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Sample records for cortical scintigraphic lesion

  1. Time course of transient cortical scintigraphic defects associated with acute pyelonephritis

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    Ditchfield, Michael R.; Summerville, Dianne; Cook, David J.; Campo, John F. de [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne 3052 (Australia); Grimwood, Keith; Nolan, Terrance M. [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Powell, Harley R. [Department of Nephrology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Sloane, Robert [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)

    2002-12-01

    Acute pyelonephritis is distinguished from renal scarring using repeat cortical scintigraphy. The defects of acute pyelonephritis resolve, while those of scars persist. To determine the duration of reversible cortical defects following acute pyelonephritis and the time interval required to differentiate infection from scars. Materials and methods. An observational prospective study of 193 children (386 kidneys) aged less than 5 years following their first proven urinary tract infection (UTI). Renal cortical scintigraphic defects were detected in 112 (29%) kidneys within 15 days of diagnosis. Of these, 95 underwent repeat renal cortical scans 2 years after the UTI, including 50 with additional scans performed within 2-6 months of infection. Of the 50 kidneys undergoing a second renal cortical scan within 2-6 months of the first UTI, 22 (44%) had persistent defects. A third scan was performed on 17 (77%) kidneys after 2 years, by which time defects had resolved in another 8 (47%) kidneys. The predictive value of defects detected within 2-6 months of UTI representing scars is 53% (95% CI 28, 77). Overall, nine (18%) kidneys with initial renal cortical abnormalities had permanent defects. In the 45 kidneys undergoing a second cortical scan more than 6 months after the UTI, 11 (24%) had persistent defects. None of the 95 kidneys undergoing serial scans developed new or larger defects. Renal scars may not be reliably diagnosed by cortical scintigraphy performed within 6 months of UTI because the inflammatory lesions may not have fully resolved. (orig.)

  2. Scintigraphic localization of bone lesions during surgery

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    Harcke, H.T.; MacEwen, G.D.; Conway, J.J.; Tachdjian, M.O.; Dias, L.S.; Noble, H.B.; Weiss, S.

    1985-03-01

    Nuclear medicine provides several methods for increasing the accuracy of surgical removal of bone lesions with focally increased uptake. In this paper, three intraoperative procedures are discussed: remote control by imaging, intraoperative control by imaging, and intraoperative control by scintillation probe. All techniques require preoperative injection of bone imaging tracer. Remote operative control calls for a gamma camera to mark the skin over the lesion prior to surgery, providing optimal preoperative localization and imaging of the excised lesion to ensure complete removal. Intraoperative control procedures require that a portable camera or a scintillation probe be used in the operating room; these permit direct monitoring of localization and resection. Our experience with 18 procedures performed on 15 patients suggests that these techniques are worthy of continued use.

  3. Scintigraphic features of duplex kidneys on DMSA renal cortical scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatra, Neha; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Majd, Massoud

    2013-09-01

    The spectrum of manifestations of duplex kidneys on (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal cortical scans and correlating findings on other imaging modalities are presented. Relevant embryology of the duplex systems and technical aspects of DMSA scintigraphy are reviewed.

  4. Multiple Metastasis-Like Bone Lesions in Scintigraphic Imaging

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    Ying Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple benign osteolytic lesions are very hard to differentiate from disseminated bone metastasis. Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP demonstrates multiple lesions with increased uptake in any bone involved. Even combined with medical history and multiple imaging results, such as MRI and CT, the clinical diagnosis of metastasis lesion remains as a challenge. These clinical characteristics are similar to multiple malignant bone metastases and therefore affect the following treatment procedures. In this paper, we analyzed multiple benign osteolytic lesions, like eosinophilic granuloma (EG, multiple myeloma (MM, disseminated tuberculosis, fibrous dysplasia, or enchondroma, occurring in our daily clinical work and concluded that additional attention should be paid before giving the diagnosis of multiple bone metastases.

  5. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

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    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  6. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

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    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  7. Epiphyseal involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease: radiographic and scintigraphic findings in a case with lytic lesions

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    Ruiz-Hernandez, G.; Tajahuerce-Romera, G.M.; Latorre-Ibanez, M.D.; Lara-Pomares, A. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Provincial de Castellon (Spain); Vila-Fayos, V. [Servicio de Reumatologia, Hospital Comarcal de Vinaroz (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    We reported a symmetric increase of activity in lower links secondary to Erdheim-Chester disease and demonstrated by bone scans and radiographs. An inusual scintigraphic and radiographic appearance with epiphyseal involvement and lytic lesions is described. Differential diagnosis of bone scan and radiographic findings is discussed. (orig.)

  8. The scintigraphic reaction pattern of traumatic bone lesions; Das szintigraphische Reaktionsmuster knoecherner Verletzungen

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    Spitz, J. [Praxis fuer Nuklearmedizin, Staedtisches Klinikum Wiesbaden (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    The indications for bone scintigraphy in traumatology result: 1. Definite exclusion of bone lesions by normal scintigraphic findings (except for the scull). 2. Unclear result of X-ray or a mismatch between clinical investigation and X-ray result. 3. Screening after multiple injury which leads to the detection of an unknown bone lesion in every second patient. 4. Suspicion of a complicated healting course in cases of doubtful X-ray results. 5. The estimation of relative fracture age. This question always rises, if a pre-existing trauma or morphologic changes in X-ray make a clear diagnosis impossible. The additional information gained by bone scintigraphy is in part exclusive and not to be drawn from any other imaging modality. This renders bone scintigraphy to an important tool in the work up of medico-legal questions in traumatology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus den speziellen szintigraphischen Eigenschaften knoecherner Verletzungen ergeben sich die Indikationen fuer die Skelettszintigraphie in der Traumatologie: 1. Ausschluss einer ossaeren Laesion durch einen szintigraphischen Normalbefund (bei Einhaltung eines ausreichenden Abstandes zum Trauma bilden nur die Schaedelknochen eine Ausnahme); 2. ein unklarer Roentgenbefund oder eine Diskrepanz zwischen Klinik, Anamnese und Roentgenbild; 3. das Screening nach Polytrauma, das bei jedem zweiten unfallverletzten Patienten eine zusaetzliche, bis dahin noch nicht bekannte und radiologisch dann nachvollziehbare Fraktur nachweist; 4. der Verdacht auf einen gestoerten Heilungsverlauf, soweit die primaer eingesetzte Roentgendiagnostik keine verbindliche Interpretation erlaubt; 5. die Bestimmung des relativen Frakturalters, die von Bedeutung ist, wenn vorbestehende Unfaelle in der Anamnese oder morphologische Veraenderungen die Interpretation des Roentgenbildes beeintraechtigen. Die mit Hilfe der Skelettszintigraphie erhaltenen Informationen sind zum Teil exklusiv und mit keinem anderen bildgebenden Verfahren so einfach zu

  9. The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Shuttleworth, C William; Kirov, Sergei A;

    2017-01-01

    A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum...... of spreading mass depolarizations, a concept that is central to understanding their pathologic effects. Within minutes of acute severe ischemia, the onset of persistent depolarization triggers the breakdown of ion homeostasis and development of cytotoxic edema. These persistent changes are diagnosed....... The causal role of these waves in lesion development has been proven by real-time monitoring of electrophysiology, blood flow, and cytotoxic edema. The spreading depolarization continuum further applies to other models of acute cortical lesions, suggesting that it is a universal principle of cortical lesion...

  10. Cortical Lesions as Determinants of White Matter Lesion Formation and Cognitive Abnormalities in MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    matter lesion, gray matter lesion, diffusion tensor imaging, double inversion recovery imaging, connectivity 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS:  What were the major...two independent raters (Raters 1 and 2) reviewed all subjects and identified cortical and white matter lesions. Diffusion tensor data was used to

  11. Cortical versus non-cortical lesions affect expression of Babinski sign.

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    Deng, Ting; Jia, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Tong; Guo, Dongmei; Yang, Ling

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the pattern of pathological plantar response (Babinski sign), and the focus of the lesions of pyramidal tract. We examined 107 subjects with definite lesions of the pyramidal tract recruited from inpatients at the Neurology Department of the Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University (Beijing, China). We found that patients with sub-cortical lesions (corona radiata to spinal cord) showed different patterns of Babinski sign than those with lesions within the primary motor cortex. Specifically, dorsiflexion of the big toe without recruitment of the other toes was seen in 71.4 % of patients with cortical pyramidal tract lesions, while 93 patients with lesions lower than cortex (corona radiata to spinal cord) showed movement of other toes in addition to the big toe, which showed movement due to contraction of the extensor hallucis longus tendon in all patients. There were no differences in patterns of Babinski sign between the different sub-cortical lesion foci. We conclude that the patterns of Babinski sign can be used to predict cortical lesions of the pyramidal tract.

  12. MS cortical lesions on DIR: not quite what they seem?

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    Varun Sethi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Accurate identification and localization of cortical gray matter (CGM lesions in MS is important when determining their clinical relevance. Double inversion recovery (DIR scans have been widely used to detect MS CGM lesions. Phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR scans have a higher signal to noise, and can therefore be obtained at a higher resolution within clinically acceptable times. This enables detection of more CGM lesions depicting a clearer cortical and juxtacortical anatomy. In this study, we systematically investigated if the use of high resolution PSIR scans changes the classification of CGM lesions, when compared with standard resolution DIR scans. METHODS: 60 patients [30 RR(Relapsing remitting and 15 each with PP(Primary progressive and SP(Secondary progressive MS] were scanned on a 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner. Images acquired included DIR (1×1×3 mm resolution and PSIR (0.5×0.5×2 mm. CGM lesions were detected and classified on DIR as intracortical (IC or leucocortical (LC. We then examined these lesions on corresponding slices of the high resolution PSIR scans and categorized them as IC, LC, Juxtacortical white matter (JC-WM, abutting but not entering cortex and other white matter (WM, not juxtacortical. Classifications using both scans were noted. RESULTS: 282 IC and 483 LC were identified on DIR. Of the IC lesions, 61% were confirmed as IC on PSIR, 35.5% were reclassified as LC and 3.5% as JC-WM or other WM only. Of the LC DIR lesions, 43.9% were confirmed at LC on PSIR, 16.1% were reclassified as IC and 40% as JC-WM or other WM only. Overall, 50% (381/765 of CGM lesions seen on DIR were reclassified, and 26.5% (203/765 affected WM only. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with higher resolution PSIR, a significant proportion of lesions classified as involving CGM on DIR appear to either contain more white matter than expected or to not involve CGM at all.

  13. Consensus recommendations for MS cortical lesion scoring using double inversion recovery MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geurts, J J G; Roosendaal, S D; Calabrese, M;

    2011-01-01

    Different double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences are currently used in multiple sclerosis (MS) research centers to visualize cortical lesions, making it difficult to compare published data. This study aimed to formulate consensus recommendations for scoring cortical lesions in patients with MS...

  14. Scintigraphic evaluation of aggressive fibromatosis

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    Ohta, H.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J.; Iwasaki, R.; Kotoura, Y.; Yamamuro, T.; Kotoura, H. (Wakayama Red Cross Hospital (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    Despite its benign microscopic appearance, aggressive fibromatosis has potential to recur and infiltrate neighboring tissues. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the exact extent before therapy. In the present study, 11 cases of aggressive fibromatosis were examined scintigraphically using ({sup 99m}Tc(V))dimercaptosuccinic acid (11 cases) and {sup 67}Ga-citrate (7 cases). Technetium-99m-(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid demonstrated all lesions, while {sup 67}Ga-citrate detected 57% of the cases.

  15. Resolution of cortical lesions on serial renal scans in children with acute pyelonephritis

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    Agras, Koray; Tuncel, Altug; Atan, Ali [Numune Teaching and Research Hospital, Department of Urology, Ankara (Turkey); Ortapamuk, Huelya; Naldoeken, Seniha [Numune Teaching and Research Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    The ideal time for distinguishing a renal scar from acute inflammatory lesions by renal DMSA scintigraphy remains controversial. To determine the time needed for resolution of lesions after acute pyelonephritis. A total of 105 children with acute pyelonephritis underwent renal sonography, voiding cystourethrography and baseline DMSA scintigraphy. Two subsequent scans were performed during the 6th and 12th months in patients with abnormal findings on the previous scan. The baseline DMSA scintigraphy revealed cortical lesions in 37 patients. At 6 months, 13 patients (38.2%) were found to have cortical lesions. At 12 months, 6 patients (17.6%) were found to have persistent renal cortical lesions. The resolution rates for lesions detected on the first scan were 61.8% and 82.4% on the 6- and 12-month scans, respectively. Vesicoureteric reflux, and bilaterality or multifocality were not relevant for resolution of lesions. Female gender seemed to be associated with a higher persistence rate. The renal cortical defects present at 6 months have a high rate of resolution later during follow-up. DMSA scintigraphy performed 12 months after the infection provides more reliable data regarding persistence of renal cortical lesions. (orig.)

  16. The Relation of Focal Lesions to Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Zielinski, Brandon A; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Black, Garrett M; Huff, B S Trevor; Christiansen, Zachary; Wood, Dawn-Marie; Abildskov, Tracy J; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-10-01

    In a sample of children with traumatic brain injury, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based investigation examined whether presence of a focal lesion uniquely influenced cortical thickness in any brain region. Specifically, the study explored the relation of cortical thickness to injury severity as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale score and length of stay, along with presence of encephalomalacia, focal white matter lesions or presence of hemosiderin deposition as a marker of shear injury. For comparison, a group of children without head injury but with orthopedic injury of similar age and sex were also examined. Both traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury children had normally reduced cortical thickness with age, assumed to reflect neuronal pruning. However, the reductions observed within the traumatic brain injury sample were similar to those in the orthopedic injury group, suggesting that in this sample traumatic brain injury, per se, did not uniquely alter cortical thickness in any brain region at the group level. Injury severity in terms of Glasgow Coma Scale or longer length of stay was associated with greater reductions in frontal and occipitoparietal cortical thickness. However, presence of focal lesions were not related to unique changes in cortical thickness despite having a prominent distribution of lesions within frontotemporal regions among children with traumatic brain injury. Because focal lesions were highly heterogeneous, their association with cortical thickness and development appeared to be idiosyncratic, and not associated with group level effects.

  17. INTRAOPERATIVE LOCALIZATION OF CORTICAL MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS IN CENTRAL SULCUS LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study direct cortical electrical stimulation technique for the recording of motor evoked potentials under general anesthesia in central sulcus lesions. Methods The largest N20-P25 response was recorded from postcentral gyrus by intraoperative monitoring of cortical motor evoked potentials in 10 patients with intracranial lesions near or in the central area. The muscles of upper extremity in all patients were activated by delivering stimulus to cortical areas continuously. Moving the cortical electrodes forward, the largest P20-N25 response, SEP phase reversal,was obtained as a motor center stimulus. In this site of cortex, a short train stimulation elicited reproducible muscle action potentials that could be observed from the oscilloscope without averaging.Results MEPs can be recorded, pre- and post-operatively, without motor deficits of upper limbs in all patients.Conclusion This technique seems to be preferable for intraoperative localization of motor evoked potentials in central sulcus lesions under total intravenous anesthesia.

  18. Effect of Cortical Bone Thickness on Detection of Intraosseous Lesions by Ultrasonography

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    Sadaf Adibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Usefulness of ultrasound (US in detection of intrabony lesions has been showed. A cortical bone perforation or a very thin and intact cortical bone is prerequisite for this purpose. Objective. The current in vitro study was aimed at measuring the cut-off thickness of the overlying cortical bone which allows ultrasonic assessment of bony defects. Materials and Methods. 20 bovine scapula blocks were obtained. Samples were numbered from 1 to 20. In each sample, 5 artificial lesions were made. The lesions were made in order to increase the overlying bone thickness, from 0.1 mm in the first sample to 2 mm in the last one (with 0.1 mm interval. After that, the samples underwent ultrasound examinations by two practicing radiologists. Results. All five lesions in samples numbered 1 to 11 were detected as hypoechoic area. Cortical bone thickness more than 1.1 mm resulted in a failure in the detection of central lesions. Conclusion. We can conclude that neither bony perforation nor very thin cortical bones are needed to consider US to be an effective imaging technique in the evaluation of bony lesion.

  19. Simulation of Robustness against Lesions of Cortical Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Marcus; Andras, Peter; Young, Malcolm P

    2008-01-01

    Structure entails function and thus a structural description of the brain will help to understand its function and may provide insights into many properties of brain systems, from their robustness and recovery from damage, to their dynamics and even their evolution. Advances in the analysis of complex networks provide useful new approaches to understanding structural and functional properties of brain networks. Structural properties of networks recently described allow their characterization as small-world, random (exponential) and scale-free. They complement the set of other properties that have been explored in the context of brain connectivity, such as topology, hodology, clustering, and hierarchical organization. Here we apply new network analysis methods to cortical inter-areal connectivity networks for the cat and macaque brains. We compare these corticocortical fibre networks to benchmark rewired, small-world, scale-free and random networks, using two analysis strategies, in which we measure the effect...

  20. Characteristics of lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: A magnetisation transfer and diffusion tensor imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Yaldizli, Ö.; Pardini, M; V. Sethi; Muhlert, N.; Liu, Z.; Tozer, D J; Samson, R. S.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Yousry, T. A.; Miller, D. H.; Chard, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis (MS), diffusion tensor and magnetisation transfer imaging are both abnormal in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter, but differences between clinical subtypes and associations with clinical outcomes have only been partly assessed. OBJECTIVE: To compare mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in cortical grey matter lesions (detected using phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) imaging) and extra-lesiona...

  1. Radixin expression in microglia after cortical stroke lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Åsa; Osman, Ahmed; Bolouri, Hayde; Mallard, Carina; Kuhn, H Georg

    2013-05-01

    Stroke induces extensive tissue remodeling, resulting in the activation of several cell types in the brain as well as recruitment of blood-borne leucocytes. Radixin is part of a cytoskeleton linker protein family with the ability to connect transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton, promoting cell functions involving a dynamic cytoskeleton such as morphological changes, cell division and migration which are common events of different cell types after stroke. In the healthy adult brain radixin is expressed in Olig2(+) cells throughout the brain and in neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone. In the current study, we detected a 2.5 fold increase in the number of radixin positive cells in the peri-infarct cortex two weeks after the induction of cortical stroke by photothrombosis. Similarly, the number of Olig2(+) cells increased in the peri-infarct area after stroke; however, the number of radixin(+)/Olig2(+) cells was unchanged. Neural progenitor cells maintained radixin expression on their route to the infarct. More surprising however, was the expression of radixin in activated microglia in the peri-infarct cortex. Seventy percent of Iba1(+) cells expressed radixin after stroke, a population which was not present in the control brain. Furthermore, activation of radixin was predominantly detected in the peri-infarct region of oligodendrocyte progenitors and microglia. The specific location of radixin(+) cells in the peri-infarct region and in microglia suggests a role for radixin in microglial activation after stroke.

  2. Bone Scintigraphic Findings in Leukemic Patients

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    Choi, Hyo Sun; Park, Jeong Mi; Shon, Hyeong Seon; Chang, Soo Kyo; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    The leukemias represent diffuse lesions of the bone marrow and significant bony abnormalities are associated with the more aggressive varieties of leukemias and with the younger age groups. On plain film, several roentgenographic findings are observed such as diffuse osteopenia, radiolucent metaphyseal bands, osteolytic lesions and periostitis. We evaluated bone scintigraphic findings using {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) in ten patients with proven leukemia. The scan is abnormal in 90%. We classified abnormal scintigraphic findings to 3 types and these are increased diffuse juxta-articular uptake, focal increase of uptake and combined type. The common sites of focal uptake were femur, humerus, tibia, spine, ribs, calvarium, scapula and mandible. We concluded that {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy is sensitive imaging modality in leukemic patients with bone pain.

  3. CBCT-based evaluation of integrity of cortical sinus close to periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oséas SANTOS Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to test the applicability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT to evaluate the integrity of the cortical sinus close to periapical lesions. Two observers analyzed samples of 64 alveoli of first molar roots in macerated swine maxillas prepared with perchloric acid to simulate periapical lesions. The specimens were evaluated using CBCT (55-mm high and 100-mm diameter cylinder at 0.2-mm voxel resolution for the presence of oroantral communication (OAC caused by the simulated lesions. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated. Fair values were obtained for accuracy (66%-78% and good values for specificity (70%-98%, whereas the values for sensibility showed relevant variation (41%-78%. For this reason, the interobserver agreement score was weak. CBCT proved capable of evaluating the integrity of the cortical sinus (absence of oroantral communication when it lies close to an apical periodontitis lesion. However, the low interobserver agreement reflects the difficulty in performing diagnoses when OAC is adjacent to a periapical lesion, using the acquisition protocol adopted in this research. This could be attributed to the high level of image noise.

  4. Focal cortical lesions induce bidirectional changes in the excitability of fast spiking and non fast spiking cortical interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrosci, Barbara; Neitz, Angela; Mittmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A physiological brain function requires neuronal networks to operate within a well-defined range of activity. Indeed, alterations in neuronal excitability have been associated with several pathological conditions, ranging from epilepsy to neuropsychiatric disorders. Changes in inhibitory transmission are known to play a key role in the development of hyperexcitability. However it is largely unknown whether specific interneuronal subpopulations contribute differentially to such pathological condition. In the present study we investigated functional alterations of inhibitory interneurons embedded in a hyperexcitable cortical circuit at the border of chronically induced focal lesions in mouse visual cortex. Interestingly, we found opposite alterations in the excitability of non fast-spiking (Non Fs) and fast-spiking (Fs) interneurons in acute cortical slices from injured animals. Non Fs interneurons displayed a depolarized membrane potential and a higher frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). In contrast, Fs interneurons showed a reduced sEPSCs amplitude. The observed downscaling of excitatory synapses targeting Fs interneurons may prevent the recruitment of this specific population of interneurons to the hyperexcitable network. This mechanism is likely to seriously affect neuronal network function and to exacerbate hyperexcitability but it may be important to protect this particular vulnerable population of GABAegic neurons from excitotoxicity.

  5. Increased cortical grey matter lesion detection in multiple sclerosis with 7 T MRI : a post-mortem verification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Iris D; Jonkman, Laura E; Klaver, Roel; van Veluw, Susanne J; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Kuijer, Joost P A; Pouwels, Petra J W; Twisk, Jos W R; Wattjes, Mike P; Luijten, Peter R; Barkhof, Frederik; Geurts, Jeroen J G

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis has become increasingly recognized over the past decade. Unfortunately, a large part of cortical lesions remain undetected on magnetic resonance imaging using standard field strength. In vivo studies have shown improved detection

  6. Focal cortical lesion detection in multiple sclerosis: 3 Tesla DIR versus 7 Tesla FLASH-T2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A Scott; Kinkel, R Philip; Tinelli, Emanuele; Benner, Thomas; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Mainero, Caterina

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the inter-rater agreement of cortical lesion detection using 7 Tesla (T) FLASH-T2 and 3T DIR sequences. Twenty-six patients with multiple sclerosis were scanned on a human 7T (Siemens) and 3T MRI (TIM Trio, Siemens) to acquire 3T DIR/MEMPR and 7T FLASH-T2 sequences. Four independent reviewers scored and categorized cortical lesions in the bilateral precentral gyri (motor strips) as leukocortical, intracortical, or subpial. Inter-rater agreement was assessed according to lesion category using the kappa statistic. The sensitivity of recent MAGNIMS consensus guidelines for cortical lesion detection using 3T DIR was assessed with 7T FLASH-T2 as the reference gold standard. Inter-rater agreement at 7T was excellent compared with 3T (k = 0.97 versus 0.12). FLASH-T2 at 7T detected subpial lesions while 3T DIR did not. The predicted sensitivity of 3T DIR sequence for cortical lesions in vivo is modest (range of 13.6 to 18.3%). The 7T FLASH-T2 detects more cortical-particularly subpial-lesions compared with 3T DIR. In the absence of DIR/postmortem data, 7T FLASH-T2 is a suitable gold-standard instrument and should be incorporated into future consensus guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Retinal lesions induce fast intrinsic cortical plasticity in adult mouse visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Katrien; Vreysen, Samme; Laramée, Marie-Eve; Cuyvers, Annemie; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Van Brussel, Leen; Eysel, Ulf T; Nys, Julie; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2016-09-01

    Neuronal activity plays an important role in the development and structural-functional maintenance of the brain as well as in its life-long plastic response to changes in sensory stimulation. We characterized the impact of unilateral 15° laser lesions in the temporal lower visual field of the retina, on visually driven neuronal activity in the afferent visual pathway of adult mice using in situ hybridization for the activity reporter gene zif268. In the first days post-lesion, we detected a discrete zone of reduced zif268 expression in the contralateral hemisphere, spanning the border between the monocular segment of the primary visual cortex (V1) with extrastriate visual area V2M. We could not detect a clear lesion projection zone (LPZ) in areas lateral to V1 whereas medial to V2M, agranular and granular retrosplenial cortex showed decreased zif268 levels over their full extent. All affected areas displayed a return to normal zif268 levels, and this was faster in higher order visual areas than in V1. The lesion did, however, induce a permanent LPZ in the retinorecipient layers of the superior colliculus. We identified a retinotopy-based intrinsic capacity of adult mouse visual cortex to recover from restricted vision loss, with recovery speed reflecting the areal cortical magnification factor. Our observations predict incomplete visual field representations for areas lateral to V1 vs. lack of retinotopic organization for areas medial to V2M. The validation of this mouse model paves the way for future interrogations of cortical region- and cell-type-specific contributions to functional recovery, up to microcircuit level.

  8. Phase-Sensitive Inversion-Recovery MRI Improves Longitudinal Cortical Lesion Detection in Progressive MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaff Harel

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR to double inversion recovery (DIR have demonstrated that use of PSIR improves cross-sectional in vivo detection of cortical lesions (CL in multiple sclerosis. We studied the utility of PSIR in detection/characterization of accrual of CL over time in a 1-year longitudinal study in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS compared to DIR. PSIR and DIR images were acquired with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 25 patients with PPMS and 19 healthy controls at baseline, and after 1 year in 20 patients with PPMS. CL were classified as intracortical, leucocortical or juxtacortical. Lesion counts and volumes were calculated for both time points from both sequences and compared. Correlations with measures of physical and cognitive disability were determined as well as new CL counts and volumes. Compared to DIR, PSIR led to detection of a higher number of CL involving a larger proportion of patients with PPMS both cross-sectionally (p = 0.006, 88% and longitudinally (p = 0.007, 95%, and led to the reclassification of a third of CL seen on DIR at each time point. Interestingly, PSIR was more sensitive to new CL accumulation over time compared to DIR. PSIR is a promising technique to monitor cortical damage and disease progression in patients with PPMS over a short-term follow-up.

  9. Increased cortical grey matter lesion detection in multiple sclerosis with 7 T MRI: a post-mortem verification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsdonk, Iris D; Jonkman, Laura E; Klaver, Roel; van Veluw, Susanne J; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Kuijer, Joost P A; Pouwels, Petra J W; Twisk, Jos W R; Wattjes, Mike P; Luijten, Peter R; Barkhof, Frederik; Geurts, Jeroen J G

    2016-05-01

    The relevance of cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis has become increasingly recognized over the past decade. Unfortunately, a large part of cortical lesions remain undetected on magnetic resonance imaging using standard field strength. In vivo studies have shown improved detection by using higher magnetic field strengths up to 7 T. So far, a systematic histopathological verification of ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences has been lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of 7 T versus 3 T magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences for the detection of cortical multiple sclerosis lesions by directly comparing them to histopathology. We obtained hemispheric coronally cut brain sections of 19 patients with multiple sclerosis and four control subjects after rapid autopsy and formalin fixation, and scanned them using 3 T and 7 T magnetic resonance imaging systems. Pulse sequences included T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid attenuated inversion recovery, double inversion recovery and T2*. Cortical lesions (type I-IV) were scored on all sequences by an experienced rater blinded to histopathology and clinical data. Staining was performed with antibodies against proteolipid protein and scored by a second reader blinded to magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data. Subsequently, magnetic resonance imaging images were matched to histopathology and sensitivity of pulse sequences was calculated. Additionally, a second unblinded (retrospective) scoring of magnetic resonance images was performed. Regardless of pulse sequence, 7 T magnetic resonance imaging detected more cortical lesions than 3 T. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (7 T) detected 225% more cortical lesions than 3 T fluid attenuated inversion recovery (Z = 2.22, P lesions than 3 T T2* (Z = 2.05, P lesion type: 100% for type I (T2), 11% for type II (FLAIR/T2), 32% for type III (T2*), and 68% for type IV (T2). We conclude that ultra-high field 7 T

  10. Cortical reorganization after long-term adaptation to retinal lesions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2013-11-13

    Single-unit recordings demonstrated that the adult mammalian visual cortex is capable of reorganizing after induced retinal lesions. In humans, whether the adult cortex is capable of reorganizing has only been studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging, with equivocal results. Here, we exploited the phenomenon of visual crowding, a major limitation on object recognition, to show that, in humans with long-standing retinal (macular) lesions that afflict the fovea and thus use their peripheral vision exclusively, the signature properties of crowding are distinctly different from those of the normal periphery. Crowding refers to the inability to recognize objects when the object spacing is smaller than the critical spacing. Critical spacing depends only on the retinal location of the object, scales linearly with its distance from the fovea, and is approximately two times larger in the radial than the tangential direction with respect to the fovea, thus demonstrating the signature radial-tangential anisotropy of the crowding zone. Using retinal imaging combined with behavioral measurements, we mapped out the crowding zone at the precise peripheral retinal locations adopted by individuals with macular lesions as the new visual reference loci. At these loci, the critical spacings are substantially smaller along the radial direction than expected based on the normal periphery, resulting in a lower scaling of critical spacing with the eccentricity of the peripheral locus and a loss in the signature radial-tangential anisotropy of the crowding zone. These results imply a fundamental difference in the substrate of cortical processing in object recognition following long-term adaptation to macular lesions.

  11. Cortical-striatal gene expression in neonatal hippocampal lesion (NVHL)-amplified cocaine sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R A; McClintick, J N; Sentir, A M; Berg, S A; Runyan, M; Choi, K H; Edenberg, H J

    2013-07-01

    Cortical-striatal circuit dysfunction in mental illness may enhance addiction vulnerability. Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) model this dual diagnosis causality by producing a schizophrenia syndrome with enhanced responsiveness to addictive drugs. Rat genome-wide microarrays containing >24 000 probesets were used to examine separate and co-occurring effects of NVHLs and cocaine sensitization (15 mg/kg/day × 5 days) on gene expression within medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and caudate-putamen (CAPU). Two weeks after NVHLs robustly amplified cocaine behavioral sensitization, brains were harvested for genes of interest defined as those altered at P CAPU expression. From 75 named genes altered by NVHL or cocaine, 27 had expression levels that correlated significantly with degree of behavioral sensitization, including 11 downregulated by NVHL in MPFC/NAC, and 10 upregulated by NVHL or cocaine in CAPU. These findings suggest that structural and functional impoverishment of prefrontal-cortical-accumbens circuits in mental illness is associated with abnormal striatal plasticity compounding with that in addictive disease. Polygenetic interactions impacting neuronal signaling and morphology within these networks likely contribute to addiction vulnerability in mental illness.

  12. Atypical form of Alzheimer's disease with prominent posterior cortical atrophy: a review of lesion distribution and circuit disconnection in cortical visual pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P. R.; Vogt, B. A.; Bouras, C.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, the existence of visual variants of Alzheimer's disease characterized by atypical clinical presentation at onset has been increasingly recognized. In many of these cases post-mortem neuropathological assessment revealed that correlations could be established between clinical symptoms and the distribution of neurodegenerative lesions. We have analyzed a series of Alzheimer's disease patients presenting with prominent visual symptomatology as a cardinal sign of the disease. In these cases, a shift in the distribution of pathological lesions was observed such that the primary visual areas and certain visual association areas within the occipito-parieto-temporal junction and posterior cingulate cortex had very high densities of lesions, whereas the prefrontal cortex had fewer lesions than usually observed in Alzheimer's disease. Previous quantitative analyses have demonstrated that in Alzheimer's disease, primary sensory and motor cortical areas are less damaged than the multimodal association areas of the frontal and temporal lobes, as indicated by the laminar and regional distribution patterns of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. The distribution of pathological lesions in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease cases with visual symptomatology revealed that specific visual association pathways were disrupted, whereas these particular connections are likely to be affected to a less severe degree in the more common form of Alzheimer's disease. These data suggest that in some cases with visual variants of Alzheimer's disease, the neurological symptomatology may be related to the loss of certain components of the cortical visual pathways, as reflected by the particular distribution of the neuropathological markers of the disease.

  13. Visual discrimination and short-term memory for random patterns in patients with a focal cortical lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenlee, MW; Koessler, M; Cornelissen, FW; Mergner, T

    1997-01-01

    Visual discrimination and short-term recognition memory for computer-generated random patterns were explored in 23 patients with a postsurgical lesion in one of the cortical hemispheres. Their results are compared with those of 23 age-matched volunteers. In a same-different forced-choice discriminat

  14. Correlation of Ultrasound and Scintigraphic Findings in Scrotal Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kyung Ja [Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Recently ultrasound and scintigraphic study are most useful modality for diagnosis of scrotal diseases. They are able to determine the nature, anatomic extent of the lesion, and possible to differential diagnosis of the scrotal lesion. The ultrasound and scintigraphic findings were analyses in 59 patients of confirmed scrotal disease at Seoul Red Cross Hospital from June 1986 to Aug. 1989. The results were as follows. 1) Most patients were below the 30 years old age (69.4%), and most prevalent age was 11-30 Yrs. in trauma, 31-40 Yrs. in inflammation, and 51-60 Yrs. in mass lesion of scrotum. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of scrotal disease was 94.9% in ultrasound and 729 in scintigraphic study. The ultrasound study showed high accuracy in all kind of scrotal disease, but scintigraphy showed only high detection rate in inflammatory disease. 3) Scrotal ultrasound is first choice of study for the diagnosis of scrotal lesion, and useful determine the cystic or solid lesion and snatomic extent of disease. However it can't differentiate the acute epididymitis with acute testicular torsion. 4) Scrotal scintigraphy is useful study for the diagnosis of acute painful scrotal disease, and showed specific findings in acute epididymitis and acute torsion for differential diagnosis. 5) In consideration of age, history and clinical findings of patient, appropriate study will be chosen firstly in ultrasound and scintigraphy, and combined ail of findings of these studies will be helpful for the accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment of scrotal disease.

  15. High field (9.4 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging of cortical grey matter lesions in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmierer, Klaus; Parkes, Harold G; So, Po-Wah; An, Shu F; Brandner, Sebastian; Ordidge, Roger J; Yousry, Tarek A; Miller, David H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, degenerative disease of the central nervous system. The most obvious pathological change in multiple sclerosis is multifocal demyelination of the white matter, but grey matter demyelination may be of equal or even greater importance for its clinical manifestations. In order to assess the pathogenetic role of lesions in the grey and white matter, and to explore the association between demyelinated and non-lesional brain tissue, tools are needed to depict each of these tissue components accurately in vivo. Due to its sensitivity in detecting white matter lesions, T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T is important in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. However, magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T largely fails to detect grey matter lesions. In this study, we used T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 9.4 T to detect grey matter lesions in fixed post-mortem multiple sclerosis motor cortex. Furthermore, we produced T(1), T(2) and magnetization transfer ratio maps, and correlated these indices with quantitative histology [neuronal density, intensity of immunostaining for myelin basic protein (reflecting myelin content) and phosphorylated neurofilament (reflecting axonal area)] using t-tests and multivariate regression. In 21 tissue samples, 28 cortical grey matter lesions were visible on both T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and sections immunostained for myelin basic protein, 15/28 being mixed white and grey matter and 11/28 subpial cortical grey matter lesions; 2/28 cortical grey matter lesions involved all layers of the cortex. Compared with non-lesional cortex, cortical grey matter lesions showed reduction of neuronal density (98/mm(2), SD = 34/mm(2;) versus 129/mm(2), SD = 44; P < 0.01), phosphorylated neurofilament (1/transmittance = 1.16; SD = 0.09 versus 1.24; SD = 0.1; P < 0.01) and magnetization transfer ratio (31.1 pu; SD = 11.9 versus 37.5 pu; SD = 8.7; P = 0.01), and an increase of T(2) (25

  16. Transient widespread cortical and splenial lesions in acute encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with primary Epstein–Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is very common and usually occurs in childhood or early adulthood. Encephalitis/encephalopathy is an uncommon but serious neurological complication of EBV. A case of EBV-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy with involvement of reversible widespread cortical and splenial lesions is presented herein. An 8-year-old Chinese girl who presented with fever and headache, followed by seizures and drowsiness, was admitted to the hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensities on diffusion-weighted imaging in widespread cortical and splenial lesions. The clinical and laboratory examination results together with the unusual radiology findings suggested acute encephalitis/encephalopathy due to primary EBV infection. After methylprednisolone pulse therapy together with ganciclovir, the patient made a full recovery without any brain lesions. The hallmark clinical–radiological features of this patient included severe encephalitis/encephalopathy at onset, the prompt and complete recovery, and rapidly reversible widespread involvement of the cortex and splenium. Patients with EBV encephalitis/encephalopathy who have multiple lesions, even with the widespread involvement of cortex and splenium of the corpus callosum, may have a favorable outcome with complete disappearance of all brain lesions.

  17. A simple rule for dendritic spine and axonal bouton formation can account for cortical reorganization after focal retinal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Butz

    Full Text Available Lasting alterations in sensory input trigger massive structural and functional adaptations in cortical networks. The principles governing these experience-dependent changes are, however, poorly understood. Here, we examine whether a simple rule based on the neurons' need for homeostasis in electrical activity may serve as driving force for cortical reorganization. According to this rule, a neuron creates new spines and boutons when its level of electrical activity is below a homeostatic set-point and decreases the number of spines and boutons when its activity exceeds this set-point. In addition, neurons need a minimum level of activity to form spines and boutons. Spine and bouton formation depends solely on the neuron's own activity level, and synapses are formed by merging spines and boutons independently of activity. Using a novel computational model, we show that this simple growth rule produces neuron and network changes as observed in the visual cortex after focal retinal lesions. In the model, as in the cortex, the turnover of dendritic spines was increased strongest in the center of the lesion projection zone, while axonal boutons displayed a marked overshoot followed by pruning. Moreover, the decrease in external input was compensated for by the formation of new horizontal connections, which caused a retinotopic remapping. Homeostatic regulation may provide a unifying framework for understanding cortical reorganization, including network repair in degenerative diseases or following focal stroke.

  18. The correlation of the thalamic lesions on MRI with cerebral cortical blood flow in patients with lacunar infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabatame, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsuda, Minoru; Fujimoto, Naoki [Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Fukuyama, Hidenao

    1995-07-01

    We performed MRI and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) using {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT microsphere model in twenty three right-handed patients with lacunar infarction. Twelve of 23 patients showed chronic deterioration of dysarthria and gait disturbance. The mental function of the patients was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State (MMS) examination. The area of high intensity on T2-weighted images was quantitatively analyzed in the cerebral white matter (WM), lenticular nucleus (LN) and thalamus (THA). The score of MMS was positively correlated with the local CBF in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.05). Also, the area of high intensity in the left THA showed a significant negative correlation with local CBF of the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.001). The high intensity areas of the bilateral LN, right WM and right THA had a significant but weaker negative correlation with local CBF of some cortices. These findings suggest that thalamic lesions on the dominant side play an important role in the reduction of cortical blood flow and the deterioration of mental functions in patients with lacunar infarction. (author).

  19. Cytological findings in scintigraphically nonfunctioning thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Branislava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The major one among the procedures for evaluating changes in the thyroid nodules is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used in diagnostic algoritham of nodules. Less than 5% of examined nodules show to be malignant. Scintigraphically, nodules could be classified as functional and nonfunctional. It is estimated that the risk of malignacy in nonfunctional nodules ranges from 8% to 25% and more. Aspiration punction provides 100% specific and positive predictive value. The aim of the study was to establish the distribution of cytological findings in nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. Methods. The prospective study enrolled 112 patients, 104 women and 8 men, submitted to thyroid scintigraphy for known thyroid nodule disorder. Scintigraphy was performed about half an hour after iv administration of 74 MBq of sodium-pertehnetate. A pin hole collimator was used. Scintigrams were visually evaluated, and absence of radiopharmaceutic in a nodule was estimated as nonfunctional one. Such nodules were afterwards subjected to FNAB and material obtained was cytologically analyzed. Results. In our patients nonfunctioning nodules comprised tissue of colloid struma, thyroid cyst, regular thyroid tissue, follicular lesion, oxiphillic lesion, papillary carcinoma tissue and tissue of lymphocytic thyroiditis. The most frequent cytological finding were colloid cysts (52%. A total of 70% were female nodules. Five citological findings were histopathologically analyzed. Conclusion. Cytological finding of nonfunctional nodules determines of the decision on radical therapy, and our preliminary results imply the need of FNAB routine use in nuclear medicine practice.

  20. Scintigraphic findings in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I

    1977-06-01

    A prospective study of bone scintigraphic findings has been carried out in 63 patients, firmly diagnosed as having ankylosing spondylitis. In addition to abnormal uptake of the radiotracer at the sacroiliac joints, a peripheral arthropathy has been a common finding, particularly in the proximal joints, occurring in up to 50% of patients. Increased uptake of radiotracer in the spine has also been found both diffusely and focally. Focal increases have been noted at the apophyseal joints in 40% of patients and in three patients with a sterile intervertebral diskitis, an unusual complication of this disease only diagnosed in two patients after bone scintigraphy.

  1. Cortical chondroblastoma: report of a case and literature review of this lesion reported in unusual locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, Meera R. [University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey Medical School of Pathology, Newark, NJ (United States); New Jersey Medical School, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Newark, NJ (United States); Blacksin, Marcia [University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey Medical School of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States); Das, Kasturi; Aisner, Seena [University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey Medical School of Pathology, Newark, NJ (United States); Patterson, Francis; Benevenia, Joseph [University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey Medical School of Orthopedic Surgery, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign tumor occurring in adolescence and young adulthood, almost always involving the epiphysis of long bones. A 24-year-old man presented with a discrete soft-tissue lesion penetrating the cortex of the right distal femoral metadiaphyseal region. Biopsy revealed a chondroblastoma, and the patient subsequently underwent a total curettage of the lesion with cancellous bone graft from the iliac crest. (orig.)

  2. Scintigraphic evaluation of brain death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A law recognizing brain death is a life saving legal measure in patients suffering from badly diseased organs such as kidney, liver, heart, and lung. Such law is being discussed for legalization at the Korean National Assembly. There are various criteria used for brain death in western world and brain scintiscan is one of them. However, the scintiscan is not considered in establishing brain death in the draft of the law. The purpose of this report is to spread this technique in nuclear medicine society as well as in other medical societies. We evaluated 7 patients with clinical suspicion of brain death by various causes. The patient's age ranged from 5 to 39 years. We used 5-20mCi {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (d.1-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) or ECD (Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer), lipophilic agents that cross BBB (blood brain barrier). A dynamic study followed by static or SPECT (single photon emission tomography) was performed. Interpretive criteria used for brain death were 1) no intracranial circulation 2) no brain uptake. The second criteria is heavily used. Five of 7 patients were scintigraphically brain dead and the remaining 2 had some brain uptake excluding the diagnosis of scintigraphic brain death. In conclusion, cerebral perfusion study using a lipophilic brain tracer offers a noninvasive, rapid, easy, accurate and reliable mean in the diagnosis of brain death. We believe that this modality should be included in the criteria of brain death in the draft of the proposed Korean law.

  3. CT and MRI findings of cerebral ischemic lesions in the cortical and perforating arterial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Masakuni; Udaka, Fukashi; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kodama, Mitsuo; Urushidani, Makoto; Kawamura, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Taku [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    It is clinically useful to divide the location of infarction into the cortical and perforating arterial system. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now make the point of infarction a simple and useful task in daily practice. The diagnostic modality has also demonstrated that risk factors and clinical manifestations are different for infarction in the cortical as opposed to the perforating system. In this paper, we present various aspects of images of cerebral ischemia according to CT and/or MRI findings. With the advance of imaging mechanics, diagnostic capability of CT or/and MRI for cerebral infarction has markedly been improved. We must consider these points on evaluating the previously reported results. In addition, we always consider the pathological background of these image-findings for the precise interpretation of their clinical significance. In some instances, dynamic study such as PET or SPECT is needed for real interpretations of CT and/or MRI images. We paid special reference to lacunar stroke and striatocapsular infarct. In addition, `branch atheromatous disease (Caplan)` was considered, in particular, for their specific clinical significances. Large striatocapsular infarcts frequently show cortical signs and symptoms such as aphasia or agnosia in spite of their subcortical localization. These facts, although have previously been known, should be re-considered for their pathoanatomical mechanism. (author).

  4. Scintigraphic examinations in skeletal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noeh, E.; Akalin, M.

    1981-06-01

    Scintigraphy has been carried out for many years in adequate hospitals with special equipments. Isotopic examinations have been considered to be more and more important; they are applied in cases of pathologic changes of bones and joints or in cases of changes in the surrounding areas. Besides all medical findings, for instance X-ray, laboratory and histological ones, scintigraphic examinations have been applied as a supporting method especially in cases of loosened endoprosthesis or a suspected loosening of the endoprosthesis, para- and periarticular calcifications, rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatoid diseases of the joints, inflammatory processes, tumourous processes, delayed healing of the bones, pseudoarthrosis and osteoporosis. Of course the scintigraphy is a not specific method but it is extremely important for a complete diagnosis.

  5. Size-weight illusion and anticipatory grip force scaling following unilateral cortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Randerath, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Georg; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    The prediction of object weight from its size is an important prerequisite of skillful object manipulation. Grip and load forces anticipate object size during early phases of lifting an object. A mismatch between predicted and actual weight when two different sized objects have the same weight results in the size-weight illusion (SWI), the small object feeling heavier. This study explores whether lateralized brain lesions in patients with or without apraxia alter the size-weight illusion and impair anticipatory finger force scaling. Twenty patients with left brain damage (LBD, 10 with apraxia, 10 without apraxia), ten patients with right brain damage (RBD), and matched control subjects lifted two different-sized boxes in alternation. All subjects experienced a similar size-weight illusion. The anticipatory force scaling of all groups was in correspondence with the size cue: higher forces and force rates were applied to the big box and lower forces and force rates to the small box during the first lifts. Within few lifts, forces were scaled to actual object weight. Despite the lack of significant differences at group level, 5 out of 20 LBD patients showed abnormal predictive scaling of grip forces. They differed from the LBD patients with normal predictive scaling by a greater incidence of posterior occipito-parietal lesions but not by a greater incidence of apraxia. The findings do not support a more general role for the motor-dominant left hemisphere, or an influence of apraxia per se, in the scaling of finger force according to object properties. However, damage in the vicinity of the parietal-occipital junction may be critical for deriving predictions of weight from size.

  6. Follow-up of cortical activity and structure after lesion with laser speckle imaging and magnetic resonance imaging in nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuser, Jörn; Belhaj-Saif, Abderraouf; Hamadjida, Adjia; Schmidlin, Eric; Gindrat, Anne-Dominique; Völker, Andreas Charles; Zakharov, Pavel; Hoogewoud, Henri-Marcel; Rouiller, Eric M.; Scheffold, Frank

    2011-09-01

    The nonhuman primate model is suitable to study mechanisms of functional recovery following lesion of the cerebral cortex (motor cortex), on which therapeutic strategies can be tested. To interpret behavioral data (time course and extent of functional recovery), it is crucial to monitor the properties of the experimental cortical lesion, induced by infusion of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid. In two adult macaque monkeys, ibotenic acid infusions produced a restricted, permanent lesion of the motor cortex. In one monkey, the lesion was monitored over 3.5 weeks, combining laser speckle imaging (LSI) as metabolic readout (cerebral blood flow) and anatomical assessment with magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted MRI). The cerebral blood flow, measured online during subsequent injections of the ibotenic acid in the motor cortex, exhibited a dramatic increase, still present after one week, in parallel to a MRI hypersignal. After 3.5 weeks, the cerebral blood flow was strongly reduced (below reference level) and the hypersignal disappeared from the MRI scan, although the lesion was permanent as histologically assessed post-mortem. The MRI data were similar in the second monkey. Our experiments suggest that LSI and MRI, although they reflect different features, vary in parallel during a few weeks following an excitotoxic cortical lesion.

  7. Scintigraphic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend

    scintigraphic intestinal transit time, scintigraphic defecography and any association with QoL, and pouch function. Method A cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette...

  8. Scintigraphic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend

    scintigraphic intestinal transit time, scintigraphic defecography and any association with QoL, and pouch function. Method A cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette...

  9. Impairment of preoperative language mapping by lesion location: a functional magnetic resonance imaging, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation, and direct cortical stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Maurer, Stefanie; Tanigawa, Noriko; Obermueller, Thomas; Negwer, Chiara; Droese, Doris; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2015-08-01

    Language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used and has already replaced functional MRI (fMRI) in some institutions for preoperative mapping of neurosurgical patients. Yet some factors affect the concordance of both methods with direct cortical stimulation (DCS), most likely by lesions affecting cortical oxygenation levels. Therefore, the impairment of the accuracy of rTMS and fMRI was analyzed and compared with DCS during awake surgery in patients with intraparenchymal lesions. Language mapping was performed by DCS, rTMS, and fMRI using an object-naming task in 27 patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions, and the induced language errors of each method were assigned to the cortical parcellation system. Subsequently, the receiver operating characteristics were calculated for rTMS and fMRI and compared with DCS as ground truth for regions with (w/) and without (w/o) the lesion in the mapped regions. The w/ subgroup revealed a sensitivity of 100% (w/o 100%), a specificity of 8% (w/o 5%), a positive predictive value of 34% (w/o: 53%), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (w/o: 100%) for the comparison of rTMS versus DCS. Findings for the comparison of fMRI versus DCS within the w/ subgroup revealed a sensitivity of 32% (w/o: 62%), a specificity of 88% (w/o: 60%), a positive predictive value of 56% (w/o: 62%), and a NPV of 73% (w/o: 60%). Although strengths and weaknesses exist for both rTMS and fMRI, the results show that rTMS is less affected by a brain lesion than fMRI, especially when performing mapping of language-negative cortical regions based on sensitivity and NPV.

  10. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  11. Lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis do not alter the proportions of pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive responses of somatosensory cortical neurones to acetylcholine in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevsky, V V; Dawe, G S; Sinden, J D; Stephenson, J D

    1998-01-26

    The effects of S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-4-isoxozolepropionic acid (AMPA) lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on the M1/M2 nature of the responses of somatosensory cortical neurones to acetylcholine (ACh) in Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated by iontophoretic application and extracellular single unit recording. The responses were characterised using pirenzepine, an M1 receptor antagonist, and gallamine, an M2 antagonist. Eighty two neurones in control and 94 neurones in lesioned animals were studied. In control animals, 37% of responses to ACh were sensitive to pirenzepine, gallamine or to both antagonists. This increased to 62% in lesioned animals, the proportions of pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive responses remaining unchanged. These results provide the first electrophysiological confirmation that both pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive (M1 and M2) receptors occur postsynaptic to afferent cholinergic terminals and that their postsynaptic stimulation may produce both inhibition and excitation.

  12. Disease-Modifying Drugs Reduce Cortical Lesion Accumulation and Atrophy Progression in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Results from a 48-Month Extension Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical lesions (CLs and atrophy are pivotal in multiple sclerosis (MS pathology. This study determined the effect of disease modifying drugs (DMDs on CL development and cortical atrophy progression in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS over 48 months. Patients (n=165 were randomized to sc IFN β-1a 44 μg, im IFN β-1a 30 μg, or glatiramer acetate 20 mg. The reference population comprised 50 DMD-untreated patients with RRMS. After 24 months, 43 of the untreated patients switched to DMDs. The four groups of patients were followed up for an additional 24 months. At 48 months the mean standard deviation number of new CLs was significantly lower in patients treated with sc IFN β-1a (1.4 ± 1.0, range 0–5 compared with im IFN β-1a (2.3 ± 1.3, range 0–6, P=0.004 and glatiramer acetate (2.2 ± 1.5, range 0–7, P=0.03. Significant reductions in CL accumulation and new white matter and gadolinium-enhancing lesions were also observed in the 43 patients who switched to DMDs after 24 months, compared with the 24 months of no treatment. Concluding, this study confirms that DMDs significantly reduce CL development and cortical atrophy progression compared with no treatment.

  13. Neuron-specific enolase, but not S100B or myelin basic protein, increases in peripheral blood corresponding to lesion volume after cortical impact in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Quebeda-Clerkin, Patricia B; Dodge, Carter P; Harris, Brent T; Hillier, Simon C; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2012-11-20

    A peripheral indicator of the presence and magnitude of brain injury has been a sought-after tool by clinicians. We measured neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein (MBP), and S100B, prior to and after scaled cortical impact in immature pigs, to determine if these purported markers increase after injury, correlate with the resulting lesion volume, and if these relationships vary with maturation. Scaled cortical impact resulted in increased lesion volume with increasing age. Concentrations of NSE, but not S100B or MBP, increased after injury in all age groups. The high variability of S100B concentrations prior to injury may have precluded detection of an increase due to injury. Total serum markers were estimated, accounting for the allometric growth of blood volume, and resulted in a positive correlation of both NSE and S100B with lesion volume. Even with allometric scaling of blood volume and a uniform mechanism of injury, NSE had only a fair to poor predictive value. In a clinical setting, where the types of injuries are varied, more investigation is required to yield a panel of serum markers that can reliably predict the extent of injury. Allometric scaling may improve estimation of serum marker release in pediatric populations.

  14. Analysis of Small Ischemic Lesions in the Examinees of a Brain Dock and Neurological Examination of Animals Subjected to Cortical or Basal Ganglia Photothrombotic Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Tabata, Hitoshi; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya; Schallert, Timothy; Keep, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed cases of small brain ischemic lesions found in examinees of a brain dock (neurological health screening center). Small cerebral infarction was found in 17 % of the examinees (733 cases). White matter lesions were found in 24 %. Infarctions were located in the cortex or subcortical white matter in 31 % and in the basal ganglia in 44 % of cases. Infratentorial infarction was found in 1.6 %. We have developed an animal model of small infarction in the cortex or basal ganglia induced by photothrombosis in rodents. Sprague-Dawley rats or Mongolian gerbils were anesthetized and photothrombotic infarction was induced in the left caudate nucleus or parietal cortex by light exposure via an optic fiber and intravenous Rose Bengal dye injection. Histological examination revealed development of a small spherical infarction surrounding the tip of the optic fiber. The lesion turned to a cyst by 6 weeks after lesioning. Neurological deficits were found in animals both with cortical and caudate infarction. Behavioral changes in an open field test differed with the lesion site. Neurological deficits were sustained longer in animals with larger infarctions. Thus, photothrombotic infarction is useful for analyzing location-dependent and size-dependent neurological and neuropathological changes after cerebral infarction.

  15. Lesion Analysis of Cortical Regions Associated with the Comprehension of Nonreversible and Reversible Yes/No Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, David S.; Ochfeld, Elisa; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between yes/no sentence comprehension and dysfunction in anterior and posterior left-hemisphere cortical regions in acute stroke patients. More specifically, we manipulated whether questions were Nonreversible (e.g., Are limes sour?) or Reversible (e.g., Is a horse larger than a dog?) to investigate the regions…

  16. Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortiz eArmbruster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic uptake of glutamate shapes extracellular neurotransmitter dynamics, receptor activation, and synaptogenesis. During development, glutamate transport becomes more robust. How neonatal brain insult affects the functional maturation of glutamate transport remains unanswered. Neonatal brain insult can lead to developmental delays, cognitive losses, and epilepsy; the disruption of glutamate transport is known to cause changes in synaptogenesis, receptor activation, and seizure. Using the neonatal freeze-lesion (FL model, we have investigated how insult affects the maturation of astrocytic glutamate transport. As lesioning occurs on the day of birth, a time when astrocytes are still functionally immature, this model is ideal for identifying changes in astrocyte maturation following insult. Reactive astrocytosis, astrocyte proliferation, and in vitro hyperexcitability are known to occur in this model. To probe astrocyte glutamate transport with better spatial precision we have developed a novel technique, Laser Scanning Astrocyte Mapping (LSAM, which combines glutamate transport current (TC recording from astrocytes with laser scanning glutamate photolysis. LSAM allows us to identify the area from which a single astrocyte can transport glutamate and to quantify spatial heterogeneity in the rate of glutamate clearance kinetics within that domain. Using LSAM, we report that cortical astrocytes have an increased glutamate-responsive area following FL and that TCs have faster decay times in distal, as compared to proximal processes. Furthermore, the developmental shift from GLAST- to GLT-1-dominated clearance is disrupted following FL. These findings introduce a novel method to probe astrocyte glutamate uptake and show that neonatal cortical FL disrupts the functional maturation of cortical astrocytes.

  17. The influence of lesion volume, perilesion resection volume, and completeness of resection on seizure outcome after resective epilepsy surgery for cortical dysplasia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Wang, Jichuan; Whitehead, Matthew T; Magge, Suresh; Myseros, John S; Yaun, Amanda; Depositario-Cabacar, Dewi; Gaillard, William D; Keating, Robert

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of the most common causes of intractable epilepsy leading to surgery in children. The predictors of seizure freedom after surgical management for FCD are still unclear. The objective of this study was to perform a volumetric analysis of factors shown on the preresection and postresection brain MRI scans of patients who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery for cortical dysplasia and to determine the influence of these factors on seizure outcome. METHODS The authors reviewed the medical records and brain images of 43 consecutive patients with focal MRI-documented abnormalities and a pathological diagnosis of FCD who had undergone surgical treatment for refractory epilepsy. Preoperative lesion volume and postoperative resection volume were calculated by manual segmentation using OsiriX PRO software. RESULTS Forty-three patients underwent first-time surgery for resection of an FCD. The age range of these patients at the time of surgery ranged from 2 months to 21.8 years (mean age 7.3 years). The median duration of follow-up was 20 months. The mean age at onset was 31.6 months (range 1 day to 168 months). Complete resection of the area of an FCD, as adjudged from the postoperative brain MR images, was significantly associated with seizure control (p = 0.0005). The odds of having good seizure control among those who underwent complete resection were about 6 times higher than those among the patients who did not undergo complete resection. Seizure control was not significantly associated with lesion volume (p = 0.46) or perilesion resection volume (p = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS The completeness of FCD resection in children is a significant predictor of seizure freedom. Neither lesion volume nor the further resection of perilesional tissue is predictive of seizure freedom.

  18. Two cases of pediatric bone disease (eosinophilic granuloma and Brodie's abscess) showing similar scintigraphic and radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Sugawara, Y; Kikuchi, T; Nakata, S; Mochizuki, T; Ikezoe, J; Sakayama, K

    2000-12-01

    Two 9-year-old patients with femoral bone lesions were referred to the authors' institution within a few days of each other. Both showed similar radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic findings. The radiographs showed osteolytic lesions in the right femoral diaphyses, and gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed inhomogeneous enhancement. Tc-99m HMDP showed marked linear accumulation with relatively low central uptake in the right femoral shafts, and TI-201 scintigraphy showed considerable uptake corresponding to the area seen with Tc-99m HMDP. Histologic analysis confirmed eosinophilic granuloma in the first patient and Brodie's abscess in the second. The radiographic and scintigraphic findings in Brodie's abscess may be similar to those in eosinophilic granuloma.

  19. The scintigraphic investigation of sacroiliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I

    1977-06-01

    Bone scintigraphs obtained with both Technetium-99m polyphosphate and Technetium-99m pyrophosphate have been abnormal at the sacroiliac joints of 44 patients with definite ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Because of the normal registration of the sacroiliac joints on bone scintigraphy, it has been necessary to develop a profile-scan technique to quantify the abnormality that proves to be significantly different from the normal finding. In 17 patients with a strong clinical suspicion of AS but normal radiographs, the sacroiliac joints have frequently been abnormal. This finding is meaningful because there is a common occurence in this group of the histocompatibility antigen HL A-B27, known to be a marker of AS. We also note the frequency of abnormal sacroiliac scinitigrams in 26 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in a group of other diseases-Crohn's disease, uveitis, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, and Reiter's disease-all of which share some of the manifestations of AS.

  20. Reliability of cortical lesion detection on double inversion recovery MRI applying the MAGNIMS-Criteria in multiple sclerosis patients within a 16-months period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Christian; Ceyrowski, Tim; Broocks, Gabriel; Treffler, Natascha; Sedlacik, Jan; Stürner, Klarissa; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Heesen, Christoph; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), Double Inversion Recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to identify cortical lesions (CL). We sought to evaluate the reliability of CL detection on DIR longitudinally at multiple subsequent time-points applying the MAGNIMs scoring criteria for CLs. Methods 26 MS patients received a 3T-MRI (Siemens, Skyra) with DIR at 12 time-points (TP) within a 16 months period. Scans were assessed in random order by two different raters. Both raters separately marked all CLs on each scan and total lesion numbers were obtained for each scan-TP and patient. After a retrospective re-evaluation, the number of consensus CLs (conL) was defined as the total number of CLs, which both raters finally agreed on. CLs volumes, relative signal intensities and CLs localizations were determined. Both ratings (conL vs. non-consensus scoring) were compared for further analysis. Results A total number of n = 334 CLs were identified by both raters in 26 MS patients with a first agreement of both raters on 160 out of 334 of the CLs found (κ = 0.48). After the retrospective re-evaluation, consensus agreement increased to 233 out of 334 CL (κ = 0.69). 93.8% of conL were visible in at least 2 consecutive TP. 74.7% of the conL were visible in all 12 consecutive TP. ConL had greater mean lesion volumes and higher mean signal intensities compared to lesions that were only detected by one of the raters (p<0.05). A higher number of CLs in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe were identified by both raters than the number of those only identified by one of the raters (p<0.05). Conclusions After a first assessment, slightly less than a half of the CL were considered as reliably detectable on longitudinal DIR images. A retrospective re-evaluation notably increased the consensus agreement. However, this finding is narrowed, considering the fact that retrospective evaluation steps might not be practicable in clinical routine

  1. Spatial calibration of digital scintigraphic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, P.D.; Seldin, D.W.; Nichols, A.B.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-09-01

    Accurate scintigraphic determination of organ dimensions is often difficult because of the wide variety of camera-collimator combinations and display formats used for imaging. An algorithm (SPACE-CAL) was developed for digital spatial calibration of up to six large- or small-field gamma cameras using various collimators and magnification factors. The algorithm employs a master calibration file that can be used at multiple terminals. An interactive subroutine permits the operator to measure distances and areas directly from the images. Evaluation of three operators' measurements of a pine-tree phantom acquired at various magnifications showed that distances could be measured with a high degree of accuracy. Calculation of ejection fraction from end-diastolic and end-systolic areas determined by SPACE-CAL showed a high correlation with automatic count determinations (r=0.96) and angiographic calculations (r=0.93) of ejection fraction in 12 patients. SPACE-CAL provides an easily implemented, reproducible, and rapid method for accurate analysis of organ dimensions in digital images.

  2. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa; Scremin, Oscar; Maarek, Jean-Michel; Holschneider, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex--changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  3. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao ePeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface Cx-2D allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex–-changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and

  4. Comparison Of Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphic And Voiding Cystourethrographic Findings In Patient With Acute Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimi P

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Pyelonephritis (APN is one of the most common bacterial infections seen in children that may lead to renal scarring. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR is an important risk factor of renal damage but not the only one. Materials and Methods: In order to determine the association between dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scintigraphic and voiding cystourethrographic findings, a retrospective study was performed on 50 children (100 renal units with APN that had been admitted to Bahrami Hospital from 1995 through 1998. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG and DMSA scan were performed in all patients within 1 to 2 weeks after termination of treatment and a second scan was performed 6 months later in patients whose kidneys showed cortical defects in the first one. The grade of reflux was based on international reflux classification (I-V. The DMSA scans were considered abnormal if one or more areas of decreased cortical uptake were noted (cortical defect. The scar was defined as persistence of these defects in the second scan. DMSA cortical defect and VUR were demonstrated in 42 (42% and 26 (26% of renal units respectively."nResults: Fourteen out of 26 renal units (54% with reflux had cortical defects and 28 out of 74 renal units (38% without reflux had cortical defects (P=0.15. Permanent renal scarring was noted in 25/ 42 of renal units (62 % in second scan. Conclusion: It seems that VCUG alone is insufficient as a screening modality to identity those kidneys at risk of damage and DMSA scan may provide additional information about this."n 

  5. Scintigraphic visualization of intrathecal liposome biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrain, V; D'Haese, J; Alafandy, M; De Roover, E; Schoutens, A; Van Gansbeke, B; Albert, A; Goffinet, G; Camu, F; Legros, F J

    1997-01-01

    Liposomes containing local anaesthetics have been administered intrathecally and in the epidural space. Poor attention has been given to the pharmacokinetics of liposomes as drug carriers. Therefore, we observed the biodistribution of liposomes after intrathecal injection in rats by scintigraphic imaging during 24 h. We administered 99mTc-labeled multilamellar (MLV) and small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) of defined size and volume dispersities into the cerebrospinal fluid at the lumbar level. Those vesicles were free of contamination by radiolabeled colloids as visualized by light and electron microscopy and of neurotoxic products from phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and peroxidation, both during the preparation process and after 24 h incubation in cerebrospinal fluid at 37 degrees C in vitro. SUV immediately diffused from the lumbar site of injection to the head and were cleared between 1 and 24 h after injection. MLV were cleared more slowly from the spinal space and appeared in the head region 1 h after injection where they accumulated up to 24 h. These differences were explained in terms of vesicle sizes and volumes. SUV with 0.05 micron diameters were rapidly absorbed into the blood through the arachnoid granulations. In contrast, particles larger than the upper size limit of the arachnoid granulations permeability (+/- 8 microns) could accumulate in the head with a slow elimination rate. This difference in clearance from the intrathecal space outlines the importance of defining the size of the liposomes, the distribution of a tracer or a drug inside the liposomal preparation, the chemical stability and the absence of toxic degradation products of liposome formulations before clinical use.

  6. Unusual scintigraphic appearance of perforation of the common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, M.O.; Tauxe, W.N.; Scott, J.W.; Aldrete, J.S.

    1983-12-01

    This report deals with the diagnosis of perforation of the common bile duct into the lesser sac by HIDA cholescintigraphy. The first hour images after injection were suggestive of biliary obstruction. Subsequent images demonstrated unusual accumulations of the activity into the lesser sac and retroperitoneal potential spaces. Careful correlation between scintigraphic and surgical findings were undertaken. The case is reported to demonstrate the scintigraphic findings in choledochal perforation and to stress the importance of carrying out late images when the initial ones are abnormal.

  7. Does aging with a cortical lesion increase fall-risk: Examining effect of age versus stroke on intensity modulation of reactive balance responses from slip-like perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prakruti J; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-10-01

    cortical lesion could further impair reactive balance control, potentially contributing toward a higher fall risk in older stroke survivors. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term sensory stimulation therapy improves hand function and restores cortical responsiveness in patients with chronic cerebral lesions. Three single case studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph eKattenstroth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of sensorimotor impairment resulting from cerebral lesion (CL utilizes task specific training and massed practice to drive reorganization and sensorimotor improvement due to induction of neuroplasticity mechanisms. Loss of sensory abilities often complicates recovery, and thus the individual’s ability to use the affected body part for functional tasks. Therefore, the development of additional and alternative approaches that supplement, enhance, or even replace conventional training procedures would be advantageous. Repetitive sensory stimulation protocols (rSS have been shown to evoke sensorimotor improvements of the affected limb in patients with chronic stroke. However, the possible impact of long-term rSS on sensorimotor performance of patients with CL, where the incident dated back many years remains unclear. The particular advantage of rSS is its passive nature, which does not require active participation of the subjects. Therefore, rSS can be applied parallel to other occupations, making the intervention easier to implement and more acceptable to the individual. Here we report the effects of applying rSS for 8, 36 and 76 weeks on the paretic hand of 3 long-term patients with different types of CL. Different behavioral tests were used to assess sensory and/or sensorimotor performance of the upper extremities prior, after, and during the intervention. In one patient, the impact of long-term rSS on restoration of cortical activation was investigated by recording somatosensory evoked potentials. After long-term rSS all three patients showed considerable improvements of their sensory and motor abilities. In addition, almost normal evoked potentials could be recorded after rSS in one patient. Our data show that long-term rSS applied to patients with chronic CL can improve tactile and sensorimotor functions, which, however, developed in some cases only after many weeks of stimulation, and continued to further improve on a time

  9. /sup 99m/Tc-aminohexylidendiphosphonate and /sup 99/mTc-Pyrophosphate in the scintigraphic diagnosis of experimental cardiomyopathy in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Kafka, P.; Mazurova, Y.; Hadas, L.; Vizda, J.; Palicka, V.; Grossman, V.

    1987-10-01

    Experimental cardiomyopathy was provoked in 24 dogs with high intravenous doses of adrenaline and theophylline. These lesions were studied by means of the new agent /sup 99m/Tc-AHDP and /sup 99m/Tc-PYP in comparison. Cardiomyopathy could be imaged as early as 4 h after the onset of involvement but not later than 7 days. A maximum accumulation occurred in lesions 24 h old, /sup 99m/Tc uptake in the myocardium was graded scintigraphically, /sup 99m/Tc-AHDP was accumulated in the altered myocardium to a greater extent than /sup 99m/Tc-PYP. Scintigraphic findings were in good agreement with plasma levels of creatine-kinase. A comparison with histology demonstrated that the maximum accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals occurred at the time when the development of myocardium involvement reached the stage of myocytolysis.

  10. Scintigraphic demonstration of lower extremity periostitis secondary to venous insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensburg, R.S.; Kawashima, A.; Sandler, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The scintigraphic findings on bone imaging in two patients with extensive lower extremity periostitis secondary to venous insufficiency are presented. One of these patients had bilateral disease. The use of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scanning in an attempt to exclude concurrent osteomyelitis is also addressed.

  11. Scintigraphic assessment of distal extremity perfusion in 17 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, J M; Hoskinson, J J; Carpenter, J W; Roush, J K; McLaughlin, R M; Anderson, D E

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of scintigraphic evaluation of distal limb perfusion, the medical records and scintigraphic perfusion images of 17 animals (8 dogs, 2 cats, 2 calves, 4 birds and 1 ferret) with clinical signs of distal limb ischemia were examined retrospectively. Images were obtained at 5 and 10 minutes following injection of 99mTc-MDP, or 99mTc-DTPA. The initial scintigraphic diagnoses of 17 animals included complete ischemia (8/17), partially reduced perfusion (5/17), and normal to increased perfusion (4/17). In 4 of the animals with partially reduced perfusion, follow-up scans indicated progression to complete ischemia (1/4) or normal to increased perfusion (3/4). Nine of 17 animals had a final scintigraphic diagnosis of complete distal limb ischemia, and these animals were either euthanized (5/9) or had limb amputation (4/9). A final diagnosis of complete ischemia was supported with either repeat scanning (3/10), continued clinical observation (6/10) and/or pathological examination (10/10). Clinical signs of ischemia resolved in all (7/17) animals with increased or normal perfusion on their final scan. Scintigraphy provided a safe and noninvasive assessment of distal limb perfusion, which corresponded with clinical outcome.

  12. Scintigraphic detection of carotid atherosclerosis with indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.H.; Siegel, B.A.; Sherman, L.A.; Heaton, W.A.; Naidich, T.P.; Joist, J.R.; Welch, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    Using autologous platelets labeled with indium-111-oxine, we studied the localization of platelets on arterial lesions by radionuclide scintigraphy in 34 patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease. The imaging results were compared with the findings of contrast angiography in 23 patients, 16 of whom were receiving antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs during the platelet imaging study. Angiography demonstrated atherosclerotic lesions at 33 sites in the extracranial arteries of 16 of these patients. There was accumulation of /sup 111/In-platelets at 20 of these sites (61%) and at three other sites without definite angiographic abnormalities. Lesions with stenoses <50% were slightly more frequent than those with greater stenosis (68% vs 45%). The frequency of true-positive scintigraphic results was slightly higher in patients not treated with antithrombotic agents than in those on such drugs (70% vs 57%). Our results suggest that imaging with /sup 111/In-labeled autologous platelets may be useful for evaluating the pathophysiologic characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions in patients with cerebrovascular disease.

  13. Relationship Between White Matter Hyperintensities, Cortical Thickness, and Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, Anil M.; Norris, David Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with clinically heterogeneous symptoms that cannot be explained by these lesions alone. It is hypothesized that these lesions are associated with distant cortical atrophy and cortical thickness network measures, which can

  14. Longitudial observation of dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is initially used for visual cortex location.However, the application of fMRI in investigating the development of visual pathway lesions needs to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: This study is to longitudially observe the dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to analyze the characteristics of brain function and structural recombination at convalescent period of lesions.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disorder caused by visual pathway lesions,who admitted to Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to September 2006 were involved, and served as experimental subjects. The patients, 6 males and 2 females, were aged 16 - 67 years. They had visual disorder confirmed by clinical examination, i.e. visual pathway lesion, which was further diagnosed by MR or CT. Another 12 subjects generally matching to those patients of experimental group in gender, age and sight, who received health examination in synchronization were involved and served as controls. The subjects had no history of eye diseases. Their binocular visual acuity (or corrected visual acuity) was over 1.0. Both routine examination of ophthalmology and examination of fundus were normal. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: Signa Excite HD 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging system with 16 passages (GE Company,USA) and coil with 8 passages were used; brain functional stimulus apparatus (SAV-8800. Meide Company) was used for showing experimental mission. At the early stage

  15. Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of total knee arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, R.; Soudry, M.

    1986-04-01

    Various radiographic and scintigraphic methods are used to supplement clinical findings in the evaluation of total knee arthroplasty and its complications. Serial roentgenograms offer reliable information for diagnosing mechanical loosening. Wide and extensive radiolucency at the cement-bone interface and shift in position and alignment of prosthetic components can be seen in almost all cases by the time revision is necessary. Radiographic abnormalities are usually not present in acute infection, but are often present in chronic infection. Bone scanning has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of infection or loosening, but is nonspecific because increased uptake is often present around asymptomatic total knee arthroplasties with normal radiographs. Differential bone and Gallium scanning and scanning with Indium 111-labeled leukocytes have a greater specificity for diagnosis of infection than does bone or Gallium scanning alone. Routine radiographic and scintigraphic studies have shown a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in the calf after total knee arthroplasty. Clinically significant pulmonary embolization is infrequent.

  16. Scintigraphic control of blood vessels in regional perfusion with cytostatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, J.; Broz, J. (Krajska Nemocnice s Poliklinikou, Ceske Budejovice (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-12-01

    After administration of sup(99m)Tc-MAA or sup(113m)In-MAA into the perfusion system during regional perfusion therapy with cytostatics of malignomas in the maxillo-facial area it is possible to obtain by subsequent scintigraphic visualization of the distribution of radioactivity an accurate topographic picture of the perfusion in the appropriate area. The method is free from complications and there are no contraindications. The paper is supplemented by scintigrams.

  17. Scintigraphic findings in a Brodie's abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F; Laguna, R; Acevedo, M; Ruíz, C; Orduña, E

    1995-10-01

    A 9-year-old girl had a 6-month history of left hip pain. Radiographs of the left hip showed a metaphyseal osteolytic lesion with sclerotic borders in the femoral neck. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging and a Ga-67 scan showed focal areas of increased activity in the left femoral neck. These areas of increased uptake corresponded to a lytic area on x-rays, which was due to a Brodie's abscess. The combination of Tc-99m MDP bone and Ga-67 imaging has been widely used in the confirmation of bone infection, increasing the accuracy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. However, nuclear scintigraphy has not been previously reported in the confirmation of a Brodie's abscess.

  18. [Agraphia, cortical anarthria and planning disorders as a result of a lesion of the right hemisphere in a right-handed patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeurisse, G; Coekaerts, M J; Hublet, C

    1984-01-01

    A right-hemisphere premotor cerebral infarct in a right-handed man from a largely left-handed family caused cortical anarthria and constructional agraphia. The effect of programming difficulties on impaired oral and written expression was demonstrated by the clinical picture of pure agraphia, which could thus be attributed to a primary disorder of programming. Measurements of cerebral blood flow three months after the accident showed that language representation was ambilateral.

  19. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E.; Dobbeleir, A.; Vanregemorter, J. [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  20. The distribution of radioactivity in brains of rats given (N-methyl- sup 11 C)PK 11195 in vivo after induction of a cortical ischaemic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J.E.; Hume, S.P.; Cullen, B.M.; Myers, R.; Manjil, L.G.; Turton, D.R.; Luthra, S.K.; Bateman, D.M.; Pike, V.W. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit)

    1992-02-01

    PK 11195 is a selective ligand for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine bindings site (PTBBS). There are few sites in normal brain but their number increases in association with tissue necrosis. The time-course of appearance of PTBBS around a focally induced ischaemic lesion in frontal cortex of rat brain was established by autoradiography using (N-methyl-{sup 3} H )PK 11195. Using this information and the same experimental model of ischaemia, the distribution of radioactivity after injection of carbon-11 labelled PK 11195 was studied. The purpose was to synthesize (N-methyl-{sup 11}C)PK 11195 and to test its suitability as a tracer for depicting the presence of PTBB in ischaemic lesions. The time-profiles of distribution of radioactivity in brain regions after intravenous injection of tracer and the ratio of radioactivity in lesioned compared with unlesioned cortex were determined. Data for the temporal (days after lesion induction) and for the regional retention of radioactivity were consistent with independent evidence (autoradiographic and immunohistochemical) for the occurence of increased numbers of PTBBS, predominantly in association with macrophages, in areas undergoing necrosis. (Author).

  1. Focal cortical dysplasia - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults.Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed - from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized.Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe.Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes.New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life.Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias.THE MOST COMMON FINDINGS ON MRI IMAGING INCLUDE: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also in both types

  2. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull; Estudo comparativo do tono muscular na paralisia cerebral tetraparetica em criancas com lesoes predominantemente corticais ou subcorticais na tomografia computadorizada de cranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabe, Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Ambulatorio Multidisciplinar de Paralisia Cerebral e Neurologia Infantil

    2003-09-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  3. Scintigraphic myocardial imaging with sup(99m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphate of experimentally produced cardiomyopathy in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Vizda, J.; Kubicek, J.; Kafka, P.; Mazurova, Y.; Bradna, P.

    1981-12-01

    Scintigraphic examination of the myocardium using sup(99m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphate was carried out in 10 dogs with experimentally produced cardiomyopathy. This was brought by introvenous administration of high doses of adrenalin and theophylline. The scan was positive in 8 out of 10 dogs. Hot foci were very extensive. The degree of accumulation was however low (2+). Histological examination of the myocardium using the light microscope showed only scarcely distinguishable damage to the tissue without the presence of necrosis. ECG examinations were normal in all cases. By means of sup(99m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphate even very small myocardial disorders can thus be detected. This fact may be of clinical importance for an early diagnosis of heart lesions.

  4. Causes of appearance of scintigraphic hot areas on thyroid scintigraphy analyzed with clinical features and comparative ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Masahiro [Hikone Municipal Hospital, Shiga (Japan); Kasagi, Kanji [Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, PA (United States); Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    This study was done retrospectively to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) findings in thyroid scintigraphic hot areas (HA). Three-thousand, eight-hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients who underwent {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate (n=3435) or {sup 123}I (n=457) scintigraphy were analyzed. HA were regarded as present when the tracer concentration was greater than the remaining thyroid tissue, or when hemilobar uptake was observed. High-resolution US examinations were performed with a real-time electronic linear scanner with a 7.5 or 10 MHz transducer. One hundred and four (2.7%) were found to be scintigraphic HA (n=120). US revealed a nodular lesion or well-demarcated thyroid tissue corresponding to the HA in 94 areas (78.4%, Category 1), an ill-defined region with different echogenicity in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 2), and no correlating lesion in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 3). These 104 patients included 43 with adenomatous goiter (59 areas), 33 with adenoma, 11 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 with primary thyroid cancer, 4 with euthyroid ophthalmic Graves' disease (EOG), 3 with hemilobar atrophy or hypogenesis, 2 with hemilobar agenesis, 2 with hypothyroidism with blocking-type TSH-receptor antibodies (TSHRAb), 1 with acute suppurative thyroiditis. Among the 59 adenomatous nodules and 33 adenomas, 51 (86.4%) and 32 (97.0%), respectively, belonged to Category 1. A solitary toxic nodule was significantly larger and occurs more often in older patients than in younger patients. On the other hand, all 17 patients with known autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, EOG and hypothyroidism with blocking TSHRAb belonged to Category 2 or 3. Possible underlying mechanisms are hyperfunctioning tumors or nodules, localized functioning thyroid tissue freed from autoimmune destruction, inflammation or tumor invasion, congenital abnormality, clusters of hyperactive follicular cells caused by long-term TSH and/or TSHRAb stimulation, asymmetry

  5. Comparison of five digital scintigraphic display modes. An ROC curve analysis of detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, J E; Preston, D F; Gallagher, J H; Wegst, A V

    1983-01-01

    In the last decade diagnostic imaging departments, even those of moderate size, have experienced unprecedented growth. Much of this expansion can be attributed directly to technological developments, including systems for the acquisition of diagnostic images in digital format. In modern imaging departments, digital-based systems are quite common and are found across the specialities of nuclear medicine, ultrasound, transmission and emission computed tomography, and angiography. Nuclear magnetic resonance is the newest digital-based modality, and it appears destined to achieve its place in the diagnostic arsenal. These systems all have one trait in common, which is the topic of this paper. They offer the potential of increasing diagnostic accuracy by varying the methods used to process and display the acquired imaged data. We present the results of a nuclear medicine study designed to compare observer performance among five digital scintigraphic display modes. The observer's task was to detect artificially created lesions in brain scintigrams. Each mode is defined by a combination of an image processing function and a method of display. Using 40 trained observers, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. The results support the use of color displays in nuclear medicine.

  6. Preliminary results on scintigraphic evaluation of malignant external otitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamitsi, J.; Maragoudakis, P. (Hippocrateion Hospital, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Papafragou, K.; Koukouliou, V. (Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics); Kalatzis, Y.; Adamopoulos, G.; Proukakis, C. (Hippocrateion Hospital, Athens (Greece). ORL Univ. Clinic)

    1993-06-01

    Malignant external otitis (MEO) is a potentially fatal otitis occurring in diabetic and immunosuppressed patients, which may cause cranial nerve palsies and massive thrombophlebitis of the brain. We studied five diabetic patients with the clinical diagnosis of external otitis who were suspected of having MEO and one diabetic patient presumed cured from MEO. All of them underwent methylene diphosphonate, nanocolloid and gallium single-photon emission tomography studies with quantitative analysis on the basis of regions of interest and count profile curves. This combined assessment helped us to diagnose and follow-up soft tissue and temporal bone infection, especially in the case of transsphenoidal extension of the disease, since conventional radiology and computed tomography were of no particular help. On the basis of these results, we consider scintigraphic demonstration of skull base infection as a fourth criterion of MEO given that the classical Chandler's triad (diabetes, granuloma, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) is not always present. (orig.).

  7. Scintigraphic measurement of colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, C. K. [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate usefulness of scintigraphic measurement of total and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation. 25 patients who were complained chronic constipation underwent scintigraphic measurement of the total and regional colon transit. Of them 10 patients were diagnosed as idiopathic constipation, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. Ten healthy volunteers were also studied. 67 Gallium-labelled Amberlite resin particles were ingested in a coated capsule with methacrylate that dispersed in the ileocecal region. Images were obtained using a gamma camera at regular intervals for the 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after the initial counting of the radioactivity in the cecum. We determined the geometric center in four regions of interest in the colon (ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid). Ten patients with colonic inertia showed significant retention of solid residue in the ascending and transverse colon over a 48-hour period. The median values for the healthy subjects at 2, 4, 8, and 24, and 48 hours were 1.44{+-}0.2 (midway through ascending), 1.71{+-}0.45 (midway through transverse), 2.64{+-}0.95 (midway through descending), 3.94{+-}0.89 (midway through rectosigmoid), and 4.52{+-}0.76 (midway through the stool compartment). On the contrary, the values of ten patients with colonic inertia were 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending), 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending). 1.02 {+-}0.06 (midway through ascending), 1.70{+-}0.36 (midway through transverse), and 2.33{+-}0.31(midway through descending) at the same time (p<0.001). In patients with idiopathic constipation is characterized by exaggerated reservoir factions of the ascending and transverse colons. Scintigraphy using 67 Gallium-labelled pellets seems to be a useful tool to demonstrate the delayed colonic transit in patients with colonic inertia.

  8. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Science, Research Centre of Reparative and Restorative Surgery, East Siberian Research Centre, 100 Yubileyniy, P.O. Box 23, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Lishmanov, Yu.B. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Science, Research and Development Institute of Cardiology, Tomsk Research Centre, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Science, Research Centre of Reparative and Restorative Surgery, East Siberian Research Centre, 100 Yubileyniy, P.O. Box 23, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Irkutsk State Medical University, Department of Hospital Surgery, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. {sup 99m}Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ({sup 99m}Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of {sup 99m}Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. {sup 99m}Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This

  9. Multisequence-imaging protocols to detect cortical lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis: observations from a post-mortem 3 Tesla imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Francesca; Yao, Bing; Cantor, Fredric; Merkle, Hellmut; Condon, Ellen; Montequin, Marcela; Moore, Sandra; Quezado, Martha; Tkaczyk, Deborah; McFarland, Henry

    2009-07-15

    Neocortical lesions (NLs) are an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and may account for part of the physical and cognitive disability. Visualizing NLs of patients with MS using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) poses several significant challenges. We optimized the inversion time (TI) of T(1)-based magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) images by suppressing the signal of the lesions and enhancing their appearance as hypointensities, on the basis of the derived quantitative T(1) measurements. The latter were achieved by the means of 2D inversion recovery fast spin echo (IR-FSE), repeated using different inversion times (TI). Comparisons of detection of NLs by MPRAGE and dual echo T(2) weighted (T(2)W) and proton density (PD) W. Four coronal brain slices from a deceased MS patient and two coronal brain slices from two formerly healthy donors were imaged using a 3 Tesla magnet (3 T) equipped with a multi-channel coil. Based upon the averaged T1 values computed from the MS specimen as well as visual inspection, an optimal TI of 380 ms was selected for the MPRAGE image. No NLs were seen in the specimens of the two healthy donors. Of the 40 total NLs observed, 8 (20%) were visible in all three sequences employed. Three (7.5%) NLs were visible only in the PDW image and 5 (12.5%) were seen only in the T(2)W image. Four NLs (10%) had clearly unique conspicuity in the MPRAGE image. Of those, 3 were retrospectively scored in the PDW image (1 NL) or in the T2W image (2 NLs). We conclude that for the detection of MS-related NLs, high-resolution T(1)-based MPRAGE and T(2)-W images offer complementary information and the combination of the two image sequences is crucial for increasing the sensitivity of detecting MS-induced NLs.

  10. Photon-deficient bone scan lesion as a precursor of active Paget's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, M.M.J.R.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Blom, J. (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Leiden (Netherlands)); Harinck, H.I.J. (Clinical Investigation Unit, Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Leiden, Netherands)

    1984-05-15

    A case is presented in which a Pagetoid lesion was demonstrated as a photon-deficient area (cold spot) on the bone scan. This area changed into a hot spot 3 years after its discovery. Clinical and radiological observations provide evidence that a scintigraphically photon-deficient area may represent a precursor of active Paget's disease.

  11. Extensive cortical remyelination in patients with chronic multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Monika; Antel, Jack; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies revealed prominent cortical demyelination in patients with chronic multiple sclerosis (MS). Demyelination in white matter lesions is frequently accompanied by remyelination. This repair process, however, often remains incomplete and restricted to the lesion border. In the present study, we examined the frequency and extent of remyelination in cortical and white matter lesions in autopsy brain tissue of 33 patients with chronic MS. The majority of patients (29 of 33) harbored cortical demyelination. Remyelination of cortical lesions was identified light microscopically by the presence of thin and irregularly arranged myelin sheaths, and confirmed by electron microscopy. Extensive remyelination was found in 18%, remyelination restricted to the lesion border in 54%, and no remyelination in 28% of cortical lesions. A direct comparison of the extent of remyelination in white matter and cortical lesions of the same patients revealed that remyelination of cortical lesions was consistently more extensive. In addition, g-ratios of fibers in areas of "normal appearing cortex" yielded values consistent with remyelination. Our data confirm the high prevalence of cortical demyelination in chronic MS and imply that the propensity to remyelinate is high in cortical MS lesions.

  12. Initial presentation of scintigraphic changes during the first episode of acute pyelonephritis in children. Simultaneous evaluation with MAG3 and DMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grbac-Ivankovic, S.; Smokvina, A.; Girotto, N. [Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Licul, V. [Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka (Croatia)

    2007-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy is generally accepted as the method of choice for detecting renal parenchymal damage in pyelonephritis. {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 dynamic scintigraphy is not routinely used for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MAG3 scintigraphic presentation in the acute phase of pyelonephritis in children and re-evaluate them at least 6 months later, as well as to establish whether a MAG3 in the parenchymal phase is as reliable and sensitive in the detection of a renal parenchymal damage as the DMSA. Patients, methods: The MAG3 scintigraphic pattern was evaluated during the first episode of acute pyelonephritis in 31 children (median age: 2.5 years) and compared to the DMSA scan. The scintigraphy was performed on the same day with both radiopharmaceuticals. After at least 6 months the whole procedure was repeated on 28 patients. A scoring system was designed to evaluate the parenchymal lesions, and categorize them as positive or equivocal. The findings on the initial scans were compared to those obtained in the follow up studies. Results: When all lesions (equivocal + positive) were analysed, MAG3 sensitivity was 98%, and specificity 78%, while for positive lesions only, the values were 83 and 100%, respectively. The average acute severity score was significantly lower for both MAG3 and DMSA then the follow up score (p <0.0001). These results corresponded to a clinical convalescence, which was observed in 26/28 children in the follow up. Conclusion: With the MAG3 scintigraphy a reliable semi quantitative and qualitative detection of the renal inflammatory lesions can be obtained in acute pyelonephritis, as well as their recovery, thus obviating the need for a DMSA scan. Moreover, the duration of the MAG3 procedure is shorter, enabling the visualization of the entire collecting system as well, while the radiation exposure is approximately a half of that delivered by the DMSA scan. (orig.)

  13. Condylar hyperplasia: correlation of histological and scintigraphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R J; Horner, K; Testa, H J; Lloyd, J J; Sloan, P

    1994-05-01

    Scintigaphy using 99mTc-MDP is widely advocated as a method of diagnosis and presurgical assessment of patients with condylar hyperplasia. A previous study has demonstrated that hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle is characterized histologically by the presence of an uninterrupted layer of undiffentiated germinative mesenchyme cells, a layer of hypertrophic cartilage and the presence of islands of chondrocytes in the subchondral trabecular bone. This study was undertaken to determine whether there was any association between the degree of 99mTc-MDP uptake and the histological features of condylar hyperplasia. The parameters examined were trabecular bone volume, depth of cartilage islands and the presence of forming and resorbing surfaces. The images were analyzed by three experienced observers, who ranked the images according to degree of asymmetry between sides and the degree of uptake on the affected side. There was a significant correlation between the proportions of resorbing and osteoid covered bone surfaces and scintigraphic appearances. The rank correlations were rs = 0.55 (P = 0.3) between the resorptive surfaces and degree of symmetry and rs = 0.53 (P = 0.04) between the osteoid surfaces and absolute uptake. The correlation was higher for both methods (rs = 0.64 in each case) when the osteoid surface and resorptive surface measurements were combined. The results indicate that visual examination of radioisotope bone scans by experienced observers is a valid form of assessment of bone activity in condylar hyperplasia.

  14. Spatial calibration of digital scintigraphic images: work in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, P.D.; Seldin, D.W.; Nichols, A.B.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-09-01

    Accurate scintigraphic determination of organ dimensions is often difficult because of the wide variety of camera-collimator combinations and display formats used for imaging. An algorithm (SPACE-CAL) was developed for digital spatial calibration of up to six large- or small-field gamma cameras using various collimators and magnification factors. The algorithm employs a master calibration file that can be used at multiple terminals. An interactive subroutine permits the operator to measure distances and areas directly from the images. Evaluation of three operators' measurements of a pine-tree phantom acquired at various magnifications showed that distances could be measured with a high degree of accuracy. Calculation of ejection fraction from end-diastolic and end-systolic areas determined by SPACE-CAL showed a high correlation with automatic count determinations (r . 0.96) and angiographic calculations (r . 0.93) of ejection fraction in 12 patients. SPACE-CAL provides an easily implemented, reproducible, and rapid method for accurate analysis of organ dimensions in digital images.

  15. Bone scintigraphic appearance of asymptomatic hydroxyapatite-coated hip arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, T; Scott, G; Newell, M; Garvie, N; Freeman, M A

    1997-06-01

    To obtain information about the bone scintigraphic appearance of a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated proximal femoral implant, this examination was performed on 24 patients with a clinically and radiologically successful femoral implant in hip arthroplasty. The prosthesis had a proximal HA coating for supplementary fixation. The patients' mean age was 50.3 years (range, 28-65 years) at operation. The interval from the operation to the scintigraphy ranged from 6 months to 5.5 years (mean, 2.2 years). Scintigraphy was performed using 99mTc-medronic acid. Quantitative counts were recorded in 4 zones: 3 along the length of the implant (trochanteric region with HA coating, midprosthesis, and distal tip) and 1 below the prosthesis. The results were expressed as ratios using the nonoperated femur as a control value. The results demonstrated that the mean activities in all 4 zones were increased relative to the untreated side. The highest activity was observed in the region around the prosthetic tip, with an elevation of 46% above the control value. This activity showed a significant decline over time. The counts recorded in the trochanteric region, where the implant was coated with HA, were 20% above the control value and similar to those seen in its adjacent noncoated midprosthetic region. In the trochanteric region, however, the activity did not show a decline over the follow-up period.

  16. Scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time: Comparison with the hydrogen breath technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; Buddoura, W.; Winchenbach, K.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    The hydrogen breath test was used as a standard against which a scintigraphic method for determination of small intestinal transit time was evaluated and compared. A total of 19 male volunteers ranging in age from 23 to 28 yr participated in the study. The subjects ingested an isosmotic lactulose solution containing /sup 99m/technetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Sn) and then remained supine under a large field of view gamma-camera that interfaced with a computer system. Data were visually analyzed and then quantified to determine gastric emptying and small intestinal transit time. The small intestinal transit time ranged from 31 to 139 min with the scintigraphic method and 30 to 190 min with the hydrogen breath test (r . 0.77). The mean small intestinal transit time for 20 individual determinations with the scintigraphic method, 73.0 +/- 6.5 min (mean +/- SEM), was similar to the results from the hydrogen breath test technique, 75.1 +/- 8.3 min. Thirteen volunteers underwent two studies with the scintigraphic method separated by intervals ranging from 2 days to 8 wk. Individual variations in small intestinal transit time were significantly correlated with individual variations in gastric emptying (p less than 0.05). We conclude that the scintigraphic method allows accurate determination of gastrocecal time and is a noninvasive technique which may be a useful clinical test for small intestinal transit time as well as for providing information on the pathophysiology and pharmacology of intestinal motility.

  17. Scintigraphic determination of gastrointestinal transit times. A comparison with breath hydrogen and radiologic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Larsen, N E; Hilsted, J;

    1991-01-01

    A scintigraphic method for determination of gastrointestinal transit times was compared with the breath hydrogen test and a multiple-bolus, single-radiograph technique. A close temporal association was found between the caecal appearance of radioactivity and the onset of breath hydrogen excretion....... In conclusion, inadequate delineation of the caecal region seems to be an unimportant drawback of the scintigraphic measurements, whereas day-to-day variation in gastrointestinal transit rates may influence the reliability of the assessments. Probably, quantitative transit data cannot be obtained from...

  18. Scintigraphic demonstration of the thoracic duct following oral ingestion of 123I-heptadecanoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L

    1989-01-01

    A new noninvasive method for scintigraphic demonstration of the anatomic localization and function of the thoracic duct is described. Seven volunteers ingested 123I-heptadecanoic acid; approximately one hour later the entire thoracic duct was demonstrated and correspondingly a sharp rise in the p......A new noninvasive method for scintigraphic demonstration of the anatomic localization and function of the thoracic duct is described. Seven volunteers ingested 123I-heptadecanoic acid; approximately one hour later the entire thoracic duct was demonstrated and correspondingly a sharp rise...

  19. Renal allograft recovery subsequent to apparent hyperacute rejection based on clinical, scintigraphic, and pathologic criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, G.A.; Sandler, M.P.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-02-01

    An unusual case is described in which in spite of clinical, scintigraphic and histologic findings strongly supportive of a diagnosis of hyperacute rejection, recovery of renal function occurred. These findings are in contrast to the current literature in which it is generally accepted that a renal allograft showing neither pertechnetate transit nor hippurate concentration warrants allograft nephrectomy irrespective of the etiology. Scintigraphic evaluation included both dynamic studies after a bolus administration of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and serial renogram collections after the intravenous administration of /sup 131/I Hippuran.

  20. Renal allograft accumulation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid: temporal quantitation and scintigraphic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.A.; Meyerovitz, M.; Codd, J.E.; Fletcher, J.W.; Donati, R.M.

    1983-08-01

    Renal allograft accumulation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid (TSC) was studied using visual assessment of scintigraphic displays and a quantitative temporal model in 210 examinations of 56 transplant recipients. The quantitative temporal model related the immediate pool of the radioagent in the transplant to the fixed allograft accumulation of TSC at 20 minutes after administration. Examinations performed less than 3 days after grafting or steroid pulse therapy were excluded. Rejection was established by clinical and biochemical evaluation in all 84 examinations that showed acute or choronic allograft rejection. Rejection was accurately diagnosed by visual scintigraphic assessment in 82% of the established cases.

  1. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized. Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe. Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes. New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life. Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias. The most common findings on MRI imaging include: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also

  2. Scintigraphic determination of gastrointestinal transit times. A comparison with breath hydrogen and radiologic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Larsen, N E; Hilsted, J

    1991-01-01

    A scintigraphic method for determination of gastrointestinal transit times was compared with the breath hydrogen test and a multiple-bolus, single-radiograph technique. A close temporal association was found between the caecal appearance of radioactivity and the onset of breath hydrogen excretion...... the breath hydrogen concentration profiles....

  3. Comparison of new clinical and scintigraphic algorithms for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R G; Carolan, M; Bui, C; Arvela, O; Ford, J C; Chew, M; Wadhwa, S; Elison, B S

    2004-05-01

    Since the publication of the modified Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), new clinical and scintigraphic diagnostic algorithms (the McMaster clinical criteria, the PisaPED simplified scintigraphic grading and the Miettinen logistic regression analysis) have been reported although the results have not been reproduced in other sites. Ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 238 consecutive patients with a provisional diagnosis of PE. Scans were reported as normal/very low, low, intermediate or high probability for PE using standardized criteria. Each patient received a clinical grading of probability of PE as low, moderate or high using the McMaster clinical criteria. Using the PisaPED criteria (an alternate simplified scintigraphic grading system using the perfusion scan alone) each scan was also graded as normal/near normal, abnormal but not PE, or abnormal and PE. Using the logistic regression algorithm of Miettinen each scan received a numerical probability of PE. Frequencies for differing levels of probability of PE varied widely between the various algorithms. Cross tabulations revealed correlation of the standardized criteria with the Miettinen grading but not with the McMaster or the PisaPED gradings. We were unable to reproduce similar results using the McMaster clinical grading or the PisaPED simplified scintigraphic grading although the Miettinen logistic regression formula gave comparable results. New algorithms are not automatically transferable to new environments.

  4. Scintigraphic method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in human extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blønd, L; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    were carried out. No significant differences between results obtained by the use of one or two scintigraphic projections were found. The between-subject coefficient of variation was 14% in the lower limb experiment and 11% in the upper limb experiment. The within-subject coefficient of variation was 6...

  5. Is there a role for scintigraphic imaging of bone manifestations in Gaucher disease? A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET Center]|[State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria). Dept. of Internal Medicine II; Kohlfuerst, S.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P. [State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET Center; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Academic Haematology

    2008-07-01

    Gaucher disease is the most prevalent inherited, lysosomal storage disease and is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme {beta}-glucocerebrosidase. Bone and bone marrow alterations are frequent in the most prevalent non-neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease. Imaging of bone manifestations in Gaucher disease is performed by a variety of imaging methods, conventional X-ray and MRI as the most frequently and most important ones. However, different modalities of scintigraphic imaging have also been used. This article gives an overview on scintigraphic imaging with respect to bone manifestations in Gaucher disease discussing the advantages and limitations of scintigraphic imaging in comparison to other imaging methods. (orig.)

  6. Meningeal and cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Popescu Bogdan F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although historically considered a disease primarily affecting the white matter of the central nervous system, recent pathological and imaging studies have established that cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis and more extensive than previously appreciated. Subpial, intracortical and leukocortical lesions are the three cortical lesion types described in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of patients with multiple sclerosis. Cortical demyelination may be the pathological substrate of progression, and an important pathologic correlate of irreversible disability, epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Cortical lesions of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients are characterized by a dominant effector cell population of microglia, by the absence of macrophagic and leukocytic inflammatory infiltrates, and may be driven in part by organized meningeal inflammatory infiltrates. Cortical demyelination is also present and common in early MS, is topographically associated with prominent meningeal inflammation and may even precede the appearance of classic white matter plaques in some MS patients. However, the pathology of early cortical lesions is different than that of chronic MS in the sense that early cortical lesions are highly inflammatory, suggesting that neurodegeneration in MS occurs on an inflammatory background and raising interesting questions regarding the role of cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation in initiating and perpetuating the disease process in early MS.

  7. Application of cortical electrode, image fusion and intraoperative MRI navigation in surgical resection of epileptic lesions in functional area%皮层电极监测、图像融合和术中磁共振精确镜下导航技术在切除功能区癫痫灶的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘隆盛; 凌至培; 徐强; 孙国臣; 陈晓雷; 许百男

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the application of cortical electrode, image fusion and intra- operative MRI navigation in surgical resection of epileptic lesions in the functional area. Methods Application of cortical electrode, image fusion and intra-operative MRI navigation in surgical resection of epileptic lesions in 25 patients with refractory epilepsy was retrospectively analyzed. Intracranial cortical electrodes were implanted into epileptic lesions of the patients according to their VEEG during the first operation. Their cortical electrical activity was monitored, cerebral motor area was located by cortical electrical stimulation, a figure of correlation between epileptic lesion and functional area was plotted after operation, images of CT, MRI, MEG or PET were fused, and the epilepsy lesions were precisely removed under microscopic MRI navigation. Results Cortical electrical stimulation was successful in 25 epilepsy patients during the first operation and the cortical motor area around the epileptic lesion was accurately located. The images of MRI, MEG or PET for the patients were fused. Of the 25 patients, 20 underwent total resection of epileptic lesion and 5 underwent partial resection of the lesion under microscopic MRI navigation due to the overlapped lesion and functional area. The residual cortex was eradicated by thermal burn. Transient opposite extremity dysfunction was observed in 1 patient after operation. No permanent neurological deficit occurred in all patients after operation. Conclusion Accurate location of intracranial cortical electrodes is of great importance for monitoring epileptic lesions. Fusion of MRI, MEG or PET images and microscopic MRI navigation during operation can provide technical support for the precise resection of epileptic lesions and protection of the functional area.%目的 探讨颅内皮层电极监测、图像融合和术中磁共振精确导航技术在切除功能区癫痫灶的应用价值.方法 回顾分析25 例应用皮

  8. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased visual ...

  9. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam

    2010-11-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  10. Renal allograft accumulation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid: temporal quantitation and scintigraphic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.A.; Meyerovitz, M.; Codd, J.E.; Fletcher, J.W.; Donati, R.M.

    1983-08-01

    Renal allograft accumulation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid (TSC) was studied using visual assessment of scintigraphic displays and a quantitative temporal model in 210 examinations of 56 transplant recipients. The quantitative temporal model related the immediate pool of the radioagent in the transplant to the fixed allograft accumulation of TSC at 20 minutes after administration. Examinations performed less than 3 days after grafting or steroid pulse therapy were excluded. Rejection was established by clinical and biochemical evaluation in all 84 examinations that showed acute or chronic allograft rejection. Rejection was accurately diagnosed by visual scintigraphic assessment in 82% of the established cases; this improved to 99% with relative temporal quantitation analysis. Sensitivity improved from 78% by visual examination to 95% with temporal quantitation and specificity improved from 83% to 100%.

  11. Scintigraphic Methods to Evaluate Alterations of Gastric and Esophageal Functions in Female Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Ömür

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Altered gastrointestinal function has frequently been observed in obese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and to determine the alterations of gastric emptying and esophageal transit by scintigraphic methods in obese patients. Methods: Scintigraphic studies of 50 obese female non-diabetic patients who had not received any treatment for weight control were retrospectively reviewed. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI was 34.96±3.04 kg/m² (range:32-39 kg/m². All subjects were submitted to scintigraphic evaluation of esophageal transit, gastro-esophageal reflux, gastric emptying and presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The data of obese patients were compared with those of sex-age matched 30 non-obese cases who were selected from our clinical archive. Results: In obese group, seventeen (34% patients were found to be GER positive scintigraphically; mean gastric emptying time (t½ was 59.18±30.8 min and the mean esophageal transit time was 8.9±7.2 s. Frequency of positive GER scintigraphy and the mean value of esophageal transit time were significantly higher in obese patients than non-obese control subjects. Gastric emptying time and esophageal transit time values were significantly longer in GER positive obese patients than GER negative ones. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of positive C14 urea breath test between obese and non-obese subjects and there were also no statistically significant correlations between BMI, GER, esophageal transit time and gastric emptying time. Conclusion: In our study, 42 of the 50 obese patients had esophago-gastric motility alterations. The significance of these alterations in obesity is not fully understood, but it is believed that these changes could be because of potential contributing factors in the development or maintenance of obesity or changes in eating habits

  12. Modified PISAPED Criteria in Combination with Ventilation Scintigraphic Finding for Predicting Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Fettich, Jure; Küçük, Nurie Özlem; Kraft, Otakar; Mut, Fernando; Choudhury, Partha; Sharma, Surendra K.; Endo, Keigo; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This prospective clinical study aimed at assessing three pulmonary scintigraphic algorithms to detect acute pulmonary embolism (PE): Lung ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy along with modified prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) criteria; lung perfusion scintigraphy along with prospective investigative study of acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PISAPED) criteria; and lung perfusion scan in combination with ventilation scan, along with modified PISAPED cr...

  13. Scintigraphic determination of the effect of metoclopramide and morphine on small intestinal transit time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; Winchenbach, K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    To determine if a scintigraphic method could detect pharmacologic changes in small intestinal transit time (SITT), 10 male volunteers were studied at baseline and after intravenously administered metoclopramide (10 mg) and morphine (8 mg). Five of these volunteers were studied with the hydrogen breath test method for comparison. For each of the scintigraphic studies, the volunteers were positioned supine under a large-field-of-view gamma camera after ingesting an isosmotic lactulose solution containing 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Data were collected and stored in a computer. Both gastric emptying and SITT were determined. SITT was 81 +/- 11 min (mean +/- S.E.M.; N = 10) during baseline studies, was decreased significantly to 50 +/- 6 min (N = 10; P less than 0.01) after metoclopramide, and was increased significantly to 161 +/- 15 min (N = 8; P less than 0.01) after morphine. Baseline mean values were 86.3 +/- 15 min (N = 15) for the hydrogen breath tests, 47 +/- 8 min (N = 5) for metoclopramide, and 183 +/- 16 min (N = 5) for morphine. For gastric emptying, there was no significant difference in percentage emptying at 1 hr for baseline and metochopramide (82 +/- 5% vs. 88 +/- 4%). Morphine prolonged gastric emptying at 1 hr to 63 +/- 8%. We conclude that the scintigraphic method for measuring SITT permits accurate investigation of the pharmacologic effects on intestinal motility and, in addition, may be a useful research and clinical method for SITT determination.

  14. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Dilling Kjaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL. This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365. Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF was 49% (3–77 and 62% (17–98 after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360. A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25 was reported and three (14% patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90% patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  15. Fenómenos de despolarización cortical propagada en los pacientes con lesiones cerebrales traumáticas e isquémicas. Resultados de un estudio piloto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueiras, M; Sahuquillo, J; García-López, B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and duration of cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) and CSD-like episodes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) requiring craniotomy. DESIGN: A descriptive observational study was carried ou...

  16. Pain in osteochondral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Rasch, Helmut; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Valderrabano, Victor

    2011-04-01

    Pain is the key symptom of patients suffering from osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle joint. Routine radiographic imaging methods for diagnosis and staging of OCL fail to visualize the pain-inducing focus within the joint. SPECT-CT (Single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography) is a new hybrid imaging technique allowing exact digital fusion of scintigraphic and computer tomographic images. This allows precise localization and size determination of an OCL within the joint. Using this novel imaging method, we conducted a study to evaluate the correlation between pathological uptake within an OCL and pain experienced by patients suffering from this condition; 15 patients were assessed in the orthopaedic ambulatory clinic for unilateral OCL of the ankle joint. Pain status was measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A SPECT-CT was performed. All patients underwent CT-guided ankle injection with a local anesthetic and iodine contrast medium. The VAS score assessed immediately postinfiltration was compared with the preinterventional VAS score obtained in the outpatient clinic. Pain relief was defined as a reduction of the VAS score to ≤50% of the preinterventional score, if expected immediately after infiltration. Pain relief was found in all 15 patients. The results of our study show that there is a highly significant correlation between pain and pathological uptake seen on SPECT-CT, indicating that pathologically remodeled bone tissue is an important contributor to pain in OCL. Adequate addressing of involved bone tissue needs to be taken into consideration when choosing a surgical treatment method.

  17. Cortical correlates of acquired deafness to dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Tervaniemi, Mari; Valimaki, Vesa; Van Zuijen, Titia; Peretz, Isabelle

    2003-11-01

    Patient I.R., who had bilateral lesions in the auditory cortex but intact hearing, did not distinguish dissonant from consonant musical excerpts in behavioral testing. We additionally found that the electrical brain responses did not differentiate musical intervals in terms of their dissonance/consonance, consistent with the idea that this phenomenon depends on the integrity of cortical functions.

  18. Persistent renal cortical scintigram defects in children 2 years after urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditchfield, Michael R.; Cook, David J.; Campo, John F. de [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Grimwood, Keith [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Powell, Harley R.; Gulati, Sanjeev [Department of Nephrology, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Sloane, Robert [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-06-01

    Background: Renal cortical scintigraphic studies challenge the role of vesicoureteric reflux in renal scar development, emphasizing instead the part played by acute pyelonephritis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of renal cortical defects in a child cohort 2 years after the child's first diagnosed urinary tract infection and to analyze the relationship of these defects with acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux and recurrent infections. Materials and methods: In a prospective cohort study, 193 children younger than 5 years with their first proven urinary tract infection underwent renal sonography, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal cortical scintigraphy within 15 days of diagnosis. Two years later, 150 of the 193 children, or 77.7%, had a further renal cortical scintigram, including 75, or 86.2%, of the 87 children who had acute scintigraphic defects. The relationship of cortical defects to age, gender, pre-treatment symptom duration, hospitalization, presence and grade of vesicoureteric reflux, and recurrent urinary tract infections was evaluated. Results: Overall, 20 of the 150 (13.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3, 19.8) children had persistent defects 2 years after infection. This included 20 of 75 (26.7%; 95% CI 17.1, 38.1) with initially abnormal scintigrams. No new defects were detected. Although acute defects were more common in the young, those with persistent defects were older (median ages 16.4 vs. 6.8 months, P=0.004) than those with transient abnormalities. After adjustment for age, persistent defects were no longer associated with gender and were not predicted by acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux or recurrent infections. (orig.)

  19. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  20. Quantitative gene expression of somatostatin receptors and noradrenaline transporter underlying scintigraphic results in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich; Mellon Mogensen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To measure, by a quantitative approach, the gene expression underlying the results of somatostatin receptor (sst) scintigraphy ((111)In-DTPA-octreotide) and noradrenaline transporter (NAT) scintigraphy ((123)I-MIBG) in patients with neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. METHODS: The gene expression...... of somatostatin receptors 1-5 (sst) and NAT was measured quantitatively by real-time PCR in a group of patients with NE tumors (n = 14) and compared to a group of patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas (n = 15). If available, scintigraphic results were compared with gene expression results (9 octreotide and 3...... in gene expression of sst(2) corresponded with scintigraphic results. Our data support that sst(2) is the best target for visualization of NE tumors, whereas NAT is only a useful target in a subpopulation of NE tumors. Comparison of scintigraphic results with quantitative gene expression may be used...

  1. Scintigraphic images of bacterial infection using aptamers directly labeled with {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.R.; Correa, C.R.; Andrade, A.S.R., E-mail: sararoberta7@hotmail.com, E-mail: crisrcorrea@gmail.com, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, A.L.B.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N., E-mail: brancodebarros@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: simoneodilia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is specie of great medical importance and is the most commonly agent found in infections of soft tissues, bone infections and bone prostheses. In this study, aptamers selected to S. aureus were labeled by the direct method with {sup 99m}Tc and used for bacterial infection identification by scintigraphy. The radiolabeled aptamers radiochemical purity and stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice (n=6) were used for the scintigraphic imaging studies. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus, the second group with C. albicans and the third group received zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (18 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. Scintigraphic images were acquired at 1 h and 4 h postinjection. The radiolabeling yield with {sup 99m}Tc was over 90%. The radiolabeled aptamers were stable in 0.9% saline, plasma and cysteine excess. The scintigraphic image profiles showed high uptake in the kidneys and bladder in all groups, indicating a main renal excretion consistent with the hydrophilic nature of the molecule. No accumulation of radioactivity was observed in the thyroid, stomach, liver and spleen, indicating acceptable levels of radiochemical impurities. The group infected with S. aureus showed a visible uptake in the infected right thigh at 1 h post-injection. For the control groups (C. albicans and zymosan) visible differences between the right and left thighs were not observed. The radiolabeled aptamers were able to distinguish aseptic inflammation from bacterial infection and bacterial from fungal infection. (author)

  2. Pitfalls in the Performance and Interpretation of Scintigraphic Imaging for Pleuroperitoneal Shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Matthew F; Choudhary, Gagandeep; Avery, Ryan J; Kuo, Phillip H

    2016-11-01

    Ascites can cause pleural effusions when the peritoneal fluid crosses the diaphragm through a pleuroperitoneal shunt in the setting of hepatic cirrhosis (hepatic hydrothorax) or malignant ascites. Scintigraphic imaging for pleuroperitoneal shunt requires intraperitoneal injection of Tc-SC or Tc-macroaggregated albumin followed by planar imaging of the chest and abdomen. Pleuroperitoneal shunt is confirmed by identifying radiotracer crossing the diaphragm from the peritoneal to pleural space. An atlas of pleuroperitoneal shunt imaging pitfalls is presented to facilitate optimal performance and interpretation of nuclear pleuroperitoneal shunt examinations. Examples include cases of nondiagnostic radiotracer injections, processing errors, and nontarget uptake.

  3. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: chronological changes on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan); Nishikawa, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan); Yasui, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    We studied the MRI characteristics of cortical laminar necrosis in ischaemic stroke. We reviewed 13 patients with cortical laminar high signal on T1-weighted images to analyse the chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-density cortical lesions began to appear on T1-weighted images about 2 weeks after the ictus. At 1-2 months they were prominent. They began to fade from 3 months but could be seen up to 11 months. These cortical lesions showed isointensity or high intensity on T2-weighted images and did not show low intensity at any stage. Contrast enhancement of the laminar lesions was prominent at 1-2 months and became less apparent from 3 months, but could be seen up to 8 months. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Cortical involvement of marchiafava-bignami disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare complication of chronic alcoholism and this malady typically manifests as callosal lesion. I report here on one patient with Marchiafava-bignami disease (MBD) who has symmetric restricted diffusion in both lateral-frontal cortices, in addition to the callosal lesion.

  5. Dynamic renal scintigraphic estimation of deceased donor kidneys in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydin Mitil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a large number of the renal transplantations are being performed from the deceased donors. The success of these transplantations depends on the viability of the deceased donor kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of scintigraphic estimation of function of deceased donor kidneys by comparing the histopathologic and scintigraphic findings. Ten rats were included in the study (2–3 months old, 250–300 g, all male. Control scintigraphy was performed to all the rats by injection of 37 MBq Tc-99m DTPA from the tail vein in a dynamic manner. Brain death of the rats was achieved by inflation of a Fogartys catheter in the cranial cavity. Immediately, after brain death confirmation, dynamic renal scintigraphy was performed with the same parameters of control scintigraphy. In the comparison of scintigraphies obtained in the before and just after brain death period, there was impairment of tubular functions, concentration and excretion functions in the postbrain death period. In the immediate postbrain death period, there was a significant elevation in the glomerular filtration rate and time to maximum concentration values. In the histopathological evaluation of the kidney samples in the postbrain death period, there were definitive findings of tubular impairment. Dynamic renal scintigraphy also demonstrated definite impairment of tubular system and tubular functions in the deceased donor kidneys. This could explain the reason of the increased frequency of acute tubular necrosis seen among deceased donor kidneys.

  6. Scintigraphic evaluation of primary congenital hypothyroidism: results of the Greek screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panoutsopoulos, G.; Ilias, I.; Batsakis, C.; Christakopoulou, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, ' ' Sotiria' ' Hospital, Athens (Greece); Mengreli, C. [Inst. of Child Health, Athens (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    The Greek screening program for primary congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in 1979. By early 2000, thyrotropin measurements had been performed in 1,976,719 newborns, using dried blood spots obtained by heel prick. Among these children, 584 were diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism (incidence: 1/3,384 births) and were given L-thyroxine (L-T{sub 4}) replacement therapy. In order to further evaluate and classify the children as having either an aplastic (AT) or an ectopic thyroid gland (ET) or as showing thyroidal dyshormonogenesis (DN, with a nomotopic gland), scintigraphic studies were performed at the age of 2-3 years. In 413 children of this age group (including 24 subsequently diagnosed as having had transient hypothyroidism, in whom L-T{sub 4} therapy was not resumed), thyroid hormones were measured and scintigraphic studies were done after withdrawal of L-T{sub 4} replacement treatment for 3 weeks. Given the long duration of the study, we used various scintigraphic modalities. In 96 children (group A), scintigraphy was performed using technetium-99m pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}; 18.5 MBq given i.v.) and a rectilinear scanner. Seventy-three children (group B) were studied with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} (18.5 MBq given i.v.) and a gamma camera equipped with a pinhole collimator. In these groups, atropine was administered 30 min prior to the study (0.02 mg/kg i.v. or i.m.) in order to reduce the secretion of saliva from the salivary glands. Finally, in the remaining 220 children (group C) iodine-123 sodium iodide ({sup 123}I-Na) (0.74-1.85 MBq i.v.) and the same gamma camera were used. Between-group comparisons of scintigraphic findings were done with the chi square test. In 191 children from group C, thyroglobulin (Tg) was measured and in 49 children ultrasound (US) was performed (categorising the gland as AT or ET/DN). Comparison of these modalities was done with the kappa statistic. In group A, 61.5% of children had AT, 26.0% had ET and

  7. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: serial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskas, N.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Ioannidis, I.; Charitandi, A.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Radiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-05-01

    High-signal cortical lesions are observed on T1-weighted images in cases of brain infarct. Histological examination has demonstrated these to be ''cortical laminar necrosis'', without haemorrhage or calcification. We report serial MRI in this condition in 12 patients with brain infarcts. We looked at high-signal lesions on T1-weighted images, chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-signal cortical lesions began to appear about 2 weeks after the ictus, were prominent at 1 - 2 months, then became less evident, but occasionally remained for up to 1.5 years. They gave high signal or were isointense on T2-weighted images and did not give low signal at any stage. Contrast enhancement of these lesions was prominent at 1 - 2 months, and less apparent from 3 months, but was seen up to 5 months. (orig.)

  8. Functional rehabilitation of partial cortical blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoerig, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The current doctrine regards fields of partial cortical blindness as permanent once a temporally restricted window for spontaneous recovery has passed. Accordingly, neuropsychological rehabilitation mainly applies compensatory procedures that train patients to make better use of their sighted field. The more ambitious goal of functional recovery depends on the survival of pathways that continue to transmit retinal information from the blind field. Although wide-spread antero- and retrograde degeneration follows lesions that destroy or denervate the primary visual cortex and cause partial cortical blindness, several retinofugal pathways survive in cats, monkeys, and humans. In all three species, they subserve a variety of visual functions which develop and improve with practice. Post lesion plasticity is greater when the lesion occurs early in life, but changes in behavioural performance and brain responses have also been demonstrated in late lesion subjects. Although the extent of functional improvement is variable, and the most effective approaches still need to be established across cohorts, the evidence for perceptual learning in fields of cortical blindness indicates that the visual processes mediated by the surviving parts of the visual system can be harnessed to improve functional outcome.

  9. Serial MR observation of cortical laminar necrosis caused by brain infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, M.; Nakajima, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yasui, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    To examine the chronological changes characteristic of cortical laminar necrosis caused by brain infarction, 16 patients were repeatedly examined using T1-, T2-weighted spin-echo, T2{sup *}-weighted gradient echo, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images at 1.0 or 1.5 T. High intensity cortical lesions were visible on the T1-weighted images from 2 weeks after ictus and became prominent at 1 to 3 months, then became less apparent, but occasionally remained at high intensity for 2 years. High intensity cortical lesions on FLAIR images became prominent from 1 month, and then became less prominent from 1 year, but occasionally remained at high intensity for 2 years. Subcortical lesions did not display high intensity on T1-weighted images at any stage. On FLAIR images, subcortical lesions initially showed slightly high intensity and then low intensity from 6 months due to encephalomalacia. Cortical lesions showed prominent contrast enhancement from 2 weeks to 3 months, but subcortical lesions were prominent from 2 weeks only up to 1 month. T2*-weighted images disclosed haemosiderin in 3 of 7 patients, but there was no correlation with cortical short T1 lesions. Cortical laminar necrosis showed characteristic chronological signal changes on T1-weighted images and FLAIR images. Cortical short T1 lesions were found not to be caused by haemorrhagic infarction. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  10. Eclamptogenic Gerstmann's syndrome in combination with cortical agnosia and cortical diplopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käsmann, B; Ruprecht, K W

    1995-07-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as a loss of vision due to bilateral retrogeniculate lesions (geniculocalcarine blindness). Gerstmann's syndrome is a combination of disorientation for left and right, finger agnosia, and profound agraphia, alexia, and acalculia. It is due to a lesion in the left angular gyrus, situated at the confluence of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. We report on a patient who suffered from severe underdiagnosed eclampsia and who developed bilateral extensive medial temporal, parietal, and calcarine ischemic infarctions during an eclamptic fit. In addition, ischemia destroyed the left angular gyrus. The combination of these lesions led to Gerstmann's syndrome with additional cortical agnosia and cortical diplopia. For the first few months following the ischemic insult, the patient had been cortically blind. Thereafter, the patient slowly regained a visual acuity of 0.1 in both eyes. She then experienced monocular and binocular diplopia. Her ocular motility was normal; there was no phoria or tropia. Monocular and binocular diplopia slowly became less severe over the following year. Now, 2 years after the incident, the patient has a visual acuity of 0.2 in both eyes and no double vision. However, the handicapping symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, which make leading a normal life impossible, have persisted--the patient still cannot cope alone, mainly due to the severe disorientation for left and right. The picture of cortical agnosia, cortical diplopia, and Gerstmann's syndrome is a very rare combination. Visual recovery and rehabilitation in cortical blindness are severely affected and made difficult by the symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome. In our case the reason for such a dramatic clinical picture was eclampsia, whose prodomes had not been diagnosed in time.

  11. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  12. Efeitos do pentobarbital sódico sobre a atividade elétrica cerebral do rato com lesões da formação reticular mesencefálica Action of sodium pentobarbital on the cortical electrical activity of the rat after lesion of the midbrain reticular formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1970-12-01

    acut and 18 for chronic experiments. The midbrain reticular formation was electrolytically destroyed on both sides in 24 animals, and in 11 on one side. The interruption of the reticular activating system was checked by strong nociceptive and electrical stimulation below the lesioned area. In acute preparations pentobarbital was given by intravenous injection in increasing doses, and in chronic experiments by intraperitoneal injections. The barbiturate always augmented synchronization of the electrocorticogram but induced an early depression of the electrical activity in rats with bilateral extensive lesions. After barbiturate administration the electro-corticogram of both hemispheres tended to became more isochronized. Pentobarbital seems to depress the activating systems in small doses, thus liberating the synchronizing systems, whereas larger doses block also the latter. Only very large doses depress the cortical activity.

  13. Scintigraphic assessment of focal platelet accumulations following infrainguinal bypass surgery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Hesse, B; Eiberg, J;

    1997-01-01

    of flow in the graft. Platelet deposition was assessed by gamma-camera images of thigh and crus obtained 4 and/or 24 h after surgery. Areas of focally increased activity were recorded and graded as moderate or intense. In the 24 vein bypasses, a median of two (range 0-5) areas of focally increased....... In 28 patients undergoing in situ vein (n = 24), composite vein-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (n = 1) or PTFE (n = 3) bypass surgery, assumed vascular injuries were recorded intraoperatively. Autologous indium-111-labelled platelets were injected into the inflow artery immediately after restoration...... radioactivity were seen at the proximal anastomosis (n = 21), in the body of the graft (n = 20) or at the distal anastomosis (n = 9). The activity was moderate in 27 cases and intense in 23 cases. Scintigraphic evidence of focal platelet aggregation in vein grafts was not correlated with preoperative...

  14. Scintigraphic investigation of sacroiliac disease. [/sup 99//super m/Tc tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentle, B.C.; Russell, A.S.; Percy, J.S.; Jackson, F.I.

    1977-06-01

    Bone scintigraphs obtained with both technetium-99m polyphosphate and technetium-99m pyrophosphate have been abnormal at the sacroiliac joints of 44 patients with definite ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Because of the normal registration of the sacroiliac joints on bone scintigraphy, it has been necessary to develop a profile-scan technique to quantify the abnormality that proves to be significantly different from the normal finding. In 17 patients with a strong clinical suspicion of AS but normal radiographs, the sacroiliac joints have frequently been abnormal. This finding is meaningful because there is a common occurrence in this group of the histocompatibility antigen HL A-B27, known to be a marker of AS. We also note the frequency of abnormal sacroiliac scintigrams in 26 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in a group of other diseases--Crohn's disease, uveitis, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, and Reiters' disease--all of which share some of the manifestations of AS.

  15. Scintigraphic small intestinal transit time and defaecography in patients with J-pouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend;

    2015-01-01

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch...... mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3–77) and 62% (17–98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4......–25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate...

  16. The scintigraphic appearance of childhood moyamoya disease on cerebral perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. [Department of Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (United States); Khonsary, A. [Department of Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (United States); Raffel, C. [Department of Surgery, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles (United States)]|[University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Objective. This study was performed to evaluate the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging in the evaluation of patients with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Five patients (four female, one male) were studied utilizing iodine-123 iodoamphetamine or technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT. The data were reconstructed into axial, coronal and sagittal sections for review, and compared with CT, MR and/or angiographic images. Results. All five patients had significant perfusion defects. These areas of vascular compromise were seen to cross normal vascular territories, and were greater in number and extent than seen on anatomic sectional imaging. Conclusion. Patients with moyamoya disease have a recognizable pattern of scintigraphic perfusion deficits which should be identified by pediatric imaging physicians. SPECT perfusion studies should be performed in conjunction with other imaging modalities (CT, MR or angiography). (orig.). With 3 figs.

  17. MRI of fibrous cortical defect and non-ossifying fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Yoshiko; Aoki, Takatoshi; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Nakata, Hajime; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshitaka [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-02-01

    Fibrous cortical defect and non-ossifying fibroma are the benign fibrous lesions of bone commonly involving children. Their diagnosis is usually done with radiography, and MR examinations are rarely performed. We evaluated MRI findings of 11 lesions in 10 cases of fibrous cortical defect and non-ossifying fibroma. Signal intensity of the lesions was varied and large lesions (2 cm<) tended to show heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images corresponding to a mixture of components including fibrous tissue, hemosiderin and foam cells. MRI helps to delineate the extent of the involved bone and to assess the various histological components of the lesions. However, their diagnosis is basically made on the radiographic findings and the role of MRI is limited. (author)

  18. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, T. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Mueller-Schauenburg, W. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Goeke, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Luebeck, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Gratz, K.F. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meier, P. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Manns, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hundeshagen, H. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  19. Acetabular stress fractures in military endurance athletes and recruits: incidence and MRI and scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.R. [Portsmouth Naval Medical Center, Radiology Department, Charette Health Care Center, Portsmouth, VA (United States); Puckett, M.L.; Shin, A.Y.; Gorman, J.D. [Naval Medical Center San Diego, Radiology Department, San Diego, CA (United States); Denison, G. [US Naval Hospital Guam (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and the MRI and scintigraphic appearance of acetabular stress (fatigue) fractures in military endurance athletes and recruits. Design and patients: One hundred and seventy-eight active duty military endurance trainees with a history of activity-related hip pain were evaluated by both MRI and bone scan over a 2-year period. Patients in the study ranged in age from 17 to 45 years. They had hip pain related to activity and had plain radiographs of the hip and pelvis that were interpreted as normal or equivocal. The study was originally designed to evaluate the MRI and scintigraphic appearance of femoral neck stress fractures. Patients had scintigraphy and a limited MRI examination (coronal imaging only) within 48 h of the bone scan. Twelve patients demonstrated imaging findings compatible with acetabular stress fractures. Results: Stress fractures are common in endurance athletes and in military populations; however, stress fracture of the acetabulum is uncommon. Twelve of 178 patients (6.7%) in our study had imaging findings consistent with acetabular stress fractures. Two patterns were identified. Seven of the 12 (58%) patients had acetabular roof stress fractures. In this group, two cases of bilateral acetabular roof stress fractures were identified, one with a synchronous tensile sided femoral neck stress fracture. The remaining five of 12 (42%) patients had anterior column stress fractures, rarely occurring in isolation, and almost always occurring with inferior pubic ramus stress fracture (4 of 5, or 80%). One case of bilateral anterior column stress fractures was identified without additional sites of injury. Conclusions: Stress fractures are commonplace in military populations, especially endurance trainees. Acetabular stress fractures are rare and therefore unrecognized, but do occur and may be a cause for activity-related hip pain in a small percentage of military endurance athletes and recruits. (orig.)

  20. The International Atomic Energy Agency software package for the analysis of scintigraphic renal dynamic studies: a tool for the clinician, teacher, and researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaknun, John J; Rajabi, Hossein; Piepsz, Amy; Roca, Isabel; Dondi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, a new-generation, platform-independent, and x86-compatible software package was developed for the analysis of scintigraphic renal dynamic imaging studies. It provides nuclear medicine professionals cost-free access to the most recent developments in the field. The software package is a step forward towards harmonization and standardization. Embedded functionalities render it a suitable tool for education, research, and for receiving distant expert's opinions. Another objective of this effort is to allow introducing clinically useful parameters of drainage, including normalized residual activity and outflow efficiency. Furthermore, it provides an effective teaching tool for young professionals who are being introduced to dynamic kidney studies by selected teaching case studies. The software facilitates a better understanding through practically approaching different variables and settings and their effect on the numerical results. An effort was made to introduce instruments of quality assurance at the various levels of the program's execution, including visual inspection and automatic detection and correction of patient's motion, automatic placement of regions of interest around the kidneys, cortical regions, and placement of reproducible background region on both primary dynamic and on postmicturition studies. The user can calculate the differential renal function through 2 independent methods, the integral or the Rutland-Patlak approaches. Standardized digital reports, storage and retrieval of regions of interest, and built-in database operations allow the generation and tracing of full image reports and of numerical outputs. The software package is undergoing quality assurance procedures to verify the accuracy and the interuser reproducibility with the final aim of launching the program for use by professionals and teaching institutions worldwide.

  1. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of cortical multiple sclerosis pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tardif, Christine L; Bedell, Barry J; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    2012-01-01

    pathology. The objective of this study was to characterize the MRI signature of CLs to help interpret the changes seen in vivo and elucidate the factors limiting their visualization. A quantitative 3D high-resolution (350 μm isotropic) MRI study at 3 Tesla of a fixed post mortem cerebral hemisphere from......Although significant improvements have been made regarding the visualization and characterization of cortical multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cortical lesions (CL) continue to be under-detected in vivo, and we have a limited understanding of the causes of GM...... a patient with MS is presented in combination with matched immunohistochemistry. Type III subpial lesions are characterized by an increase in T1, T2 and M0, and a decrease in MTR in comparison to the normal appearing cortex (NAC). All quantitative MR parameters were associated with cortical GM myelin...

  2. Pink lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  3. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for malignant otitis externa: lesion not shown on planar image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hung; Hsieh, Hung-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa is a severe and rare infection of the external acoustic meatus. Triphasic bone and (67)Ga scintigraphies are used to initial detect and follow-up the response of therapy. With single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images, the diagnostic sensitivity is higher. We presented a case with malignant otitis externa with initial negative planar scintigraphic finding. The lesion was detected by photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images. We concluded that the photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography should be performed routinely for patients with suspected malignant otitis externa, even without evidence of lesion on planar images.

  4. Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff with cortical bone erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roxanne; Kim, David H; Millett, Peter J; Weissman, Barbara N

    2004-10-01

    Calcifying tendinitis occurs most commonly in the rotator cuff tendons, particularly involving the supraspinatus tendon insertion, and is often asymptomatic. Cortical erosion secondary to calcifying tendinitis has been reported in multiple locations, including in the rotator cuff tendons. We present a pathologically proven case of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis involving the infraspinatus tendon with cortical erosion with correlative radiographic, CT, and MR findings. The importance of considering this diagnosis when evaluating lytic lesions of the humerus and the imaging differential diagnosis of calcifying tendinitis and cortical erosion are discussed.

  5. Acute hepatic encephalopathy presenting as cortical laminar necrosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Hee; Roh, Sook Young

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia.

  6. Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff with cortical bone erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Roxanne; Kim, David H.; Millett, Peter J. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Weissman, Barbara N. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, Boston (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Calcifying tendinitis occurs most commonly in the rotator cuff tendons, particularly involving the supraspinatus tendon insertion, and is often asymptomatic. Cortical erosion secondary to calcifying tendinitis has been reported in multiple locations, including in the rotator cuff tendons. We present a pathologically proven case of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis involving the infraspinatus tendon with cortical erosion with correlative radiographic, CT, and MR findings. The importance of considering this diagnosis when evaluating lytic lesions of the humerus and the imaging differential diagnosis of calcifying tendinitis and cortical erosion are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Acute hepatic encephalopathy presenting as cortical laminar necrosis: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Hee; Roh, Sook Young [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Daejin Medical Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia.

  8. Nontraumatic femoral head necrosis. Classification of bone scintigraphic findings and diagnostic value of SPECT following planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Anzai, Yoshimi; Uno, Kimiichi; Arimizu, Noboru (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine bone scintigraphic findings in nontraumatic femoral head avascular necrosis and diagnostic value of SPECT imaging following a conventional planar imaging. Forty-three femoral heads in twenty-six cases with idiopathic femoral head necrosis (n=2), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=22), aplastic anemia (n=1), and renal transplantation (n=1) were studied. The diagnosis for femoral head necrosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging as well as other diagnostic studies in all cases. Scintigraphic findings of planar and SPECT images were classified into six categories: normal (N); cold or decrease (C); partial increase with cold or decrease (PH+C); ring-like increase with a cold center (RH+C); partial increase (PH); diffuse and/or irregular increase (DH). Avascular necrosis was confirmed in twenty-four femoral heads, in which planar and SPECT images showed scintigraphic findings of N (n=3, 2), C (n=1, 3), PH+C (n=2, 8), RH+C (n=2, 3), PH (n=9, 2), and DH (n=7, 6), respectively. Femoral heads without avascular necrosis demonstrated planar and SPECT findings of N (n=16, 12), C (n=0, 6), and DH (n=3, 1), respectively. When considering C, PH+C, and RH+C as diagnostic findings for avascular necrosis, sensitivities of planar and SPECT images were 21% and 58%, and specificities were 100% and 68%, respectively. In nineteen femoral heads with normal planar findings (N), SPECT correctly identified avascular necrosis in two femoral heads and misidentified six normal femoral heads as avascular necrosis. In nineteen femoral heads with nondiagnostic abnormalities (PH, DH), SPECT correctly identified avascular necrosis in seven femoral heads and showed no false positive. Diagnostic planar findings in five femoral heads were concordant with SPECT diagnosis. These results indicate that SPECT imaging is most valuable when planar images show nondiagnostic abnormalities based on the proposed classification of scintigraphic findings. (author).

  9. Scintigraphic detection of occult hemorrhage using RBCs labeled in vitro with technetium Tc 99m sodium pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, S.R.; Kolina, J.S.; Kaplan, K.A.; McAuley, R.J.; Lull, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    Scintigraphy with RBCs labeled with technetium Tc 99m sodium pertechnetate effectively located the source of hemorrhage in a patient receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy. (The patient was initially seen with a large hematoma on the flank.) More important, the procedure was used to monitor activity in this otherwise-occult bleeding site. Scintigraphic studies may be useful in the management of these difficult clinical problems.

  10. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S; Conner, James M; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia.

  11. Evolution of cortical neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mannan, Omar; Cheung, Amanda F P; Molnár, Zoltán

    2008-03-18

    The neurons of the mammalian neocortex are organised into six layers. By contrast, the reptilian and avian dorsal cortices only have three layers which are thought to be equivalent to layers I, V and VI of mammals. Increased repertoire of mammalian higher cognitive functions is likely a result of an expanded cortical surface area. The majority of cortical cell proliferation in mammals occurs in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ), with a small number of scattered divisions outside the germinal zone. Comparative developmental studies suggest that the appearance of SVZ coincides with the laminar expansion of the cortex to six layers, as well as the tangential expansion of the cortical sheet seen within mammals. In spite of great variation and further compartmentalisation in the mitotic compartments, the number of neurons in an arbitrary cortical column appears to be remarkably constant within mammals. The current challenge is to understand how the emergence and elaboration of the SVZ has contributed to increased cortical cell diversity, tangential expansion and gyrus formation of the mammalian neocortex. This review discusses neurogenic processes that are believed to underlie these major changes in cortical dimensions in vertebrates.

  12. Parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscalleda, J. [Hospital Sant Pau, Radiology Department, Neuroradiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    The sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area that represents a crucial crossroad of important adjacent structures, e.g. orbits, cavernous sinus and its content, polygon of Willis, hypothalamus through the pituitary stalk and dural reflections forming the diaphragm sellae and the walls of the cavernous sinuses. Although the cavernous sinus represents the most relevant parasellar structure, from the practical and clinical point of view all the structures that surround the sella turcica can be included in the parasellar region. CT and, mainly, MRI are the imaging modalities to study and characterise the normal anatomy and the majority of processes in this region. We present a practical short review of the most relevant CT and MRI characteristics, such as location, nature of contrast enhancement and presence of cystic components, together with clinical findings, which permit differentiation of the most frequent and less common lesions found in the parasellar region. Learning objectives: A short review of the anatomy and clinical symptoms related to the parasellar region. Radiological characterisation, mainly by MRI, of the many lesions that alter the structure and function of sellar and parasellar anatomy. Description of the MRI features that permit differentiation among less common lesions. (orig.)

  13. Cortical Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. G. Gibb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In cortical Lewy body dementia the distribution of Lewy bodies in the nervous system follows that of Parkinson's disease, except for their greater profusion in the cerebral cortex. The cortical tangles and plaques of Alzheimer pathology are often present, the likely explanation being that Alzheimer pathology provokes dementia in many patients. Pure cortical Lewy body dementia without Alzheimer pathology is uncommon. The age of onset reflects that of Parkinson's disease, and clinical features, though not diagnostic, include aphasias, apraxias, agnosias, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations. Parkinsonism may present before or after the dementia, and survival duration is approximately half that seen in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

  14. Frontal Lobe Lipoma Associated with Cortical Dysplasia and Abnormal Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, Ozdil; Geyik, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intracranial lipomas (ICLs) are rare lesions, the vast majority encountered as incidental findings on imaging studies. ICLs are generally pericallosal midline lesions and thought to be asymptomatic and can be accompanied by additional intracranial congenital malformations. We describe a 17-year old male with an unusual case of ICL on the frontal lobe associated with cortical dysplasia and abnormal vasculature mimicking arteriovenous malformation on magnetic resonance images. PMID:25489889

  15. Postpartum cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    A 30-years-old third gravida with previous normal pregnancies and an unremarkable prenatal course had an emergency lower segment caesarean section at a periphery hospital for failure of labour to progress. She developed bilateral cortical blindness immediately after recovery from anesthesia due to cerebral angiopathy shown by CT and MR scan as cortical infarct cerebral angiopathy, which is a rare complication of a normal pregnancy.

  16. Scintigraphic imaging with {sup 99m}Tc- exorphin C in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertay, T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey)]. E-mail: turkan.ertay@deu.edu.tr; Uenak, P. [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ege University, Bornova (Turkey); Tasci, C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey); Zihnioglu, F. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Durak, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Exorphin C is a peptide with five amino acids [(Tyr-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu) Trifluoroacetate salt] (Sigma) that has an affinity to opioid receptor-expressing tissues and tumors. Exorphin-C was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using glucoheptonate (GH) as bifunctional chelating agent. Then, we investigated its radiopharmaceutical potential as opioid receptor-expressing tissue on rabbits. Quality controls were performed by ITLC, paper electrophoresis and HPLC. Labeling efficiency was higher than 98%. The compound was stable for at least 5 h at room temperature. Scintigraphic imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-GH-exorphin C ({sup 99m}Tc-GE) was performed on male Albino rabbits. Static images were obtained from anterior projection using a Camstar XR/T gamma camera at several time intervals. Although a significant amount of activity was seen in the brain, less activity was seen on receptor saturation studies at 30 min. Slight hepatobiliary excretion was seen, though the main excretion route was renal. After saturating, the receptor hepatobiliary excretion was not seen; the only excretion route was renal.

  17. Scintigraphic evaluation of early osteoblastic activity in extraction sockets treated with platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüzer, Bahadir; Pikdöken, Levent; Urhan, Muammer; Süer, B Tolga; Narin, Yavuz

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the early effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on osteoblastic activity during the healing process of soft tissue impacted mandibular third molar extraction sockets by means of bone scintigraphy. Twelve patients with bilaterally soft tissue impacted mandibular third molars were included in the study. The impacted right and left mandibular third molars were surgically extracted in the same session. PRP was administered randomly into the extraction sockets in the study (S) group whereas the extraction sockets in the control (C) group were left without PRP treatment. Scintigrams were obtained in the first and fourth weeks after surgery to evaluate the osteoblastic activity within extraction sockets in both groups. Scintigraphic findings of postoperative first and fourth weeks did not show significantly increased osteoblastic activity between S group and C group (P > .05). However, the osteoblastic activity in both groups significantly increased in postoperative week 4 in comparison to week 1 (P third molar extraction sockets failed to increase the osteoblastic activity in postsurgical weeks 1 and 4 in comparison to non-PRP-treated sockets.

  18. Scintigraphic techniques in primary hyperparathyroidism: from pre-operative localisation to intra-operative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubello, Domenico [S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Rovigo (Italy); Gross, Milton D. [Department of Veterans Affairs Health System, Nuclear Medicine Service, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mariani, Giuliano [University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Al-Nahhas, Adil [Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is an increasingly diagnosed disease worldwide. In most cases, PHPT is related to the presence of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA). Fifty percent or more of newly diagnosed PHPT patients are asymptomatic, and there is debate among endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons about whether or not such patients should be treated. Usually, in a PHPT patient with a solitary PA that is well localised pre-operatively, a parathyroidectomy with limited or minimally invasive neck exploration is offered. The diffusion of minimally invasive neck exploration procedures is a consequence of the significant improvement in the accuracy of pre-operative imaging (mainly scintigraphic) techniques; these techniques have changed the surgical strategy to PHPT, from the wide traditional bilateral neck exploration to limited neck exploration. The present review considers developments during the past 10-15 years with regard to both the accuracy of pre-operative localising imaging techniques and intra-operative minimally invasive procedures in order to provide endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons with further information about the newly available diagnostic and therapeutic tools for use in PHPT patients with a solitary PA. (orig.)

  19. Acute rhabdomyolysis of the soleus muscle induced by a lightning strike: magnetic resonance and scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Naofumi; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Shuke, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Radiology, Asahikawa (Japan); Chisato, Naoyuki; Go, Kazutomo [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Emergency Medicine, Asahikawa (Japan); Nochi, Hitoshi [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Asahikawa (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Among natural disasters, a lightning strike is a rare but potentially life-threatening phenomenon. If victims survive a cardiac arrest due to instantaneous passage of an exceptionally high voltage electric charge through the whole body, they may be afflicted with various complications such as muscle necrosis resulting in acute renal failure. In this article, we report a case of a 54-year-old man with acute rhabdomyolysis of the left soleus muscle associated with a lightning strike. T2-weighted and short-tau inversion recovery MR images showed a high signal intensity in the left soleus muscle. A whole-body bone scintigram showed abnormal uptakes in the left soleus muscle and the dorsal aspect of the left foot. MR and scintigraphic evaluations were very useful in depicting the site and extent of muscle damage. Since the patient showed a surprisingly high level of serum creatine kinase, the added information was very valuable for determining the patient's management. (orig.)

  20. Results of Chiari pelvic osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia in adults; Association with bone scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Nobuo; Ozono, Kenji; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Takaoka, Kunio; Ono, Hiroo (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    In an attempt to determine indications of Chiari pelvic osteotomy in acetabular dysplasia, postoperative outcome of hip joint (64 joints) was examined on the basis of findings of bone scintigraphy. The subjects were 61 patients with osteoarthrosis of hip joint who underwent preoperative bone scintigraphy. The follow-up period ranged from 2 years to 9 years and 7 months with a mean of 4 years and 9 months. According to X-ray findings, 37 osteoarthrosis joints were staged as early and 27 as progressive. Preoperative bone scintigraphic findings fell into three: (I) normal or slight hot type (33 joints), (II) hot type at the weighting part (16 joints), and (III) double hot type in the weighting part and inside part (15 joints). None of the patients had severe surgical complications such as deep-seated infection, neuroparalysis and pseudojoint. According to the clinical staging for hip joint function, 7 (47%) of 64 joints were judged as poor after osteotomy, belonging to type III. Deterioration of osteoarthrosis was seen in 11 joints (41%) on X-ray films. Of these, 9 had type III. In conclusion, Chiari pelvic osteotomy should not be indicated when type III is shown on bone scintigrams. (N.K.).

  1. Scintigraphic image contrast-enhancement techniques: Global and local area histogram equalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdenet, J.; Cardot, J.C.; Baud, M.; Chervet, H.; Bidet, R.; Duvernoy, J.

    1981-06-01

    This article develops two contrast-modification techniques for the display of scintigraphic images. Based on histogram-modification techniques, histogram equalization, where each level of gray is used to the same extent, gives maximum entropy. The first technique uses the application of histogram equalization in the whole image. To eliminate contrast attenuation in image areas that represent a statistically small but important portion of the gray scale histogram, local area histogram equalization has been applied to images with differences in intensity. Both techniques were tested using a phantom with known characteristics. The global equalization technique is more suitable to bone scintigraphies, and some well-chosen boundaries improved the difference between two comparable areas. For liver scintigraphies, where intensity is quite equal in every pixel, a local area equalization was chosen that allowed detection of heterogeneous structures. The image resulting from histogram-equalization techniques improve the readability of data, but are often far from usual images and necessitate an apprenticeship for the physician.

  2. /sup 111/In-oxine-labelled autologous leucocytes in inflammatory bowel disease: New scintigraphic activity index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ybern, A.; Martin-Comin, J.; Villa, R.; Gine, J.J.; Casanovas, T.; Gassull, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-oxine-labelled autologous leucocytes was investigated in 27 patients with inflamatory bowel disease (IBD): 16 with ulcerative colitis and 11 with Crohn's disease. Scans were performed 2-4 h (early scan) and at 24 h (late scan) after leucocyte reinjection. No false-negative results occurred in the early scan; however, in the late scan, 2 patients with Crohn's disease had a normal scintigram. A new index of activity (Isub(l)) based on the number and relative activity of abnormal /sup 111/In-leucocyte zones was used for scan quantitation. All patients with clinically active IBD had Isub(l) >= 2. The scintigraphic index showed a significant correlation with the Harvey clinical index, especially in patients with ulcerative colitis. Our results suggest that an early scan (2-4 h) provides useful information in cases of IBD, and that Isub(l) >= 2 is indicative of the degree of disease activity in such patients. (orig.).

  3. Ultrasonographic and Scintigraphic Findings of Thyroid Hemiagenesis in a Child: Report of a Rare Male Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Yaşar Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which one lobe of thyroid gland fails to develop. It is much rarer in males. There is a higher incidence of associated thyroid disorders in patients with thyroid hemiagenesis; therefore early and prompt diagnosis is important for children. We present the ultrasonographic and scintigraphic findings of thyroid hemiagenesis in an eight-year-old-boy. On ultrasonography (US, left lobe of the thyroid gland could not be demonstrated and the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Its echogenicity was normal and no nodule was seen. On thyroid scintigraphy, left lobe of thyroid gland or any ectopic thyroid tissue could not be demonstrated, while the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Without performing any invasive procedure, we enrolled the child in a follow-up program with the guidance of US and scintigraphy, which were effective both in making the final diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis and in evaluating the current status of the present thyroid tissue. In conclusion, if only one thyroid lobe is detected in a pediatric case initially with US or scintigraphy, the diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis should be suggested and, before any unnecessary or invasive attempt, the other complementary method (scintigraphy/US should be performed.

  4. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2007-07-01

    The third edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases has been comprehensively rewritten and rearranged. It now encompasses, in addition to the bone and joint diseases described in the two earlier editions, hitherto unpublished novel applications of pinhole scanning to the diagnosis of a broader spectrum of skeletal disorders than ever before, including those of the soft tissues. A large number of state-of-the-art scans and corroboratory images obtained using CT, MRI and/or sonography are presented side by side. The book has been considerably expanded to discuss five new themes: Normal Variants and Artifacts, Drug-Induced Osteoporosis, Soft-Tissue Tumors and Tumor-like Conditions, PET/CT in Bone and Joint Diseases and A Genetic Consideration of Skeletal Disorders. Topical chapters on rheumatic skeletal disorders, malignant tumors of bone, benign tumors of bone and traumatic diseases have also been thoroughly rewritten and are complemented by the addition of some 90 recently acquired cases. (orig.)

  5. Malformations of cortical development and neocortical focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner; Clusmann, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Developmental neocortical malformations resulting from abnormal neurogenesis, disturbances in programmed cell death, or neuronal migration disorders may cause a long-term hyperexcitability. Early generated Cajal-Retzius and subplate neurons play important roles in transient cortical circuits, and structural/functional disorders in early cortical development may induce persistent network disturbances and epileptic disorders. In particular, depolarizing GABAergic responses are important for the regulation of neurodevelopmental events, like neurogenesis or migration, while pathophysiological alterations in chloride homeostasis may cause epileptic activity. Although modern imaging techniques may provide an estimate of the structural lesion, the site and extent of the cortical malformation may not correlate with the epileptogenic zone. The neocortical focus may be surrounded by widespread molecular, structural, and functional disturbances, which are difficult to recognize with imaging technologies. However, modern imaging and electrophysiological techniques enable focused hypotheses of the neocortical epileptogenic zone, thus allowing more specific epilepsy surgery. Focal cortical malformation can be successfully removed with minimal rim, close to or even within eloquent cortex with a promising risk-benefit ratio.

  6. Extensive cortical involvement in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzenberg, I; Börnke, C; Tönnes, C; Ziebarth, W; Lavrov, A; Lukas, C

    2012-12-01

    We present a 77-year-old previously well patient with facial asymmetry and progressive weakness of the lower extremities. An initial MRI revealed slight contrast enhancement of the meninges. Three consecutive cerebrospinal fluid examinations demonstrated low glucose concentration, marked elevation of total protein and moderate pleocytosis. No tumor cells, fungi, acid-fast bacilli or mycobacterial DNA were found. The patient's level of consciousness deteriorated dramatically, and follow-up MRI showed widespread extensive cortical hyperintensities. The lesions showed restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted images as well as low values on the corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient maps, the changes consistent with diffuse cytotoxic edema. Neuropathological examination findings were of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) with diffuse continuous infiltration of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord. The autopsy revealed a subcentimetre adenocarcinoma of the lung. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating extensive cortical involvement in adenocarcinomatous LMC.

  7. Cortical desmoid of the humerus: radiographic and MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Matthew; Counsel, Peter [Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Perth (Australia); Perth Radiological Clinic, Perth (Australia); Wood, David [Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Perth (Australia); Breidahl, William [Perth Radiological Clinic, Perth (Australia)

    2017-07-15

    Cortical desmoids are self-limiting fibro-osseous lesions commonly occurring at the medial supracondylar femur in active adolescents, at either the origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius or at the insertion of the adductor magnus aponeurosis. Less commonly, in a similar demographic, cortical desmoids may occur in the proximal humerus medially at the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle or laterally at the insertion of the deltoid. The radiographic appearance of the proximal humerus cortical desmoid has been described previously, but not the MRI appearance. We present the radiographic and MRI appearances of a proximal humerus cortical desmoid in a young adolescent who presented for investigation of right shoulder pain. (orig.)

  8. [Brodie abscess. Primarily misinterpreted as traumatic lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolajsen, K; Jørgensen, P S; Tørholm, C

    1996-01-01

    Two case histories are presented. In the first, a 49 year-old man fell on his right hip. He was able to walk, but because of pain he came to our emergency room. Radiographics gave an impression of an undislocated intertrochanteric fracture, scintigraphy confirmed the suspicion. There were no signs of infection. On starting osteosynthesis with the drilling of a hole in the lateral cortex, discharge of pus was observed and curettage of the abscess cavity was performed. In the second, a 21 year-old man hit his right knee against a table. Because of pain he was admitted to hospital. Primary signs of a lesion of the lateral meniscus were found and arthroscopy was scheduled. When readmitted we found signs of an infection and X-ray revealed a Brodie's abscess in the proximal tibia. The abscess cavity was opened and curettage was performed. Radiographics, scintigraphics, blood parameters and pathological and microbiological investigations revealed primary chronic osteomyelitis in both patients. Antibiotic therapy was instituted and six weeks after primary operation bone transplantation was performed. The further course was uncomplicated.

  9. Development of superior bone scintigraphic agent from a series of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled zoledronic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jianguo [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063 (China); Qiu Ling, E-mail: qiulingwx@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063 (China); Cheng Wen [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063 (China); Luo Shineng, E-mail: shineng914@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063 (China); Xue Li; Zhang Shu [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Two novel zoledronic acid (ZL) derivatives, 1-hydroxy-4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (IBDP) and 1-hydroxy-5-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)pentane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (IPeDP), were prepared and labeled with the radionuclide technetium-99m in a high labeling yield. In vitro stabilities of these radiolabeled complexes were measured by the radio-HPLC analysis as a function of time, which showed excellent stability with the radiochemical purity of over 95% at 6 h post preparation. Their in vivo biological performances were evaluated and compared with those of {sup 99m}Tc-ZL and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP (methylenediphosphonic acid). The biodistribution in mice and scintigraphic images of the rabbit showed that the tracer agent {sup 99m}Tc-IPeDP had highly selective uptake in the skeletal system and rapid clearance from the blood and soft tissues and an excellent scintigraphic image can be obtained in a shorter time post injection with clear visualization of the skeleton and low soft tissue activity. These preclinical studies suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-IPeDP would be a novel superior bone scintigraphic agent. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel diphosphonic acids were labeled with the {sup 99m}Tc in high labeling yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 99m}Tc-IPeDP had high uptake in skeletal system and rapid clearance from blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 99m}Tc-IPeDP reveals attractive biological features as superior bone scanning agent.

  10. Design and gamma-scintigraphic evaluation of a floating and pulsatile drug delivery system based on an impermeable cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hao; Jiang, Xuetao; Kong, Lingshan; Gao, Shen

    2007-04-01

    A blend of floating and pulsatile principles of drug delivery system seems to present the advantage that a drug can be released in the upper GI tract after a definite time period of no drug release. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a floating and pulsatile drug delivery system based on an impermeable cylinder. Pulsatile capsule was prepared by sealing the drug tablet and the buoyant material filler inside the impermeable capsule body with erodible plug. The drug delivery system showed typical floating and pulsatile release profile with a lag time followed by a rapid release phase. The lag time prior to the pulsatile drug release correlated well with the erosion properties of plugs and the composition of the plug could be controlled by the weight of the plug. The buoyancy of the whole system depended on the bulk density of the dosage form. Gamma-scintigraphic evaluation in humans was used to establish methodology capable of showing the subsequent in vivo performance of the floating and pulsatile release capsule. Developed formulations showed instantaneous floating with no drug release during the lag time followed by a pulse drug release. From the gamma-scintigraphic results, the pulsatile release capsule we prepared could achieve a rapid release after lag time in vivo, which was longer than that in vitro. The scintigraphic evaluation could confirm qualitatively that the system with in vitro lag time of 4.0 h provided, with relatively high reproducibility, a pulsatile release occurred around 5.0 h after administration.

  11. Scintigraphic evaluation of osteoblastic activity in extraction sockets treated with platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüzer, Bahadir; Pikdöken, Levent; Tunali, Mustafa; Urhan, Muammer; Küçükodaci, Zafer; Ercan, Feriha

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the early bone healing process with bone scintigraphy based on technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in third molar extraction sockets. Fourteen patients with bilaterally soft tissue impacted third mandibular molars were included in the study. The right and left impacted third molars were surgically extracted in the same session. PRF was randomly administered into one of the extraction sockets, whereas the contralateral sockets were left without treatment. Four weeks after surgery, scintigrams were obtained to evaluate scintigraphic differences between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets. After completion of the clinical study, PRF samples were evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The average increase in technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake as an indication of enhanced bone healing did not differ significantly between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets 4 weeks postoperatively (P > .05). Abundant fibrin and inflammatory cells were observed by light microscopic examination of PRF samples. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of PRF revealed the existence of platelet aggregates in a fibrin network and crystalline particles on the outer surface of PRF. PRF might not lead to enhanced bone healing in soft tissue impacted mandibular third molar extraction sockets 4 weeks after surgery. PRF exhibits the potential characteristics of an autologous fibrin matrix. However, whether the presence of crystal-like particles on the outer surface of PRF alters bone healing should be investigated further. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modified PISAPED Criteria in Combination with Ventilation Scintigraphic Finding for Predicting Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Fettich, Jure; Küçük, Nurie Özlem; Kraft, Otakar; Mut, Fernando; Choudhury, Partha; Sharma, Surendra K; Endo, Keigo; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This prospective clinical study aimed at assessing three pulmonary scintigraphic algorithms to detect acute pulmonary embolism (PE): Lung ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy along with modified prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) criteria; lung perfusion scintigraphy along with prospective investigative study of acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PISAPED) criteria; and lung perfusion scan in combination with ventilation scan, along with modified PISAPED criteria, which were newly developed. Patients with suspicion of PE were eligible for this study if they had no abnormal chest x-ray. Their diagnostic workup included a clinical assessment, a pulmonary V/Q scintigraphy, and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), as well as a clinical outcome assessment over a period of 24 weeks. Referred to the final clinical diagnosis of patients, the sensitivity and specificity of each algorithm were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of each algorithm by the area under the maximum likelihood fitted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined. With respect to the PISAPED criteria, the sensitivity was 60.8% and specificity was 87.3%. No patient was classified into nondiagnostic category. The PIOPED criteria showed that the sensitivity was 95.0% and specificity was 88.2%, while 57.4% of the patients were in nondiagnostic category. The areas under the ROC curve constructed from the PISAPED criteria results and the modified PIOPED criteria results were 0.734 and 0.859 (P < 0.01), respectively. The modified PISAPED criteria demonstrated that the sensitivity was 83.8% and specificity was 89.1%. No patient was classified into nondiagnostic category. The area under the ROC curve constructed from modified PISAPED criteria was 0.864 (P < 0.01). Perfusion scans used with ventilation scans and modified PISAPED criteria may increase the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary scintigraphy for acute PE, compared with the two major algorithms.

  13. Leukocyte scintigraphy: correlation of serial scintigraphic findings and clinical progression of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Y.; Kelly, M.J.; Kaliff, V. [Alfred Hospital, Prahan, VIC (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-12-01

    Full text: This study was performed (a) to determine whether the clinical progress of individual patients with inflammatory bowel disease mirrored changes in leukocyte scans, and (b) to assess the reasons for significant discrepancies. Two nuclear medicine physicians reviewed 44 white cell scans in 20 consecutive patients (4 males, 18 females) who were referred for two or more leukocyte scans (using either the {sup 111}In Oxine or {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO labelling methods) by three gastroenterologists between 1 January 1992 and 1 June 1996. The sequential scanpairs (range 2-18 months apart) were classified by consensus reading as showing no change, more severe or less severe disease. Questionnaires were sent to the referring gastroenterologists to determine whether the overall clinical status of each patient was unchanged, better or worse in the interval between the two scans. There was complete agreement between clinical and scintigraphic assessment in 45% (10/22) of the study pairs. Review of responses of the three individual gastroenterologists showed a wide range of agreement (4/4, 4/5, 2/13). Review of data showed that most disagreement was based on subjective clinical assessment, and hence of uncertain significance. In two patients, however, potentially preventable false negative leukocyte scans occurred in patients with active proctitis. This may be overcome by rigorous attention to ensure complete emptying of radioactivity from the bladder when {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO is used. It was concluded that serial leukocyte scans add to clinical assessment but careful technique is needed to avoid false negative scans in the rectum

  14. Late onset reversible cortical blindness following electrocution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bhumir; Philip, Vivek J; Shankar, Udaya C

    2015-12-01

    An elderly gentleman presented with acute onset of bilateral visual blurring and generalized headache after 1 week post electrocution injury. Clinically, the symptoms were attributed to cortical lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain revealed bilaterally symmetrical diffusion restriction in parietal and occipital areas. Treatment with intravenous steroids resulted in remarkable improvement in symptoms. Neurological injury secondary to electrocution is a well described entity having a variety of clinical presentation. We put forward our experience with this unique case presenting as post electrocution delayed onset of visual symptoms. Discussion and review of literature related to this clinical entity will also be presented.

  15. 99m-Tc HMDP bone scintigraphic findings of gouty arthropathy of both hands. Extending soft tissue uptake adjacent to the joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Wei-Jen; Domstad, P.A.; Purcell, M.; DeLand, F.H.

    The /sup 99m/Tc hydroxy methylene diphosphonate scintigraphic findings of both hands are correlated to the radiographic findings in a patient with a 30-year history of gouty arthropathy. Scintigraphic differentiation of the type of arthritis on the basis of uptake pattern is difficult. However, the findings of rheumatoid arthritis are confined to the joints and usually the involvement is symmetrical. With gout there is a tendency toward asymmetrical, bilateral, multifocal joint involvement with areas of intense abnormal uptake; because of the associated soft tissue swelling, the intense uptake usually extends beyond the involved joints.

  16. Lateral entorhinal modulation of piriform cortical activity and fine odor discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Julie; Cohen, Yaniv; He, Xiaobin; Zhang, Zhijan; Jin, Sen; Xu, Fuqiang; Wilson, Donald A

    2013-08-14

    The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) receives direct input from olfactory bulb mitral cells and piriform cortical pyramidal cells and is the gateway for olfactory input to the hippocampus. However, the LEC also projects back to the piriform cortex and olfactory bulb. Activity in the LEC is shaped by input from the perirhinal cortices, hippocampus, and amygdala, and thus could provide a rich contextual modulation of cortical odor processing. The present study further explored LEC feedback to anterior piriform cortex by examining how LEC top-down input modulates anterior piriform cortex odor evoked activity in rats. Retrograde viral tracing confirmed rich LEC projections to both the olfactory bulb and piriform cortices. In anesthetized rats, reversible lesions of the ipsilateral LEC increased anterior piriform cortical single-unit spontaneous activity. In awake animals performing an odor discrimination task, unilateral LEC reversible lesions enhanced ipsilateral piriform cortical local field potential oscillations during odor sampling, with minimal impact on contralateral activity. Bilateral LEC reversible lesions impaired discrimination performance on a well learned, difficult odor discrimination task, but had no impact on a well learned simple odor discrimination task. The simple discrimination task was impaired by bilateral reversible lesions of the anterior piriform cortex. Given the known function of LEC in working memory and multisensory integration, these results suggest it may serve as a powerful top-down modulator of olfactory cortical function and odor perception. Furthermore, the results provide potential insight into how neuropathology in the entorhinal cortex could contribute to early olfactory deficits seen in Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Changes of medium-latency SEP-components following peripheral nerve lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straschill Max

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal studies have demonstrated complex cortical reorganization following peripheral nerve lesion. Central projection fields of intact nerves supplying skin areas which border denervated skin, extended into the deafferentiated cortical representation area. As a consequence of nerve lesions and subsequent reorganization an increase of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs was observed in cats when intact neighbouring nerves were stimulated. An increase of SEP-components of patients with nerve lesions may indicate a similar process of posttraumatic plastic cortical reorganization. Methods To test if a similar process of post-traumatic plastic cortical reorganization does occur in humans, the SEP of intact neighbouring hand nerves were recorded in 29 patients with hand nerve lesions. To hypothetically explain the observed changes of SEP-components, SEP recording following paired stimulation of the median nerve was performed in 12 healthy subjects. Results Surprisingly 16 of the 29 patients (55.2% showed a reduction or elimination of N35, P45 and N60. Patients with lesions of two nerves showed more SEP-changes than patients with a single nerve lesion (85.7%; 6/7 nerves; vs. 34.2%; 13/38 nerves; Fisher's exact test, p Conclusion The results of the present investigation do not provide evidence of collateral innervation of peripherally denervated cortical neurons by neurons of adjacent cortical representation areas. They rather suggest that secondary components of the excitatory response to nerve stimulation are lost in cortical areas, which surround the denervated region.

  18. Relationship between higher cortical dysfunction and the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, Etsuko; Maeshima, Shinichiro; Yamada, Yoichi; Yukawa, Susumu [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and organic lesions was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to clarify the etiology of higher cortical dysfunction in SLE. The subjects were 10 patients with SLE, and higher cortical dysfunction was observed in 8 (80%) of the 10 patients. Five (82.5%) of the 8 patients showed abnormal MRI findings. The findings of higher cortical dysfunction were consistent with the MRI findings in 1 of the 5 patients, but not in the remaining four. MRI revealed no lesion despite the presence of higher cortical dysfunction in three patients. These results suggest that the association of organic changes and functional changes in cerebral nerve cells is important for etiology of higher cortical dysfunction in SLE. (author).

  19. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  20. Cortical Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey-matter abnormalities at the cortical surface and regional brain size were mapped by high-resolution MRI and surface-based, computational image analytical techniques in a group of 27 children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and 46 controls, matched by age and sex, at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  1. Heterotopias, cortical dysplasias and glioneural tumors participate in cognitive processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschstein, T.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Grunwald, T.; Pezer, N.; Urbach, H.; Blumcke, I.; Roost, D. van; Lehnertz, K.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Focal brain lesions such as cortical dysplasia and glioneural tumors generate epileptic activity and thus may be synaptically connected with normal cortex. To test this hypothesis, we compared event-related potentials recorded directly from the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and a dysplastic lesion in e

  2. Cegueira cortical: relato de dois casos clínicos Cortical blindness: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Lima e Silva

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar dois casos de cegueira cortical atendidos no serviço de urgência da Clínica de Olhos da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. A cegueira cortical é uma condição clínica rara e bilateral, de causa isquêmica, caracterizada por lesão no córtex cerebral. Nos presentes casos, o diagnóstico foi feito pela sintomatologia clínica, pelos achados oftalmológicos e pelas alterações obtidas por imagem. Em ambos houve evolução rápida da doença, com perda visual súbita importante. O acompanhamento oftalmológico não revelou melhora significativa da acuidade visual final. A baixa acuidade visual é um sinal importante em oftalmologia e deve ser avaliada com cautela e atenção, visto que pode ser causada pela cegueira cortical, condição rara, grave e ainda pouco estudada no nosso meio.The aim of this work is to report two cases of cortical blindness, evaluated at an ophthalmologic service (Clínica de Olhos da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. Cortical blindness is a rare, usually ischemic, bilateral retrogeniculate lesion. The two diagnoses were based on patient complaints, ophthalmologic data and image signs. Both patients suddenly lost their visual function. None presented a significant improvement in their final vision acuity during the evolution. Subnormal visual acuity is an important ophthalmologic sign that must be seen with concern and attention since it may be caused by cortical blindness, a rare and serious condition not yet well studied in our Country.

  3. Muscle synergy patterns as physiological markers of motor cortical damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent C K; Turolla, Andrea; Agostini, Michela; Silvoni, Stefano; Bennis, Caoimhe; Kasi, Patrick; Paganoni, Sabrina; Bonato, Paolo; Bizzi, Emilio

    2012-09-04

    The experimental findings herein reported are aimed at gaining a perspective on the complex neural events that follow lesions of the motor cortical areas. Cortical damage, whether by trauma or stroke, interferes with the flow of descending signals to the modular interneuronal structures of the spinal cord. These spinal modules subserve normal motor behaviors by activating groups of muscles as individual units (muscle synergies). Damage to the motor cortical areas disrupts the orchestration of the modules, resulting in abnormal movements. To gain insights into this complex process, we recorded myoelectric signals from multiple upper-limb muscles in subjects with cortical lesions. We used a factorization algorithm to identify the muscle synergies. Our factorization analysis revealed, in a quantitative way, three distinct patterns of muscle coordination-including preservation, merging, and fractionation of muscle synergies-that reflect the multiple neural responses that occur after cortical damage. These patterns varied as a function of both the severity of functional impairment and the temporal distance from stroke onset. We think these muscle-synergy patterns can be used as physiological markers of the status of any patient with stroke or trauma, thereby guiding the development of different rehabilitation approaches, as well as future physiological experiments for a further understanding of postinjury mechanisms of motor control and recovery.

  4. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cortical Multiple Sclerosis Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L. Tardif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although significant improvements have been made regarding the visualization and characterization of cortical multiple sclerosis (MS lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cortical lesions (CL continue to be under-detected in vivo, and we have a limited understanding of the causes of GM pathology. The objective of this study was to characterize the MRI signature of CLs to help interpret the changes seen in vivo and elucidate the factors limiting their visualization. A quantitative 3D high-resolution (350 μm isotropic MRI study at 3 Tesla of a fixed post mortem cerebral hemisphere from a patient with MS is presented in combination with matched immunohistochemistry. Type III subpial lesions are characterized by an increase in T1, T2 and M0, and a decrease in MTR in comparison to the normal appearing cortex (NAC. All quantitative MR parameters were associated with cortical GM myelin content, while T1 showed the strongest correlation. The histogram analysis showed extensive overlap between CL and NAC for all MR parameters and myelin content. This is due to the poor contrast in myelin content between CL and NAC in comparison to the variability in myelo-architecture throughout the healthy cortex. This latter comparison is highlighted by the representation of T1 times on cortical surfaces at several laminar depths.

  5. Reconfiguration of Intrinsic Functional Coupling Patterns Following Circumscribed Network Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaief, Mark C; McMains, Stephanie; Hutchison, R Matthew; Halko, Mark A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-05-25

    Communication between cortical regions is necessary for optimal cognitive processing. Functional relationships between cortical regions can be inferred through measurements of temporal synchrony in spontaneous activity patterns. These relationships can be further elaborated by surveying effects of cortical lesions upon inter-regional connectivity. Lesions to cortical hubs and heteromodal association regions are expected to induce distributed connectivity changes and higher-order cognitive deficits, yet their functional consequences remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used resting-state fMRI to investigate intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) and graph theoretical metrics in 12 patients with circumscribed lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) portion of the Default Network (DN), and compared these metrics with those observed in healthy matched comparison participants and a sample of 1139 healthy individuals. Despite significant mPFC destruction, patients did not demonstrate weakened intrinsic FC among undamaged DN nodes. Instead, network-specific changes were manifested as weaker negative correlations between the DN and attentional and somatomotor networks. These findings conflict with the DN being a homogenous system functionally anchored at mPFC. Rather, they implicate a role for mPFC in mediating cross-network functional interactions. More broadly, our data suggest that lesions to association cortical hubs might induce clinical deficits by disrupting communication between interacting large-scale systems.

  6. Performance characteristics of scintigraphic colon transit measurement in health and irritable bowel syndrome and relationship to bowel functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiteren, A; Camilleri, M; Bharucha, A E; Burton, D; McKinzie, S; Rao, A S; Zinsmeister, A R

    2010-04-01

    The inter- and intra-subject variations of scintigraphy, which are used to identify colonic transit disturbances in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are unclear. The relationship between colonic transit and bowel functions is incompletely understood. To assess inter- and intra-subject variations of scintigraphic colonic transit measurements in 86 IBS patients and 17 healthy subjects and to quantify the relationship between colonic transit and bowel symptoms in 147 IBS patients and 46 healthy subjects. Data from participants with multiple colonic transit measurements were analysed. Primary end points were colonic filling at 6 h (CF6h) and geometric center (GC) at 24 and 48 h for colonic transit. Bowel functions were assessed by daily stool diaries. Inter- and intra-subject variations were greater for small intestinal than colonic transit. Overall, inter- and intra-subject variations were relatively narrow for colonic transit (both GC24h and GC48h, with lower COV at 48 h); there was little intra-subject variation in health and IBS-constipation over a period of Colonic transit was significantly associated with stool form (accounting for 19-27% of the variance), frequency (19%), and ease of stool passage (12%). Despite inter-subject variation in scintigraphic colonic transit results, the intra-subject measurements are reproducible over time in healthy volunteers and patients with IBS; significant changes in colonic transit at 24 h were observed only in IBS-D. Colonic transit is associated with stool form, frequency and ease of passage.

  7. Scintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise and prediction of cardiovascular events: One stone to kill two birds?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellier, Philippe [Centre de Medecine Nucleaire de l' Artois, Clinique Sainte Catherine, 62 223 Sainte Catherine Les Arras (France)]. E-mail: phtellier2@wanadoo.fr; Lecouffe, Pascal [Centre de Medecine Nucleaire de l' Artois, Clinique Sainte Catherine, 62 223 Sainte Catherine Les Arras (France); Zureik, Mahmoud [National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Unit 508, Institut Pasteur de Lille (France)

    2007-02-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is commonly associated with a high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as a marker of plurifocal atherosclerosis. Whether exercise thallium perfusion muscular asymmetry in the legs associated with PAD has prognostic value is unknown. Such a hypothesis was evaluated in a prospective study which remains the gold standard in clinical research. Methods and results: Scintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise (SCPSE) was measured at the end of a maximal or symptom-limited treadmill exercise test in 358 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). During the follow-up period (mean 85.3{+-}32.8 months), 93 cardiovascular events and deaths (incident cases) occurred. Among those incident cases, the percentage of subjects with higher SCPSE values (third tertile) was 45.2%, versus 29.1% in controls (lower tertiles) (p=0.005). In stepwise multivariate analysis performed with the Cox proportional hazards model, previous CAD and SCPSE were the only significant independent predictors of prognosis. The multivariate relative risk of cardiovascular death or event in subjects with higher values of SCPSE was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.15-3.21; p<0.01). Conclusions: Scintigraphic calf perfusion asymmetry after exercise was independently associated with incident cardiovascular events in high-risk subjects. This index, which is easily and quickly calculated, could be used for evaluation of cardiovascular risk.

  8. Age at developmental cortical injury differentially Alters corpus callosum volume in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Glenn D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing lesions to developing rat cortex induced between postnatal day (P one and three (P1 – 3 lead to malformations similar to human microgyria, and further correspond to reductions in brain weight and cortical volume. In contrast, comparable lesions on P5 do not produce microgyric malformations, nor the changes in brain weight seen with microgyria. However, injury occurring at all three ages does lead to rapid auditory processing deficits as measured in the juvenile period. Interestingly, these deficits persist into adulthood only in the P1 lesion case 1. Given prior evidence that early focal cortical lesions induce abnormalities in cortical morphology and connectivity 1234, we hypothesized that the differential behavioral effects of focal cortical lesions on P1, P3 or P5 may be associated with underlying neuroanatomical changes that are sensitive to timing of injury. Clinical studies indicate that humans with perinatal brain injury often show regional reductions in corpus callosum size and abnormal symmetry, which frequently correspond to learning impairments 567. Therefore, in the current study the brains of P1, 3 or 5 lesion rats, previously evaluated for brain weight, and cortical volume changes and auditory processing impairments (P21-90, were further analyzed for changes in corpus callosum volume. Results Results showed a significant main effect of Treatment on corpus callosum volume [F (1,57 = 10.2, P Conclusion Decrements in corpus callosum volume in the P1 and 3 lesion groups are consistent with the reductions in brain weight and cortical volume previously reported for microgyric rats 18. Current results suggest that disruption to the cortical plate during early postnatal development may lead to more widely dispersed neurovolumetric anomalies and subsequent behavioral impairments 1, compared with injury that occurs later in development. Further, these results suggest that in a human clinical setting decreased

  9. Transient cortical blindness after coronary artery angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlecki, Michał; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Rajzer, Marek; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Bryniarski, Leszek; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease and therefore the prevalence of percutaneous coronary procedures such as angiography and angioplasty is high. The occurrence of cerebral complications after coronary angiography and coronary angioplasty is low and it mainly includes transient ischemic attack and stroke. The prevalence of transient cortical blindness after X-ray contrast media is low and it is usually seen after cerebral angiography. Until now only a few cases of transient cortical blindness have been described after coronary artery angiography. Regarding the spread of coronary angiography worldwide and in Poland this complication is uniquely rare. A 32-year-old man with multiple extrasystolic ventricular arrhythmia suggesting Brugada syndrome diagnosis according to morphology of the left bundle branch block and with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction was admitted to the First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Medical College of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Coronary angiography was performed in order to exclude ischemic etiology of the observed abnormalities. No arteriosclerotic lesions were found in coronary arteries. Transient cortical blindness was observed directly after angiography which may have been caused by the neurotoxic effect of the used X-ray contrast medium. In ophthalmologic and neurologic examination as well as in the cerebral computed tomography scan no pathologies were found. Visual impairment disappeared totally within several hours.

  10. Radiological and scintigraphic findings in patients with a clinical history of chronic inflammatory back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goei The, H S; Lemmens, A J; Goedhard, G; Lokkerbol, H; Rahmy, A; Steven, M M; van der Linden, S M; Cats, A

    1985-01-01

    The prevalence of radiological abnormalities of the sacroiliac joints, the manubriosternal joint, and the lumbar spine were assessed, and quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy was performed in 151 patients with a history of chronic inflammatory back pain and in 31 controls with non-inflammatory back pain. Sacroiliitis was found in 124 patients (82%), manubriosternal lesions in 84 patients (56%), and lesions of the lumbar spine in 58 patients (38%). In 19 patients (13%), manubriosternal lesions provided the sole radiological abnormality and in five patients (3%) no radiological abnormality could be demonstrated at any of these sites. Quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy showed increased values in 69 of 137 patients examined (50%), but also in 10 out of 12 control patients with disc degeneration (83%) and is, therefore, nonspecific for inflammatory lesions. Radiological examination of the manubriosternal joint is recommended in patients with inflammatory back pain without radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis.

  11. Radiological and scintigraphic findings in patients with a clinical history of chronic inflammatory back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goei The, H.S.; Lemmens, A.J.; Goedhard, G.; Lokkerbol, H.; Rahmy, A.; Linden, S.M. van der; Cats, A.; Steven, M.M.

    1985-10-01

    The prevalence of radiological abnormalities of the sacroiliac joints, the manubriosternal joint, and the lumbar spine were assessed, and quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy was performed in 151 patients with a history of chronic inflammatory back pain and in 31 controls with non-inflammatory back pain. Sacroiliitis was found in 124 patients (82%), manubriosternal lesions in 84 patients (56%), and lesions of the lumbar spine in 58 patients (38%). In 19 patients (13%), manubriosternal lesions provided the sole radiological abnormality and in five patients (3%) no radiological abnormality could be demonstrated at any of these sites. Quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy showed increased values in 69 of 137 patients examined (50%), but also in 10 out of 12 control patients with disc degeneration (83%) and is, therefore, nonspecific for inflammatory lesions. Radiological examination of the manubriosternal joint is recommended in patients with inflammatory back pain without radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis. (orig.).

  12. In vivo comparative study of hydroxyapatite labeled with different radioisotopes: evaluation of the scintigraphic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Renata Martinussi; Barboza, Marycel Figols de; Souza, Adriano Aparecido de; Muramoto, Emiko; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de, E-mail: rmcouto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2008-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of joints that is characterized by the inflammation and proliferation of synovial tissues. Approximately 3% of the adult population in the world is affected by this disease which causes pain, joint immobility and disability. Adyo synovectomy (RSV) is a radiotherapeutic modality where a b--emitting radionuclide is administered locally by intra-articular injection on the form of a colloid or radiolabeled particulate. RSV is a well-accepted therapeutic procedure in inflammatory joint diseases and has been successfully employed for more than 50 years as a viable alternative to surgical and chemical synovectomy in the treatment of RA and other inflammatory arthropathies. There are several radionuclides available for this purpose such as {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 165}Dy, and {sup 166}Ho. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the preferred particulates for this application because it is the major chemical constituent of skeletal bone and it is converted into Ca and PO4 ions in the body. In addition HA is completely eliminated over a period of six weeks. The aim of this work is to compare the in vivo stability of hydroxyapatite labeled with {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y and {sup 153}Sm in order to determine the influence of the radionuclide on biological pattern. In biological studies, 100mL of labeled HAs suspended in normal saline were injected into normal knee joints of Wistar rats and the retention of the activity into the synovium was determined. Labeled particles were also injected by intravenous and intramuscular administration, to verify the biodistribution in the case of an eventual leakage of the products from the joint. Sequential scintigraphic images were acquired from 1 hour to 7 days p.i. after anesthetizing the animals with ketamine. Hydroxyapatite was radiolabeled by all radionuclides with high yield. {sup 177}Lu-HA, {sup 90}Y-HA and {sup 153}Sm-HA were retained in the joint for 7 days, showing

  13. Cortical changes in cerebral small vessel diseases: a 3D MRI study of cortical morphology in CADASIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H. [CHU Lariboisiere, AP HP, INSERM, UMR 740, Dept Neurol, Lariboisiere (France); Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H. [Univ Paris 07, F-75221 Paris 05 (France); Porcher, R. [Hop St Louis, AP-HP, Dept Biostat, St Louis (France); Viswanathan, A. [Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Viswanathan, A. [Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Clin Trials Unit, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Viswanathan, A. [Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA (United States); O' Sullivan, M.; Dichgans, M. [Univ Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Dept Neurol, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Guichard, J.P. [CHU Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Dept Neuroradiol, Lariboisiere (France)

    2008-07-01

    Brain atrophy represents a key marker of disease progression in cerebrovascular disorders. The 3D changes of cortex morphology occurring during the course of small vessel diseases of the brain (SVDB) remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the changes affecting depth and surface area of cortical sulci and their clinical and radiological correlates in a cohort of patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriolopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic SVDB. Data were obtained from a series of 69 CADASIL patients. Validated methods were used to determine depth and surface area of four cortical sulci. The ratio of brain to intracranial cavity volumes (brain parenchymal fraction-BPF), volume of lacunar lesions (LL) and of white matter hyper-intensities, number of cerebral micro-haemorrhages, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient were also measured. Association between depth and surface area of the cortical sulci and BPF, clinical status and subcortical MRI lesions were tested. Depth and surface area of cortical sulci obtained in 54 patients were strongly correlated with both cognitive score and disability scales. Depth was related to the extent of subcortical lesions, surface area was related only to age. In additional analyses, the depth of the cingular sulcus was independently associated with the volume of LL (P 0.001), and that of the superior frontal sulcus with the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (P 0.003). In CADASIL, important morphological changes of cortical sulci occur in association with clinical worsening,extension of subcortical tissue damage and progression of global cerebral atrophy. These results suggest that the examination of cortical morphology may be of high clinical relevance in SVDB. (authors)

  14. Scintigraphic bone scans in patients after total hip replacement; Badanie scyntygraficzne koscca w ocenie aseptycznego i septycznego obluzowania endoprotez stawu biodrowego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohatyrewicz, A.; Birkenfeld, B.; Mazurkiewicz, H.; Tustanowski, S. [Pomorska Akademia Medyczna, Szczecin (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    The results of clinical examination, three-phase bone scintigraphy and intraoperative findings were compared in 29 patients. Scintigraphic criteria of infection or aseptic loosening have been presented. The method proved to be highly useful with sensitivity and accuracy being 100, 73 and 90% respectively. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. Position paper nuclear cardiology: Update 2008. State-of-the-art of scintigraphic methods; Positionspapier Nuklearkardiologie: Update 2008. Aktueller Stand der szintigraphischen Methodik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefers, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bengel, F. [Johns Hopkins Univ. Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine; Buell, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (DE). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear cardiology is well established in clinical diagnostic algorithms for many years. This is an update 2008 of the first common position paper of the German Association of Nuclear Medicine and the German Association of Cardiology, Heart and Circulation Research published in 2001 aiming at an overview of state-of-the-art scintigraphic methods.

  16. Which are risk factors developing renal cortical defects on {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in children with acute urinary tract infections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seong Won; Lim, Gye Yeon; Jang, Hae Suk; Lee, Eun Ja; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Hahn, Sung Tae [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    To determine (1) the relationship between the cortical defects seen on {sup 99}''mTc-DMSA renal scans and age, and (2) the presence and degree of vesicoureteral reflux, and then to depict the risk factors for cortical defects in children with acute urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, to assess the diagnostic value of VCUG in predicting a defect on {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scans. We studied 134 kidneys in 67 children aged 15 days-10 years (M:F =3D 39:28) in whom symptomatic UTI was present. In all these children, both DMSA renal scans and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) were performed. Scanning took place within 7 days of diagnosis and VCUG was performed after one month of diagnosis. Scintigraphic findings were graded according to the extent and number of cortical defects. We evaluated the relationships between the cortical defects seen on DMSA scans and age, and the grade of vesicoureteral reflux. The diagnostic value of VCUG in predicting cortical defects was analysed. The prevalence of cortical defects was greater in patients older than two years (38/54, 70%) than in those aged less than two (38/80, 48%). The frequency of cortical defects was related to vesicoureteral reflux (p less than 0.05) and grade of reflux (p less than 0.05). As this latter increased, the extent of cortical defects also increased (p less than 0.05), and DMSA scans revealed the presence of these in 76 of the 134 kidneys (57%) with acute UTI. In 30 of these 76 (39.5%), VCUG demonstrated the presence of vesicoureteral reflex. On the other hand, vesicoureteral reflex was found in 36 of the 134 kidneys (27%), and in 30 of these 36 (83%), cortical defects were noted. The sensitivity of VCUG in predicting cortical defect was 39.5%, while specificity was 89.7%. The positive predictive value for defects was 83.3%, and the negative predictive value was 53.1%. The relative risk of cortical defect in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux was 1.78. Renal cortical defects are

  17. Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.

  18. [Posterior cortical atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia

    2015-06-02

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition. The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group. Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful. Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives.

  19. Comparison of DMSA Scan 99 m and EC Scan 99 m in Diagnosis of Cortical Defect and Differential Renal Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Fallah, M.; Alizadeh, M.; Lavin, T. Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis of renal cortical lesions by radioisotopes in nuclear medicine is one of the most common techniques and procedures can be performed by different radiotracer. However, all these materials are accurate in determining kidney function, but there are differences between them in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of EC scans compared with DMSA scan in the detection of cortical lesions and DRF. Methods: 65 cases, which have been referred fo...

  20. SPECT-CT evaluation of lesions classified as indeterminate on bone scintigraphy in cancer patients; Evaluation par la TEMP-TDM des lesions classees indeterminees en scintigraphie osseuse chez les patients de cancerologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, P.; Mourad, M. [Center Hospitalier Antoine-Gayraud, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 11 - Carcassonne (France)

    2008-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in cancer patients and to evaluate its ability to correctly classify indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (P.B.S.). Methods From November 2006 to August 2007, all patients with confirmed malignancy, whose P.B.S. showed indeterminate lesions, underwent without delay a SPECT/CT. The study included 120 patients (67 men, 53 women), with a mean age of 69 {+-}12 years (range 42-96 years). The patients with obvious metastases, important pains or who did not accept the examination were excluded from the study. The location of the lesions was described either as precise, probable or indeterminate. The lesions were classified either as definitely malignant, definitely benign or indeterminate. Results Breast, prostate, lung and kidney neoplasms represented approximately 80% of all cancers. The P.B.S. highlighted 267 lesions of location either as precise (n = 29), probable (n 129) or indeterminate (n = 109), classified either as definitely malignant (n = 28), definitely benign (n = 27) or indeterminate (n = 212). The SPECT/CT revealed 440 lesions, of location either as precise (n 353), likely (n = 39) or indeterminate (n = 48), classified either as definitely malignant (n 84), definitely benign (n = 305) or indeterminate (n = 51). Thoracic and lumbar spine and pelvis were the locations of 79% of the scintigraphic lesions and of 88% of the osseous metastases. SPECT/CT modified the final report of 80 patients, by excluding from metastases (n 2), by showing metastases (n = 23) and by showing the benign character of indeterminate lesions (n = 55). Moreover, 69 patients out of 120 (> 57%) had an evolution confirmed with 35 true positives, 31 true negatives, one false negative and two patients with indeterminate lesions on SPECT/CT, without osseous metastasis. Conclusion The assessment of the indeterminate scintigraphic

  1. Development and maturation of embryonic cortical neurons grafted into the damaged adult motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrine Ballout

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury to the human central nervous system can lead to devastating consequences due to its poor ability to self-repair. Neural transplantation aimed at replacing lost neurons and restore functional circuitry has proven to be a promising therapeutical avenue. We previously reported in adult rodent animal models with cortical lesions that grafted fetal cortical neurons could effectively re-establish specific patterns of projections and synapses. The current study was designed to provide a detailed characterization of the spatio-temporal in vivo development of fetal cortical transplanted cells within the lesioned adult motor cortex and their corresponding axonal projections. We show here that as early as two weeks after grafting, cortical neuroblasts transplanted into damaged adult motor cortex developed appropriate projections to cortical and subcortical targets. Grafted cells initially exhibited characteristics of immature neurons, which then differentiated into mature neurons with appropriate cortical phenotypes where most were glutamatergic and few were GABAergic. All cortical subtypes identified with the specific markers CTIP2, Cux1, FOXP2 and Tbr1 were generated after grafting as evidenced with BrdU co-labeling.The set of data provided here is of interest as it sets biological standards for future studies aimed at replacing fetal cells with embryonic stem cells as a source of cortical neurons.

  2. Cortical Lesions as Determinants of White Matter Lesion Formation and Cognitive Abnormalities in MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Mayo Clinic; Rochester, MN 55905 REPORT DATE: May 2014 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Report PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick...scans on our 32-channel Siemens Skyra 3 Tesla system and concluded that the Siemens architecture offers higher signal-to-noise ratio, which is a key

  3. Electrocorticography and seizure outcomes in children with lesional epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Jennifer N; Battison, Andrew W; Smith, Sherry; Connolly, Mary B; Steinbok, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The use of electrocorticographically (ECoG)-guided cortical resection in children with lesional epilepsy is controversial. Given the important developmental issues associated with recurrent childhood seizures, sustained seizure control is a key therapeutic goal. We therefore evaluated the effect of the decision to perform lesionectomy or ECoG-guided cortical resection on seizure outcome and surgical morbidity in the pediatric population. We retrospectively analyzed seizure outcomes in 67 patients between the ages of 3 months and 16 years who underwent surgery for lesional epilepsy at British Columbia Children's Hospital. Thirty-four patients underwent ECoG, and 33 patients had lesionectomy without ECoG. One year post-operatively, 80% of patients who had ECoG-guided cortical resection or lesionectomy were seizure free. However, there was a trend toward improved seizure freedom in patients who had ECoG at most recent follow-up (79% patients with ECoG seizure free, vs. 61% with lesionectomy only; mean follow-up time 5.8 year, P=0.078). There was no increase in neurological morbidity in patients who had ECoG-guided cortical resection, and these patients were less likely to experience repeat epilepsy surgery. Overall, using ECoG to guide additional cortical resection may lead to more robust seizure freedom in children with lesional epilepsy without increasing their risk of surgical morbidity. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  4. Towards in vivo focal cortical dysplasia phenotyping using quantitative MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sophie; Lorio, Sara; Jacques, Thomas S; Benova, Barbora; Gunny, Roxana; Cross, J Helen; Baldeweg, Torsten; Carmichael, David W

    2017-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a range of malformations of cortical development each with specific histopathological features. Conventional radiological assessment of standard structural MRI is useful for the localization of lesions but is unable to accurately predict the histopathological features. Quantitative MRI offers the possibility to probe tissue biophysical properties in vivo and may bridge the gap between radiological assessment and ex-vivo histology. This review will cover histological, genetic and radiological features of FCD following the ILAE classification and will explain how quantitative voxel- and surface-based techniques can characterise these features. We will provide an overview of the quantitative MRI measures available, their link with biophysical properties and finally the potential application of quantitative MRI to the problem of FCD subtyping. Future research linking quantitative MRI to FCD histological properties should improve clinical protocols, allow better characterisation of lesions in vivo and tailored surgical planning to the individual.

  5. Clinical, radiographic and scintigraphic aspects of the trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis; Caracterizacao clinica, radiografica e cintilografica da osteoartrose trapeziometacarpiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaziyama, Helena Hideko Seguchi

    1996-12-31

    Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis occurs mainly in women during the menopausal period. It is related to manual activities and is usually bilateral. The onset is insidious and the evolution is slow and progressive. It is characterized by of strength and pain in the basis of the thumb resulting in limitation of the use and function of the hand. The diagnosis of this condition is based on the physical examination. The manouver of compression axial-rotation of the trapezimetacarpal joint is a common positive finding. Typical findings of osteoarthritis are present in the radiological studies. Scintigraphic images have a predictive value. The early diagnosis is important to avoid the risk factors and to prevent disabilities of the hand. (author) 102 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Scintigraphic Demonstration of Urine Extravasation Secondary to Acute Ureteral Obstruction: A Case Report and Some Considerations about Acute Ureteral Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico M. Sarmiento

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ureteral obstruction produces renal damage and complications that are proportional to the severity and length of the obstruction. Anatomic diagnosis of the obstruction may be insufficient to manage the patient. Intravenous urogram (IVU is the method usually advised by radiologists to obtain functional information, but requires iodinated contrast agents. IVU anatomic information is superior to anatomic information obtained with renal scintigraphy, but normally the physician already has the anatomic information (unenhanced CT or ultrasound. A renal scan offers better physiologic information than the IVU, has neither adverse effects nor complications, is accurate to confirm or discard significant ureteral obstruction, and depicts obstruction complications. This paper presents a patient with spontaneous urine extravasation secondary to acute renal obstruction who is diagnosed with renal scintigraphy. The authors describe the scintigraphic signs of extraperitoneal, diffuse perinephric, urine extravasation and emphasize the role of renal scintigraphy in diagnosis and follow-up of renal colic.

  7. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting with cerebellar ataxia and cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Samia; Mizouni, Habiba; Nabli, Fatma; Kallel, Lamia; Kefi, Mounir; Hentati, Fayçal

    2010-01-01

    Venous infarction in the cerebellum has been reported only rarely, probably because of the abundant venous collateral drainage in this region. Bilateral occipital infarction is a rare cause of visual loss in cerebral venous thrombosis. We describe a 50-year-old woman with a history of ulcerative colitis who developed acute cerebellar ataxia and cortical blindness. She had bilateral cerebellar and occipital lesions related to sigmoid venous thrombosis and achieved complete recovery with anticoagulation therapy. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be considered in cases of simultaneous cerebellar and occipital vascular lesions.

  8. Faciolingual Hemiparesis with Mild Limb Weakness of Cortical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisanchez-Nieva, Aintzine; Bocos-Portillo, Jone; Vazquez-Picon, Rakel; Tamayo, David Anguizola; Pardina-Vilella, Lara; Gomez-Beldarrain, Marian; Garcia-Monco, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The clinical combination of unilateral facial and hypoglossal palsy with upper limb weakness is known as the capsular genu syndrome and responds most often to an ischemic infarct in the internal capsule. We here describe a patient with this peculiar combination, in whom the responsible lesion was located in the contralateral prefrontal cortex, involving the corresponding areas of the Penfield's homunculus. Contralateral cortical frontal lesions should be considered in patients with facial and hypoglossal palsy with upper limb weakness. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Non invasive scintigraphic method for biodistribution study of radiopharmaceuticals; Metodo cintilografico nao invasivo para estudo de biodistribuicao de radiofarmacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Erika V.; Silva, Natanael G.; Freire, Antonio C.; Monteiro, Elisiane de G.; Benedetti, Stella; Muramoto, Emiko; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: erikavieira@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisa

    2011-07-01

    Biodistribution studies can be done by invasive or noninvasive methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of retained dose (RD) in the organs of interest in noninvasive and invasive study of biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid), {sup 99m}Tc-MAA (macro aggregated human serum albumin) and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) and to compare with the invasive method described in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). Lyophilized reagents (DMSA, MAA and MDP) and sodium pertechnetate was obtained from IPEN-CNEN/SP. The radioactive concentration was 123 MBq mL{sup -1} ({sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA) and 617 MBq mL{sup -1} ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP). {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP were injected via the tail vein and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA in the penile vein of rats. The scintigraphic images were obtained in a Nucline TH/22 Mediso gamma camera. The animals were sacrificed after the acquisition of images. The organs were removed and the activity of each organ of interest was measured in an ionization chamber. The renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA by noninvasive method was (47,02 +- 2,87)% up to (49,37 +- 3,41)%. By the invasive method it was observed RD (49.27 +- 1.88)%. The %RD of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA in the lungs by non-invasive method varied from (94,22 +- 0,17)% to (94,67 +- 0,25)%. Bone scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP showed significant uptake in the skeleton. The method proposed for noninvasive scintigraphic study biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals was feasible, with results comparable to those obtained by invasive method described in USP. (author)

  10. Non invasive scintigraphic method for biodistribution study of radiopharmaceuticals; Metodo cintilografico nao invasivo para estudo de biodistribuicao de radiofarmacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Erika V.; Silva, Natanael G.; Freire, Antonio C.; Monteiro, Elisiane de G.; Benedetti, Stella; Muramoto, Emiko; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: erikavieira@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisa

    2010-07-01

    Biodistribution studies can be done by invasive or noninvasive methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of retained dose (RD) in the organs of interest in noninvasive and invasive study of biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid), {sup 99m}Tc-MAA (macro aggregated human serum albumin) and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) and to compare with the invasive method described in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). Lyophilized reagents (DMSA, MAA and MDP) and sodium pertechnetate was obtained from IPEN-CNEN/SP. The radioactive concentration was 123 MBq mL{sup -1} ({sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA) and 617 MBq mL{sup -1} ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP). {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP were injected via the tail vein and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA in the penile vein of rats. The scintigraphic images were obtained in a Nucline TH/22 Mediso gamma camera. The animals were sacrificed after the acquisition of images. The organs were removed and the activity of each organ of interest was measured in an ionization chamber. The renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA by noninvasive method was (47,02 {+-} b 2,87)% up to (49,37 {+-} b 3,41)%. By the invasive method it was observed RD (49.27 {+-} b 1.88)%. The %RD of {sup 99}mTc-MAA in the lungs by non-invasive method varied from (94,22 {+-} b 0,17)% to (94,67 {+-} b 0,25)%. Bone scintigraphy with {sup 99}mTc-MDP showed significant uptake in the skeleton. The method proposed for noninvasive scintigraphic study biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals was feasible, with results comparable to those obtained by invasive method described in USP. (author)

  11. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  12. 7 tesla T2*-weighted MRI as a tool to improve detection of focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veersema, Tim J; van Eijsden, Pieter; Gosselaar, Peter H; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Spliet, Wim G M; Aronica, Eleonora; Braun, Kees P J; Ferrier, Cyrille H

    2016-09-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common underlying pathologies in patients who undergo surgery for refractory epilepsy. Absence of a MRI-visible lesion necessitates additional diagnostic tests and is a predictor of poor surgical outcome. We describe a series of six patients with refractory epilepsy due to histopathologically-confirmed focal cortical dysplasia, for whom pre-surgical 7 tesla T2*-weighted MRI was acquired. In four of six patients, T2* sequences showed areas of marked superficial hypointensity, co-localizing with the epileptogenic lesion. 7 tesla T2* hypointensities overlying focal cortical dysplasia may represent leptomeningeal venous vascular abnormalities associated with the underlying dysplastic cortex. Adding T2* sequences to the MRI protocol may aid in the detection of focal cortical dysplasias.

  13. Severity of post-stroke aphasia according to aphasia type and lesion location in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Sohn, Hae Min; Han, Moon-Ku; Kim, Won; Han, Tai Ryoon; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relations between post-stroke aphasia severity and aphasia type and lesion location, a retrospective review was undertaken using the medical records of 97 Korean patients, treated within 90 days of onset, for aphasia caused by unilateral left hemispheric stroke. Types of aphasia were classified according to the validated Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB), and severities of aphasia were quantified using WAB Aphasia Quotients (AQ). Lesion locations were classified as cortical or subcortical, and were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using AQ values to classify aphasia severity by aphasia type and lesion location. Cluster analysis resulted in four severity clusters: 1) mild; anomic type, 2) moderate; Wernicke's, transcortical motor, transcortical sensory, conduction, and mixed transcortical types, 3) moderately severe; Broca's aphasia, and 4) severe; global aphasia, and also in three lesion location clusters: 1) mild; subcortical 2) moderate; cortical lesions involving Broca's and/or Wernicke's areas, and 3) severe; insular and cortical lesions not in Broca's or Wernicke's areas. These results revealed that within 3 months of stroke, global aphasia was the more severely affected type and cortical lesions were more likely to affect language function than subcortical lesions.

  14. Evaluating mandibular cortical index quantitatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Fusun; Akgunlu, Faruk

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to assess whether Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity analysis can discriminate patients having different mandibular cortical shape. Panoramic radiographs of 52 patients were evaluated for mandibular cortical index. Weighted Kappa between the observations were varying between 0.718-0.805. These radiographs were scanned and converted to binary images. Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity were calculated from the regions where best represents the cortical morphology. It was found that there were statistically significant difference between the Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 1 and Cl 2 (Fractal Dimension P:0.000; Lacunarity P:0.003); and Cl 1 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:0.008; Lacunarity P:0.001); but there was no statistically significant difference between Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 2 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:1.000; Lacunarity P:0.758). FD and L can differentiate Cl 1 mandibular cortical shape from both Cl 2 and Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape but cannot differentiate Cl 2 from Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape on panoramic radiographs.

  15. Cortico-cortical communication dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E Roland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available IIn principle, cortico-cortical communication dynamics is simple: neurons in one cortical area communicate by sending action potentials that release glutamate and excite their target neurons in other cortical areas. In practice, knowledge about cortico-cortical communication dynamics is minute. One reason is that no current technique can capture the fast spatio-temporal cortico-cortical evolution of action potential transmission and membrane conductances with sufficient spatial resolution. A combination of optogenetics and monosynaptic tracing with virus can reveal the spatio-temporal cortico-cortical dynamics of specific neurons and their targets, but does not reveal how the dynamics evolves under natural conditions. Spontaneous ongoing action potentials also spread across cortical areas and are difficult to separate from structured evoked and intrinsic brain activity such as thinking. At a certain state of evolution, the dynamics may engage larger populations of neurons to drive the brain to decisions, percepts and behaviors. For example, successfully evolving dynamics to sensory transients can appear at the mesoscopic scale revealing how the transient is perceived. As a consequence of these methodological and conceptual difficulties, studies in this field comprise a wide range of computational models, large-scale measurements (e.g., by MEG, EEG, and a combination of invasive measurements in animal experiments. Further obstacles and challenges of studying cortico-cortical communication dynamics are outlined in this critical review.

  16. High frequency oscillations mirror disease activity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Karolin; LeVan, Pierre; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Fauser, Susanne; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia

    2013-08-01

    The study analyzes the occurrence of high frequency oscillations in different types of focal cortical dysplasia in 22 patients with refractory epilepsy. High frequency oscillations are biomarkers for epileptic tissue, but it is unknown whether they can reflect increasingly dysplastic tissue changes as well as epileptic disease activity. High frequency oscillations (80-450 Hz) were visually marked by two independent reviewers in all channels of intracranial implanted grid, strips, and depth electrodes in patients with focal cortical dysplasia and refractory epilepsy. Rates of high frequency oscillations in patients with pathologically confirmed focal cortical dysplasia of Palmini type 1a and b were compared with those in type 2a and b. Patients with focal cortical dysplasia type 2 had significantly more seizures than those with type 1 (p high frequency oscillations were significantly higher in patients with focal cortical dysplasia type 2 versus type 1 (p high frequency oscillations were significantly higher in presumed epileptogenic areas than outside (p high frequency oscillations mirrors the higher epileptogenicity of focal cortical dysplasia type 2 lesions compared to type 1 lesions. Therefore, rates of high frequency oscillations can reflect disease activity of a lesion. This has implications for the use of high frequency oscillations as biomarkers for epileptogenic areas, because a detailed analysis of their rates may be necessary to use high frequency oscillations as a predictive tool in epilepsy surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  18. Cortical and spinal assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, I W; Gram, Mikkel; Hansen, T M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standardized objective methods to assess the analgesic effects of opioids, enable identification of underlying mechanisms of drug actions in the central nervous system. Opioids may exert their effect on both cortical and spinal levels. In this study actions of morphine at both levels...... subjects was included in the data analysis. There was no change in the activity in resting EEG (P>0.05) after morphine administration as compared to placebo. During cold pressor stimulation, morphine significantly lowered the relative activity in the delta (1-4Hz) band (P=0.03) and increased the activity...... morphine administration (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cold pressor EEG and the nociceptive reflex were more sensitive to morphine analgesia than resting EEG and can be used as standardized objective methods to assess opioid effects. However, no correlation between the analgesic effect of morphine on the spinal...

  19. Hiperostosis cortical infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina; Orelvis Pérez Duerto

    2015-01-01

    La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco mes...

  20. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  1. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  2. Gallium-68 DOTA-TATE Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Scintigraphic Changes of Adrenal Glands Following Management of Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome by Steroidogenesis Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Aziz, Shaikh Irfan; Ravi Kumar, Aravind S

    2014-09-01

    In the era of emerging functional imaging techniques, an understanding of the effects of hormonal therapies on the scintigraphic appearance of endocrine organs is desirable to minimize the erroneous scan interpretation. The mechanisms by which changes in the scintigraphic appearance of endocrine organs occur however sometimes remain ambiguous. This case demonstrates the gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) appearance of adrenal glands following management with steroidogenesis inhibitors. The potential mechanisms underlying this change are discussed. A 17-year-old boy with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion underwent pre- and post-metyrapone and dexamethasone treatment Ga-68 DOTA-TATE scans 4 months apart. Pretreatment, both adrenals demonstrated normal symmetrical prominent Ga-68 DOTA-TATE uptake and normal CT appearance. The posttherapy scan revealed marked symmetrical suppression of Ga-68 DOTA-TATE uptake, but with bilateral adrenal hypertrophy on CT.

  3. Scintigraphic imaging of focal hypoxic tissue: development and clinical applications of 123I-IAZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard I. Wiebe

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Affected tissues in a number of diseases, including cancer, stroke, cardiac infarction and diabetes, develop focal tissue hypoxia during their progression. The presence of hypoxic tissue may make the disease refractory to therapy, as in the case of solid tumor therapy using low LET ionizing radiation. In other pathologies, the detection of viable but hypoxic tissues may serve as a prodromal indicator of developing disease (e.g. diabetes,or as a prognostic indicator for management of the disease (e.g. stroke. Over the past two decades, a number of hypoxia radioimaging agents have been developed and tested clinically. Of these, 18F-Fmiso and 123I-IAZA are the most widely used radiotracers for PET and SPECT/planar imaging, respectively. IAZA and Fmiso are a 2-nitroimidazoles that chemically bind to subcellular components of viable hypoxic tissues. They sensitize hypoxic tumour to the killing effects of ionizing radiation via mechanisms that mimic the radiosensitizing effects of oxygen, and are therefore called oxygen mimetics. The oxygen mimetic effect is attributable in large part to the covalent binding of reductively-activated nitroimidazole intermediates to critical cellular macromolecules. Nitroimidazoles labelled with gamma-emitting radionuclides (e.g. 18F-Fmiso and 123I-IAZA have been used as scintigraphic markers of tumour hypoxia, based on the need to identify radioresistant hypoxic tumour cells as part of the radiotherapy planning process. Broader interest in non-invasive, imaging-based identification of focal hypoxia in a number of diseases has extended hypoxia studies to include peripheral vascular disease associated with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, myocardial ischaemia, brain trauma and oxidative stress. In this review, the current status of hypoxia-selective studies with 123I-IAZA , an experimental diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, is reviewed with respect to its pre-clinical development and clinical applications.Os tecidos

  4. Unique psoriatic lesion versus multiple lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the number of lesions of psoriasis and to find risk factors for multiple lesions. Material and Methods: 1,236 patients (male 54.13%, female 45.87% with psoriasis were seen over a period of 8 years in an Outpatient Clinic. Patients filled out questionnaires containing age at onset, number of lesions and location at the beginning of the disease, gender, type and localization of psoriasis at the time of clinical examination, psoriasis family history, previous treatment, comorbidities, and social status. Results: The number of psoriasis lesions correlates with: onset age of psoriasis (F=8.902, p=0.0029; age at the moment of clinical examination (F=8.902, p=0.0029; residence in rural area (χ2=8.589, p=0.00338, 95%CI; alcohol intake (χ2=16.47, p=0.00005, 95%CI; smoking (χ2=8.408, p=0.00373, 95%CI; occupation: workers/pupils/students (χ2=14.11, p=0.0069, 95%CI. Conclusions: There is a correlation between number of psoriatic lesions and some factors. Multiple lesions were observed in older patients, smokers and drinkers, coming from rural area and social active (workers and pupils/students. No correlation was statistically proved between number of lesions and gender, comorbidities and family history of psoriasis.

  5. Clinical, Radiologic and scintigraphic evaluation of the results of A. Moore and Thompson prostheses in the management of femoral neck fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Ugur; Orhan, Zafer; Parmaksizoglu, Atilla Sancar; Ozkaya, Ufuk; Yalaman, Okan; Yazıcı, Nüzhet

    2004-01-01

    140 patients had been operated due to femoral neck fractures in the Ortopaedics and Traumatology CIinic Taksim State Hospital during the period of 1985 to 1991 and of this group, 42 patient's results were clinically, radiologically and scintigraphically evaluated. We evaluated the technical criteria used in the A.Moore type and the Thompson type endoprostheses, and tried to emphasize the significance of Tc-99 bone scanning in assesment of the results of prosthetic replacement. In this study, ...

  6. Primary oxalosis of the adult. Scintigraphic and radiologic findings of oxalosis nephropathy, oxalosis-arthro-enthesiopathy and oxalosis-cardiomyopathy - review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical, radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities in primary oxalosis of a 52 years old female are demonstrated. Severe oxalosis-nephropathy and oxalosis-arthropathy/enthesiopathy are shown. For the first time an intense myocardial uptake of 99 m Tc-HDP and 99 m Tc-MDP is described in connection with oxalosis. It is suggested that in the appropriate clinical setting this pattern may be suggestive of oxalosis-cardiomyopathy. Review of literature.

  7. MALIGNANT LESIONS OF MANDIBLE ON ORTHOPANTOMOGRAM- OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Raseshkumar Rasiklal Vyas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Orthopantomography plays a great role to categorise the lesion according to its location and relationship with respect to tooth. It is simple and cost effective. Orthopantomography can provide clue regarding the aggressiveness of the lesion and therefore a radiologist can provide an idea as to which lesion can be left alone and which lesion require therapy or surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with specific complaint pertaining to lower jaw, pain in the lower jaw, discharge from mouth, etc. were studied by orthopantogram examination. The machine use for the study is D. B. Troniks and the duration of the study is one year from January 2016 to December 2016. RESULTS A study of 50 patients were carried out at our institute having symptoms and sign pertaining to lower jaw. Maximum cases were found in fourth decade. Males were more affected than females. On radiographic features, most lesions were mixed followed by sclerotic and then lytic. Most common benign malignant lesion found in our studies was squamous cell carcinoma followed by multiple myeloma. CONCLUSION The orthopantomography examination is very useful and important diagnostic aid in diagnosis of these mandibular lesions, as it is a simple and nontraumatic procedure. Various mandibular lesions showing radiographic features like solid-cystic appearance, location, margins, internal architecture, bony expansion, cortical breach, effect of lesion on adjacent structures, etc. play an important role in diagnosis of these lesions.

  8. Focal laminar cortical infarcts following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidauer, Stefan; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Zanella, Friedhelm [University of Frankfurt, Institute of Neuroradiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Vatter, Hartmut; Beck, Juergen; Raabe, Andreas; Seifert, Volker [University of Frankfurt, Department of Neurosurgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this prospective study was to analyse small band-like cortical infarcts after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with reference to additional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In a 5-year period between January 2002 and January 2007 10 out of 188 patients with aneurysmal SAH were evaluated (one patient Hunt and Hess grade I, one patient grade II, four patients grade III, two patients grade IV, and two patients grade V). The imaging protocol included serially performed MRI with diffusion- and perfusion-weighted images (DWI/PWI) at three time points after aneurysm treatment, and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) was analysed on follow-up DSA on day 7{+-}3 after SAH. The lesions were located in the frontal lobe (n=10), in the insular cortex (n=3) and in the parietal lobe (n=1). The band-like infarcts occurred after a mean time interval of 5.8 days (range 3-10 days) and showed unexceptional adjacent thick sulcal clots. Seven out of ten patients with cortical infarcts had no or mild CVS, and in the remaining three patients DSA disclosed moderate (n=2) or severe (n=1) CVS. The infarct pattern after aneurysmal SAH includes cortical band-like lesions. In contrast to territorial infarcts or lacunar infarcts in the white matter which develop as a result of moderate or severe proximal and/or distal vasospasm visible on angiography, the cortical band-like lesions adjacent to sulcal clots may also develop without evidence of macroscopic vasospasm, implying a vasospastic reaction of the most distal superficial and intraparenchymal vessels. (orig.)

  9. Scintigraphic evaluation of the liver in Fasciola hepatica with radiocolloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre Errasti, C.; Alberola Gomez-Escolar, I.; Gonzalez de Zarate, P.; Merino Angulo, J.

    1981-02-01

    A group of 23 patients with Fasciola hepatica have been studied in the province of Biscay. The diagnosis was reached after finding parasite eggs in the faeces or duodenal juice. The liver lesion was confirmed by means of macro and microscopic studies. Radiocolloid demonstrated the presence of cold areas in 18 patients; in 13 of them the uptake with /sup 67/Ga was positive. These isotopic findings identified Fasciola hepatica as one of the causes of 'cold areas' in traditional liver scans and positive /sup 67/Ga uptake.

  10. Differential Findings of Tc 99m Sestamibi Dual Phase Parathyroid Scintigraphy Between Benign and Malignant Parathyroid Lesions in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Miju; Choi, Joon Young; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Ji Young; Cho, Sook Kyung; Yoo, Jang; Park, Soo Bin; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkwan, Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study aimed to investigate the differential findings in clinical and biochemical features, and Tc 99m sestamibi (MIBI) dual phase parathyroid lesions in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Subjects were 102 parathyroid lesions from 91 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Scintigraphic findings included radioactivity grade, uptake pattern, uptake contour lesion size on early and delayed images, and degree of washout. Clinical and biochemical features were also evaluated. Histopathology confirmed the final diagnosis for all the patients. Final diagnoses were 94 benign parathyroid lesions and 8 parathyroid carcinomas. The patients with parathyroid carcinoma were significantly older (p=0.002) and had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone concentrations than those with benign parathyroid lesions (p<0.001). All malignant parathyroid lesions showed intense radioactivity similar to or greater than the submandibular gland activity on delayed images (p=0.007), and little radioactivity difference between early and delayed images (p=0.012). The cancer incidence for parathyroid lesions with both intense radioactivity and no washout was 17.0% (8/47). When parathyroid lesions with all of the above mentioned findings were regarded as malignant, the cancer incidence significantly increased from 17.0% to 33.3% (8/24, p<0.001). For Tc 99m MIBI dual phase parathyroid scintigraphy, uptake grade on delayed images and washout were significantly useful diagnostic criteria for differentiating benign from malignant parathyroid lesions, along with age and parathyroid hormone serum concentration.

  11. Prospective detection of cortical dysplasia on clinical MRI in pediatric intractable epilepsy

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    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Leach, James L.; Gelfand, Michael J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mangano, Francesco T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Rozhkov, Leonid; Greiner, Hansel M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Comprehensive Epilepsy Treatment Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Miles, Lili [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Cortical dysplasia is the most common cause of pediatric refractory epilepsy. MRI detection of epileptogenic lesion is associated with good postsurgical outcome. Additional electrophysiological information is suggested to be helpful in localization of cortical dysplasia. Educational measures were taken to increase the awareness of cortical dysplasia at our institution in the context of a recent International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE 2011) classification of cortical dysplasia. To determine changes in the rate of prospective identification of cortical dysplasia on an initial radiology report and also evaluate the benefit of MRI review as part of a multidisciplinary epilepsy conference in identifying previously overlooked MRI findings. We retrospectively evaluated surgically treated children with refractory epilepsy from 2007 to 2014 with cortical dysplasia on histopathology. We analyzed the initial radiology report, preoperative MRI interpretation at multidisciplinary epilepsy conference and subsequent retrospective MRI review with knowledge of the resection site. We recorded additional electrophysiological data and the presence of lobar concordance with the MRI findings. Of 78 children (44 MRI lesional) evaluated, 18 had initially overlooked MRI findings. Comparing 2007-2010 to 2011-2014, there was improvement in the rate of overlooked findings on the initial radiology report (54% vs. 13% of lesional cases, respectively; P = 0.008). The majority (72%) were identified at a multidisciplinary conference with lobar concordance of findings with at least one additional electrophysiological investigation in 89%. Awareness of current classification schemes of cortical dysplasia and image review in the context of a multidisciplinary conference can lead to improved MRI detection of cortical dysplasia in children. (orig.)

  12. Development and in-vivo behavior of tin containing radiopharmaceuticals--II. Autoradiographic and scintigraphic studies in normal animals and in animal models of bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Fairchild, R.G.; Meinken, G.E.; Tillman, D.Y.; Sacker, D.F.; Richards, P.; Atkins, H.L.; Brill, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Various 117mSn (2+ and 4+) compounds in well defined oxidation states were studied in normal mice using whole body autoradiography (WBARG), tissue distribution and scintigraphy in animal models of vitamin A induced bone disease, fracture, infected fracture and ischemic muscle lesions. The 117mSn4+-DTPA showed high affinity to normal bone with low soft tissue concentration. Increased deposition of this compound in fractures and ischemic lesions in muscle was also demonstrated. In hypervitaminosis A, reduced bone uptake of 117mSn4+-DTPA was shown to occur. Nude mice bearing osteogenic sarcoma of human origin showed uptake in spiculated pattern. The similar distribution of 117mSn4+-DTPA which does not contain phosphate or phosphonate groups, and the 99mTc(Sn) skeletal imaging compounds may indicate that tin is important in binding to bone. 117mSn4+-DTPA may not be ideal for routine imaging except when long term follow up is required. It should however be considered for therapy of bone tumors because of the long physical half-life of 117mSn (t1/2 = 14.03 days), abundance of short-range conversion and Auger electrons and its preferential deposition in cortical bone as indicated by our results.

  13. [Vascular dementia: big effects of small lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, G; Kövari, E

    2011-11-09

    Vascular dementia due to multiple large strokes (multi-infarct dementia) is a well known entity. However, new clinicopathologic and neuroimaging data have highlighted the common occurrence of small vessel and microscopic vascular pathology in aging brains and recognized that vascular dementia due to small lesions is probably the most common form. In such cases, cortical microinfarcts are the strongest correlate of global cognitive function followed by basal ganglia and thalamic lacunes. Demyelination is only weekly associated with cognition and this relation is no longer significant after adjustement for the presence of lacunes. Awareness of the importance of small vascular lesions in brain aging, can improve diagnostic accuracy and help identify new targets, that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches in old age dementia.

  14. Models of cortical malformation--Chemical and physical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-02-15

    Pharmaco-resistant epilepsies, and also some neuropsychiatric disorders, are often associated with malformations in hippocampal and neocortical structures. The mechanisms leading to these cortical malformations causing an imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory system are largely unknown. Animal models using chemical or physical manipulations reproduce different human pathologies by interfering with cell generation and neuronal migration. The model of in utero injection of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate mimics periventricular nodular heterotopia. The freeze lesion model reproduces (poly)microgyria, focal heterotopia and schizencephaly. The in utero irradiation model causes microgyria and heterotopia. Intraperitoneal injections of carmustine 1-3-bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea (BCNU) to pregnant rats produces laminar disorganization, heterotopias and cytomegalic neurons. The ibotenic acid model induces focal cortical malformations, which resemble human microgyria and ulegyria. Cortical dysplasia can be also observed following prenatal exposure to ethanol, cocaine or antiepileptic drugs. All these models of cortical malformations are characterized by a pronounced hyperexcitability, few of them also produce spontaneous epileptic seizures. This dysfunction results from an impairment in GABAergic inhibition and/or an increase in glutamatergic synaptic transmission. The cortical region initiating or contributing to this hyperexcitability may not necessarily correspond to the site of the focal malformation. In some models wide-spread molecular and functional changes can be observed in remote regions of the brain, where they cause pathophysiological activities. This paper gives an overview on different animal models of cortical malformations, which are mostly used in rodents and which mimic the pathology and to some extent the pathophysiology of neuronal migration disorders associated with epilepsy in humans.

  15. Analysis of Cortical Flow Models In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benink, Hélène A.; Mandato, Craig A.; Bement, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Cortical flow, the directed movement of cortical F-actin and cortical organelles, is a basic cellular motility process. Microtubules are thought to somehow direct cortical flow, but whether they do so by stimulating or inhibiting contraction of the cortical actin cytoskeleton is the subject of debate. Treatment of Xenopus oocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) triggers cortical flow toward the animal pole of the oocyte; this flow is suppressed by microtubules. To determine how this suppression occurs and whether it can control the direction of cortical flow, oocytes were subjected to localized manipulation of either the contractile stimulus (PMA) or microtubules. Localized PMA application resulted in redirection of cortical flow toward the site of application, as judged by movement of cortical pigment granules, cortical F-actin, and cortical myosin-2A. Such redirected flow was accelerated by microtubule depolymerization, showing that the suppression of cortical flow by microtubules is independent of the direction of flow. Direct observation of cortical F-actin by time-lapse confocal analysis in combination with photobleaching showed that cortical flow is driven by contraction of the cortical F-actin network and that microtubules suppress this contraction. The oocyte germinal vesicle serves as a microtubule organizing center in Xenopus oocytes; experimental displacement of the germinal vesicle toward the animal pole resulted in localized flow away from the animal pole. The results show that 1) cortical flow is directed toward areas of localized contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; 2) microtubules suppress cortical flow by inhibiting contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; and 3) localized, microtubule-dependent suppression of actomyosin-based contraction can control the direction of cortical flow. We discuss these findings in light of current models of cortical flow. PMID:10930453

  16. Vestibular perception following acute unilateral vestibular lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN acutely (2 days after onset and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks. Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s(2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s(2. We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any 'perceptual noise' added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced - asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  17. Enhanced lung scan diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with the use of ancillary scintigraphic findings and clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L M; Krynyckyi, B; Zuckier, L S

    2001-04-01

    Analysis of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) and modified PIOPED studies has suggested that an experienced observer is capable of more accurate lung scan interpretation than the less experienced individual. This has been attributed to the use of unique Gestalt factors not contained in published diagnostic algorithms, which are acquired through extensive experience in reviewing and interpreting lung scans. How fully these factors can be codified and transmitted to less experienced observers is uncertain; however, there is a large body of published data that attempts to convey fine points of lung scan interpretation, including a large body of ancillary scintigraphic findings and a number of refinements in the application of diagnostic algorithms. Review of these factors will accelerate the training of less experienced readers. Finally, an understanding of lung scan language and an appreciation of clinically relevant factors, particularly pretest probability, will maximize the reader's ability to use the lung scan in managing patients who are suspected of having pulmonary embolic disease.

  18. Investigation of a Potential Scintigraphic Tracer for Imaging Apoptosis: Radioiodinated Annexin V-Kunitz Protease Inhibitor Fusion Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsiu Liao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiolabeled annexin V (ANV has been widely used for imaging cell apoptosis. Recently, a novel ANV-Kunitz-type protease inhibitor fusion protein, ANV-6L15, was found to be a promising probe for improved apoptosis detection based on its higher affinity to phosphatidylserine (PS compared to native ANV. The present paper investigates the feasibility of apoptosis detection using radioiodinated ANV-6L15. Native ANV and ANV-6L15 were labeled with iodine-123 and iodine-125 using Iodogen method. The binding between the radioiodinated proteins and erythrocyte ghosts or chemical-induced apoptotic cells was examined. ANV-6L15 can be radioiodinated with high yield (40%−60% and excellent radiochemical purity (>95%. 123I-ANV-6L15 exhibited a higher binding ratio to erythrocyte ghosts and apoptotic cells compared to 123I-ANV. The biodistribution of 123I-ANV-6L15 in mice was also characterized. 123I-ANV-6L15 was rapidly cleared from the blood. High uptake in the liver and the kidneys may limit the evaluation of apoptosis in abdominal regions. Our data suggest that radiolabled ANV-6L15 may be a better scintigraphic tracer than native ANV for apoptosis detection.

  19. Nationwide standardisation and evaluation of scintigraphic gastric emptying: reference values and comparisons between subgroups in a multicentre trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermansson, G. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Oestra Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Lyrenaes, E. [Department of Medicine, Blekinge Hospital, Karlskrona (Sweden); Beckman, K.-W. [Hospital Physics, Oerebro Hospital (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    By means of a standardised procedure, reference values for scintigraphic gastric emptying were established. The influence of gender, age, menstrual cycle, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits was also evaluated. Eight centres recruited 20 healthy subjects each. The meal consisted of a technetium-99m labelled omelet (1300 kJ) and of 150 ml unlabelled soft drink. Geometric means of frontal and dorsal acquisitions were utilised in a linear fit model for determination of the linear emptying rate, and by using the intercepts of the regression line with the 90% and 50% levels, the lag phase and half-emptying time, respectively, were defined. All individuals showed an initial lag phase and subsequent linear emptying. Because of a longer lag phase and a slower linear emptying rate, premenopausal women had a slower gastric emptying than postmenopausal women and men of all ages. The gastric emptying rate increased with age in the women, mainly due to a shortened lag phase, while the emptying rate remained almost unchanged with age in the males. There were no significant differences in results between the centres. The menstrual cycle, BMI and smoking habits did not affect emptying. In conclusion, the fact that the results showed a slower gastric emptying rate in younger women compared with older women and men indicates that it is necessary to use separate reference values for fertile females. (orig.)

  20. Interaction of "supplementary" scintigraphic indicators of ischemia and stress electrocardiography in the diagnosis of multivessel coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhasi, B; Dae, M; Botvinick, E; Lanzer, P; Schechtmann, N; Faulkner, D; O'Connell, W; Schiller, N

    1985-09-01

    Lung uptake, ventricular cavitary dilation and basal myocardial uptake represent abnormalities that have been associated with myocardial ischemia on stress thallium-201 images, but that are supplementary to the conventional assessment of perfusion distribution. These "supplementary" indicators of ischemia were related to the coronary distribution of perfusion abnormalities, the results of electrocardiographic stress testing and to the findings on coronary angiography in 73 patients. Forty patients had multivessel coronary disease; 19 of these had three vessel disease. Perfusion abnormalities were seen in 39 of these 40 patients but were indicative of multivessel coronary disease in only 28 and of three vessel disease in only 6. However, supplementary indicators were present in 33 of 40 patients with multivessel disease and in 15 of 19 with three vessel disease. Furthermore, they were seen in 16 of 22 patients with multivessel disease in whom conventional perfusion abnormalities underestimated the extent of disease, but in only 4 of 12 patients in whom the extent of disease was overestimated. The presence of either perfusion abnormalities in a multivessel distribution or supplementary indicators identified 38 (95%) of 40 patients with multivessel disease. A markedly positive electrocardiographic treadmill test was a less sensitive indicator of multivessel disease, appearing in only 15 of 40 patients. However, it was present in only 4 of 33 patients without multivessel coronary disease and was more specific for that diagnosis than were supplementary scintigraphic indicators (88 versus 67%, p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2013-07-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  2. A “Proteoglycan Targeting Strategy” for the Scintigraphic Imaging and Monitoring of the Swarm Rat Chondrosarcoma Orthotopic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Peyrode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our lab developed 99mTc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer as targeting proteoglycans (PGs for the scintigraphic imaging of joint. This paper reports preclinical results of 99mTc-NTP 15-5 imaging of an orthotopic model of Swarm rat chondrosarcoma (SRC. 99mTc-NTP 15-5 imaging of SRC-bearing and sham-operated animals was performed and quantified at regular intervals after surgery and compared to bone scintigraphy and tumoural volume. Tumours were characterized by histology and PG assay. SRC exhibited a significant 99mTc-NTP 15-5 uptake at very early stage after implant (with tumour/muscle ratio of 1.61 ± 0.14, whereas no measurable tumour was evidenced. As tumour grew, mean tumour/muscle ratio was increased by 2.4, between the early and late stage of pathology. Bone scintigraphy failed to image chondrosarcoma, even at the later stage of study. 99mTc-NTP 15-5 imaging provided a suitable set of quantitative criteria for the in vivo characterization of chondrosarcoma behaviour in bone environment, useful for achieving a greater understanding of the pathology.

  3. Hiperostosis cortical infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco meses de edad, atendido en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas” con este diagnóstico, quien ingresó en el servicio de miscelánea B por una celulitis facial. Presentaba aumento de volumen en la región geniana izquierda, febrícola e inapetencia. Se impuso tratamiento con cefazolina y se egresó a los siete días. Acudió nuevamente con tumefacción blanda y difusa de ambas hemicaras, irritabilidad y fiebre. Se interconsultó con cirugía maxilofacial, se indicaron estudios sanguíneos y radiológicos. Se diagnosticó como enfermedad de Caffey, basado en la edad del niño, tumefacción facial sin signos inflamatorios agudos e hiperostosis en ambas corticales mandibulares a la radiografía AP mandíbula; unido a anemia ligera, leucocitosis y eritrosedimentación acelerada. El paciente se trató sintomáticamente y con antinflamatorios no esteroideos. Esta rara entidad se debe tener presente en casos de niños y lactantes con irritabilidad y fiebre inespecífica

  4. Atypical clinical and pathological findings in a patient with isolated cortical vein thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ding; Vance Fredrickson; Yicong Lin; Yueshan Piao; Xiangbo Wang; Dehong Lu; Cunjiang Li

    2012-01-01

    Isolated cortical vein thrombosis often produces a focal lesion. Because of the rapid development of collateral circulation, increased intracranial pressure has never been reported in a patient with isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis is based mainly on MRI, catheter digital subtraction angiography, and histological findings, but may be challenging. We report a patient who presented with intermittent seizures and left-sided limb weakness. Her symptoms gradually progressed, and she eventually developed signs of increased intracranial pressure. Imaging studies showed a space-occupying lesion in the right frontal lobe of the brain. As we could not diagnose isolated cortical vein thrombosis based on the preoperative findings, surgical excision of the lesion was performed under general anesthesia. Histological examination showed destruction of the brain parenchyma with infiltration of macrophages, proliferation of reactive astrocytes and small vessels, and foci of hemorrhage. Further examination found that a number of small vessels in both the subarachnoid space and brain parenchyma were filled with thrombus, some of which was organized. Elastic fiber staining showed that the obstructed vessels were veins. We diagnosed isolated cortical vein thrombosis with atypical clinical features.

  5. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  6. An updated histological classification system for multiple sclerosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Ludwin, Samuel; Prat, Alexandre; Antel, Jack; Brück, Wolfgang; Lassmann, Hans

    2017-01-01

    subdivided into the early and late demyelinating lesions. The former is defined by the presence in macrophages of major and small molecular weight myelin proteins, such as cyclic nucleotide diphosphoesterase (CNP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), or myelin-associated protein (MAG), whereas macrophages in the latter demonstrate merely the presence of the major myelin proteins MBP or PLP. We discuss the histological features and staining techniques required to classify MS lesions, and, in addition, describe the histological hallmarks of cortical pathology and diffuse white matter changes, as well as of remyelination.

  7. 99mTc-3PRGD2 Scintimammography in Palpable and Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic performance of 99mTc-3(poly-(ethylene glycol,PEG4-RGD2 (99mTc-3PRGD2 scintimammography (SMM in patients with either palpable or nonpalpable breast lesions and compare SMM to mammography to assess the possible incremental value of SMM in breast cancer detection. We also investigated the αvβ3 expression in malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety-four patients with 110 lesions were included in this study. Mammograms were evaluated according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS by a specialized imaging radiologist. Prone SMM was performed 1 hour after injection of 99mTc-3PRGD2. Scintigraphic images were interpreted independently by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a three-point system, and the kappa value was calculated to determine the interreader agreement. The McNemar test was used to compare SMM and mammography with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Diagnostic values for breast cancer detection were evaluated for each lesion. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate integrin αvβ3 expression. Histopathology revealed 46 malignant lesions and 64 benign lesions. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SMM were 83%, 73%, 77%, 69%, and 85%, respectively. The kappa value between the two reviewers was 0.63. The diagnostic values of SMM were higher than those of mammography in evaluating overall breast lesions. A sensitivity of 91% was achieved when SMM and mammography results were combined with 60% of all false-negative mammography findings classified as true-positive results by SMM. Integrin αvβ3 expression was positively identified using SMM imaging. SMM is a promising tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies when used in addition to mammography and can be used to image αvβ3 expression in breast cancer with good image quality.

  8. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...... the activity of primary coronal and root lesions reliably and accurately at one examination by using the combined information obtained from a range of indicators--such as visual appearance, location of the lesion, tactile sensation during probing and gingival health....

  9. Unusual presentation of Sturge-Weber syndrome: Progressive megalencephaly with bilateral cutaneous and cortical involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sturge Weber syndrome is characterized by developmental delay, seizures in infancy, unilateral cutaneous lesions with ipsilateral leptomeningeal enhancement. We report an unusual presentation of Sturge Weber syndrome with bilateral port wine nevus on the trunk and face along with bilateral cortical involvement in a developmentally normal child with progressive megalencephaly.

  10. Changes in cortical grey matter density associated with long-standing retinal visual field defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucard, Christine C.; Hernowo, Aditya T.; Maguire, R. Paul; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Hooymans, Johanna M.M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2009-01-01

    Retinal lesions caused by eye diseases such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration can, over time, eliminate stimulation of parts of the visual cortex. This could lead to degeneration of inactive cortical neuronal tissue, but this has not been established in humans. Here, we used magnetic

  11. Contralesional cortical structural reorganization contributes to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although changes in brain gray matter after stroke have been identified in some neuroimaging studies, lesion heterogeneity and individual variability make the detection of potential neuronal reorganization difficult. This study attempted to investigate the potential structural cortical reorganization after sub-cortical stroke using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV analysis. Eleven right-handed patients with first -onset, subcortical, ischemic infarctions involving the basal ganglia regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging in addition to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Motricity Index assessments in the acute (< 5 days and chronic stages (1 year later. The GMVs were calculated and compared between the two stages using nonparametric permutation paired t tests. Moreover, the Spearman correlations between the GMV changes and clinical recoveries were analyzed. Compared with the acute stage, significant decreases in GMV were observed in the ipsilesional precentral gyrus (PreCG, paracentral gyrus, and contralesional cerebellar lobule VII in the chronic stage. Additionally, significant increases in GMV were found in the contralesional orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and middle (MFG and inferior (IFG frontal gyri. Furthermore, severe GMV atrophy in the ipsilesional PreCG predicted poorer clinical recovery, and greater GMV increases in the contralesional OFG and MFG predicted better clinical recovery. Our findings suggest that structural reorganization of the contralesional ‘cognitive’ cortices might contribute to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke.

  12. Development of virtual simulation platform for investigation of the radiographic features of periapical bone lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus; Shen, Ya; Wu, Hongkun; Jiang, Huiyong; Zhou, Xuedong

    2010-08-01

    The periapical radiograph is used as an important tool in the assessment of periapical bone lesions in endodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a virtual simulation platform for radiographic research of periapical bone lesions based on a digitally reconstructed radiograph and to investigate the radiographic features of different simulated periapical bone lesions. A cadaver mandible was scanned by microcomputed tomography. The application framework for the creation of a digitally reconstructed radiograph with virtual periapical lesions was constructed. Subsequently, different size and shape periapical lesions were created virtually in an incisor, a premolar, and a molar, and the digitally reconstructed radiographs were produced. The detection of periapical lesions based on digitally reconstructed radiographs was depended on lesion size, position, shape, and tooth position. Virtual periapical lesions could not be visualized with lesions smaller than 1 mm in the incisor, 2 mm in the premolar, and 3 mm in the molar, and these virtual lesions were confined within the cancellous bone. A 4-mm lesion in the molar was still not visualized even if it encroached on the cortical bone. If the lesions encroached on the junctional trabeculae and cortical bone or the lesion was created with the maximal buccal-lingual dimension in ellipsoid shape and confined within the cancellous bone giving it an abnormal shape, it could be seen, except for the "thinnest" 1-mm lesion in incisor region. The virtual simulation platform described here provides a reproducible assessment of periapical lesions and aids in a better understanding of the characteristics of periapical lesions. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency presenting with acute reversible cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasun, Pankaj; Altinok, Deniz; Misra, Vinod K

    2015-05-01

    Acute focal neurologic deficits are a rare but known presentation of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, particularly in females. We describe here a 6-year-old girl with newly diagnosed ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency who presents with an episode of acute cortical blindness lasting for 72 hours in the absence of hyperammonemia. Her symptoms were associated with a subcortical low-intensity lesion with overlying cortical hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the occipital lobes. Acute reversible vision loss with these MRI findings is an unusual finding in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Our findings suggest a role for oxidative stress and aberrant glutamine metabolism in the acute clinical features of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency even in the absence of hyperammonemia.

  14. Diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients using current scintigraphic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, A.M.; Tindel, N.L.; Alavi, A. (Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Seventy-seven diabetic patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the foot were evaluated by three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS), indium 111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy (WBCS), roentgenography, or some combination thereof. Retrospective analysis after clinical and pathologic follow-up indicated that the sensitivity of TPBS alone in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis was 100%, with a specificity of only 38% and an accuracy of 63%; the sensitivity of WBCS alone was 100%, with a specificity of 78% and an accuracy of 87%; and the combination of TPBS and WBCS yielded a sensitivity of 100%, with a specificity of 79% and an accuracy of 87%. Roentgenography yielded a sensitivity of 69%, with a specificity of 82% and an accuracy of 76%. The results of this study demonstrate that WBCS is superior to TPBS in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot, and TPBS adds little when viewed in conjunction with WBCS. Based on our observations and because of the high prevalence of neuropathic joint disease and other causes of false-positive bone scans, we believe that WBCS alone is adequate for evaluation of suspected pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients, particularly when the suspected lesion is located in the tarsometatarsal region in contrast to the toe region (7% vs 44% specificity and 28% vs 69% accuracy, respectively, for TPBS in these two regions, compared with 100% vs 68% specificity and 100% vs 80% accuracy, respectively, for WBCS in the same two regions).

  15. Cortical deafness to dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, I; Blood, A J; Penhune, V; Zatorre, R

    2001-05-01

    Ordinary listeners, including infants, easily distinguish consonant from dissonant pitch combinations and consider the former more pleasant than the latter. The preference for consonance over dissonance was tested in a patient, I.R., who suffers from music perception and memory disorders as a result of bilateral lesions to the auditory cortex. In Experiment 1, I.R. was found to be unable to distinguish consonant from dissonant versions of musical excerpts taken from the classical repertoire by rating their pleasantness. I.R.'s indifference to dissonance was not due to a loss of all affective responses to music, however, since she rated the same excerpts as happy or sad, as normal controls do. In Experiment 2, I.R.'s lack of responsiveness to varying degrees of dissonance was replicated with chord sequences which had been used in a previous study using PET, in examining emotional responses to dissonance. A CT scan of I.R.'s brain was co-registered with the PET activation data from normal volunteers. Comparison of I.R.'s scan with the PET data revealed that the damaged areas overlapped with the regions identified to be involved in the perceptual analysis of the musical input, but not with the paralimbic regions involved in affective responses. Taken together, the findings suggest that dissonance may be computed bilaterally in the superior temporal gyri by specialized mechanisms prior to its emotional interpretation.

  16. The clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in adrenal cortical diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyu [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    {sup 131}I-6-{beta}-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) has an advantage to assess adrenal dysfunction caused by adrenal cortical disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in each adrenal disease. Ten patients who did eleven NP-59 adrenal scintigraphies at Dong-A University Hospital from March 1990 to December 1996 were selected as the subject. Among the subject there were 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, 2 cases of incidentaloma, 1 case of metastatic adrenal tumor, liver cirrhosis with hirsutism and hypertension respectively. Among 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, there were 2 cases of Cushing's disease, 2 cases of adrenal adenoma and 1 case of adrenal carcinoma. There are no disagreement between clinical diagnosis and scan finding in Cushing's syndrome. In 2 incidentaloma cases, even though one is interpretated as a functioning tumor, both of 2 cases could avoid unnecessary biopsy according to scintigraphy result. One case of hirsutism, clinically adrenal originated, revealed the normal scintigraphic finding after dexamethasone suppression scan. It could suggest that the etiology of hirsutism was extra-adrenal origin. One case of hypertension took the study to exclude the possibility of primary aldosteronism. Normal suppression scan finding revealed that primary aldosteronism did not exist in this case. In conclusion, NP-59 scintigraphy was very useful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and it could avoid unnecessary biopsy in the incidental adrenal tumor.

  17. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO{sub 2} extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO{sub 2} observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO{sub 2} secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author).

  18. Cortical Correlates of Fitts’ Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eIfft

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fitts' law describes the fundamental trade-off between movement accuracy and speed: It states that the duration of reaching movements is a function of target size and distance. While Fitts' law has been extensively studied in ergonomics and has guided the design of human-computer interfaces, there have been few studies on its neuronal correlates. To elucidate sensorimotor cortical activity underlying Fitts’ law, we implanted two monkeys with multielectrode arrays in the primary motor (M1 and primary somatosensory (S1 cortices. The monkeys performed reaches with a joystick-controlled cursor towards targets of different size. The reaction time, movement time and movement velocity changed with target size, and M1 and S1 activity reflected these changes. Moreover, modifications of cortical activity could not be explained by changes of movement parameters alone, but required target size as an additional parameter. Neuronal representation of target size was especially prominent during the early reaction time period where it influenced the slope of the firing rate rise preceding movement initiation. During the movement period, cortical activity was mostly correlated with movement velocity. Neural decoders were applied to simultaneously decode target size and motor parameters from cortical modulations. We suggest using such classifiers to improve neuroprosthetic control.

  19. A cortical-subcortical syntax pathway linking Broca's area and the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Marc; Rosso, Charlotte; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Bloch, Isabelle; Brugières, Pierre; Duffau, Hugues; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Combinatorial syntax has been shown to be underpinned by cortical key regions such as Broca's area and temporal cortices, and by subcortical structures such as the striatum. The cortical regions are connected via several cortico-to-cortical tracts impacting syntactic processing (e.g., the arcuate) but it remains unclear whether and how the striatum can be integrated into this cortex-centered syntax network. Here, we used a systematic stepwise approach to investigate the existence and syntactic function of an additional deep Broca-striatum pathway. We first asked 15 healthy controls and 12 patients with frontal/striatal lesions to perform three syntax tests. The results obtained were subjected to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to provide an anatomo-functional approximation of the pathway. The significant VLSM clusters were then overlapped with the probability maps of four cortico-cortical language tracts generated for 12 healthy participants (arcuate, extreme capsule fiber system, uncinate, aslant), including a probabilistic Broca-striatum tract. Finally, we carried out quantitative analyses of the relationship between the lesion load along the tracts and syntactic processing, by calculating tract-lesion overlap for each patient and analyzing the correlation with syntactic data. Our findings revealed a Broca-striatum tract linking BA45 with the left caudate head and overlapping with VLSM voxel clusters relating to complex syntax. The lesion load values for this tract were correlated with complex syntax scores, whereas no such correlation was observed for the other tracts. These results extend current syntax-network models, by adding a deep "Broca-caudate pathway," and are consistent with functional accounts of frontostriatal circuits.

  20. Cortical myoclonus in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P D; Bhatia, K P; Brown, P; Davis, M B; Pires, M; Quinn, N P; Luthert, P; Honovar, M; O'Brien, M D; Marsden, C D

    1994-11-01

    We describe three patients with Huntington's disease, from two families, in whom myoclonus was the predominant clinical feature. The diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy in two cases and by DNA analysis in all three. These patients all presented before the age of 30 years and were the offspring of affected fathers. Neurophysiological studies documented generalised and multifocal action myoclonus of cortical origin that was strikingly stimulus sensitive, without enlargement of the cortical somatosensory evoked potential. The myoclonus improved with piracetam therapy in one patient and a combination of sodium valproate and clonazepam in the other two. Cortical reflex myoclonus is a rare but disabling component of the complex movement disorder of Huntington's disease, which may lead to substantial diagnostic difficulties.

  1. A case report of odontogenic myxoma with characteristic multilocular lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Paeng, Jun Young [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Although odontogenic myxoma (OM) has various radiographic appearances, the characteristic features of OM are the multilocular radiolucent lesion, straight bony septa along the margin forming either square or triangular spaces. We present a case of OM in a 25-year old-male patient. Multilocular radiolucent lesion on the left mandible body showed tennis racket appearance. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) showed straight bony septa along the margin and cortical perforation. This CBCT features would have significantly contributed to allowing a diagnosis of OM. We think that this case shows characteristic radiographic features of odontogenic myxoma.

  2. Aphasia or neglect after thalamic stroke: the various ways they may be related to cortical hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani eSebastian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time to peak delays, but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings.

  3. Aphasia or Neglect after Thalamic Stroke: The Various Ways They may be Related to Cortical Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rajani; Schein, Mara G; Davis, Cameron; Gomez, Yessenia; Newhart, Melissa; Oishi, Kenichi; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study, we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left) underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time-to-peak delays), but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings.

  4. Cortical neuron loss in post-traumatic higher brain dysfunction using (123)I-iomazenil SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    In patients with higher brain dysfunction (HBD) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), diagnostic imaging of cortical neuron loss in the frontal lobes was studied using SPECT with (123)I-iomazenil (IMZ), as a radioligand for central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR). Statistical imaging analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) for (123)I-IMZ SPECT was performed in 17 patients. In all patients with HBD defined by neuropsychological tests, cortical neuron loss was indicated in the bilateral medial frontal lobes in 14 patients (83 %). A comparison between the group of 17 patients and the normal database demonstrated common areas of cortical neuron loss in the bilateral medial frontal lobes involving the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). In an assessment of cortical neuron loss in the frontal medial cortex using the stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) method (level 3), significant cortical neuron loss was observed within bilateral MFG in 9 patients and unilateral MFG in 4, and bilateral ACG in 12 and unilateral ACG in 3. Fourteen patients showed significant cortical neuron loss in bilateral MFG or ACG. In patients with MTBI, HBD seemed to correlate with selective cortical neuron loss within the bilateral MFG or ACG where the responsible lesion could be. 3D-SSP and SEE level 3 analysis for (123)I-IMZ SPECT could be valuable for diagnostic imaging of HBD after MTBI.

  5. A new methodology of viewing extra-axial fluid and cortical abnormalities in children with autism via transcranial ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jeffrey Bradstreet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are developmental conditions of uncertain etiology which have now affected more than 1% of the school-age population of children in many developed nations. Transcranial ultrasonography (TUS via the temporal bone appeared to be a potential window of investigation to determine the presence of both cortical abnormalities and increased extra-axial fluid (EAF. Methods: TUS was accomplished using a linear probe (10-5 MHz. Parents volunteered ASD subjects (N = 23; males 18, females 5 for evaluations (mean = 7.46 years + 3.97 years, and 15 neurotypical siblings were also examined (mean = 7.15 years + 4.49 years. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS2® scores were obtained and the ASD score mean was 48.08 + 6.79 (Severe. Results: Comparisons of the extra-axial spaces indicated increases in the ASD subjects. For EAF we scored based on the gyral summit distances between the arachnoid membrane and the cortical pia layer (subarachnoid space: 1 0.10 cm. All of the neurotypical siblings scored 1, whereas the ASD mean score was 3.41 + 0.67. We also defined cortical dysplasia as the following: hypoechoic lesions within the substance of the cortex, or disturbed layering within the grey matter. For cortical dysplasia we scored: 1 none observed, 2 rare hypoechogenic lesions and/or mildly atypical cortical layering patterns, 3 more common, but separated areas of cortical hypoechogenic lesions, 4 very common or confluent areas of cortical hypoechogenicity. Again all of the neurotypical siblings scored 1, while the ASD subjects’ mean score was 2.79 + 0.93. Conclusions: TUS may be a useful screening technique for children at potential risk of ASDs which, if confirmed with repeated studies and high resolution MRI, provides rapid, noninvasive qualification of EAF and cortical lesions.

  6. A novel dynamic scintigraphic technique for assessing duodenal contractions during gastric emptying in humans: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tadeu T A; Moraes, Eder R; Secaf, Marie; Troncon, Luiz E A

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal contractions are thought to play a role in the control of gastric emptying. Although noninvasive techniques, such as ultrasonography and MRI, have been proposed for studying duodenal contractile activity in humans, there are no reports on the use of scintigraphy for this purpose. This work aimed to describe a novel scintigraphic technique for assessing duodenal contractility during gastric emptying in humans, and to present preliminary data on the frequency and amplitude of contractions detected in three different duodenal segments. Fasted young healthy volunteers (N=12) were given either a liquid or a solid test meal of similar calorie content (400 kcal) labeled with 99mTc-phytate. Static images were collected to determine gastric emptying. Dynamic images of the anterior aspect of the abdomen (1 frame/s) were also acquired periodically in a standard position for 256 s at 15-30 min intervals. 'Activity versus time' curves were generated for regions of interest corresponding to the proximal, middle, and distal duodenal segments. Curves were digitally filtered and processed to estimate both dominant frequency (fast Fourier transform) and amplitude (mean ejection fraction) of postprandial duodenal contractions. There were no significant differences regarding dominant frequency among proximal, middle, and distal duodenal regions of interest. In addition, there were no significant differences between the liquid and the solid meal in terms of either frequency or amplitude of duodenal contractions. Characterization of duodenal contractions in humans using scintigraphy is feasible and yields consistent data for both the frequency and the amplitude of postprandial contractions, which seems to be rather independent of meal consistency.

  7. Scintigraphic evaluation of soft tissue tumors with technetium(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid, a new tumor seeking radiopharmaceutical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, H.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Yamamoto, K.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, a very promising tumor seeking agent, a Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMS), which was labelled under optimal pH 8 and very low SnCl/sub 2/ concentrations, has been developed. An equilibrium between a stable form and a dissociated form of anion TcO/sub 4//sup 3-/, structural similarity to PO/sub 4//sup 3-/, postulated for tumor uptake. And the authors have previously reported that Tc(V)-DMS scintigram would be useful in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma. In an attempt to widen its applicability, the scintigraphic examinations of soft tissue tumors with Tc(V)-DMS and comparative study with Ga-67 citrate were performed in 58 patients. Scintigrams were made 60-120 min after i.v. administration of 10 mCi Tc(V)-DMS using a conventional gamma camera. Tc(V)-DMS was found to have superior sensitivity of 90% for malignant tumors (including aggressive fibromatosis) to that with Ga-67 citrate of 56%, but inferior specificity of 71% to that with Ga-67 citrate of 80%. And the accuracy of the scan in soft tissue tumors with Tc(V)-DMS and Ga-67 citrate was 78% and 71%, respectively. Although the accumulation of Tc(V)-DMS has been detected in some benign soft tissue tumors and the exact mechanism of Tc(V)-DMS accumulation remains to be elucidated, these data indicated that Tc(V)-DMS scintigraphy would be of great use in the detection of extension or location of malignant soft tissue tumors.

  8. A simple method for determining split renal function from dynamic {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scintigraphic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, Michal J.; Watson, Gage; Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Babyn, Paul [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Conrad, Gary R. [University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Lexington, KY (United States); Samal, Martin [Charles University Prague and the General University Hospital in Prague, Department of Nuclear Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Wesolowski, Carl A. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Commonly used methods for determining split renal function (SRF) from dynamic scintigraphic data require extrarenal background subtraction and additional correction for intrarenal vascular activity. The use of these additional regions of interest (ROIs) can produce inaccurate results and be challenging, e.g. if the heart is out of the camera field of view. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method for determining SRF called the blood pool compensation (BPC) technique, which is simple to implement, does not require extrarenal background correction and intrinsically corrects for intrarenal vascular activity. In the BPC method SRF is derived from a parametric plot of the curves generated by one blood-pool and two renal ROIs. Data from 107 patients who underwent {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy were used to determine SRF values. Values calculated using the BPC method were compared to those obtained with the integral (IN) and Patlak-Rutland (PR) techniques using Bland-Altman plotting and Passing-Bablok regression. The interobserver variability of the BPC technique was also assessed for two observers. The SRF values obtained with the BPC method did not differ significantly from those obtained with the PR method and showed no consistent bias, while SRF values obtained with the IN method showed significant differences with some bias in comparison to those obtained with either the PR or BPC method. No significant interobserver variability was found between two observers calculating SRF using the BPC method. The BPC method requires only three ROIs to produce reliable estimates of SRF, was simple to implement, and in this study yielded statistically equivalent results to the PR method with appreciable interobserver agreement. As such, it adds a new reliable method for quality control of monitoring relative kidney function. (orig.)

  9. The renal and hepatic distribution of Bence Jones proteins depends on glycosylation: a scintigraphic study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado M.J.B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate renal and liver distribution of two monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains. The chains were purified individually from the urine of patients with multiple myeloma and characterized as lambda light chains with a molecular mass of 28 kDa. They were named BJg (high amount of galactose residues exposed and BJs (sialic acid residues exposed on the basis of carbohydrate content. A scintigraphic study was performed on male Wistar rats weighing 250 g for 60 min after iv administration of 1 mg of each protein (7.4 MBq, as the intact proteins and also after carbohydrate oxidation. Images were obtained with a Siemens gamma camera with a high-resolution collimator and processed with a MicroDelta system. Hepatic and renal distribution were established and are reported as percent of injected dose. Liver uptake of BJg was significantly higher than liver uptake of BJs (94.3 vs 81.4% (P<0.05. This contributed to its greater removal from the intravascular compartment, and consequently lower kidney accumulation of BJg in comparison to BJs (5.7 vs 18.6% (P<0.05. After carbohydrate oxidation, there was a decrease in hepatic accumulation of both proteins and consequently a higher renal overload. The tissue distribution of periodate-treated BJg was similar to that of native BJs: 82.7 vs 81.4% in the liver and 17.3 vs 18.6% in the kidneys. These observations indicate the important role of sugar residues of Bence Jones proteins for their recognition by specific membrane receptors, which leads to differential tissue accumulation and possible toxicity

  10. Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mike, Andrea; Strammer, Erzsebet; Aradi, Mihaly

    2013-01-01

    healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states...... and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right...... inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus). Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed), processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex) and socially...

  11. Variation in the topography of the speech production cortex verified by cortical stimulation and high gamma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Narayana, Shalini; Choudhri, Asim F; Fulton, Stephen P; Boop, Frederick A; Wheless, James W; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2014-12-17

    In this study, we have addressed the question of functional brain reorganization for language in the presence and absence of anatomical lesions in two patients with epilepsy using cortical stimulation mapping and high gamma (HG) activity in subdural grid recordings. In both, the expressive language cortex was defined as the cortical patch below the electrode(s) that when stimulated resulted in speech arrest, and during speech expression tasks generated HG activity. This patch fell within the borders of Broca's area, as defined anatomically, in the case of the patient with a lesion, but outside that area in the other, lesion-free patient. Such results highlight the necessity for presurgical language mapping in all cases of surgery involving the language-dominant hemisphere and suggest that HG activity during expressive language tasks can be informative and helpful in conjunction with cortical stimulation mapping for expressive language mapping.

  12. Grid cells and cortical representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Edvard I; Roudi, Yasser; Witter, Menno P; Kentros, Clifford; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Moser, May-Britt

    2014-07-01

    One of the grand challenges in neuroscience is to comprehend neural computation in the association cortices, the parts of the cortex that have shown the largest expansion and differentiation during mammalian evolution and that are thought to contribute profoundly to the emergence of advanced cognition in humans. In this Review, we use grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex as a gateway to understand network computation at a stage of cortical processing in which firing patterns are shaped not primarily by incoming sensory signals but to a large extent by the intrinsic properties of the local circuit.

  13. Quantitative comparison of cortical and deep grey matter in pathological subtypes of unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, Simon M; Pannek, Kerstin; Fiori, Simona; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen E

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify grey matter changes in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP), differentiating between cortical or deep grey matter (CDGM) lesions, periventricular white matter (PWM) lesions, and unilateral and bilateral lesions. In a cross-sectional study we obtained high resolution structural magnetic resonance images from 72 children (41 males, 31 females, mean age 10y 9mo [SD 3y 1mo], range 5y 1mo-17y 1mo) with UCP (33 left, 39 right hemiplegia; Manual Ability Classification System level I n=29, II n=43; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I n=46, II n=26), and 19 children with typical development (CTD; eight males, 11 females, mean age 11y 2mo [SD 2y 7mo], range 7y 8mo-16y 4mo). Images were classified by lesion type and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and subcortical volumetric analysis. Deep grey matter volumes were not significantly different between children with CDGM and PWM lesions, with the thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus being reduced unilaterally in both groups compared with CTD (p≤0.001). Children with CDGM lesions additionally showed widespread cortical changes involving all lobes using VBM (p<0.01). Children with bilateral lesions had reduced thalamus and putamen volumes bilaterally (p<0.001). The thalamic volume was reduced bilaterally in children with unilateral lesions (p=0.004). Lesions to the PWM cause secondary changes to the deep grey matter structures similar to primary changes seen in CDGM lesions. Despite having a unilateral phenotype, grey matter changes are observed bilaterally, even in children with unilateral lesions. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Scintigraphic evaluation of routine filterwire distal protection in percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Anne; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Distal embolization during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may result in reduced myocardial perfusion, infarct extension and impaired prognosis. In a prospective randomized trial, we assessed the effect of routine filterwire...... distal protection on scintigraphic estimated infarct size. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of routine filterwire distal protection was evaluated in 344 patients with STEMI ... by Sestamibi SPECT) were similar. Final infarct size was not statistically different in the distal protection and the control groups (median [IQR], 6% [1-19] and 5% [1-14], P = .23). Also, secondary endpoints were similar in the two treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Distal protection with a filterwire performed...

  15. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia : Cortical or non-cortical origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Teun W.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Hilgevoord, Anthony A. J.; Linssen, Wim H. J. P.; Groffen, Alexander J. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is characterized by involuntary dystonia and/or chorea triggered by a sudden movement. Cases are usually familial with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of PKD focus on the controversy whether PKD has a cortical or non-co

  16. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  17. Medial orbitofrontal cortex lesion prevents facilitatory effects of d-cycloserine during fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Rodrigo O; Nítola, Laura P; Duran, Johanna M; Prieto, Daysi R; León, Laura A; Cardenas, Fernando P

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of fear extinction have an important clinical relevance to pharmacological and exposure-based therapies for anxiety disorders. Lesions of prefrontal structures impair fear extinction. On the other hand, d-cycloserine is able to enhance this process. We hypothesize that the integrity of cortical structures involved in inhibitory control of emotional responses is crucial for the facilitatory effects of d-cycloserine. Here, we showed that medial orbitofrontal cortex lesion prevents d-cycloserine enhancement of fear extinction. These preliminary results suggest that effects of pharmacological treatments could be dependent on cortical activity state to promote fear memory reduction.

  18. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma

    2011-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  19. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ocular appearance. is discussion does not attempt to classify lesions, but only highlights ... magnifying glass. Examine what you can see and evert the upper ... look at the cornea and feel for pre-auricular and submandibular lymph nodes.

  20. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003850.htm Oropharynx lesion biopsy To use the sharing features on this ... Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX. ...

  1. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal...... or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal...... health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health...

  2. [Preoperative direct cortical and sub-cortical electric stimulation during cerebral surgery in functional areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, H; Capelle, L; Sichez, J P; Bitar, A; Faillot, T; Arthuis, F; Van Effenterre, R; Fohanno, D

    1999-09-01

    Indications of surgical treatment for lesions in functional cerebral areas depend on the ratio between the definitive neurological deficit and the beneficial effect of resection. Detection of eloquent cortex is difficult because of important individual variability. Peroperative direct cortical and subcortical electrical stimulations (DCS) provide the most precise and reliable method currently available allowing identification and preservation of neurons essential for motricity, sensitivity++ and language. We report our preliminary experience with DCS in surgery of intracerebral infiltrative tumors with a consecutive series of 15 patients operated from November 96 through September 97 in our institution. Presenting symptoms in the 15 patients (8 males, 7 females, mean age 43 years) were seizures in 11 cases (73%) and neurological deficit in 4 cases (27%). Clinical examination was normal in 11 patients and revealed hemiparesia in 4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-dimensional reconstruction showed a precentral tumor in 10 cases, central lesion in one patient, postcentral lesion in two cases, right insular tumor (non-dominant hemisphere) in one case. All patients underwent surgical resection using DCS with detection in 13 cases of motor cortex and subcortical pathways under genera anesthesia, in one case of somatosensory area under local anesthesia, and in one case of language areas also under local anesthesia. The tumor was recurrent in two patients had been operated earlier but without DCS. Resection, verified by postoperative MRI, was total in 12 cases (80%) and estimated at 80% in 3 patients. Histological examination revealed an infiltrative glioma in 12 cases (8 low grade astrocytomas, 3 low grade oligodendrogliomas, and one anaplastic oligodendroglioma), and metastases in 3 cases. Eight patients had no postoperative deficit, while the other 7 patients were impaired, with, in all cases except one, complete recovery in 15 days to 2 months. Direct

  3. [Symptoms and lesion localization in visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2004-11-01

    There are two cortical visual processing streams, the ventral and dorsal stream. The ventral visual stream plays the major role in constructing our perceptual representation of the visual world and the objects within it. Disturbance of visual processing at any stage of the ventral stream could result in impairment of visual recognition. Thus we need systematic investigations to diagnose visual agnosia and its type. Two types of category-selective visual agnosia, prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia, are different from others in that patients could recognize a face as a face and buildings as buildings, but could not identify an individual person or building. Neuronal bases of prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia are distinct. Importance of the right fusiform gyrus for face recognition was confirmed by both clinical and neuroimaging studies. Landmark agnosia is related to lesions in the right parahippocampal gyrus. Enlarged lesions including both the right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri can result in prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia at the same time. Category non-selective visual agnosia is related to bilateral occipito-temporal lesions, which is in agreement with the results of neuroimaging studies that revealed activation of the bilateral occipito-temporal during object recognition tasks.

  4. Unusual benign breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.J.R. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gporter@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Lee, A.H.S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Hamilton, L.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); James, J.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    The purpose of this article is to show examples of the radiological (mammography and/or ultrasound) and pathological appearances of unusual benign breast lesions. The conditions covered are granular cell tumours, fibromatosis, nodular fasciitis, myofibroblastomas, haemangiomas, neurofibromas, and leiomyomas. The article includes the first published description of the ultrasound appearance of a myofibroblastoma. Knowledge of these appearances may help confirm or refute radiological-pathological concordance of percutaneous biopsy results during multidisciplinary assessment of these lesions and aid patient management.

  5. Andersson Lesion in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimegalai N, KrishnanKutty K, Panchapakesa Rajendran C, Rukmangatharajan S, Rajeswari S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Andersson lesions are destructive foci that appear at the discovertebral junction in ankylosingspondylitis. We report three cases of ankylosing spondylitis with such lesions. These lesions simulatean infection and in our country, mimic spinal tuberculosis.

  6. Cortical thickness estimation in longitudinal stroke studies: A comparison of 3 measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Pardoe, Heath; Lichter, Renee; Werden, Emilio; Raffelt, Audrey; Cumming, Toby; Brodtmann, Amy

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable controversy about the causes of cognitive decline after stroke, with evidence for both the absence and coexistence of Alzheimer pathology. A reduction in cortical thickness has been shown to be an important biomarker for the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, brain volume changes following stroke are not well described. Cortical thickness estimation presents an ideal way to detect regional and global post-stroke brain atrophy. In this study, we imaged a group of patients in the first month after stroke and at 3 months. We compared three methods of estimating cortical thickness on unmasked images: one surface-based (FreeSurfer) and two voxel-based methods (a Laplacian method and a registration method, DiRecT). We used three benchmarks for our analyses: accuracy of segmentation (especially peri-lesional performance), reproducibility, and biological validity. We found important differences between these methods in cortical thickness values and performance in high curvature areas and peri-lesional regions, but similar reproducibility metrics. FreeSurfer had less reliance on manual boundary correction than the other two methods, while reproducibility was highest in the Laplacian method. A discussion of the caveats for each method and recommendations for use in a stroke population is included. We conclude that both surface- and voxel-based methods are valid for estimating cortical thickness in stroke populations.

  7. Workbench surface editor of brain cortical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Douglas E.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Serra, Luis

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a 3D reach-in tool to manually reconstruct 3D cortical surface patches from 2D brain atlas images. The first application of our cortex editor is building 3D functional maps, specifically Brodmann's areas. This tool may also be useful in clinical practice to adjust incorrectly mapped atlas regions due to the deforming effect of lesions. The cortex editor allows a domain expert to control the correlation of control points across slices. Correct correlation has been difficult for 3D reconstruction algorithms because the atlas slices are far apart and because of the complex topology of the cortex which differs so much from slice to slice. Also, higher precision of the resulting surfaces is demanded since these define 3D brain atlas features upon which future stereotactic surgery may be based. The cortex editor described in this paper provides a tool suitable for a domain expert to use in defining the 3D surface of a Brodmann's area.

  8. Evaluation of biodistribution and imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using [sup 111]In-labeled low-density lipoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashina, Hisayo (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-07-01

    [sup 111]In-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was administered to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits (WHHL group) and control rabbits (control group) to evaluate its biodistribution and scintigraphic images by [gamma]-camera and radioactivity of each organ. With external imaging, the heart, liver, kidney, bone and spleen of each rabbit were observed. By setting the region of interest, the liver/heart ratio of the WHHL group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05), the plasma half life of LDL was longer and radioactivity in blood, heart and aorta was higher in the WHHL group. Each aorta was autoradiographed and significant accumulation of [sup 111]In-labeled-LDL was recognized in the aortic arch, bifurcation of intercostal and celiac artery in the WHHL group. By the use of labeled LDL with the combination of [gamma]-camera, it is capable of detecting the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and imaging atherosclerotic lesions externally. (author).

  9. Cortical Pathology in RRMS: Taking a Cue from Four Sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Calabrese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although grey matter pathology is a relevant aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS both with physical and cognitive rebounds, its pathogenesis is still under investigation. To what extent the familial and sporadic cases of MS differ in cortical pathology has not been elucidated yet. Here we present a multiple case report of four sisters affected by MS, all of them having a very high burden of cortical pathology. Methods. The clinical and grey matter MRI parameters of the patients were compared with those of twenty-five-aged matched healthy women and 25 women affected by sporadic MS (matched for age, disease duration, EDSS, and white matter lesion load. Results. Despite their short disease duration (<5 years, the four sisters showed a significant cortical thinning compared to healthy controls ( and sporadic MS ( and higher CLs number ( and volume ( compared to sporadic MS. Discussion. Although limited to a single family, our observation is worth of interest since it suggests that familial factors may account for a peculiar involvement of the cortex in MS pathology. This hypothesis should be further evaluated in a large number of multiplex MS families.

  10. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in malformations of cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celi Santos Andrade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Malformations of cortical development (MCD result from disruptions in the dynamic process of cerebral corticogenesis and are important causes of epilepsy, motor deficits and cognitive impairment. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate phospholipids metabolism in vivo in a series of patients with epilepsy and MCD. Methods Thirty-seven patients with MCD and 31 control subjects were studied using three-dimensional phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS at a 3.0 T scanner. Quantification methods were applied to the following resonances: phosphoethanolamine (PE, phosphocholine (PC, glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, inorganic phosphate (Pi, phosphocreatine (PCr, and a-, b-, and g-adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The magnesium (Mg2+ levels and pH were calculated based on PCr, Pi and b-ATP chemical shifts. Results Compared to controls, the MCD lesions exhibited lower pH values and higher Mg2+ levels (p<0.05. The lesions also presented significant reduction of GPC and PDE, and an increased PME/PDE ratio. The otherwise normal appearing parenchyma also demonstrated lower pH values in the frontoparietal cortex and bilateral centrum semiovale. Conclusions Our data support the idea that metabolic impairments occur in the lesions of MCD, with propagation to remote normal appearing parenchyma. The results also suggest that there are membrane turnover disturbances in MCD lesions.

  11. Motor cortical thresholds and cortical silent periods in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataroglu, Cengiz; Ozkiziltan, Safa; Baklan, Baris

    2004-10-01

    We studied motor cortical thresholds (TIs) and cortical silent periods (SPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 110 epileptic patients. Sixty-two had primary generalised, 48 had partial type seizures. Fifteen out 110 patients were analysed both before and after anticonvulsant medication. Our aims were to evaluate the TI levels and the duration of SPs in patients with epilepsy and to determine the reliability of TMS in patients with epilepsy. There was no negative effect of TMS on the clinical status and EEG findings in patients with epilepsy. TIs obtained from patients with partial epilepsy were higher than those obtained from both controls and primary epileptics. The duration of SP in patients with primary epileptics was more prolonged than those obtained from controls. There was no correlation between EEG lateralisation and both SP duration and TI values. In de novo patient group, SP duration was significantly prolonged after anticonvulsant medication. We concluded that TMS is a reliable electrophysiological investigation in patients with epilepsy. The analysis of SP duration may be an appropriate investigation in monitoring the effect of anticonvulsant medication on the cortical inhibitory activity.

  12. [Transient cortical blindness--a complication after coronary angiography--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Helena; Kułakowska, Alina; Drozdowski, Wiesław; Dubicki, Artur; Kraśnicki, Paweł

    2008-05-01

    Transient cortical blindness is a very rare complication of cardiovascular and cerebral angiography procedures. We present a case of 63-years-old woman, who developed cortical blindness after coronary angiography. Computed tomography (CT) done immediately after blindness appearance showed bilateral hyperintensive areas (probably due to a leakage of contrast medium) in the occipital and parietal cerebral lobes. All visual symptoms disappeared during 48 hours and CT scan repeated after sight recovery did not show any focal lesions in the brain. A breakdown of the blood-brain barrier with direct contrast neurotoxicity seems to be the causal factor of neurological changes observed in our patient after coronary angiography.

  13. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-01-17

    Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  14. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  15. Basal forebrain neurons suppress amygdala kindling via cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic projections in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, I; Leanza, G; Nanobashvili, A; Kokaia, M; Lindvall, O

    2000-06-01

    Intraventricular administration of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin in rats has been shown to cause a selective loss of cholinergic afferents to the hippocampus and cortical areas, and to facilitate seizure development in hippocampal kindling. Here we demonstrate that this lesion also accelerates seizure progression when kindling is induced by electrical stimulations in the amygdala. However, whereas intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin facilitated the development of the initial stages of hippocampal kindling, the same lesion promoted the late stages of amygdala kindling. To explore the role of various parts of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in amygdala kindling, selective lesions of the cholinergic projections to either hippocampus or cortex were produced by intraparenchymal injections of 192 IgG-saporin into medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band or nucleus basalis, respectively. Cholinergic denervation of the cortical regions caused acceleration of amygdala kindling closely resembling that observed after the more widespread lesion induced by intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin. In contrast, removal of the cholinergic input to the hippocampus had no effect on the development of amygdala kindling. These data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons suppress kindling elicited from amygdala, and that this dampening effect is mediated via cortical but not hippocampal projections.

  16. Cortical regulation of striatal projection neurons and interneurons in a Parkinson's disease rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-jia Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Striatal neurons can be either projection neurons or interneurons, with each type exhibiting distinct susceptibility to various types of brain damage. In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine was injected into the right medial forebrain bundle to induce dopamine depletion, and/or ibotenic acid was injected into the M1 cortex to induce motor cortex lesions. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay showed that dopaminergic depletion results in significant loss of striatal projection neurons marked by dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, molecular weight 32 kDa, calbindin, and μ-opioid receptor, while cortical lesions reversed these pathological changes. After dopaminergic deletion, the number of neuropeptide Y-positive striatal interneurons markedly increased, which was also inhibited by cortical lesioning. No noticeable change in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons was found in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats. Striatal projection neurons and interneurons show different susceptibility to dopaminergic depletion. Further, cortical lesions inhibit striatal dysfunction and damage induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, which provides a new possibility for clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  18. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Cortical damage in the posterior visual pathway in patients with sialidosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin-Song; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lai, Szu-Chia; Kao, Ling-Yuh; Liu, Laura; Lin, Wey-Yil; Wu, Yi-Ming; Chen, Yao-Liang; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2016-02-03

    In order to identify the cortical changes in patients with Sialidosis type 1, diffusion tensor imaging and resting state fMRI were acquired from 11 patients and 11 sex/age matched normal controls after clinical evaluations. The neuroimages from each participant were normalized and parcellated according to the Automatic Anatomical Labeling. Both the mean diffusivity and the corresponding functional connectivity were calculated from each cortical region. The white matter tract integrity was examined. The difference between patients and controls was examined using Student's t-test and between patients with either homozygous or heterozygous mutations by Mann-Whitney U test, both at a threshold of 0.05. Increased mean diffusivity throughout the brain can be noticed in the patients, together with a compromised white matter tracts integrity. The most severely affected cortical regions are in the occipital lobe. Decreased functional connectivity was from the temporal and occipital lobes to the hippocampus and parahippocampus. In contrast, connectivity from thalamus was enhanced. Diffused cortical atrophy with posterior focal lesions was noticed. We concluded that MRI observed functional changes in the posterior cortical pathways in the patients with Sialidosis. The observation might be related to the cortical blindness due to an altered neural network and a compromised visual pathway in the patients.

  20. Cortical sensorimotor integration: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuev, A S

    1989-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that neocortex is constructed from structural neuronal modules (columns and rings). Each module is considered as unit for cortical sensorimotor integration. Complex functional relationships between modules can be arranged by intracortical inhibition participation. High pronounced neocortical plasticity ensures the process of continuous formation of various dominating operative constellations comprising stable neuronal modules whose component structure and distributive characteristic are determined by the dominant motivation and the central motor program.

  1. CT and MR Studies of Giant Dermoid Cyst Associated to Fat Dissemination at the Cortical and Cisternal Cerebral Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D'Amore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on CT and MR studies of adult patient with giant lesion of the posterior cranial fossa associated with micro- and macroaccumulations with density and signal like “fat” at the level of the cortical and cisternal cerebral spaces. This condition is compatible with previous asymptomatic ruptured dermoid cyst. Histological findings confirm the hypothesis formulated using the imaging. We also integrate elements of differential diagnosis by another giant lesion of the posterior cranial fossa.

  2. [Parietal Cortices and Body Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Amemiya, Kaoru; Morita, Tomoyo

    2016-11-01

    Proprioceptive signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints contribute to the formation of both the human body schema and the body image. In this chapter, we introduce various types of bodily illusions that are elicited by proprioceptive inputs, and we discuss distinct functions implemented by different parietal cortices. First, we illustrate the primary importance of the motor network in the processing of proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals originating from muscle spindles. Next, we argue that the right inferior parietal cortex, in concert with the inferior frontal cortex (both regions connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus-SLF III), may be involved in the conscious experience of body image. Further, we hypothesize other functions of distinct parietal regions: the association between internal hand motor representation with external object representation in the left inferior parietal cortex, visuo-kinesthetic processing in the bilateral posterior parietal cortices, and the integration of somatic signals from different body parts in the higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices. Our results indicate that a distinct parietal region, in concert with its anatomically and functionally connected frontal regions, probably plays specialized roles in the processing of body-related information.

  3. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... managementshould be limited to situations involving control of the disease through preventive and noninvasive means at a patient level, whereascarious lesion managementcontrols the disease symptoms at the tooth level. While it is not possible to directly relate the visual appearance of carious lesions' clinical...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  4. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  5. Basal forebrain cholinergic input is not essential for lesion-induced plasticity in mature auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Marc R; Brown, Mel; Irvine, Dexter R F

    2005-11-23

    The putative role of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mediating lesion-induced plasticity in topographic cortical representations was investigated. Cholinergic immunolesions were combined with unilateral restricted cochlear lesions in adult cats, demonstrating the consequence of cholinergic depletion on lesion-induced plasticity in primary auditory cortex (AI). Immunolesions almost eliminated the cholinergic input to AI, while cochlear lesions produced broad high-frequency hearing losses. The results demonstrate that the near elimination of cholinergic input does not disrupt reorganization of the tonotopic representation of the lesioned (contralateral) cochlea in AI and does not affect the normal representation of the unlesioned (ipsilateral) cochlea. It is concluded that cholinergic basal forebrain input to AI is not essential for the occurrence of lesion-induced plasticity in AI.

  6. Putaminal alteration in multiple sclerosis patients with spinal cord lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Hilga; Rolfsnes, Hans O; Montag, Swantje; Wilting, Janine; Droby, Amgad; Reuter, Eva; Gawehn, Joachim; Zipp, Frauke; Gröger, Adriane

    2015-10-01

    Typical multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions occur in the brain as well as in the spinal cord. However, two extreme magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes appear occasionally: those with predominantly spinal cord lesions (MS + SL) and those with cerebral lesions and no detectable spinal lesions (MS + CL). We assessed whether morphological differences can be found between these two extreme phenotypes. We examined 19 patients with MS + SL, 18 with MS + CL and 20 controls. All subjects were examined using magnetic resonance imaging, including anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging sequences. Voxel-based morphologic and regions of interest-based analyses and tract-based spatial statistics were performed. Patients also underwent neuropsychological testing. Demographic, clinical and neuropsychological characteristics did not differ between MS + SL and MS + CL patients. Patients with MS + SL showed significantly larger putamen volumes than those with MS + CL which correlated negatively with disability. Compared to controls, only MS + CL revealed clear cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, which correlated with cerebral lesion volume. Additionally, extensive white matter microstructural damage was found only in MS + CL compared to MS + SL and controls in the tract-based spatial statistics. Higher putamen volumes in MS + SL could suggest compensatory mechanisms in this area responsible for motor control. Widely reduced fractional anisotropy values in MS + CL were caused by higher cerebral lesion volume and thus presumably stronger demyelination, which subsequently leads to higher global gray matter atrophy.

  7. Multiple effects of prefrontal lesions on task-switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Shallice

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the performance of 41 patients with focal prefrontal cortical lesions and 38 healthy controls on a task-switching procedure. Three different conditions were evaluated: single tasks without switches and two switching tasks with the currently relevant task signalled either 1500 ms (Long Cue or 200 ms (Short Cue before the stimulus. Patients with Superior Medial lesions showed both a general slowing of reaction time (RT and a signifi cantly increased switch cost as measured by RT. No other prefrontal group showed this increased reaction time switch cost. Increased error rates in the switching conditions, on the other hand, were observed in patients with Inferior Medial lesions and, to a lesser extent, ones with Superior Medial lesions. Patients with left dorsolateral lesions (9/46v showed slower learning of the task as indicated by a high error rate early on. Several different processes are involved in task-switching and these are selectively disrupted by lesions to specifi c areas of the frontal lobes.

  8. Cortical gene expression in spinal cord injury and repair: insight into the functional complexity of the neural regeneration program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eKruse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI results in the formation of a fibrous scar acting as a growth barrier for regenerating axons at the lesion site. We have previously shown (Klapka et al., 2005 that transient suppression of the inhibitory lesion scar in rat spinal cord leads to long distance axon regeneration, retrograde rescue of axotomized cortical motoneurons and improvement of locomotor function. Here we applied a systemic approach to investigate for the first time specific and dynamic alterations in the cortical gene expression profile following both thoracic SCI and regeneration-promoting anti-scarring treatment (AST. In order to monitor cortical gene expression we carried out microarray analyses using total RNA isolated from layer V/VI of rat sensorimotor cortex at 1-60 days post-operation (dpo. We demonstrate that cortical neurons respond to injury by massive changes in gene expression, starting as early as 1 dpo. AST, in turn, results in profound modifications of the lesion-induced expression profile. The treatment attenuates SCI-triggered transcriptional changes of genes related to inhibition of axon growth and impairment of cell survival, while upregulating the expression of genes associated with axon outgrowth, cell protection and neural development. Thus, AST not only modifies the local environment impeding spinal cord regeneration by reduction of fibrous scarring in the injured spinal cord, but, in addition, strikingly changes the intrinsic capacity of cortical pyramidal neurons towards enhanced cell maintenance and axonal regeneration.

  9. Fast renal trapping of porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH and equine CG (eCG which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by following half-lives of pLH in piglets with hepatic portal circulation shunted or not. It was expected that such a shunt would enhance the short half-life of pLH. Subsequently, scintigraphic imaging of both 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in intact rats to compare their routes and rates of distribution and elimination. Methods Native pLH or eCG was injected to normal piglets and pLH was tested in liver-shunted anæsthetized piglet. Blood samples were recovered sequentially over one hour time and the hormone concentrations were determined by a specific ELISA method. Scintigraphic imaging of 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in rats using a OPTI-CGR gamma camera. Results In liver-shunted piglets, the half-life of pLH was found to be as short as in intact piglets (5 min. In the rat, the half-life of pLH was also found to be very short (3–6 min and 123I-pLH was found to accumulate in high quantity in less than 10 min post injection at the level of kidneys but not in the liver. 123I-eCG didn't accumulate in any organ in the rats during the first hour, plasma concentrations of this gonadotropin being still elevated (80% at this time. Conclusion In both the porcine and rat species, the liver is not responsible for the rapid elimination of pLH from the circulation compared to eCG. Our scintigraphic experiments suggest that the very short circulatory half-life of LH is due to rapid renal trapping.

  10. Scintigraphic findings on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO images in Gaucher`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, G. [Nuclear Medicine Service, DIMI, University of Genoa (Italy); Molea, N. [Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); La Civita, L. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy); Porciello, G. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy); Lazzeri, E. [Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Ferri, C. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    We report here on the use of the lipophilic cationic complex technetium-99m sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI), employed as an indicator of increased cellular density and metabolic activity, to evaluate Gaucher cell infiltrates in the bone marrow; {sup 99m}Tc-hexametazime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was also employed, as a pure indicator of lipidic infiltration in the bone marrow. A 67-year-old patient with known type 1 Gaucher`s disease presented with a painful left hip and knee and difficulty in gait subsequent to traumatic fracture of the left femoral neck that had required implant of a fixation screw-plaque. Bone scan with {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate revealed reduced uptake at the distal metaphyseal-epiphyseal femoral region. In addition, whole-body maps and spot-view acquisitions of the thighs and legs were recorded at both 30 min and 2.5 h after the injection of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI: the scintigraphic pattern clearly showed increased uptake at several sites involved by Gaucher deposits in the bone marrow (both knees, with variable intensity in different areas), matching the bone changes detected by conventional x-ray. The target to non-target ratios slowly decreased with time, from an average value of 2.25 in the early scan to an average value of 2 in the delayed scan. The lipid-soluble agent {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO exhibited a superimposable scintigraphic pattern of accumulation at the involved sites, though with lower target to non-target ratios (1.27-1.48). The results obtained in this patient suggest a potential role of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in the scintigraphic evaluation of Gaucher`s lipid deposits in the bone marrow. If the results are confirmed in other patients, this radiopharmaceutical would offer clear advantages over {sup 133}Xe because of its wider availability and greater practicality (i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI versus inhalation of {sup 133}Xe, and use of a single gamma camera instead of two as with {sup 133}Xe). (orig.). With 3 figs.

  11. Traumatic plexus lesion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, R.T.M. van; Cohen, S.P.; Kleef, M. van; Mekhail, N.; Huygen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pain, motor, and sensory deficits characterize patients with a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus. Frequently, more severe injuries co-exist that require immediate surgical attention. Early rehabilitation and physical therapy are the cornerstones of treatment. Pharmacological management can be

  12. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  13. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  14. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  15. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  16. [Case of transient cortical blindness due to thrombosis of the transverse sinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaki, Shingo; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kitani, Mitsuhiro

    2008-05-01

    An 62-year-old man presented visual impairment and generalized seizure. Brain CT performed on the day of admission showed thrombus in the right transverse sinus, and DWI showed high intensity areas in the bilateral occipital and parietal lobes. According to bilateral occipital lobe lesions, we considered his visual impairment as cortical blindness. He was diagnosed as venous sinus thrombosis and intravenous heparin, edaravone and osmotic diuretics were administered. MR venography performed after starting of intravenous treatment showed flow gap in the left transverse sinus but no abnormalities in the right transverse sinus. On the second day of hospitalization, his cortical blindness showed improvement and thrombus in the right transverse sinus were disappeared. This indicated that his left transverse sinus originally hypoplastic, thrombus and hemostatis in the right transverse sinus (his dominant side) caused his cortical blindness and generalized seizure. There was a recanalization in the right transverse sinus after heparin therapy.

  17. Importance of diazepam administration during electroencephalography in the differential diagnosis of cortical visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yis, Uluc; Topcu, Yasemin; Bayram, Erhan; Karakaya, Pakize; Cakmakci, Handan; Kurul, Semra Hiz

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with acute visual loss due to cortical blindness. Two weeks after the visual symptoms, the patient developed behavioral abnormalities. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperintense lesions at parieto-occipital lobes on T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. Sleep and awake electroencephalography (EEG) were normal, but diazepam administration revealed bilateral periodic synchronous complexes occurring every 20 to 30 seconds. Elevated measles antibody titers in cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We conclude that visual loss due to cortical blindness is an important finding of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Diazepam administration during EEG should be a part of investigation in cases with unexplained cortical blindness.

  18. Non-local means inpainting of MS lesions in longitudinal image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eGuizard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In medical imaging, multiple sclerosis (MS lesions can lead to confounding effects in automatic morphometric processing tools such as registration, segmentation and cortical extraction and subsequently alter individual longitudinal measurements. Multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI inpainting techniques have been proposed to decrease the impact of MS lesions in medical image processing, however, most of these methods make the assumption that lesions only affect white matter. Here, we propose a method to fill lesion regions using the patch-based non-local mean (NLM strategy. The method consists of a hierarchical concentric filling strategy after identification of the lesion region. The lesion is filled iteratively, based on the surrounding tissue intensity, using an onion peel strategy. This concentric technique presents the advantage of preserving the local information and therefore the continuity of the anatomy and does not require identification of any a priori normal brain tissues. The method is first evaluated on simulated artificial MS lesions and, second, we performed a power analysis to evaluate brain atrophy and ventricular growth in patients with MS. The method was compared to two different publicly available methods (FSL lesion fill and Lesion LEAP and more classic method approaches. The proposed method was shown to exceed the other methods in reproducing the fidelity of the images where the lesions were inpainted. The method also improved the power to detect brain atrophy or ventricular growth by decreasing the sample size by 25% in the presence of MS lesions.

  19. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions.

  20. Disorders of cortical formation: MR imaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, A A K; Kandell, A Y; Elsorogy, L G; Elmongy, A; Basett, A A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the embryologic stages of the cerebral cortex, illustrate the classification of disorders of cortical formation, and finally describe the main MR imaging features of these disorders. Disorders of cortical formation are classified according to the embryologic stage of the cerebral cortex at which the abnormality occurred. MR imaging shows diminished cortical thickness and sulcation in microcephaly, enlarged dysplastic cortex in hemimegalencephaly, and ipsilateral focal cortical thickening with radial hyperintense bands in focal cortical dysplasia. MR imaging detects smooth brain in classic lissencephaly, the nodular cortex with cobblestone cortex with congenital muscular dystrophy, and the ectopic position of the gray matter with heterotopias. MR imaging can detect polymicrogyria and related syndromes as well as the types of schizencephaly. We concluded that MR imaging is essential to demonstrate the morphology, distribution, and extent of different disorders of cortical formation as well as the associated anomalies and related syndromes.

  1. Transient cortical blindness following vertebral angiography in a young adult with cerebellar haemangioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, Viktor; Stojanovic, Sanja; Avramov, Predrag [Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Centre of Radiology, Novi Sad (RS); Koprivsek, Katarina [Institute of Oncology, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Sremska Kamenica (RS); Vulekovic, Petar [Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Neurosurgery Clinic, Novi Sad (RS)

    2009-11-15

    Transient cortical blindness is reported to occur in 0.3% to 1% of cerebral angiography procedures. It develops within minutes of contrast medium injection and lasts for up to several days. We report a long episode of transient cortical blindness in a 17-year-old boy with cerebellar haemangioblastoma, which started during the preoperative vertebral angiography and lasted for 5 days. CT performed 2 days after the sudden onset of bilateral visual loss showed multiple asymmetrical lesions within the brain parenchyma in the distribution of the posterior cerebral circulation. Even though the patient's vision was completely restored 5 days after angiography, repeat MRI performed 2 months after angiography showed improvement but with residual lesions in the thalami, cerebellum and occipital lobe. (orig.)

  2. Transient cortical blindness following vertebral angiography in a young adult with cerebellar haemangioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Viktor; Koprivsek, Katarina; Stojanovic, Sanja; Avramov, Predrag; Vulekovic, Petar

    2009-11-01

    Transient cortical blindness is reported to occur in 0.3% to 1% of cerebral angiography procedures. It develops within minutes of contrast medium injection and lasts for up to several days. We report a long episode of transient cortical blindness in a 17-year-old boy with cerebellar haemangioblastoma, which started during the preoperative vertebral angiography and lasted for 5 days. CT performed 2 days after the sudden onset of bilateral visual loss showed multiple asymmetrical lesions within the brain parenchyma in the distribution of the posterior cerebral circulation. Even though the patient's vision was completely restored 5 days after angiography, repeat MRI performed 2 months after angiography showed improvement but with residual lesions in the thalami, cerebellum and occipital lobe.

  3. A Rare Hydrocephalus Complication: Cortical Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Göçmen, Rahşan; Işıkay, Ayşe İlksen; Tekşam, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Cortical blindness related to bilateral occipital lobe infarction is an extremely rare complication of hydrocephalus. Compression of the posterior cerebral artery, secondary to tentorial herniation, is the cause of occipital infarction. Particularly in children and mentally ill patients, cortical blindness may be missed. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is important. We present herein a child of ventricular shunt malfunction complicated by cortical blindness.

  4. Visual neglect in posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Katia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, there is a progressive impairment of high-level visual functions and parietal damage, which might predict the occurrence of visual neglect. However, neglect may pass undetected if not assessed with specific tests, and might therefore be underestimated in PCA. In this prospective study, we aimed at establishing the side, the frequency and the severity of visual neglect, visual extinction, and primary visual field defects in an unselected sample of PCA patients. Methods Twenty-four right-handed PCA patients underwent a standardized battery of neglect tests. Visual fields were examined clinically by the confrontation method. Results Sixteen of the 24 patients (66% had signs of visual neglect on at least one test, and fourteen (58% also had visual extinction or hemianopia. Five patients (21% had neither neglect nor visual field defects. As expected, left-sided neglect was more severe than right-sided neglect. However, right-sided neglect resulted more frequently in this population (29% than in previous studies on focal brain lesions. Conclusion When assessed with specific visuospatial tests, visual neglect is frequent in patients with PCA. Diagnosis of neglect is important because of its negative impact on daily activities. Clinicians should consider the routine use of neglect tests to screen patients with high-level visual deficits. The relatively high frequency of right-sided neglect in neurodegenerative patients supports the hypothesis that bilateral brain damage is necessary for right-sided neglect signs to occur, perhaps because of the presence in the right hemisphere of crucial structures whose damage contributes to neglect.

  5. Decreased cortical inhibition and yet cerebellar pathology in 'familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Bour, Lo J.; Edwards, Mark J.; Brown, Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Rozemuller-Kwakkel, Johanna M.; Koehler, Peter J.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Rothwell, John C.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Cortical hyperexcitability is a feature of "familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy" (FCMTE). However, neuropathological investigations in a single FCMTE patient showed isolated cerebellar pathology. Pathological investigations in a second FCMTE patient, reported here, confirmed cerebellar

  6. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy.

  7. Detection and quantification of regional cortical gray matter damage in multiple sclerosis utilizing gradient echo MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical gray matter (GM damage is now widely recognized in multiple sclerosis (MS. The standard MRI does not reliably detect cortical GM lesions, although cortical volume loss can be measured. In this study, we demonstrate that the gradient echo MRI can reliably and quantitatively assess cortical GM damage in MS patients using standard clinical scanners. High resolution multi-gradient echo MRI was used for regional mapping of tissue-specific MRI signal transverse relaxation rate values (R2* in 10 each relapsing–remitting, primary-progressive and secondary-progressive MS subjects. A voxel spread function method was used to correct artifacts induced by background field gradients. R2* values from healthy controls (HCs of varying ages were obtained to establish baseline data and calculate ΔR2* values – age-adjusted differences between MS patients and HC. Thickness of cortical regions was also measured in all subjects. In cortical regions, ΔR2* values of MS patients were also adjusted for changes in cortical thickness. Symbol digit modalities (SDMT and paced auditory serial addition (PASAT neurocognitive tests, as well as Expanded Disability Status Score, 25-foot timed walk and nine-hole peg test results were also obtained on all MS subjects. We found that ΔR2* values were lower in multiple cortical GM and normal appearing white matter (NAWM regions in MS compared with HC. ΔR2* values of global cortical GM and several specific cortical regions showed significant (p < 0.05 correlations with SDMT and PASAT scores, and showed better correlations than volumetric measures of the same regions. Neurological tests not focused on cognition (Expanded Disability Status Score, 25-foot timed walk and nine-hole peg tests showed no correlation with cortical GM ΔR2* values. The technique presented here is robust and reproducible. It requires less than 10 min and can be implemented on any MRI scanner. Our results show that quantitative tissue-specific R2

  8. Negative Correlations in Visual Cortical Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chelaru, Mircea I; Dragoi, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    .... Whereas positive noise correlations have been extensively studied using experimental and theoretical tools, the functional role of negative correlations in cortical circuits has remained elusive...

  9. Detection of epileptogenic cortical malformations with surface-based MRI morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thesen

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the detection of structural abnormalities in patients with epilepsy. However, many focal abnormalities remain undetected in routine visual inspection. Here we use an automated, surface-based method for quantifying morphometric features related to epileptogenic cortical malformations to detect abnormal cortical thickness and blurred gray-white matter boundaries. Using MRI morphometry at 3T with surface-based spherical averaging techniques that precisely align anatomical structures between individual brains, we compared single patients with known lesions to a large normal control group to detect clusters of abnormal cortical thickness, gray-white matter contrast, local gyrification, sulcal depth, jacobian distance and curvature. To assess the effects of threshold and smoothing on detection sensitivity and specificity, we systematically varied these parameters with different thresholds and smoothing levels. To test the effectiveness of the technique to detect lesions of epileptogenic character, we compared the detected structural abnormalities to expert-tracings, intracranial EEG, pathology and surgical outcome in a homogeneous patient sample. With optimal parameters and by combining thickness and GWC, the surface-based detection method identified 92% of cortical lesions (sensitivity with few false positives (96% specificity, successfully discriminating patients from controls 94% of the time. The detected structural abnormalities were related to the seizure onset zones, abnormal histology and positive outcome in all surgical patients. However, the method failed to adequately describe lesion extent in most cases. Automated surface-based MRI morphometry, if used with optimized parameters, may be a valuable additional clinical tool to improve the detection of subtle or previously occult malformations and therefore could improve identification of patients with intractable focal epilepsy who may benefit from

  10. Lesiones en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Gimeno, Silvio

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El incremento de la actividad física y del deporte, en las sociedades llamadas desarrolladas, ha traído consigo beneficios claros para la salud, reflejados en diferentes indicadores de salud. Simultáneamente, el deporte de competición obliga a una dedicación diaria a intensidad de entrenamiento, con objeto de obtener los elevados requerimientos físicos que exige la competición. Todo ello ha traído consigo la aparición de numerosas lesiones, fundamentalmente del sistema músculo- esquelético.
    Se exponen en este trabajo consideraciones históricas, la epidemiología de la lesión deportiva y se describen, concisamente, algunas de las lesiones más habituales y significativas que afectan a músculos, tendones y sistema esquelético.

  11. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, ...

  12. Why acute unilateral vestibular cortex lesions mostly manifest without vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    The aim of the current study was, first, to determine the critical causative vestibular areas that in exceptional cases manifest with transient vertigo or dizziness in acute strokes of the middle cerebral artery, and second, to try to explain why in most cases unilateral lesions of these areas manifest without vertigo. We determined the ischemic areas of the 10 published cases by overlapping the CT/MRI lesions and attributed them to the temporoparietal vestibular network. These overlap areas were located either in the posterior retroinsular cortex (n = 8), i.e., the parieto-insular vestibular cortex, or the separate parietal vestibular cortex (n = 2). Thus, rare vestibular cortical vertigo is mostly elicited by acute lesions of the core region of the retroinsular vestibular network. However, the more interesting question is related to the lack of cortical vertigo when this area is affected. We propose a concept to explain how the unaffected opposite hemisphere can suppress vertigo. This is based on visual-vestibular interaction for motion perception and orientation. It is the hemisphere in which vestibular and visual inputs are in agreement, which is the more reliable and determines the global perception of body orientation and motion. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Relationship between brain lesion characteristics and communication in preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Fiori, Simona; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2016-11-01

    MRI shows promise as a prognostic tool for clinical findings such as gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy(CP), however the relationship with communication skills requires exploration. To examine the relationship between the type and severity of brain lesion on MRI and communication skills in children with CP. 131 children with CP (73 males(56%)), mean corrected age(SD) 28(5) months, Gross Motor Functional Classification System distribution: I=57(44%), II=14(11%), III=19(14%), IV=17(13%), V=24(18%). Children were assessed on the Communication and Symbolic Behavioral Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Structural MRI was analysed with reference to type and semi-quantitative assessment of the severity of brain lesion. Children were classified for motor type, distribution and GMFCS. The relationships between type/severity of brain lesion and communication ability were analysed using multivariable tobit regression. Children with periventricular white matter lesions had better speech than children with cortical/deep grey matter lesions (β=-2.6, 95%CI=-5.0, -0.2, p=0.04). Brain lesion severity on the semi-quantitative scale was related to overall communication skills (β=-0.9, 95%CI=-1.4, -0.5, p1 SD below children with periventricular white matter lesions. Children with more severe brain lesions on MRI had poorer overall communication skills. Children with CP born at term had poorer communication than those born prematurely and were more likely to have cortical and deep grey matter lesions. Gross motor function better accounted for overall communication skills than the type of brain lesion or brain lesion severity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Biggins, John S; Mahadevan, L

    2015-01-01

    The exterior of the mammalian brain - the cerebral cortex - has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highl...

  15. Cortical control of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müri, René M

    2016-06-01

    The present Review deals with the motor control of facial expressions in humans. Facial expressions are a central part of human communication. Emotional face expressions have a crucial role in human nonverbal behavior, allowing a rapid transfer of information between individuals. Facial expressions can be either voluntarily or emotionally controlled. Recent studies in nonhuman primates and humans have revealed that the motor control of facial expressions has a distributed neural representation. At least five cortical regions on the medial and lateral aspects of each hemisphere are involved: the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area on the medial wall, and the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex. The results of studies in humans and nonhuman primates suggest that the innervation of the face is bilaterally controlled for the upper part and mainly contralaterally controlled for the lower part. Furthermore, the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area are essential for the voluntary control of facial expressions. In contrast, the cingulate cortical areas are important for emotional expression, because they receive input from different structures of the limbic system.

  16. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  17. An unexpected lumbar lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report details an interesting case of suspected spinal bifida in an obstetric patient who presented for an elective cesarean section. A large scarred/dimpled area, surrounded by significant hair growth in the region of the lumbar spine had been missed in multiple antenatal and preoperative assessments and was recognized on the day of the surgery as the patient was being prepared for spinal anesthesia. The patient was uncertain regarding the pathology of the lesion, and all investigations relating to this had been undertaken in Pakistan where she lived as a child. General anesthesia was undertaken because magnetic resonance imaging had not been performed and tethering of the spinal cord could not be ruled out clinically. The patient suffered from significant blood loss intra and postoperatively, requiring a two unit blood transfusion. She was discharged after 5 days in the hospital. This case highlights the need for thorough examination in all obstetric patients presenting to the preoperative clinic, focusing on the airway, vascular access, and lumbar spine. Patients may not always disclose certain information due to a lack of understanding, embarrassment, forgetfulness, or language barriers. Significant aspects of their care may have been undertaken abroad and access to these notes is often limited. Preoperative detection of the lesion would have allowed further investigation and imaging of the lesion and enabled more comprehensive discussions with the patient regarding anesthetic options and risk.

  18. Role of motor evoked potentials in diagnosis of cauda equina and lumbosacral cord lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, V; Pilato, F; Oliviero, A; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Tonali, P A

    2004-12-28

    To determine the diagnostic value of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the diagnosis of lumbosacral cord disorders. MEPs in 37 patients with sensory and motor deficits in the lower limbs were studied. MRI demonstrated spinal cord involvement in 10 patients and cauda equina lesions in 27 patients. A double determination of central motor conduction time (CMCT), calculated as the difference between the latencies of responses evoked by cortical and paravertebral magnetic stimulation and as the difference between the latency of cortical MEP and the total peripheral conduction time calculated from the F-wave latency, enabled discrimination between a delay along the proximal root and a delay along the corticospinal tract. An abnormality of the CMCT calculated with both techniques is indicative of central motor pathway damage, whereas an abnormality of the CMCT calculated from the latency of responses evoked by paravertebral magnetic stimulation associated with a normal CMCT calculated from the F-wave latency suggests a cauda equina lesion. Neurophysiologic findings strongly correlated with the lesion site documented by MRI (cauda equina or lumbosacral cord). All patients with MR evidence of cord involvement had an abnormality of CMCT calculated with both methods, suggesting a lesion of central motor pathways. Clinical examination often failed to document a spinal cord lesion, suggesting pure peripheral involvement in 5 of the 10 patients with MR evidence of cord lesion. Motor evoked potential recording is an accurate and easily applicable test for the diagnosis of lumbosacral spinal cord lesions.

  19. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  20. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  1. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  2. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  3. In vivo high-resolution 7 Tesla MRI shows early and diffuse cortical alterations in CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guio, François; Reyes, Sonia; Vignaud, Alexandre; Duering, Marco; Ropele, Stefan; Duchesnay, Edouard; Chabriat, Hugues; Jouvent, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Recent data suggest that early symptoms may be related to cortex alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), a monogenic model of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The aim of this study was to investigate cortical alterations using both high-resolution T2* acquisitions obtained with 7 Tesla MRI and structural T1 images with 3 Tesla MRI in CADASIL patients with no or only mild symptomatology (modified Rankin's scale ≤1 and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥24). Complete reconstructions of the cortex using 7 Tesla T2* acquisitions with 0.7 mm isotropic resolution were obtained in 11 patients (52.1±13.2 years, 36% male) and 24 controls (54.8±11.0 years, 42% male). Seven Tesla T2* within the cortex and cortical thickness and morphology obtained from 3 Tesla images were compared between CADASIL and control subjects using general linear models. MMSE, brain volume, cortical thickness and global sulcal morphology did not differ between groups. By contrast, T2* measured by 7 Tesla MRI was significantly increased in frontal, parietal, occipital and cingulate cortices in patients after correction for multiple testing. These changes were not related to white matter lesions, lacunes or microhemorrhages in patients having no brain atrophy compared to controls. Seven Tesla MRI, by contrast to state of the art post-processing of 3 Tesla acquisitions, shows diffuse T2* alterations within the cortical mantle in CADASIL whose origin remains to be determined.

  4. Analysis of Altered Micro RNA Expression Profiles in Focal Cortical Dysplasia IIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Liu, Chang-Qing; Li, Tian-Fu; Guan, Yu-Guang; Zhou, Jian; Qi, Xue-Ling; Yang, Yu-Tao; Deng, Jia-Hui; Xu, Zhi-Qing David; Luan, Guo-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia type IIB is a commonly encountered subtype of developmental malformation of the cerebral cortex and is often associated with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. In this study, to investigate the molecular etiology of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB, the authors performed micro ribonucleic acid (RNA) microarray on surgical specimens from 5 children (2 female and 3 male, mean age was 73.4 months, range 50-112 months) diagnosed of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB and matched normal tissue adjacent to the lesion. In all, 24 micro RNAs were differentially expressed in focal cortical dysplasia type IIB, and the microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then the putative target genes of the differentially expressed micro RNAs were identified by bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, biological significance of the target genes was evaluated by investigating the pathways in which the genes were enriched, and the Hippo signaling pathway was proposed to be highly related with the pathogenesis of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The Feasibility of Ultrasonography in Defining the Size of Jaw Osseous Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shahidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Jaw bone lesions are common pathologic conditions. The role of ultrasonography in evaluation of the extra-osseous lesions is confirmed, however, this imaging modality is not the diagnostic routine for the intra-osseous jaw lesions. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonography in diagnosis of intra-osseous jaw lesions concerning their size and content and also to study its correlation with the histopathological findings. Materials and Method: For this study, 15 patients with intra-osseous jaw lesions in the maxilla and mandible were selected from those referred to the Department of Oral Surgery. Panoramic imaging, computed tomography (CT or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and ultrasonography (USG were performed for all the lesions. The size of the lesions was measured by USG and then compared with CT or CBCT. Moreover, the correlation amongst the echographic patterns and histopathologic results was evaluated. Results: In 12 cases, size values were in complete agreement with CT or CBCT. The size of 3 lesions could not be measured by the radiologist due to the thickness of buccal cortical plate. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested that USG might be feasible in estimating the size of intra-osseous jaw lesions with little underestimation. This study also confirmed that ultrasound imaging was a very useful imaging technique which could provide significant diagnostic information regarding the content of jaw bone lesions where the buccal bone thickness was thin enough.

  6. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  7. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  8. Cortical reorganization in children with connatal spastic hemiparesis - a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study; Kortikale Reorganisation bei Kindern mit konnataler spastischer Hemiparese - eine funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie-(fMRT-)Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany). Sektion fuer Neuroradiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Neuropaediatrie; Ulmer, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany). Sektion fuer Neuroradiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie; Wolff, S.; Jansen, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany). Sektion fuer Neuroradiologie; Stephani, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Neuropaediatrie

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: We applied fMRI to investigate atypical cortical activation in patients with connatal spastic hemiparesis using voluntary movements of the hand, foot, and tongue. The relation between the findings from fMRI and the motor dysfunction was examined. Materials and Methods: 11 patients with connatal spastic hemiparesis were studied. Eight of these patients had periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and three patients had cortical-subcortical lesions. To evaluate the severity of motor impairment tests for the upper and lower limb were performed. fMRI data were obtained in a block design using hand, foot, and tongue movements. As a control group, 14 healthy volunteers were examined with the fMRI protocol. Results: A laterally cortical representation of the paretic foot was found in three patients with PVL. In patients with cortical-subcortical lesions, tongue movements were associated with cortical activation restricted to the unaffected hemisphere. Movements of the paretic limb showed more ipsilateral activation in patients with PVL than in patients with cortical-subcortical lesions. Conclusion: Different types of structural damage such as PVL and cortical-subcortical lesions show differences in fMRI examination. (orig.)

  9. Fiber pathway pathology, synapse loss and decline of cortical function in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max R Bennett

    Full Text Available A quantitative cortical model is developed, based on both computational and simulation approaches, which relates measured changes in cortical activity of gray matter with changes in the integrity of longitudinal fiber pathways. The model consists of modules of up to 5,000 neurons each, 80% excitatory and 20% inhibitory, with these having different degrees of synaptic connectiveness both within a module as well as between modules. It is shown that if the inter-modular synaptic connections are reduced to zero while maintaining the intra-modular synaptic connections constant, then activity in the modules is reduced by about 50%. This agrees with experimental observations in which cortical electrical activity in a region of interest, measured using the rate of oxidative glucose metabolism (CMRglc(ox, is reduced by about 50% when the cortical region is isolated, either by surgical means or by transient cold block. There is also a 50% decrease in measured cortical activity following inactivation of the nucleus of Meynert and the intra-laminar nuclei of the thalamus, which arise either following appropriate lesions or in sleep. This occurs in the model if the inter-modular synaptic connections require input from these nuclei in order to function. In schizophrenia there is a 24% decrease in functional anisotropy of longitudinal fasciculi accompanied by a 7% decrease in cortical activity (CMRglc(ox.The cortical model predicts this, namely for a 24% decrease in the functioning of the inter-modular connections, either through the complete loss of 24% of axons subserving the connections or due to such a decrease in the efficacy of all the inter-modular connections, there will be about a 7% decrease in the activity of the modules. This work suggests that deterioration of longitudinal fasciculi in schizophrenia explains the loss of activity in the gray matter.

  10. Intracranial lesions in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: radiological (computed tomographic) features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkin, C.M.; Leon, E.; Grenell, S.L.; Leeds, N.E.

    1985-01-18

    Computed tomography (CT) delineates the presence or absence of intracerebral focal lesions in most instances. The presence of contrast enhancement, cerebral atrophy, and an intracranial mass are important in consideration of the differential diagnosis and in establishing the diagnosis. Initially the authors utilized a double dose of contrast medium in all patients after single-dose study, but little additional information was obtained. A second dose of contrast medium is now administered only to evaluate further a suspected lesion. Angiography can confirm the location of the lesion(s) and the cortical veins before biopsy. Of one hundred patients with AIDS examined, 33% had neurological symptoms excluding headache and herpes zoster. All patients with neurological symptoms were studied with noncontrast and contrast CT scanning. Twenty-seven patients in the group had abnormal scans. In 13, the abnormality was limited to a diffuse atrophic appearance, while in 14, focal lesions were identified. Representative cases are discussed and illustrated.

  11. Splenial lesions of the corpus callosum: Disease Spectrum and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Eun; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Hwa Seon; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Ho Cheol; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of more than 200–250 million axons that provide a large connection mainly between homologous cerebral cortical areas in mirror image sites. The posterior end of the CC is the thickest part, which is called the slenium. Various diseases including congenital to acquired lesions including congenital anomalies, traumatic lesions, ischemic diseases, tumors, metabolic, toxic, degenerative, and demyelinating diseases, can involve the splenium of the CC and their clinical symptoms and signs are also variable. Therefore, knowledge of the disease entities and the imaging findings of lesions involving the splenium is valuable in clinical practice. MR imaging is useful for the detection and differential diagnosis of splenial lesions of the CC. In this study, we classify the disease entities and describe imaging findings of lesions involving the splenium of the CC based on our experiences and a review of the literature.

  12. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  13. Acute cortical deafness in a child with MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Marie P; Idan, Roni B; Kern, Ilse; Guinand, Nils; Van, Hélène Cao; Toso, Seema; Fluss, Joël

    2016-05-01

    Auditory impairment in mitochondrial disorders are usually due to peripheral sensorineural dysfunction. Central deafness is only rarely reported. We report here an 11-year-old boy with MELAS syndrome who presented with subacute deafness after waking up from sleep. Peripheral hearing loss was rapidly excluded. A brain MRI documented bilateral stroke-like lesions predominantly affecting the superior temporal lobe, including the primary auditory cortex, confirming the central nature of deafness. Slow recovery was observed in the following weeks. This case serves to illustrate the numerous challenges caused by MELAS and the unusual occurrence of acute cortical deafness, that to our knowledge has not be described so far in a child in this setting.

  14. [Image-guided stereotaxic biopsy of central nervous system lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Esperança, J C; Duarte, F

    1998-06-01

    In a series of 44 image guided stereotactic biopsy from August 1995 until March 1997, findings were as follows (frequency order). Tumors, glioblastoma was the most frequent. Primary lymphoma and other conditions associated to AIDS. Metastasis, three cases, Vasculites, two cases, Arachnoid cyst, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, cortical degeneration, inespecific calcification (one case each). The age varied from 1 to 83 years. Forty one lesions were supratentorial, two infratentorial, and one was outside the brain (dura and skull) and we used stereotaxy to localize it. There was no mortality and morbidity was 2.3%. The literature is reviewed. We conclude that this procedure is safe and highly diagnostic.

  15. Cortical control of whisker movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carl C H

    2014-01-01

    Facial muscles drive whisker movements, which are important for active tactile sensory perception in mice and rats. These whisker muscles are innervated by cholinergic motor neurons located in the lateral facial nucleus. The whisker motor neurons receive synaptic inputs from premotor neurons, which are located within the brain stem, the midbrain, and the neocortex. Complex, distributed neural circuits therefore regulate whisker movement during behavior. This review focuses specifically on cortical whisker motor control. The whisker primary motor cortex (M1) strongly innervates brain stem reticular nuclei containing whisker premotor neurons, which might form a central pattern generator for rhythmic whisker protraction. In a parallel analogous pathway, the whisker primary somatosensory cortex (S1) strongly projects to the brain stem spinal trigeminal interpolaris nucleus, which contains whisker premotor neurons innervating muscles for whisker retraction. These anatomical pathways may play important functional roles, since stimulation of M1 drives exploratory rhythmic whisking, whereas stimulation of S1 drives whisker retraction.

  16. The origin of cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Parnavelas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex comprise two broad classes: pyramidal neurons, which project to distant targets, and the inhibitory nonpyramidal cells, the cortical interneurons. Pyramidal neurons are generated in the germinal ventricular zone, which lines the lateral ventricles, and migrate along the processes of radial glial cells to their positions in the developing cortex in an `inside-out' sequence. The GABA-containing nonpyramidal cells originate for the most part in the ganglionic eminence, the primordium of the basal ganglia in the ventral telencephalon. These cells follow tangential migratory routes to enter the cortex and are in close association with the corticofugal axonal system. Once they enter the cortex, they move towards the ventricular zone, possibly to obtain positional information, before they migrate radially in the direction of the pial surface to take up their positions in the developing cortex. The mechanisms that guide interneurons throughout these long and complex migratory routes are currently under investigation.

  17. Cortical cartography and Caret software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, David C

    2012-08-15

    Caret software is widely used for analyzing and visualizing many types of fMRI data, often in conjunction with experimental data from other modalities. This article places Caret's development in a historical context that spans three decades of brain mapping--from the early days of manually generated flat maps to the nascent field of human connectomics. It also highlights some of Caret's distinctive capabilities. This includes the ease of visualizing data on surfaces and/or volumes and on atlases as well as individual subjects. Caret can display many types of experimental data using various combinations of overlays (e.g., fMRI activation maps, cortical parcellations, areal boundaries), and it has other features that facilitate the analysis and visualization of complex neuroimaging datasets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Klatskin-Like Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5–15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature.

  19. Klatskin-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, M P; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5-15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature.

  20. Lesiones en el deporte

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Not available

    El incremento de la actividad física y del deporte, en las sociedades llamadas desarrolladas, ha traído consigo beneficios claros para la salud, reflejados en diferentes indicadores de salud. Simultáneamente, el deporte de competición obliga a una dedicación diaria a intensidad de entrenamiento, con objeto de obtener los elevados requerimientos físicos que exige la competición. Todo ello ha traído consigo la aparición de numerosas lesiones, fundamentalmen...

  1. Atrichia with Papular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Manish; Manchanda, Kajal; Lamba, Sachin; Pandey, SS

    2011-01-01

    Atrichia with papular lesions (APL) is a rare autosomal recessive form of irreversible alopecia with onset at few months of age with papular keratin cysts over the body. It is associated with mutation in the Zinc finger domain of the human hairless gene on chromosome region 8p12. An eleven-year-old male presented with extensive alopecia starting at six months of age refractory to the treatment along with keratotic papules on the face and trunk. Biopsy from a papule showed mid-dermal keratin c...

  2. Lesiones en corredores amateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Natale, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 100 corredores amateurs de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar cuáles son las patologías más frecuentes en corredores. Correr no es solo un deporte en si mismo sino que tiene elementos de otras actividades deportivas, es decir, que las lesiones de los corredores también son comunes en otros tipos de deportes. El número de deportistas aumenta diariamente y al mismo tiempo aumentan el número de per...

  3. Malignancy rate of biopsied suspicious bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heggelman, Ben G.F. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    To determine the malignancy rate of bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT in patients who have undergone CT-guided biopsy because of the suspicion of malignancy. This single-centre retrospective study spanned eight consecutive years and included all patients who underwent both FDG PET/CT and CT-guided bone biopsy because of the suspicion of malignancy. The positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy was calculated, and different patient and imaging characteristics were compared between malignant and benign bone lesions. Of 102 included patients with bone lesions that all showed FDG uptake exceeding mediastinal uptake, bone biopsy showed a malignant lesion in 91 patients, yielding a PPV for malignancy of 89.2 % (95 % CI 81.7 - 93.9 %). In the 94 patients with bone lesions that showed FDG uptake exceeding liver uptake, bone biopsy showed a malignant lesion in 83 patients, yielding a PPV for malignancy of 88.3 % (95 % CI 80.1 - 93.5 %). Higher age, bone marrow replacement of the lesion seen on CT, expansion of the lesion seen on CT, and presence of multifocal lesions on FDG PET/CT were significantly more frequent in patients with malignant lesions than in those with benign bone lesions (P = 0.044, P = 0.009, P = 0.015, and P = 0.019, respectively). Furthermore, there was a trend towards a higher incidence of cortical destruction (P = 0.056) and surrounding soft tissue mass (P = 0.063) in patients with malignant bone lesions. The PPV for malignancy of suspicious bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT is not sufficiently high to justify changes in patient management without histopathological confirmation. Nevertheless, ancillary patient and imaging characteristics may increase the likelihood of a malignant bone lesion. (orig.)

  4. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  5. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  6. Towards a 'canonical' agranular cortical microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Beul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on regularities in the intrinsic microcircuitry of cortical areas, variants of a 'canonical' cortical microcircuit have been proposed and widely adopted, particularly in computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics. However, this circuit is founded on striate cortex, which manifests perhaps the most extreme instance of cortical organization, in terms of a very high density of cells in highly differentiated cortical layers. Most other cortical regions have a less well differentiated architecture, stretching in gradients from the very dense eulaminate primary cortical areas to the other extreme of dysgranular and agranular areas of low density and poor laminar differentiation. It is unlikely for the patterns of inter- and intra-laminar connections to be uniform in spite of strong variations of their structural substrate. This assumption is corroborated by reports of divergence in intrinsic circuitry across the cortex. Consequently, it remains an important goal to define local microcircuits for a variety of cortical types, in particular, agranular cortical regions. As a counterpoint to the striate microcircuit, which may be anchored in an exceptional cytoarchitecture, we here outline a tentative microcircuit for agranular cortex. The circuit is based on a synthesis of the available literature on the local microcircuitry in agranular cortical areas of the rodent brain, investigated by anatomical and electrophysiological approaches. A central observation of these investigations is a weakening of interlaminar inhibition as cortical cytoarchitecture becomes less distinctive. Thus, our study of agranular microcircuitry revealed deviations from the well-known 'canonical' microcircuit established for striate cortex, suggesting variations in the intrinsic circuitry across the cortex that may be functionally relevant.

  7. [Bony Bankart lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegl, U J; Braun, S; Euler, S A; Warth, R J; Millett, P J

    2014-12-01

    Fractures of the anteroinferior glenoid rim, termed bony Bankart lesions, have been reported to occur in up to 22% of first time anterior shoulder dislocations. The primary goal of treatment is to create a stable glenohumeral joint and a good shoulder function. Options for therapeutic intervention are largely dependent on the chronicity of the lesion, the activity level of the patient and postreduction fracture characteristics, such as the size, location and number of fracture fragments. Non-operative treatment can be successful for small, acute fractures, which are anatomically reduced after shoulder reduction. However, in patients with a high risk profile for recurrent instability initial Bankart repair is recommended. Additionally, bony fixation is recommended for acute fractures that involve more than 15-20% of the inferior glenoid diameter. On the other hand chronic fractures are generally managed on a case-by-case basis depending on the amount of fragment resorption and bony erosion of the anterior glenoid with high recurrence rates under conservative therapy. When significant bone loss of the anterior glenoid is present, anatomical (e.g. iliac crest bone graft and osteoarticular allograft) or non-anatomical (e.g. Latarjet and Bristow) reconstruction of the anterior glenoid is often indicated.

  8. Neurites regrowth of cortical neurons by GSK3beta inhibition independently of Nogo receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seira, Oscar; Gavín, Rosalina; Gil, Vanessa; Llorens, Franc; Rangel, Alejandra; Soriano, Eduardo; del Río, José Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Lesioned axons do not regenerate in the adult mammalian CNS, owing to the over-expression of inhibitory molecules such as myelin-derived proteins or chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans. In order to overcome axon inhibition, strategies based on extrinsic and intrinsic treatments have been developed. For myelin-associated inhibition, blockage with NEP1-40, receptor bodies or IN-1 antibodies has been used. In addition, endogenous blockage of cell signalling mechanisms induced by myelin-associated proteins is a potential tool for overcoming axon inhibitory signals. We examined the participation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) and extracellular-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 in axon regeneration failure in lesioned cortical neurons. We also investigated whether pharmacological blockage of GSK3beta and ERK1/2 activities facilitates regeneration after myelin-directed inhibition in two models: (i) cerebellar granule cells and (ii) lesioned entorhino-hippocampal pathway in slice cultures, and whether the regenerative effects are mediated by Nogo Receptor 1 (NgR1). We demonstrate that, in contrast to ERK1/2 inhibition, the pharmacological treatment of GSK3beta inhibition strongly facilitated regrowth of cerebellar granule neurons over myelin independently of NgR1. Finally, these regenerative effects were corroborated in the lesioned entorhino-hippocampal pathway in NgR1-/- mutant mice. These results provide new findings for the development of new assays and strategies to enhance axon regeneration in injured cortical connections.

  9. Organisation of Xenopus oocyte and egg cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Pérez-Mongiovi, D; Houliston, E

    1999-03-15

    The division of the Xenopus oocyte cortex into structurally and functionally distinct "animal" and "vegetal" regions during oogenesis provides the basis of the organisation of the early embryo. The vegetal region of the cortex accumulates specific maternal mRNAs that specify the development of the endoderm and mesoderm, as well as functionally-defined "determinants" of dorso-anterior development, and recognisable "germ plasm" determinants that segregate into primary germ cells. These localised elements on the vegetal cortex underlie both the primary animal-vegetal polarity of the egg and the organisation of the developing embryo. The animal cortex meanwhile becomes specialised for the events associated with fertilisation: sperm entry, calcium release into the cytoplasm, cortical granule exocytosis, and polarised cortical contraction. Cortical and subcortical reorganisations associated with meiotic maturation, fertilisation, cortical rotation, and the first mitotic cleavage divisions redistribute the vegetal cortical determinants, contributing to the specification of dorso-anterior axis and segregation of the germ line. In this article we consider what is known about the changing organisation of the oocyte and egg cortex in relation to the mechanisms of determinant localisation, anchorage, and redistribution, and show novel ultrastructural views of cortices isolated at different stages and processed by the rapid-freeze deep-etch method. Cortical organisation involves interactions between the different cytoskeletal filament systems and internal membranes. Associated proteins and cytoplasmic signals probably modulate these interactions in stage-specific ways, leaving much to be understood.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LESION LOCATION AND COGNITIVE DOMAINS IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislava Bugarski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Localization of brain lesions in acute ischemic stroke has a significant effect on performance in various cognitive domains. The aim of the study was to determine whether there is association between different locations of ischemic brain lesions and different cognitive domains. The study included 40 acute ischemic stroke pati-ents (26 male and 14 female, aged 45-78 years, with 8-16 years of education. Lesi-on location was visualized using brain computerized tomography, whereas perfor-mance in different cognitive domains was assessed using an extensive neuropsychological test battery. The following domains were evaluated: executive function, language, immediate recall, delayed recall, attention, divergent reasoning, and visual-constructive performance in two dimensions. A series of categorical re-gression analyses were applied. The results showed a significant association between the domains of executive function and language and a set of predictors rela-ted to lesion location. Global brain atrophy was found to be a significant partial pre-dictor of performance in all cognitive domains, with higher degrees of global brain atrophy correlating with poorer performance in each of the studied domains. Combi-ned (cortical-subcortical lesions and unilateral lesions were both found to be signi-ficant partial predictors for language, with a higher lesion load being associated with poorer language performance. Combined lesions were also a significant partial pre-dictor for delayed recall, with a higher lesion load correlating with poorer perfor-mance in the delayed recall domain.

  11. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Nozawa, Kumiko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isehara (Japan); Shibasaki, Jun [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Yokohama (Japan); Osaka, Hitoshi [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [≥1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  12. A surgical case of frontal lobe epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia accompanied by olfactory nerve enlargement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Noriaki; Uda, Takehiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nagai, Taiki; Uchida, Tatsuya; Kamei, Takamasa; Morino, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old man came to our clinic due to refractory general tonic seizure and an attack of unintended yelling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mild cortical hyperintensity on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image in the left basal frontal area. Enlargement of the left olfactory nerve was also detected below the affected gyrus. Subtotal resection of the MRI-visible epileptogenic lesion was performed without any neurological deficit. The final pathological diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIa. Seizures and yelling attacks subsided after surgery. Extracerebral abnormalities, including cranial nerve enlargement, are common in patients with hemimegalencephaly. However, such abnormalities are rare with FCD.

  13. Contrast-induced transient cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth R; Yohendran, Jayshan; Parker, Geoffrey D; McCluskey, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    We present a case of transient cortical blindness secondary to contrast medium toxicity. A 58-year-old man had successful endovascular coiling of a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm but became confused and unable to see after the procedure. His visual acuity was no light perception bilaterally. Clinically, there was no new intra-ocular pathology. An urgent non-contrast computed tomography scan of the brain showed cortical hyperdensity in both parieto-occipital cortices, consistent with contrast medium leakage through the blood-brain barrier from the coiling procedure. The man remained completely blind for 72 hours, after which his visual acuity improved gradually back to his baseline level.

  14. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF BREAST LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran H. S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Benign or malignant lesions presenting as mass in the breast causes anxiety to the patients and the family members. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To classify different types of lesions of breast, both benign and malignant. 2. Histomorphological study of various types of benign and malignant breast lesions. 3. To study spectrum of lesions associated with benign and malignant breast diseases. SETTING AND DESIGN All the breast biopsies, lumpectomies, and mastectomy specimens presenting to Department of Pathology of our institution between June 2012 to June 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS A sample size of 100 cases are included in this study. Clinical details are taken from records. The specimens of breast sent to the Department of Pathology are processed by routine histopathological techniques. Histopathological features are studied on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistically, the test of proportion is used to obtain the frequency of all lesions. Chi-square test, which is used to find the association between the spectrum of lesions showed a p value of 0.0438 and hence the study was considered significant. RESULTS In our study, out of 100 cases, malignant breast lesions constituted the majority of the lesions comprising of 49 cases (49%, followed by benign lesions comprising 46 cases (46% and the inflammatory lesions comprising 5 cases (5%. Among benign lesions, fibrocystic disease was the predominant lesion comprising of 39 cases (41%, followed by fibroadenoma comprising 26 cases (28%, which is followed by 13 cases (14% of fibrocystic disease with columnar cell change and 8 cases (9% of sclerosing adenosis. Among malignant lesions, invasive ductal carcinoma (NST type was the most common lesion comprising 31 cases (61% followed by 11 cases (21% of invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma

  15. Scintigraphic method to test the function of intraperitoneal draining catheters for regional intraabdominal chemotherapy; Szintigraphische Ueberpruefung der Funktion intraperitoneal liegender Katheter zur regionalen intraabdominellen Chemotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratz, K.F.; Hamann, A.; Hundeshagen, H. [Zentrum Radiologie, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Jaehne, J.; Piso, P.; Pichlmayr, R. [Zentrum Chirurgie, Klinik fuer Abdominal- und Transplantationschirurgie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    To prove the functionality of the catheter a scintigraphic method is introduced using a liquid solution of sodium chloride - Tc-99m-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-99m-DTPA) (500 ml). This study was aimed to look for problems over the period of application and to measure the intraperitoneal distribution and resorption of the fluid. One leakage and 3 revisible obstructions occurred in 26 applications done in 20 patients. The upper right and the central abdomen was not reached as extensive as the other regions. The abdomen was divided into 9 regions of equal size. In 4 out of 19 patients (20%) the fluid tracer was missed in more than 3 regions (up to 40% of the total area). It is early to decide whether methological modifications are necessary in these cases, but closed chemotherapies in patients with maldistribution may not be indicated. This will be in particular necessary if there is a relation between the maldistribution and the location of recurrencies. The demonstrated simple scintigraphic method, however, is able to recognize patients at risk. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Zur Verwendung vorgeschlagen wird die Applikation von Tc-99m-DTPA, durchmischt in 500 ml 0,9%iger NaCl-Loesung. Applikationsprobleme, die intraperitoneale Verteilung und der zeitliche Verlauf der Resorption des Tracers werden anhand von 26 Applikationen an 20 Patienten dargestellt. Eine Leckage und drei Partialverschluesse, die sich umgehend revidieren liessen, traten auf. Es zeigte sich, dass ueber den Periotoneal-Dialyse-Katheter das obere und auch das rechte Abdomen sowie die zentrale Region weniger gut erreicht werden. Im Einzelfall koennen erhebliche Fehlverteilungen vorliegen: Bis zu 40% des Abdomens bleiben tracerfrei. Bei groben Fehlverteilungen ist die Indikation zur erneuten regionalen Chemotherapie sehr zurueckhaltend zu sehen. Allerdings lassen sich aufgrund der derzeitigen Datenlage konzeptionelle Rueckschluesse oder Aenderungen des individuellen Therapiekonzepts nicht begruenden

  16. Functional deficits in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L Campbell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical dysplasia is associated with intractable epilepsy and developmental delay in young children. Recent work with the rat freeze-induced focal cortical dysplasia (FCD model has demonstrated that hyperexcitability in the dysplastic cortex is due in part to higher levels of extracellular glutamate. Astrocyte glutamate transporters play a pivotal role in cortical maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations. Here we examined the function of astrocytic glutamate transporters in a FCD model in rats. Neocortical freeze lesions were made in postnatal day (PN 1 rat pups and whole cell electrophysiological recordings and biochemical studies were performed at PN 21-28. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in astrocytes showed a near 10-fold reduction in amplitude compared to sham operated controls. Astrocyte glutamate transporter currents from lesioned animals were also significantly reduced when challenged exogenously applied glutamate. Reduced astrocytic glutamate transport clearance contributed to increased NMDA receptor-mediated current decay kinetics in lesioned animals. The electrophysiological profile of astrocytes in the lesion group was also markedly changed compared to sham operated animals. Control astrocytes demonstrate large-amplitude linear leak currents in response to voltage-steps whereas astrocytes in lesioned animals demonstrated significantly smaller voltage-activated inward and outward currents. Significant decreases in astrocyte resting membrane potential and increases in input resistance were observed in lesioned animals. However, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR demonstrated no differences in the expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 in lesioned animals relative to controls. These data suggest that, in the absence of changes in protein or mRNA expression levels, functional changes in astrocytic glutamate transporters contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in

  17. MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions

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    Takashima, S.; Ueda, M.; Shibata, A.; Takayama, F.; Momose, M.; Yamashita, K. [Shinshu Univ. School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: To study MR findings for clues to the diagnosis of lingual thyroid. Material and methods: MR findings and clinical and scintigraphic data of 5 cases of lingual thyroid were reviewed and the MR findings were compared to those of 16 cases of other submucosal lesions in the base of the tongue. Results: Four of the 5 patients with lingual thyroid were women and all had hypothyroidism. MR imaging depicted lingual thyroid in the midline in the base of the tongue (n=5) and additional ectopic thyroid glands in the floor of the mouth (n=2) or between the right and left sternohyoid muscles (n=1). Ectopic thyroid glands appeared isointense or hyperintense relative to muscle tissue on T1-weighted images and showed slight or fair contrast enhancement. All glands had low to intermediate T2 signal, which was also seen in 1 case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma. All ectopic thyroid glands had well-defined margins, whereas malignant tumors tended to have ill-defined margins and to invade the surrounding structures. All but the 5 cases of lingual thyroid had an MR-demonstrable thyroid gland in the normal cervical position. Conclusion: A well-defined mass of low-intermediate T2 signal in the midline base of the tongue, neither with invasive tendency nor with a cervical thyroid gland in the normal site on MR imaging, may strongly indicate lingual thyroid.

  18. Thalamic Lesions: A Radiological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Renard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thalamic lesions are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, trauma, tumours, and infections. In some diseases, thalamic involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases thalamic lesions are observed only occasionally (often in the presence of other typical extrathalamic lesions. Summary. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of thalamic lesions. Identification of the origin of the thalamic lesion depends on the exact localisation inside the thalamus, the presence of extrathalamic lesions, the signal changes on different MRI sequences, the evolution of the radiological abnormalities over time, the history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and nonradiological examinations.

  19. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Mika Ruohonen; Katri Palo; Jarmo Alander

    2013-01-01

    Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS) was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted h...

  20. Preoperative 3T high field blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for glioma involving sensory cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; WANG Jiang-fei; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; ZHANG Wen-bo; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Localization of sensory cortical areas during the operation is essential to preserve the sensory function.Intraoperative direct electrostimulation under awake anesthesia is the golden standard but time-consuming. We applied 3T high field blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the relationship between glioma and cortical sensory areas preoperatively and to guide intraoperative direct electrostimulation for quick and precise localization.Methods Five glioma patients with sensory cortex involvement by or next to the lesion had preoperative BOLD fMRI to determine the spatial relationship of cortical sensory areas to the tumours. Bilateral hand opposite movement was performed by these patients for fMRI. Precentral and postcentral gyri were identified by electrical stimulation during the operation. Karnofsky Performance Status scores of the patients' pre- and postoperative and the role of BOLD fMRI were evaluated.Results The cortical sensory areas were all activated in five glioma patients involving postcentral gyrus areas by BOLDf MRI with bilateral hand opposite movement. The detected activation areas corresponded with the results from cortical electrical stimulation.Conclusions The relationship between cortical sensory areas and tumour can be accurately shown by BOLD fMRI before operation. And the information used to make the tumour resection could obtain good clinical results.

  1. Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a new tool to interrupt seizures after cortical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Davidson, Thomas J.; Frechette, Eric S.; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrocortical injuries, such as stroke, are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, yet mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. Here we report in rats the first evidence that the thalamus – a structure remote from but connected to the injured cortex – is required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex undergo changes in HCN channel expression and become hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy demonstrates that reducing their activity in real-time is sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, since it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast to existing treatments such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

  2. Microstructure of transcallosal motor fibers reflects type of cortical (re-)organization in congenital hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juenger, Hendrik; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Mayinger, Michael; Mall, Volker; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Shenton, Martha E; Berweck, Steffen; Staudt, Martin; Heinen, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Early unilateral brain lesions can lead to different types of corticospinal (re-)organization of motor networks. In one group of patients, the contralesional hemisphere exerts motor control not only over the contralateral non-paretic hand but also over the (ipsilateral) paretic hand, as the primary motor cortex is (re-)organized in the contralesional hemisphere. Another group of patients with early unilateral lesions shows "normal" contralateral motor projections starting in the lesioned hemisphere. We investigated how these different patterns of cortical (re-)organization affect interhemispheric transcallosal connectivity in patients with congenital hemiparesis. Eight patients with ipsilateral motor projections (group IPSI) versus 7 patients with contralateral motor projections (group CONTRA) underwent magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The corpus callosum (CC) was subdivided in 5 areas (I-V) in the mid-sagittal slice and volumetric information. The following diffusion parameters were calculated: fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD). DTI revealed significantly lower FA, increased trace and RD for group IPSI compared to group CONTRA in area III of the corpus callosum, where transcallosal motor fibers cross the CC. In the directly neighboring area IV, where transcallosal somatosensory fibers cross the CC, no differences were found for these DTI parameters between IPSI and CONTRA. Volume of callosal subsections showed significant differences for area II (connecting premotor cortices) and III, where group IPSI had lower volume. The results of this study demonstrate that the callosal microstructure in patients with congenital hemiparesis reflects the type of cortical (re-)organization. Early lesions disrupting corticospinal motor projections to the paretic hand consecutively affect the development or maintenance of transcallosal motor fibers. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society

  3. Age of language acquisition and cortical language organization in multilingual patients undergoing awake brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Coello, Alejandro; Havas, Viktória; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sierpowska, Joanna; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Gabarrós, Andreu

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Most knowledge regarding the anatomical organization of multilingualism is based on aphasiology and functional imaging studies. However, the results have still to be validated by the gold standard approach, namely electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) during awake neurosurgical procedures. In this ESM study the authors describe language representation in a highly specific group of 13 multilingual individuals, focusing on how age of acquisition may influence the cortical organization of language. METHODS Thirteen patients who had a high degree of proficiency in multiple languages and were harboring lesions within the dominant, left hemisphere underwent ESM while being operated on under awake conditions. Demographic and language data were recorded in relation to age of language acquisition (for native languages and early- and late-acquired languages), neuropsychological pre- and postoperative language testing, the number and location of language sites, and overlapping distribution in terms of language acquisition time. Lesion growth patterns and histopathological characteristics, location, and size were also recorded. The distribution of language sites was analyzed with respect to age of acquisition and overlap. RESULTS The functional language-related sites were distributed in the frontal (55%), temporal (29%), and parietal lobes (16%). The total number of native language sites was 47. Early-acquired languages (including native languages) were represented in 97 sites (55 overlapped) and late-acquired languages in 70 sites (45 overlapped). The overlapping distribution was 20% for early-early, 71% for early-late, and 9% for late-late. The average lesion size (maximum diameter) was 3.3 cm. There were 5 fast-growing and 7 slow-growing lesions. CONCLUSIONS Cortical language distribution in multilingual patients is not homogeneous, and it is influenced by age of acquisition. Early-acquired languages have a greater cortical representation than languages acquired

  4. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  5. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  6. Neuroblast Distribution After Cortical Impact is Influenced by White Matter Injury in the Immature Gyrencephalic Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Taylor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical contusions are a common type of traumatic brain injury (TBI in children. Current knowledge of neuroblast response to cortical injury arises primarily from studies utilizing aspiration or cryoinjury in rodents. In infants and children, cortical impact affects both gray and white matter and any neurogenic response may be complicated by the large expanse of white matter between the subventricular zone (SVZ and the cortex, and the large number of neuroblasts in transit along the major white matter tracts to populate brain regions. Previously, we described an age-dependent increase of neuroblasts in the SVZ in response to cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain. Here, we investigate if neuroblasts target the injury, if white matter injury influences repair efforts, and if postnatal population of brain regions are disrupted. Piglets received a cortical impact to the rostral gyrus cortex or sham surgery at postnatal day (PND 7, BrdU 2 days prior to (PND 5 and 6 or after injury (PND 7 and 8, and brains were collected at PND 14. Injury did not alter the number of neuroblasts in the white matter between the SVZ and the rostral gyrus. In the gray matter of the injury site, neuroblast density was increased in cavitated lesions, and the number of BrdU+ neuroblasts was increased, but comprised less than 1% of all neuroblasts. In the white matter of the injury site, neuroblasts with differentiating morphology were densely arranged along the cavity edge. In a ventral migratory stream, neuroblast density was greater in subjects with a cavitated lesion, indicating that TBI may alter postnatal development of regions supplied by that stream. Cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain produced complicated and variable lesions, increased neuroblast density in cavitated gray matter, resulted in potentially differentiating neuroblasts in the white matter, and may alter the postnatal population of brain regions utilizing a population of

  7. Superresolution improves MRI cortical segmentation with FACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    Brain cortical surface extraction from MRI has applications for measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy, functional mapping, source localization and preoperative neurosurgical planning. Accurate cortex segmentation requires high resolution morphological images and several methods for extracting...

  8. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.J.; Tong, F.; Hagoort, P.; van Ee, R.

    2009-01-01

    We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability

  9. Transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, B N; Bozbuğa, N; Tuncer, M A; Yakut, C

    2009-01-01

    Transient cortical blindness is rarely encountered after angiography of native coronary arteries or bypass grafts. This paper reports a case of transient cortical blindness that occurred 72 h after coronary angiography in a 56-year old patient. This was the patient's fourth exposure to contrast medium. Neurological examination demonstrated cortical blindness and the absence of any focal neurological deficit. A non-contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed bilateral contrast enhancement in the occipital lobes and no evidence of cerebral haemorrhage, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no pathology. Sight returned spontaneously within 4 days and his vision gradually improved. A search of the current literature for reported cases of transient cortical blindness suggested that this is a rarely encountered complication of coronary angiography.

  10. Reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knower, Mark T; Pethke, Scott D; Valentine, Vincent G

    2003-06-01

    Cyclosporine (CYA) is a calcineurin inhibitor widely used in immunosuppressive regimens after organ transplantation. Several neurologic side effects are frequently associated with CYA use; however, reversible cortical blindness is a rare manifestation of CYA toxicity traditionally seen after liver and bone marrow transplantation. This report presents a case of reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation, then details the risk factors and clinical course of 28 previously well-documented cases of CYA-induced cortical blindness after transplantation. Identification of known risk factors, clinical clues, and typical radiographic findings may aid in the diagnosis of CYA-induced cortical blindness, since reduction in CYA dose or cessation of CYA therapy usually permits resolution of the neurologic effects.

  11. The Diversity of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKubota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.

  12. Renal lesions associated with autoimmune pancreatitis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Maniatis, Petros; Siafas, Ioannis; Papailiou, John (CT and Radiology Dept., ' Konstantopouleion' General Hospital, Athens (Greece)), e-mail: ctriantopoulou@gmail.com; Malachias, George; Anastopoulos, John (Radiology Dept., ' Sismanogleio' General Hospital, Athens (Greece))

    2010-07-15

    Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by IgG4-positive plasma cells. Recent evidence suggests that it is a systemic disease affecting various organs. Tubulointerstitial nephritis has been reported in association with AIP. Purpose: To investigate the incidence and types of renal involvement in patients with AIP. Material and Methods: Eighteen patients with no history of renal disease and a diagnosis of AIP (on the basis of histopathologic findings or a combination of characteristic imaging features, increased serum IgG4 levels, and response to steroid treatment) were included. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging and follow-up ranged from 6 months to 2 years. CT images were reviewed for the presence of renal lesions. Results: Seven patients had renal involvement (38.8%). None of the lesions was visible on non-contrast-enhanced CT scan. Parenchymal lesions appeared as multiple nodules showing decreased enhancement (four cases). Pyelonephritis, lymphoma, and metastases were considered in the differential diagnosis. An ill-defined low-attenuation mass-like lesion was found in one patient, while diffuse thickening of the renal pelvis wall was evident in the last two cases. Renal lesions regressed in all patients after steroid treatment, the larger one leaving a fibrous cortical scar. Conclusion: Different types of renal lesions in patients with AIP are relatively common, appearing as multiple nodules with decreased enhancement. These findings support the proposed concept of an IgG4-related systemic disease. Autoimmune disease should be suspected in cases of renal involvement in association with pancreatic focal or diffuse enlargement.

  13. Cortical Source Localization of Infant Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, GD; Richards, JE

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density EEG recording and cortical source loca...

  14. CLADA: cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Fox, Robert; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for the assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for the measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over time. CLADA creates a subject-specific cortical model which is longitudinally deformed to match images from individual time points. The algorithm was designed to work reliably for lower resolution images, such as the MRIs with 1×1×5 mm(3) voxels previously acquired for many clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). CLADA was evaluated to determine reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. Scan-rescan variability was 0.45% for images with 1mm(3) isotropic voxels and 0.77% for images with 1×1×5 mm(3) voxels. The mean absolute accuracy error was 0.43 mm, as determined by comparison of CLADA measurements to cortical thickness measured directly in post-mortem tissue. CLADA's sensitivity for correctly detecting at least 0.1mm change was 86% in a simulation study. A comparison to FreeSurfer showed good agreement (Pearson correlation=0.73 for global mean thickness). CLADA was also applied to MRIs acquired over 18 months in secondary progressive MS patients who were imaged at two different resolutions. Cortical thinning was detected in this group in both the lower and higher resolution images. CLADA detected a higher rate of cortical thinning in MS patients compared to healthy controls over 2 years. These results show that CLADA can be used for reliable measurement of cortical atrophy in longitudinal studies, even in lower resolution images.

  15. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called “Discrete Results” (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of “Discrete Results” is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel “Discrete Results” concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast

  16. Mean field methods for cortical network dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, J.; Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases with the stren...... cortex. Finally, an extension of the model to describe an orientation hypercolumn provides understanding of how cortical interactions sharpen orientation tuning, in a way that is consistent with observed firing statistics...

  17. Cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortical gray matter in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Kha Truong

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is typically used to study white matter fiber pathways, but may also be valuable to assess the microstructure of cortical gray matter. Although cortical diffusion anisotropy has previously been observed in vivo, its cortical depth dependence has mostly been examined in high-resolution ex vivo studies. This study thus aims to investigate the cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortex in vivo on a clinical 3 T scanner. Specifically, a novel multishot constant-density spiral DTI technique with inherent correction of motion-induced phase errors was used to achieve a high spatial resolution (0.625 × 0.625 × 3 mm and high spatial fidelity with no scan time penalty. The results show: (i a diffusion anisotropy in the cortical gray matter, with a primarily radial diffusion orientation, as observed in previous ex vivo and in vivo studies, and (ii a cortical depth dependence of the fractional anisotropy, with consistently higher values in the middle cortical lamina than in the deep and superficial cortical laminae, as observed in previous ex vivo studies. These results, which are consistent across subjects, demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for investigating the cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortex in vivo.

  18. Cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortical gray matter in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Guidon, Arnaud; Song, Allen W

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is typically used to study white matter fiber pathways, but may also be valuable to assess the microstructure of cortical gray matter. Although cortical diffusion anisotropy has previously been observed in vivo, its cortical depth dependence has mostly been examined in high-resolution ex vivo studies. This study thus aims to investigate the cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortex in vivo on a clinical 3 T scanner. Specifically, a novel multishot constant-density spiral DTI technique with inherent correction of motion-induced phase errors was used to achieve a high spatial resolution (0.625 × 0.625 × 3 mm) and high spatial fidelity with no scan time penalty. The results show: (i) a diffusion anisotropy in the cortical gray matter, with a primarily radial diffusion orientation, as observed in previous ex vivo and in vivo studies, and (ii) a cortical depth dependence of the fractional anisotropy, with consistently higher values in the middle cortical lamina than in the deep and superficial cortical laminae, as observed in previous ex vivo studies. These results, which are consistent across subjects, demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for investigating the cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortex in vivo.

  19. The cortical and sub-cortical network of sensory evoked response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Hellriegel, H; Groppa, S; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects during electrical stimulation of right median nerve at wrist. The multitaper method was used to estimate the power and coherence spectrum followed by the source analysis method dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) to find the highest coherent source for the basic frequency 3 Hz and the complete cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects. The highest coherent source for the basic frequency was in the posterior parietal cortex for all the subjects. The cortical and sub-cortical network comprised of the primary sensory motor cortex (SI), secondary sensory motor cortex (SII), frontal cortex and medial pulvinar nucleus in the thalamus. The cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence was found successfully with a 64-channel EEG system. The sensory evoked coherence is involved with a thalamo-cortical network in healthy subjects.

  20. Predictors of seizure freedom after surgery for malformations of cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward F; Wang, Doris D; Barkovich, A James; Tihan, Tarik; Auguste, Kurtis I; Sullivan, Joseph E; Garcia, Paul A; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2011-07-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are a major cause of medically refractory epilepsy. Our aim was to examine a surgical series of patients with cortical malformations to determine the prognostic factors associated with long-term seizure control. We conducted a retrospective review of 143 patients with MCD who underwent resective surgery for medically refractory epilepsy. Demographic, imaging, histopathologic, and surgical variables were analyzed for potential association with seizure freedom. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in a blind fashion and classified according to a new imaging/embryologic MCD classification system. Gray-white blurring on MRI, smaller lesions, complete resection of structural lesions, complete resection of abnormal electrocorticographic areas, and locally confined electrocorticographic abnormalities are favorable prognosticators of seizure freedom on univariate analysis. Imaging features consistent with abnormal proliferation (Barkovich class I) were associated with better outcome compared to those related to abnormal neuronal migration (class II) or abnormal cortical organization (class III). Multivariate logistic regression revealed complete resection of tissue manifesting electrocorticographic and/or MRI anatomic abnormalities as the main independent predictor of seizure freedom. Other histopathologic or demographic factors were not associated with seizure control. Long-term follow-up of patients demonstrated sustained overall rates of seizure control (72% at 2 years, 65% at 5 years, and 67% at 10 years). Surgery for MCDs can result in high rates of seizure freedom. Complete resection of electrocorticographic and anatomic abnormalities appears to be most predictive of long-term seizure control. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  1. Intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications: cortical erosions, subcortical migration and extensive intramedullary diffusion, a SIMS series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Lecouvet, Frederic; Berg, Bruno vande [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de radiologie et d' imagerie medicale, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a common disorder, which sometimes causes acute pain as calcifications dissolve and migrate into adjacent soft tissue. Intraosseous calcium penetration has also been described. We illustrate the appearance of these lesions using a series of 35 cases compiled by members of the French Society of Musculoskeletal Imaging (Societe d'Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, SIMS). The first group in our series (7 cases) involved calcification-related cortical erosions of the humeral and femoral diaphyses, in particular at the pectoralis major and gluteus maximus insertions. A second group (28 cases) involved the presence of calcium material in subcortical areas. The most common site was the greater tubercle of the humerus, accompanying a calcifying tendinopathy of the supraspinatus. In addition, an extensive intramedullary diffusion of calcium deposits was observed in four of these cases, associated with cortical erosion in one case and subcortical lesions in three cases. Cortical erosions and intraosseous migration of calcifications associated with calcific tendinitis may be confused with neoplasm or infection. It is important to recognize atypical presentations of hydroxyapatite deposition to avoid unnecessary investigation or surgery. (orig.)

  2. Increased cortical atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biessels, G J; De Leeuw, F‐E; Lindeboom, J; Barkhof, F; Scheltens, P

    2006-01-01

    Background The risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increased in type 2 diabetes (DM2). This increased risk has been attributed to vascular comorbidity, but other mechanisms, such as accelerated ageing of the brain, have also been implicated. Objective To determine whether AD in patients with DM2 is associated with an increased occurrence of vascular lesions in the brain, by increased cerebral atrophy, or a combination of both. Methods In total, 29 patients with AD and DM2 and 58 patients with AD and without DM2 were included in the study. Clinical characteristics were recorded, and a neuropsychological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan were performed. MRI scans were rated for cortical and subcortical atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy, white matter lesions, and infarcts. Results The neuropsychological profiles of the two groups were identical. Patients with AD and DM2 had increased cortical atrophy on MRI (p<0.05) compared with the non‐DM2 group. In addition, infarcts were more common (odds ratio 2.4; 95% CI 0.8 to 7.8), but this effect did not account for the increased atrophy. The other MR measures did not differ between the groups. Conclusion The results suggest that non‐vascular mechanisms, leading to increased cortical atrophy, are also involved in the increased risk of AD in DM2. PMID:16484636

  3. Cortical thinning in former professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Mayinger, Michael; Muehlmann, Marc; Kaufmann, David; Lin, Alexander P; Steffinger, Denise; Fisch, Barbara; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Immler, Stefanie; Karch, Susanne; Heinen, Florian R; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian; Stern, Robert A; Zafonte, Ross; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. Soccer players are at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impact when heading the ball. Whether this leads to long-term alterations of the brain's structure associated with cognitive decline remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate cortical thickness in former professional soccer players using high-resolution structural MR imaging. Fifteen former male professional soccer players (mean age 49.3 [SD 5.1] years) underwent high-resolution structural 3 T MR imaging, as well as cognitive testing. Fifteen male, age-matched former professional non-contact sport athletes (mean age 49.6 [SD 6.4] years) served as controls. Group analyses of cortical thickness were performed using voxel-based statistics. Soccer players demonstrated greater cortical thinning with increasing age compared to controls in the right inferolateral-parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex. Cortical thinning was associated with lower cognitive performance as well as with estimated exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact. Neurocognitive evaluation revealed decreased memory performance in the soccer players compared to controls. The association of cortical thinning and decreased cognitive performance, as well as exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact, further supports the hypothesis that repetitive subconcussive head impact may play a role in early cognitive decline in soccer players. Future studies are needed to elucidate the time course of changes in cortical thickness as well as their association with impaired cognitive function and possible underlying neurodegenerative process.

  4. Cortical swallowing processing in early subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Maren

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication in hemispheric as well as brainstem stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia and increased mortality. Little is known about the recovery from dysphagia after stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the different patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with hemispheric and brainstem stroke with and without dysphagia in the early subacute phase. Methods We measured brain activity by mean of whole-head MEG in 37 patients with different stroke localisation 8.2 +/- 4.8 days after stroke to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced swallowing. An age matched group of healthy subjects served as controls. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry and group analyses were performed using a permutation test. Results Our results demonstrate strong bilateral reduction of cortical swallowing activation in dysphagic patients with hemispheric stroke. In hemispheric stroke without dysphagia, bilateral activation was found. In the small group of patients with brainstem stroke we observed a reduction of cortical activation and a right hemispheric lateralization. Conclusion Bulbar central pattern generators coordinate the pharyngeal swallowing phase. The observed right hemispheric lateralization in brainstem stroke can therefore be interpreted as acute cortical compensation of subcortically caused dysphagia. The reduction of activation in brainstem stroke patients and dysphagic patients with cortical stroke could be explained in terms of diaschisis.

  5. Indium-111 antimyosin antibody imaging and thallium-201 imaging. A comparative myocardial scintigraphic study using single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takehiko; Matsumori, Akira; Nohara, Ryuji; Konishi, Junji; Sasayama, Shigetake [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Tamaki, Nagara

    1997-10-01

    Indium-111 antimyosin antibody imaging (a tracer of myocardial necrosis) and thallium-201 imaging (a tracer of myocardial perfusion) were compared in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. The distribution of each tracer and antimyosin/thallium-201 overlapping were evaluated with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Scintigraphic data were classified into 5 patterns according to the distribution of both images and were compared with histologic findings of endomyocardial biopsy: AM-D, intense and diffuse antimyosin uptake and no perfusion abnormality (active myocarditis); AM-L, localized antimyosin uptake and no perfusion abnormality (active myocarditis); HM, no antimyosin uptake with or without perfusion abnormality (healed myocarditis); DCM-NH, diffuse antimyosin uptake and inhomogeneous thallium-201 uptake (dilated cardiomyopathy); DCM-PD, diffuse or localized antimyosin uptake and myocardial perfusion defect(s) (dilated cardiomyopathy). Patients with dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were frequently found in the DCM-PD group. Taken together, comparative antimyosin/thallium-201 SPECT images are useful for evaluating the activity of myocarditis and ongoing myocardial damage even in areas with no perfusion in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  6. Scintigraphic imaging with technetium-99M-labelled ceftizoxime is a reliable technique for the diagnosis of deep sternal wound infection in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Henrique Nogueira; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Tarabal, Bernardo; Takenaka, Isabella; Braga, Otavio; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Araujo, Ivana Duval, E-mail: phnc@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate whether scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-CFT) can differentiate mediastinitis from aseptic inflammation associated with sternotomy. Methods: twenty female Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups: S (control) -partial upper median sternotomy with no treatment; SW (control) - sternotomy and treatment of sternal wounds with bone wax; SB - sternotomy and infection with Staphylococcus aureus; SWB - sternotomy with bone wax treatment and bacterial infection. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-CFT was performed eight days after surgery and images were collected 210 and 360 min after infusion of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: no animals exhibited clinical signs of wound infection at the end of the experiment, although histological data verified acute inflammatory response in those experimentally infected with bacteria. Scintigraphic images revealed that tropism of {sup 99m}Tc-CFT to infected sternums was greater than to their non-infected counterparts. Mean counts of radioactivity in bacteria-infected sternal regions (SB and SWB) were significantly higher (p = 0.0007) than those of the respective controls (S and SW).Conclusion: scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime is a method that can potentially detect infection post sternotomy and differentiate from aseptic inflammation in animals experimentally inoculated with S. aureus (author)

  7. Boron nitride nanotubes radiolabeled with ⁹⁹mTc: preparation, physicochemical characterization, biodistribution study, and scintigraphic imaging in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros

    2012-02-28

    In the present study, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized from an innovative process and functionalized with a glycol chitosan polymer in CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear) laboratories. As a means of studying their in vivo biodistribution behavior, these nanotubes were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and injected in mice. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), while their zeta potential was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The functionalization in the nanotubes was evaluated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were obtained and functionalized successfully, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vivo studies. The BNNTs were also evaluated by ex vivo biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging in healthy mice. The results showed that nanostructures, after 24h, having accumulated in the liver, spleen and gut, and eliminated via renal excretion. The findings from this study reveal a potential application of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures.

  8. MR imaging of ischemic parenchymal lesions in moyamoya disease of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Whal; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, the Institute of Radiation Medicine and Neuroscience Research Institute, SNUMRC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Kyu; Wang, Kyu Chang; Hwang, Yong Seung [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To determine by means of MR imaging the ischemic status of parenchymal lesions in moyamoya disease. Ninety-two MR images in 50 children wiht moyamoya disease were retrospectively reviewed. Ischemic parenchymal lesions were categorized according to the signal intensities of cortex and subcortical white matter. We also analyzed enhancement patterns, time sequential changes in the lesions, and the Prognosis for each patient, according to lesion type. Among one hundred and seventeen parenchymal abnormalities, 89 gyral lesions were seen in 43 children (86%), predominantly in the frontal area (33.1%). Cortical parenchymal lesions were categorized as either type I-intermediate to high signal intensity (SI) on both T2 weighted (T2WI) and proton density images (PDI), and associated with low SI of the subcortical white matter;type II-high SI on T2WI and PDI, without low SI of the subcortical white matter;or type III-high SI on T2WI and iso SI on PDI. Thirty-three lesions were type I, ten were type II, and 43 were type III. Time sequential changes from type I to type II, and then to type III, were observed. The prognoses of patients with a type-I lesion were better than those of patients whose lesions were type II or III. Type I lesions presented with abnormal low signal intensity in the subcortical white matter, as seen on T2WI Images. This was the characteristic and earliest finding of ischemic parenchymal lesions in moyamoya disease; sequential MR images showed that type-I lesions progressed to type II or III.

  9. Reversible Cortical Blindness as a Prominent Manifestation of Cerebral Embolism due to Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios P. Kranidiotis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infective endocarditis in the left heart may be complicated by stroke, due to embolisation from infectious valvular vegetations. Infarction of both occipital lobes, which are supplied by the posterior cerebral arteries, is infrequent, and is the cause of cortical blindness from lesion of the visual cortex. Cortical blindness is characterized by intact pupillary reflexes, a normal fundoscopy, and, rarely, denial of visual loss. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman, recipient of a mechanical aortic valve, who presented with fever, multiple organ dysfunction, and cortical blindness. Transesophageal echocardiography and blood cultures confirmed the diagnosis of infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Computed tomography of the brain without contrast revealed the presence of infarctions in both occipital lobes. It is noteworthy that the visual loss resolved after treatment of endocarditis. Conclusions. A stroke occurring in a patient presenting with fever and a history of valvular heart disease strongly suggests the presence of infective endocarditis. Bilateral thromboembolic infarcts of the occipital lobes cause cortical blindness, that can resolve after treatment of endocarditis.

  10. Reversible Cortical Blindness as a Prominent Manifestation of Cerebral Embolism due to Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranidiotis, Georgios P; Gougoutsi, Alexandra N; Retsas, Theodoros A; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Infective endocarditis in the left heart may be complicated by stroke, due to embolisation from infectious valvular vegetations. Infarction of both occipital lobes, which are supplied by the posterior cerebral arteries, is infrequent, and is the cause of cortical blindness from lesion of the visual cortex. Cortical blindness is characterized by intact pupillary reflexes, a normal fundoscopy, and, rarely, denial of visual loss. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman, recipient of a mechanical aortic valve, who presented with fever, multiple organ dysfunction, and cortical blindness. Transesophageal echocardiography and blood cultures confirmed the diagnosis of infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Computed tomography of the brain without contrast revealed the presence of infarctions in both occipital lobes. It is noteworthy that the visual loss resolved after treatment of endocarditis. Conclusions. A stroke occurring in a patient presenting with fever and a history of valvular heart disease strongly suggests the presence of infective endocarditis. Bilateral thromboembolic infarcts of the occipital lobes cause cortical blindness, that can resolve after treatment of endocarditis.

  11. Novel Histopathological Patterns in Cortical Tubers of Epilepsy Surgery Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Hanna M.; Scholl, Theresa; Iyer, Anand M.; Anink, Jasper J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Nellist, Mark D.; Jansen, Floor E.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; Krsek, Pavel; Benova, Barbora; Zamecnik, Josef; Crino, Peter B.; Prayer, Daniela; Czech, Thomas; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Rahimi, Jasmin; Höftberger, Romana; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Feucht, Martha; Aronica, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic hamartoma syndrome frequently associated with severe intractable epilepsy. In some TSC patients epilepsy surgery is a promising treatment option provided that the epileptogenic zone can be precisely delineated. TSC brain lesions (cortical tubers) contain dysmorphic neurons, brightly eosinophilic giant cells and white matter alterations in various proportions. However, a histological classification system has not been established for tubers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define distinct histological patterns within tubers based on semi-automated histological quantification and to find clinically significant correlations. In total, we studied 28 cortical tubers and seven samples of perituberal cortex from 28 TSC patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery. We assessed mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, the numbers of giant cells, dysmorphic neurons, neurons, and oligodendrocytes, and calcification, gliosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and myelin content. Three distinct histological profiles emerged based on the proportion of calcifications, dysmorphic neurons and giant cells designated types A, B, and C. In the latter two types we were able to subsequently associate them with specific features on presurgical MRI. Therefore, these histopathological patterns provide consistent criteria for improved definition of the clinico-pathological features of cortical tubers identified by MRI and provide a basis for further exploration of the functional and molecular features of cortical tubers in TSC. PMID:27295297

  12. The five factors of personality and regional cortical variability in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Sutin, Angelina; Davatzikos, Christos; Costa, Paul; Resnick, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Although personality changes have been associated with brain lesions and atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and aging, neuroanatomical correlates of personality in healthy individuals and their stability over time have received relatively little investigation. In this study, we explored regional gray matter (GM) volumetric associations of the five-factor model of personality. Eighty-seven healthy older adults took the NEO Personality Inventory and had brain MRI at two time points 2 years apart. We performed GM segmentation followed by regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space map creation and voxel based morphometry-type statistical inference in SPM8. We created a regression model including all five factors and important covariates. Next, a conjunction analysis identified associations between personality scores and GM volumes that were replicable across time, also using cluster-level Family-Wise-Error correction. Larger right orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and rolandic operculum were associated with lower Neuroticism; larger left temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortices with higher Extraversion; larger right frontopolar and smaller orbitofrontal and insular cortices with higher Openness; larger right orbitofrontal cortex with higher Agreeableness; larger dorsolateral prefrontal and smaller frontopolar cortices with higher Conscientiousness. In summary, distinct personality traits were associated with stable individual differences in GM volumes. As expected for higher-order traits, regions performing a large number of cognitive and affective functions were implicated. Our findings highlight personality-related variation that may be related to individual differences in brain structure that merit additional attention in neuroimaging research.

  13. Novel Histopathological Patterns in Cortical Tubers of Epilepsy Surgery Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Mühlebner

    Full Text Available Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC is a genetic hamartoma syndrome frequently associated with severe intractable epilepsy. In some TSC patients epilepsy surgery is a promising treatment option provided that the epileptogenic zone can be precisely delineated. TSC brain lesions (cortical tubers contain dysmorphic neurons, brightly eosinophilic giant cells and white matter alterations in various proportions. However, a histological classification system has not been established for tubers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define distinct histological patterns within tubers based on semi-automated histological quantification and to find clinically significant correlations. In total, we studied 28 cortical tubers and seven samples of perituberal cortex from 28 TSC patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery. We assessed mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 activation, the numbers of giant cells, dysmorphic neurons, neurons, and oligodendrocytes, and calcification, gliosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and myelin content. Three distinct histological profiles emerged based on the proportion of calcifications, dysmorphic neurons and giant cells designated types A, B, and C. In the latter two types we were able to subsequently associate them with specific features on presurgical MRI. Therefore, these histopathological patterns provide consistent criteria for improved definition of the clinico-pathological features of cortical tubers identified by MRI and provide a basis for further exploration of the functional and molecular features of cortical tubers in TSC.

  14. Development of Human Somatosensory Cortical Functions - What have We Learned from Magnetoencephalography: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Päivi; Lauronen, Leena; Pihko, Elina

    2014-01-01

    The mysteries of early development of cortical processing in humans have started to unravel with the help of new non-invasive brain research tools like multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this review, we evaluate, within a wider neuroscientific and clinical context, the value of MEG in studying normal and disturbed functional development of the human somatosensory system. The combination of excellent temporal resolution and good localization accuracy provided by MEG has, in the case of somatosensory studies, enabled the differentiation of activation patterns from the newborn's primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) areas. Furthermore, MEG has shown that the functioning of both SI and SII in newborns has particular immature features in comparison with adults. In extremely preterm infants, the neonatal MEG response from SII also seems to potentially predict developmental outcome: those lacking SII responses at term show worse motor performance at age 2 years than those with normal SII responses at term. In older children with unilateral early brain lesions, bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical activation detected in MEG imply that the impact of a localized insult may have an unexpectedly wide effect on cortical somatosensory networks. The achievements over the last decade show that MEG provides a unique approach for studying the development of the somatosensory system and its disturbances in childhood. MEG well complements other neuroimaging methods in studies of cortical processes in the developing brain.

  15. Endovascular treatment of sphenoid wing dural arteriovenous fistula with pure cortical venous drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Miyake, Kosuke; Kunieda, Takenobu; Murao, Kenichi

    2014-07-01

    Curative endovascular treatment of sphenoid wing dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) with pure cortical venous drainage is challenging because of its rarity, lack of accessible dural sinus for transvenous embolization (TVE), and proximity of skull base vital regions. Direct surgery to disconnect venous reflux has been favored. We report the curative endovascular treatment of two sphenoid wing dAVFs with pure cortical venous drainage. One patient revealed complete obliteration of dAVF by a single session of transarterial embolization (TAE). As part of strategic TAE for this complex dAVF, we used a novel approach to create a complete flow-arrest condition in which coils and an occlusion balloon were combined. A liquid agent was then injected across the pathological fistula and into the parent venous apparatus, thereby occluding the lesion. The other patient was treated with percutaneous TVE after TAE was unsuccessful. With a specific strategy and appropriate devices, the microcatheter was successfully introduced through sigmoid sinus, transverse sinus, superior sagittal sinus, and refluxing cortical vein by puncture of the jugular vein. Coils were deployed at the venous side of the fistula, resulting in successful obliteration of the dAVF. Sphenoid wing dAVF with pure cortical venous drainage could be curable by endovascular treatment with proper strategy and instruments when anatomical condition permits.

  16. Intracranial lesions with high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images – review of pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, Anna; Zińska, Lidia; Bladowska, Joanna; Neska-Matuszewska, Małgorzata; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Summary In the article we present pathological intracranial substances and lesions, which produce high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images. Six groups of substances are discussed: 1. Gadolinium – based contrast agents, 2.hemoglobin degradation products (intra- and extra-cellular methemoglobin), 3. lipid-containing lesions (lipoma, dermoid cyst, implanted fatty materials, laminar cortical necrosis), 4. substances with high concentration of proteins (colloid cyst, craniopharyngioma, Rathke’s cleft cyst, ectopic posterior pituitary gland), 5. melanin (metastatic melanoma), 6. lesions containing mineral substances such as: calcium (calcifications, Fahr’s disease), copper (Wilson’s disease) and manganese (hepatic encephalopathy, manganese intoxication in intravenous drug abusers). Appropriate interpretation of signal intensity as well as analysis of location of lesions and clinical symptoms enables planning of further diagnostics and, in many cases, establishing the final diagnosis based on MR examination. PMID:24505222

  17. Neurobehavioural Changes in a Patient with Bilateral Lesions of the Globus Pallidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Haaxma

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has characterized the long-term neurobehavioural changes in a woman who, following the intake of an unidentified substance, sustained subtotal bilateral lesions of the globus pallidus and small lesions at selective sites adjacent to it. Associated with these lesions was a significantly reduced blood flow in multiple frontal cortical regions, most prominently in area 10, the anterior cingulate and the supplementary motor cortex. Her cognitive deficits were generally consistent with those found in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction but some deficits, i.e. in visual memory and learning, were more compatible with temporal lobe dysfunction. Incapacitating personality or obsessive compulsive changes as reported by others with similar lesions were absent and she could live independently. The cognitive changes are consistent with the view that the globus pallidus has important functions in mediating how internal representations of stimulus input are converted into various forms of action, for example, in planning solutions to problems and in working memory.

  18. A case of generalized auditory agnosia with unilateral subcortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyee; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia.

  19. Segmentation of cortical MS lesions on MRI using automated laminar profile shape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tardif, Christine L.; Collins, D. Louis; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a texton-based classification system based on raw pixel representation along with a support vector machine with radial basis function kernel is proposed for the classification of emphysema in computed tomography images of the lung. The proposed approach is tested on 168 annotated...

  20. Fully automatic detection of deep white matter T1 hypointense lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Lothar; Tewes, Anja; Suppa, Per; Opfer, Roland; Buchert, Ralph; Winkler, Gerhard; Raji, Alaleh

    2013-12-01

    A novel method is presented for fully automatic detection of candidate white matter (WM) T1 hypointense lesions in three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. By definition, T1 hypointense lesions have similar intensity as gray matter (GM) and thus appear darker than surrounding normal WM in T1-weighted images. The novel method uses a standard classification algorithm to partition T1-weighted images into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a consequence, T1 hypointense lesions are assigned an increased GM probability by the standard classification algorithm. The GM component image of a patient is then tested voxel-by-voxel against GM component images of a normative database of healthy individuals. Clusters (≥0.1 ml) of significantly increased GM density within a predefined mask of deep WM are defined as lesions. The performance of the algorithm was assessed on voxel level by a simulation study. A maximum dice similarity coefficient of 60% was found for a typical T1 lesion pattern with contrasts ranging from WM to cortical GM, indicating substantial agreement between ground truth and automatic detection. Retrospective application to 10 patients with multiple sclerosis demonstrated that 93 out of 96 T1 hypointense lesions were detected. On average 3.6 false positive T1 hypointense lesions per patient were found. The novel method is promising to support the detection of hypointense lesions in T1-weighted images which warrants further evaluation in larger patient samples.

  1. "Hybrid" lesion of the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sankaranarayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon benign but aggressive fibroosseous lesion that affects the craniofacial skeleton. Their distinct clinical and histopathological features warrant the lesion to be considered as a separate entity from other fibro-osseous group of lesions such as fibrous dysplasia and cemento ossifying fibroma. Concomitant development of secondary aneurysmal bone cyst may rarely occur, which makes the lesion more aggressive and difficult to treat. We report a case of a 6 year old girl who was diagnosed with aneurysmal bone cyst during her earlier presentation at a private hospital and was treated for the same. The lesion recurred within 6 months. The second incisional biopsy specimen revealed features of trabecular variant of juvenile ossifying fibroma along with areas of aneurysmal bone cyst.

  2. What and where in human audition: selective deficits following focal hemispheric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Stephanie; Bellmann Thiran, Anne; Maeder, Philippe; Adriani, Michela; Vernet, Olivier; Regli, Luca; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2002-11-01

    A sound that we hear in a natural setting allows us to identify the sound source and localize it in space. The two aspects can be disrupted independently as shown in a study of 15 patients with focal right-hemispheric lesions. Four patients were normal in sound recognition but severely impaired in sound localization, whereas three other patients had difficulties in recognizing sounds but localized them well. The lesions involved the inferior parietal and frontal cortices, and the superior temporal gyrus in patients with selective sound localization deficit; and the temporal pole and anterior part of the fusiform, inferior and middle temporal gyri in patients with selective recognition deficit. These results suggest separate cortical processing pathways for auditory recognition and localization.

  3. Inner speech in anarthria: neuropsychological evidence of differential effects of cerebral lesions on subvocal articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P

    1992-07-01

    The role of articulation in verbal short-term memory was investigated in two anarthric patients, C.M. and F.C., both showing normal comprehension for written and spoken language, above average intelligence and visuo-spatial abilities. Based on experimental results, we propose that subvocal articulation might be impaired in anarthric patients in different ways, according to the site of lesion: in 'locked-in' patients only the articulatory rehearsal processes necessary to enhance memory performances is involved, while in cortical anarthric patients the lesion affects the articulatory recoding processes involved in transferring visually presented material into an articulatory form for better retention.

  4. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of white matter lesions on MRI: the evaluation of vascular care in Alzheimer's disease (EVA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A

    2010-03-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts. A randomized controlled clinical trial, including 123 subjects, compared vascular care with standard care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions on MRI. Progression of WMLs, lacunes, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and global cortical atrophy were semiquantitatively scored after 2-year follow-up. Sixty-five subjects (36 vascular care, 29 standard care) had a baseline and a follow-up MRI and in 58 subjects, a follow-up scan could not be obtained due to advanced dementia or death. Subjects in the vascular care group had less progression of WMLs as measured with the WML change score (1.4 versus 2.3, P=0.03). There was no difference in the number of new lacunes or change in global cortical atrophy or medial temporal lobe atrophy between the 2 groups. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs. Treatment aimed at vascular risk factors in patients with early Alzheimer disease may be beneficial, possibly in an even earlier stage of the disease.

  5. DOTA alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues for imaging metastatic melanoma lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, Sylvie; Calame-Christe, Martine; Sumanovski, Lazar; Tanner, Heidi; Eberle, Alex N

    2003-06-01

    Scintigraphic imaging of metastatic melanoma lesions requires highly tumor-specific radiopharmaceuticals. Because both melanotic and amelanotic melanomas overexpress melanocortin-1 receptors (MC1R), radiolabeled analogues of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) are potential candidates for melanoma diagnosis. Here, we report the in vivo performance of a newly designed octapeptide analogue, [betaAla(3), Nle(4), Asp(5), D-Phe(7), Lys(10)]-alpha-MSH(3-10) (MSH(OCT)), which was conjugated through its N-terminal amino group to the metal chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) to enable incorporation of radiometals (e.g., indium-111) into the peptide. DOTA-MSH(OCT) displayed high in vitro MC1R affinity (IC(50) 9.21 nM). In vivo [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) exhibited a favorable biodistribution profile after injection in B16-F1 tumorbearing mice. The radiopeptide was rapidly cleared from blood through the kidneys and, most importantly, accumulated preferentially in the melanoma lesions. Lung and liver melanoma metastases could be clearly imaged on tissue section autoradiographs 4 h after injection of [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT). A comparative study of [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) with [(111)In]DOTA-[Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-alpha-MSH ([(111)In]-DOTA-NDP-MSH) demonstrated the superiority of the DOTA-MSH(OCT) peptide, particularly for the amount of radioactivity taken up by nonmalignant organs, including bone, the most radiosensitive tissue. These results demonstrate that [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) is a promising melanoma imaging agent.

  6. Chronic cortical and subcortical pathology with associated neurological deficits ensuing experimental herpes encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armien, Anibal G; Hu, Shuxian; Little, Morgan R; Robinson, Nicholas; Lokensgard, James R; Low, Walter C; Cheeran, Maxim C-J

    2010-07-01

    Long-term neurological sequela is common among herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) survivors. Animal models for HSE are used to investigate mechanisms of acute disease, but little has been done to model chronic manifestations of HSE. The current study presents a detailed, systematic analysis of chronic neuropathology, including characterization of topography and sequential progression of degenerative lesions and inflammation. Subsequent to intranasal HSV-1 infection, inflammatory responses that were temporally and spatially distinct persisted in infected cortical and brain stem regions. Neutrophils were present exclusively within the olfactory bulb and brain stem regions during the acute phase of infection, while the chronic inflammation was marked by plasma cells, lymphocytes and activated microglia. The chronic lymphocytic infiltrate, cytokine production, and activated microglia were associated with the loss of cortical neuropile in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Animals surviving the acute infection showed a spectrum of chronic lesions from decreased brain volume, neuronal loss, activated astrocytes, and glial scar formation to severe atrophy and cavitations of the cortex. These lesions were also associated with severe spatial memory deficits in surviving animals. Taken together, this model can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms of neurological defects that follow in the wake of HSE.

  7. Upper limb function and cortical organisation in youth with hemiplegic, cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eMackey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the relationship between motor cortical and descending motor pathway reorganisation, lesion type and upper limb function in youth with unilateral cerebral palsy. Methods: Twenty participants with unilateral cerebral palsy (mean age 15 ± 3 years; 11 males completed a range of upper limb functional measures. Structural MRI, diffusion weighted and functional MR imaging were conducted to determine type and extent of brain lesion, descending white matter integrity, and whole-brain activity during affected hand use. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (n = 12 was used to examine functional integrity of the corticospinal pathway as well as primary motor cortex intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition from motor evoked potentials and silent periods.Results: Fractional anisotropy measures within the posterior limb of the internal capsule were a predictor of upper limb function (R2 = 0.41, F = 11.3, p = 0.004. Participants with periventricular lesions tended to have better upper limb function (F (2, 17 = 42.48, p < 0.0001. Five participants with evidence of cortical reorganisation and functional ipsilateral projections to their affected hand had worse upper limb function. Deficits in intracortical and interhemispheric inhibitory mechanisms were found in participants with worse upper limb function (Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function: Mann Whitney p = 0.02.Conclusions: Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation can provide useful information related to hand function of individuals with unilateral cerebral palsy and may have potential to assist as a predictive tool and / or guide rehabilitation.

  8. A Giant-Cell Lesion with Cellular Cannibalism in the Mandible: Case Report and Review of Brown Tumors in Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Lorenzo; Cimetti, Laura; Annoni, Matteo; Anselmi, Diego; Tettamanti, Lucia; Tagliabue, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    A small radiolucent area in the mandible was discovered in a 58-year-old woman with no oral complaints. The patient's history included only hypertension. The lesion was considered as an inflammatory cyst and was enucleated. Three months later, a CT revealed the presence of a cyst-like lesion in the mandible with thin expanded buccal cortical plate, localized erosion, and a polylobate appearance on the lingual aspect of the cortical plate. The histological diagnosis of the lesion was central giant-cell granuloma (CGCG). The lesion was thoroughly enucleated. Nevertheless, another X-ray carried out six months later revealed multiple bilateral osteolytic areas throughout the jaw. In addition, widespread cortical plate erosion was observed, as well as signs of root resorption and periodontal enlargement. There was no sign of neurological involvement, although the nerves appeared to be dislocated. After full blood chemistry analysis and detailed collection of radiographs, the final diagnosis was brown tumors in primary hyperparathyroidism. This case report demonstrates how dental clinicians may be the first-line specialists who identify a complex systemic disease before other clinicians. Finally, it highlights the role of cellular cannibalism in predicting the clinical aggressiveness of brown tumors as well as in other giant-cell lesions.

  9. Cortical atrophy patterns in multiple sclerosis are non-random and clinically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenwijk, Martijn D; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Daams, Marita; Tijms, Betty M; Wink, Alle Meije; Balk, Lisanne J; Tewarie, Prejaas K; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Pouwels, Petra J W

    2016-01-01

    Grey matter atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis. However, in contrast with other neurodegenerative diseases, it is unclear whether grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis is a diffuse 'global' process or develops, instead, according to distinct anatomical patterns. Using source-based morphometry we searched for anatomical patterns of co-varying cortical thickness and assessed their relationships with white matter pathology, physical disability and cognitive functioning. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 3 T in 208 patients with long-standing multiple sclerosis (141 females; age = 53.7 ± 9.6 years; disease duration = 20.2 ± 7.1 years) and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Spatial independent component analysis was performed on cortical thickness maps derived from 3D T1-weighted images across all subjects to identify co-varying patterns. The loadings, which reflect the presence of each cortical thickness pattern in a subject, were compared between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls with generalized linear models. Stepwise linear regression analyses were used to assess whether white matter pathology was associated with these loadings and to identify the cortical thickness patterns that predict measures of physical and cognitive dysfunction. Ten cortical thickness patterns were identified, of which six had significantly lower loadings in patients with multiple sclerosis than in controls: the largest loading differences corresponded to the pattern predominantly involving the bilateral temporal pole and entorhinal cortex, and the pattern involving the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex. In patients with multiple sclerosis, overall white matter lesion load was negatively associated with the loadings of these two patterns. The final model for physical dysfunction as measured with Expanded Disability Status Scale score (adjusted R(2) = 0.297; P atrophy patterns relevant for multiple sclerosis were found. This suggests that

  10. A case of pathology-proven neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with Sjögren syndrome manifesting aphasia and apraxia due to a localized cerebral white matter lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Jun; Orimoto, Ryosuke; Misu, Tatsuro; Katayama, Takayuki; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Asanome, Asuka; Takahashi, Kae; Saito, Tsukasa; Anei, Ryogo; Kamada, Kyousuke; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujihara, Kazuo; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2014-09-01

    A woman with Sjögren syndrome manifesting as aphasia with a left deep cerebral white matter lesion tested positive for anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody. Open biopsy of the lesion revealed active demyelination with edematous changes and the preservation of most axons, indicating a non-necrotic demyelinating lesion. Immunostaining for AQP4 was diffusely lost, whereas the loss of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining was limited but with highly degenerated astrocytic foot processes in perivascular areas. These results suggested neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) pathology rather than Sjögren-related vasculitis. Only cerebral cortical symptoms with a cerebral white matter lesion could be observed in NMOSDs.

  11. CT and MRI findings of 144 patients with West syndrome. Characterization of the cerebral lesion and its topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Mochizuki, Mika; Sugiyama, Nobuyoshi; Nara, Takahiro; Oguma, Eiji [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan); Eto, Yoshikatsu [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    In West syndrome, although classified as a generalized epilepsy, there are some patients reported to have became seizure-free and have good outcomes in the developmental aspect after resections of localized lesions. We reviewed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of 144 patients with West syndrome and classified them into four categories depending on the distribution of lesion: normal group, diffuse group, disseminated group, localized group. Thirty-three patients belong to the normal group after having reviewed images from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The diffuse group consisted of 83 patients presenting morphologic abnormalities such as, diffuse cerebral atrophy, periventricular leukomalesia or polycystic encephalomalesia; the disseminated group included 17 patients having a diagnosis of tuberoius sclerosis, multiple cortical dysplasia or multiple cortical heterotopias. The lesions of all eleven patients with localized cerebral lesions involved the temporal and/or occipital lobes. Nine of the eleven patients with localized cerebral lesions had the lesions on the right side. These results suggest that the specificity of lesion topography of temporo-occipital regions and the right-side in West syndrome will have a close correlation with normal brain maturation, from the viewpoint of development of myelination and cerebral blood flow, and related with the genesis of West syndrome. (author)

  12. Quantitative radiology: radiogrammetry of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dequeker, J

    1976-11-01

    Based on personal experience and data in the literature, an overview is given of radiogrammetry of cortical bone of the second metacarpal. There is a within- and between-observer error which amounts respectively to 1.2 and 1.5% for the outer diameter and 4.8 and 6.4% for the inner diameter. The systematic + or-- trend between observers indicates that one observer working according to certain defined rules obtains the most reliable results. There is a large variability in amount of bone within one age and sex group which is partly due to skeletal size differences, are insufficient since skeletal size differences still exist. The variability is reduced when the data are divided into strata of skeletal size. Since cortical area shows the best correlation with outer diameter within each age group and since cortical area represents best the ash content of the bones the values of this index are most suited to be grouped according to outer diameter. In differentiating pathological from physiological bone loss this procedure is an improvement on the previously published indices of amount of bone. When comparing different populations this method has advantages since skeletal size differences are eliminated. Comparing seven populations it was found that populations living in the United States of America have more bone for a given skeletal size than populations in Europe or Nigeria. Bone loss with age is a general phenomenon but differences in rate of loss are observed between the sexes and between ethnic different populations. The decrease of bone mass is faster after the age of 50 years in woman than in men. Blacks living in the United States loose less bone with age than whites. Radiogrammetry of cortical bone in groups gives useful information on bond remodelling during ageing and in pathological conditions. At an individual level, however, it is difficult to evaluate changes on a short term basis with radiogrammetry. Radiogrammetry of cortical bone is a simple and

  13. “BOLD Magnetic Resonance Imaging identifies cortical hypoxia in severe renovascular disease”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloviczki, Monika L; Glockner, James F; Crane, John A; McKusick, Michael A; Misra, Sanjay; Grande, Joseph P; Lerman, Lilach O; Textor, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis has a range of manifestations depending upon the severity of vascular occlusion. The aim of this study was to examine whether exceeding the limits of adaptation to reduced blood flow ultimately leads to tissue hypoxia as determined by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. We compared three groups of hypertensive patients (24 with essential hypertension [EH]), 13 with “moderate” (Doppler velocities 200-384 cm/sec) and 17 with “severe” atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis ([ARAS]; velocities above 384 cm/sec and loss of functional renal tissue). Cortical and medullary blood flows and volumes were determined by multi-detector CT. Post-stenotic kidney size and blood flow were reduced with ARAS, and tissue perfusion fell in the most severe lesions. Tissue deoxyhemoglobin, as reflected by R2* values, was higher in medulla as compared to cortex for all groups and did not differ between subjects with renal artery lesions and EH. By contrast, cortical R2* levels were elevated for severe ARAS (21.6 ±9.4 /sec) as compared with either EH (17.8±2.3 /sec, p<.01) or moderate ARAS (15.7± 2.1 /sec, p<.01). Changes in medullary R2* after furosemide administration tended to be blunted in severe ARAS as compared to unaffected (contralateral) kidneys. These results demonstrate that severe vascular occlusion overwhelms the capacity of the kidney to adapt to reduced blood flow, manifest as overt cortical hypoxia as measured by BOLD MRI. The level of cortical hypoxia is out of proportion to medulla and may provide a marker to identify irreversible parenchymal injury. PMID:22042812

  14. Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; Cody, Patrick A; Bubser, Michael; Wang, Hui-Dong; Deutch, Ariel Y; Mathur, Brian N

    2017-04-15

    The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter structure with various proposed functions, including sensory integration and attentional allocation. Underlying these concepts is the reciprocal connectivity of the claustrum with most, if not all, areas of the cortex. What remains to be elucidated to inform functional hypotheses further is whether a pattern exists in the strength of connectivity between a given cortical area and the claustrum. To this end, we performed a series of retrograde neuronal tract tracer injections into rat cortical areas along the cortical processing hierarchy, from primary sensory and motor to frontal cortices. We observed that the number of claustrocortical projections increased as a function of processing hierarchy; claustrum neurons projecting to primary sensory cortices were scant and restricted in distribution across the claustrum, whereas neurons projecting to the cingulate cortex were densely packed and more evenly distributed throughout the claustrum. This connectivity pattern suggests that the claustrum may preferentially subserve executive functions orchestrated by the cingulate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1347-1362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Focal cortical dysplasia: long term seizure outcome after surgical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, T; von Lehe, M; Podlogar, M; Clusmann, H; Süßmann, P; Kurthen, M; Becker, A; Urbach, H; Schramm, J

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies of long term outcome after epilepsy surgery for cortical malformations are rare. In this study, we report our experience with surgical treatment and year to year long term outcome for a subgroup of patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Methods We retrospectively analysed the records of 49 patients (females n = 26; males n = 23; mean age 25 (11) years) with a mean duration of epilepsy of 18 years (range 1–45). Preoperative MRI, histological results based on the Palmini classification and clinical year to year follow‐up according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification were available in all patients. Results 98% of patients had a lesion on preoperative MRI. In addition to lobectomy (n = 9) or lesionectomy (n = 40), 14 patients had multiple subpial transections of the eloquent cortex. The resected tissue was classified as FCD type II b in 41 cases with an extratemporal (88%) and FCD type II a in 8 cases with a temporal localisation (100%). After a mean follow‐up of 8.1 (4.5) years, 37 patients (76%) were seizure free, a subgroup of 23 patients (47%) had been completely seizure free since surgery (ILAE class 1a) and 4 patients (8%) had only auras (ILAE class 2). Over a 10 year follow‐up, the proportion of satisfactory outcomes decreased, mainly within the first 3 years. During long term follow‐up, 48% stopped antiepileptic drug treatment, 34% received a driver's license and 57% found a job or training. Conclusion Surgical treatment of epilepsy with FCD is not only successful in the short term but also has a satisfying long term outcome which remains constant after 3 years of follow‐up but is not associated with better employment status or improvement in daily living. PMID:17287239

  16. Lesiones debido a un rayo

    OpenAIRE

    Soraia Oliveira; Andriy Bal

    2012-01-01

    Lesiones debido a un rayo Mujer de 72 años, fue admitida en urgências con dolor abdominal y lipotimia después de ser golpeada por un rayo mientras abría una ventana. En la exploracion presentaba lesiones, localizadas en el tronco, dolorosas a la palpación. Las lesiones abdominales en forma de estrella eran muy sugestivas de imágenes de Lichtenberg (figura A), mientras en la región pélvica (figura B) y en la nalga derecha (figura C) eran más lineales y compatibles con quemaduras de pri...

  17. Factitious lesions of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kaempf de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of a lesion with atypical presentation, obscure clinical history, which does not improve with classic treatments, shall raise the red flag of the medical team. In such cases, the hypothesis of a factitious lesion shall be considered. Many times the correct diagnosis on the initial assessment may avoid high-cost diagnostic tests, unnecessary treatments, and time consumption of the medical team. We present here two classic cases of factitious lesions that, similar to those described in the literature, is difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat.

  18. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  19. Movement related slow cortical potentials in severely paralyzed chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge eYilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement-related slow cortical potentials (SCPs are proposed as reliable and immediate indicators of cortical reorganisation in motor learning. SCP amplitude and latency have been reported as markers for the brain’s computational effort, attention and movement planning. SCPs have been used as an EEG signature of motor control and as a main feature in Brain-Machine-Interfaces (BMIs. Some reports suggest SCPs are modified following stroke. In this study, we investigated movement-related SCPs in severe chronic stroke patients with no residual paretic hand movements preceding and during paretic (when they try to move and healthy hand movements. The aim was to identify SCP signatures related to cortex integrity and complete paralysis due to stroke in the chronic stage. 20 severely impaired (no residual finger extension chronic stoke patients, of whom 10 presented subcortical and 10 cortical and subcortical lesions, underwent EEG and EMG recordings during a cue triggered hand movement (open/close paradigm. SCP onset appeared and peaked significantly earlier during paretic hand movements than during healthy hand movements. Amplitudes were significantly larger over the midline (Cz, Fz for paretic hand movements while contralateral (C4, F4 and midline (Cz, Fz amplitudes were significantly larger than ipsilateral activity for healthy hand movements. Dividing the participants into subcortical only and mixed lesioned patient groups, no significant differences observed in SCP amplitude and latency between groups. This suggests lesions in the thalamocortical loop as the main factor in SCP changes after stroke. Furthermore, we demonstrated how, after long-term complete paralysis, post-stroke intention to move a paralyzed hand resulted in longer and larger SCPs originating in the frontal areas. These results suggest SCP are a valuable feature that should be incorporated in the design of new neurofeedback strategies for motor neurorehabilitation.

  20. Neurodynamics of somatosensory cortices studied by magnetoencephelography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kuniharu

    2013-09-01

    From the viewpoint of statistical inverse problems, identification of transfer functions in feedback models is applied for neurodynamics of somatosensory cortices, and brain communication among active regions can be expressed in terms of transfer functions. However, brain activities have been investigated mainly by averaged waveforms in the conventional magnetoencephalography analysis, and thus brain communication among active regions has not yet been identified. It is shown that brain communication among two more than three brain regions is determined, when fluctuations related to concatenate averaged waveforms can be obtained by using a suitable blind source separation method. In blind identification of feedback model, some transfer functions or their impulse responses between output variables of current dipoles corresponding to active regions are identified from reconstructed time series data of fluctuations by the method of inverse problem. Neurodynamics of somatosensory cortices in 5 Hz median nerve stimuli can be shown by cerebral communication among active regions of somatosensory cortices in terms of impulse responses of feedback model.

  1. Comparison study of lesion localization in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism using double-phase Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Rhyu, Young Hoon; Park, Jung Soo; Jang, Hang Seok [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the scintigraphic findings and diagnostic accuracy of double-phase Tc-99m sestamibi scan in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). We retrospectively reviewed 16 cases of primary (18 lesions) and 11 cases of secondary HPT (44 lesions) who underwent Tc-99m-sestamibi scan before the surgical intervention. Scan was performed using LEM camera (Siemens, Germany ) after the injection of 740MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi. Routine image consisted of baseline and 3-hour delayed images and each image was obtained using both parallel and pine hole collimator. The study population was 27 patients (male/ females=5/22, age: 49.1{+-}10.8). Eighteen lesions of primary HPT consisted of 13 adenomas and 5 hyperplasias, while while all lesions of secondary but only 2 lesions of 5 hyperplasias, while all lesions of secondary HPT were hyperplasias. Among the case of primary HPT, we could detect all the lesions of 13 adenomas but only 2 lesions of 5 hyperplasias (40%) could be detected by double phase scintigraphy. Three cases of primary lesion showed decreased uptake in delayed images compared with baseline. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy of primary and secondary HPT were 58.5% (10/17), 83.3% (10/12), 83.3%(10/12), 75.9%(22/29), and 37.5%(15/40), 50% (2/4), 88.2% (15/17), 38.6% (17/44), respectively. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy were 43.9% (25/57), 75%(12/16), 86.2% (25/29), and 53.4% (39/73). There were no statistical difference between the weight of primary and secondary HPT lesion (p>0.05). Tc-99m sestamibi scan is fairly good modality to detect parathyroid lesion in patient with primary HPT before the surgical intervention. However, since some of cases may reveal decreased uptake in delayed image, a careful attention to the findings of baseline images may be helpful. Still the low accuracy of sestamibi scan in diagnosis of secondary HPT prohibits

  2. Benign breast lesions in Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background; Non-malignant diseases of the breast have assumed increased importance ... This was followed by fibroadenoma accounting for 28.8% with a mean age of 21 ... relevance of this study. ... benign breast lesion in Kano accounting.

  3. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  4. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  5. Stochastic model of Tsc1 lesions in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Prabhakar

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder due to mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 that affects many organs with hamartomas and tumors. TSC-associated brain lesions include subependymal nodules, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and tubers. Neurologic manifestations in TSC comprise a high frequency of mental retardation and developmental disorders including autism, as well as epilepsy. Here, we describe a new mouse model of TSC brain lesions in which complete loss of Tsc1 is achieved in multiple brain cell types in a stochastic pattern. Injection of an adeno-associated virus vector encoding Cre recombinase into the cerebral ventricles of mice homozygous for a Tsc1 conditional allele on the day of birth led to reduced survival, and pathologic findings of enlarged neurons, cortical heterotopias, subependymal nodules, and hydrocephalus. The severity of clinical and pathologic findings as well as survival was shown to be dependent upon the dose and serotype of Cre virus injected. Although several other models of TSC brain disease exist, this model is unique in that the pathology reflects a variety of TSC-associated lesions involving different numbers and types of cells. This model provides a valuable and unique addition for therapeutic assessment.

  6. Pediatric sellar and suprasellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jason W; Vezina, L Gilbert

    2011-03-01

    Masses arising in the sella turcica and the suprasellar region are common in children. The type and frequency of the various lesions encountered in childhood differ from the adult presentation. This article reviews the embryology of the pituitary gland and its normal appearance in childhood as well as the imaging and clinical findings of the common and some of the uncommon lesions arising in the sella turcica, the pituitary stalk, the suprasellar cistern and the lower third ventricle in the pediatric population.

  7. Scintigraphic study of palpable breast nodes with {sup 99m} Tc-tetrofosmin; Estudo cintilografico de nodulos palpaveis da mama com {sup 99m} Tc - tetrofosmin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Fabricio, Maria Ines Menescal [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Ginecologia

    1998-12-01

    In Brazil, breast carcinoma has the greater incidence among women. In 1996, about 31,210 new cases were diagnosed. The purpose of this study is to determine if {sup 99m} technetium-tetrofosmin preferentially concentrates within malignant palpable breast nodes, distinguishing them from the benign lumps. Fifth-four consecutive and unsolicited women, mean age 47.5 +- 10.7 years, with palpable nodes in breast, underwent breast scintigraphy with {sup 99m} technetium-tetrofosmin and excisional biopsy or fine needle puncture within interval eight weeks. Histopathologic studies demonstrated 13 cysts, 1 cyst with local inflammation, 11 fibroadenoma, 2 fibrodysplasias, 3 fibroadenomas with high cellularity, 1 fibrocystic change with local inflammation, 23 invasive intraductal carcinomas and 1 invasive lobular carcinoma. The nodes ranged from 10 to 100 mm in greater diameter. The scintigraphic study yielded 30 true-negative cases, 24 true-positives, no false-negative and 1 false-positive. This case was a fibrocystic lump with local inflammation. Two patients had metastases in axillary lymph nodes, well detected in scintigraphy. The statistic analysis showed: sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 96.8%; accuracy, 98.2%; negative predictive value, 100%; positive predictive value, 96.0%. Nonparametric tests of Fisher and Chi-square rejected the antithesis at a confidence interval of 99.9% (p < 0.001). We concluded that {sup 99m} technetium-tetrofosmin preferentially concentrates in malignant palpable breast nodes and can help to distinguish them from the benign tumors with with very high accuracy. (author)

  8. Lesions of the clitoris: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2015-01-01

    The clitoris may become involved by vulvar lesions. There are also lesions arising from the clitoris. A familiarity with these lesions is necessary for the high index of suspicion needed for their diagnosis.

  9. Cortical blindness and choroidal metastases secondary to metastatic breast carcinoma in a male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palejwala, Neal; Yeh, Steven; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Bergstrom, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is a rare entity that often goes undiagnosed until advanced stages. The authors describe the case of a patient with profound vision loss who was found to have bilateral choroidal metastases as well as advanced cerebral metastatic disease. Further medical work-up revealed widespread infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma. Given the presence of large occipital lobe lesions, the etiology of the patient's vision loss was thought to be cortical blindness. Prompt diagnosis and neurologic evaluation with this presentation is crucial because it can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

  10. In vivo high-resolution 7 Tesla MRI shows early and diffuse cortical alterations in CADASIL.

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    François De Guio

    Full Text Available Recent data suggest that early symptoms may be related to cortex alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy, a monogenic model of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical alterations using both high-resolution T2* acquisitions obtained with 7 Tesla MRI and structural T1 images with 3 Tesla MRI in CADASIL patients with no or only mild symptomatology (modified Rankin's scale ≤1 and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE ≥24.Complete reconstructions of the cortex using 7 Tesla T2* acquisitions with 0.7 mm isotropic resolution were obtained in 11 patients (52.1±13.2 years, 36% male and 24 controls (54.8±11.0 years, 42% male. Seven Tesla T2* within the cortex and cortical thickness and morphology obtained from 3 Tesla images were compared between CADASIL and control subjects using general linear models.MMSE, brain volume, cortical thickness and global sulcal morphology did not differ between groups. By contrast, T2* measured by 7 Tesla MRI was significantly increased in frontal, parietal, occipital and cingulate cortices in patients after correction for multiple testing. These changes were not related to white matter lesions, lacunes or microhemorrhages in patients having no brain atrophy compared to controls.Seven Tesla MRI, by contrast to state of the art post-processing of 3 Tesla acquisitions, shows diffuse T2* alterations within the cortical mantle in CADASIL whose origin remains to be determined.

  11. The ontogeny of the cortical language network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeide, Michael A; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-05-01

    Language-processing functions follow heterogeneous developmental trajectories. The human embryo can already distinguish vowels in utero, but grammatical complexity is usually not fully mastered until at least 7 years of age. Examining the current literature, we propose that the ontogeny of the cortical language network can be roughly subdivided into two main developmental stages. In the first stage extending over the first 3 years of life, the infant rapidly acquires bottom-up processing capacities, which are primarily implemented bilaterally in the temporal cortices. In the second stage continuing into adolescence, top-down processes emerge gradually with the increasing functional selectivity and structural connectivity of the left inferior frontal cortex.

  12. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

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    D.J. O'Rourke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and discuss the literature on this topic.

  13. Cortical activation elicited by unrecognized stimuli

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    Badgaiyan Rajendra D

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether a stimulus that cannot be recognized consciously, could elicit a well-processed cognitive response. Methods We used functional imaging to examine the pattern of cortical activation elicited by unrecognized stimuli during memory processing. Subjects were given a recognition task using recognizable and non-recognizable subliminal stimuli. Results Unrecognized stimuli activated the cortical areas that are associated with retrieval attempt (left prefrontal, and novelty detection (left hippocampus. This indicates that the stimuli that were not consciously recognized, activated neural network associated with aspects of explicit memory processing. Conclusion Results suggest that conscious recognition of stimuli is not necessary for activation of cognitive processing.

  14. Elemental mercury poisoning probably causes cortical myoclonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragothaman, Mona; Kulkarni, Girish; Ashraf, Valappil V; Pal, Pramod K; Chickabasavaiah, Yasha; Shankar, Susarla K; Govindappa, Srikanth S; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy; Muthane, Uday B

    2007-10-15

    Mercury toxicity causes postural tremors, commonly referred to as "mercurial tremors," and cerebellar dysfunction. A 23-year woman, 2 years after injecting herself with elemental mercury developed disabling generalized myoclonus and ataxia. Electrophysiological studies confirmed the myoclonus was probably of cortical origin. Her deficits progressed over 2 years and improved after subcutaneous mercury deposits at the injection site were surgically cleared. Myoclonus of cortical origin has never been described in mercury poisoning. It is important to ask patients presenting with jerks about exposure to elemental mercury even if they have a progressive illness, as it is a potentially reversible condition as in our patient.

  15. Posterior cortical atrophy: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Howard S; Lavin, Patrick J M

    2006-11-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a striking clinical syndrome in which a dementing illness begins with visual symptoms. Initially, the problem may seem to be loss of elementary vision, but over time the patient develops features of visual agnosia, topographical difficulty, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, ocular apraxia (Balint's syndrome), alexia, acalculia, right-left confusion, and agraphia (Gerstmann's syndrome), and later a more generalized dementia. Occasional patients have visual hallucinations and signs of Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia. A number of different neuropathologic disorders are associated with posterior cortical atrophy.

  16. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  17. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  18. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

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    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  19. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

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    Fatima Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT, and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis.

  20. Independent measurement of femoral cortical thickness and cortical bone density using clinical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, G M; Gee, A H

    2015-02-01

    The local structure of the proximal femoral cortex is of interest since both fracture risk, and the effects of various interventions aimed at reducing that risk, are associated with cortical properties focused in particular regions rather than dispersed over the whole bone. Much of the femoral cortex is less than 3mm thick, appearing so blurred in clinical CT that its actual density is not apparent in the data, and neither thresholding nor full-width half-maximum techniques are capable of determining its width. Our previous work on cortical bone mapping showed how to produce more accurate estimates of cortical thickness by assuming a fixed value of the cortical density for each hip. However, although cortical density varies much less over the proximal femur than thickness, what little variation there is leads to errors in thickness measurement. In this paper, we develop the cortical bone mapping technique by exploiting local estimates of imaging blur to correct the global density estimate, thus providing a local density estimate as well as more accurate estimates of thickness. We also consider measurement of cortical mass surface density and the density of trabecular bone immediately adjacent to the cortex. Performance is assessed with ex vivo clinical QCT scans of proximal femurs, with true values derived from high resolution HRpQCT scans of the same bones. We demonstrate superior estimation of thickness than is possible with alternative techniques (accuracy 0.12 ± 0.39 mm for cortices in the range 1-3mm), and that local cortical density estimation is feasible for densities >800 mg/cm(3).

  1. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  2. Seven-Tesla Magnetization Transfer Imaging to Detect Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Lim, Su-Yin; Tanasescu, Radu; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier E; Tench, Christopher R; Whitehouse, William P; Gowland, Penny A; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2017-09-25

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of 7T magnetization-transfer-weighted (MTw ) images in the detection of white matter lesions compared with 3T-FLAIR. Fifteen patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 6 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 healthy participants were scanned with 7T 3-dimensional (D) MTw and 3T-2D-FLAIR sequences on the same day. White matter lesions visible on either sequence were delineated. Of 662 lesions identified on 3T-2D-FLAIR images, 652 were detected on 7T-3D-MTw images (sensitivity, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 97% to 99%). The Spearman correlation coefficient between lesion loads estimated by the two sequences was .910. The intrarater and interrater reliability for 7T-3D-MTw images was good with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 98.4% and 81.8%, which is similar to that for 3T-2D-FLAIR images (ICC 96.1% and 96.7%). Seven-Tesla MTw sequences detected most of the white matter lesions identified by FLAIR at 3T. This suggests that 7T-MTw imaging is a robust alternative for detecting demyelinating lesions in addition to 3T-FLAIR. Future studies need to compare the roles of optimized 7T-FLAIR and of 7T-MTw imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. Arterial spin labelling shows functional depression of non-lesion tissue in chronic Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Specht, Karsten; Beaumont, Helen; Parkes, Laura M; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Zahn, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Behavioural impairment post-stroke is a consequence of structural damage and altered functional network dynamics. Hypoperfusion of intact neural tissue is frequently observed in acute stroke, indicating reduced functional capacity of regions outside the lesion. However, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rarely investigated in chronic stroke. This study investigated CBF in individuals with chronic Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and examined the relationship between lesion, CBF and neuropsychological impairment. Arterial spin labelling CBF imaging and structural MRIs were collected in 12 individuals with chronic WA and 13 age-matched control participants. Joint independent component analysis (jICA) investigated the relationship between structural lesion and hypoperfusion. Partial correlations explored the relationship between lesion, hypoperfusion and language measures. Joint ICA revealed significant differences between the control and WA groups reflecting a large area of structural lesion in the left posterior hemisphere and an associated area of hypoperfusion extending into grey matter surrounding the lesion. Small regions of remote cortical hypoperfusion were observed, ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Significant correlations were observed between the neuropsychological measures (naming, repetition, reading and semantic association) and the jICA component of interest in the WA group. Additional ROI analyses found a relationship between perfusion surrounding the core lesion and the same neuropsychological measures. This study found that core language impairments in chronic WA are associated with a combination of structural lesion and abnormal perfusion in non-lesioned tissue. This indicates that post-stroke impairments are due to a wider disruption of neural function than observable on structural T1w MRI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Approaches to the cortical analysis of auditory objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Timothy D; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Warren, Jason D; Stewart, Lauren; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Friston, Karl J

    2007-07-01

    We describe work that addresses the cortical basis for the analysis of auditory objects using 'generic' sounds that do not correspond to any particular events or sources (like vowels or voices) that have semantic association. The experiments involve the manipulation of synthetic sounds to produce systematic changes of stimulus features, such as spectral envelope. Conventional analyses of normal functional imaging data demonstrate that the analysis of spectral envelope and perceived timbral change involves a network consisting of planum temporale (PT) bilaterally and the right superior temporal sulcus (STS). Further analysis of imaging data using dynamic causal modelling (DCM) and Bayesian model selection was carried out in the right hemisphere areas to determine the effective connectivity between these auditory areas. Specifically, the objective was to determine if the analysis of spectral envelope in the network is done in a serial fashion (that is from HG to PT to STS) or parallel fashion (that is PT and STS receives input from HG simultaneously). Two families of models, serial and parallel (16 in total) that represent different hypotheses about the connectivity between HG, PT and STS were selected. The models within a family differ with respect to the pathway that is modulated by the analysis of spectral envelope. After the models are identified, Bayesian model selection procedure is then used to select the 'optimal' model from the specified models. The data strongly support a particular serial model containing modulation of the HG to PT effective connectivity during spectral envelope variation. Parallel work in neurological subjects addresses the effect of lesions to different parts of this network. We have recently studied in detail subjects with 'dystimbria': an alteration in the perceived quality of auditory objects distinct from pitch or loudness change. The subjects have lesions of the normal network described above with normal perception of pitch strength

  5. Noninvasive Approach to Focal Cortical Dysplasias: Clinical, EEG, and Neuroimaging Features

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    Gustavo Seifer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main purpose is to define more accurately the epileptogenic zone (EZ with noninvasive methods in those patients with MRI diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and epilepsy who are candidates of epilepsy surgery. Methods. Twenty patients were evaluated prospectively between 2007 and 2010 with comprehensive clinical evaluation, video-electroencephalography, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, and high-resolution EEG to localize the equivalent current dipole (ECD. Key Findings. In 11 cases with white matter asymmetries in DTI the ECDs were located next to lesion on MRI with mean distance of 14.63 millimeters with topographical correlation with the EZ. Significance. We could establish a hypothesis of EZ based on Video-EEG, high-resolution EEG, ECD method, MRI, and DTI. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the EZ in the FCD is complex and is often larger than visible lesion in MRI.

  6. Familial cortical tremor with epilepsy and cerebellar pathological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rootselaar, AF; Aronica, E; Steur, ENHJ; Rozemuller-Kwakkel, JM; de Vos, RAI; Tijssen, MAJ

    The clinical and neuropathological findings in a patient with familial cortical tremor with epilepsy (FCTE) are described. Clinically, the patient showed cortical myoclonus, tremor, and generalized seizures. Pathological investigation showed cerebellar degeneration and somal sprouting and loss of

  7. Cortical source localization of infant cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Richards, John E

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and cortical source localization techniques. The current article provides an overview of a method developed for such analyses. The method consists of four steps: (1) recording high-density (e.g., 128-channel) EEG. (2) Analysis of individual participant raw segmented data with independent component analysis (ICA). (3) Estimation of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) that represent cortical sources for the observed ICA component clusters. (4) Calculation of component activations in relation to experimental factors. We discuss an example of research applying this technique to investigate the development of visual attention and recognition memory. We also describe the application of "realistic head modeling" to address some of the current limitations of infant cortical source localization.

  8. A case of cortical deafness and anarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Kimitaka; Nakamura, Masako; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Momose, Hiromitsu

    2004-03-01

    Generally, cortical deafness is not complicated by anarthria and cortical anarthria does not affect auditory perception. We report a case of simultaneous progressive cortical deafness and anarthria. At the age of 70 years, the patient, a woman, noticed hearing problems when using the telephone, which worsened rapidly over the next 2 years. She was then referred to our hospital for further examinations of her hearing problems. Auditory tests revealed threshold elevation in the low and middle frequencies on pure-tone audiometry, a maximum speech discrimination of 25% and normal otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem, middle- and long-latency responses. An articulation test revealed abnormal pronunciation. Because of these problems only written and not verbal communication was possible; her ability to read and write was unimpaired. She showed no other neurological problems. Brain MRI demonstrated atrophic changes of the auditory cortex and Wernicke's language center and PET suggested low uptake of (18F) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose around the Sylvian fissures in both hemispheres. Neurologically, the patient was suspected of having progressive aphasia or frontotemporal dementia. Her cortical deafness and anarthria are believed to be early signs of this entity.

  9. Cortical motor contributions to language understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Here we review evidence from cognitive neuroscience for a tight relation between language and action in the brain. We focus on two types of relation between language and action. First, we investigate whether the perception of speech and speech sounds leads to activation of parts of the cortical

  10. Cortical mechanisms of mirror therapy after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Holly E; Borrelli, Mimi R; Borchert, Robin J; Bradbury, David; Ward, Nick S

    2015-06-01

    Mirror therapy is a new form of stroke rehabilitation that uses the mirror reflection of the unaffected hand in place of the affected hand to augment movement training. The mechanism of mirror therapy is not known but is thought to involve changes in cerebral organization. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure changes in cortical activity during mirror training after stroke. In particular, we examined movement-related changes in the power of cortical oscillations in the beta (15-30 Hz) frequency range, known to be involved in movement. Ten stroke patients with upper limb paresis and 13 healthy controls were recorded using MEG while performing bimanual hand movements in 2 different conditions. In one, subjects looked directly at their affected hand (or dominant hand in controls), and in the other, they looked at a mirror reflection of their unaffected hand in place of their affected hand. The movement-related beta desynchronization was calculated in both primary motor cortices. Movement-related beta desynchronization was symmetrical during bilateral movement and unaltered by the mirror condition in controls. In the patients, movement-related beta desynchronization was generally smaller than in controls, but greater in contralesional compared to ipsilesional motor cortex. This initial asymmetry in movement-related beta desynchronization between hemispheres was made more symmetrical by the presence of the mirror. Mirror therapy could potentially aid stroke rehabilitation by normalizing an asymmetrical pattern of movement-related beta desynchronization in primary motor cortices during bilateral movement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  12. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Antonios, Rafic S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. PMID:27784979

  13. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour,1,2 Rafic S Antonios,1 Iqbal Ike K Ahmed3 1Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods: We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results: This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion: The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. Keywords: brunescent cataract, cortex aspiration, phacoemulsification, pseudo-exfoliation, weak zonules

  14. Cortical Thickness Changes Associated with Photoparoxysmal Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Groppa, Stanislav A; Deuschl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an EEG trait of spike and spike-wave discharges in response to photic stimulation that is closely linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). In our previous studies we showed that PPR is associated with functional alterations in the occipital and frontal co......) and compared these groups with a group of PPR-negative-healthy-controls (HC, n = 17; 15.3 ± 3.6 years; 6 males). Our results revealed an increase of cortical thickness in the occipital, frontal and parietal cortices bilaterally in PPR-positive-subjects in comparison to HC. Moreover PPR......-positive-subjects presented a significant decrease of cortical thickness in the temporal cortex in the same group contrast. IGE patients exhibited lower cortical thickness in the temporal lobe bilaterally and in the right paracentral region in comparison to PPR-positive-subjects. Our study demonstrates structural changes...... in the occipital lobe, frontoparietal regions and temporal lobe, which also show functional changes associated with PPR. Patients with epilepsy present changes in the temporal lobe and supplementary motor area....

  15. A revised view of sensory cortical parcellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Mark T.; Ramachandran, Ramnarayan; Stein, Barry E.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional cortical parcellation schemes have emphasized the presence of sharply defined visual, auditory, and somatosensory domains populated exclusively by modality-specific neurons (i.e., neurons responsive to sensory stimuli from a single sensory modality). However, the modality-exclusivity of this scheme has recently been challenged. Observations in a variety of species suggest that each of these domains is subject to influences from other senses. Using the cerebral cortex of the rat as a model, the present study systematically examined the capability of individual neurons in visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortex to be activated by stimuli from other senses. Within the major modality-specific domains, the incidence of inappropriate (i.e., nonmatching) and/or multisensory neurons was very low. However, at the borders between each of these domains a concentration of multisensory neurons was found whose modality profile matched the representations in neighboring cortices and that were able to integrate their cross-modal inputs to give rise to enhanced and/or depressed responses. The results of these studies are consistent with some features of both the traditional and challenging views of cortical organization, and they suggest a parcellation scheme in which modality-specific cortical domains are separated from one another by transitional multisensory zones. PMID:14766982

  16. Nodular lesions and mesangiolysis in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takashi; Shimizu, Miho; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Yoshio; Kaneko, Shuichi; Furuichi, Kengo

    2013-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure all over the world. Advanced human diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the presence of specific lesions including nodular lesions, doughnut lesions, and exudative lesions. Thus far, animal models precisely mimicking advanced human diabetic nephropathy, especially nodular lesions, remain to be fully established. Animal models with spontaneous diabetic kidney diseases or with inducible kidney lesions may be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Based on pathological features, we previously reported that diabetic glomerular nodular-like lesions were formed during the reconstruction process of mesangiolysis. Recently, we established nodular-like lesions resembling those seen in advanced human diabetic nephropathy through vascular endothelial injury and mesangiolysis by administration of monocrotaline. Here, in this review, we discuss diabetic nodular lesions and its animal models resembling human diabetic kidney lesions, with our hypothesis that endothelial cell injury and mesangiolysis might be required for nodular lesions.

  17. Characteristics of Chinese-English bilingual dyslexia in right occipito-temporal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Chia, Pei Shi; Chan, Yiong Huak; Kwek, Kevin Jun Hong; Tan, Wilnard; Hameed, Shahul; Tan, Eng-King

    2017-08-07

    Current literature suggests that right hemisphere lesions produce predominant spatial-related dyslexic error in English speakers. However, little is known regarding such lesions in Chinese speakers. In this paper, we describe the dyslexic characteristics of a Chinese-English bilingual patient with a right posterior cortical lesion. He was found to have profound spatial-related errors during his English word reading, in both real and non-words. During Chinese word reading, there was significantly less error compared to English, probably due to the ideographic nature of the Chinese language. He was also found to commit phonological-like visual errors in English, characterized by error responses that were visually similar to the actual word. There was no significant difference in visual errors during English word reading compared with Chinese. In general, our patient's performance in both languages appears to be consistent with the current literature on right posterior hemisphere lesions. Additionally, his performance also likely suggests that the right posterior cortical region participates in the visual analysis of orthographical word representation, both in ideographical and alphabetic languages, at least from a bilingual perspective. Future studies should further examine the role of the right posterior region in initial visual analysis of both languages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliarini, Celine [Faculte Timone, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Chaumoitre, Katia [Hopital Nord, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine [Hopital Timone, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique [Hopital Timone, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France)

    2005-08-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  19. Plasticity in the tonotopic organization of the medial geniculate body in adult cats following restricted unilateral cochlear lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Marc R; Brown, Mel; Irvine, Dexter R F

    2003-05-12

    To investigate subcortical contributions to cortical reorganization, the frequency organization of the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body (MGv) in six normal adult cats and in eight cats with restricted unilateral cochlear lesions was investigated using multiunit electrophysiological recording techniques. The tonotopic organization of MGv in the lesioned animals, with severe mid-to-high frequency hearing losses, was investigated 40-186 days following the lesioning procedure. Frequency maps were generated from neural responses to pure tone bursts presented separately to each ear under barbiturate anesthesia. Consideration of the frequency organization in normal animals, and of the apparently normal representation of the ipsilateral (unlesioned) cochlea in lesioned animals, allowed for a detailed specification of the extent of changes observed in MGv. In the lesioned animals it was found that, in the region of MGv in which mid-to-high frequencies are normally represented, there was an "expanded representation" of lesion-edge frequencies. Neuron clusters within these regions of enlarged representation that had "new" characteristic frequencies displayed response properties (latency, bandwidth) very similar to those in normal animals. Thresholds of these neurons were not consistent with the argument that the changes merely reflect the residue of prelesion responses, suggesting a dynamic process of reorganization. The tonotopic reorganization observed in MGv is similar to that seen in the primary auditory cortex and is more extensive than the reorganization found in the auditory midbrain, suggesting that the auditory thalamus plays an important role in cortical plasticity.

  20. Contributions of EEG-fMRI to Assessing the Epileptogenicity of Focal Cortical Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittau, Francesca; Ferri, Lorenzo; Fahoum, Firas; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the ability of the BOLD response to EEG spikes to assess the epileptogenicity of the lesion in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Method: Patients with focal epilepsy and FCD who underwent 3T EEG-fMRI from 2006 to 2010 were included. Diagnosis of FCD was based on neuroradiology (MRI+), or histopathology in MRI-negative cases (MRI−). Patients underwent 120 min EEG-fMRI recording session. Spikes similar to those recorded outside the scanner were marked in the filtered EEG. The lesion (in MRI+) or the removed cortex (in MRI−) was marked on the anatomical T1 sequence, blindly to the BOLD response, after reviewing the FLAIR images. For each BOLD response we assessed the concordance with the spike field and with the lesion in MRI+ or the removed cortex in MRI−. BOLD responses were considered “concordant” if the maximal t-value was inside the marking. Follow-up after resection was used as gold-standard. Results: Twenty patients were included (13 MRI+, 7 MRI−), but in seven the EEG was not active or there were artifacts during acquisition. In all 13 studied patients, at least one BOLD response was concordant with the spike field; in 9/13 (69%) at least one BOLD response was concordant with the lesion: in 6/7 (86%) MRI+ and in 3/6 (50%) MRI− patients. Conclusions: Our study shows a high level of concordance between FCD and BOLD response. This data could provide useful information especially for MRI negative patients. Moreover, it shows in almost all FCD patients, a metabolic involvement of remote cortical or subcortical structures, corroborating the concept of epileptic network.

  1. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  2. [Percutaneous diagnostic angioscopy. Primary lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, C; Foucart, H; Baudrillard, J C; Cécile, J P

    1993-01-01

    Efficacy of percutaneous treatments of arterial affections requires the correct choice of indications, necessitating precise knowledge of elementary arterial lesions. Arterial endoscopy appears to be more specific than angiography for this use, since it allows direct vision in vivo of the lesion, a histopathologic approach compared with the non univocal images produced by angiography (for example, an arterial obstruction can result from varied causes). Different accidents to the endothelial surface can be observed: golden yellow atheromatous elevations on a straw yellow background, intimal flaps, mobile intra-luminal vegetations. Established atheromatous stenosis are smooth and regular, or on the contrary ulcerated and edged with irregular flaps capable of provoking an eccentric residual lumen. The vegetating atheromatous lesions may project into the lumen, often as calcified and thus pearly white scales adhering to the wall, or as larger occlusive lesions. When capable of being isolated, a thrombus often completes the stenosis: its recognition is therefore fundamental since its removal exposes the subjacent lesions to be treated. The fresh clot is coral shaped, bright red and mobile in the blood flow. Established clots are compact and greenish brown. At an advanced stage of atheroma the surface of the occluding clot is covered with a regular straw yellow endothelium. In the presence of a dissecting vessel the fibroscope may be introduced into the false channel, no longer showing typical endothelium but a coagulated mass interspersed with fibrous bands. Prosthetic stenosis result from either intimal hyperplasia or a suturing fault with plication.

  3. Oropharyngeal lesions in pityriasis rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Giulia; Broccolo, Francesco; Rebora, Alfredo; Parodi, Aurora; Drago, Francesco

    2017-07-17

    Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an exanthematous disease associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7). Oropharyngeal lesions may be associated with the exanthema, but anecdotal evidence suggests that few dermatologists are aware of their occurrence. Classifying oropharyngeal lesions in PR, establishing their prevalence, and assessing their possible association with different PR forms. The records of all PR cases diagnosed in the Dermatology Clinic of Genoa University between 2003 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine sex and age of the patients, PR type, presence of enanthema, systemic symptoms, specific anti-HHV-6 and or HHV-7 serology, and HHV-6 and/or HHV-7 DNA loads. The oropharyngeal mucosa was carefully examined in 527 patients with PR. Painless oropharyngeal lesions were observed in 149 patients with PR (28%) and classified as erythematomacular, macular and papular, erythematovesicular, and petechial lesions. The petechial and macular and papular patterns were those most frequently observed. There was no statistically significant difference in the levels of HHV-6 and HHV-7 viremia in the plasma of patients with enanthema and those without. Because this was a retrospective study, biopsies on mucosal lesions were not performed. Our findings showed that enanthemas are frequently associated with forms of PR different from the classic form. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  5. Prevalence, and Intellectual Outcome of Unilateral Focal Cortical Brain Damage as a Function of Age, Sex and Aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. J. Braun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologists and neuropsychologists are aware that aging men are more at risk than women for brain damage, principally because of the well known male-predominant risk for cardiovascular disease and related cerebrovascular accidents. However, a disproportion in prevalence of brain damage between the sexes in childhood may be less suspected. Furthermore, sex-specific risk for other aetiologies of brain damage may be little known, whether in the pediatric or adult populations. Proposals of a sex difference in cognitive recovery from brain damage have also been controversial. Six hundred and thirty five “consecutive” cases with cortical focal lesions including cases of all ages and both sexes were reviewed. Aetiology of the lesion was determined for each case as was postlesion IQ. Risk was highly male prevalent in all age groups, with a predominance of cardiovascular aetiology explaining much of the adult male prevalence. However, several other aetiological categories were significantly male prevalent in juveniles (mitotic, traumatic, dysplasic and adults (mitotic, traumatic. There was no sex difference in outcome (i.e., postlesion IQ of these cortical brain lesions for the cohort as a whole, after statistical removal of the influence of lesion extent, aetiology and presence of epilepsy. Mechanisms potentially responsible for sex differences in prevalence, aetiology of brain damage, and recovery, are reviewed and discussed.

  6. A crucial role for the cortico-striato-cortical loop in the pathogenesis of stroke-related neurogenic stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Catherine; De Nil, Luc; Thijs, Vincent; van Wieringen, Astrid; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Neurogenic stuttering is an acquired speech disorder characterized by the occurrence of stuttering-like dysfluencies following brain damage. Because the onset of stuttering in these patients is associated with brain lesions, this condition provides a unique opportunity to study the neural processes underlying speech dysfluencies. Lesion localizations of 20 stroke subjects with neurogenic stuttering and 17 control subjects were compared using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping. The results showed nine left-hemisphere areas associated with the presence of neurogenic stuttering. These areas were largely overlapping with the cortico-basal ganglia-cortical network comprising the inferior frontal cortex, superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, basal ganglia, and their white matter interconnections through the superior longitudinal fasciculus and internal capsule. These results indicated that stroke-induced neurogenic stuttering is not associated with neural dysfunction in one specific brain area but can occur following one or more lesion throughout the cortico-basal ganglia-cortical network. It is suggested that the onset of neurogenic stuttering in stroke subjects results from a disintegration of neural functions necessary for fluent speech.

  7. Scintiscanning of the jaw and visceral cranium. Comparative evaluation of radiologic and scintigraphic data for improved and extended diagnosis. Szintigraphie der Kiefer- und Gesichtsschaedel-Erkrankungen. Radiologisch-szintigraphisch vergleichende Beurteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardt, N.; Hofer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The first eight chapters provide a general survey of basic principles and aspects of bone scintiscanning (radiopharmaceuticals, scintiscanning techniques, examination techniques, analytical criteria), and in contrast to these explain the criteria and limits of skeletal radiology of the skull, from which result the criteria of application of bone scintiscanning in this body region. The information obtainable by radiologic and scintigraphic examination of pathologic bone processes is compared, and the specific evaluation criteria of the scintiscan of the skull are explained as the basis of the clinical diagnosis. The following chapters go into details of combined radiologic and scintigraphic examination of bone tumours and tumour-like bone disease, of ostitis, fractures and osteotomy of the jaw, including cysts and pathologic processes of the mandibular joint. The information is explained by representative examples. Another complete chapter is devoted to the scintiscanning of bone graft and disturbed growth processes of the visceral cranium. The differential diagnostic analysis of the various pathologic processes on the basis of the scintigram is explained along the criteria of dignity, extension, dissemination, early detection, and follow-up checking.

  8. Scintigraphic head-to-head comparison between {sup 99m}Tc-WBCs and {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokkel, M.P.M.; Reigman, H.I.E.; Pauwels, E.K.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2002-02-01

    Scintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled white blood cells (WBCs) is routinely used in our hospital for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The main disadvantages of this diagnostic tool are its time-consuming nature and the handling of blood itself. {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan is a relatively new, easily prepared agent that is used for the detection of osteomyelitis. To assess its value in IBD, a scintigraphic head-to-head comparison was performed between {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan and {sup 99m}Tc-WBCs. {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan scintigraphy was performed in six patients with clinically active IBD and increased uptake on {sup 99m}Tc-WBC images. The interval between the scintigraphic studies ranged from 2 to 7 days, and endoscopy was subsequently performed to confirm active IBD. In three out of six patients with increased uptake on the {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scans, {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan images showed very discreet activity in the bowel, but the sites did not correspond with the inflammation sites seen on {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scintigraphy and found at endoscopy. In the other three patients, {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan scintigraphy revealed a physiological distribution but no abnormalities. In conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan is not an alternative agent for the assessment of IBD. A prospective study is not justified owing to the false-negative results. (orig.)