL relaxation) in response to an auditory stimulus. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left M1 at different time intervals before and after the onset of TA or SOL relaxation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR). MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR caused by single-pulse TMS temporarily decreased after TA and SOL relaxation onset, respectively, as compared with those of the resting control. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of ECR evaluated with paired-pulse TMS temporarily increased after TA relaxation onset. Our findings indicate that muscle relaxation of the dorsiflexor reduced corticospinal excitability of the ipsilateral hand muscles. This is most likely caused by an increase in intracortical inhibition. PMID:27242482

  19. Observing grasping actions directed to emotion-laden objects: effects upon corticospinal excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaelli A Nogueira-Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE. Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1 maximum grip aperture, and (2 object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system.

  20. The strength of the corticospinal coherence depends on the predictability of modulated isometric forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Naranjo, Jose Raul; Wang, Xi; Andrykiewicz, Agnieska; Huethe, Frank; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2013-03-01

    Isometric compensation of predictably frequency-modulated low forces is associated with corticomuscular coherence (CMC) in beta and low gamma range. It remains unclear how the CMC is influenced by unpredictably modulated forces, which create a mismatch between expected and actual sensory feedback. We recorded electroencephalography from the contralateral hand motor area, electromyography (EMG), and the motor performance of 16 subjects during a visuomotor task in which they had to isometrically compensate target forces at 8% of the maximum voluntary contraction with their right index finger. The modulated forces were presented with predictable or unpredictable frequencies. We calculated the CMC, the cortical motor alpha-, beta-, and gamma-range spectral powers (SP), and the task-related desynchronization (TRD), as well as the EMG SP and the performance. We found that in the unpredictable condition the CMC was significantly lower and associated with lower cortical motor SP, stronger TRD, higher EMG SP, and worse performance. The findings suggest that due to the mismatch between predicted and actual sensory feedback leading to higher computational load and less stationary motor state, the unpredictable modulation of the force leads to a decrease in corticospinal synchrony, an increase in cortical and muscle activation, and a worse performance.

  1. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  3. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT i...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  5. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT i...

  6. Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL): Assessment of the involved white matter tracts by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, Hassan [Department of Radiology, Benha University (Egypt); Wafaie, Ahmed, E-mail: a_wafaie@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Cairo University (Egypt); Abdelfattah, Sherif [Department of Radiology, Cairo University (Egypt); Farid, Tarek [Pediatric Department, Egyptian National Research Center (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Background and purpose: Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a recently identified autosomal recessive disorder with early onset of symptoms and slowly progressive pyramidal, cerebellar and dorsal column dysfunction. LBSL is characterized by distinct white matter abnormalities and selective involvement of brainstem and spinal cord tracts. The purpose of this study is to assess the imaging features of the involved white matter tracts in cases of LBSL by MRI. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging features of the selectively involved white matter tracts in sixteen genetically proven cases of leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and elevated brain lactate (LBSL). All patients presented with slowly progressive cerebellar sensory ataxia with spasticity and dorsal column dysfunction. MRI of the brain and spine using 1.5 T machine and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) on the abnormal white matter were done to all patients. The MRI and MRS data sets were analyzed according to lesion location, extent, distribution and signal pattern as well as metabolite values and ratios in MRS. Laboratory examinations ruled out classic leukodystrophies. Results: In all cases, MRI showed high signal intensity in T2-weighted and FLAIR images within the cerebral subcortical, periventricular and deep white matter, posterior limbs of internal capsules, centrum semiovale, medulla oblongata, intraparenchymal trajectory of trigeminal nerves and deep cerebellar white matter. In the spine, the signal intensity of the dorsal column and lateral cortico-spinal tracts were altered in all patients. The subcortical U fibers, globi pallidi, thalami, midbrain and transverse pontine fibers were spared in all cases. In 11 cases (68.8%), the signal changes were inhomogeneous and confluent whereas in 5 patients (31.2%), the signal abnormalities were spotty. MRI also showed variable

  7. HPV及生殖道其他病原体感染与宫颈癌临床关系的研究进展%Research Progress of the Correlation between HPV and Other Genital Tract Infections and Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文彩荷

    2012-01-01

    宫颈癌是妇女中常见的恶性肿瘤,生殖道的病原体感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展密切相关.高危型人乳头状瘤病毒的持续感染成为宫颈癌发生的最危险因素,合并感染的病原体在宫颈癌发病过程中起协同作用.因生殖道感染不断增多,宫颈癌及癌前病变的发生率也在不断升高.需加强对生殖道常见病原菌的检测及生殖道感染的预防,从而减少宫颈癌的发生.%Cervical cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in women. The development of cervical cancer is closely related to genital infections. High-risk human papillomavirus infection is the most dangerous factor for cervical cancer, and the other co-infections play a synergistic role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Due to the continuousy increasing genital tract infections,incidence rates of cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesion have increased too. The detection of common genital tract pathogens and precaution of genital tract infections are needed to be enhanced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.

  8. Quadri-Pulse Theta Burst Stimulation using Ultra-High Frequency Bursts - A New Protocol to Induce Changes in Cortico-Spinal Excitability in Human Motor Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert;

    2016-01-01

    of sinusoidal TMS pulses elicited either a posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) directed current in M1. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded before and after qTBS to probe changes in cortico-spinal excitability. PA-qTBS at 666 Hz caused a decrease in PA-MEP amplitudes, whereas AP...... in cortico-spinal excitability. Induced current direction in the brain appears to be relevant when qTBS targets I-wave periodicity, corroborating that high-fidelity spike timing mechanisms are critical for inducing bi-directional plasticity in human M1.......Patterned transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) such as theta burst stimulation (TBS) or quadri-pulse stimulation (QPS) can induce changes in cortico-spinal excitability, commonly referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP)-like and long-term depression (LTD)-like effects in human motor cortex (M...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  10. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Alters Corticospinal Output in Patients with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter J. Fassett

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS is intended primarily to alter corticospinal excitability, creating an attractive opportunity to alter neural output following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI. This study is the first to assess the effects of iTBS in SCI. Eight individuals with chronic incomplete SCI were studied. Sham or real iTBS was delivered (to each participant over primary motor and somatosensory cortices in separate sessions. Motor-evoked potential (MEP recruitment curves were obtained from the flexor carpi radialis muscle before and after iTBS. Results indicate similar responses for iTBS to both motor and somatosensory cortex and reduced MEPs in 56.25% and increased MEPs in 25% of instances. Sham stimulation exceeded real iTBS effects in the remaining 18.25%. It is our opinion that observing short-term neuroplasticity in corticospinal output in chronic SCI is an important advance and should be tested in future studies as an opportunity to improve function in this population. We emphasize the need to re-consider the importance of the direction of MEP change following a single session of iTBS since the relationship between MEP direction and motor function is unknown and multiple sessions of iTBS may yield very different directional results. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of including sham control in the experimental design. The fundamental point from this pilot research is that a single session of iTBS is often capable of creating short-term change in SCI. Future sham-controlled randomized trials may consider repeat iTBS sessions to promote long-term changes in corticospinal excitability.

  11. Modulation of corticospinal excitability during lengthening and shortening contractions in the first dorsal interosseus muscle of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Hirofumi; Kohno, Yutaka; Hirano, Tatsuya; Akai, Masami; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2007-04-01

    Lengthening and shortening contractions are the fundamental patterns of muscle activation underlying various movements. It is still unknown whether or not there is a muscle-specific difference in such a fundamental pattern of muscle activation. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether or not the relationship between lengthening and shortening contractions in the modulation of corticospinal excitability in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle is the same as that of previously tested muscles because the hand muscles are anatomically and functionally different from the other muscles. To this end, we investigated the relationship between the input-output curves of the corticospinal pathway (i.e., the relationship between the stimulus intensities vs. the area of motor-evoked potentials) during lengthening and shortening contractions in 17 healthy subjects. The shape of this relationship was sigmoidal and characterized by a plateau value, maximum slope, and threshold. The plateau value was at the same level between lengthening and shortening contractions. However, the maximum slope (P shortening contractions. These findings were different from the results of other muscles tested in previous studies (i.e., the soleus muscle and the elbow flexors). That is to say, the plateau value and the maximum slope during lengthening contractions were significantly lower than those during shortening contractions in previous studies. This study provides tentative evidence that the relationship between lengthening and shortening contractions in the modulation of corticospinal excitability differs between muscles, indicating that the underlying neural control is not necessarily the same even though the fundamental patterns of muscle activation are carried out.

  12. Vulnerability of the medial frontal corticospinal projection accompanies combined lateral frontal and parietal cortex injury in rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Ge, J; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; McNeal, D W; Hynes, S M; Pizzimenti, M A; Rotella, D L; Darling, W G

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction, leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia, and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor, and the mechanisms that support or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the spontaneous long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared with controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral CSP. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion), which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al. [2010] J. Comp. Neurol. 518:586-621), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Functional corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area revealed by corticomuscular coherence during precise grip force control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Chen

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area (SMA are functional during precise force control with the precision grip (thumb-index opposition. Since beta band corticomuscular coherence (CMC is well-accepted to reflect efferent corticospinal transmission, we analyzed the beta band CMC obtained with simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG and electromyographic (EMG signals. Subjects performed a bimanual precise visuomotor force tracking task by applying isometric low grip forces with their right hand precision grip on a custom device with strain gauges. Concurrently, they held the device with their left hand precision grip, producing similar grip forces but without any precision constraints, to relieve the right hand. Some subjects also participated in a unimanual control condition in which they performed the task with only the right hand precision grip while the device was held by a mechanical grip. We analyzed whole scalp topographies of beta band CMC between 64 EEG channels and 4 EMG intrinsic hand muscles, 2 for each hand. To compare the different topographies, we performed non-parametric statistical tests based on spatio-spectral clustering. For the right hand, we obtained significant beta band CMC over the contralateral M1 region as well as over the SMA region during static force contraction periods. For the left hand, however, beta band CMC was only found over the contralateral M1. By comparing unimanual and bimanual conditions for right hand muscles, no significant difference was found on beta band CMC over M1 and SMA. We conclude that the beta band CMC found over SMA for right hand muscles results from the precision constraints and not from the bimanual aspect of the task. The result of the present study strongly suggests that the corticospinal projections from human SMA become functional when high precision force control is required.

  14. Changes in cortico-spinal excitability following uphill versus downhill treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Yoann M; Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Paizis, Christos

    2017-01-15

    An acute bout of aerobic exercise induces neuroplasticity in the motor cortex. Moreover, paired associative stimulation (PAS) is known to induce neuroplasticity in M1. However, the possible influence of the type of exercise on the neuroplastic changes remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of two different modes of muscle contraction produced during locomotor exercise on changes in corticospinal (CS) excitability. Subjects performed two 30-min treadmill exercises at an intensity corresponding to 60% of their maximal heart rate with either a +10% (uphill) or -10% (downhill) slope. These exercises were followed or not by paired associative stimulation method (PAS25) which consisted of 200 paired stimuli (0.25Hz, 15min) of median nerve electrical stimulation followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the hand M1 area (ISI 25ms). Motor evoked potentials (MEP), assessed through abductor pollicis brevis (APB) activity were obtained before exercise, at 5min, 15min and 30min after exercise. A significant (P<0.05) increase of the MEP amplitude was observed 30min after both exercises but was not different between the two modes of locomotion. On the contrary, MEP amplitude with PAS25 increased only 30min after downhill exercise. We conclude that sub-maximal treadmill exercise increases CS excitability within a period of 30min. However, the predominant mode of muscle contraction during uphill versus downhill locomotion does not influence CS excitability when assessed using a non-exercised muscle. However, results from PAS25 suggest that specific neuroplastic changes occur likely due to homeostatic mechanisms induced by exercise plus a PAS protocol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergence of gamma motor activity in an artificial neural network model of the corticospinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Bernard; Maier, Marc A

    2017-02-01

    Muscle spindle discharge during active movement is a function of mechanical and neural parameters. Muscle length changes (and their derivatives) represent its primary mechanical, fusimotor drive its neural component. However, neither the action nor the function of fusimotor and in particular of γ-drive, have been clearly established, since γ-motor activity during voluntary, non-locomotor movements remains largely unknown. Here, using a computational approach, we explored whether γ-drive emerges in an artificial neural network model of the corticospinal system linked to a biomechanical antagonist wrist simulator. The wrist simulator included length-sensitive and γ-drive-dependent type Ia and type II muscle spindle activity. Network activity and connectivity were derived by a gradient descent algorithm to generate reciprocal, known target α-motor unit activity during wrist flexion-extension (F/E) movements. Two tasks were simulated: an alternating F/E task and a slow F/E tracking task. Emergence of γ-motor activity in the alternating F/E network was a function of α-motor unit drive: if muscle afferent (together with supraspinal) input was required for driving α-motor units, then γ-drive emerged in the form of α-γ coactivation, as predicted by empirical studies. In the slow F/E tracking network, γ-drive emerged in the form of α-γ dissociation and provided critical, bidirectional muscle afferent activity to the cortical network, containing known bidirectional target units. The model thus demonstrates the complementary aspects of spindle output and hence γ-drive: i) muscle spindle activity as a driving force of α-motor unit activity, and ii) afferent activity providing continuous sensory information, both of which crucially depend on γ-drive.

  16. Abstract and concrete phrases processing differentially modulates cortico-spinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorolli, Claudia; Jacquet, Pierre O; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Nicoletti, Roberto; Tessari, Alessia; Borghi, Anna M

    2012-12-07

    An important challenge of embodied theories is to explain the comprehension of abstract sentences. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the role of the motor cortex in this process. We developed a new paradigm to study the abstract-concrete dimension by combining concrete (i.e., action-related) and abstract (i.e., non-action-related) verbs with nouns of graspable and non-graspable objects. Using these verb-noun combinations we performed a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) on the left primary motor cortex while participants performed a sentence sensibility task. Single-TMS pulses were delivered 250ms after verb or noun presentation in each of four combinations of abstract and concrete verbs and nouns. To evaluate cortico-spinal excitability we registered the electromyographic activity of the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. As to verb-noun integration, analysis of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after TMS pulse during noun presentation revealed greater peak-to-peak amplitude in phrases containing abstract rather than concrete verbs. Response times were also collected and showed that compatible (Concrete-Concrete and Abstract-Abstract) combinations were processed faster than mixed ones; moreover in combinations containing concrete verbs, participants were faster when the pulse was delivered on the first word (verb) than on the second one (noun). Results support previous findings showing early activation of hand-related areas after concrete verbs processing. The prolonged or delayed activation of the same areas by abstract verbs will be discussed in the framework of recent embodied theories based on multiple types of representation, particularly theories emphasizing the role of different acquisition mechanisms for concrete and abstract words (Borghi and Cimatti, 2009,2012).

  17. 反复上呼吸道感染与婴幼儿饮食结构的相关性研究%Correlation between recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and infants diet research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜侃; 栾佐; 屈素清; 杨辉; 杨印翔; 汪兆燕; 金慧玉; 刘卫鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨婴幼儿饮食结构与反复上呼吸道感染的关系。方法对270例足月正常产并反复上呼吸道感染患儿进行问卷调查(病例组),选择同期于本院体检的健康儿童270例作为对照组。采集两组研究对象出生、抚育、生长发育及既往病史等基本信息,分析饮食结构与反复上呼吸道感染的关系,对饮食结构中影响反复上呼吸道感染的多因素进行Logistic回归分析,比较两组研究对象血清微量元素、免疫球蛋白(Ig)及T细胞亚群水平。结果 Logistic回归分析表明,未按时添加维生素A+D、肉类蛋白类、蔬菜水果类及喜甜食、经常饮用煲汤是反复上呼吸道感染的危险因素。病例组患儿血清维生素D3、锌、铁、铜、镁、IgG、IgA、IgM、CD4+、CD4+/CD8+水平均低于对照组,CD8+水平明显高于对照组,差异均具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论婴幼儿不良饮食习惯与反复上呼吸道感染发作密切相关,合理的饮食结构和指导在预防和治疗小儿反复上呼吸道感染的发生发展中具有重要作用。%Objective To investigate the relationship between the infant dietary structure with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Method 270 cases of full-term normal birth and children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections were chose and received questionnaire survey, and another 270 normal children from the same hospital were included into control group. Acquisited the born, tending growth and past medical history and other basic information of the two groups subjects. Analysed the diet and recurrent respiratory tract infections relationship, analysed on Logistic regression on the inlfuencing factors of repeated upper respiratory tract infection, diet structure. Compared the levels of serum trace elements, immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell subsets between the two groups. Result Logistic regression analysis showed that failing to add

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main ... to the bladder. When it's empty, your bladder is about the same size as an empty balloon. ...

  19. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  1. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  2. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Waller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior (AB, including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  3. Specific modulation of corticospinal and spinal excitabilities during maximal voluntary isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions in synergist muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclay, Julien; Pasquet, Benjamin; Martin, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the cortical and spinal mechanisms involved in the modulations of neural activation during lengthening compared with isometric and shortening maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Two muscles susceptible to different neural adjustments at the spinal level, the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG), were compared. Twelve healthy males participated in at least two experimental sessions designed to assess corticospinal and spinal excitabilities. We compared the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and Hoffmann reflexes (H-reflexes) during isometric and anisometric MVCs. The H-reflex and MEP responses, recorded during lengthening and shortening MVCs, were compared with those obtained during isometric MVCs. The results indicate that the maximal amplitude of both MEP and H-reflex in the SOL were smaller (P shortening MVCs but similar (P > 0.05) in MG for all three muscle contraction types. The silent period that follows maximal MEPs was reduced (P muscle. Collectively, the current results indicate that the relative contribution of both cortical and spinal mechanisms to the modulation of neural activation differs during lengthening MVCs and between two synergist muscles. The comparison of SOL and MG responses further suggests that the specific modulation of the corticospinal excitability during lengthening MVCs depends mainly on pre- and postsynaptic inhibitory mechanisms acting at the spinal level.

  4. White matter tract integrity metrics reflect the vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Fieremans, Els; Jensen, Jens H; Falangola, Maria F; Tabesh, Ali; Ferris, Steven H; Helpern, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem and imaging studies have observed that white matter (WM) degenerates in a pattern inverse to myelin development, suggesting preferential regional vulnerabilities influencing cognitive decline in AD. This study applied novel WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics derived from diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to examine WM tissue properties in AD within this framework. Using data from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 12), AD (n = 14), and normal control (NC; n = 15) subjects, mixed models revealed interaction effects: specific WMTI metrics of axonal density and myelin integrity (i.e. axonal water fraction, radial extra-axonal diffusivity) in late-myelinating tracts (i.e. superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi) changed in the course of disease, but were stable in the initial stages for early-myelinating tracts (i.e. posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles). WMTI metrics in late-myelinating tracts correlated with semantic verbal fluency, a cognitive function known to decline in AD. These findings corroborate the preferential vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts, and illustrate an application of WMTI metrics to characterizing the regional course of WM changes in AD.

  5. White matter tract integrity metrics reflect the vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreana Benitez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-mortem and imaging studies have observed that white matter (WM degenerates in a pattern inverse to myelin development, suggesting preferential regional vulnerabilities influencing cognitive decline in AD. This study applied novel WM tract integrity (WMTI metrics derived from diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI to examine WM tissue properties in AD within this framework. Using data from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 12, AD (n = 14, and normal control (NC; n = 15 subjects, mixed models revealed interaction effects: specific WMTI metrics of axonal density and myelin integrity (i.e. axonal water fraction, radial extra-axonal diffusivity in late-myelinating tracts (i.e. superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi changed in the course of disease, but were stable in the initial stages for early-myelinating tracts (i.e. posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles. WMTI metrics in late-myelinating tracts correlated with semantic verbal fluency, a cognitive function known to decline in AD. These findings corroborate the preferential vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts, and illustrate an application of WMTI metrics to characterizing the regional course of WM changes in AD.

  6. White matter tract integrity metrics reflect the vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts in Alzheimer's disease☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Fieremans, Els; Jensen, Jens H.; Falangola, Maria F.; Tabesh, Ali; Ferris, Steven H.; Helpern, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Post-mortem and imaging studies have observed that white matter (WM) degenerates in a pattern inverse to myelin development, suggesting preferential regional vulnerabilities influencing cognitive decline in AD. This study applied novel WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics derived from diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to examine WM tissue properties in AD within this framework. Using data from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 12), AD (n = 14), and normal control (NC; n = 15) subjects, mixed models revealed interaction effects: specific WMTI metrics of axonal density and myelin integrity (i.e. axonal water fraction, radial extra-axonal diffusivity) in late-myelinating tracts (i.e. superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi) changed in the course of disease, but were stable in the initial stages for early-myelinating tracts (i.e. posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles). WMTI metrics in late-myelinating tracts correlated with semantic verbal fluency, a cognitive function known to decline in AD. These findings corroborate the preferential vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts, and illustrate an application of WMTI metrics to characterizing the regional course of WM changes in AD. PMID:24319654

  7. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneaki Kenzaka; Ken Kato; Akihito Kitao; Koki Kosami; Kensuke Minami; Shinsuke Yahata; Miho Fukui; Masanobu Okayama

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection ...

  8. Quadri-Pulse Theta Burst Stimulation using Ultra-High Frequency Bursts - A New Protocol to Induce Changes in Cortico-Spinal Excitability in Human Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert; Hoess, Catrina; Haug, Carolin; Siebner, Hartwig R; Mall, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Patterned transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) such as theta burst stimulation (TBS) or quadri-pulse stimulation (QPS) can induce changes in cortico-spinal excitability, commonly referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP)-like and long-term depression (LTD)-like effects in human motor cortex (M1). Here, we aimed to test the plasticity-inducing capabilities of a novel protocol that merged TBS and QPS. 360 bursts of quadri-pulse TBS (qTBS) were continuously given to M1 at 90% of active motor threshold (1440 full-sine pulses). In a first experiment, stimulation frequency of each burst was set to 666 Hz to mimic the rhythmicity of the descending cortico-spinal volleys that are elicited by TMS (i.e., I-wave periodicity). In a second experiment, burst frequency was set to 200 Hz to maximize postsynaptic Ca2+ influx using a temporal pattern unrelated to I-wave periodicity. The second phase of sinusoidal TMS pulses elicited either a posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) directed current in M1. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded before and after qTBS to probe changes in cortico-spinal excitability. PA-qTBS at 666 Hz caused a decrease in PA-MEP amplitudes, whereas AP-qTBS at 666 Hz induced an increase in mean AP-MEP amplitudes. At a burst frequency of 200 Hz, PA-qTBS and AP-qTBS produced an increase in cortico-spinal excitability outlasting for at least 60 minutes in PA- and AP-MEP amplitudes, respectively. Continuous qTBS at 666 Hz or 200 Hz can induce lasting changes in cortico-spinal excitability. Induced current direction in the brain appears to be relevant when qTBS targets I-wave periodicity, corroborating that high-fidelity spike timing mechanisms are critical for inducing bi-directional plasticity in human M1.

  9. Change in Excitability of Corticospinal Pathway and GABA-Mediated Inhibitory Circuits of Primary Motor Cortex Induced by Contraction of Adjacent Hand Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jono, Yasutomo; Iwata, Yasuyuki; Mizusawa, Hiroki; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined whether the excitability of the corticospinal pathway and the GABA-mediated inhibitory circuits of the primary motor cortex that project onto the corticospinal neurons in the tonically contracting hand muscle are changed by tonic contraction of the adjacent hand muscle. The motor evoked potential (MEP) and cortical silent period (CSP) in the tonically contracting hand muscle were obtained while the adjacent hand muscle was either tonically contracting or at rest. The MEP and CSP of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle elicited across the scalp sites where the MEP is predominantly elicited in the FDI muscle were decreased by tonic contraction of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle. The centers of the area of the MEP and the duration of the CSP in the FDI muscle elicited across the sites where the MEP is predominantly elicited in the FDI muscle were lateral to those in the FDI muscle elicited across the sites where the MEP is elicited in both the FDI and ADM muscles. They were also lateral to those in the ADM muscle elicited either across the sites where the MEP is predominantly elicited in the ADM muscle, or across the sites where the MEP is elicited in both the FDI and ADM muscles. The decrease in the corticospinal excitability and the excitability of the GABA-mediated inhibitory circuits of the primary motor cortex that project onto the corticospinal neurons in the FDI muscle may be due either to (1) the interaction between the activity of the lateral area of the FDI representation and the descending drive to the ADM muscle, or (2) the decreased susceptibility of the primary motor area that predominantly projects onto the corticospinal neurons in the FDI muscle, which also plays a role in independent finger movement when both the FDI and ADM muscles act together as synergists.

  10. Altered resting-state functional and white matter tract connectivity in stroke patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Ma, Zhenxing; Tu, Shipeng; Zhou, Muke; Chen, Sihan; Guo, Zhiwei; Gong, Qiyong; He, Li; Huang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Dezhong; Lui, Su; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhou, Dong; He, Chengqi

    2014-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is intractable after acute stroke. Our understanding of the alterations in neural networks of patients with neurogenic dysphagia is still developing. The aim was to investigate cerebral cortical functional connectivity and subcortical structural connectivity related to swallowing in unilateral hemispheric stroke patients with dysphagia. We combined a resting-state functional connectivity with a white matter tract connectivity approach, recording 12 hemispheric stroke patients with dysphagia, 12 hemispheric stroke patients without dysphagia, and 12 healthy controls. Comparisons of the patterns in swallowing-related functional connectivity maps between patient groups and control subjects included (a) seed-based functional connectivity maps calculated from the primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA) to the entire brain, (b) a swallowing-related functional connectivity network calculated among 20 specific regions of interest (ROIs), and (c) structural connectivity described by the mean fractional anisotropy of fibers bound through the SMA and M1. Stroke patients with dysphagia exhibited dysfunctional connectivity mainly in the sensorimotor-insula-putamen circuits based on seed-based analysis of the left and right M1 and SMA and decreased connectivity in the bilateral swallowing-related ROIs functional connectivity network. Additionally, white matter tract connectivity analysis revealed that the mean fractional anisotropy of the white matter tract was significantly reduced, especially in the left-to-right SMA and in the corticospinal tract. Our results indicate that dysphagia secondary to stroke is associated with disruptive functional and structural integrity in the large-scale brain networks involved in motor control, thus providing new insights into the neural remodeling associated with this disorder.

  11. Differential involvement of corticospinal tract (CST fibers in UMN-predominant ALS patients with or without CST hyperintensity: A diffusion tensor tractography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Rajagopalan

    2017-01-01

    DTT revealed subcortical loss ('truncation' of virtual motor CST fibers (presumably projecting from the precentral gyrus (PrG in ALS patients but not in controls; in contrast, virtual fibers (presumably projecting to the adjacent postcentral gyrus (PoG were spared. No significant differences in virtual CST fiber length were observed between controls and ALS patients. However, the frequency of CST truncation was significantly higher in the ALS-CST+ subgroup (9 of 21 than in the ALS-CST− subgroup (4 of 24; p = 0.049, suggesting this finding could differentiate these ALS subgroups. Also, because virtual CST truncation occurred only in the ALS patient group and not in the control group (p = 0.018, this DTT finding could prove to be a diagnostic biomarker of ALS. Significantly shorter disease duration and faster disease progression rate were observed in ALS patients with CST fiber truncation than in those without (p  0.05 in any of the ROIs. In addition, comparing FA values between ALS patients with CST truncation and those without in the aforementioned four ROIs, revealed no significant differences in either hemisphere. However, visual evaluation of DTT was able to identify UMN degeneration in patients with ALS, particularly in those with a more aggressive clinical disease course and possibly different pathologic processes.

  12. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  13. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Brietzke, Aline P.; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0−1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18–65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  14. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R; Brietzke, Aline P; Torres, Iraci L S; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0-1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18-65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  15. Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J

    2014-04-01

    The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E. coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E. coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E. coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E. coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E. coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E. coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment

  16. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  17. 30 CFR 256.28 - Tract size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tract size. 256.28 Section 256.28 Mineral... IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Area Identification and Tract Size § 256.28 Tract size. (a) A tract.... (b) The tract size for the leasing of other minerals shall be specified in the notice of sale. ...

  18. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  19. Preparation and execution of teeth clenching and foot muscle contraction influence on corticospinal hand-muscle excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeilipoor, Naeem; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Tiainen, Mikko; Vainio, Lari

    2017-01-01

    Contraction of a muscle modulates not only the corticospinal excitability (CSE) of the contracting muscle but also that of different muscles. We investigated to what extent the CSE of a hand muscle is modulated during preparation and execution of teeth clenching and ipsilateral foot dorsiflexion either separately or in combination. Hand-muscle CSE was estimated based on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We found higher excitability during both preparation and execution of all the motor tasks than during mere observation of a fixation cross. As expected, the excitability was greater during the execution phase than the preparation one. Furthermore, both execution and preparation of combined motor tasks led to higher excitability than individual tasks. These results extend our current understanding of the neural interactions underlying simultaneous contraction of muscles in different body parts. PMID:28117368

  20. Changes in corticospinal excitability during consolidation predict acute exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostadan, Fatemeh; Centeno, Carla; Daloze, Jean-Felix

    2016-01-01

    A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor task improves the long-term retention of the skill through an optimization of memory consolidation. However, the specific brain mechanisms underlying the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on procedural...... in the exercise condition showed larger (∼24%) improvements in procedural memory through consolidation although differences between groups did not reach statistical significance. Exercise promoted an increase in CSE, which remained elevated 2h after exercise. More importantly, global increases in CSE following...... memory are poorly understood. We sought to determine if a single bout of exercise modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the early stages of memory consolidation. In addition, we investigated if changes in CSE are associated with exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory...

  1. Identification of Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from patients with urinary tract infection using a simple set of biochemical tests correlating with 16S-23S interspace region molecular weight patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Bonesso, Mariana Fávero; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2012-12-01

    The emergence of Staphylococcus spp. not only as human pathogens, but also as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants, requires the development of methods for their rapid and reliable identification in medically important samples. The aim of this study was to compare three phenotypic methods for the identification of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from patients with urinary tract infection using the PCR of the 16S-23S interspace region generating molecular weight patterns (ITR-PCR) as reference. All 57 S. saprophyticus studied were correctly identified using only the novobiocin disk. A rate of agreement of 98.0% was obtained for the simplified battery of biochemical tests in relation to ITR-PCR, whereas the Vitek I system and novobiocin disk showed 81.2% and 89.1% agreement, respectively. No other novobiocin-resistant non-S. saprophyticus strain was identified. Thus, the novobiocin disk is a feasible alternative for the identification of S. saprophyticus in urine samples in laboratories with limited resources. ITR-PCR and the simplified battery of biochemical tests were more reliable than the commercial systems currently available. This study confirms that automated systems are still unable to correctly differentiate CoNS species and that simple, reliable and inexpensive methods can be used for routine identification.

  2. Facilitation of corticospinal excitability according to motor imagery and mirror therapy in healthy subjects and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youn Joo; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Hae Kyung

    2011-12-01

    To delineate the changes in corticospinal excitability when individuals are asked to exercise their hand using observation, motor imagery, voluntary exercise, and exercise with a mirror. The participants consisted of 30 healthy subjects and 30 stroke patients. In healthy subjects, the amplitudes and latencies of motor evoked potential (MEP) were obtained using seven conditions: (A) rest; (B) imagery; (C) observation and imagery of the hand activity of other individuals; (D) observation and imagery of own ipsilateral hand activity; (E) observation and imagery of the hand activity of another individual with a mirror; (F) observation and imagery of own symmetric ipsilateral hand activity (thumb abduction) with a mirror; and (G) observation and imagery of own asymmetric ipsilateral hand activity (little finger abduction) with a mirror. In stroke patients, MEPs were obtained in the A, C, D, E, F conditions. In both groups, increment of the percentage MEP amplitude (at rest) and latency decrement of MEPs were significantly higher during the observation of the activity of the hand of another individual with a mirror and during symmetric ipsilateral hand activity on their own hand with a mirror than they were without a mirror. In healthy subjects, the increment of percentage MEP amplitude and latency decrement were significantly higher during the observation of the symmetric ipsilateral hand activity with a mirror compared to the observation of the activity of the asymmetric ipsilateral hand with a mirror of their own hand. In both groups, corticospinal excitability was facilitated by viewing the mirror image of the activity of the ipsilateral hand. These findings provide neurophysiological evidence supporting the application of various mirror imagery programs during stroke rehabilitation.

  3. Limb-kinetic apraxia due to injury of corticofugal tracts from secondary motor area in patients with corona radiata infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-12-01

    Limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) is defined as an execution disorder of movements, resulting from injury of the corticofugal tract (CFT) from the secondary motor area. Diagnosis of LKA is difficult because it is made by clinical observation of movements. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we attempted to investigate injury of the CFT from the secondary motor area in patients with corona radiata infarct. Twenty patients with corona radiata infarct were recruited. A probabilistic tractography method was used in fiber tracking for reconstruction of the corticospinal tract (CST) and CFT. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and tract volume of the CSTs and CFTs from the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) were measured. In the affected hemisphere, FA values of the CST from the precentral hand knob and the CFT from the dPMC were significantly decreased compared with those of the unaffected hemisphere (p corona radiata infarct, using DTT. Our results suggest that LKA ascribed to injury of the CFTs from the secondary motor area could be accompanied by injury of the CST ascribed to the corona radiata infarct.

  4. Study on correlation between urinary tract infection and interval of urine collection bag change in patients with Urology%集尿袋更换频率与泌尿外科患儿尿路感染相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨泌尿外科患儿集尿袋更换频率与尿路感染的相关性以及护理预防对策,从而确定更换患儿集尿袋的最佳频率,降低尿路感染的风险,提高护理质量。方法将82例留置导尿的泌尿外科患儿随机分为试验组和对照组,各41例。试验组患儿集尿袋更换频率为1次/周,对照组患儿集尿袋更换频率为1次/d,追踪监测尿培养,比较分析两组患儿采用不同频率更换集尿袋与尿路感染的发生率之间的关系。结果与对照组相比,试验组在特定时间内尿培养检出阳性例数明显低于对照组,阳性率明显偏低,差异显著(P <0.05)。结论选择适当的集尿袋更换频率能够减少污染的机会,降低尿路感染的发生率,有利于提高护理质量,临床上集尿袋更换频率以每周1次较为有效。%Objective To explore the correlation between urinary tract infection and the interval of urine collection bag change,and find the nursing intervention to prevent the infection,decrease the risk of urinary tract infection,improve quality of nursing. Methods 82 cases were randomly divided into two groups randomly,test group and contract group. Change the urine collection bag in different interval with each group and check the urine culture.For test group,the drainage bags were replaced once pre seven days.For contract group,the drainage bags were replaced every day.Finally compare and analysis all positive culture,observe the urinary tract infection rate. Results The rates of positive urine culture were significantly different between the two groups.The urinary tract infection rate on test group is much lower than that of contract group. Conclusion Drainage bags replacement frequency may produce influence on the bacterial contamination and the urinary tract infection rate.So it's important to choose the right interval of urine collection bag change,which may decrease the bacterial contamination and

  5. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  6. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  7. [Occupational respiratory tract allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebohle, E; Wallenstein, G

    1979-04-01

    Professionally conditioned allergoses of the respiratory tract (BK 41) can occur in all industrial regions. The allergoses conditioned by organic dusts of vegetable or animal origin (regions food production, plant production and animal keeping) predominate. Since 1976 the BK 41 has been on the 10th rank of alases, 1977), above all conditioned by an improved establishment. Among the diagnoses bronchial asthma is in the first place. The high proportion of allergoses by cereal constituents is to be led back to the, as a rule, unproblematic allergologic clarification diagnostics. One may conclude that difficulties of the recognition in other allergens condition a considerable dark number, particularly in chemical working materials. The allergoses by cereal constituents are followed by the constituents of the animal epidermis (above all hair of laboratory animals). The remainder -- without any importance of the succession -- belongs to moulds, mites, plant pollen, parasubstituted aromates, chrome and rare allergens. Apart from the slight number of alveolitis diseases the allergoses conditioned by organic dusts belong to the type of early reaction (characteristic representatives: baker's asthma). Problematical are the allergoses of the type of the late reaction. Chemical substances of the hapten type are above all in question (characteristic representative: chrome asthma). Here is most cases expressed irritation effects are present so that this pathogenetic factor is frequently determining without proving any immune-specific effects. The report is based on forgiven criteria of decision.

  8. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs.

  9. Somatotopic organization of the white matter tracts underpinning motor control in humans: an electrical stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Fabien; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-09-01

    The somatotopic organization of the primary motor cortex is well documented. However, a possible somatotopy of the network involved in motor control, i.e., eliciting negative motor phenomena during electrostimulation, is unknown in humans, particularly at the subcortical level. Here, we performed electrical stimulation mapping in awake patients operated for gliomas, to study the distribution of the white matter tracts subserving movement control of the lower limb, upper limb(s), and speech. Eighteen patients underwent awake surgery for frontal low-grade gliomas, by using intraoperative subcortical electrostimulation mapping to search interference with movement of the leg, arm(s), and face. We assessed the negative motor responses and their distribution throughout the tracts located under premotor areas. The corresponding stimulation sites were reported on a standard brain template for visual analysis and between-subjects comparisons. During stimulation of the white matter underneath the dorsal premotor cortex and supplementary motor area, rostral to the corticospinal tracts, all patients experienced cessation of the movement of lower and upper limbs, of bimanual coordination, and/or speech. These subcortical sites were somatotopically distributed. Indeed, stimulation of the fibers from mesial to lateral directions and from posterior to anterior directions evoked arrest of movement of the lower limb (mesially and posteriorly), upper limb(s), and face/speech (laterally and anteriorly). There were no postoperative permanent deficits. This is the first evidence of a somatotopic organization of the white matter bundles underpinning movement control in humans. A better knowledge of the distribution of this motor control network may be helpful in neurosciences and neurosurgery.

  10. Cortical and subcortical mapping of language areas: correlation of functional MRI and tractography in a 3T scanner with intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation in patients with brain tumors located in eloquent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de la Peña, M; Gil Robles, S; Recio Rodríguez, M; Ruiz Ocaña, C; Martínez de Vega, V

    2013-01-01

    To describe the detection of cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in language observed in MRI activation studies and tractography in a 3T MRI scanner and to correlate the findings of these functional studies with direct intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation. We present a series of 14 patients with focal brain tumors adjacent to eloquent brain areas. All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before and after surgery. All patients underwent MRI examination including structural sequences, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, functional imaging to determine activation of motor and language areas, and 3D tractography. All patients underwent cortical mapping through cortical and subcortical stimulation during the operation to resect the tumor. Postoperative follow-up studies were done 24 hours after surgery. The correlation of motor function and of the corticospinal tract determined by functional MRI and tractography with intraoperative mapping of cortical and subcortical motor areas was complete. The eloquent brain areas of language expression and reception were strongly correlated with intraoperative cortical mapping in all but two cases (a high grade infiltrating glioma and a low grade glioma located in the frontal lobe). 3D tractography identified the arcuate fasciculus, the lateral part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the subcallosal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the optic radiations, which made it possible to mark the limits of the resection. The correlation with the subcortical mapping of the anatomic arrangement of the fasciculi with respect to the lesions was complete. The best treatment for brain tumors is maximum resection without associated deficits, so high quality functional studies are necessary for preoperative planning. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking ... that leads from your bladder out of your body. Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  13. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John F. Fisher; Kevin Kavanagh; Jack D. Sobel; Carol A. Kauffman; Cheryl A. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system...

  14. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN ADULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Uncomplicated UTI describes infection where the urinary tract is entirely nor- mal. ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers from urine in ..... which can lead to preterm labour, pre- maturity and ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science. 2003; ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  17. 美沙酮维持治疗的海洛因成瘾者白质纤维束的DTI研究%Difusion tensor imaging for white matter tract of heroin abusers on methadone maintenance treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑颖; 王亚蓉; 李强; 李玮; 朱佳; 常海峰; 王玮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of mcthadonc maintenance treatment (MMT ) on the white matter integrity of former heroin abusers. Methods 16 MMT patients and 20 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan and the DTI data were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics to get significantly differential clusters of fractional anisotropy (FA) between groups, and the axial diffusivity ( AD) , radial diffusivity (RD) in each cluster were extracted. Each DTI index was compared through two-sample it-test. Partial correlation analysis was used to measure the relativity between DTI index and the duration of heroin use, the everyday dose of heroin, the duration of MMT as well as the everyday dose of MMT. Results The MMT patients showed significantly greater FA and decreased RD value in the right corticospinal tract (CSI ) , left superior corona radiata (SCR) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). There was significantly negative correlation between FA and everyday dose of mcthadonc (r= -0. 719,P = 0. 006) , positive correlation value between RD and everyday dose of mcthadonc (r= 0. 796, P = 0. 001 ) in the cluster of left SLF. Conclusion Mcthadonc has deleterious effect mainly on the myclin of white matter tract, which may underlie the cognativc function decrease of MMT patients.%目的 观察美沙酮维持治疗(methadone maintenance treatment,MMT)对海洛因成瘾者大脑白质纤维束完整性的影响.方法 16例MMT患者(MMT组)和20例匹配的健康对照(C组)参加本研究.对所有被试者进行扩散张量成像(diffusion tensor imaging,DTI)扫描,所得DTI数据进行基于纤维束示踪的空间统计(tract-based spatial statistics,TBSS)分析,获得组间各向异性分数(fractional anisotropy,FA)差异区以及各差异区域内的轴向(axial diffusivity,AD)和径向(radial diffusivity,RD)异性分数.对各DTI指标进行两样本t检验,并分别与美沙酮和海洛

  18. 尿白细胞介素6水平与2型糖尿病合并尿路感染的相关性分析%Correlation analysis of urinary interleukin 6 levels and type 2 diabetes complicated with urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何灵生; 邓少珍; 李艳芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between urinary interleukin 6 levels and type 2 diabetes complicated with urinary tract infections,and provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of diabetes complicated with urinary tract infection. Method 60 patients with diabetes were selected as the observation group,60 cases of normal population were selected as a control group,a baseline measurement of the level of interleukin - 6 in the two groups,the sample individual for a period of 1 year follow - up,the incidence of urinary tract infections and level of urinary interleukin 6 in the two groups was counted,comparative analysis of the two groups of urinary tract infection in individu-al differences in interleukin - 6 levels. Results The control group genesis urinary tract infection during follow - up in 16 cases,the infection rate was 26. 67% ,in the observation group was 34 cases of urinary tract infection,the infection rate was 56. 67% ,the two groups was statis-tically significant in infection;enrollment in the control group baseline levels of IL - 6 in the observation group were(65. 37 ± 19. 03)pg/ ml,(63. 41 ± 18. 79)pg / ml,respectively,the difference was not statistically significant(P ﹥ 0. 05);the interleukin 6 levels of the control group and the observation group of individuals urinary tract infection were(142. 65 ± 17. 49)pg / ml,(118. 86 ± 18. 72)pg /ml,respectively,the difference was statistically significant( P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The rate of urinary tract infection of menopausal women with diabetes is higher than normal menopausal women,there is no difference between the two baseline urinary interleukin 6 levels, but both urinary interleukin 6 levels have significant differences in onset,and higher than the normal population of diabetic patients.%目的:探究尿白细胞介素6水平与2型糖尿病患者尿路感染的相关性,为糖尿病合并尿路感染的治疗提供理论依据。方法:选取糖尿病患者60例作

  19. Repeatability of corticospinal and spinal measures during lengthening and shortening contractions in the human tibialis anterior muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Tallent

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Elements of the human central nervous system (CNS constantly oscillate. In addition, there are also methodological factors and changes in muscle mechanics during dynamic muscle contractions that threaten the stability and consistency of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and perpherial nerve stimulation (PNS measures. PURPOSE: To determine the repeatability of TMS and PNS measures during lengthening and shortening muscle actions in the intact human tibialis anterior. METHODS: On three consecutive days, 20 males performed lengthening and shortening muscle actions at 15, 25, 50 and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. The amplitude of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs produced by TMS was measured at rest and during muscle contraction at 90° of ankle joint position. MEPs were normalised to Mmax determined with PNS. The corticospinal silent period was recorded at 80% MVC. Hoffman reflex (H-reflex at 10% isometric and 25% shortening and lengthening MVCs, and V-waves during MVCs were also evoked on each of the three days. RESULTS: With the exception of MEPs evoked at 80% shortening MVC, all TMS-derived measures showed good reliability (ICC = 0.81-0.94 from days 2 to 3. Confidence intervals (CI, 95% were lower between days 2 and 3 when compared to days 1 and 2. MEPs significantly increased at rest from days 1 to 2 (P = 0.016 and days 1 to 3 (P = 0.046. The H-reflex during dynamic muscle contraction was reliable across the three days (ICC = 0.76-0.84. V-waves (shortening, ICC = 0.77, lengthening ICC = 0.54 and the H-reflex at 10% isometric MVC (ICC = 0.66 was generally less reliable over the three days. CONCLUSION: Although it is well known that measures of the intact human CNS exhibit moment-to-moment fluctuations, careful experimental arrangements make it possible to obtain consistent and repeatable measurements of corticospinal and spinal excitability in the actively lengthening and shortening human

  20. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or upper GI ... GI) Tract X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called ...

  1. Corticospinal neurons in macaque ventral premotor cortex with mirror properties: a potential mechanism for action suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraskov, Alexander; Dancause, Numa; Quallo, Marsha M; Shepherd, Samantha; Lemon, Roger N

    2009-12-24

    The discovery of "mirror neurons" in area F5 of the ventral premotor cortex has prompted many theories as to their possible function. However, the identity of mirror neurons remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether identified pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) in area F5 of two adult macaques exhibited "mirror-like" activity. About half of the 64 PTNs tested showed significant modulation of their activity while monkeys observed precision grip of an object carried out by an experimenter, with somewhat fewer showing modulation during precision grip without an object or grasping concealed from the monkey. Therefore, mirror-like activity can be transmitted directly to the spinal cord via PTNs. A novel finding is that many PTNs (17/64) showed complete suppression of discharge during action observation, while firing actively when the monkey grasped food rewards. We speculate that this suppression of PTN discharge might be involved in the inhibition of self-movement during action observation. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. M1 corticospinal mirror neurons and their role in movement suppression during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, Ganesh; Philipp, Roland; Lemon, Roger N; Kraskov, Alexander

    2013-02-04

    Evidence is accumulating that neurons in primary motor cortex (M1) respond during action observation, a property first shown for mirror neurons in monkey premotor cortex. We now show for the first time that the discharge of a major class of M1 output neuron, the pyramidal tract neuron (PTN), is modulated during observation of precision grip by a human experimenter. We recorded 132 PTNs in the hand area of two adult macaques, of which 65 (49%) showed mirror-like activity. Many (38 of 65) increased their discharge during observation (facilitation-type mirror neuron), but a substantial number (27 of 65) exhibited reduced discharge or stopped firing (suppression-type). Simultaneous recordings from arm, hand, and digit muscles confirmed the complete absence of detectable muscle activity during observation. We compared the discharge of the same population of neurons during active grasp by the monkeys. We found that facilitation neurons were only half as active for action observation as for action execution, and that suppression neurons reversed their activity pattern and were actually facilitated during execution. Thus, although many M1 output neurons are active during action observation, M1 direct input to spinal circuitry is either reduced or abolished and may not be sufficient to produce overt muscle activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A pilot feasibility study of daily rTMS to modify corticospinal excitability during lower limb immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Raffaella; Ramsey, Dave; Johnson, Kevin; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Vallejo, Matthew; Roberts, Donna R; George, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    Short term immobilization of the lower limb is associated with increased corticospinal excitability at 24 hours post cast removal. We wondered whether daily stimulation of the motor cortex might decrease brain reorganization during casting. We tested the feasibility of this approach. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), resting motor threshold and recruitment curves were obtained at baseline in 6 healthy participants who then had leg casts placed for 10 days. On 7 of the 10 days subjects received 20 minutes of 1 Hz repetitive TMS (rTMS). TMS measures were then recorded immediately after and 24 hours post cast removal. Four of 6 subjects completed the study. At the group level there were no changes in excitability following cast removal. At the individual level, two participants did not show any change, 1 participant had higher and one lower excitability 24 hours after cast removal. Daily rTMS over motor cortex is feasible during casting and may modify neuroplastic changes occurring during limb disuse. A prospective double blind study is warranted to test whether daily rTMS might improve outcome in subjects undergoing casting, and perhaps in other forms of limb disuse such as those following brain injury or weightlessness in space flight.

  4. The effect of music on corticospinal excitability is related to the perceived emotion: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Fabio; Banfi, Chiara; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Fiori, Elisa; Innocenti, Iglis; Rossi, Simone; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Cincotta, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and neuroimaging studies suggest a functional link between the emotion-related brain areas and the motor system. It is not well understood, however, whether the motor cortex activity is modulated by specific emotions experienced during music listening. In 23 healthy volunteers, we recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEP) following TMS to investigate the corticospinal excitability while subjects listened to music pieces evoking different emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, and displeasure), an emotionally neutral piece, and a control stimulus (musical scale). Quality and intensity of emotions were previously rated in an additional group of 30 healthy subjects. Fear-related music significantly increased the MEP size compared to the neutral piece and the control stimulus. This effect was not seen with music inducing other emotional experiences and was not related to changes in autonomic variables (respiration rate, heart rate). Current data indicate that also in a musical context, the excitability of the corticomotoneuronal system is related to the emotion expressed by the listened piece.

  5. Zika virus infection during the period of maximal brain growth causes microcephaly and corticospinal neuron apoptosis in wild type mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chin; Abraham, Rachy; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Choe, Hyeryun; Page, Damon T.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women has been established as a cause of microcephaly in newborns. Here we test the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental stages when the brain is undergoing rapid growth are particularly vulnerable to the effects of ZIKV infection. We injected ZIKV intracranially into wild type C57BL/6 mice at two different time points: early postnatal development, when the brain is growing at its maximal rate, and at weaning, when the brain has largely reached adult size. Both time points showed widespread immunoreactivity for ZIKV and cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, a marker of apoptosis) throughout the brain. However, in early postnatal ZIKV injected mice, some brain areas and cell types display particularly large increases in apoptosis that we did not observe in older animals. Corticospinal pyramidal neurons, a cell type implicated in human microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection, are an example of one such cell type. Proliferating cells in the ventricular zone stem cell compartment are also depleted. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that periods of rapid brain growth are especially susceptible to neurodevelopmental effects of ZIKV infection, and establish a valuable model to investigate mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental effects of ZIKV infection and explore candidate therapeutics. PMID:27713505

  6. The Number of Pulses Needed to Measure Corticospinal Excitability by Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Eyes Open vs. Close Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shahid; Yoo, Woo-Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lim, Hyun Sun; Rotenberg, Alexander; Abu Jamea, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enable measures of the corticospinal excitability (CSE). However the reliability of TMS-derived CSE measures is suboptimal due to appreciable pulse-to-pulse MEP amplitude variability. We thus calculated how many TMS–derived MEPs will be needed to obtain a reliable CSE measure in awake adult subjects, in the eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Methods: Twenty healthy adults (70% male) received 40 consecutive navigated TMS pulses (120% resting motor threshold, RMT) in the EO or EC conditions on two separate days in randomized order. Results: For either the EO or EC condition, the probability that the 95% confidence interval (CI) derived from consecutive MEP amplitude measured included the true CSE, increased when the number of consecutive stimuli increased (EO: p = 0.05; EC: p = 0.001). No significant effect of RMT, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, or gender on the CSE estimates was identified. At least 34 consecutive stimuli were required to obtain a most reliable CSE estimate in the EO condition and 31 in the EC condition. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that >30 consecutive MEPs may be necessary in order to obtain a CSE measure in healthy adults.

  7. Retrograde labeling, transduction and genetic targeting allow cellular analysis of corticospinal motor neurons: Implications in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernan Jara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN have a unique ability to receive, integrate, translate, and transmit the cerebral cortex’s input toward spinal cord targets and therefore, act as a spokesperson for the initiation and modulation of voluntary movements that require cortical input. CSMN degeneration has an immense impact on motor neuron circuitry and is one of the underlying causes of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as primary lateral sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In addition, CSMN death results in long-term paralysis in spinal cord injury patients. Detailed cellular analyses are crucial to gain a better understanding of the pathologies underlying CSMN degeneration. However, visualizing and identifying these vulnerable neuron populations in the complex and heterogeneous environment of the cerebral cortex has proved challenging. Here, we will review recent developments and current applications of novel strategies that reveal the cellular and molecular basis of CSMN health and vulnerability. Such studies hold promise for building long-term effective treatment solutions in the near future.

  8. Age-related decline in white matter tract integrity and cognitive performance: a DTI tractography and structural equation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rajji, Tarek K; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Miranda, Dielle; Shenton, Martha E; Kennedy, James L; Pollock, Bruce G; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2012-01-01

    Age-related decline in microstructural integrity of certain white matter tracts may explain cognitive decline associated with normal aging. Whole brain tractography and a clustering segmentation in 48 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan were used to examine: interhemispheric (corpus callosum), intrahemispheric association (cingulum, uncinate, arcuate, inferior longitudinal, inferior occipitofrontal), and projection (corticospinal) fibers. Principal components analysis reduced cognitive tests into 6 meaningful factors: (1) memory and executive function; (2) visuomotor dexterity; (3) motor speed; (4) attention and working memory; (5) set-shifting/flexibility; and (6) visuospatial construction. Using theory-based structural equation modeling, relationships among age, white matter tract integrity, and cognitive performance were investigated. Parsimonious model fit demonstrated relationships where decline in white matter integrity may explain age-related decline in cognitive performance: inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) with visuomotor dexterity; the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus with visuospatial construction; and posterior fibers (i.e., splenium) of the corpus callosum with memory and executive function. Our findings suggest that decline in the microstructural integrity of white matter fibers can account for cognitive decline in normal aging.

  9. Syntactic processing depends on dorsal language tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Rising, Kindle; Patterson, Dianne K; Henry, Maya L; Ogar, Jennifer M; DeLeon, Jessica; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-20

    Frontal and temporal language areas involved in syntactic processing are connected by several dorsal and ventral tracts, but the functional roles of the different tracts are not well understood. To identify which white matter tract(s) are important for syntactic processing, we examined the relationship between white matter damage and syntactic deficits in patients with primary progressive aphasia, using multimodal neuroimaging and neurolinguistic assessment. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that microstructural damage to left hemisphere dorsal tracts--the superior longitudinal fasciculus including its arcuate component--was strongly associated with deficits in comprehension and production of syntax. Damage to these dorsal tracts predicted syntactic deficits after gray matter atrophy was taken into account, and fMRI confirmed that these tracts connect regions modulated by syntactic processing. In contrast, damage to ventral tracts--the extreme capsule fiber system or the uncinate fasciculus--was not associated with syntactic deficits. Our findings show that syntactic processing depends primarily on dorsal language tracts.

  10. Kinetics of DNA duplex formation: A-tracts versus AT-tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Jean Ann; Kristensen, Mads Bejder; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2014-09-21

    The hybridisation and melting of DNA strands are critical steps in many biological processes, but still a deeper understanding of the kinetics is lacking. This is evident from the absence of a clear correlation between rate constants for duplex formation and the number of bases in the strand or the sequence. Here we have probed differences between formation times of A-tracts and AT-tracts by studying complementary model strands mainly comprised of adenine (A) and thymine (T) in stopped-flow (SF) experiments. These strands are relevant as DNA replication begins in regions with a large number of AT base pairs. Interpretation of our results is aided by secondary-structure modelling where both the fractions of the different types of structures and the number of paired bases in the lowest-energy ones are determined. The model is based on calculation of free energies using fixed values for enthalpies and entropies associated with base pairing and a stochastic sampling of the possible structures. We find that the strand length affects rates: the activation energy for the formation of short (16-base pairs) A-tracts is larger than that for longer ones (20-base pairs). Activation energies for the formation of AT-tracts are an order of magnitude larger, and larger for shorter strands than for long ones. These higher activation energies are in agreement with the fact that the fraction of unpaired bases in the constituent AT-tract strands is less than in those which comprise the A-tracts. That the pre-structures of the single strands significantly affect rates is also used to rationalise the results obtained for two pairs of complementary 12-mer strands that have the same bases but in a different sequence; we report here similar activation energies as reported earlier and that these are strongly sequence dependent. Finally, we demonstrate that SF can be coupled with the measurement of circular dichroism (CD) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region, taking advantage of a

  11. Malakoplakia of the Urogenital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is a rare, granulomatous condition most commonly found in the genitourinary tract. It can present in a myriad of ways depending on the organ involved, thus presenting a huge diagnostic challenge. We present 4 patients with genitourinary malakoplakia, who manifested with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI and hematuria in all except one, who presented with hydronephrosis secondary to a large pelvic mass. We discuss the need for a high index of suspicion and careful scrutiny of histology to order to avoid misdiagnosis as simple long term antibiotics are an effective treatment in all but those with large pelvic masses.

  12. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan B. Cohn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  14. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, L C; Ramin, S M

    2001-09-01

    Urinary tract infections are relatively common in pregnancy and may result in significant morbidity for the pregnant woman and fetus. The authors recommend that all pregnant women be screened for the presence of bacteriuria at their first prenatal visit. Failure to treat bacteriuria during pregnancy may result in as many as 25% of women experiencing acute pyelonephritis. Women with acute pyelonephritis may sustain significant complications, such as preterm labor, transient renal failure, ARDS, sepsis and shock, and hematologic abnormalities. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections should be followed up closely after treatment because as many as one third will experience a recurrence.

  15. Alcohol consumption and digestive tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephan L; Ye, Weimin; Löhr, Johannes-Matthias

    2012-09-01

    The data indicating that alcohol is an important factor increasing the risk to develop gastrointestinal cancer are consolidating. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence. Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol metabolism and has direct carcinogenic and mutagenic effects by modifying DNA via generation of DNA adducts. Oxidative stress has a prominent role in triggering chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis through formation of reactive oxygen species. Recently published large prospective cohort studies with sufficient statistical power and meta-analyses could refine the knowledge regarding the impact of alcohol on gastrointestinal cancer. Functional genetic variants of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes proved to be associated with increased risk for esophageal and gastric cancer.The highest risk increase for malignancy was observed in the upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx) and esophagus (squamous cell carcinoma), weaker correlations were established regarding gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal neoplasias. Alcohol overconsumption is a serious avoidable risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal tract cancer, both alone but even more in combination with other risk factors such as tobacco and obesity.

  16. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiong'o, Grace Muthoni; Luzzio, Christopher; Albright, A Leland

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The purposes of this study were to evaluate the frequency with which children presented with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, to determine the type of shunts that caused the perforations, and to compare the stiffness of perforating catheters with the stiffness of catheters from other manufacturers. METHODS Medical records were reviewed of 197 children who were admitted with VP shunt malfunction. Catheter stiffness was evaluated by measuring relative resistance to cross-sectional compression, resistance to column buckling, and elasticity in longitudinal bending. Catheter frictional force was measured per unit length. RESULTS Six children were identified whose VP shunts had perforated the GI tract; 2 shunts subsequently protruded through the anal orifice, 1 protruded through the oral cavity, and 3 presented with subcutaneous abscesses that tracked upward from the intestine to the chest. All perforating shunts were Chhabra shunts. Catheter stiffness and resistance to bending were greatest with a Medtronic shunt catheter, intermediate with a Codman catheter, and least with a Chhabra catheter. Frictional force was greatest with a Chhabra catheter and least with a Medtronic catheter. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of perforations by Chhabra shunts appears to be higher than the frequency associated with other shunts. The increased frequency does not correlate with their stiffness but may reflect their greater frictional forces.

  17. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  18. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.

  19. White matter lesions relate to tract-specific reductions in functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Carolyn D; Zonneveld, Hazel I; White, Tonya; Huizinga, Wyke; Cremers, Lotte G M; de Groot, Marius; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Niessen, Wiro J; Vernooij, Meike W

    2017-03-01

    White matter lesions play a role in cognitive decline and dementia. One presumed pathway is through disconnection of functional networks. Little is known about location-specific effects of lesions on functional connectivity. This study examined location-specific effects within anatomically-defined white matter tracts in 1584 participants of the Rotterdam Study, aged 50-95. Tracts were delineated from diffusion magnetic resonance images using probabilistic tractography. Lesions were segmented on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Functional connectivity was defined across each tract on resting-state functional magnetic resonance images by using gray matter parcellations corresponding to the tract ends and calculating the correlation of the mean functional activity between the gray matter regions. A significant relationship between both local and brain-wide lesion load and tract-specific functional connectivity was found in several tracts using linear regressions, also after Bonferroni correction. Indirect connectivity analyses revealed that tract-specific functional connectivity is affected by lesions in several tracts simultaneously. These results suggest that local white matter lesions can decrease tract-specific functional connectivity, both in direct and indirect connections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment ofurinary tract infection inchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative

  1. Using Brain Oscillations and Corticospinal Excitability to Understand and Predict Post-Stroke Motor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Aurore; Simis, Marcel; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Bertolucci, Federica; Huerta-Gutierrez, Rodrigo; Chisari, Carmelo; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation-TMS) and brain oscillations (electroencephalography-EEG). In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke) were recruited in two sites. We analyzed TMS measures (i.e., motor threshold-MT-of the affected and unaffected sides) and EEG variables (i.e., power spectrum in different frequency bands and different brain regions of the affected and unaffected hemispheres) and their correlation with motor impairment as measured by Fugl-Meyer. Multiple univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of good motor function. A significant interaction effect of MT in the affected hemisphere and power in beta bandwidth over the central region for both affected and unaffected hemispheres was found. We identified that motor function positively correlates with beta rhythm over the central region of the unaffected hemisphere, while it negatively correlates with beta rhythm in the affected hemisphere. Our results suggest that cortical activity in the affected and unaffected hemisphere measured by EEG provides new insights on the association between high-frequency rhythms and motor impairment, highlighting the role of an excess of beta in the affected central cortical region in poor motor function in stroke recovery.

  2. Using Brain Oscillations and Corticospinal Excitability to Understand and Predict Post-Stroke Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Thibaut

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation—TMS and brain oscillations (electroencephalography—EEG. In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke were recruited in two sites. We analyzed TMS measures (i.e., motor threshold—MT—of the affected and unaffected sides and EEG variables (i.e., power spectrum in different frequency bands and different brain regions of the affected and unaffected hemispheres and their correlation with motor impairment as measured by Fugl-Meyer. Multiple univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of good motor function. A significant interaction effect of MT in the affected hemisphere and power in beta bandwidth over the central region for both affected and unaffected hemispheres was found. We identified that motor function positively correlates with beta rhythm over the central region of the unaffected hemisphere, while it negatively correlates with beta rhythm in the affected hemisphere. Our results suggest that cortical activity in the affected and unaffected hemisphere measured by EEG provides new insights on the association between high-frequency rhythms and motor impairment, highlighting the role of an excess of beta in the affected central cortical region in poor motor function in stroke recovery.

  3. Theodore Roosevelt Island Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Colorado National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Piscataway Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Fort Donelson National Battlefield Tract & Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Pinnacles National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Cabrillo National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Chiricahua National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Saguaro National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Hovenweep National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Navajo National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Wupatki National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Coronado National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Noatak National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Badlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Alagnak Wild River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Buffalo National River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Boundaries, Tracts (Published 2006), Petrified Forest, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI shapefile of National Park Service tract data. Tracts are numbered and created by the regional cartographic staff at the Land Resources Program...

  20. Mojave National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Chamizal National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  3. Petersburg National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Sequoia National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Vietnam Vetrans Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Pipestone National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

  8. Antietam National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Canyonlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Zion National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Catoctin Mountain Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Haleakala National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Time-course of corticospinal excitability and autonomic function interplay during and following monopolar tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eSantarnecchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While polarity-specific after-effects of monopolar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on cortico-spinal excitability are well-documented, modulation of vital parameters due to current spread through the brainstem is still a matter of debate, raising potential concerns about its use through the general public, as well as for neurorehabilitation purposes. We monitored online and after-effects of monopolar tDCS (primary motor cortex in ten healthy subjects by adopting a neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS/tDCS combined protocol. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs together with vital parameters (e.g. blood pressure, heart-rate variability and sympathovagal balance were recorded and monitored before, during and after anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS. Ten MEPs every 2.5-minute time windows were recorded from the right First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, while 5-minute epochs were used to record vital parameters. The protocol included 15 minutes of pre-tDCS and of online-tDCS, (anodal, cathodal or sham. After effects were recorded for 30 minutes. We showed a polarity-independent stabilization of cortical excitability level, a polarity-specific after-effects for cathodal and anodal stimulation, and an absence of persistent excitability changes during online stimulation. No significant effects on vital parameters emerged both during and after tDCS, while a linear increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart-rate variability was observed during each tDCS condition, as a possible unspecific response to experimental demands. Taken together, current findings provide new insights on the safety of monopolar tDCS, promoting its application both in research and clinical settings.

  14. Role of sensory-motor cortex activity in postnatal development of corticospinal axon terminals in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Kathleen M; Martin, John H

    2005-04-25

    The initial pattern of corticospinal (CS) terminations, as axons grow into the spinal gray matter, bears little resemblance to the pattern later in development and in maturity. This is because of extensive axon pruning and local axon terminal growth during early postnatal development. Pruning is driven by activity-dependent competition between the CS systems on each side during postnatal weeks (PW) 3-7. It is not known whether CS axon terminal growth and final topography are activity dependent. We examined the activity dependence of CS axon terminal growth and topography at different postnatal times. We inactivated sensory-motor cortex by infusion of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) agonist muscimol and traced CS axons from the inactivated side. Inactivation between PW5 and PW7 produced permanent changes in projection topography, reduced local axon branching, and prevented development of dense clusters of presynaptic sites, which are normally characteristic of CS terminals. Inactivation at younger (PW3-5) and older (PW8-12) ages did not affect projection topography but impeded development of local axon branching and presynaptic site clusters. These effects were not due to increased cortical cell death during inactivation. Neural activity plays an important role in determining the morphology of CS terminals during the entire period of development, but, for the projection topography, the role of activity is exercised during a very brief period. This points to a complex, and possibly independent, regulation of termination topography and terminal morphology. Surprisingly, when a CS neuron's activity is blocked during early development, it does not recover lost connections later in development once activity resumes.

  15. Direct mapping rather than motor prediction subserves modulation of corticospinal excitability during observation of actions in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Villalta, Jorge I; Grafton, Scott T; Della-Maggiore, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Motor facilitation refers to the specific increment in corticospinal excitability (CSE) elicited by the observation of actions performed by others. To date, the precise nature of the mechanism at the basis of this phenomenon is unknown. One possibility is that motor facilitation is driven by a predictive process reminiscent of the role of forward models in motor control. Alternatively, motor facilitation may result from a model-free mechanism by which the basic elements of the observed action are directly mapped onto their cortical representations. Our study was designed to discern these alternatives. To this aim, we recorded the time course of CSE for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) during observation of three grasping actions in real time, two of which strongly diverged in kinematics from their natural (invariant) form. Although artificially slow movements used in most action observation studies might enhance the observer's discrimination performance, the use of videos in real time is crucial to maintain the time course of CSE within the physiological range of daily actions. CSE was measured at 4 time points within a 240-ms window that best captured the kinematic divergence from the invariant form. Our results show that CSE of the FDI, not the ADM, closely follows the functional role of the muscle despite the mismatch between the natural and the divergent kinematics. We propose that motor facilitation during observation of actions performed in real time reflects the model-free coding of perceived movement following a direct mapping mechanism. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and

  17. 30 CFR 281.15 - Tract size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tract size. 281.15 Section 281.15 Mineral... OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Leasing Procedures § 281.15 Tract size. The size... prospecting is needed to discover and delineate OCS minerals, the size of tracts specified in the leasing...

  18. The Pediatric Urinary Tract and Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    The pediatric urinary tract often is assessed with medical imaging. Consequently, it is essential for medical imaging professionals to have a fundamental understanding of pediatric anatomy, physiology, and common pathology of the urinary tract to provide optimal patient care. This article provides an overview of fetal development, pediatric urinary anatomy and physiology, and common diseases and conditions of the pediatric urinary tract.

  19. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or lower GI ... of Lower GI Tract Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal ( ...

  20. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  1. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, A B

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequently seen 'medical' complications in pregnancy. The pioneering work of Edward Kass discovered that 6% of pregnant women had asymptomatic bacteriuria associated with increased prematurity and perinatal mortality compared to women with sterile urine. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy has become routine. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria as well as the associated complications described by Kass in 1962 are higher compared to most data collected in the 1980s and late 1990s in different populations in various parts of the world. Other factors such as vaginal colonization have been recognized as important contributors to preterm labour. The value of screening for bacteriuria has to be re-addressed considering methods, significance and costs. Treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is critically reviewed.

  2. 基于DTI技术的急性中风患者缺血脑白质纤维束的扩散性与神经功能恢复的相关性研究%A correlation study between diffusivity of ischemic white matter ifber tract and neuro-functional recovery in patients with acute stroke by using DTI technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨烁慧; 詹松华; 陆方; 李晨; 林江

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the correlation between diffusivity of ischemic white matter ifber tract and neuro-functional recovery in acute stroke patients by using DTI, and try to predict the motor outcome of these patients. Materials and Methods:Forty unilateral cerebral ischemic patients with motor dysfunction underwent MRI and DTI study within three days after the onset of illness. MRI and DTI scans were done one, two and three month after treatment. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefifcient (ADC) maps were obtained. With the reference of DW images,regions of interest (ROIs) were selected on the ischemic white matter ifber tract, and the control ROIs were selected on the contra-lateral homonymic white matter ifber tract. The ratios of FA and ADC (rFA and rADC) within these ROIs and infarction volume were calculated. The relationship between DTI parameters with infarction volume and national institute of health stroke scale (NIHSS) scores were assessed. According to motricity index (MI), a total of thirty-two stroke follow-up patients after one year treatment were divided into no motor deifcit group and motor deifcit group and DTI parameters were used to predict the motor outcome.Results:Signiifcant differences were found regarding rFA, rADC and infarction volume of ischemic white matter ifber tract among the onset, one, two and three months of the stroke patients (F=13.84,P=0.00;F=64.57,P=0.00 andF=37.41,P=0.00). There was signiifcantly negative correlation between rFA and NIHSS scores at the onset and one month (r=-0.59,t=-4.59,P=0.00;r=-0.34,t=-2.27,P=0.02) and between rADC and NIHSS scores at the onset (r=-0.44,t=-3.04,P=0.00). There was signiifcantly positive correlation between rADC and NIHSS (r=0.28,t=1.83,P=0.04;r=0.39,t=2.69,P=0.00;r=0.63,t=4.99,P=0.00) and between the infarction volume and NIHSS scores (r=0.40,t=2.73,P=0.01;r=0.44,t=3.05,P=0.00;r= 0.32,t=2.13,P=0.04) at one, two and three months from the onset. There was signiifcant

  3. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Evan B.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1). Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance req...

  4. Musculature of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, J E

    2000-04-01

    Leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas are derived from smooth muscle tissues. Smooth muscle cells also surround the blood vessels that supply the alimentary tract. These cells have at times been said to contribute to the formation of smooth muscle tumors in the alimentary canal. With such an abundance of smooth muscle, there is little reason at present to implicate the smooth muscle elements of blood vessel walls.

  5. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  6. Correlation Analysis of Nutrition Status, Quality of Life and Chemotherapy Side-effects in Digestive Tract Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy%消化道肿瘤化疗患者营养状况与生活质量及化疗不良反应的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婉; 许勤; 言克莉; 任驹茗; 严凤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationships of nutrition status, quality of life and chemotherapy side-effects for digestive tract cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods With convenience sample method, 150 digestive tract cancer patients receiving chemotherapy were taken as subjects. Nutrition risk screening, quality of life and chemotherapy side-effect were respectively assessed by Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire C30 (QLQ-C30) scales and The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scales. Results The scores of nutrition were 4.97 ±2.77 and the prevalence of malnutrition was 54.0%. The scores of nutrition were negatively correlated with physical function, role function, emotional function, cognitive function and general health status, and positively correlated with fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation and diarrhea. The scores of nutrition were positively correlated with leukopenia, anemia, nausea and vomiting of chemotherapy side-effects. Conclusion The nutrition status of patients remains poor. A high prevalence of malnutrition in digestive tract cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is observed which is closely correlated with various functional dimensions of QOL and chemotherapy side-effect. Therefore, a better nutrition status of patients contributed by early nutritional support and diet care can result in the improved quality of life and reduced chemotherapy side-effects.%目的:了解消化道肿瘤化疗患者营养状况,并探讨其营养状况与生活质量及化疗不良反应的相关性。方法采用方便抽样法,使用患者自评主观整体营养评估量表、癌症患者生活质量量表、通用不良反应事件评价标准及自行设计一般资料调查问卷,对某三级甲等医院肿瘤科150例消化道肿瘤化疗患者进行调查。结果150例

  7. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection. 

  8. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy.

  9. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has a global effect on corticospinal excitability for leg muscles and a focused effect for hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, C S; Clair, J M; Collins, D F

    2011-03-01

    The afferent volley generated during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can increase the excitability of human corticospinal (CS) pathways to muscles of the leg and hand. Over time, such increases can strengthen CS pathways damaged by injury or disease and result in enduring improvements in function. There is some evidence that NMES affects CS excitability differently for muscles of the leg and hand, although a direct comparison has not been conducted. Thus, the present experiments were designed to compare the strength and specificity of NMES-induced changes in CS excitability for muscles of the leg and hand. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) For muscles innervated by the stimulated nerve (target muscles), CS excitability will increase more for the hand than for the leg. (2) For muscles not innervated by the stimulated nerve (non-target muscles), CS excitability will increase for muscles of the leg but not muscles of the hand. NMES was delivered over the common peroneal (CP) nerve in the leg or the median nerve at the wrist using a 1-ms pulse width in a 20 s on, 20 s off cycle for 40 min. The intensity was set to evoke an M-wave that was ~15% of the maximal M-wave in the target muscle: tibialis anterior (TA) in the leg and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) in the hand. Ten motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the target muscles and from 2 non-target muscles of each limb using transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered over the "hotspot" for each muscle before and after the NMES. MEP amplitude increased significantly for TA (by 45 ± 6%) and for APB (56 ± 8%), but the amplitude of these increases was not different. In non-target muscles, MEPs increased significantly for muscles of the leg (42 ± 4%), but not the hand. Although NMES increased CS excitability for target muscles to the same extent in the leg and hand, the differences in the effect on non-target muscles suggest that NMES has a "global" effect on CS excitability for the leg and a

  10. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  11. Assessing motor imagery in brain-computer interface training: Psychological and neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Anatoly; Liburkina, Sofya; Yakovlev, Lev; Perepelkina, Olga; Kaplan, Alexander

    2017-02-04

    Motor imagery (MI) is considered to be a promising cognitive tool for improving motor skills as well as for rehabilitation therapy of movement disorders. It is believed that MI training efficiency could be improved by using the brain-computer interface (BCI) technology providing real-time feedback on person's mental attempts. While BCI is indeed a convenient and motivating tool for practicing MI, it is not clear whether it could be used for predicting or measuring potential positive impact of the training. In this study, we are trying to establish whether the proficiency in BCI control is associated with any of the neurophysiological or psychological correlates of motor imagery, as well as to determine possible interrelations among them. For that purpose, we studied motor imagery in a group of 19 healthy BCI-trained volunteers and performed a correlation analysis across various quantitative assessment metrics. We examined subjects' sensorimotor event-related EEG events, corticospinal excitability changes estimated with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), BCI accuracy and self-assessment reports obtained with specially designed questionnaires and interview routine. Our results showed, expectedly, that BCI performance is dependent on the subject's capability to suppress EEG sensorimotor rhythms, which in turn is correlated with the idle state amplitude of those oscillations. Neither BCI accuracy nor the EEG features associated with MI were found to correlate with the level of corticospinal excitability increase during motor imagery, and with assessed imagery vividness. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the level of corticospinal excitability increase and kinesthetic vividness of imagery (KVIQ-20 questionnaire). Our results suggest that two distinct neurophysiological mechanisms might mediate possible effects of motor imagery: the non-specific cortical sensorimotor disinhibition and the focal corticospinal excitability increase

  12. Endotoxin and cytokines in patients with gastrointestinal tract perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Endo

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of endotoxin and various cytokines were assessed in 70 patients with gastrointestinal tract perforation. Sepsis developed in 29 of them, and eight of these (27.6% had on admission endotoxin levels higher than 9.8 pg ml-1. The clinical outcome correlated with the level of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα, rather than with the endotoxin level. The high interleukin 6 (IL-6 level was shown in septic patients and no correlation was observed between the IL-6 level and the clinical outcome. Plasma TNFα levels tended to change independently from endotoxin levels, suggesting that TNFα may have been locally produced in inflammatory lesions.

  13. The correlation study of HBoV viral load and disease severity in children with lower respiratory tract infections%儿童下呼吸道人类博卡病毒感染的病毒载量和疾病严重程度相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵百慧; 王春; 滕峥; 沈佳仁; 高烨; 俞雪莲; 张泓; 张曦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation of human bocavirus (HBoV)viral load and disease severity in children with lower respiratory tract infections.Methods Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs ) from 554 in-hospital children with lower respiratory tract infections under 5-year-old and swabs from 1 95 healthy children were collected from January 2009 to September 201 2.The types of HBoV and HBoV viral load were determined by fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The other respiratory viruses were determined by commercial kits.The results were analyzed with clinical symptoms and biochemistry parameters.Results The positive rates of HBoV between in-hospital children and healthy children had obvious difference.The HBoV viral loads of in-hospital children (5.1 0 ×1 06 copies/mL)were significantly higher than those of healthy children (2.70 ×1 03 copies/mL,P<0.05 ).Among co-infection in-hospital children,the HBoV viral loads of mild and moderate groups (2.70 ×1 05 and 3.85 ×1 06 copies/mL)were lower than that in severe group (8.70 ×1 06 copies/mL,P<0.05 ).There was 1 case of newborn infant with severe pneumonia, and HBoV were found in NPAs,blood and stool samples without other common respiratory trract virus and bacterium infections.Conclusions HBoV is a pathogen for respiratory tract disease in children.HBoV viral load is correlated positively with disease severity in co-infection patients.HBoV can cause severe pneumonia in some children.%目的:研究下呼吸道感染患儿人类博卡病毒(HBoV)载量与疾病严重程度的相关性。方法对2009年1月至2012年9月间554例因下呼吸道感染住院的5岁以下患儿及195名健康对照组儿童下呼吸道吸出物(NPAs)、鼻咽拭子采用荧光聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测HBoV种类,并同时测定阳性标本感染HBoV的载量,利用商品化试剂盒检测其他种类的呼吸道病毒,结合患儿的临床症状和生化指标进行综合分析。结果实验组与健康对照

  14. [Leiomyoma of the urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the urinary tract are benign and uncommon forms of tumor. In the present study, two cases have been described of leiomyomas situated in the bladder. Following this description, the pathological characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these lesions have been examined. The clinical symptomatology depends on the tumor site, and this type of lesion is more frequently found in women.. Treatment mainly consists of endoscopic resection, but may involve cystectomy. The prognosis for patients with this type of tumor is invariably favorable.

  15. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  16. Anatomy and embryology of the biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keplinger, Kara M; Bloomston, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Working knowledge of extrahepatic biliary anatomy is of paramount importance to the general surgeon. The embryologic development of the extrahepatic biliary tract is discussed in this article as is the highly variable anatomy of the biliary tract and its associated vasculature. The salient conditions related to the embryology and anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract, including biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, gallbladder agenesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and ducts of Luschka, are addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based ap...

  18. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wei; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-09-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors. Simple uncomplicated cystitis responds very well to oral antibiotics, but complicated UTIs may require early imaging, and referral to the emergency department or hospitalisation to prevent urosepsis may be warranted. Escherichia coli remains the predominant uropathogen in acute community-acquired uncomplicated UTIs and amoxicillin-clavulanate is useful as a first-line antibiotic. Family physicians are capable of managing most UTIs if guided by appropriate history, investigations and appropriate antibiotics to achieve good outcomes and minimise antibiotic resistance. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  19. The effects of low- and high-frequency repetitive TMS on the input/output properties of the human corticospinal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdayer, E; Degardin, A; Cassim, F; Bocquillon, P; Derambure, P; Devanne, H

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of various parameters (notably the frequency and intensity) of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the primary motor (M1) and premotor (PMC) cortices on the excitability of the first dorsalis interosseus (FDI) corticospinal pathway. To this end, we applied a comprehensive input-output analysis after fitting the experimental results to a sigmoidal function. Twenty-six healthy subjects participated in the experiments. Repetitive TMS was applied either over M1 or PMC at 1 Hz (LF) for 30 min (1,800 pulses) or at 20 Hz (HF) for 20 min (1,600 pulses). In the HF condition, the TMS intensity was set to 90% (HF(90)) of the FDI's resting motor threshold (RMT). In the LF condition, the TMS intensity was set to either 90% (LF(90)) or 115% (LF(115)) of the RMT. The FDI input/output (I/O) curve was measured on both sides of the body before rTMS (the Pre session) and then during two Post sessions. For each subject, the I/O curves (i.e., the integral of the FDI motor-evoked potential (MEP) vs. stimulus intensity) were fitted using a Boltzmann sigmoidal function. The graph's maximum slope, S (50) and plateau value were then compared between Pre and Post sessions. LF(115) over M1 increased the slope of the FDI I/O curve but did not change the S (50) and plateau value. This also suggested an increase in the RMT. HF(90) led to a more complex effect, with an increase in the slope and a decrease in the S (50) and plateau value. We did not see a cross effect on the homologous FDI corticospinal pathway, and only PMC LF(90) had an effect on ipsilateral corticospinal excitability. Our results suggest that rTMS may exert a more complex influence on cortical network excitability than is usually reported (i.e. simple inhibitory or facilitatory effects). Analysis of the fitted stimulus response curve indicates a dichotomous influence of both low- and high-frequency rTMS on M1 cortical excitability; this may

  20. Changes in the Excitability of Neocortical Neurons in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Are Not Specific to Corticospinal Neurons and Are Modulated by Advancing Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhyun; Hughes, Ethan G; Shetty, Ashwin S; Arlotta, Paola; Goff, Loyal A; Bergles, Dwight E; Brown, Solange P

    2017-09-13

    Cell type-specific changes in neuronal excitability have been proposed to contribute to the selective degeneration of corticospinal neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to neocortical hyperexcitability, a prominent feature of both inherited and sporadic variants of the disease, but the mechanisms underlying selective loss of specific cell types in ALS are not known. We analyzed the physiological properties of distinct classes of cortical neurons in the motor cortex of hSOD1(G93A) mice of both sexes and found that they all exhibit increases in intrinsic excitability that depend on disease stage. Targeted recordings and in vivo calcium imaging further revealed that neurons adapt their functional properties to normalize cortical excitability as the disease progresses. Although different neuron classes all exhibited increases in intrinsic excitability, transcriptional profiling indicated that the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are cell type specific. The increases in excitability in both excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons show that selective dysfunction of neuronal cell types cannot account for the specific vulnerability of corticospinal motor neurons in ALS. Furthermore, the stage-dependent alterations in neuronal function highlight the ability of cortical circuits to adapt as disease progresses. These findings show that both disease stage and cell type must be considered when developing therapeutic strategies for treating ALS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It is not known why certain classes of neurons preferentially die in different neurodegenerative diseases. It has been proposed that the enhanced excitability of affected neurons is a major contributor to their selective loss. We show using a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease in which corticospinal neurons exhibit selective vulnerability, that changes in excitability are not restricted to this neuronal class and that excitability does not increase

  1. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of the pyramidal tract can predict the need for orthosis in hemiplegic patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Shinichiro; Osawa, Aiko; Nishio, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshitake; Kigawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hidetaka

    2013-10-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate motor functions in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to clarify whether imaging can be used to predict orthotic needs in patients with hemiplegia. We studied 25 patients (age range, 16-78 years) with intracerebral hemorrhages (putamen 15, thalamus 7, frontal subcortex 3). Diffusion tensor MR imaging was undertaken on admission at rehabilitation hospital for stroke patients. The fractional anisotropy (FA) value of the pyramidal tract was calculated. We compared the FA value in the ROI of the cerebral peduncle with the necessity for orthosis at discharge from the rehabilitation hospital. As a result, the FA values of the affected side in patients who needed orthosis at discharge were lower than those in patients who did not need orthosis. There was no significant difference in the FA values of the unaffected side. We concluded that the need for orthosis in patients with hemiplegia after stroke rehabilitation could be predicted using the diffusion tensor MR images of corticospinal tractography.

  2. A Sensitive and Automatic White Matter Fiber Tracts Model for Longitudinal Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Images in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamile, Claudio; Kocevar, Gabriel; Cotton, François; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Hannoun, Salem; Frindel, Carole; Guttmann, Charles R. G.; Rousseau, David; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive tool for the assessment of microstructural alterations in brain white matter (WM). We propose a new processing technique to detect, local and global longitudinal changes of diffusivity metrics, in homologous regions along WM fiber-bundles. To this end, a reliable and automatic processing pipeline was developed in three steps: 1) co-registration and diffusion metrics computation, 2) tractography, bundle extraction and processing, and 3) longitudinal fiber-bundle analysis. The last step was based on an original Gaussian mixture model providing a fine analysis of fiber-bundle cross-sections, and allowing a sensitive detection of longitudinal changes along fibers. This method was tested on simulated and clinical data. High levels of F-Measure were obtained on simulated data. Experiments on cortico-spinal tract and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi of five patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) included in a weekly follow-up protocol highlighted the greater sensitivity of this fiber scale approach to detect small longitudinal alterations. PMID:27224308

  3. 正常胰胆管汇合患者胆汁淀粉酶升高与胆道疾病关系的研究%Correlation between bile amylase elevation and biliary tract disease in patients with normal pancreaticobiliary junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任旭; 唐秀芬; 杜明; 朱春兰

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨正常胰胆管汇合(NPBJ)者胆汁淀粉酶升高与胆道疾病的关系.方法 连续202例患者(胆管胆汁组)在内镜治疗胆道疾病时抽取胆管胆汁检测淀粉酶,其中68例同时检测胆汁脂肪酶,149例做胆汁细菌培养,27例测Oddi括约肌压力(SOM),38例测胆管压力.另外73例(胆囊胆汁组)经皮经肝胆囊镜治疗胆囊结石,取胆囊中胆汁检测淀粉酶,31例进行胆囊黏膜活检.两组病例均除外先天性胰胆管汇合异常、胆肠吻合术和既往内镜乳头切开治疗者.结果 胆管胆汁组95例(47.0%)淀粉酶升高,其中肿瘤(56.9%,29/51)与非肿瘤疾病(43.7%,66/151)差异无统计学意义(P 0. 05 ), although BA was elevated in most patients with hiler cholangiocarcinoma (7/9). The level of BA was correlated with bile lipase (r =0. 561 ), but not with pressure of Oddi's sphincter or bile duct. No significant difference in positive rate of bile bacteria culture was detected between patients with normal BA level and those with elevated level. In GB bile group, BA level was elevated in 25 patients (34. 3% ), in which the frequency of GB epithelium dysplasia is 87.5%, which was significantly higher than that from patients with normal BA level ( P < 0. 001 ). Conclusion The patients with biliary tract disease and NPBJ have high incidence of reflux of pancreatic juice into bile duct. In patients with elevated BA level, there was no significant difference between incidences of neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, while the frequency of GB epithelium dysplasia and hilar cholangiocarcinoma were higher than those from patients with normal BA level.

  4. Pregnancy complications and birth outcomes of pregnant women with urinary tract infections and related drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2007-01-01

    Maternal urinary tract infections in pregnancy showed an association with a higher rate of preterm birth in previous studies. The aim of this study was to check this relationship, and in addition to evaluate the efficacy of recent medical treatments. The population-based large control (without any defects) data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities was evaluated. Of 38,151 newborn infants, 2188 (5.7%) had mothers with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, and 90% of these maternal diseases were prospectively and medically recorded. The prevalence of pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios showed an association with urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections in pregnancy had a somewhat shorter gestational age (0.1 week) and a higher proportion of preterm births (10.4% vs 9.1%). These differences were correlated with the severity of urinary tract infections. However, the preterm-inducing effect of maternal urinary tract infections is preventable by some antimicrobial drugs such as ampicillin, cefalexin and cotrimoxazole. In conclusion, maternal urinary tract infections during pregnancy increase pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios, and in addition the rate of preterm birth; however, the latter is preventable by appropriate drug treatments.

  5. Long-term progressive motor skill training enhances corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hemisphere and motor performance of the untrained hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Grey, Michael James

    2017-01-01

    curve parameters following application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the ipsilateral primary motor cortex(iM1) hotspot of the left abductor digiti minimi muscle(ADM). PT led to significant improvements in left hand motor performance immediately after 6 weeks of training (63±18%,P...It is well-established that unilateral motor practice can lead to increased performance in the opposite non-trained hand. Here, we test the hypothesis that progressively increasing task difficulty during long-term skill training with the dominant right hand increase performance and corticomotor...... excitability of the left non-trained hand. Subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task engaging right digit V for 6 weeks with either progressively increasing task difficulty (PT) or no progression (NPT). Corticospinal excitability(CSE) was evaluated from the resting motor threshold(rMT) and recruitment...

  6. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  7. Changes in input-output relations in the corticospinal pathway to the lower limb muscles during robot-assisted passive stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibayashi, Kiyotaka; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Makoto; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2011-01-01

    We investigated input (stimulus)-output (response) relations of the corticospinal pathway in the lower limb muscles during passive stepping using a robotic driven gait orthosis. Nine healthy adult subjects passively stepped with 40% body weight unloading (ground stepping) and 100% body weight unloading in the air (air stepping). During passive stepping, the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the lower limb muscles elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were recorded at late-stance, early-, and late-swing phases of 2 stepping conditions. The input-output relation at each phase of the stepping conditions was obtained by increasing stimulus intensity in 5% increments from 40% to 70% of maximal stimulator output. The slopes of input-output relations were steeper at the early-swing phase in the rectus femoris muscle and at the late-stance and late-swing phases in the biceps femoris muscle in both stepping conditions. There were no significant differences in the MEP responses of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles at each phase between the 2 conditions. Low muscle activity was seen at the late-stance phase of ground stepping in the soleus muscle and the MEP amplitude at this phase became larger. The slopes in the tibialis anterior muscle were steep at the early- and late-swing phases of ground stepping. There was a significant difference in the MEPs of the tibialis anterior muscle between the late-swing phases in ground and air stepping. The present study indicates that corticospinal excitability to the lower limb muscles is modulated by sensory inputs elicited by passive stepping.

  8. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  10. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary trac

  11. 医院获得性尿路感染肠球菌耐药性与毒力基因型相关研究%Correlation of drug resistance with virulence genotypes of Enterococcus in hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小丽; 赵瑞珂; 李艳萌; 余佳佳; 张险峰; 钱雪峰; 韩清珍; 徐杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of virulence factors and drug resistance of Enterococcus in hospital‐acquired urinary tract infections ,and their correlation to provide the basis for rationally using antibacterial drugs and controlling infection .Methods 74 strains of Enterococcus isolated from clinical specimens of urinary tract infection were performed the bacterial strain identification and the antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted by the K‐B method .Virulence genes of cylL‐L ,cylL‐S ,cylL‐A ,esp ,acm ,gelE ,asa‐I ,cpd and ace were detected by PCR . Results Among 74 strains of enterococcal ,45(60 .8% ) strains and 29(39 .2% ) strains were E .faecalis and E .faeci‐um ,respectively .The resistance rates of Enterococci isolates to penicillin G ,ampicillin and ciprofloxacin were 89 .66% ,89 .66% and 79 .3% ,which were significantly higher than that of E .faecalis .Among E .faecalis ,the resist‐ance rate was 46 .67% to gentamicin ,53 .33% to tetracycline ,which were slightly higher than that of E .faecium .The positive rates of cylL‐L ,cylL‐S ,cylL‐A ,esp ,acm ,gelE ,asa‐1 ,cpd ,ace were 24 .32% ,44 .59% ,22 .97% ,44 .59% , 60 .81% ,22 .97% ,25 .67% ,22 .97% and 9 .46% ,respectively .A significant correlation was found between distribu‐tion of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of E .faecium(P<0 .05) .Conclusion E .faecalis is the predomi‐nant species in hospital‐acquired urinary infection ;the majority of E .faecium was multidrug‐resistant ;E .faecalis has more virulence genes than E .faecium .There is a close relationship between the virulence genes and the drug resist‐ance .Thus it is necessary for clinic to pay attention to the reasonable use of antibacterial drugs so as to prevent the e‐mergence and spread of Enterococcus .%目的:研究医院获得性尿路感染肠球菌毒力因子和耐药分布,以及两者间的关系,为临床合理使用抗菌药物和控制感染提供依据。方

  12. Developmental remodeling and shortening of the cardiac outflow tract involves myocyte programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Choudhry, A; Berlan, M; Singal, A; Siwik, E; Mohr, S; Fisher, S A

    1998-10-01

    The embryonic outflow tract is a simple tubular structure that connects the single primitive ventricle with the aortic sac and aortic arch arteries. This structure undergoes a complex sequence of morphogenetic processes to become the portion of the heart that aligns the right and left ventricles with the pulmonary artery and aorta. Abnormalities of the outflow tract are involved in many clinically significant congenital cardiac defects; however, the cellular and molecular processes governing the development of this important structure are incompletely understood. Histologic and tissue-tagging studies indicate that the outflow tract tissues compact and are incorporated predominantly into a region of the right ventricle. The hypothesis tested in the current study was that cell death or apoptosis in the muscular portion of the outflow tract is an important cellular mechanism for outflow tract shortening. The tubular outflow tract myocardium was specifically marked by infecting myocytes of the chicken embryo heart with a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Histochemical detection of the beta -gal-labeled outflow tract myocytes revealed that the tubular structure shortened to become a compact ring at the level of the pulmonic infundibulum over several days of development (stages 25-32, embryonic days 4-8). The appearance of apoptotic cardiomyocytes was correlated with OFT shortening by two histologic assays, TUNEL labeling of DNA fragments and AnnexinV binding. The rise and fall in the number of apoptotic myocytes detected by histologic analyses paralleled the change in activity levels of Caspase-3, a protease in the apoptotic cascade, measured in outflow tract homogenates. These results suggest that the elimination of myocytes by programmed cell death is one mechanism by which the outflow tract myocardium remodels to form the proper connection between the ventricular

  13. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Urologic Diseases A-Z Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All Sections ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary tract ...

  14. Tract-based spatial statistics to assess the neuroprotective effect of early erythropoietin on white matter development in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Ruth L; Bucher, Hans U; Held, Ulrike; Koller, Brigitte M; Hüppi, Petra S; Hagmann, Cornelia F

    2015-02-01

    Despite improved survival, many preterm infants undergo subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment. To date, no neuroprotective therapies have been implemented into clinical practice. Erythropoietin, a haematopoietic cytokine used for treatment of anaemia of prematurity, has been shown to have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects on the brain in many experimental studies. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on the microstructural development of the cerebral white matter using tract-based spatial statistics performed at term equivalent age. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled, prospective multicentre study applying recombinant human erythropoietin in the first 42 h after preterm birth entitled 'Does erythropoietin improve outcome in preterm infant' was conducted in Switzerland (NCT00413946). Preterm infants were given recombinant human erythropoietin (3000 IU) or an equivalent volume of placebo (NaCl 0.9%) intravenously before 3 h of age after birth, at 12-18 h and at 36-42 h after birth. High resolution diffusion tensor imaging was obtained at 3 T in 58 preterm infants with mean (standard deviation) gestational age at birth 29.75 (1.44) weeks, and at scanning at 41.1 (2.09) weeks. Imaging was performed at a single centre. Voxel-wise statistical analysis of the fractional anisotropy data was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics to test for differences in fractional anisotropy between infants treated with recombinant human erythropoietin and placebo using a general linear model, covarying for the gestational age at birth and the corrected gestational age at the time of the scan. Preterm infants treated with recombinant human erythropoietin demonstrated increased fractional anisotropy in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, and the corticospinal tract bilaterally. Mean fractional anisotropy was significantly higher in preterm

  15. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  16. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  17. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  18. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound of the paediatric urogenital tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Lil-Sofie Ording, E-mail: lilsofie.ording@googlemail.com

    2014-09-15

    Pathology in the urinary tract is one of the most frequent queries when children are referred for an ultrasound examination. Comprehensive ultrasound examinations can answer most clinical questions of the urogenital tract with minimal patient preparation and without the use of ionising radiation. Therefore, optimised imaging protocols should be available in all radiology departments where children are examined. This review suggests a preferred imaging protocol for urogenital imaging in children and gives an overview of the different structures of the urogenital tract, the normal age-related sonographic anatomy, and gives examples of the most commonly encountered diseases of the urogenital system in children.

  20. Gastrointestinal tract imaging in children: current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in children continues to evolve, with new techniques, both radiological and non-radiological, being added to the repertoire. This article provides a summary of current imaging techniques of the GI tract (primarily the upper GI tract) and the relationship between those techniques. It covers the upper GI series and other contrast studies, US, CT and MRI. Note is also made of the contribution now made by capsule endoscopy (CE). Abdominal emergency imaging is not covered in this article. (orig.)

  1. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  3. Histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Fagerberg, Christina R; Ousager, Lilian Bomme;

    2013-01-01

    , xanthogranulomatous inflammation, juvenile xanthogranuloma, Whipple's disease and malacoplakia are discussed as well. We also briefly go into primary histiocytic disorders of neoplastic origin, systemic diseases with secondary gastrointestinal tract involvement like the lysosomal storage disorders, and pigmented......The morphologic diagnosis of histiocytic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract can be challenging, and several disorders have to be considered in their differential diagnosis. We present one of the most widespread examples of xanthomatosis of the gastrointestinal tract published so far and give...... a short review on histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in general. The primary histiocytic disorders of uncertain origin, Rosai-Dorfman disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Erdheim-Chester disease, are addressed. Reactive and infectious conditions such as xanthomatosis...

  4. Crayfish Sampling on the Whaley Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report discusses electrofishing for crayfish in a small creek on the FHmA Whaley Tract targeting Orconectes sp. Only Procambarus hayi and Cambarus striatus were...

  5. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney, the medulla, has 10 to 15 fan-shaped structures called pyramids. These drain urine into ... 6 years old and affects more boys than girls. It's often treated with steroids. Urinary tract infections ( ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Professionals Community Outreach and Health Fairs Health ... Infection (Urinary Tract Infections—UTI) in Children English English Español Related ...

  7. VT 2010 Census Tract Boundaries and Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) TRACT2010 contains a subset of attributes from Summary File 1 of the 2010 Decennial Census. The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related...

  8. Voyageurs National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Bureau of Land Maganement in GCDB for the Midwest Regional...

  9. BWA Survey of Freeland Tract 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On August 6, 2002, Emily Grafton surveyed the balsam fir stand on the Freeland Tract to determine the level of infestation of the balsam wooly adelgid (BW A),...

  10. Unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, S; Rai, R R; Agarwal, S; Vijayvergiya, R

    1995-01-01

    We report management of unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract, namely beer bottle cap, raisins and pistachu, mango peel, betelnut and plum seed at a university hospital in Northern India.

  11. VT New Market Tax Credit - Qualifying Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EconOther_NMTC layer delineates New Market Tax Credit (NMTC) "hot zones" and qualified counties and census tracts. This dataset is designed to...

  12. Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) Activities by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The data being displayed are census tract level counts of NSP-funded activities and is derived from an extract of HUD's Community Planning and Development’s (CPD)...

  13. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  14. Diffusion abnormalities of the uncinate fasciculus in Alzheimer's disease: diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis using a new method to measure the core of the tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasmin, Hasina; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Osamu; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Noriko [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan); Nemoto, Kiyotaka [Ibaraki Prefectural Tomobe Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ibaraki (Japan); Arima, Kunimasa; Furuta, Nobuo [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan); Uno, Masatake [Yoshioka Rehabilitation Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Hirai, Shigeo [Iruma Hirai Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Saitama (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    Our aim was to determine diffusion abnormalities in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) using a new method for measuring the core of the tract. We studied 19 patients with AD and 19 age-matched control subjects who underwent MRI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTT of the UF was generated. The mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the core of the tract were measured after voxelized tract shape processing. Student's t-test was used to compare results between patients with AD and controls. Intraobserver correlation tests were also performed. FA was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the UF of patients with AD than of controls. There was no significant difference in MD along the UF between the two groups. Intraobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) for the first and second measurement was r > 0.93 for measured FA and r > 0.92 for measured MD. Our results suggest that FA reflects progression of AD-related histopathological changes in the UF of the white matter and may represent a useful biological index in monitoring AD. Diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis with voxelized tract shape processing to measure the core of the tract may be a sensitive tool for evaluation of diffusion abnormalities of white matter tracts in AD. (orig.)

  15. [Imaging in urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, P; Lagard, D; Leroy, C; Dracon, M; Biserte, J; Lemaître, L

    2004-02-01

    Uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract is frequent and usually resolves rapidly with treatment and imaging is unnecessary. Progression to complex infection often occurs in patients with predisposing factors. Imaging assists in evaluating the extent of disease, plays a role in directing therapy and guides interventional procedures if necessary. This pictorial essay reviews the role of imaging and intervention in infections of the urinary tract.

  16. Urinary tract endometriosis: Review of 19 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: One should have a high index of suspicion with irritative voiding symptoms with or without hematuria, with negative urine culture, in all premenopausal women to diagnose urinary tract endometriosis. Partial cystectomy is a better alternative to transurethral resection followed by GnRh analogue in vesical endometriosis. Approach to the ureter must be individualised depending upon the severity of disease and dilatation of the upper tract to maximise the preservation of renal function.

  17. Exploring the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Balanced microbiota of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is important for maintaining health of the host. Altered gut microbiota have been found to be associated with various life-style induced and other intestinal inflammatory diseases. Gut microbiota is viewed as a metabolic organ and considered as new target for therapies. This thesis describes the work on exploring the microbiota of the GI tract under different conditions. Under the functional food concept, probiotics, prebiotics,...

  18. Massive Intradural Dermoid Cyst Without Sinus Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouhassan, William; Chao, John Kuang; Lehman, James A

    2017-10-01

    Dermoid cysts can present as a rare, benign, congenital intracranial tumor of neuroectoderm origin trapped during embryogenesis. Past clinical reports have reported lesions in the posterior fossa, at the midline, and in the intradural region all in conjunction with a superficial sinus tract. The authors present a unique patient of a completely intracranial, intradural, dermoid tumor of the midline cerebellum devoid of any evidence of sinus tract. The histological characteristics, radiological features, and management of this unusual patient are described.

  19. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus with symptoms arising from the whole GI tract. Common complaints include dysphasia, early satiety, reflux, constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of GI symptoms...... in diabetes mellitus is complex in nature, multi-factorial (motor dysfunction, autonomic neuropathy, glycemic control, psychological factors, etc.) and is not well understood. Histologically, many studies have demonstrated prominent proliferation of different GI wall layers during diabetes. During the past...

  20. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Keuzenkamp, D.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed with pigs to study the inhibitory effect of fermented feed on the bacterial population of the gastrointestinal tract. Results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between pH and lactobacilli in the stomach contents of pigs in dry feed as well as in the

  1. On the comparative anatomy and function of the nasal tract in odontocetes (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkkan, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the study of phonation in odontocete cetaceans and particularly that of echolocation by means of sonar, a great number of conflicting hypotheses have been advanced regarding the correlation of sound production with the many anatomical features that are to be found in the upper respiratory tract.

  2. Teacher's voice: vocal tract discomfort symptoms, vocal intensity and noise in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Amanda Louize Félix; Lucena, Brunna Thaís Luckwu de; De Araújo, Aline Menezes Guedes Dias; Melo, Luciana Pimentel Fernandes de; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Silva, Maria Fabiana Bonfim de Lima

    2016-04-01

    To identify a possible correlation between teachers vocal intensity and the noise in the classroom, as well as between vocal intensity and the symptoms of vocal tract discomfort before and after classes. 27 Elementary School I teachers participated in the study. We used the questionnaires "Vocal Production Condition of the Teacher" and "Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale - VTD" which were applied before and after the class. A properly calibrated noise meter was used for measuring noise in the classroom and the teachers' vocal intensity. There was a moderate positive correlation between vocal intensity and noise and also a significant difference between the VTD scale and the teachers with and without vocal complaint before and after classes. When compared separately on both occasions, there was an increase in the group's scores for both groups and with and without complaints. We found association of the vocal tract symptoms before and after classes, frequency of burning, itching, sore throat and sensitive throat were observed. The intensity of symptoms was significant for sore throat, itching and feeling of lump in the throat. We observed significant values of vocal intensity and frequency and intensity of symptoms for sensitive throat and lump in the throat before the class, and sore throat and lump in the throat after the. The increase in teacher's vocal intensity correlates to high noise levels in the classroom. The evidence suggests correlation between vocal intensity and discomfort of the vocal tract, with most of the symptoms reported in greater frequency and intensity after the class.

  3. Correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism and protein level of surfactant protein D gene and susceptibility of urinary tract infection in adult females%表面活性蛋白D基因单核苷酸多态性及其蛋白水平与成年女性尿路感染易感性的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大军; 商惠萍; 李德天

    2015-01-01

    .39%(30/62) and 51.61%(32/62)in the control group,respectively,without statistically significant differences between the two groups(P>0.05). The SP⁃D⁃Thr160Ala genotype distribution showed that the number of Thr/Thr, Thr/Ala and Ala/Ala genotype were 4 cases(11.43%),14 cases(40.0%)and 17 cases(48.57%)in the study group(n=35),and 4 cases(12.90%),12 cases(38.71%)and 15 cases(48.39%)in the control group(n=31),respectively,without statistically significant differences between the two groups(P>0.05). The 160Thr and 160Ala allele frequency in the study group was 31.43%(22/70)and 68.57%(48/70)in the study group, and 32.26%(20/62) and 67.74%(42/62) in the control group, respectively, without statistically significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). The serum SP⁃D protein level was (141.36±86.94)nmol/L and(62.49±24.37)nmol/L in the study group and the control group,respectively, with statistically significant difference between the two groups(t=4.880,P<0.01). Conclusion There is no correlation between Thr11Met and Thr160Ala gene variation of SP⁃D gene exon locus and susceptibility of urinary tract infection in adult females,whereas the serum SP⁃D protein level increases in adult females who are susceptible to urinary tract infection.

  4. PREVALENCE AND CORRELATION BETWEEN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND THE PRESENCE OF Actinomyces suis IN THE URINE OF PREGNANT SOWS FROM SOUTH BRAZIL PREVALÊNCIA E CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE INFECÇÃO URINÁRIA E PRESENÇA DE Actinomyces suis NA URINA DE PORCAS GESTANTES DA REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Camilo Alberton

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and correlation between urinary tract infections and the presence of Actinomyces suis in the urine of 1,745 pregnant sows in southern Brazil. Urinary infections were present in 29.54 % of the sows raised in confinement and in 16.46% of the sows raised outdoors. The overall prevalence of urinary infections was 28.31%. For the presence of A. suis, 22.24% of the sows raised in confinement and 6.71% of the sows raised outdoors had the bacteria in their urine. The prevalence of A. suis in all sows was 20.63%. Negative correlation was demonstrated between the presence of urinary infections and the presence of A. suis. In other words, sows which had urinary infections had lesser prevalence of A. suis (13.67% than those sows without urinary infections (23.12%. In the same way, sows positive for A. suis had lesser prevalence of urinary infections (17.43% than those negative for the bacteria (28.62%. Only 3.60% of the sows had urinary infection and A. suis in the urine simultaneously.

    KEY-WORDS: Swine; cystitis; reproductive disorders; pielocystitis; epidemiology.

    O presente

  5. Stress and the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vikram; Tandon, Rakesh K

    2005-03-01

    Stress, defined as an acute threat to homeostasis, evokes an adaptive or allostatic response and can have both a short- and long-term influence on the function of the gastrointestinal tract. The enteric nervous system is connected bidirectionally to the brain by parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways forming the brain-gut axis. The neural network of the brain, which generates the stress response, is called the central stress circuitry and includes the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray. It receives input from the somatic and visceral afferent pathways and also from the visceral motor cortex including the medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate and insular cortex. The output of this central stress circuit is called the emotional motor system and includes automatic efferents, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and pain modulatory systems. Severe or long-term stress can induce long-term alteration in the stress response (plasticity). Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a key mediator of the central stress response. Two CRF receptor subtypes, R1 and R2, have been described. They mediate increased colonic motor activity and slowed gastric emptying, respectively, in response to stress. Specific CRF receptor antagonists injected into the 0 block these visceral manifestations of stress. Circulating glucocorticoids exert an inhibitory effect on the stress response by receptors located in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Many other neurotransmitters and neuroimmunomodulators are being evaluated. Stress increases the intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules. It can lead to mast cell activation, degranulation and colonic mucin depletion. A reversal of small bowel water and electrolyte absorption occurs in response to stress and is mediated cholinergically. Stress also leads to increased susceptibility to colonic inflammation, which can be adaptively transferred among rats by sensitized CD4

  6. Corticospinal excitability as a predictor of functional gains at the affected upper limb following robotic training in chronic stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Marie-Hélène; Spencer, Steven J; Chan, Vicky; Allington, James P; Klein, Julius; Chou, Cathy; Pearson-Fuhrhop, Kristin; Bobrow, James E; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Cramer, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Robotic training can help improve function of a paretic limb following a stroke, but individuals respond differently to the training. A predictor of functional gains might improve the ability to select those individuals more likely to benefit from robot-based therapy. Studies evaluating predictors of functional improvement after a robotic training are scarce. One study has found that white matter tract integrity predicts functional gains following a robotic training of the hand and wrist. Objective. To determine the predictive ability of behavioral and brain measures in order to improve selection of individuals for robotic training. Twenty subjects with chronic stroke participated in an 8-week course of robotic exoskeletal training for the arm. Before training, a clinical evaluation, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were each measured as predictors. Final functional gain was defined as change in the Box and Block Test (BBT). Measures significant in bivariate analysis were fed into a multivariate linear regression model. Training was associated with an average gain of 6 ± 5 blocks on the BBT (P functional gains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Correlation between bladder irrigation frequency and speed and urinary tract infections in patients with spinal injury%膀胱冲洗频率与速度对脊髓损伤患者尿路感染相关性调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董雪; 赵琪珩; 裴艳玲

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the choice of bladder irrigation frequency and speed in long-term indwelling catheter patients with spinal injury and research the relationship between of bladder irrigation and urinary tract infections so as to provide basis for prevention of urinary tract infections. METHODS A total of 60 patients with spinal injury admitted to the hospital from Mar, 2010 to Dec, 2010 were studied. The patients were randomly divided into the tested group and the control group with 30 patients in each group. Bladder irrigation frequency:the tested group twice per week, and control group once every other day. Then the tested group was divided into Algroup with irrigation speed 80-100 drops/min and A2 group with irrigation speed 120-150 drops/min. The urine culture was performed respectively on thel4th, 21st, and 28th day of the indwelling catheterization. RESULTS The incidence rate of the urinary tract infections was higher in the tested group than in the control group (P<0. 05). The difference in the incidence rate of urinary tract infections between the irrigation speed A group and the irrigation speed B group in the tested groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION For the patients with spinal injury undergoing long-term indwelling catheterization, the more frequent the bladder irrigation is, the higher the incidence rate of the urinary tract infections, and the increase in the bladder irrigation speed had little effect on the incidence of urinary tract infections.%目的 探讨长期留置导尿管患者膀胱冲洗频率与速度的最佳选择及与尿路感染的关系,为预防尿路感染提供依据.方法 取2010年3月-2010年12月医院骨科病房脊髓损伤需长期留置导尿住院患者共60例,随机分为对照组和试验组,每组30例;膀胱冲洗频率:试验组2次/每周,对照组1次/2 d;试验组再分为A组,膀胱冲洗速度以80~100滴/min速度冲洗,B组,以120~150滴/min速度冲

  8. Optical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the most common types of coherent optical correlators, which are classified as spatial plane correlators, frequency plane correlators and special reference correlators. Only the spatial plane correlators are dealt with rather thoroughly. Basic principles, some special features,

  9. [Urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotová, D

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.

  10. Source-tract coupling in birdsong production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2009-06-01

    Birdsong is a complex phenomenon, generated by a nonlinear vocal device capable of displaying complex solutions even under simple physiological motor commands. Among the peripheral physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of complex sounds in songbirds, the understanding of the dynamics emerging from the interaction between the sound source and the upper vocal tract remains most elusive. In this work we study a highly dissipative limit of a simple sound source model interacting with a tract, mathematically described in terms of a delay differential equation. We explore the system numerically and, by means of reducing the problem to a phase equation, we are capable of studying its periodic solutions. Close in parameter space to the point where the resonances of the tract match the frequencies of the uncoupled source solutions, we find coexistence of periodic limit cycles. This hysteresis phenomenon allows us to interpret recently reported features found in the vocalization of some songbirds, in particular, “frequency jumps.”

  11. Mathematical modelling of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Antonio Soriano; Fernandez, Daniel Ruiz; Gil, David; Garcia Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Perez, Francisco Macia

    2013-03-01

    The lower urinary tract is one of the most complex biological systems of the human body as it involved hydrodynamic properties of urine and muscle. Moreover, its complexity is increased to be managed by voluntary and involuntary neural systems. In this paper, a mathematical model of the lower urinary tract it is proposed as a preliminary study to better understand its functioning. Furthermore, another goal of that mathematical model proposal is to provide a basis for developing artificial control systems. Lower urinary tract is comprised of two interacting systems: the mechanical system and the neural regulator. The latter has the function of controlling the mechanical system to perform the voiding process. The results of the tests reproduce experimental data with high degree of accuracy. Also, these results indicate that simulations not only with healthy patients but also of patients with dysfunctions with neurological etiology present urodynamic curves very similar to those obtained in clinical studies.

  12. Enhanced white matter tracts integrity in children with abacus training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuzheng; Geng, Fengji; Tao, Lixia; Hu, Nantu; Du, Fenglei; Fu, Kuang; Chen, Feiyan

    2011-01-01

    Experts of abacus, who have the skills of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), are able to manipulate numbers via an imagined abacus in mind and demonstrate extraordinary ability in mental calculation. Behavioral studies indicated that abacus experts utilize visual strategy in solving numerical problems, and fMRI studies confirmed the enhanced involvement of visuospatial-related neural resources in AMC. This study aims to explore the possible changes in brain white matter induced by long-term training of AMC. Two matched groups participated: the abacus group consisting of 25 children with over 3-year training in abacus calculation and AMC, the controls including 25 children without any abacus experience. We found that the abacus group showed higher average fractional anisotropy (FA) in whole-brain fiber tracts, and the regions with increased FA were found in corpus callosum, left occipitotemporal junction and right premotor projection. No regions, however, showed decreased FA in the abacus group. Further analysis revealed that the differences in FA values were mainly driven by the alternation of radial rather than axial diffusivities. Furthermore, in forward digit and letter memory span tests, AMC group showed larger digit/letter memory spans. Interestingly, individual differences in white matter tracts were found positively correlated with the memory spans, indicating that the widespread increase of FA in the abacus group result possibly from the AMC training. In conclusion, our findings suggested that long-term AMC training from an early age may improve the memory capacity and enhance the integrity in white matter tracts related to motor and visuospatial processes.

  13. Computational modeling of aerosol deposition in respiratory tract: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali A

    2009-02-01

    This review article is intended to serve as an overview of the current status of the computational tools and approaches available for predicting respiratory-tract dosimetry of inhaled particulate matter. There are two groups of computational models available, depending on the intended use. The whole-lung models are designed to provide deposition prediction for the whole lung, from the oronasal cavities to the pulmonary region. The whole-lung models are generally semi-empirical and hence provide more reliable results but within the range of parameters used for empirical correlations. The local deposition or computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based models, on the other hand, utilize comprehensive theoretical and computational approaches but are often limited to upper respiratory tracts. They are based on theoretical principles and are applicable to a wider range of parameters, but less accurate. One of the difficulties with modeling of aerosol deposition in human lung is related to the complexity of the airways geometry and the limited morphometric data available. Another difficulty corresponds to simulation of the realistic physiological conditions of lung environment. Furthermore, complex physical and chemical phenomena associated with dense and multicomponent aerosols complicate the modeling tasks. All of these issues are addressed in this review. The progress made in each area in the last three decades and the challenges ahead are discussed along with some suggestions for future direction. The following subjects are covered in this review: introduction, aerosol deposition mechanisms, elements of a computational model, respiratory-tract geometry models, whole-lung models, CFD based models, cigarette smoke deposition models, and conclusion.

  14. Narrow band imaging with magnification for the diagnosis of lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajvinder; Singh; Asif; Hussain; Cheong; Kuan; Loong

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal(GI)tract disorders.Chromoendoscopy has proven to be superior to white light endoscopy for early detection of various GI lesions.This has however been fraught with problems.The use of color stains,time taken to achieve an effect and the learning curve associated with the technique has been some of the pitfalls.Narrow band imaging(NBI)particularly in combination with magnifying endoscopy may allow the endoscopist to accomplish a fairly accurate diagnosis with good histological correlation similar to results achieved with chromoendoscopy.Such enhanced detection of pre-malignant and early neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract should allow better targeting of biopsies and could ultimately prove to be cost effective.Various studies have been done demonstrating the utility of this novel technology.This article will review the impact of NBI in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract disorders.

  15. [Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, Carlos; Méndez, Santiago; Salinas, Jesús

    2016-11-18

    Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients has a multifactorial aetiology and is not a uniform clinical condition. Changes due to physiological ageing as well as comorbidity and polypharmacy, can produce several dynamic conditions such as urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Lower urinary tract symptoms increase with age in both sexes and are a major problem in older patients due to their medical and psychosocial consequences. For these reasons, in assessing urinary dysfunction in older patients, we should consider external circumstances such as polypharmacy, poor mobility, affective and cognitive disorders and also accessibility to housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Herpes simplex virus and the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Eric A; Coyle, Walter J

    2008-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is well known as a sexually transmitted disease. However, relatively little has been published concerning the presentations and treatment of HSV infection within the gastrointestinal tract, where HSV most commonly affects the esophagus in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. HSV proctitis is not uncommon and occurs primarily in males having sex with males. In patients with normal immune systems, gastrointestinal HSV infections are generally self-limited and rarely require antiviral therapy. Treatment of infection is suggested for immunocompromised patients, though no large randomized controlled trials have been performed. This article reviews the manifestations of HSV infection within the luminal gastrointestinal tract and options for diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  18. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  19. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2016-04-21

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population.

  20. Fungal infections of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D; Vazquez, J A

    1999-12-01

    Funguria, fungal urinary tract infections, are most commonly caused by Candida species but may also be caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, and the endemic mycoses. Candiduria presents as an increasingly common nosocomial infection, which may involve all anatomic levels of the urinary tract, resulting in a spectrum of disease varying from asymptomatic candiduria to clinical sepsis. Although several successful systemic or local therapeutic options exist for the eradication of candiduria, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of candiduria has lagged. This has resulted in confusion among practitioners as to when antifungal therapy is indicated. Treatment guidelines have recently been formulated and are described herein.

  1. CT diagnosis of biliary tract diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, J.; Horak, J.; Antos, Z.; Vodak, M. (Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-09-01

    The possibilities are discussed offered by computed tomography in the diagnosis of biliary tract diseases. Attention is paid to difficulties associated with the diagnosis of pathological changes in the biliary tract, and to the detection of isodense concrements where diagnostic problems are reliably resolved by PTHC and ERCP. It is therefore useful to supplement CT with other examination methods. A suitable combination is cholescintigraphy and CT with the possibility of a final diagnosis or selection of further examination, as a rule of an invasive nature.

  2. The effect of vitamin D on lower respiratory tract infections in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şişmanlar, Tuğba; Aslan, Ayşe Tana; Gülbahar, Özlem; Özkan, Seçil

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lower respiratory tract infections including mainly pneumonia represent an important public health problem leading to high mortality and mobidity rates in children aged below five years in developing countries including our country. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of rickets/osteomalacia, various cancers, autoimmune diseases, hyperproliferative skin diseases, cardiovascular system diseases and infectious diseases. Vitamin D has an important role in cellular and humoral immunity and pulmonary functions. Vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infection are common health problems in children in our country and no clinical study investigating the relationship between these problems has been conducted so far. In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the association between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection in children. Material and Methods: Sixty-three children aged between six months and five years with lower respiratory infections and 59 age-matched children who had no history of respiratory symptoms in the last month and no accompanying chronic disease were compared in terms of vitamin D levels. The children in the patient group were also evaluated by the clinical picture. Results: No significant correlation was found between vitamin D levels and lower respiratory tract infection in terms of disease and its severity. However, it was found that vitamin D deficiency/ insufficiency was observed with a high rate in all children included in the study. Conclusions: Although no correlation was found between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection, it is recommended that vitamin D level should be measured in children with lower respiratory tract infection and vitamin D supplementation should be given to all children especially in winter months based on the fact that the level of vitamin D was lower than normal in approximately half of the children included in the study and considering the

  3. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  4. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9%) and volume (+ 16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  5. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mainka

    Full Text Available The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9% and volume (+ 16:8%. Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  6. 尿路感染大肠埃希菌遗传种系分型及其耐药性的相关性探讨%Escherichia coli urinary tract infection germ line genetic typing and correlation of drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅俪凡; 王荣聪; 焦石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate different E.coli urinary tract infection germ line genetic typing and drug resistance of relevance.Methods Select our hospital between January 2013 and March 2014 separation of 122 strains within 48 h after admission e.coli urinary tract infection and 108 strains after 48 h after admission urinary tract infection e.coli as a clinical research objects,all samples are selected from mid-stream specimen of urine,urinary tract infection patients with isolated within 48 h after admission in patients with urinary tract infection e.coli as a community infected bacteria,isola-ted after 48 h after admission in patients with urinary tract infection e.coli bacteria for hospital infec-tion,mining API20E enterobacteriaceae bacteria identification kit with the French company ATB mi-crobial identification of strains,semi-automatic analyzer with producer diffusion method determination of urinary tract infection of e.coli drug sensitivity,contrast different genetic types of tie points urina-ry tract infections e.coli resistance,produce broad-spectrum beta lactamase(extended spectrum beta lactamases,ESBLs ) rate and the distribution of infection in hospital and community infection. Results Among the 230 strains of Escherichia coli,138 strains of producing strains were detected, and 34 strains of ESBLs and AmpC were detected by ESBLs76 and AmpC.230 strains of Escherichia coli to antibiotics resistance:resistance to commonly used antibiotics in clinic from top to bottom in turn:cotrimoxazole 81 .7%,piperacillin,pull Westwood 76.7%,74.2% of ampicillin,ampicillin sul-bactam 61 .7%,butylamine card that mildew element 61 .7%,cefuroxime 60.8%,cephalosporins cef-podoxime 59.2%,ammonia aztreonam 59.2%,pethidine pull Xin Lin He cling to Zun 32.5%,ce-fazolin 68.3%,gentamicin 57.5%,cephalosporins cefotaxime 43.3%,cefotaxime cefepime 38.3%, cefotaxime and 33.3% of cefoxitin,imipenem 0.8%.①According to the test results,and no bacterial infection in the community and

  7. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minardi D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniele Minardi, Gianluca d'Anzeo, Daniele Cantoro, Alessandro Conti, Giovanni MuzzonigroDepartment of Clinical and Specialist Sciences, Urology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Medical School and United Hospitals, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI are common among the female population. It has been calculated that about one-third of adult women have experienced an episode of symptomatic cystitis at least once. It is also common for these episodes to recur. If predisposing factors are not identified and removed, UTI can lead to more serious consequences, in particular kidney damage and renal failure. The aim of this review was to analyze the factors more commonly correlated with UTI in women, and to see what possible solutions are currently used in general practice and specialized areas, as well as those still under investigation. A good understanding of the possible pathogenic factors contributing to the development of UTI and its recurrence will help the general practitioner to interview the patient, search for causes that would otherwise remain undiscovered, and to identify the correct therapeutic strategy.Keywords: urinary tract infection, women, etiology, diagnosis, treatment

  8. ASSOCIATION OF MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE WITH RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Mohammed Saed Abdul-Wahab

    2013-01-01

    study of its kind from the region reporting such a disease in children using a serological assay as ELISA. Further studies are required to evaluate the risk of coinfection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Evaluating and establishing a correlation between Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the onset of asthma among infected children can be a prospective field of study for further knowledge of the role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in chronic respiratory tract infections.

  9. Human papillomavirus-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Guo, Theresa W; Smith, David F; Wang, Hao; Ogawa, Takenori; Pai, Sara I; Westra, William H

    2013-02-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 immunohistochemical analysis and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcome data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (Pcarcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean, 54 y). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high-risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. Although nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The

  10. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  11. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, Christopher D; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review.

  12. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Hua Liao; Jing-Bo Zhao; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient's condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Ghrelin Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Sakata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is 28-amino-acid peptide that was discovered from the rat and human stomach in 1999. Since the discovery of ghrelin, various functions of ghrelin, including growth hormone release, feeding behavior, glucose metabolism, memory, and also antidepressant effects, have been studied. It has also been reported that ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract has an important physiological effect on gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin has a unique structure that is modified by O-acylation with n-octanoic acid at third serine residues, and this modification enzyme has recently been identified and named ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT. Ghrelin is considered to be a gut-brain peptide and is abundantly produced from endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. In the gastrointestinal tract, ghrelin cells are most abundant in the stomach and are localized in gastric mucosal layers. Ghrelin cells are also widely distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, abundance of ghrelin cells in the gastric mucosa is evolutionally conserved from mammals to lower vertebrates, indicating that gastric ghrelin plays important roles for fundamental physiological functions. Ghrelin cells in the gastrointestinal tract are a major source of circulating plasma ghrelin, and thus understanding the physiology of these cells would reveal the biological significance of ghrelin.

  14. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673

  15. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinary Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection.

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Reproductive Tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangLifang

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.

  17. Parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyer, C M; Brandt, L J

    1999-08-01

    Parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increased international travel means that gastroenterologists are now more likely to care for patients with parasitic diseases. This article reviews various aspects of the more common intestinal parasites and their infections, including epidemiology, life cycle, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  18. Anatomic Problems of the Lower GI Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a thin membrane—this condition is also called anal atresia an anus that is missing or incorrectly placed a rectum that is not connected