WorldWideScience

Sample records for corrugated steel pipe

  1. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  2. On the whistling of corrugated pipes with narrow cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; González Diez, N.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes with a corrugated inner surface, as used inflexible pipes for gas production and transport, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocities are higher than a certain onset velocity. The onset velocity for classical corrugated pipes can be predicted on basis of the geometry

  3. Whistling of pipes with narrow corrugations: scale model tests and consequences for carcass design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes for gas production and transport with a corrugated inner surface, as used in flexible pipes, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocity is larger than a certain velocity. This onset velocity is dependent on the geometry of the corrugations, the operational conditions and

  4. Direct measurements of acoustic damping and sound amplification in corrugated pipes with flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Vijlbrief, O.; Lunde, K.

    2015-01-01

    The flow-induced pulsations in corrugated pipes result from a feedback loop between an acoustic resonator and the noise amplification at each shear layer in the axisymmetric cavities forming the corrugations. The quality factor of the resonator is determined by the reflection coefficients at the

  5. Shear Behavior of Corrugated Steel Webs in H Shape Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In bridge engineering, girders with corrugated steel webs have shown good mechanical properties. With the promotion of composite bridge with corrugated steel webs, in particular steel-concrete composite girder bridge with corrugated steel webs, it is necessary to study the shear performance and buckling of the corrugated webs. In this research, by conducting experiment incorporated with finite element analysis, the stability of H shape beam welded with corrugated webs was tested and three failure modes were observed. Structural data including load-deflection, load-strain, and shear capacity of tested beam specimens were collected and compared with FEM analytical results by ANSYS software. The effects of web thickness, corrugation, and stiffening on shear capacity of corrugated webs were further discussed.

  6. Numerical study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. J.; Wu, S. Q.; Jin, T.

    2017-12-01

    Slush nitrogen has lower temperature, higher density and higher heat capacity than that of liquid nitrogen at normal boiling point. It is considered to be a potential coolant for high-temperature superconductive cables (HTS) that would decrease nitrogen consumption and storage cost. The corrugated pipe can help with the enhancement of heat transfer and flexibility of the coolants for HTS cables. In this paper, a 3-D Euler-Euler two-fluid model has been developed to study the flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a horizontal helically corrugated pipe. By comparing with the empirical formula for pressure drop, the numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the prediction of slush nitrogen flow in corrugated pipes. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a horizontal pipe at various working conditions (inlet solid fraction of 0-20%, inlet velocity of 0-3 m/s, heat flux of 0-12 kW/m2) have been analyzed. The friction factor of slush nitrogen is lower than that of subcooled liquid nitrogen when the slush Reynolds number is higher than 4.2×104. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of slush nitrogen flow in the corrugated pipe is higher than that of subcooled liquid nitrogen at velocities which is higher than that 1.76 m/s, 0.91 m/s and 0.55 m/s for slush nitrogen with solid fraction of 5%, 10% and 20%, respectively. The slush nitrogen has been confirmed to have better heat transfer performance and lower pressure drop instead of using liquid nitrogen flowing through a helically corrugated pipe.

  7. Uses of four-fold coaxial corrugated piping in low temperature technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A; Rohner, P [Kabel- und Metallwerke Gutehoffnungshuette A.G., Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    The increasing uses of superconducting equipment in various areas of research and technology, including even medicine, create an increasing demand for suitable transfer lines for liquid helium which still remains practically the only suitable coolant. This paper reports on flexible four-fold coaxial corrugated piping lines which can combine a forword flow and a return flow channel for the coolant and which can be designed for various operating conditions. The mechanical and thermal properties of such piping lines are discussed.

  8. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu [Changzhou Key Laboratory of Sensor Networks and Environmental Sensing, College of IOT, Hohai University Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213022 (China)

    2014-02-18

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  9. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency

  10. Heat transfer enhancement and pumping power optimization using CuO-water nanofluid through rectangular corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Musfequs; Ehsan, Mohammad Monjurul; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul

    2017-06-01

    Heat transfer enhancement by corrugation in fluid domain is a popular method. The rate of improvement is more when it is used highly thermal conductive fluid as heating or cooling medium. In this present study, heat transfer augmentation was investigated numerically by implementing corrugation in the fluid domain and nanofluid as the base fluid in the turbulent forced convection regime. Finite volume method (FVM) was applied to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. All the numerical simulations were considered for single phase flow. A rectangle corrugated pipe with 5000 W/m2 constant heat flux subjected to the corrugated wall was considered as the fluid domain. In the range of Reynolds number 15000 to 40000, thermo-physical and hydrodynamic behavior was investigated by using CuO-water nanofluid from 1% to 5% volume fraction as the base fluid through the corrugated fluid domain. Corrugation justification was performed by changing the amplitude of the corrugation and the corrugation wave length for obtaining the increased heat transfer rate with minimum pumping power. For using CuO-water nanofluid, augmentation was also found more in the rectangle corrugated pipe both in heat transfer and pumping power requirement with the increase of Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanofluid. For the increased pumping power, optimization of pumping power by using nanofluid was also performed for economic finding.

  11. U-rans model for the prediction of the acoustic sound power generated in a whistling corrugated pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; González Díez, N.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Nakiboǧlu, G.; Hirschberg, A.

    2013-01-01

    Corrugated pipes, as used in flexible risers for gas production or in domestic appliances, can whistle when a flow is imposed through the pipe. Nakiboglu et al [1, 2] have developed a method to compute the acoustic source term for axi-symmetric cavities. The method is based on the resolution of

  12. Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings and other structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research introduces a methodology of establishing indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process, construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting property. The suggested methodology introduces the system of actions aimed to design constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings. Technological effect is achieved by conducting firing tests of steel construction by non-destructive methods; the evaluation of fire resistance of fire-proof elements of corrugated beams (corrugated web, upper and lower shelves is identified by the least fire-proof element of a welded I-beam. In this methodology fire resistance duration of the constituent elements of a welded I-beam with account of its fire protection ability is described with an analytic function taken as variables. These variables are intensity strength of stresses and the degree of fire protection of a compound element.

  13. Using pipe with corrugated walls for a subterahertz free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Stupakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A metallic pipe with corrugated walls supports propagation of a high-frequency mode that is in resonance with a relativistic beam propagating along the axis of the pipe. This mode can be excited by a beam whose length is a fraction of the wavelength. In this paper, we study another option of excitation of the resonant mode—via the mechanism of the free electron laser instability. This mechanism works if the bunch length is much longer than the wavelength of the radiation and, hence, does not require bunch compression. It provides an alternative to excitation by short bunches that can be realized with relatively low energy and low peak-current electron beams.

  14. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is...

  15. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  16. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  17. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  18. Multi-objective shape optimization of double pipe heat exchanger with inner corrugated tube using RSM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Huai-Zhi; Li, Bing-Xi; Wu, Hao; Shao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Integrated a fully developing three-dimensional heat transfer and flow model, a multi-objective optimization aims to fulfill the geometric design for double-tube heat exchangers with inner corrugated tube is investigated in this work with RSM. Dimensionless corrugation pitch (p/D), dimensionless corrugation height (H/D), dimensionless corrugation radius (r/D) and Reynolds number (Re) are considered as four design parameters. Considering the process parameters, the characteristic numbers involving heat transfer characteristic, resistance characteristic and overall heat transfer performance calculated by CFD, and are served as objective functions to the RSM (Nu c , f c , Nu c /Nu s , f c /f s and h in this paper). The results of optimal designs are a set of multiple optimum solutions, called 'Pareto optimal solutions'. It reveals the identical tendency of Nu c /Nu s and f c /f s reflecting the conflict between them that means augmenting the heat transfer performance with various design parameters in the optimal situation inevitably sacrificed the increase of flow resistance. According to the Pareto optimal curves, the optimum designing parameters of double pipe heat exchanger with inner corrugated tube under the constrains of Nu c /Nu s ≥1.2 are found to be P/D = 0.82, H/D = 0.22, r/D = 0.23, Re = 26,263, corresponding to the maximum value of η = 1.12. (authors)

  19. An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Sudeok; Yoo, Mina; Lee, Seungjae

    2017-03-06

    The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results.

  20. Thermal aging of primary coolant pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Bentley, J.; Brenner, S.S.; Spitznagel, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The long term mechanical integrity of the pipes used to carry the primary cooling water in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is of the utmost importance for safe operation. A combined atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was performed to characterize the microstructure of this cast stainless steel and to determine the changes that occur during long-term low-temperature thermal aging. The material used in this investigation was a commercial CF 8 type stainless. The steel was examined in the as-cast, unaged condition and also after aging for 7500 h at 673K. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Establishing a design procedure for buried steel-reinforced high-density polyethylene pipes : a field study, [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Several national standards and specification have been developed for design, installation, : and materials for precast concrete pipe, corrugated metal pipe, and HDPE pipes. However, : no national accepted installation standard or design method is ava...

  2. Microstructural characterization of primary coolant pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Bentley, J.

    1986-01-01

    Atom probe field-ion microscopy, analytical electron microscopy, and optical microscopy have been used to investigate the changes that occur in the microstructure of cast CF 8 primary coolant pipe stainless steel after long term thermal aging. The cast duplex microstructure consisted of austenite with 15% delta-ferrite. Investigation of the aged material revealed that the ferrite spinodally decomposed into a fine scaled network of α and α'. A fine G-phase precipitate was also observed in the ferrite. The observed degradation in mechanical properties is probably a consequence of the spinodal decomposition in the ferrite

  3. Modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of steel reinforced thermoplastic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijer, M.P.; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the time dependent behaviour of a steel reinforced thermoplastic pipe. This new class of composite pipes is constructed of a HDPE (high-density polyethylene) liner pipe, which is over wrapped with two layers of thermoplastic tape. The thermoplastic tapes are

  4. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  5. Sensitization development in austenitic stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Page, R.E.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1984-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Division of Engineering Technology of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission are conducting a program to determine a method for evaluating welded and rapair-welded stainless steel piping for light-water reactor service. Validated models, based on experimental data, are being developed to predict the degree of sensitization (DOS) and the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the SS weldments. The cumulative effects of material composition, past fabrication procedures, past service exposure, weldment thermomechanical (TM) history, and projected post-repair component life are being considered. This program will measure and model the development of HAZ TM history and resultant sensitized microstructure in welded and repair-welded piping. An empirical correlation between a material's DOS and its susceptibility to SCC will be determined using slow strain rate tensile tests. Mill heat chemistries and processing/fabrication records already required in the nuclear industry will be used as input for initial DOS predictions

  6. Quality control of stainless steel pipings for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Minoru; Kitamura, Ichiro; Ito, Hisao; Sasaki, Ryoichi

    1979-01-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in total power generation is increasing recently in order to avoid the concentrated dependence on petroleum resources, consequently the reliability of operation of nuclear power plants has become important. In order to improve the reliability of plants, the reliability of each machine or equipment must be improved, and for the purpose, the quality control at the time of manufacture is the important factor. The piping systems for BWRs are mostly made of carbon steel, and stainless steel pipings are used for the recirculation system cooling reactors and instrumentation system. Recently, grain boundary type stress corrosion cracking has occurred in the heat-affected zones of welded stainless steel pipings in some BWR plants. In this paper, the quality control of stainless steel pipings is described from the standpoint of preventing stress corrosion cracking in BWR plants. The pipings for nuclear power plants must have sufficient toughness so that the sudden rupture never occurs, and also sufficient corrosion resistance so that corrosion products do not raise the radioactivity level in reactors. The stress corrosion cracking occurred in SUS 304 pipings, the factors affecting the quality of stainless steel pipings, the working method which improves the corrosion resistance and welding control are explained. (Kako, I.)

  7. Evaluation of Fatigue Strength Improvement by CFRP Laminates and Shot Peening onto the Tension Flanges Joining Corrugated SteelWebs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yu Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrugated steel web with inherent high out-of-plane stiffness has a promising application in configuring large span highway bridge girders. Due to the irregularity of the configuration details, the local stress concentration poses a major fatigue problem for the welded flange plates of high strength low alloy structural steels. In this work, the methods of applying CFRP laminate and shot peening onto the surfaces of the tension flanges were employed with the purpose of improving the fatigue strength of such configuration details. The effectiveness of this method in the improvement of fatigue strength has been examined experimentally. Test results show that the shot peening significantly increases hardness and roughness in contrast to these without treatment. Also, it has beneficial effects on the fatigue strength enhancement when compared against the test data of the joints with CFRP strengthening. The stiffness degradation during the loading progress is compared with each treatment. Incorporating the stress acting on the constituent parts of the CFRP laminates, a discussion is made regarding the mechanism of the retrofit and related influencing factors such as corrosion and economic cost. This work could enhance the understanding of the CFRP and shot peening in repairing such welded details and shed light on the reinforcement design of welded joints between corrugated steel webs and flange plates.

  8. Development of cutting techniques of steel pipe by wire sawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Inai, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    A cutting method has a high cutting efficiency and enable cutting in safe. A wire saw cutting method is used for dismantling of massive concrete structures such as nuclear power plants with an effective and safe mean. In the case of dismantling of structures with multiple pipes installed at these facilities, an effective method is also demanded. If a wire saw method to remotely cut target objects in a large block in bulk is applicable, it will be expected an effective dismantling work under severe conditions with radioactivity. Although the wire saw method has adaptability for any shapes of cutting target objects and is widely adopted in dismantling of concrete constructs, it has few actual achievements in dismantling of steel structures such as steel pipe bundle. This study aims to verify its cutting characteristics and adaptability as a cutting method by conducting a cutting basic test to develop a diamond wire saw method to efficiently cut constructs with multiple pipes in a bundle. The test proved that a wire saw cutting method apply to dismantle structures with steel pipe bundle. A wire saw for metal cutting is adaptable in dismantling of bundle of thick carbon steel and stainless steel pipes. And also a wire saw for concrete cutting is adaptable in dismantling of pipe bundle structure with a mortar. (author)

  9. Fatigue crack growth rate studies on pipes and pipe welds made of austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Punit; Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, Vivek; Vaze, K.K.; Pukazhendhi, D.M.; Gandhi, P.; Raghava, G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the fatigue crack growth behavior in austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel pipes and pipe welds by carrying out analysis/predictions and experiments. The Paris law has been used for the prediction of fatigue crack growth life. To carry out the analysis, Paris constants have been determined for pipe (base) and pipe weld materials by using Compact Tension (CT)/Three Point Bend (TPB) specimens machined from the actual pipe/pipe weld. Analyses have been carried out to predict the fatigue crack growth life of pipes/pipe welds having part through cracks on the outer surface. In the analyses, Stress Intensity Factors (K) have been evaluated through two different schemes. The first scheme considers the 'K' evaluations at two points of the crack front i.e. maximum crack depth and crack tip at the outer surface. The second scheme accounts for the area averaged root mean square stress intensity factor (K RMS ) at deepest and surface points. In order to validate the analytical procedure/results, experiments have been carried out on full scale pipe and pipe welds with part through circumferential crack. Fatigue crack growth life evaluated using both schemes have been compared with experimental results. Use of stress intensity factor (K RMS ) evaluated using second scheme gives better fatigue crack growth life prediction compared to that of first scheme. (author)

  10. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping Duty..., by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe...

  11. Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, H.J.; Lin, M.C.C.; Chen, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively

  12. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis of the record... reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided... contained in USITC Publication 4413 (July 2013), entitled Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe from Malaysia...

  13. Fracture assessment of Savannah River Reactor carbon steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, G.E.; Stoner, K.J.; Caskey, G.R.; Begley, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors have been in operation since the mid-1950's. One postulated failure mechanism for the reactor piping is brittle fracture of the original A285 and A53 carbon steel piping. Material testing of archival piping determined (1) the static and dynamic tensile properties; (2) Charpy impact toughness; and (3) the static and dynamic compact tension fracture toughness properties. The nil-ductility transition temperature (NDTT), determined by Charpy impact test, is above the minimum operating temperature for some of the piping materials. A fracture assessment was performed to demonstrate that potential flaws are stable under upset loading conditions and minimum operating temperatures. A review of potential degradation mechanisms and plant operating history identified weld defects as the most likely crack initiation site for brittle fracture. Piping weld defects, as characterized by radiographic and metallographic examination, and low fracture toughness material properties were postulated at high stress locations in the piping. Normal operating loads, upset loads, and residual stresses were assumed to act on the postulated flaws. Calculated allowable flaw lengths exceed the size of observed weld defects, indicating adequate margins of safety against brittle fracture. Thus, a detailed fracture assessment was able to demonstrate that the piping systems will not fail by brittle fracture, even though the NDTT for some of the piping is above the minimum system operating temperature

  14. Development of Alloy Coating Process of Steel Pipe for Seawater service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Man; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Lee, Sang Hyeog [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., Okpo (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    The new alloy coating process was developed to apply steel pipe for seawater service. This process consists of Zn-Al hot-dip coating treatment immediately following after normal galvanizing treatment. The alloy coating process formed double layer after surface treatment, and the surface layer was similar to that of Galfan steel and the intermetallic layer was also similar to that of aluminized steel. The alloy coating layer protect steel pipe galvanically and provide steel pipe with high resistance to general corrosion of seawater. This new alloy coated steel pipe had also good weldability and adhesion strength of paints compared to galvanized steel. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  15. SCC-induced failure of a 304 stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Disney, D.J.; Szostak, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 1991 January 12, a 304 Stainless Steel (SS) suction line in the AECL-Research NRU reactor failed, shutting down the reactor for approximately 12 months. The pipe, a 32 mm schedule 40 304 stainless steel line exposed to D 2 O at temperatures ≤35 degrees C had been in service for approximately 20 years, although no manufacturing data or composition specifications were available. The failure and resultant leak resulted in a small loss of D 2 O moderator from the reactor vessel. The pipe cracked approximately 180 degrees C around the circumference of a weld. This failure was unexpected and hense a thorough metallographic examination was carried out on the failed section, on the rest of the line (Line 1212), and on representative samples from the rest of the reactor in order to assess the integrity of the remaining piping

  16. Experiment on electrolysis decontamination of stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongwen; Dou Tianjun; Zhao Yujie

    2004-01-01

    A new electrolytic decontamination method used metal balls as conducting anode was investigated. The influences of current density, solution property and diameter of pipes on efficiency of electrolytic decontamination were examined and the efficiency of this method was compared with that of common electrolytic method under the same experimental conditions. Decontamination of samples of stainless steel pipes contaminated by plutonium was performed. Experimental results indicate that decontamination of stainless steel pipes contaminated by plutonium can be achieved at the optimum conditions of greater than 0.2 A·cm -2 current density, 5% sulfuric acid electrolyte and 5 min electrolysis. This method can be used in the decontamination of a wide variety of decommissioned metal materials. (author)

  17. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  18. Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Pipes - Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doru, Zdrenghea

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents in the first part a state of the art review of reinforced concrete pipes used in micro tunnelling realised through pipes jacking method and design methods for steel fibres reinforced concrete. In part two experimental tests are presented on inner pipes with diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with metal fibres (35 kg / m3). In part two experimental tests are presented on pipes with inner diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with steel fibres (35 kg / m3). The results obtained are analysed and are calculated residual flexural tensile strengths which characterise the post-cracking behaviour of steel fibres reinforced concrete. In the third part are presented numerical simulations of the tests of pipes and specimens. The model adopted for the pipes test was a three-dimensional model and loads considered were those obtained in experimental tests at reaching breaking forces. Tensile stresses determined were compared with mean flexural tensile strength. To validate tensile parameters of steel fibres reinforced concrete, experimental tests of the specimens were modelled with MIDAS program to reproduce the flexural breaking behaviour. To simulate post - cracking behaviour was used the method σ — ε based on the relationship stress - strain, according to RILEM TC 162-TDF. For the specimens tested were plotted F — δ diagrams, which have been superimposed for comparison with the similar diagrams of experimental tests. The comparison of experimental results with those obtained from numerical simulation leads to the following conclusions: - the maximum forces obtained by numerical calculation have higher values than the experimental values for the same tensile stresses; - forces corresponding of residual strengths have very similar values between the experimental and numerical calculations; - generally the numerical model estimates a breaking force greater

  19. Effect of heat treatment on carbon steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Harun.

    1987-01-01

    The heat treatment to improve the altered properties of carbon steel pipe welds is described. Pipe critical components in oil, gasification and nuclear reactor plants require adequate room temperature toughness and high strength at both room and moderately elevated temperatures. Microstructure and microhardness across the welds were changed markedly by the welding process and heat treatment. The presentation of hardness fluctuation in the welds can produce premature failure. A number of heat treatments are suggested to improve the properties of the welds. (author) 8 figs., 5 refs

  20. Equipment for inspection of austenitic stainless steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, W.D.; Horn, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer controlled ultrasonic scanning system and a data acquisition and analysis system have been developed to perform the inservice inspection of welds in stainless steel sodium piping in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The scanning equipment consists of a six axis motion mechanism and control system which allows full articulation of an ultrasonic transducer as it follows the circumferential pipe welds. The data acquisition and analysis system consists of high speed ultrasonic waveform digitizing equipment, dedicated processors to perform on-line analysis, and data storage and display equipment

  1. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  2. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... with material injury by reason of imports from China of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7304.19.10, 7304.19... Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination On the basis of...

  3. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  4. Fatigue crack growth in austenitic stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethmont, M.; Cheissoux, J.L.; Lebey, J.

    1981-04-01

    The study presented in this paper is being carried out with a view to substantiating the calculations of the fatigue crack growth in pipes made of 316 L stainless steel. The results obtained may be applied to P.W.R. primary piping. It is divided into two parts. First, fatigue tests (cyclic pressure) are carried out under hot and cold conditions with straight pipes machined with notches of various dimensions. The crack propagation and the fatigue crack growth rate are measured here. Second, calculations are made in order to interpret experimental results. From elastic calculations the stress intensity factor is assessed to predict the crack growth rate. The results obtained until now and presented in this paper relate to longitudinal notches

  5. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal

  6. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  7. Integrity of austenitic stainless steel piping welds for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canalini, A.; Lopes, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion applying K 1d concept was developed to determine the fracture mechanics properties of austenitic stainless steel nuclear piping welds. The critical dimensions, lenght and depth, for crack initiation were established and plotted in a chart. This study enables the dimensions of a discontinuity detected in an in-service inspection to be compared to the critical dimensions for crack initiation, and the indication can be judged critical or non-critical for the component. (author) [pt

  8. Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuessi, U.

    1996-01-01

    Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

  9. 78 FR 21105 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    .../exporters of the subject merchandise, Saha Thai Steel Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd. (Saha Thai), and Pacific Pipe Company Limited (Pacific Pipe). The period of review (POR) is March 1, 2011, through February 29...) Company, Ltd 0.00 Pacific Pipe Company Limited * * No shipments or sales subject to this review. The firm...

  10. Fracture toughness evaluations of TP304 stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.W.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1997-02-01

    In the IPIRG-1 program, the J-R curve calculated for a 16-inch nominal diameter, Schedule 100 TP304 stainless steel (DP2-A8) surface-cracked pipe experiment (Experiment 1.3-3) was considerably lower than the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve calculated from a C(T) specimen (A8-12a). The results from several related investigations conducted to determine the cause of the observed toughness difference are: (1) chemical analyses on sections of Pipe DP2-A8 from several surface-cracked pipe and material property specimen fracture surfaces indicate that there are two distinct heats of material within Pipe DP2-A8 that differ in chemical composition; (2) SEN(T) specimen experimental results indicate that the toughness of a surface-cracked specimen is highly dependent on the depth of the initial crack, in addition, the J-R curves from the SEN(T) specimens closely match the J-R curve from the surface-cracked pipe experiment; (3) C(T) experimental results suggest that there is a large difference in the quasi-static, monotonic toughness between the two heats of DP2-A8, as well as a toughness degradation in the lower toughness heat of material (DP2-A8II) when loaded with a dynamic, cyclic (R = -0.3) loading history

  11. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ..., Saha Thai Steel Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd. (Saha Thai), and Pacific Pipe Company Limited (Pacific Pipe... Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd 0.00 Pacific Pipe Company Limited * * No shipments or sales subject to this... parties to comment on the Preliminary Results. Saha Thai, Wheatland Tube Company, and United States Steel...

  12. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, L.; Camitz, G. [Swerea KIMAB AB, Box 55970, SE-102 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Peultier, J.; Jacques, S.; Baudu, V.; Barrau, F.; Chareyre, B. [Industeel and ArcelorMittal R and D, 56 rue Clemenceau, BP19, FR-71201 le Creusot, Cedex (France); Bergquist, A. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, P.O. Box 74, SE-774 22 Avesta (Sweden); Pourbaix, A.; Carpentiers, P. [Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study, Avenue des Petits-Champs 4A, BE 1410 Waterloo (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    To be able to give safe recommendations concerning the choice of suitable stainless steel grades for pipelines to be buried in various soil environments, a large research programme, including field exposures of test specimens buried in soil in Sweden and in France, has been performed. Resistance against external corrosion of austenitic, super austenitic, lean duplex, duplex and super duplex steel grades in soil has been investigated by laboratory tests and field exposures. The grades included have been screened according to their critical pitting-corrosion temperature and according to their time-to-re-passivation after the passive layer has been destroyed locally by scratching. The field exposures programme, being the core of the investigation, uses large specimens: 2 m pipes and plates, of different grades. The exposure has been performed to reveal effects of aeration cells, deposits or confined areas, welds and burial depth. Additionally, investigations of the tendency of stainless steel to corrode under the influence of alternating current (AC) have been performed, both in the laboratory and in the field. Recommendations for use of stainless steels under different soil conditions are given based on experimental results and on operating experiences of existing stainless steel pipelines in soil. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Thermal aging evaluation of cast austenitic stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. H.; Jung, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    24 years have been passed since Kori Unit 1 began its commercial operation, and 19 years have been passed since Kori Unit 2 began its commercial operation. As the end point of design life become closer, plant life extension and periodic safety assessment is paid more and more attention to by utility company. In this paper, the methodologies and results of cast austenitic stainless steel pipe thermal aging evaluations of both units have been presented in association with aging time of 10, 20, and 30 years and operating temperature, respectively. Life extension cases respectively. As a result of this, at the operating temperature of 280 .deg. C, thermal aging was not a problem as long as Charpy V-notch room temperature minimum impact energy is concerned. However, more than 300 .deg. C and 30 years of operating condition, we should perform detailed fracture mechanics analysis with CMTR of NPP pipe

  14. 77 FR 39735 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings From Italy, Malaysia... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-865-867 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines Determination On the basis of the...

  15. 76 FR 76437 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty orders on certain welded stainless steel pipe from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a...

  16. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-376 and 563-564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International... steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  17. Use of Nitrocarburizing for Strengthening Threaded Joints of Drill Pipes from Medium-Carbon Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    Nitrocarburizing is tested at the Drill Equipment Plant for reinforcing threaded joints of drill pipes for units with retrievable core receiver (RCR). The effect of the nitrocarburizing on the mechanical properties of steels of different alloying systems is considered. Steels for the production of threaded joints of drill pipes are recommended.

  18. The behavior of welded joint in steel pipe members under monotonic and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kyong-Ho; Jang, Gab-Chul; Shin, Young-Eui; Han, Jung-Guen; Kim, Jong-Min

    2006-01-01

    Most steel pipe members are joined by welding. The residual stress and weld metal in a welded joint have the influence on the behavior of steel pipes. Therefore, to accurately predict the behavior of steel pipes with a welded joint, the influence of welding residual stress and weld metal on the behavior of steel pipe must be investigated. In this paper, the residual stress of steel pipes with a welded joint was investigated by using a three-dimensional non-steady heat conduction analysis and a three-dimensional thermal elastic-plastic analysis. Based on the results of monotonic and cyclic loading tests, a hysteresis model for weld metal was formulated. The hysteresis model was proposed by the authors and applied to a three-dimensional finite elements analysis. To investigate the influence of a welded joint in steel pipes under monotonic and cyclic loading, three-dimensional finite elements analysis considering the proposed model and residual stress was carried out. The influence of a welded joint on the behavior of steel pipe members was investigated by comparing the analytical result both steel pipe with a welded joint and that without a welded joint

  19. Shear evaluation of tapered bridge girder panels with steel corrugated webs near the supports of continuous bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Zevallos, E.; Hassanein, M.F.; Real Saladrigas, Esther; Mirambell Arrizabalaga, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Because of public construction budgets were cut over the last few years, new bridge girders with corrugated webs to reduce the construction costs have become more widely studied and used. In spite that tapered bridge girders with corrugated webs (BGCWs) are used in modern bridges, their shear strength and behaviour rarely exists in literature. Based on available literature, the web of the linearly tapered BGCWs may be divided into three typologies with different structural response to shear f...

  20. Research on Buckling State of Prestressed Fiber-Strengthened Steel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruheng; Lan, Kunchang

    2018-01-01

    The main restorative methods of damaged oil and gas pipelines include welding reinforcement, fixture reinforcement and fiber material reinforcement. Owing to the severe corrosion problems of pipes in practical use, the research on renovation and consolidation techniques of damaged pipes gains extensive attention by experts and scholars both at home and abroad. The analysis of mechanical behaviors of reinforced pressure pipelines and further studies focusing on “the critical buckling” and intensity of pressure pipeline failure are conducted in this paper, providing theoretical basis to restressed fiber-strengthened steel pipes. Deformation coordination equations and buckling control equations of steel pipes under the effect of prestress is deduced by using Rayleigh Ritz method, which is an approximation method based on potential energy stationary value theory and minimum potential energy principle. According to the deformation of prestressed steel pipes, the deflection differential equation of prestressed steel pipes is established, and the critical value of buckling under prestress is obtained.

  1. 76 FR 67473 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines would be likely to lead to... antidumping duty orders on imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the...

  2. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...] Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and Turkey, pursuant to section 751(c..., Thailand, and Turkey. See Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from...

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels.

  4. The precision cutting control research of automotive stainless steel thin wall pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel thin-walled tube are widely used in automobile industry at present, but as a result of thin wall pipe is poor strength and poor rigidity,which lead to deformation, shaped differencer and other problems in the process, it is hard to ensure the processing quality of parts. This paper proposes a method of thin stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting process in vehicle, greatly improved the problems and technical difficulties in the traditional process, the main research is about the cutting system and the hydraulic fixture design, obtained under low cost circumstances, it can realize high precision stainless steel pipes, high degree of automation to automatic cutting,simplified operation steps at the same time, increased the applicability of the system, provided a kind of advanced stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting device for the small and medium-sized enterprises.

  5. 78 FR 72863 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY... circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular welded pipe'') from the People's Republic of China...\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013). \\2\\ See Circular Welded...

  6. 76 FR 72173 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...-552-810] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab... Steel Pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, dated October 26, 2011 (hereinafter... pipe from India, the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), the United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the...

  7. 76 FR 66899 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... construction, shipbuilding, trucking, farm equipment, and related industries. Unfinished conduit pipe is also..., shipbuilding, trucking, farm-equipment, and related industries. Unfinished conduit pipe is also included in the... Steel Tube Works Co., Ltd 11.63 Pusan Steel Pipe Co., Ltd 4.91 All Others 6.37 Taiwan: Kao Hsing Chang...

  8. Elastic-plastic fracture analysis of carbon steel piping using the latest CEGB R6 approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, S.; Hasegawa, K.; Shimizu, T.; Kobayashi, H.

    1991-01-01

    The elastic-plastic fracture of carbon steel piping having various pipe diameters and circumferential crack angles and subjected to a bending moment is analyzed using the latest United Kingdom Central Electricity Generating Board R6 approach. The elastic-plastic fracture criterion must be applied instead of the plastic collapse criterion with increase of the pipe diameter and the crack angle. A simplified elastic-plastic fracture analysis procedure based on the R6 approach is proposed. (author)

  9. The effect of cyclic and dynamic loads on carbon steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.L.; Scott, P.M.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the results of four 152-mm (6-inch) diameter, unpressurized, circumferential through-wall-cracked, dynamic pipe experiments fabricated from STS410 carbon steel pipe manufactured in Japan. For three of these experiments, the through-wall crack was in the base metal. The displacement histories applied to these experiments were a quasi-static monotonic, dynamic monotonic, and dynamic, cyclic (R = -1) history. The through-wall crack for the third experiment was in a tungsten-inert-gas weld, fabricated in Japan, joining two lengths of STS410 pipe. The displacement history for this experiment was the same history applied to the dynamic, cyclic base metal experiment. The test temperature for each experiment was 300 C (572 F). The objective of these experiments was to compare a Japanese carbon steel pipe material with US pipe material, to ascertain whether this Japanese steel was as sensitive to dynamic and cyclic effects as US carbon steel pipe. In support of these pipe experiments, quasi-static and dynamic, tensile and fracture toughness tests were conducted. An analysis effort was performed that involved comparing experimental crack initiation and maximum moments with predictions based on available fracture prediction models, and calculating J-R curves for the pipe experiments using the η-factor method

  10. Analysis of residual stresses in girth welded type 304 stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, F.W.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping is a problem for the nuclear power industry. Tensile residual stresses induced by welding are an important factor in IGSCC of Type 304 stainless steel pipes. Backlay and heat sink welding can retard IGSCC. 17 refs

  11. Pipe-CUI-profiler: a portable nucleonic system for detecting corrosion under insulation (CUI) of steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Rasif Mohd Zain; Roslan Yahya

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) on the external wall of steel pipes is a common problem in many types of industrial plants. This is mainly due to the presence of moisture or water in the insulation materials. A portable nucleonic system that can be used to detect CUI without the need to remove the insulation materials, has been developed. The system is based on dual-beam gamma-ray absorption technique. It is designed to inspect pipes of internal diameter 50, 65, 80, 90, 100 and 150 mm. Pipeline of these sizes with aluminium or thin steel sheathing, containing fibre-glass or calcium silicate insulation to thicknesses of 25, 40 and 50 mm can be inspected. The system has proven to be a safe, fast and effective method of inspecting insulated pipes. This paper describes the new nucleonic system that has been developed. This paper describes the basic principle of the system and outlines its performance. (Author)

  12. 75 FR 4529 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Compliance Analyst, Office 6, Verification of the Sales Response of Pacific Pipe Public Company, Limited in... Pipe Public Company, Limited, dated August 24, 2009 (Bona Fides Preliminary Memorandum). The Department... Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Pacific Pipe Public Company, Limited, dated...

  13. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results of the... Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines'' from... Commerce (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt...

  14. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation of... from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines.\\2\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Butt...), titled Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines (Investigation...

  15. 77 FR 41967 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Korea, 57 FR... pipe tubing used for farming and support members for reconstruction or load bearing purposes in the...

  16. AWWA C303-17 concrete pressure pipe, bar-wrapped, steel-cylinder type

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes the manufacture of concrete pressure pipe, reinforced with a steel cylinder that is helically wrapped with mild steel bar reinforcement, in sizes ranging from 10 in. through 72 in. (250 mm through 1,830 mm), inclusive, and for working pressures up to 400 psi (2,760 kPa).

  17. The influence of gouge defects on failure pressure of steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alang, N A; Razak, N A; Zulfadli, M R

    2013-01-01

    Failure pressure of API X42 steel pipes with gouge defects was estimated through a nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis. The effect of gouge length on failure pressure of different pipe diameters was investigated. Stress modified critical strain (SMCS) model was applied as in predicting the failure of the pipe. The model uses strain based criteria to predict the failure. For validation of the model, the FE results were compared to experimental data in literature showing overall good agreement. The results show that the gouge length has significant influence on failure pressure. A smaller pipe diameter gives highest value of failure pressure

  18. Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless-Steel Pipes Welded by TIG Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Albdiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel (type 204 pipes welded by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG welding process. Testing of hardness (HRC, tensile strength and bending strength was performed for the steel pipes welded at two different welding temperatures (700 °C and 900 °C with and without using the weld filler wire. The microstructure of the welding regions was examined by using an optical microscopy. The properties showed that the steel pipes welded by 900 °C with using the weld filler obtained the highest tensile strength and bending strength versus these welded by 700 °C without the use of the weld filler. This is attributed to the weld filler heated and melt at sufficient temperature (900 °C and compensate losing in the Ni metal occurred in the base steel metal during the welding process.

  19. Reliability analysis of stainless steel piping using a single stress corrosion cracking damage parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedri, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of an investigation that combines standard methods of fracture mechanics, empirical correlations of stress-corrosion cracking, and probabilistic methods to provide an assessment of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) of stainless steel piping. This is done by simulating the cracking of stainless steel piping under IGSCC conditions using the general methodology recommended in the modified computer program Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events, and by characterizing IGSCC using a single damage parameter. Good correlation between the pipe end-life probability of leak and the damage values were found. These correlations were later used to generalize this probabilistic fracture model. Also, the probability of detection curves and the benefits of in-service inspection in order to reduce the probability of leak for nuclear piping systems subjected to IGSCC were discussed for several pipe sizes. It was found that greater benefits could be gained from inspections for the large pipe as compared to the small pipe sizes. Also, the results indicate that the use of a better inspection procedure can be more effective than a tenfold increase in the number of inspections of inferior quality. -- Highlights: • We simulate the pipe probability of failure under different level of SCC damages. • The residual stresses are adjusted to calibrate the model. • Good correlations between 40-year cumulative leak probabilities and D σ are found. • These correlations were used to generalize this probabilistic fracture model. • We assess the effect of inspection procedures and scenarios on leak probabilities

  20. Examination of the X-ray piping diagnostic system using EGS4 (measuring the thickness of a steel pipe with rust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, G.

    2001-01-01

    In a series of papers entitled 'Examination of the X-ray piping diagnostic system using EGS4' presented the proceedings of the EGS4 users' meetings, I discussed the possibility of measuring the thickness of piping walls with rust. In the present paper, I describe, based on our earlier results, how the thickness of steel pipes with rust can be measured. I conducted EGS4 simulation to measure the thickness of a combination of steel and rust and made an energy absorption diagram for this combination. The equivalent thickness of steel was obtained through experiments and the system operation. The thickness of the steel determined by using the diagram agreed well with the actual steel thickness obtained by the experiments. In the future, we will focus on how to automate this measurement procedure and how to use the same procedure to measure the thickness of pipes filled with water. (author)

  1. Effects of the inner mould material on the aluminium–316L stainless steel explosive clad pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xunzhong; Tao, Jie; Wang, Wentao; Li, Huaguan; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different mould materials were adopted to evaluate the effect of the constraint on the clad quality. ► The interface characteristics of clad pipe were analyzed for the different clad pipe. ► The clad pipes possess excellent bonding quality. - Abstract: The clad pipe played an important part in the pipeline system of the nuclear power industry. To prepare the clad pipe with even macrosize and excellent bonding quality, in this work, different mould materials were adopted to evaluate the effect of the constraint on the clad quality of the bimetal pipe prepared by explosive cladding. The experiment results indicated that, the dimension uniformity and bonding interface of clad pipe were poor by using low melting point alloy as mould material; the local bulge or the cracking of the clad pipe existed when the SiC powder was utilized. When the steel mould was adopted, the outer diameter of the clad pipe was uniform from head to tail. In addition, the metallurgical bonding was formed. Furthermore, the results of shear test, bending test and flattening test showed that the bonding quality was excellent. Therefore, the Al–316L SS clad pipe could endure the second plastic forming

  2. An Investigation of Aging Behaviour in Microalloyed Steel (X70) UOE Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskel, J. B.; Ma, J.; Ivey, D. G.; Henein, H.

    Aging of microalloyed steel pipe can occur at relatively low temperatures associated with the pipe coating process and/or during long term storage or use. The aging phenomenon is primarily attributed to C diffusion to dislocations and subsequent pinning of these dislocations. Important factors in the aging process include time, temperature, chemical composition and plastic deformation (arising from the pipe forming process). The work presented in this paper uses a Box-Behnken experimental design to determine the effect of time, temperature, location in the UOE pipe (90° or 180° to the weld), position through the pipe wall thickness (ID, CL or OD) and the steel's C/Nb ratio (0.60, 1.25 and 1.80) on the change in yield strength of three (uncoated) X70 UOE pipes. Quantitative microstructure analysis is undertaken to determine the grain size and microconstituent fractions of the as-received pipe material. Quadratic equations and response surface(s) correlating the significant aging variables with changes in the longitudinal yield stress of the pipe are developed. Both through thickness position and the C/Nb ratio, followed by aging temperature, had the largest effect on the change in longitudinal yield strength.

  3. Experimental electro-thermal method for nondestructively testing welds in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Welds in austenitic stainless steel pipes are notoriously difficult to nondestructively examine using conventional ultrasonic and eddy current methods. Survace irregularities and microscopic variations in magnetic permeability cause false eddy current signal variations. Ultrasonic methods have been developed which use computer processing of the data to overcome some of the problems. Electro-thermal nondestructive testing shows promise for detecting flaws that are difficult to detect using other NDT methods. Results of a project completed to develop and demonstrate the potential of an electro-thermal method for nondestructively testing stainless steel pipe welds are presented. Electro-thermal NDT uses a brief pulse of electrical current injected into the pipe. Defects at any depth within the weld cause small differences in surface electrical current distribution. These cause short-lived transient temperature differences on the pipe's surface that are mapped using an infrared scanning camera. Localized microstructural differences and normal surface roughness in the welds have little effect on the surface temperatures

  4. Experimental analysis on elasto-platic behaviour of T-branched stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citti, P.; Nerli, G.; Reale, S.; Rissone, P.

    1979-01-01

    Paper relates on results of a research, still in progress at Laboratories of Istituto di Ingegneria Meccanica of Florence University with close cooperation of CNEN Casaccia Laboratories, on incremental collapse phenomena with progressively increasing deflections and plastic fatigue phenomena in stainless steel piping components subjected to variable repeated loads. The reference is to emergency and faulted load contitions as they are defined in ASME III Code. The models are made by stainless steel pipe and simulate some primary circuit piping components. Namely models are not-symmetrical T-branched pipes fixed at their flanged ends and loaded in two sections by variable repeated loads. Tests are carried out to determine: plastic collapse load; strain hardening behaviour; shackedown load conditions. A numerical model is also developed to describe the incremental collapse phenomena. (orig.)

  5. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, R.M.; Wichman, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials

  6. A serviceability approach for carbon steel piping to intermittent high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon steel piping (e.g., ASME SA-106, SA-53), is installed in many industrial applications (i.e. diesel generator at NPP) where the internal gas flow subjects the piping to successive short time exposures at elevated temperatures up to 1,100 F. A typical design of this piping without consideration for creep-fatigue cumulative damage is at least incomplete if not inappropriate. Also, a design for creep-fatigue, usually employed for long-term exposure to elevated temperatures, would be too conservative and will impose replacement of the carbon steel piping with heat-resistant CrMo steel piping. The existing ASME Standard procedures do not explicitly provide acceptance criteria for the design qualification to withstand these intermittent exposures to elevated temperatures. The serviceability qualification proposed is based on the evaluation of equivalent full temperature cycles which are presumed/expected to be experienced by the exhaust piping during the design operating life of the diesel engine. The proposed serviceability analysis consists of: (a) determination of the permissible stress at elevated temperatures, and (b) estimation of creep-fatigue damage for the total expected cycles of elevated temperature exposures following the procedure provided in ASME Code Cases N-253-6 and N-47-28

  7. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, R.M.; Wichman, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials.

  8. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-810, A-583-815] Welded ASTM A-312... the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan... duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan pursuant to section...

  9. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... welded carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, provided for in... from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam were subsidized and/or dumped within the...

  10. 76 FR 68208 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... (Preliminary)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, provided for in... Governments of India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the...

  11. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... (Preliminary)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and... India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe... the Governments of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in...

  12. 77 FR 37711 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...-fair-value imports from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon... respect to circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from Oman and the United Arab Emirates being sold in...

  13. 77 FR 15718 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-811] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab... Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and...

  14. 77 FR 73015 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... antidumping duty order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (CWP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). The... preliminarily found that one respondent has made sales of the subject merchandise at prices below normal value...

  15. 75 FR 27987 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Republic of Korea (Korea). This review covers one producer/exporter of the subject merchandise to the... Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... WSSP from Korea. See Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

  16. 75 FR 44763 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. We... preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because we require additional time with...

  17. Seismic Capacity Estimation of Steel Piping Elbow under Low-cycle Fatigue Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Dae Gi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In some cases, this large relative displacement can increase seismic risk of the isolated facility. Especially, a inelastic behavior of crossover piping system to connect base isolated building and fixed base building can caused by a large relative displacement. Therefore, seismic capacity estimation for isolated piping system is needed to increase safety of nuclear power plant under seismic condition. Dynamic behavior analysis of piping system under seismic condition using shake table tests was performed by Touboul et al in 1995. In accordance with their study, plastic behavior could be occurred at pipe elbow under seismic condition. Experimental researches for dynamic behavior of typical piping system in nuclear power plant have been performed for several years by JNES(Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) and NUPEC(Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation). A low cycle ratcheting fatigue test was performed with scaled model of elbow which is a weakest component in piping system by Mizuno et al. In-plane cyclic loading tests under internal pressure condition were performed to evaluate the seismic capacity of the steel piping elbow. Leakage phenomenon occurred on and near the crown in piping elbow. Those cracks grew up in axial direction. The fatigue curve was estimated from test results. In the fatigue curve, loading amplitude exponentially decreased as the number of cycles increased. A FEM model of piping elbow was modified with test results. The relationships between displacement and force from tests and numerical analysis was well matched.

  18. A Study on the Characteristics of Corrosion in Cold Worked Flexible STS 304 Stainless Steel Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Soo; Kim, Sung Jin

    1993-01-01

    Effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of austenitic STS 304 stainless steel pipes were investigated using anodic polarization method, EDX analysis and SEM technique. Corrosion products had a lots of S and Cl - ion. Generally, corrosion patterns as a result of STS 304 stainless steel to concrete environment were proceeded in the order of the pitting to intergranular corrosion. In the case of the flexible pipes were covered tightly with other polymer materials, crevice corrosion occurred to a much greater extent on austenitic than on martensitic region

  19. Damage mechanism of piping welded joints made from austenitic Steel for the type RBMK reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karzov, G.; Timofeev, B.; Gorbakony, A.; Petrov, V.; Chernaenko, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the process of operation of RBMK reactors the damages were taking place on welded piping, produced from austenitic stainless steel of the type 08X18H10T. The inspection of damaged sections in piping has shown that in most cases crack-like defects are of corrosion and mechanical character. The paper considers in details the reasons of damages appearance and their development for this type of welded joints of downcomers 325xl6 mm, which were fabricated from austenitic stainless steel using TlG and MAW welding methods. (author)

  20. On the impact bending test technique for high-strength pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenkin, A. M.; Odesskii, P. D.; Shabalov, I. P.; Likhachev, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is shown that the impact toughness (KCV-40 = 250 J/cm2) accepted for pipe steels of strength class K65 (σy ≥ 550 MPa) intended for large-diameter gas line pipes is ineffective to classify steels in fracture strength. The results obtained upon testing of specimens with a fatigue crack and additional sharp lateral grooves seem to be more effective. In energy consumption, a macrorelief with splits is found to be intermediate between ductile fracture and crystalline brittle fracture. A split formation mechanism is considered and a scheme is proposed for split formation.

  1. Determination of Burst Pressure of API Steel Pipes using Stress Modified Critical Strain Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alang, N A; Razak, N A; Sulaiman, A S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which can be used to determine the burst pressure of defective steel pipes using non-linear finite element (FE) analysis. The technique uses stress modified critical strain (SMCS) failure criterion to study the effect of gouge defects on maximum working pressure of API X65 steel pipes. The procedures in determining the model parameters using 3-D, homogeneous isotropic elastic-plastic material model with large deformation finite element analyses from notched tensile bars were systematically discussed. The relationship between burst pressure and gouge depth was proposed. The burst pressure estimated then was compared to experimental data from the literature for validation showing overall good agreements.

  2. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless-steel pipes under dynamic loading. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models

  3. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave propagation and extreme pressures are simulated and compared by the method of characteristics (MOC for reinforced PE pipes with various steel-mesh densities. Results show that a steel mesh can significantly increase the shock wave speed in a PE pipe and thus can cause severe peak pressure and hydraulic surges in a water supply pipeline system. The proposed wave speed formula can more reasonably evaluate the wave speed and improve the transient simulation of steel-mesh-reinforced PE pipes.

  4. Estimates of margins in ASME Code strength values for stainless steel nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The margins in the ASME Code stainless steel allowable stress values that can be attributed to the variations in material strength are evaluated for nuclear piping steels. Best-fit curves were calculated for the material test data that were used to determine allowable stress values for stainless steels in the ASME Code, supplemented by more recent data, to estimate the mean stresses. The mean yield stresses (on which the stainless steel S m values are based) from the test data are about 15 to 20% greater than the ASME Code yield stress values. The ASME Code yield stress values are estimated to approximately coincide with the 97% confidence limit from the test data. The mean and 97% confidence limit values can be used in the probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear piping

  5. The application of low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode for the inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z H; Xie, X D; Wu, B; Li, Y H; He, C F

    2012-01-01

    Shed-pipe grouting technology, an effective advanced supporting method, is often used in the excavation of soft strata. Steel floral pipes are one of the key load-carrying components of shed-pipe grouting supporting structures. Guided waves are a very attractive methodology to inspect multi-hole steel floral pipes as they offer long range inspection capability, mode and frequency tuning, and cost effectiveness. In this contribution, preliminary experiments are described for the inspection of steel floral pipes using a low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode, L(0,2). The relation between the number of grouting holes and the peak-to-peak amplitude of the first end-reflected signal was obtained. The effect of the grouting holes in steel floral pipes on the propagation velocity of the L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz was analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the typical grouting holes in steel floral pipe have no significant effect on the propagation of this mode. As a result, low frequency longitudinal guided wave modes have potential for the non-destructive long range inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes. Furthermore, the propagation velocity of the investigated L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz decreases linearly with the increase of the number of grouting holes in a steel floral pipe. It is also noticeable that the effect of the grouting holes cumulates along with the increase in the number of grouting holes and subsequent increase in reflection times of longitudinal guided waves in the steel floral pipe. The application potential of the low frequency longitudinal guided wave technique for the inspection of embedded steel floral pipes is discussed.

  6. Effect of Structure Factor on High-Temperature Ductility of Pipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasnikov, N. G.; Matveev, M. A.; Mishnev, P. A.

    2016-05-01

    Effects of various factors such as the grain size, the morphology of nonmetallic inclusions, and joint microalloying with boron and titanium on the high-temperature ductility of pipe steels are studied. Physical modeling of the conditions of cooling of the skin of a continuous-cast preform in the zone of secondary cooling in a Gleeble facility is performed. Technical recommendations are given for raising the hot ductility of steels under industrial conditions.

  7. Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes: part 1: technological analysis of the mechanical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available This paper is the first part of an extensive work focusing the technological development of steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes (FRCP. Here is presented and discussed the experimental campaign focusing the test procedure and the mechanical behavior obtained for each of the dosages of fiber used. In the second part ("Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes. Part 2: Numerical model to simulate the crushing test", the aspects of FRCP numerical modeling are presented and analyzed using the same experimental results in order to be validated. This study was carried out trying to reduce some uncertainties related to FRCP performance and provide a better condition to the use of these components. In this respect, an experimental study was carried out using sewage concrete pipes in full scale as specimens. The diameter of the specimens was 600 mm, and they had a length of 2500 mm. The pipes were reinforced with traditional bars and different contents of steel fibers in order to compare their performance through the crushing test. Two test procedures were used in that sense. In the 1st Series, the diameter displacement was monitored by the use of two LVDTs positioned at both extremities of the pipes. In the 2nd Series, just one LVDT is positioned at the spigot. The results shown a more rigidity response of the pipe during tests when the displacements were measured at the enlarged section of the socket. The fiber reinforcement was very effective, especially when low level of displacement was imposed to the FRCP. At this condition, the steel fibers showed an equivalent performance to superior class pipes made with traditional reinforced. The fiber content of 40 kg/m3 provided a hardening behavior for the FRCP, and could be considered as equivalent to the critical volume in this condition.

  8. Experimental and numerical study of steel pipe with part-wall defect reinforced with fibre glass sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, Lukasz; Tomaszewski, Michal; Malachowski, Jerzy; Sybilski, Kamil; Chebakov, Mikhail; Witek, Maciej; Yukhymets, Peter; Dmitrienko, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents numerical and experimental burst pressure evaluation of the gas seamless hot-rolled steel pipe. The main goal was to estimate mechanical toughness of pipe wrapped with composite sleeve and verify selected sleeve thickness. The authors used a nonlinear explicit FE code with constitutive models which allows for steel and composite structure failure modelling. Thanks to the achieved numerical and analytical results it was possible to perform the comparison with data received from a capacity test and good correlation between the results were obtained. Additionally, the conducted analyses revealed that local reduction of pipe wall thickness from 6 mm to 2.4 mm due to corrosion defect can reduce high pressure resistance by about 40%. Finally, pipe repaired by a fibre glass sleeve with epoxy resin with 6 mm thickness turned out more resistant than an original steel pipe considering burst pressure. - Highlights: • Numerical and experimental burst pressure evaluation of steel pipe was performed. • Seamless hot-rolled steel pipe with and without corrosion defect were considered. • Local reduction of pipe wall thickness from 6 to 2.4 mm reduces resistance by 40%. • Pipe repaired by a 6 mm fibre glass sleeve was more resistant than an original pipe.

  9. A simplified leak-before-break evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, R.M.; Zahoor, A.; Ghassemi, B. [NOVETECH Corp., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-10-01

    A simplified procedure has been defined for computing the allowable circumferential throughwall crack length as a function of applied loads in piping. This procedure has been defined to enable leak-before-break (LBB) evaluations to be performed without complex and time consuming analyses. The development of the LBB evaluation procedure is similar to that now used in Section 11 of the ASME Code for evaluation of part-throughwall flaws found in piping. The LBB evaluation procedure was bench marked using experimental data obtained from pipes having circumferential throughwall flaws. Comparisons of the experimental and predicted load carrying capacities indicate that the method has a conservative bias, such that for at least 97% of the experiments the experimental load is equal to or greater than 90% of the predicted load. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austenitic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials.

  10. 75 FR 973 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... to welded austenitic stainless steel pipes. The HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and... with sections 772(d)(1) and (2) of the Act, we also deducted, where applicable, those selling expenses associated with economic activities occurring in the United States, including U.S. direct selling expenses (i...

  11. Viscoelastic behavior and durability of steel wire - reinforced polyethylene pipes under a high internal pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, S.; Anoshkin, A.N.; Zuyko, V.Yu

    2011-01-01

    The strength tests of steel-wire-reinforced polyethylene pipe specimens showed that, under a constant internal pressure exceeding 80% of their short-term ultimate pressure, the fracture of the specimens occurred in less than 24 hours. At pressures slightly lower than this level, some specimens did

  12. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...)] Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY: United States... materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of...

  13. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki [and others

    1997-04-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program.

  14. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    1997-01-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program

  15. Qualification of diesel generator exhaust carbon steel piping to intermitted elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    The diesel generator exhaust piping, usually made up of carbon steel piping (e.g., ASME SA-106, SA-53), is subjected to successive short time exposures at elevated temperatures up to 1,000 F (538 C). A typical design of this piping, without consideration for creep-fatigue cumulative damage, is at least incomplete, if not inappropriate. Also, a design for creep-fatigue, usually employed for long-term exposure to elevated temperatures, would be too conservative and will impose replacement of the carbon steel piping with heat-resistant CrMo alloy piping. The existing ASME standard procedures do not explicitly provide acceptance criteria for the design qualification to withstand these intermittent exposures to elevated temperatures. The serviceability qualification proposed is based on the evaluation of equivalent full temperature cycles which are presumed/expected to be experienced by the exhaust piping during the design operating life of the diesel engine. The proposed serviceability analysis consists of: (a) determination of the permissible stress at elevated temperatures, and (b) estimation of creep-fatigue damage for the total expected cycles of elevated temperature exposures following the procedure provided in ASME Code Cases N-253-6 and N-47-28

  16. Fracture analysis procedure for cast austenitic stainless steel pipe with an axial crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Since the ductility of cast austenitic stainless steel pipes decreases due to thermal aging embrittlement after long term operation, not only plastic collapse failure but also unstable ductile crack propagation (elastic-plastic failure) should be taken into account for the structural integrity assessment of cracked pipes. In the fitness-for-service code of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME), Z-factor is used to incorporate the reduction in failure load due to elastic-plastic failure. However, the JSME code does not provide the Z-factor for axial cracks. In this study, Z-factor for axial cracks in aged cast austenitic stainless steel pipes was derived. Then, a comparison was made for the elastic-plastic failure load obtained from different analysis procedures. It was shown that the obtained Z-factor could derive reasonable elastic-plastic failure loads, although the failure loads were more conservative than those obtained by the two-parameter method. (author)

  17. Evaluation of residual stresses for the multipass welds of 316L stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    It is necessary to evaluate the influence of the residual stress and distortion in the design and fabrication of welded structure and the sound welded structure can be maintained by this consideration. Multipass welds of the 316L stainless steel have been widely employed in the pipes of Liquid Metal Reactor. In this study, the residual stresses in the 316L stainless steel pipe welds were calculated by the finite element method using ANSYS code. Also, the residual stresses both on the surface and in the interior of the thickness were measured by HRPD(High Resolution Powder Diffractometer) instrumented in HANARO Reactor. The residual stresses were measured for each 18 points in small(t/d=0.075) and large pipe specimens (t/d=0.034). The experimental and calculated results were compared and the characteristics of the distribution of the residual stress discussed

  18. Evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel 316L pipe using guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Stainless steel is a popular structural materials for liquid-hydrogen storage containers and piping components for transporting high-temperature fluids because of its superior material properties such as high strength and high corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. In general, tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding is used for bonding stainless steel. However, it is often reported that the thermal fatigue cracks or initial defects in stainless steel after welding decreases the reliability of the material. The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in relation to a change in the initial crack length in the welding zone of stainless steel. For this purpose, three specimens with different artificial defects of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm in stainless steel welds were prepared. By considering the thickness of s stainless steel pipe, special attention was given to both the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode in this study. It was clearly found that the L(0,2) mode was more sensitive to defects than the L(0,1) mode. Based on the results of the L(0,1) and L(0,2) mode analyses, the magnitude ratio of the two modes was more effective than studying each mode when evaluating defects near the welded zone of stainless steel because of its linear relationship with the length of the artificial defect.

  19. Ductile fracture of circumferentially cracked type-304 stainless steel pipes in tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Norris, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    Circumferentially cracked pipes subjected to tensile load were analyzed for finite length and constant depth part-through cracks located at the inside of the pipe wall. The analysis postulated loads sufficient to cause net-section yielding of the flawed section. It was demonstrated that a propensity for predominantly radial growth exists for part-through cracks loaded in tension. This result is similar to the result for bend loading, except that bend loading causes more favorable conditions for wall breakthrough than tension loading. Numerical results were developed for 4-in. and 24-in-dia pipes. Safety margins for displacement controlled loads were described by a safety assessment diagram. This diagram defines a curve delineating leak from fracture in a space of nondimensional crack length and crack depth. 4-india schedule 80 Type-304 stainless steel pipes with length to radius ratio (L/R) of up to 100 exhibited leak-before-break behavior.

  20. Ductile fracture of circumferentially cracked type-304 stainless steel pipes in tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Norris, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Circumferentially cracked pipes subjected to tensile load were analyzed for finite length and constant depth part-through cracks located at the inside of the pipe wall. The analysis postulated loads sufficient to cause net-section yielding of the flawed section. It was demonstrated that a propensity for predominantly radial growth exists for part-through cracks loaded in tension. This result is similar to the result for bend loading, except that bend loading causes more favorable conditions for wall breakthrough than tension loading. Numerical results were developed for 4-in. and 24-in-dia pipes. Safety margins for displacement controlled loads were described by a safety assessment diagram. This diagram defines a curve delineating leak from fracture in a space of nondimensional crack length and crack depth. 4-india schedule 80 Type-304 stainless steel pipes with length to radius ratio (L/R) of up to 100 exhibited leak-before-break behavior

  1. Fracture studies on stainless steel straight pipes under earthquake-type cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava, G.; Vishnuvardhan, S.; Gandhi, P.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the crack growth and cyclic fracture behaviour, which are required for realistic assessment of Leak Before Break (LBB) applicability, experimental investigations were carried out on straight pipes under quasi-crystal loading. Totally 13 pipes were tested; three were stainless steel welded (SSW) using conventional shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) technique and the remaining specimens were Narrow Gap Welded (NGW). The fracture tests were carried out under load control, displacement control and combination of the two; the pipes were subjected to different amplitudes of load or load-line displacement (LLD), which were decided based on the response of the pipes under monotonic loading. Cyclic tearing and crack growth studies on eight straight pipes of the same material reported earlier in published literature are also considered for studying the results and understanding the behaviour. Under load control, with almost equal load amplitude, the NGW pipe exhibited improved life in comparison with SMAW pipe when both are subjected to cyclic loading. The crack growth and tearing instability behaviour of the pipes were studied. The same were found to be different for load control, displacement control and combined control tests. Based in the load-controlled experimental results, material specific plot between cyclic load amplitude (as a percentage of maximum load carrying capacity of a specimen under monotonic fracture) and number of cycles to failure was obtained. The results indicate that the piping components subjected to quasi-cyclic loading may fail in very less number of cycles even when the load amplitude is sufficiently below the monotonic fracture/collapse load. These studies will be helpful in designing nuclear power plant (NPP) piping components subjected to earthquake-type cyclic loading. (author)

  2. Electrolytic etching of fine stainless-steel pipes patterned by laser-scan lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sagara, Tomoya; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki

    2017-07-01

    Recently, it is required to develop a method for fabricating cylindrical micro-components in the field of measurement and medical engineering. Here, electrolytic etching of fine stainless-steel pipes patterned by laser-scan lithography was researched. The pipe diameter was 100 μm. At first, a pipe coated with 3-7 μm thick positive resist (tok, PMER P LA-900) was exposed to a violet laser beam with a wavelength of 408 nm (Neoark,TC20-4030-45). The laser beam was reshaped in a circle by placing a pinhole, and irradiated on the pipe by reducing the size in 1/20 using a reduction projection optics. Linearly arrayed 22 slit patterns with a width of 25 μm and a length of 175 μm were delineated in every 90-degree circumferential direction. That is, 88 slits in total were delineated at an exposure speed of 110 μm/s. In the axial direction, patterns were delineated at intervals of 90 μm. Following the pattern delineation, the pipe masked by the resist patterns was electrolytically etched. The pipe was used as an anode and an aluminum cylinder was set as a cathode around the pipe. As the electrolyte, aqueous solution of NaCl and NH4Cl was used. After etching the pipe, the resist was removed by ultrasonic cleaning in acetone. Although feasibility for fabricating multi-slit pipes was demonstrated, sizes of the etched slits were enlarged being caused by the undercut, and the shapes were partially deformed, and all the pipes were snapped at the chuck side.

  3. Modeling of residual stress mitigation in austenitic stainless steel pipe girth weldment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; West, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This study provides numerical procedures to model 40-cm-diameter, schedule 40, Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welding and a newly proposed post-weld treatment. The treatment can be used to accomplish the goal of imparting compressive residual stresses at the inner surface of a pipe girth weldment to prevent/retard the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the piping system in nuclear reactors. This new post-weld treatment for mitigating residual stresses is cooling stress improvement (CSI). The concept of CSI is to establish and maintain a certain temperature gradient across the pipe wall thickness to change the final stress state. Thus, this process involves sub-zero low temperature cooling of the inner pipe surface of a completed girth weldment, while simultaneously keeping the outer pipe surface at a slightly elevated temperature with the help of a certain heating method. Analyses to obtain quantitative results on pipe girth welding and CSI by using a thermo-elastic-plastic finite element model are described in this paper. Results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of CSI for introducing compressive residual stresses to prevent/retard IGSCC. Because of the symmetric nature of CSI, it shows great potential for industrial application

  4. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, B., E-mail: bianca@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lesage, J. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Pasqualino, I. [Subsea Technology Laboratory (LTS), Ocean Engineering Department, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68508, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Benseddiq, N. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Bemporad, E. [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy (LIME), University of Rome TRE, Via Della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work we study the fatigue damage evolution in an API 5L X60 steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural changes and residual stresses are evaluated during fatigue tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microdeformations and macro residual stresses are estimated by X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are discussed in view of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This indicator could allow the prediction of residual life before macrocracking. - Abstract: Steel pipes used in the oil and gas industry undergo the action of cyclic loads that can cause their failure by fatigue. A consistent evaluation of the fatigue damage during the initiation phase should fundamentally be based on a nanoscale approach, i.e., at the scale of the dislocation network, in order to take into account the micromechanisms of fatigue damage that precede macrocrack initiation and propagation until the final fracture. In this work, microstructural changes related to fatigue damage initiation are investigated in the API 5L X60 grade steel, used in pipe manufacturing. Microdeformations and macro residual stress are evaluated using X-ray diffraction in real time during alternating bending fatigue tests performed on samples cut off from an X60 steel pipe. The aim of this ongoing work is to provide ground for further development of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation in X60 steel. This damage indicator could allow a good residual life prediction of steel pipes previously submitted to fatigue loading, before macroscopic cracking, and help to increase the reliability of these structures.

  5. Experimentation and numerical simulation of steel fibre reinforced concrete pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, A. de la; Domingues de Figueiredo, A.; Aguado, A.; Molins, C.; Chama Neto, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    The results concerning on an experimental and a numerical study related to SFRCP are presented. Eighteen pipes with an internal diameter of 600 mm and fibre dosages of 10, 20 and 40 kg/m3 were manufactured and tested. Some technological aspects were concluded. Likewise, a numerical parameterized model was implemented. With this model, the simulation of the resistant behaviour of SFRCP can be performed. In this sense, the results experimentally obtained were contrasted with those suggested by means MAP reaching very satisfactory correlations. Taking it into account, it could be said that the numerical model is a useful tool for the optimal design of the SFRCP fibre dosages, avoiding the need of the systematic employment of the test as an indirect design method. Consequently, the use of this model would reduce the overall cost of the pipes and would give fibres a boost as a solution for this structural typology. (Author) 27 refs.

  6. Failure probability estimate of type 304 stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Mehta, H.S.; Ranganath, S.

    1989-01-01

    The primary source of in-service degradation of the SRS production reactor process water piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). IGSCC has occurred in a limited number of weld heat affected zones, areas known to be susceptible to IGSCC. A model has been developed to combine crack growth rates, crack size distributions, in-service examination reliability estimates and other considerations to estimate the pipe large-break frequency. This frequency estimates the probability that an IGSCC crack will initiate, escape detection by ultrasonic (UT) examination, and grow to instability prior to extending through-wall and being detected by the sensitive leak detection system. These events are combined as the product of four factors: (1) the probability that a given weld heat affected zone contains IGSCC; (2) the conditional probability, given the presence of IGSCC, that the cracking will escape detection during UT examination; (3) the conditional probability, given a crack escapes detection by UT, that it will not grow through-wall and be detected by leakage; (4) the conditional probability, given a crack is not detected by leakage, that it grows to instability prior to the next UT exam. These four factors estimate the occurrence of several conditions that must coexist in order for a crack to lead to a large break of the process water piping. When evaluated for the SRS production reactors, they produce an extremely low break frequency. The objective of this paper is to present the assumptions, methodology, results and conclusions of a probabilistic evaluation for the direct failure of the primary coolant piping resulting from normal operation and seismic loads. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break

  7. Effects of dynamic coupling between freestanding steel containment and attached piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Kincaid, R.H.; Short, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an accurate, practical method of converting uncoupled response time history results obtained from an uncoupled structure model into coupled response time histories using a post-processor routine. The method is rigorous and only requires the modal properties of the uncoupled structure model, the modal properties of the uncoupled attached equipment model, and the uncoupled time histories of the attachment points on the structure. Coupled response spectra or time histories for use as input to an uncoupled equipment model are obtained. Comparisons of coupled versus uncoupled analysis results are presented for representative piping systems attached to a typical BWR Mark III steel containment subjected to vibration from safety relief valve discharge with a fundamental frequency of 12 Hz. It is shown that the coupled response spectra at piping attachment points are reduced by a factor between 2 and 5 from the amplified uncoupled spectra at each significant piping modal frequency above 20 Hz for representative major piping systems attached to the unstiffened portion of the steel shell. Responses at lower frequencies are not generally reduced and may increase by coupling effects for the input loading and shell model studied. Peak accerations are generally significantly reduced while peak displacements may be decreased or increased. Rules are presented for estimating the coupling effects between freestanding steel shells and attached equipment. (orig./HP)

  8. Corrosion by concentrated sulfuric acid in carbon steel pipes and tanks: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panossian, Zehbour; Almeida, Neusvaldo Lira de; Sousa, Raquel Maria Ferreira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg de Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento (CENPES); Marques, Leandro Bordalo Schmidt [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS, allied to the policy of reduction of emission of pollutants, has been adjusting the processes of the new refineries to obtain products with lower sulfur content. Thus, the sulfur dioxide, extracted from the process gases of a new refinery to be built in the Northeast, will be used to produce sulfuric acid with concentration between (94-96) %. This acid will be stored in carbon steel tanks and transported through a buried 8-km carbon steel pipe from the refinery to a pier, where it will be loaded onto ships and sent to the consumer markets. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of carbon steel by concentrated acid will become a great concern for the mentioned storage and transportation. When the carbon steel comes into contact with concentrated sulfuric acid, there is an immediate acid attack with the formation of hydrogen gas and ferrous ions which, in turn, forms a protective layer of FeSO{sub 4} on the metallic surface. The durability of the tanks and pipes made of carbon steel will depend on the preservation of this protective layer. This work presents a review of the carbon steel corrosion in concentrated sulfuric acid and discusses the preventive methods against this corrosion, including anodic protection. (author)

  9. Cathodic corrosion protection of steel pipes; Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Rohrleitungsstaehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Markus [SGK Schweizerische Gesellschaft fuer Korrosionsschutz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schoeneich, Hanns-Georg [Open Grid Europe, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The cathodic corrosion protection has been proven excellently in the practical use for buried steel pipelines. This is evidenced statistically by a significantly less frequency of loss compared to non-cathodically protected pipelines. Based on thermodynamic considerations, the authors of the contribution under consideration describe the operation of the cathodic corrosion protection and regular adjustment of the electrochemical potential at the interface steel / soil in practical use. Subsequently, the corrosion scenarios are discussed that may occur when an incorrect setting of the potential results from an operation over several decades. This incorrect setting also can be caused by the failure of individual components of the corrosion protection.

  10. A parametric study of residual stresses in multipass butt-welded stainless steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B. [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden); Josefson, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Solid Mechanics

    1996-06-01

    Multipass circumferential butt-welding of stainless steel pipes is simulated numerically in a non-linear thermo-mechanical FE-analysis. In particular, the through-thickness variation at the weld and heat affected zone, of the axial and hoop stresses and their sensitivity to variation in weld parameters are studied. Recommendations are given for the through thickness variation of the axial and hoop stresses to be used when assessing the growth of surface flaws at circumferential butt welds in nuclear piping system. 31 refs, 12 tabs, 54 figs.

  11. Hydrogen-related stress corrosion cracking in line pipe steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    1997-01-01

    A correlation between hydrogen concentration (C0) and the critical stress intensity factor for propagation of hydrogen-related cracks has been established by fracture mechanical testing of CT-specimens for the heat affected zone of an X-70 pipeline steel. This has been compared with field...

  12. 75 FR 78216 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Mexico, and Venezuela and Amendment..., Director, Office 7 to Michael Walsh, Director, AD/CVD Revenue Policy & Programs, U.S. Customs and Border...

  13. Logistics Outsourcing and The Role of Logistics Service Providers: A Study About Steel Pipe Production Enterprises in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Mehmet Selami; Turan, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Specialization requirement led the outsourcing preferred intensely by firms. Evidently “logistics activities” constitute an important part in the outsourced business activities. In this study, interviews were conducted with the managers from Turkey's steel pipe production enterprises who have knowledge of logistics management. Fourteen steel pipe enterprises were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by using quantitative methods and data were obtained by interview and face-...

  14. The First Assembly Line of Large-longitudinally-welded Steel Pipe in China Went into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bing

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 27, the first assembly line to produce JCOE large diameter Longitudinally-submerged-arc-welded steel pipe in China, Which is the key homemade equipment project of "West-East Gas Transmission"project, was put into production. Chen Gen, vice general manager of CNPC; Xie Zhiqiang and Liu Haisheng, assistant chief manager of CNPC; Shi Xingquan, vice president of PetroChina; and the president of Itochu-Marubeni Steel & iron Co., Ltd.of Japan; attended the opening ceremony and cut the ribbon.

  15. Detection of wall thinning of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation using Pulsed Eddy Current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Duckgun; Kishore, M. B.; Lee, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The test sample is a ferromagnetic carbon steel pipe having different thickness, covered with a 10 cm plastic insulation laminated by 0.4 mm Al plate to simulate the pipelines in NPPs. The PEC Probe used for the wall thinning detection consists of an excitation coil and a Hall sensor. The excitation coils in the probe is driven by a rectangular bipolar current pulse and the Hall-sensor will detects the resultant field. The Hall sensor output is considered as PEC signal. Results shows that the PEC system can detect wall thinning in an insulated pipeline of the NPPs. Local wall thinning in pipelines affects the structural integrity of industries like nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the present study a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology to detect the wall thing of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation is developed

  16. 76 FR 77770 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... previous review or the original less-than-fair-value (LTFV) investigation, the cash deposit rate will... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 57 FR 42953... structural pipe tubing used for framing and support members for reconstruction or load-bearing purposes in...

  17. 77 FR 32531 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value... pipe) from the Sultanate of Oman (Oman) is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at less... from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) on...

  18. 75 FR 69052 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... threatened with material injury by reason of imports of seamless pipe from the PRC. According to section 736... that determination is based on the threat of material injury and is not accompanied by a finding that... Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

  19. 77 FR 10773 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year... orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines would be... certificate of service. Determination.--The Commission has determined to exercise its authority to extend the...

  20. High-energy air shock study in steel and grout pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, H.D.; Kratz, H.R.; Keough, D.D.; Duganne, D.A.; Ruffner, D.J.; Swift, R.P.; Baum, D.

    1979-01-01

    Voitenko compressors are used to generate 43 mm/μs air shocks in both a steel and a grout outlet pipe containing ambient atmospheric air. Fiber-optic ports provide diaphragm burst times, time-of-arrival (TOA) data, and velocities for the shock front along the 20-mm-ID exit pipes. Pressure profiles are obtained at higher enthalpy shock propagation than ever before and at many locations along the exit pipes. Numerous other electronic sensors and postshot observations are described, as well as experimental results. The primary objectives of the experiments are as follows: (1) provide a data base for normalization/improvement of existing finite-difference codes that describe high-energy air shocks and gas propagation; (2) obtain quantitative results on the relative attenuation effects of two very different wall materials for high-energy air shocks and gas flows. The extensive experimental results satisfy both objectives

  1. Creep properties in similar weld joint of a thick-walled P92 steel pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Kuchařová, Květa; Svobodová, M.; Kvapilová, Marie; Král, Petr; Horváth, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-12 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09518S; GA MPO FR-TI4/406 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 9–12%Cr steels * Creep testing * High temperature creep * Thick-walled pipe * Welding Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  2. Evaluation of flaws in carbon steel piping. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.; Mehta, H.S.; Yukawa, S.; Ranganath, S.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this program was to develop flaw evaluation procedures and allowable flaw sizes for ferritic piping used in light water reactor (LWR) power generation facilities. The program results provide relevant ASME Code groups with the information necessary to define flaw evaluation procedures, allowable flaw sizes, and their associated bases for Section XI of the code. Because there are several possible flaw-related failure modes for ferritic piping over the LWR operating temperature range, three analysis methods were employed to develop the evaluation procedures. These include limit load analysis for plastic collapse, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) analysis for ductile tearing, and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis for non ductile crack extension. To ensure the appropriate analysis method is used in an evaluation, a step by step procedure also is provided to identify the relevant acceptance standard or procedure on a case by case basis. The tensile strength and toughness properties required to complete the flaw evaluation for any of the three analysis methods are included in the evaluation procedure. The flaw evaluation standards are provided in tabular form for the plastic collapse and ductile tearing modes, where the allowable part through flaw depth is defined as a function of load and flaw length. For non ductile crack extension, linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis methods, similar to those in Appendix A of Section XI, are defined. Evaluation flaw sizes and procedures are developed for both longitudinal and circumferential flaw orientations and normal/upset and emergency/faulted operating conditions. The tables are based on margins on load of 2.77 and 1.39 for circumferential flaws and 3.0 and 1.5 for longitudinal flaws for normal/upset and emergency/faulted conditions, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of flaws in carbon steel piping. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.; Mehta, H.S.; Yukawa, S.; Ranganath, S.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this program was to develop flaw evaluation procedures and allowable flaw sizes for ferritic piping used in light water reactor (LWR) power generation facilities. The program results provide relevant ASME Code groups with the information necessary to define flaw evaluation procedures, allowable flaw sizes, and their associated bases for Section XI of the code. Because there are several possible flaw-related failure modes for ferritic piping over the LWR operating temperature range, three analysis methods were employed to develop the evaluation procedures. These include limit load analysis for plastic collapse, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) analysis for ductile tearing, and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis for non ductile crack extension. To ensure the appropriate analysis method is used in an evaluation, a step by step procedure also is provided to identify the relevant acceptance standard or procedure on a case by case basis. The tensile strength and toughness properties required to complete the flaw evaluation for any of the three analysis methods are included in the evaluation procedure. The flaw evaluation standards are provided in tabular form for the plastic collapse and ductile tearing modes, where the allowable part through flaw depth is defined as a function of load and flaw length. For non ductile crack extension, linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis methods, similar to those in Appendix A of Section XI, are defined. Evaluation flaw sizes and procedures are developed for both longitudinal and circumferential flaw orientations and normal/upset and emergency/faulted operating conditions. The tables are based on margins on load of 2.77 and 1.39 for circumferential flaws and 3.0 and 1.5 for longitudinal flaws for normal/upset and emergency/faulted conditions, respectively

  4. A study on ultrasonic inspection of long steel pipes using lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Ho

    1996-02-01

    An ultrasonic inspection technique with use of Lamb waves was evaluated to detect and determine the exact location of flaws present in long steel pipes. Since multiple modes of Lamb waves are generated in the inspected pipes due to their dispersive characteristics, selection of a specific Lamb wave mode is very important for inspection of flaws. Experimental studies of flaw detectability with use of each Lamb wave mode, namely, A 0 , S 0 , A 1 , and S 1 mode and their ultrasonic attenuation characteristics were conducted. Experimental results showed that A 0 mode is the most effective for detection and exact determination of the location of flaws. A lucite wedge containing water column that generates the A 0 Lamb wave mode was developed and used in the present inspection study. It was found that the ultrasonic beam divergence after its wrapping around once the inspected pipe interferes with exact determination of the location of flaws and that maximum reflection signals are obtained when the transducer is located axially offset from the straight line with the position of the flaw. The present study showed feasibility of ultrasonic inspection with use of Lamb waves for detection of flaws in several meters long insulated or inaccessible steel pipes

  5. Microbiological corrosion of ASTM SA105 carbon steel pipe for industrial fire water usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, S.; Ashok, K.; Karthik, V.; Venkatakrishnan, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    The large number of metallic systems developed for last few decades against both general uniform corrosion and localized corrosion. Among all microbiological induced corrosion (MIC) is attractive, multidisciplinary and complex in nature. Many chemical processing industries utilizes fresh water for fire service to nullify major/minor fire. One such fire water service line pipe attacked by micro-organisms leads to leakage which is industrially important from safety point of view. Also large numbers of leakage reported in similar fire water service of nearby food processing plant, paper & pulp plant, steel plant, electricity board etc…In present investigation one such industrial fire water service line failure analysis of carbon steel line pipe was analyzed to determine the cause of failure. The water sample subjected to various chemical and bacterial analyses. Turbidity, pH, calcium hardness, free chlorine, oxidation reduction potential, fungi, yeasts, sulphide reducing bacteria (SRB) and total bacteria (TB) were measured on water sample analysis. The corrosion rate was measured on steel samples and corrosion coupon measurements were installed in fire water for validating non flow assisted localized corrosion. The sulphide reducing bacteria (SRB) presents in fire water causes a localized micro biological corrosion attack of line pipe.

  6. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  7. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  8. Contamination of stainless steel process piping with radioactive cobalt colloids and methods for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeleye, S.A.; White, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Significant deposits of activity can occur on the internal surface of pipework carrying aqueous radioactive liquid. This paper describes experimental work to contaminate stainless steel piping with colloidal particles of Co 60 and considers decontamination methods. The effects on steel contamination of varying cobalt concentration and aqueous liquor pH were investigated. Deposition increased with increasing cobalt concentration and the ''plate-out'' increased markedly with increasing liquid pH. Low deposition occurred at pH ∼ 2 increasing by orders of magnitude at pH ∼ 10. Steel type had an effect on activity picked up. It was shown that liquid turbulence, on the surface, reduced activity deposition. Since the extent of contamination to be removed depends on deposition or ''plate-out'' kinetics, the factors affecting the rate of activity deposition are considered. Specimens of steel piping were treated by contacting with acid, electroetching or abrasion with emery cloth. Surface treatment was shown to delay deposition, in certain instances, but did not have much effect on overall equilibrium level of surface activity. The surface activity could be reduced by treatment with dilute nitric acid: however significant activity remained. Most of the remaining activity could be removed by treatment with nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath. (Author)

  9. 77 FR 64483 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-0649, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 1, 2012, the Department published in... Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam;'' ``Verification of the Sales Response of Midwest Air... Steel Joint Stock Company.... Sun Steel Joint Stock 4.57 Company. Huu Lien Asia Corporation........ Huu...

  10. 75 FR 1335 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-008] Circular Welded Carbon Steel... review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan.\\1\\ On... review within the original time frame because we require additional time to obtain information from the...

  11. 76 FR 67146 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-828] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld... antidumping duty order on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy in the Federal Register. See... preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because it needs to obtain additional...

  12. 76 FR 3612 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-008] Circular Welded Carbon Steel... Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative... complete the preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because we require...

  13. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  14. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  15. Development of carbon steel with superior resistance to wall thinning and fracture for nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju

    2010-07-01

    Carbon steel is usually used for piping for secondary coolant system in nuclear power plant because of low cost and good machinability. However, it is generally reported that carbon steel was failed catastrophically because of its low resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness. Especially, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of main problems of the wall thinning of piping in the nuclear power plant. Therefore, in this project, fabrication technology of new advanced carbon steel materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide ceramics into the matrix is developed first in order to improve the resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness drastically compared to the conventional one. In order to get highly wettable fine TiC ceramic particles into molten metal, the micro-sized TiC particles were first mechanically milled by Fe (MMed TiC/Fe) in a high energy ball mill machine in Ar gas atmosphere, and then mixed with surfactant metal elements (Sn, Cr, Ni) to obtain better wettability, as this lowered surface tension of the carbon steel melt. According to microscopic images revealed that an addition of MMed TiC/Fe-surfactant mixed powders favorably disperses the fine TiC particles in the carbon steel matrix. It was also found that the grain size refinement of the cast matrix is achieved remarkably when fine TiC particles were added due to the fact that they act as nucleation sites during the solidification process. As a results, a cast carbon steel dispersed with fine TiC particles shows improved mechanical properties such as hardness, tensile strength and cavitation resistance compared to that of without particles. However, the slight decrease of toughness was found

  16. CT image reconstruction of steel pipe section from few projections using the method of rotating polar-coordinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Shuaijun; Wu Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    Fast online inspection in steel pipe production is a big challenge. Radiographic CT imaging technology, a high performance non-destructive testing method, is quite appropriate for inspection and quality control of steel pipes. The method of rotating polar-coordinate is used to reconstruct the steel pipe section from few projections with the purpose of inspecting it online. It reduces the projection number needed and the data collection time, and accelerates the reconstruction algorithm and saves the inspection time evidently. The results of simulation experiment and actual experiment indicate that the image quality and reconstruction time of rotating polar-coordinate method meet the requirements of inspecting the steel tube section online basically. The study is of some theoretical significance and the method is expected to be widely used in practice. (authors)

  17. An appraisal of procedures used to give the criterion for instability of a through-wall circumferential crack in a stainless steel piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1989-01-01

    Against the background of the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking of 304 stainless steel in Boiling Water Reactor piping systems, this paper presents a critical appraisal of procedures that are currently used to give the criterion for instability of a through-wall circumferential crack in a stainless steel piping system. Particular attention is focussed on a simple procedure developed by Cotter, Chang and Zahoor, which has been applied to specific piping systems, the objective being to underpin its viability. The considerations are applicable to not only Boiling Water Reactor piping systems, but to other piping systems where pipe failure due to circumferential cracking is a potential problem. (author)

  18. Residual stress distribution in carbon steel pipe welded joint measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Morii, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate crack growth behavior of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in pipes, the residual stress distribution near the pipe weld region has to be measured through the wall thickness. Since the penetration depth of neutron is deep enough to pass through the thick pipe wall, the neutron diffraction technique for the residual stress measurement is effective for this purpose. At the first step the residual stress distribution near the weld region in a butt-welded carbon steel pipe was measured by the neutron diffraction. Significant stresses extended only to a distance of 30 mm from the center of the weld. The major tensile stresses occurred in the hoop direction in the fusion and heat affected zones of the weldment, and they attained a level greater than 200 MPa through the thickness. While the axial residual stress at the inside surface was 50 MPa, the stress at the outside surface was -100 MPa. The comparison of residual stress distributions measured by the neutron diffraction, the X-ray diffraction and the strain gauge method reveals that the neutron diffraction is the most effective for measuring the residual stress inside the structural components. (author)

  19. Mechanism of selective corrosion in electrical resistance seam welded carbon steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Fajardo, Pedro; Godinez Salcedo, Jesus; Gonzalez Velasquez, Jorge L. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F., (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas. Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    In this investigation the studies of the mechanism of selective corrosion in electrical resistance welded (ERW) carbon steel pipe was started. Metallographic characterizations and evaluations for inclusions were performed. The susceptibility of ERW pipe to selective corrosion in sea water (NACE 1D182, with O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}S) was studied by the stepped potential Potentiostatic electrochemical test method in samples of 1 cm{sup 3} (ASTM G5) internal surface of the pipe (metal base-weld). The tests were looking for means for predicting the susceptibility of ERW pipe to selective corrosion, prior to placing the pipeline in service. Manganese sulfide inclusions are observed deformed by the welding process and they are close to the weld centerline. A slight decarburization at the weld line is observed, and a distinct out bent fiber pattern remains despite the post-weld seam annealing. The microstructure of the weld region consists of primarily polygonal ferrite grains mixed with small islands of pearlite. It is possible to observe the differences of sizes of grain of the present phases in the different zones. Finally, scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the corrosion initiates with the dissolution of MnS inclusions and with small crack between the base metal and ZAC. (author)

  20. Ductile fracture behavior of 6-inch diameter type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel piping containing a through-wall or part-through crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Kaneko, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Norio.

    1986-05-01

    The double ended guillotine break philosophy in the design base accident of the nuclear power plant is considered to be overly conservative from the view point of piping design. Through the past experiences and developments of the fabrication, inspection, and operation of nuclear power plants, it has been recognized that the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept can be justified in the LWR pressure boundary pipings. In order to verify the LBB concept, extensive experimental and theoretical works are being conducted in many countries. Furthermore, a revised piping design standard, in which LBB concept is introduced, is under preparation in Japan, U.S.A., and European countries. At JAERI, a research program to investigate the unstable ductile fracture behavior of LWR piping under bending load has been carried out as a part of the LBB verification researches since 1983. This report summarizes the result of the ductile fracture tests conducted at room temperature in 1983 and 84. The 6-inch diameter pipes of type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel pipe with a through-wall or part-through crack were tested under bending load with low or high compliance condition at room temperature. Pipe fracture data were obtained from the test as regards to load- displacement curve, crack extension, net section stress, J-resistance curve, and so on. Besides, the influence of the compliance on the fracture behavior was examined. Discussions are performed on the ductile pipe fracture criterion, flaw evaluation criterion, and LBB evaluation method. (author)

  1. Loading rate effects on strength and fracture toughness of pipe steels used in Task 1 of the IPIRG program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, C.W.; Landow, M.P.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1993-10-01

    Material characterization tests were conducted on laboratory specimens machined from pipes to determine the effect of dynamic loading (i.e., rates comparable to those for high amplitude seismic events) on tensile properties and fracture resistance at 288 C (550 F). Specimens were fabricated from seven different pipes, including carbon steels and stainless steels (both base metal and weld metal), which were to be subjected to full-scale pipe tests in IPIRG Task 1.0. For the stainless steels tested at 288 C (550 F), tensile strength was unchanged, while yield strength and fracture resistance were increased. The increase in fracture resistance was modest for the wrought base metals and substantial for the weld metal and the cast base metal. The carbon steels tested were sensitive to dynamic strain aging, and hence the strength and toughness was affected by both temperature and strain rate effects. The carbon steel base metal and welds exhibited ultimate tensile strength values at 288 C (550 F) that were greater than at room temperature. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength at 288 C (550 F) was lowered significantly by increased strain rate and, in the carbon steel base metals, increased strain rate also lowered the fracture resistance, substantially in the base metal of one pipe. In comparing these results to the IPIRG pipe test results to date, it was found that the trends of these tests agree well with the Subtask 1.2 quasi-static and dynamic pipe fracture experiments. Loads measured in the Subtask 1.1 pipe experiments were, however, somewhat higher than would have been expected by the trends observed in the laboratory tests

  2. Pile load test on large diameter steel pipe piles in Timan-Pechora, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, S. [Golder Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tart, B. [Golder Associates Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Swartz, R. [Paragon Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pile load testing conducted in May and June of 1993 at the Polar Lights Ardalin project in Arkangelsk province, Russia, was documented. Pile load testing was conducted to determine the ultimate and allowable pile loads for varying pile lengths and ground temperature conditions and to provide creep test data for deformation under constant load. The piles consisted of 20 inch diameter steel pipe piles driven open ended through prebored holes into the permafrost soils. Ultimate pile capacities, adfreeze bond, and creep properties observed were discussed. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Effect of prestrain on ductility and toughness in high strength line pipe steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Y.; Besson, J. [Paristech, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris; Madi, Y. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs, Sceaux (France). Ermess EPF; Paristech, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris

    2009-07-01

    The anisotropic plasticity, ductility and toughness of an X100 steel pipeline was investigated both before and after a series of prestraining experiments. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of prestraining on ductility and toughness in high strength pipe steels. Results of the study showed that primary void growth and coalescence was dependent on initial plastic anisotropy and not dependent on tensile prestrain. Secondary void nucleation and growth was not influenced by either the initial plastic anisotropy or by prestraining. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the main damage mechanism was the void growth of primary dimples. Dimples in the prestrained materials were larger than those observed in materials that had not been prestrained. However, the effect on prestrain on dimple size was limited. Results showed both plastic and rupture anisotropies. It was concluded that prestraining induces a decrease in ductility, but has a significant impact on toughness. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  5. [Effect of chloramines disinfection for biofilm formation control on copper and stainless steel pipe materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yong-ji; Li, Xing; Li, Gui-bai

    2008-12-01

    Two rotating annular bioreactors (RABs) with copper and stainless steel pipe materials were adopted in the study, the effects of these two pipe materials and chloramines disinfection on biofilms formation in drinking water distribution system were evaluated. The maximum viable bacterial number in biofilm of copper and stainless steel reached 5.5 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 2.5 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 at 18th and 21st day without chloramines, and the viable bacterial number at the apparent steady state was 1.0 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 1.3 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 respectively. It was obvious that the biomass on copper materials was lower than that of the stainless steel. The maximum viable bacterial on copper and stainless steel under chloramines was 5.0 x 10(2) CFU/cm2 and 5.0 x 10(4) CFU/cm2, which was one order of magnitude lower than that of without chloramines, and its number was 10 CFU/cm2 and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU/cm2 at the steady state. These results illustrated that chloramines had apparent ability in controlling biomass when the biofilm was on steady states, especially for copper material. There was exponential relationship between biomass in biofilm and residue chloramines, which meant less biomass with more chloramines, synergistic effects were observed between chloramines and copper materials on biomass in biofilms inactivation.

  6. Fatigue damage evaluation of stainless steel pipes in nuclear power plants using positron annihilation lineshape analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuhiro [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Nakamura, Noriko; Yusa, Satoru [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Since positron annihilation lineshape analysis can evaluate the degree of fatigue damage by detecting defects such as dislocations in metals, we applied this method to evaluate that in a type 316 stainless steel pipe which was used in the primary system of a nuclear power plant. Using {sup 68}Ge as a positron source, an energy spread of annihilation gamma ray peak from the material was measured and expressed as the S-parameter. Actual plant material cut from a surge line pipe of a pressurizer in a pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant was measured by positron annihilation lineshape analysis and the S-parameter was obtained. Comparing the S-parameter with a relationship between the S-parameter and fatigue life ratio of the type 316 stainless steel, we evaluated the degree of fatigue damage of the actual material. Furthermore, to verify the evaluation, microstructures of the actual material were investigated with TEM (transmission electron microscope) to observe dislocation densities. As a result, a change in the S-parameter of the actual material from standard as-received material (type 316 stainless steel) was in the range from -0.0013 to 0.0014, while variations in the S-parameter of the standard as-received material were about {+-}0.002, and hence the differences between the actual material and the as-received material were negligible. Moreover, the dislocation density of the actual plant material observed with TEM was almost the same as that of the as-received one. In conclusion, we could confirm the applicability of the positron annihilation lineshape analysis to fatigue damage evaluation of stainless steel. (author)

  7. Plastic fracture mechanics prediction of fracture instability in a circumferentially cracked pipe in bending--2. Experimental verification on a Type 304 stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of a pipe fracture emanating from a stress corrosion crack in the heat-affected zones of girth-welds in Type 304 stainless steel pipes was investigated. The J-resistance curve--tearing modulus parameter for the prediction of crack initiation, stable growth and fracture instability--was employed. In the actual experiment, the onset of fracture instability occurred beyond maximum load at an average stable crack growth of 16 to 19 mm (0.63 to 0.75-in.) at each tip. 6 refs

  8. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF THE HIGH-SPEED THERMAL PROCESSING REGIMES ON STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PIPE STEEL 32G2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Gordienko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on influence of high-speed heating temperature, regimes of cooling and temperature of abatement on structure and mechanical properties of pipe steel 32G2 are carried out. Recommendations on the regimes of high-speed thermal processing of steel 32G2 which can be used at manufacturing of seamless pipes are given.

  9. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless steel pipes under dynamic loading. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models.

  10. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless steel pipes under dynamic loading. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models

  11. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless-steel pipes under dynamic loading. Final report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models.

  12. Mitigation of inside surface residual stress of type 304 stainless steel pipe welds by inside water cooling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, R.

    1980-01-01

    The weld residual stress distributions, macro- and microstructures of heat affected zone and IGSCC susceptibility of Type 304 stainless steel pipe welds by natural and inside water cooling methods have been investigated. The residual stresses of pipe welds by the natural cooling method are high tensile on both the inside and the outside surface. While the residual stresses on the inside surface of pipe welds by the inside water cooling method are compressive in both axial and circumferential directions for each pipe size from 2 to 24 inch diameter. The sensitized zones of welds by the inside water cooling method are closer to the fusion line, much narrower and milder than those by the natural cooling method. According to the constant extension rate test results for specimens taken from the inside surface of pipe welds, the inside water cooled welds are more resistant to IGSCC than naturally cooled ones

  13. The residual stress distribution in welded pipe inner surface of stainless steel from the nuclear power plant in Ringhals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.E.

    1984-06-01

    The axial residual stress distribution on the inner surface of welded pipes of stainless steel SS 2333 (AISI 304) have been measured using the X-ray diffraction technique. Four halves of two pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm and wall thickness of 10 mm were investigated. The result on the pipe inner surface shows compressive stresses in the weld metal and tensile stresses within a region between 8-23 mm with a maximum of 180MPa at a distance of 17 mm from the weld centerline. The maximum axial and circumferential residual stresses on the pipe outer surface are of the magnitude of 100 MPa. By cutting the pipes into two halves these stresses are relaxed by about 35 MPa. (author)

  14. The Study on Environmental Fatigue Behavior of Low Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Pipes Using the Simplified Plant Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, One; Song, M. S.; Kim, I. Y.; Park, S. H.; Lee, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear components categorized as ASME Code Class 1 shall be evaluated for the fatigue and satisfy the fatigue acceptance criteria, CUF(cumulative usage factor) < 1 in accordance with ASME Code. However, recent studies have shown the fatigue evaluation procedure may not give conservative results when the components operate in the water environment. NRC issued Regulatory Guide 1.207 which enforces the new fatigue evaluation method or Fen(environmental fatigue correction factor) method to nuclear plants to be newly constructed. This paper describes the characteristics of the behavior of low alloy and austenitic stainless steel straight pipe related to environmental fatigue, which are obtained by using the method suggested by Regulatory Guide 1.207 and simplified plant transients

  15. Variation behavior of residual stress distribution by manufacturing processes in welded pipes of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near heat affected zone (HAZ) of primary loop recirculation pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L in the nuclear power plants. For the non-sensitization material, residual stress is the important factor of SCC, and it is generated by machining and welding. In the actual plants, welding is conducted after machining as manufacturing processes of welded pipes. It could be considered that residual stress generated by machining is varied by welding as a posterior process. This paper presents residual stress variation due to manufacturing processes of pipes using X-ray diffraction method. Residual stress distribution due to welding after machining had a local maximum stress in HAZ. Moreover, this value was higher than residual stress generated by welding or machining. Vickers hardness also had a local maximum hardness in HAZ. In order to clarify hardness variation, crystal orientation analysis with EBSD method was performed. Recovery and recrystallization were occurred by welding heat near the weld metal. These lead hardness decrease. The local maximum region showed no microstructure evolution. In this region, machined layer was remained. Therefore, the local maximum hardness was generated at machined layer. The local maximum stress was caused by the superposition effect of residual stress distributions due to machining and welding. Moreover, these local maximum residual stress and hardness are exceeded critical value of SCC initiation. In order to clarify the effect of residual stress on SCC initiation, evaluation including manufacturing processes is important. (author)

  16. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  17. Parametric studies for stress corrosion in Type 304 stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Stress corrosion tests were conducted in the General Electric Pipe Test Laboratory using 4-inch diameter welded pipe to evaluate the role of stress, oxygen level, cyclic loading rate, temperature, and material composition on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior of welded Type-304 stainless steel in high temperature, high purity water. The role of applied stress was evaluated in environments containing either 0.2 ppm or 8 ppm oxygen. The tests established that applied stress is the dominant variable among those studied. An increase in applied axial stress from 116 MPa (16.9 ksi) to 254 MPa (36.9 ksi) produced up to a 30 old decrease in lifetime. The change in oxygen level from 0.2 to 8 ppm produced up to a factor of four decrease in lifetime. The role of cyclic loading rate, investigated with only limited tests, was found to accelerate failure at high applied stresses. Finally one test was conducted at 232 0 C with no effect on pipe lifetime. The effects of the above parameters were defined using one heat of material. To compare the results with that of other susceptible heats, additional tests were conducted using material taken from an archive heat that had cracked in the field and from a second heat with lower carbon content that had not cracked in the field. The archive heat exhibited lifetimes that were consistent with the other test results. The low carbon material did not fail demonstrating its much reduced cracking tendency

  18. Stress corrosion cracking of nuclear reactor pressure vessel and piping steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speidel, M.O.; Magdowski, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive investigation of stress corrosion cracking of nuclear reactor pressure vessel and piping steels exposed to hot water. Experimental fracture mechanics results are compared with data from the literature and other laboratories. Thus a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge concerning stress corrosion crack growth rates is provided. Several sets of data confirm that 'fast' stress corrosion cracks with growth rates between 10 -8 and 10 -7 m/s and threshold stress intensities around 20 MN m -3/2 can occur under certain conditions. However, it appears possible that specific environmental, mechanical and metallurgical conditions which may prevail in reactors can result in significantly lower stress corrosion crack growth rates. The presently known stress corrosion crack growth rate versus stress intensity curves are discussed with emphasis on their usefulness in establishing safety margins against stress corrosion cracking of components in service. Further substantial research efforts would be helpful to provide a data base which permits well founded predictions as to how stress corrosion cracking in pressure vessels and piping can be reliably excluded or tolerated. It is emphasized, however, that the nucleation of stress corrosion cracks (as opposed to their growth) is difficult and may contribute substantially to the stress corrosion free service behaviour of the overwhelming majority of pressure vessels and pipes. (author)

  19. Round robin analysis on stress intensity factor of inner surface cracks in welded stainless steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Gi; Chang, Yoon Suk [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Maan Won [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs) were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  20. A Study on Effect of Local Wall Thinning in Carbon Steel Elbow Pipe on Elastic Stress Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Seo, Jae Seok

    2009-01-01

    Feeder pipes that connect the inlet and outlet headers to the reactor core in CANDU nuclear power plants are considered as safety Class 1 piping items. Therefore, fatigue of feeder pipes should be assessed at design stage in order to verify structural integrity during design lifetime. In accordance with the fatigue assessment result, cumulative usage factors of some feeder pipes have significant values. The feeder pipes made of SA-106 Grade B or C carbon steel have some elbows and bends. An active degradation mechanism for the carbon steel outlet feeder piping is local wall thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Inspection results from plants and metallurgical examinations of removed feeders indicated the presence of localized thinning in the vicinity of the welds in the lower portion of outlet feeders, such as Grayloc hub-to-bend weld, Grayloc hub-to-elbow weld, elbow-to-elbow, and elbow-to-pipe weld. This local wall thinning can cause increase of peak stress due to stress concentration by notch effect. The increase of peak stress results in increase of cumulative usage factor. However, present fatigue assessment doesn't consider the stress concentration due to local wall-thinning. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of local wall thinning on stress concentration. This study investigates the effect of local wall thinning geometry on stress concentration by performing finite element elastic stress analysis

  1. Numerical simulation of micro-crack occurring in pipe made of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzka, Daria

    2017-10-01

    Research works carried out regard to studies aiming at determination of the effect of cumulative duty operation on the development of micro-cracks in pipelines for transport of chemical substances. This paper presents results of computer simulations of a pipeline made of stainless steel. The model was investigated using the COMSOL Multiphysics environment. The object under study was divided into sub areas and then discretized according to the FEM method. The physico-chemical parameters of individual areas were defined based on measurement data. The main aim of research works was the modeling of acoustic emission wave, which is emitted in the vicinity of the tip of micro-crack as a result of its development. In order to solve the task, heterogeneity in the structure of the material, referred to damage/micro-crack, causing local stresses was assumed. The local stresses give rise to elastic waves, which propagate in the material in all directions. When the emission waves reach the boundaries of the pipe they are then transferred into acoustic waves and propagate in the surround air, until their natural attenuation. The numerical model takes into account the effect of high pressure (3.6 MPa) and negative temperature (-100°C) of the gas, transported inside the pipe. The influence of changes of these values in the range of ± 20% on the obtained results was investigated. The main contribution of the works is the multiphysical simulation model of transportation pipe made of steel, coupling structural mechanics, thermal conductivity and acoustic waves.

  2. Numerical simulation of micro-crack occurring in pipe made of stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotzka Daria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research works carried out regard to studies aiming at determination of the effect of cumulative duty operation on the development of micro-cracks in pipelines for transport of chemical substances. This paper presents results of computer simulations of a pipeline made of stainless steel. The model was investigated using the COMSOL Multiphysics environment. The object under study was divided into sub areas and then discretized according to the FEM method. The physico-chemical parameters of individual areas were defined based on measurement data. The main aim of research works was the modeling of acoustic emission wave, which is emitted in the vicinity of the tip of micro-crack as a result of its development. In order to solve the task, heterogeneity in the structure of the material, referred to damage/micro-crack, causing local stresses was assumed. The local stresses give rise to elastic waves, which propagate in the material in all directions. When the emission waves reach the boundaries of the pipe they are then transferred into acoustic waves and propagate in the surround air, until their natural attenuation. The numerical model takes into account the effect of high pressure (3.6 MPa and negative temperature (-100̊C of the gas, transported inside the pipe. The influence of changes of these values in the range of ± 20% on the obtained results was investigated. The main contribution of the works is the multiphysical simulation model of transportation pipe made of steel, coupling structural mechanics, thermal conductivity and acoustic waves.

  3. Effect of Pipe Flattening in API X65 Linepipe Steels Having Bainite vs. Ferrite/Pearlite Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singon Kang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of microstructure on pipe flattening response was assessed using two different commercially produced U-ing, O-ing, and expansion (UOE pipes from API X65 steels having either a bainitic microstructure (steel B or a ferrite/pearlite microstructure (steel FP. A four-point bending apparatus and distinctive procedure were used to minimize strain localization during flattening. The flattened specimens were sectioned at different positions through the thickness, and tensile tested in both the longitudinal (LD and transverse directions (TD to assess the through-thickness variation in properties. Yield strength (YS distributions in the LD show V-shaped profiles through thickness in both steels, whereas the YS in the TD nearest the outside diameter (OD surface is reduced. These variations in YS are due to the Bauschinger effect associated with the compressive flattening pre-strain. The uniform elongation (UE of steel FP is almost independent of specimen position through the thickness, but for steel B there is a substantial reduction of the UE at both the inside and outside diameter positions and this reduction is greater in the LD. This work confirms that flattened pipe mechanical properties exhibit an important dependence on their microstructure type and it is postulated that the flattening procedure also influences the mechanical properties.

  4. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  5. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J H; Caleyo, F; Hallen, J M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  6. Recent studies on the welding of austenitic stainless steel piping for BWR service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in stainless steel piping in BWR power plants has led to the development of various countermeasures. Replacement of the susceptible Type 304 stainless steel with Type 316 nuclear grade stainless steel has been done by a number of plants. In order to minimize radiation exposure to welding personnel, automatic GTA welding has been used wherever possible when we make the field welds. Studies have shown that the residual stresses in the welded butt joints are affected by the welding process, weld joint design and welding procedures. A new weld joint design has been developed which minimizes the volume of deposited metal while providing adequate access for welding. It also minimizes axial and radial shrinkage and the resulting residual stresses. Other countermeasures, which have been used, include stress modifications such as induction heating stress improvement (IHSI) and last pass heat sink welding (LPHSW). It has been shown that these remedies must be process adjusted to account for the welding process employed. In some cases where UT cracking indication have been detected or where through wall cracking has occurred, weld surfacing has been used to extend life. A further approach to preventing IGSCC in the weld HAZ has been through improvement of the water chemistry by injecting hydrogen to reduce the oxygen level and by keeping the impurity level low

  7. 78 FR 72863 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order AGENCY...) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of net... reasonably foreseeable time.\\3\\ \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3...

  8. 78 FR 5170 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... International Trade Co., Ltd., Weifang East Steel Pipe Co., Ltd., WISCO & CRM Wuhan Material & Trade., Wuxi... relevant entries during this review period. Failure to comply with this requirement could result in the.... Failure to comply with the regulations and terms of an APO is a violation which is subject to sanction...

  9. 75 FR 20342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... covered in this review, but was covered in a previous review or the original less-than-fair-value (LTFV... investigation. See Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Non- Alloy Steel Pipe... for framing and support members for reconstruction or load-bearing purposes in the construction...

  10. 76 FR 78614 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-810, A-583-815] Welded ASTM A-312... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea (Korea... December 30, 1992, the Department published the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless...

  11. 77 FR 18266 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-865-867 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. DATES: Effective Date: March...

  12. 76 FR 5205 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United... Thailand. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant to..., Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  13. 75 FR 60814 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United... Thailand. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to section... Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant to section 751...

  14. 76 FR 78615 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ...-810] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab..., the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), The United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the Socialist Republic... Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

  15. 77 FR 64473 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY... Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''). DATES: Effective Date: October 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Sultanate of Oman (``GSO'') on April 5, April 20, and May 10, 2012. We received the GSO's responses...

  16. 76 FR 72164 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...-811] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab... Emirates, and Vietnam), or Angelica Mendoza (Oman), AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import Administration... Sultanate of Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam...

  17. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... amended (``the Act''), that an industry in the United States is threatened with material injury by reason... case is based on the threat of material injury and is not accompanied by a finding that injury would... Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

  18. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand Determinations On... fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1...

  19. Characterization of bond line discontinuities in a high-Mn TWIP steel pipe welded by HF-ERW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gitae; Kim, Bongyoon; Kang, Yongjoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heewoong [RD Team, Husteel, 131 Bugokgongdan-ro, Songak-eup, Dangjin-si, Chungnam 31721 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changhee, E-mail: chlee@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the microstructure and defects in a high-frequency electrical resistance welded (HF-ERW) pipe of high-Mn twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel were characterized. The microstructure of the base metal and the bond line were examined using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The features of the bond line were similar to those of conventional steel. Simultaneously, the circumferential ductility was evaluated via a flaring test. It was concluded that the deterioration of the circumferential ductility in a high-Mn TWIP steel pipe was caused by irregular shaped oxide defects and a penetrator that had been formed during welding. Specifically, the penetrator, which is composed of MnO and Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, was found to be the most influential on the circumferential ductility of the welded pipe. The penetrator was analyzed using both an electron probe micro analyzer and transmission electron microscopy, and the formation sequence of the penetrator was evaluated. - Highlights: •This study focused on applying the HF-ERW process to the seam welding of expandable pipe using TWIP steels. •For improvement of the circumferential ductility, deterioration factors were characterized. •Penetrator which would mainly deteriorate the circumferential ductility consisted of round MnO and Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. •Metallurgical evidence of existing theory regarding the mechanism of defect formation during the HF-ERW was characterized.

  20. 78 FR 34342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Mexico, and Venezuela and... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (reseller policy). This clarification... antidumping duties in accordance with the reseller policy. Cash Deposit Requirements The following cash...

  1. 76 FR 49437 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Mexico, and Venezuela and Amendment... 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). Because ``as entered'' liquidation instructions do not... assessment'' regulation on May 6, 2003. See Assessment Policy Notice. This clarification will apply to POR...

  2. Validation and Application of Computed Radiography (CR) Tangential Technique for Wall Thickness Measurement of 10 Inch Carbon Steel Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Amry Amin Abas; Arshad Yassin; Sukhri Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas industry requires Non Destructive Testing (NDT) to ensure each components, in-service and critical, are fit-for-purpose. Pipes that are used to transfer oil or gas are amongst the critical component that needs to be well maintained and inspected. Typical pipe discontinuities that may lead to unintended incidents are erosion, corrosion, dent, welding defects, etc. Wall thickness assessment, with Radiography Testing (RT) is normally used to inspect such discontinuities and can be performed with two approaches; (a) center line beam tangential technique (b) offset from the centre pipe tangential technique. The latter is a method of choice for this work because of the pipe dimension and limited radiation safe distance at site. Two successful validation approaches (simulation and experimental) were performed to determine the probability of successfulness before the actual RT work with tangential technique is carried out. The pipe was a 10 inch diameter in-service wrapped carbon steel. A 9 Ci Ir-192 and white Imaging Plate (IP) were used as a gamma radiation source and to record the radiographic image. Result of this work suggest that RT with tangential technique for 10 inch wrapped in-service carbon steel pipe can be successfully performed. (author)

  3. An assessment of composite repair system in offshore platform for corroded circumferential welds in super duplex steel pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Barros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a composite repair system in severely corroded circumferential welds in super duplex stainless steel pipes as a preventive measure against the premature corrosion damage at the welds. Artificial defects were fabricated on the super duplex steel tube in order to reproduce the localized corrosion damage defects found in real welded joints. Three kinds of through thickness defects were considered: 25%, 50% and 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. The performance of the repaired pipe was assessed by hydrostatic tests as per ISO 24817 standard. The results showed that the composite repair system can sustain the designed failure pressure even for the pipe damaged with through-wall defect up to 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. Hence, the composite repair system can be used as a preliminary tool to protect the unexpected or premature failure at the welds and maintain an adequate level of mechanical strength for a given operating pressure. This composite repair system can assure that the pipe will not leak until a planned maintenance of the line. Nevertheless, further work is still desirable to improve the confidence in the long-term performance of bonded composite

  4. Residual-stresses in austenitic stainless-steel primary coolant pipes and welds of pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, F.; Leggatt, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Surface and through thickness residual stress measurements were performed on an aged cast austenitic-ferritic stainless steel pipe and on an orbital TIG weld representative of those of primary coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors. An abrasive-jet hole drilling method and a block removal and layering method were used. Surface stresses and through thickness stress profiles are strongly dependent upon heat treatments, machining and welding operations. In the aged cast stainless steel pipe, stresses ranged between -250 and +175 MPa. On and near the orbital TIG weld, the outside surface of the weld was in tension both in the axial and hoop directions, with maximum values reaching 420 MPa in the weld. On the inside surface, the hoop stresses were compressive, reaching -300 MPa. However, the stresses in the axial direction at the root of the weld were tensile within 4 mm depth from the inside surface, locally reaching 280 MPa. (author)

  5. Effect of vacuum arc melting/casting parameters on shrinkage cavity/piping of austenitic stainless steel ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, J.; Feroz, M.; Sarwar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Shrinkage cavity/piping at the end of the solidified ingot of steels is one of the most common casting problem in 316L austenitic stainless steel ingot, when consumable electrode is melted and cast in a water-cooled copper mould by vacuum arc re-melting furnace. In present study an effort has been made to reduce the size of shrinkage cavity/ piping by establishing the optimum value of hot topping process parameters at the end of the melting process. It is concluded that the shrinkage cavity/piping at the top of the solidified ingot can be reduced to minimum by adjusting the process parameters particularly the melting current density. (author)

  6. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backfish, Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  7. Guided Wave Sensing In a Carbon Steel Pipe Using a Laser Vibrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Toledo, Abelardo; Salazar Soler, Jordi; Chávez Domínguez, Juan Antonio; García Hernández, Miguel Jesús; Turó Peroy, Antoni

    2010-05-01

    Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques have achieved a great development during the last decades as a valuable tool for material characterization, manufacturing control and structural integrity tests. Among these tools, the guided wave technology has been rapidly extended because it reduces inspection time and costs compared to the ordinary point by point testing in large structures, as well as because of the possibility of inspecting under insulation and coating conditions. This fast development has motivated the creation of several inspection and material characterization systems including different technologies which can be combined with this technique. Different measurements systems based on laser techniques have been presented in order to inspect pipes, plates and diverse structures. Many of them are experimental systems of high cost and complexity which combine the employment of a laser for generation of waves in the structure and an interferometer for detection. Some of them employ air-coupled ultrasound generation transducers, with high losses in air and which demand high energy for exciting waves in materials of high stiffness. The combined employment of a commercial vibrometer system for Lamb wave sensing in plates has been successfully shown in the literature. In this paper we present a measurement system based on the combined employment of a piezoelectric wedge transducer and a laser vibrometer to sense guided acoustic waves in carbon steel pipes. The measurement system here presented is mainly compounded of an angular wedge transducer, employed to generate the guided wave and a commercial laser vibrometer used in the detection process. The wedge transducer is excited by means of a signal function generator whose output signal has been amplified with a power signal amplifier. A high precision positioning system is employed to place the laser beam at different points through the pipe surface. The signal detected by the laser vibrometer system is

  8. Application of Leak Before Break concept in 316LN austenitic steel pipes welded using 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunto, Gabriel Giannini de

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a study of application of the Leak Before Break (LBB) concept, usually applied in nuclear power plants, in a pipe made from steel AISI type 316LN welded a coated electrode AISI type 316L. LBB concept is a criterion based on fracture mechanics analysis to show that a crack leak, present in a pipe, can be detected by leak detection systems, before this crack reaches a critical size that results in pipe fail. In the studied pipe, tensile tests and Ramberg-Osgood analyses were performed, as well as fracture toughness tests for obtaining the material resistance curve J-R. The tests were performed considering the base metal, weld and heat affected zone (HAZ), at the same operating temperatures of a nuclear power plant. For the mechanical properties found in these tests, load limit analyses were performed in order to determine the size of a crack which could cause a detectable leakage and the critical crack size, considering failure by plastic collapse. For the critical crack size found in the weld, which is the region that presented the lowest toughness, Integral J and tearing modulus T analyses were performed, considering failure by tearing instability. Results show a well-defined behavior between the base metal, HAZ and weld zones, where the base metal has a high toughness behavior, the weld has a low toughness behavior and the HAZ showed intermediate mechanical properties between the base metal and the weld. Using the PICEP software, the leak rate curves versus crack size and also the critical crack size were determined by considering load limit analysis. It was observed that after a certain crack size, the leak rate in base metal is much higher than for the HAZ and the weld, considering the same crack length. This occurs because in the base metal crack, it is expected that the crack grows in a more rounded form due to its higher toughness. The lowest critical crack size was found for the base metal presenting circumferential cracks. For the

  9. Stress corrosion evaluation on stainless steel 304 pipes in Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Inside the frame of the project IAEA/MEX-41044 'Stress corrosion as a starting event of accidents in nuclear plants', and of the institutional project IA-252 under the same name, it was required from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Plant, material equivalent to the one employed in the piping of the primary recycling system. Laguna Verde Nuclear Plant granted two tracks of tubes, that could be used to substitute the ones that are in operation, as is the tube SA-358TP304 CL-QC with transversal welding, designated as ER-316-LQA. According to the report entitles 'Revision of the operational experience related to corrosion in the nuclear plants' it was found that the stress corrosion is the principal mechanism of corrosion present in the nuclear plants. Previous records indicate that sensitized stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion in testings of constant loading in sea water (3.5% of chlorides approximately) to 80 Centigrade and to 80% of the limit of conveyance and that a solution of 22% of NaCl to 90 Centigrade, produces cracking due to stress corrosion in highly sensitized steels, in tests of speed of slow extension (SSRT), to a speed of 1x10 -6 s -1 . Daniels reports that there is a direct relation between the speed limit of detection of the SSRT test and the concentration of chlorides, for stainless steels tested to 100 Centigrade. The minimum detection speed of susceptibility to stress corrosion for solution to 20% of NaCl, is of 1x10 -7 s -1 . Taking into account these considerations, the employment of a solution with 22% of NaCl to 90 Centigrade to a speed of 1x10 -6 s -1 seems a good choice for the evaluation of stainless steel. (Author)

  10. Study on the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded steel pipes under bending load using diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Nico; Nitschke-Pagel, Thomas; Dilger, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This research is dedicated to the experimental investigation of the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded pipes due to quasi-static bending loads. Ferritic-pearlitic steel pipes are welded with two passes, resulting in a characteristic residual stress state with high tensile residual stresses at the weld root. Also, four-point bending is applied to generate axial load stress causing changes in the residual stress state. These are determined both on the outer and inner surfaces of the pipes, as well as in the pipe wall, using X-ray and neutron diffraction. Focusing on the effect of tensile load stress, it is revealed that not only the tensile residual stresses are reduced due to exceeding the yield stress, but also the compressive residual stresses for equilibrium reasons. Furthermore, residual stress relaxation occurs both parallel and perpendicular to the applied load stress.

  11. Applications of the essay at slow deformation velocity in pipes of stainless steel AISI-304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora R, L.; Mora R, T. De la

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays is carried out research related with the degradation mechanisms of structures, systems and/or components in the nuclear power plants, since many of the involved processes are those responsible for the dependability of these, of the integrity of the components and of the aspects of safety. The purpose of this work, was to determine the grade of susceptibility to the corrosion of a pipe of Austenitic stainless steel AISI 304, in a solution of Na CI (3.5%) to the temperatures of 60 and 90 C, in two different thermal treatments - 1. - Sensitive 650 C by 4 hours and cooled in water. 2. Solubilized to 1050 C by 1 hour and cooled in water

  12. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of carbon steel piping material subjected to single overload/under-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Punit; Tripathi, R.; Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, V.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR) behaviour after single over-load/ under-load event on carbon steel piping material. The tests have been carried out on standard Compact Tension (CT) specimens. The effect of different crack length to width ratio (a/W) of specimen and overload/under-load ratios on FCGR have been studied. The studies have shown significant reduction in FCG rate after overload event. The strain field has been measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique ahead of the crack tip to quantify the plastic zone size due to overload and constant amplitude load. In addition, plastic zone calculations have also been carried out using 3D finite element analyses for the prediction of post overload FCGR/ life. The predicted FCGR are in agreement with experimentally determined FCGR. (author)

  13. Random cyclic constitutive models of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2004-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the random cyclic constitutive relations of a new pipe stainless steel, 0Cr18Ni10Ti, by an incremental strain-controlled fatigue test. In the test, it is verified that the random cyclic constitutive relations, like the wide recognized random cyclic strain-life relations, is an intrinsic fatigue phenomenon of engineering materials. Extrapolating the previous work by Zhao et al, probability-based constitutive models are constructed, respectively, on the bases of Ramberg-Osgood equation and its modified form. Scattering regularity and amount of the test data are taken into account. The models consist of the survival probability-strain-life curves, the confidence strain-life curves, and the survival probability-confidence-strain-life curves. Availability and feasibility of the models have been indicated by analysis of the present test data

  14. Novel manufacturing method by using stainless steel pipes expanded into aluminium profiles for the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dremel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dremel@iter.org; Boissin, Jean-Claude; Déléage, Vincent; Quinn, Eamonn; Pearce, Robert

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes the novel engineering and manufacturing solution of stainless steel pipe expansion into aluminium extrusion profiles for use at cryogenic temperatures up to 400 K. This fabrication method will be used for the thermal radiation shields and the cryopanels of the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps. The use of stainless steel pipes expanded into aluminium extrusion profiles is a solution that combines standard stainless steel welding procedures for the manifolds of the cooling circuits with extended aluminium structures taking advantage of the high thermal conductivity of aluminium. The cryogenic cooling circuits of the pump are a first confinement barrier in the ITER vacuum vessel and the risk of a leakage needs to be minimized as far as possible. The expansion method avoids the need of joints of dissimilar materials in the primary confinement barrier. The fabrication method and results of the prototyping of full scaled components for the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps are outlined in this paper.

  15. A fatigue initiation parameter for gas pipe steel submitted to hydrogen absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelle, J; Gilgert, J; Pluvinage, G [LaBPS - Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz et Universite Paul Verlaine Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France)

    2010-01-15

    Fatigue initiation resistance has been determined on API 5L X52 gas pipe steel. Tests have been performed on Roman Tile (RT) specimen and fatigue initiation was detected by acoustic emission. A comparison between specimens electrolytically charged with hydrogen and specimens without hydrogen absorption were made and it has been noted that fatigue initiation time is reduced of about 3 times when hydrogen embrittlement occurs. It has been proposed to use the concept of Notch Stress Intensity Factor as parameter to describe the fatigue initiation process. Due to the fact that hydrogen is localised in area with high hydrostatic pressure, definitions of local effective stress and distance have been modified when hydrogen is absorbed. This modification can be explained by existence of a ductile-brittle transition with hydrogen concentration. The fatigue initiation resistance curve allows that to determine a threshold for large number of cycles of fatigue non initiation. This parameter introduced in a Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) provides supplementary information about defect nocivity in gas pipes: a non-critical defect can be detected as dormant or not dormant defect i.e., as non propagating defect. (author)

  16. Experimental analysis of austenitic stainless steel straight pipes and elbows under pressure and moment loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrou, A.; Prost, J.P.; Delidais, M.

    1983-08-01

    In order to avoid undesirable plastic response in PWR primary system components, tests were performed on 1/10 scale pipes and elbows made from AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. L/D ratios were from 0.56 to 4.50 mm, arc angles of elbows were 30 0 , 45 0 , 60 0 and 90 0 . Pipes were subjected to bending moments at 3 internal pressure levels. They were tested to determine the mode of failure and served as a reference for elbows. Elbows were subjected to in-plane (closing and opening) and out-of-plane bending moments, at 3 pressure and 2 temperature levels. During these tests, loadings and displacements of components were monitored. Ovalisation of sections was measured regularly. The experimental plastic collapse moment corresponding to excessive deformation was compared to the maximum allowable moment under Design conditions. The experimental plastic instability moment considered as a limit for functional capability was compared to the maximum allowable moment for level C and D service limits

  17. Analysis of noncoplanar pressurized laminations in X2 steel pipes by non-linear finite element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla (Mexico). Dept. de Posgrado; Gonzalez, Jorge L.; Hallen, Jose M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking is of great interest in the mechanical integrity assessment of sour gas pipelines. Multiple stepwise cracks with internal pressure called laminations are often observed in pipelines and their interaction and coalescence may significantly affect the residual strength of the pipes. In this work, the interacting fields of non coplanar pressurized laminations in the wall of a pipe under pressure are analyzed by non-lineal finite element, considering an isotropic hardening law and the real tensile properties of the X52 steel. The results are presented as the evolution of the stress fields in the interlaminar region as a function of the pressure inside the laminations. It is found that for two approaching stepwise laminations the critical pressure follows a hyperbolic type law, thus the effect of the lamination length is principal for greater lengths and for shorter lengths the effect is minimum. The critical pressure is defined as pressure inside the lamination that causes plastification of the interlaminar region. (author)

  18. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  19. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube: Voice of the Dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a “Hummer” and as a musical instrument, the “Voice of the Dragon.” The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  20. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube : voice of the dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a "Hummer" and as a musical instrument, the "Voice of the Dragon." The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  1. Corrosion resistance of ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) seam welds as compared to metal base in API 5L steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velasquez, Jorge L.; Godinez Salcedo, Jesus G.; Lopez Fajardo, Pedro [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of ERW seam welds and the base metal in API 5L X70 steel pipes was evaluated by Tafel tests. The procedure was according to ASTM G3 standard. The study was completed with metallographic and chemical characterization of the tested zones, that is, the welded zone and the base metal away of the weld. All tests were made on the internal surface of the pipe in order to assess the internal corrosion of an in-service pipeline made of the API 5L X70 steel. The test solution was acid brine prepared according to NACE Publications 1D182 and 1D196. The results showed that the ERW seam weld corrodes as much as three times faster than the base material. This behavior is attributed to a more heterogeneous microstructure with higher internal energy in the ERW seam weld zone, as compared to the base metal, which is basically a ferrite pearlite microstructure in a normalized condition. This result also indicates that pipeline segments made of ERW steel pipe where the seam weld is located near or at the bottom of the pipe are prone to a highly localized attack that may form channels of metal loss if there is water accumulation at the bottom of the pipeline. (author)

  2. Surface melting technique of small diameter stainless steel pipe by means of yttrium aluminium garnet laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katahira, Fujito; Hirano, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuribayashi, Munetaka; Umemoto, Tadahiro

    1994-01-01

    A new method of surface melting by using a high power yttrium aluminium garnet laser was developed. This method is applicable to a long distance and narrow space, because of the good accessibility of the laser beam through optical fibre.A desensitization of sensitized type 304 stainless steel pipe was demonstrated by using this technique. A melted layer of thickness approximately 200μm had a very finite solidification structure, which contained approximately 1.5% δ-ferrite. The average chemical composition of this layer was almost the same as that of type 304 stainless steel, and a band of 300μm thickness under the melted layer underwent solution heat treatment (SHT).As a result of such surface melting, the melted layer exhibited superior resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Since the SHT layer is highly resistant to IGSCC generally, it may be possible to improve the IGSCC resistance of base metal to a comparatively deep extent (500μm from the surface) by this technique. ((orig.))

  3. Surface melting technique of small diameter stainless steel pipe by means of yttrium aluminium garnet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Fujito (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Hirano, Kenji (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Tanaka, Yasuhiro (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Yoshida, Kazuo (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Kuribayashi, Munetaka (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Umemoto, Tadahiro (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan))

    1994-12-01

    A new method of surface melting by using a high power yttrium aluminium garnet laser was developed. This method is applicable to a long distance and narrow space, because of the good accessibility of the laser beam through optical fibre.A desensitization of sensitized type 304 stainless steel pipe was demonstrated by using this technique. A melted layer of thickness approximately 200[mu]m had a very finite solidification structure, which contained approximately 1.5% [delta]-ferrite. The average chemical composition of this layer was almost the same as that of type 304 stainless steel, and a band of 300[mu]m thickness under the melted layer underwent solution heat treatment (SHT).As a result of such surface melting, the melted layer exhibited superior resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Since the SHT layer is highly resistant to IGSCC generally, it may be possible to improve the IGSCC resistance of base metal to a comparatively deep extent (500[mu]m from the surface) by this technique. ((orig.))

  4. Sensitivity of the magnetization curves of different austenitic stainless tube and pipe steels to mechanical fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niffenegger, M.; Leber, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    In meta-stable austenitic stainless steels, fatigue is accompanied by a partial strain-induced transformation of paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite [G.B. Olsen, M. Cohen, Kinetics of strain induced martensite nucleation, Metall. Trans. 6 (1975) 791-795]. The associated changes of magnetic properties as the eddy current impedance, magnetic permeability or the remanence field may serve as an indication for the degree of fatigue and therefore the remaining lifetime of a component, even though the exact causal relationship between martensite formation and fatigue is not fully understood. However, measuring these properties by magnetic methods may be limited by the low affinity for strain-induced martensite formation. Thus other methods have to be found which are able to detect very small changes of ferromagnetic contents. With this aim the influence of cyclic strain loading on the magnetization curves of the austenitic stainless tube and pipe steels TP 321, 347, 304L and 316L is analysed in the present paper. The measured characteristic magnetic properties, which are the saturation magnetization, residual magnetization, coercive field and the field dependent permeability (AC-magnetization), are sensitive to fatigue and the corresponding material changes (martensitic transformation). In particular, the AC-magnetization was found to be very sensitive to small changes of the amount of strain induced martensite and therefore also to the degree of fatigue. Hence we conclude that applying magnetic minor loops are promising for the non-destructive evaluation of fatigue in austenitic stainless steel, even if a very small amount of strain induced martensite is formed

  5. An experience with in-service fabrication and inspection of austenitic stainless steel piping in high temperature sodium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@igcar.gov.in; Laha, K.; Sakthy, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Procedure for changing 304L SS pipe to 316L SS in sodium loop has been established. • Hot leg made of 304L SS was isolated from existing cold leg made of 316LN SS. • Innovative welding was used in joining the new 316L SS pipe with existing 316LN SS. • The old components of 304L SS piping have been integrated with the new piping. - Abstract: A creep testing facility along with dynamic sodium loop was installed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India to assess the creep behavior of fast reactor structural materials in flowing sodium. Type 304L austenitic stainless steel was used in the low cross section piping of hot-leg whereas 316LN austenitic stainless steel in the high cross section cold-leg of the sodium loop. The intended service life of the sodium loop was 10 years. The loop has performed successfully in the stipulated time period. To enhance its life time, it has been decided to replace the 304L piping with 316L piping in the hot-leg. There were more than 300 welding joints involved in the integration of cold-leg with the new 316L hot-leg. Continuous argon gas flow was maintained in the loop during welding to avoid contamination of sodium residue with air. Several innovative welding procedures have been adopted for joining the new hot-leg with the existing cold-leg in the presence of sodium residue adopting TIG welding technique. The joints were inspected for 100% X-ray radiography and qualified by performing tensile tests. The components used in the discarded hot-leg were retrieved, cleaned and integrated in the renovated loop. A method of cleaning component of sodium residue has been established. This paper highlights the in-service fabrication and inspection of the renovation.

  6. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingo, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping

  7. Drop Weight Impact Behavior of Al-Si-Cu Alloy Foam-Filled Thin-Walled Steel Pipe Fabricated by Friction Stir Back Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Yukiko; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Al-Si-Cu alloy ADC12 foam-filled thin-walled stainless steel pipes, which exhibit metal bonding between the ADC12 foam and steel pipe, were fabricated by friction stir back extrusion. Drop weight impact tests were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and mechanical properties of the foam-filled pipes during dynamic compression tests, which were compared with the results of static compression tests. From x-ray computed tomography observation, it was confirmed that the fabricated foam-filled pipes had almost uniform porosity and pore size distributions. It was found that no scattering of the fragments of collapsed ADC12 foam occurred for the foam-filled pipes owing to the existence of the pipe surrounding the ADC12 foam. Preventing the scattering of the ADC12 foam decreases the drop in stress during dynamic compression tests and therefore improves the energy absorption properties of the foam.

  8. Method of vertically and horizontally cutting steel pipe piles and removing them based on the development of a steel pipe pile vertically cutting machine; Kokanko tatehoko setsudanki no kaihatsu ni yoru kochi chubu no juo setsudan tekkyo koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-07-25

    A machine for vertically cutting steel pipe piles has newly been developed for the purpose of removing the end portions the shore protection steel pipe piles which interfere with the shield tunneling work in the Ohokagawa River tunneling section on the Minato Mirai 21 Line. This paper reports the development of the machine for vertically cutting steel pipe piles, and a method of cutting the shield tunneling work hindering piles under the ground by using this machine. The obstacle-constituting portions of the piles are removed by destroying the copings, excavating the interior of the piles to make the same hollow so that a cutting machine can be inserted, and cutting the piles vertically and horizontally. The basic structure of the cutting machine comprises a lower cutting unit for making forward and backward and upward and downward movements of a cutter, and an upper movable unit for controlling the rotation of the cutting unit. The cutting of a pile is done by projecting the cutter by a cylinder the base of which is joined to a cutter driver, and then moving the rotating cutter upward. The amounts of movements of these parts are detected by sensors, and an arbitrary range of the underground portion of a pile can be cut by a remote control operation. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Local microstructures, Hardness and mechanical properties of a stainless steel pipe-welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carefully performed into the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties of the three zones (the base metal, heat affecting zone and weld metal) of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-welded joint. The local microstructures are observed by a metallurgical test and a surface replica technology, the local hardness values are measures by a random Vickers hardness test, and the local mechanical properties are characterized by the Ramberg-Osgood and modified Ramberg-Osgood stress-stain relations. The investigation reveals that there are significant differences of the three zones in the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the three zones in the local microstructure, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the weld metal. The weld metal exhibits the largest heterogeneity of local microstructures and monotonic mechanical properties, and the largest scatter of local hardness values. It is necessary to consider these difference and introduce the reliability method to model the scatter in the pipe analysis. In addition, it is verified that a columnar grain structure, which is made up of matrix-rich δ ferrite bands, can characterize the weld metal and the distance between the neighboring rich δ ferrite bands is an appropriate measurement of the columnar grain structure. This measurement is in accordance with the transition point between the microstructural short crack and physical small crack stages, which are generally used for characterizing the short fatigue crack behavior of materials. This indicates that the microstructure controls the fatigue damage character of the present material

  10. Influence of structure on static cracking resistance and fracture of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, N. A.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The static cracking resistance of a number of welded joints made from pipe steels of K60 strength class has been determined. It has been established that the deformation parameter CTOD varies significantly at identical parameters of weldability of steels. The character of fracture has been investigated and the zone of local brittleness of welded joints has been studied. It has been shown that the ability of a metal to resist cracking is determined by the austenite grain size and by the bainite morphology in the region of overheating in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint.

  11. The influence of repeated loading on work of the steel fiber concrete drainage trays and pipes on the roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriichuk Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The drainage system is one of the components of the road design. The condition of the subgrade and pavement depends on its effectiveness. The main structural elements of the drainage system on the roads are gutters and pipes. They are made of concrete or reinforced concrete. Under the influence of climatic factors and fluctuations of the vibration caused by the vehicles movement on the surface, it occurs destruction: formation of cracks, potholes, husking of concrete, destruction of protective layer of concrete, etc. It should be noted that these structures perceive the dynamic and thermal effects. The low fracture materials toughness poses the issue of searching ways of its increase. One solution of this problem is the use of dispersion-reinforced concrete gutters and pipes. The article presents the results of research strength, crack resistance and deformability of gutters and pipes using steel fiber reinforced concrete under the action of repeated loads

  12. 77 FR 64478 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ....D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.148 inch wall thickness (gage 9) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.500 inch O.D. and 0.203 inch wall thickness... investigation is Zenith Birla (India) Limited (previously known as Zenith Steel Pipes and Industries Ltd...

  13. Crack Resistance of Welded Joints of Pipe Steels of Strength Class K60 of Different Alloying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The crack resistance of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60 and different alloying systems is studied. The parameter of the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) is shown to be dependent on the size of the austenite grains and on the morphology of bainite in the superheated region of the heat-affected zone of the weld. The crack resistance is shown to be controllable due to optimization of the alloying system.

  14. A mechanism for corrosion product deposition on the carbon steel piping in the residual heat removal system of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Chiba, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Ohsumi, Katsumi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ishizawa, Noboru

    2002-01-01

    The dose rate of the residual heat removal (RHR) piping has been considered to be caused by accumulation of insoluble (crud) radioactive corrosion products on carbon steel surfaces. Soft shutdown procedures (i.e., plant shutdown with moderate coolant temperature reduction rate) used to be applied to reduce crud radioactivity release from the fuel surface, but these are no longer used because of the need for shorter plant shutdown times. In order to apply other suitable countermeasures to reduce RHR dose rate, assessment of plant data, experiments on deposition of crud and ion species on carbon steel, and mass balance evaluation of radioactive corrosion products based on plant and laboratory data were carried out and the following findings were made. (1) Deposits of ion species on carbon steel surfaces of the RHR piping was much more numerous than for crud. (2) Ion species accumulation behavior on RHR piping, which is temperature dependent, can be evaluated with the calculation model used for the dehydration reaction of corrosion products generated during the wet lay-up period. (3) Deposition amounts could be reduced to 1/2.5 when the starting RHR system operation temperature was lowered from 155degC to 120degC. (author)

  15. Application of laser cladding method to small-diameter stainless steel pipes in actual nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atago, Y.; Yamadera, M.; Tsuji, H.; Shiraiwa, T.; Kanno, M.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, to prevent stress corrosion cracking (SCC) the material of stainless steel (Type 304), a laser cladding method which produces a highly corrosion-resisting coating (cladding) to be formed on the surface of the material was developed. This is applicable to a long distance and narrow space, because of the good accessibility of the YAG (Yttrium-Aluminum Garnet) laser beam that can be transmitted through an optical fiber. In this method, a paste mixed metallic powder and heating resistive organic solvent is firstly placed on the inner surface of a small pipe and then a YAG laser beam transmitted through an optical fiber is irradiated to the paste, which will be melted and formed a clad subsequently, which is excellent in corrosion resistance. Finally, it can be achieved further resistance against the SCC due to the clad layer formed thus on the surface of the material. Recently, this Laser Cladding method was practically and successfully applied to the actual BWR Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. This report introduces the laser cladding technique, the equipments developed for practical application in the field

  16. In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)

  17. Effect of length of thinning area on the failure behavior of carbon steel pipe containing a defect of wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Chi Yong

    2003-01-01

    The present study performed pipe failure tests using 102 mm-Sch. 80 carbon steel pipe with various simulated wall thinning defects, to investigate the effect of axial length of wall thinning and internal pressure on the failure behavior of pipe thinned by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The tests were conducted under loading conditions of four-point bending with and without internal pressure. The results showed that a failure mode of pipe with a defect depended on the magnitude of internal pressure and axial thinning length as well as stress type and thinning depth and circumferential angle. Both load carrying capability (LCC) and deformation capability (DC) were depended on stress type in the thinning area and dimensions of thinning defect. For applying tensile stress to the thinned area, the dependence of LCC on the axial length of wall thinning was determined by circumferential thinning angle, and the DC was proportionally increased with increase in axial length of wall thinning regardless of the circumferential angle. For applying compressive stress to thinned area, however, the LCC was decreased with increase in axial length of the thinned area. Also, the effect of internal pressure on failure behavior was characterized by failure mode of thinned pipe, and it promoted crack occurrence and mitigated a local buckling of the thinned area

  18. A simple computational method for predicting magnetic field in the vicinity of a three-phase underground cable with a fluid-filled steel-pipe enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.B.; Yang, X.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a simple computational method for predicting the magnetic field above ground, generated by an underground three-phase pipe-type cable. In the computation, an approximation is made to simplify the problem a Fourier series technique and an iterative procedure are employed to handle the nonlinear B-H characteristic of the steel pipe. To validate the computational method, measurements were made and the numerical results are compared with the measurement data. Also, data of magnetic fields generated by the pipe type cable are compared with those due to the cable in absence of the pipe. The advantages and disadvantages of this simple method are discussed

  19. Piping equipment; Materiel petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

  20. Improvement activities to soil stabilization near Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline crossing through an embankment over a corrugated drainage pipe, at Km 247 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Melhorias para estabilidade do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil em cruzamento de aterro sobre tubo de drenagem tipo ARMCO, no km 247 em Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Kemal Vieira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Cesar Augusto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Gerencia Regional Centro Oeste (CRGO)

    2005-07-01

    A hundred and seventy kilometers from Campo Grande city, on Mato Grosso do Sul State, the Brasil-Bolivia Gas Pipeline crosses a 8,5 meters high landfill, over a drainage systems made of a 2,8 meters of diameter corrugated pipe. This drainage pipe was installed to allow the drainage of the valley, and the landfill above it was built so the Gas pipeline could cross easier the 80 meters deep and 30 degree vertices valley. This paper illustrates the work tasks and solutions taken to monitor and guarantee the integrity of the drainage and landfill structures, as well as the integrity of the Gas Pipeline. Some of the work tasks illustrated are the investigation of the support conditions of the Gas Pipeline, the analysis of a drainage system under the pipeline, on a rocky soil, the analysis of the stability of the landfill, the construction of a gravity retaining walls and the monitoring of the deformations on the drainage pipe. (author)

  1. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  2. Numerical analysis of beam with sinusoidally corrugated webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Pieńko, Michał; Łagoda, GraŻyna

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents numerical tests results of the steel beam with sinusoidally corrugated web, which were performed in the Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2010. The analysis was preceded by laboratory tests including the beam's work under the influence of the four point bending as well as the study of material characteristics. Significant web's thickness and use of tools available in the software allowed to analyze the behavior of the plate girder as beam, and also to observe the occurrence of stresses in the characteristic element - the corrugated web. The stress distribution observed on the both web's surfaces was analyzed.

  3. The entire mean stress relaxation effects of 0Cr18Ni10Ti piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bing; Zhao Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean stress relaxation effects of the Chinese new piping material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel. Six sets of specimens are respectively fatigued under a strain-controlled mode with the six straining ratios (R ε ) of -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48 by an improved test method implied with an maximum likelihood statistical principle. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and, surprisingly, involves an entire mean stress relaxation. A challenge is then emerging to the traditional same treat of straining ratio and stressing ratio (R σ ) in fatigue analysis and assessment. There is still no effective method to describe this kind of relaxation. However the R ε effects can represent the relaxation effects appropriately by investigation on the material random cyclic stress-strain (σ-ε) relations and strain-life (ε-N) relations with different R ε . The intrinsic randomness of the responses is taken into account on a probabilistic sense. Significant differences are observed of the material cyclic responses under different R ε . For σ-ε relations, the R ε effects act as a decreasing trend to the stress amplitudes with the increasing survival probability and confidence. The strongest effect appears at R ε of 0.029, and a weaker one acts as R ε is far away from zero. For ε-N relations, R ε greater than zero exhibits a positive effect on the fatigue lives of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under a survival probability of 0.999 and a confidence of 95%, while a negative effect is exhibited in case of R ε less than zero. Present work indicates that systematic researches should be made to give a reasonable fatigue prediction in service on a basis of cyclic strain inspection of structures. (authors)

  4. Application of Lab View Software for Thinning Measurement of Steel Pipe Sample by Using Gamma Ray Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibisono; Sugiharto

    2004-01-01

    The computer program, namely scaling pipe has been constructed to support the work of radiation monitoring either utilizing of sealed or unsealed source as well. The paper describes the performance of that computer program which is able to display numerical data coming from rate-meter to become graphical data and its ability to store data in form of software file with text format. The stored file can be performed by other software therefore the data can be calculated and analyzed. This computer program has been applied to measure the thickness of steel pipe with diameter of 3 inch which is machined with the different of 0.1 mm for each 50 mm length of the pipe. In this research the gamma radiation originated from 200 mCi of 241 Am source has been passed through the center of the pipe and the dose rate at the opposite of the source is measured. The attenuation coefficient calculated from that measurement is 0.0944 mm -1 with the deviation factor of 44 cps/mm. (author)

  5. Development of Wall Thinning Distinction Method using the Multi-inspecting UT Data of Carbon Steel Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyeong Mo; Yun, Hun; Lee, Chan Kyoo [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    To manage the wall thinning of carbon steel piping in nuclear power plants, the utility of Korea has performed thickness inspection for some quantity of pipe components during refueling outages and determined whether repair or replacement after evaluating UT (Ultrasonic Test) data. When the existing UT data evaluation methods, such as Band, Blanket, PTP (Point to Point) Methods, are applied to a certain pipe component, unnecessary re-inspecting situations may be generated even though the component does not thinned. In those cases, economical loss caused by repeated inspection and problems of maintaining the pipe integrity followed by decreasing of newly inspected components may be generated. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) in USA has suggested several statistical methods, TPM (Total Point Method), LSS (Least Square Slope) Method, etc. to distinguish whether multiple inspecting components have thinned or not. This paper presents the analysis results for multiple inspecting components over three times based on both NAM (Near Area of Minimum) Method developed by KEPCO-E and C and the other methods suggested by EPRI.

  6. Detection of surface cracking in steel pipes based on vibration data using a multi-class support vector machine classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, S.; Braytee, A.; Ye, L.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we focused at the development and verification of a robust framework for surface crack detection in steel pipes using measured vibration responses; with the presence of multiple progressive damage occurring in different locations within the structure. Feature selection, dimensionality reduction, and multi-class support vector machine were established for this purpose. Nine damage cases, at different locations, orientations and length, were introduced into the pipe structure. The pipe was impacted 300 times using an impact hammer, after each damage case, the vibration data were collected using 3 PZT wafers which were installed on the outer surface of the pipe. At first, damage sensitive features were extracted using the frequency response function approach followed by recursive feature elimination for dimensionality reduction. Then, a multi-class support vector machine learning algorithm was employed to train the data and generate a statistical model. Once the model is established, decision values and distances from the hyper-plane were generated for the new collected data using the trained model. This process was repeated on the data collected from each sensor. Overall, using a single sensor for training and testing led to a very high accuracy reaching 98% in the assessment of the 9 damage cases used in this study.

  7. The characteristic investigation on narrow-gap TIG weld joint of heavy wall austenitic stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Deog Nam; Jung, In Cheol

    2003-01-01

    Although Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW or TIG welding) is considered as high quality and precision welding process, it also has demerit of low melting rate. Narrow-gap TIG welding which has narrow joint width reduces the groove volume remarkably, so it could be shorten the welding time and decrease the overall shrinkage in heavy wall pipe welding. Generally narrow-gap TIG welding is used as orbital welding process, it is important to select the optimum conditions for the automatic control welding. This paper looks at the application and metallurgical properties on narrow-gap TIG welding joint of heavy wall large austenitic stainless steel pipe to determine the deposition efficiency, the resultant shrinkage and fracture toughness. The fracture toughness depends slightly on the welding heat input

  8. Detection and sizing of large-scale cracks in centrifugally cast stainless steel pipes using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc, T.D.K.; Avioli, M.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Application of conventional ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been limited, mainly due to the anisotropy of the CCSS materials. Phenomena such as beam skewing and distortion are directly attributable to this anisotropy and cause severe difficulties in crack detection and sizing. To improve CCSS inspectability, the feasibility of using Lamb waves as the probing mechanism for detecting and characterizing a surface-breaking crack originating from the pipe interior surface is discussed. A similar research effort has been reported by Rokhlin who investigated the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations in thin sheets. Rokhlin and Adler also reported recently on the use of Lamb waves for evaluating spot welds. The motivation for using this probing mechanism derives from the recognition that the difficulties introduced by beam skewing, beam distortion, and high attenuation are circumvented, since Lamb waves are not bulk waves, but are resonant vibrational modes of a solid plate

  9. Comparison of fracture toughness values from an IPIRG-1 large-scale pipe system test and C(T) specimens on wrought TP304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.J.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.W.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Within the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, pipe system experiments involving dynamic loading with intentionally circumferentially cracked pipe were conducted. The pipe system was fabricated from 406-mm (16-inch) diameter Schedule 100 pipe, and the experiments were conducted at a pressure of 15.5 MPa (2,250 psi) and 288 C (550 F). The loads consisted of pressure, dead-weight, thermal expansion, inertia, and dynamic anchor motion. Significant instrumentation was used to allow the material fracture resistance to be calculated from these large-scale experiments. Three independent analyses were used to calculate the toughness directly from one of these pipe experiments. A comparison of the toughness values from the stainless steel base metal pipe experiment to standard quasi-static and dynamic C(T) specimen tests showed the pipe toughness value was significantly lower than that obtained from C(T) specimens. It is hypothesized that the cyclic loading from inertial stresses in this pipe system experiment caused local degradation of the material toughness. Such effects are not considered in current LBB or pipe flaw evaluation criteria

  10. Investigation of the ductile fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel plate, welds, and 4-inch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.; Hays, R.A.; Gudas, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral fracture toughness tests were performed on welded 304 stainless steel 2-inch plate and 4-inch diameter pipe. The 2-inch plate was welded using a hot-wire automatic gas tungsten arc process. The tests were performed at 550 0 F, 300 0 F and room temperature. The results of the J-integral tests indicate that the Jsub(Ic) of the base plate ranged from 4400 to 6100 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values for the tests performed at 300 0 F and room temperature were beyond the measurement capacity of the specimens and appear to indicate that Jsub(Ic) was greater than 8000 in lb/in 2 . The J-integral tests performed on the weld metal specimens indicate that the Jsub(Ic) values ranged from 930 to 2150 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values of the weld metal specimens tested at 300 0 F and room temperature were 2300 and 3000 in lbs/in 2 respectively. One HAZ specimen was tested at 550 0 F and found to have a Jsub(Ic) value of 2980 in lbs/in 2 which indicates that the HAZ is an average of the base metal and weld metal toughness. These test results indicate that there is a significant reduction in the initiation fracture toughness as a result of welding. The second phase of this task dealt with the fracture toughness testing of 4-inch diameter 304 stainless steel pipes containing a gas tungsten arc weld. The pipes were tested at 550 0 F in four point bending. Three tests were performed, two with a through wall flaw growing circumferentially and the third pipe had a part through radial flaw in combination with the circumferential flaw. These tests were performed using unloading compliance and d.c. potential drop crack length estimate methods. The results of these tests indicate that the presence of a complex crack (radial and circumferential) reduces in the initiation toughness and the tearing modulus of the pipe material compared to a pipe with only a circumferentially growing crack. (orig.)

  11. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... tube products (welded pipe and tube) from Turkey.\\2\\ The period of review is May 1, 2011, to April 30... A.S. (BMB) had reviewable sales during this period of review. DATES: As of June 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER...

  12. Acoustic emission reviling and danger level evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravin, Gregory; Muravin, Boris; Lezvinsky, Luidmila

    2000-01-01

    Breakdowns and catastrophic damage occurring during the operation of nuclear power stations pipelines cause substantial economic and social loss annually throughout the world. Stress corrosion, vibration, fatigue, erosion, water shock, dynamic load, construction defects/errors are the main causes of pipes failures. For these reasons and in view of the age of nuclear power station pipes, there is an increased interest in finding means to prevent potential pipe failures. Nevertheless, statistical data of pipe failures continues to show significant numbers of accidents mainly due to stress corrosion cracking (about 65-80% of total number). To this end, a complex of investigations was carried out for the reliable AE diagnosis of pipes undergone stress corrosion cracking. These include: finding AE indications (fingerprints) of flaws developing in the metal in original condition as well as in metal subjected to stress corrosion; preparing AE criteria for evaluating the danger level of defects. (author)

  13. Failure Analysis of End Grain Attack and Pit Corrosion in 316L Stainless Steel Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Un Bong; Nam, Sung Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Byung Hak; Shim, Jong Hun [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Hee [Oil and Gas Technology SK E and C, Junggu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Soo [National Forensic Service, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the cause of surface cracks and pit corrosion on 316L pipe. An End Grain Attack (EGA) as a kind of pit mechanism was conducted on the pipe surface. The early stage of the EGA may come from under-deposit of caustic-water formation compositions like Na+, K+, Ca+, and Mg+ etc. The under-deposit corrosion is caused by the corrosion layer on the pipe surface followed by crevice corrosion due to accumulation of Cl‒ or S‒ composition between the corrosion layer and the pipe surface. In the early stage, the EGA occurred in all grain boundaries beneath the under-deposit corrosion. In the later stage of EGA, almost all the early attacked grain boundaries stopped at a limited depth of about 10 µm. Meanwhile, only the smallest number of the attacked boundaries progressed into the pipe as pit corrosion and resulted in leak failure.

  14. Effect of Thermal Shock During Legionella Bacteria Removal on the Corrosion Properties of Zinc-Coated Steel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, Juliusz; Ryl, Jacek; Jazdzewska, Agata; Krakowiak, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct the failure analysis of a water-supply system made from zinc-coated steel. The observed corrosion process had an intense and complex character. The brownish deposits and perforations were present after 2-3 years of exploitation. The electrochemical study based on the Tafel polarization, corrosion potential monitoring, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with microscopic analysis via SEM and EDX were performed in order to identify the cause of such intense corrosion. The performed measurements allowed us to determine that thermal shock was the source of polarity-reversal phenomenon. This process had begun the corrosion of steel which later led to the formation of deposits and perforations in the pipes. The work includes appropriate action in order to efficiently identify the described corrosion threat.

  15. Burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipes subject to combined axial tension, internal pressure and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasebikan, B.A.; Akisanya, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipe is measured under combined internal pressure, external axial tension and elevated temperature up to 160 °C. The experimental results are compared with existing burst pressure prediction models. Existing models are found to provide reasonable estimate of the burst pressure at room temperature but significantly over estimate the burst pressure at elevated temperature. Increasing externally applied axial stress and elevated temperature reduces the pressure capacity. - Highlights: • The burst pressure of super duplex steel is measured under combined loading. • Effect of elevated temperature on burst pressure is determined. • Burst pressure decreases with increasing temperature. • Existing models are reliable at room temperature. • Burst strength at elevated temperature is lower than predictions

  16. The conservatism of the net-section stress criterion for the failure of cracked stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1991-01-01

    The failure of cracked stainless steel piping can be predicted by assuming that failure conforms to a net-section stress criterion, using as input an appropriate value for the critical net-section stress together with a knowledge of the anticipated loadings. The stresses at the cracked section are usually calculated via a purely elastic analysis based on the piping being uncracked. However because the piping is built-in at its ends into a larger component, this limits the amount of elastic follow-up and, consequently, use of the net-section stress approach in this manner can lead to conservative failure predictions. This paper quantifies the extent of this conservatism, and shows that it can be quite marked. There is an additional measure of conservatism due to the fact that unstable failure need not necessarily be associated with the onset of crack extension. A key parameter with regard to both these conservatisms is L EFF , a length parameter which is a measure of the degree of elastic follow-up in the system. (author)

  17. Ultrasound propagation in steel piping at electric power plant using clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler velocity-profile flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Wada, Sanehiro; Aritomi, Masanori; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2008-01-01

    Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rates of reactor feedwater. This flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of nuclear power reactors. Some other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profiles across the pipe cross sections. For the accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasonic entering the fluid should be carefully estimated by the theoretical approach. However, the evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward for the several reasons such as temperature gradient in the wedge or mode conversion at the interface between the wedge and pipe. In recent years, the simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation in steel piping and water, using the 3D-FEM simulation code and the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to the flow profile measurements in power plants with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter. (author)

  18. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.111 Design factor (F... street, or a railroad; (3) Is supported by a vehicular, pedestrian, railroad, or pipeline bridge; or (4...

  19. Influence of heat input and radius to pipe thickness ratio on the residual stresses in circumferential arc welded pipes of API X46 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmatzadeh, Majid; Moshayedi, Hessamoddin; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2017-01-01

    The present work aims to study residual stresses caused by circumferentially welding of two similar API X46 steel pipes by means of finite element modeling. Considering the metallurgical phase transformations and through thermal-mechanical uncoupled analysis, the 3D modeling was carried out by SYSWELD software. Materialistic thermal and mechanical properties of all phases were defined in terms of temperature as well as phase transformation properties. Residual stress was measured through hole-drilling method. The obtained results were used to verify the finite element model. By means of full factorial experiment designing method, effects of heat input and radius to pipe thickness ratio on maximum values of hoop and axial residual stresses were investigated. The effect of each factor was studied in 3 levels and by 9 experiments. Results of statistical analysis revealed that increase in heat input and radius-thickness ratio would lead to higher values of maximum hoop and axial residual stresses. However, interactions of high level of heat input and a low level of radius-thickness ratio increased inter-pass temperature and consequently caused a sudden raise in maximum values of residual stresses. - Highlights: • A FEM model was developed to simulate welding considering phase transformations. • The obtained residual stresses were validated by experiments. • Effect of heat input and radius-to-thickness ratio on residual stress were investigated. • Increasing heat input for 100% caused increasing hoop and axial residual stress until 200%. • Interaction of high heat input and low R/t causes a sudden increase in axial residual stresses.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  1. Numerical analysis of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbeck, Leszek [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics Piotrowo Street No. 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Paczos, Piotr [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics Jana Pawla IIStreet No. 24, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The strength problem of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending is presented.The beam are made of steel and formed by three mutually orthogonal corrugated layers. The finite element analysis (FEA) of the sandwich beam is performed with the use of the FEM system - ABAQUS. The relationship between the applied load and deflection in three-point bending is considered.

  2. A Failure Estimation Method of Steel Pipe Elbows under In-plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bub-Gyu Jeon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  3. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk [Seismic Simulation Tester Center, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Sik [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  4. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk; Kim, Nam Sik

    2017-01-01

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation

  5. Corrosion of pipe steel in CO2 containing impurities and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Spruijt, M.P.N.; Borys, M.

    2013-01-01

    CO2 flue gases acquired from different sources contain a significant amount of impurities and water, which are corrosive to the pipeline steel. To design the pipelines for large scale of CO2 flue gas transport, the corrosion of pipeline steels has to be investigated in the realistic conditions. In

  6. 77 FR 19192 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    .... See Memorandum to Susan H. Kuhbach, Director, Office 1 from David Layton, International Trade Analyst... Provision of Hot-Rolled Steel by the Steel Authority of India (``SAIL'') for Less Than Adequate Remuneration... the questions regarding land received at less than adequate remuneration, Zenith prevented us from...

  7. Studying the effect of elastic-plastic strain and hydrogen sulphide on the magnetic behaviour of pipe steels as applied to their testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povolotskaya Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports results of magnetic measurements made on samples of the 12GB pipe steel (strength group X42SS designed for producing pipes to be used in media with high hydrogen sulphide content, both in the initial state and after exposure to hydrogen sulphide, for 96, 192 and 384 hours under uniaxial elastic-plastic tension. At the stage of elastic deformation there is a unique correlation between the coercive force measured on a minor hysteresis loop in weak fields and tensile stress, which enables this parameter to be used for the evaluation of elastic stresses in pipes made of the 12 GB pipe steel under different conditions, including a hydrogen sulphide containing medium. The effect of the value of preliminary plastic strain, viewed as the initial stress-strain state, on the magnetic behaviour of X70 pipe steels under elastic tension and compression is studied. Plastic strain history affects the magnetic behaviour of the material during subsequent elastic deformation since plastic strain induces various residual stresses, and this necessitates taking into account the initial stress-strain state of products when developing magnetic techniques for the determination of their stress-strain parameters during operation.

  8. Experimental use of Line-X coated steel pipe piles, Clay Hill Bridge (#2157) replacement project over the Mousam River, Route 9/Western Avenue, Kennebunk, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Steel pipe piles used by MaineDOT for bridge construction are typically coated with a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE). FBE is a powder-based coating with properties similar to traditional : epoxies. Its name is derived from the process by which it adheres ...

  9. Corrosion of welded steel piping in domestic hot water: A case history. Corrosion de una instalacion de tubos soldados de acero galvanizado para agua caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, E J; Soria, L; Gallardo, J M

    1993-01-01

    Many leaks had occurred after seven years of service in the hot sanitary water system of building. The results of the failure analysis have led to the conclusion that the reduced life of the piping system was primarily promoted by the use of a dissimilar metal (galvanized steel-copper) installation and by an excessive service temperature. Through precuations were taking to electrically insulate both types of tubing by employing dielectric fittings and water flow followed the ''rule of flow'' (zinc[yields] copper), an indirect galvanic attach on galvanized steel took place. Localized corrosion was originated by microcells formed by plating out of soluble copper. Corrosive attack was most severe at weld seams. The microstructure of the weld zone was very different from that of the surrounding pipe. In addition, some pipes presented signs of incomplete fusion (welding without filling metal) and others had protruding weld seams which produced crevice attack and erosion-corrosion, respectively. Author (10 refs.)

  10. 75 FR 16439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of businesses, which the GOK deemed ``harmful to juveniles, affecting public morals, certain private... (August 30, 2002), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum (Wire Rod Memorandum) at ``Benchmark... from Turkey, 71 FR 43111 (July 31, 2006) (2004 Pipe Final), and accompanying Issues and Decision...

  11. 77 FR 20782 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Memorandum. We revised Pacific Pipe's financial expense ratio calculation to be based on its consolidated financial statements rather than its unconsolidated financial statements as reported. We increased Pacific... Saha Thai's financial expense ratio to zero. For more information on the changes to Saha Thai's COP...

  12. Efficient simulation of flow and heat transfer in arbitrarily shaped pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen Esquivel, P.I.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of fluids through pipes is a very common application. Corrugated pipes have characteristics such as local stiffness and flexibility that makes them convenient in several application areas such as offshore LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) transfer, cryogenic engineering, domestic appliances, etc. Nonetheless, the introduction of pipes with corrugated walls increases the difficulty of simulating flow and heat transfer in these type of pipes. The present thesis addresses the development...

  13. Finite element analysis of the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes applications to the oil industry

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Eduardo N

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of the models that were developed to simulate the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes. The finite element method offers to engineers the possibility of developing models to simulate the collapse behavior of casings inside oil wells and the collapse behavior of deepwater pipelines. However, if technological decisions are going to be reached from these model results, with implications for the economic success of industrial operations, for the occupational safety and health and for the environment, the engineering models need to be highly reliable. Using these models engineers can quantify the effect of manufacturing tolerances, wear, corrosion, etc. This book describes in great details the experimental programs that are developed to validate the numerical results.

  14. Surveillance of evolution of defects in stainless steel piping subject to fatigue cycles in temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.

    1976-01-01

    The surveillance of internal crack growth in austenitic ICL 167 CN steel is possible by using ultrasonic techniques. The fracture mechanics allows to predict the evolution of these cracks under fatigue loading [fr

  15. 75 FR 33578 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum at... Eleventh Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel...

  16. Development of the ultrasonic technique for examination of centrifugally-cast stainless steel in pressure piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurenka, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Centrifugally - cast stainless steel (CCSS) are used to manufacture a large variety of components in the nuclear industry. Weldments are also made to join these parts to carbon steel items. These welds are usually made of stainless steel or inconel alloys. CCSS is sophisticated material and justification for its use in critical components is safety and reliability. These steels, as any other materials, need to be inspected to assess their structural integrity. Ultrasonic testing is one of the possible techniques. In some cases it is the only one of the feasible methods for this examination. This mainly concerns components in the primary and auxiliary circuits of nuclear plants. For a long time it has been recognized that CCSS items can be extremely difficult to inspect using ultrasonics. Many attempts in various research laboratories were conducted to improve the testing technique

  17. Calculation of the residual stress field created by quenching and grinding in a cast duplex stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Le Delliou, P.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate with a finite element program the residual stresses generated by quenching and grinding a cast duplex stainless steel pipe. These calculations are performed with Code Aster (developed by EDF/R and D D). They are preliminary to a 3D study concerning an elbow made of the same material. Quenching is simulated by an axisymmetric thermomechanical calculation. Grinding are simulated either by lowering mechanical properties in ground parts of the pipe, either by the releasing the nodes. Stresses due to quenching are in high compression in the skin and tensile in the middle. After grinding (the first concerning both internal and external skins, the second concerning only the internal skin), stresses become tensile on the skin. These results are compared to those obtained in a similar study by CEA and also to the measurement. Some important differences appear in the thermal results between the two FE programs, due to a too coarse time step in the CASTEM 2000 calculation. However, the effect on the residual stress field is not very important. Two complementary studies have shown a negligible influence of mesh size, as well as an equivalence of the two numerical methods used for simulating grinding (lowering the Young modulus and releasing the nodes), according the values given at the notes of the skin by the first method are corrected. (authors)

  18. Demonstration and Validation of Stainless Steel Materials for Critical Above Grade Piping in Highly Corrosive Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    materials for corroded fire-suppression water pipelines at the Chimu- Wan tank farms on Okinawa Island, Japan. 1.3 Approach Members of the research... pipelines . As such, detailed designs for supports and seismic analysis were not required. Calculations were performed in accordance with ASME B31.3...The pipeline was assembled using tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding. Pipe segments were joined at a stationary location to form longer seg

  19. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... review of entries of the subject merchandise during the POR from the following companies: Adler Steel Ltd. (``Adler Steel''), Al Jazeera Steel Products Co SAOG (``Al Jazeera Steel''), Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd.... Accordingly, Petitioners timely withdrew its requests for review of Adler Steel, Al Jazeera Steel, Baoshan...

  20. The effect of pressure loadings on the conservatism of the net-section stress criterion for the failure of cracked stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1994-01-01

    The technological problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of type 304 stainless steel piping in boiling water reactor piping systems, has provided the motivation for the considerable research interest in the integrity of cracked piping systems that are fabricated by ductile materials. IGSCC cracks are able to form at the inner surfaces of pipes. The cracks are circumferential and are able to grow slowly in service by a time dependent environmentally assisted mechanism. From a safety standpoint, it is important to know whether accident condition loadings will drive a part-through IGSCC crack unstably across the pipe thickness by a non-environmentally assisted fracture mechanism, and the resulting through-wall crack then propagate around the pipe circumference leading to a complete pipe severance. A methodology that has been developed to address this problem is a net-section stress methodology. The net-section stress approach for predicting the onset of crack extension in a piping system can give overly conservative predictions because a piping system is built-in at its end points and because crack extension requires some plastic deformation. The present paper is concerned with identifying the role of system pressure on the degree of conservatism, and two effects are important. Firstly, by inducing an axial tensile force at the cracked section, it is shown that the factor of conservatism can be increased. Secondly it is shown that the pressure induced moment at the cracked section behaves no differently to other contributions to this moment, in that all sources are associated with the same limited amount of elastic follow-up. All sources are associated with the same elastic flexibility parameter L*, which depends solely on the flexibility of the system and not on the nature of the loading

  1. Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems.

  2. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Scope of the Orders Japan The products covered by this order include certain... designing the piping system: (1) Corrosion of the piping system will occur if material other than stainless... designing the piping system: (1) Corrosion of the piping system will occur if material other than stainless...

  3. South African performance based standards (PBS) vehicle to transport steel pipes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dessein, T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available measures the vehicle?s rollover stability. Rearward Amplification (RA) ? Measures the degree to which the lateral accelerations experienced by trailing units are amplified in comparison to that of the towing unit in a high speed evasive single lane...-speed 90? turn high-speed travel along a 1.0km long straight road with uneven road surface a pulse-steer test HVTT11: A South African PBS Vehicle to Transport Pipes 10 a constant radius turn at slowly increasing speed an evasive lane change...

  4. Ultrasonic inspection of liquid-metal-filled austenitic stainless steel piping welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.; Martin, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this effort is to reliably detect a crack extending 25 to 50% through the wall of Schedule 40 sodium filled pipe at refueling temperatures (204 0 C [400 0 F]) using remote examination techniques. The task of demonstrating a prototype ultrasonic ISI system under simulated refueling conditions was laid out in two phases. The first phase was initiation of long-lead efforts which were key elements of a practical prototype system, including ultrasonic signal analysis efforts and laboratory prototype support systems. The second phase, dependent on successful completion of the first, consisted of development and demonstration of a prototype system in a simulated ISI environment

  5. Analysis of leak and break behavior in a failure assessment diagram for carbon steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kunio; Shimizu, Tasuku; Saitoh, Takashi; Gotoh, Nobuho

    1992-01-01

    The leak and break behavior of a cracked coolant pipe subjected to an internal pressure and a bending moment was analyzed with a failure assessment diagram using the R6 approach. This paper examines the conditions of the detectable coolant leakage without breakage. A leakage assessment curve, a locus of assessment point for detectable coolant leakage, was defined in the failure assessment diagram. The region between the leak assessment and failure assessment curves satisfies the condition of detectable leakage without breakage. In this region, a crack can be safely inspected by a coolant leak detector. (orig.)

  6. Properties and Microstructure of Laser Welded VM12-SHC Steel Pipes Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of microstructure and tests of welded joints of new generation VM12-SHC martensitic steel using high power CO2 laser (LBW method with bifocal welding head. VM12-SHC is dedicated to energetic installation material, designed to replace currently used. High content of chromium and others alloying elements improve its resistance and strength characteristic. Use of VM12-SHC steel for production of the superheaters, heating chambers and walls in steam boilers resulted in various weldability researches. In article are presented results of destructive and non-destructive tests. For destructive: static bending and Vickers hardness tests, and for non-destructive: VT, RT, UT, micro and macroscopic tests were performed.

  7. Development of measurement technique for crack depth in weld zone of thick stainless steel pipe with ultrasonic phased array TOFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Phased array TOFD (time of flight diffraction) method which makes possible to detect tip diffraction echoes and measure crack depth in an austenitic stainless steel weld zone with a thickness of more than 25 mm to which region it was difficult to apply ultrasonic test due to scattering of ultrasonic waves has been developed. The developed method uses a single array transducer to have a short distance between incident points of transmitter and receiver in order to propagate waves in shorter pass in the weld region. Transmitting and receiving ultrasonic beams from a single array probe can be set a crossing point and a focal point at desired depth. This method makes possible to scan with 16 kinds of combination of crossing points and focal pints of ultrasonic beam at a time. We have examined fundamental characteristics of depth measurement with electric discharge machining slits on base metal of a stainless steel with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could measure the slit depth with 0.2mm error from the slit depth with a estimating method of a lateral wave propagation time with back wall echo. (2) The largest error of the depth measurement from the slit depth with the ultrasonic beam crossing point set at the 4mm different point from the tip of the slit was 0.3 mm. (3) The largest error of the depth measurements due to the difference of focal point depth of ultrasonic beam was 0.2 mm. (4) The highest tip diffraction echo could be observed with the ultrasonic beam cross point set at the tip of the slit. The difference of 4 mm between the cross point and the tip of the slit caused attenuation of tip diffraction echo height in -6.8 dB. Furthermore we have measured a depth of electric discharge machining slits, fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on stainless steel welded pipe specimens with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could detect the tip diffraction echoes which have a signal noise ratio with more than 2.4 from the fatigue

  8. Ratchetting behavior of primary heat transport (PHT) piping material SA-333 carbon steel subjected to cyclic loads at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Desai, Y.M.; Kant, T.; Reddy, G.R.; Gupta, C.; Chakravarthy, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Ratchetting behavior of SA-333 Gr. 6 carbon steel used as primary heat transport (PHT) piping material has been investigated with three constitutive models proposed by Armstrong-Frederick, Chaboche and Ohno-Wang involving different hardening rules. Performance of the above mentioned models have been evaluated for a broad set of uniaxial and biaxial loading histories. The uniaxial ratchetting simulations have been performed for a range of stress ratios (R) by imposing different stress amplitudes and mean stress conditions. Numerical simulations indicated significant ratchetting and opening of hysteresis loop for negative stress ratio with constant mean stress. Application of cyclic stress without mean stress (R = -1.0) has been observed to produce negligible ratchet-strain accumulation in the material. Simulation under the biaxial stress condition was based on modeling of an internally pressurized thin walled pipe subjected to cyclic bending load. Numerical results have been validated with the experiments as per simulation conditions. All three models have been found to predict the observed accumulation of circumferential strain with increasing number of cycles. However, the Armstrong Frederick (A-F) model was found to be inadequate in simulating the ratchetting response for both uniaxial as well as biaxial loading cases. The A-F model actually over-predicted the ratchetting strain in comparison with the experimental strain values. On the other hand, results obtained with the Chaboche and the Ohno-Wang models for both the uniaxial as well as biaxial loading histories have been observed to closely simulate the experimental results. The Ohno-Wang model resulted in better simulation for the presents sets of experimental results in comparison with the Chaboche model. It can be concluded that the Ohno-Wang model suited well compared to the Chaboche model for above sets of uniaxial and biaxial loading histories. (authors)

  9. An evaluation of detection ability of ultrasonic testing with a large aperture transducer for axial cracks in cast stainless steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Yoshito; Ishida, Hitoshi; Kurozumi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is difficult to apply to cast stainless steel which is the material of the main coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors, because of the large attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves caused by its macro structure. In this study, ultrasonic testing for progression of axial fatigue cracks of a welded area in the test piece of cast stainless steel pipe was performed using double big-size ultrasonic probes which were formerly developed in INSS. It was found that detection of defects that were over 6% of the target depth for the specimen thickness of 69mm is possible, and detection of defects with over 10% of the target depth is possible for all test conditions. (author)

  10. Method to evaluate stress and deformation of small-sized buried pipe induced by wheel loads. Shokokei maisetsukan no rinkaju ni okeru oryoku henkei hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.; Kataoka, T.; Kokusho, T.; Yoshida, Y. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-21

    In order to establish a practical method to evaluate safety of buried pipes, which were generally used as cable-protection pipes, at shallow depth and under vehicle loads, a series of experiments and analyses were performed. Based on the results, a simplified method to evaluate stress and deformation of the buried pipes in pavement were proposed. In the experiments, hard PVC pipes, light steel conduit pipes, and corrugated hard PE pipes in nominal diameters from 75 to 200 mm were applied as specimens for representative flexible pipes, and field load tests in actual size as well as laboratory load tests using soil vessels were carried out. The calculated results by the proposed method were compared to the experimental results, finding that the calculated values gave a satisfactory agreement with measured values which were obtained by the field tests. As a result, it was confirmed that the practical method to evaluate circumferential stresses at the top of pipes and flat-deflection ratios of small-sized buried Pipes induced by wheel loads under various conditions were presented. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Investigation of the development and optimisation of cutting loads for the cutting of steel pipes with typical properties and material properties for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, S.; Freund, H.U.; Hollenberg, K.; Horning, W.; Esser, H.J.

    1987-04-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a type of cutter loading for the cutting of thickwalled steel pipes by explosive technique which, due to its construction and cutting performance, is suitable for use when dismantling pipelines in shutdown nuclear power stations. The loading sleeve is built up of individual linear elements and can be placed as a polygon (e.g. octagon) around pipes of different diameters. A steel pipe with dimensions 610 mm diameter x 36 mm wall thickness (live steam pipe of a German BWR of a new type) was completely and accurately cut using a cutting load sleeve with 1.84 kg of explosive. The great tamping of the cutting loader type developed, minimises the quantity of explosive required and reduces the air shock or blast wave peak pressure to about 30% compared to a charge without tamping. The distance at which the value of peak pressure of the blast wave of 1 bar (which could cause damage) is exceeded, is reduced to 3.0 metres compared to 5.3 metres for an untamped charge of the same cutting power. (orig./HP) [de

  12. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels: Role of the initial dislocation structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, B., E-mail: bianca@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lesage, J. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Pasqualino, I. [Subsea Technology Laboratory (LTS), Ocean Engineering Department, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68508, Cidade Universitária, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Bemporad, E. [University of Rome “ROMA TRE”, Mechanical and Industrial Eng. Dept., Via Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Benseddiq, N. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2013-09-15

    The present work is the second part of an ongoing study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels [B. Pinheiro et al., Mat. Sci. Eng., A 532 (2012) 158–166]. Microdeformations and residual stresses (macrostresses) are evaluated by X-ray diffraction during alternating bending fatigue tests on samples taken from an API 5L X60 grade steel pipe. Microdeformations are evaluated from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the diffraction peak and residual stresses are estimated from the peak shift. Here, to understand the role of the initial dislocation structure, annealed samples are considered. As previously found for as-machined samples, the evolution of microdeformations shows three regular successive stages, but now with an increase during the first stage. The amplitude of each stage is accentuated with increasing stress amplitude, while its duration is reduced. Residual stresses show a similar trend, with stages of the same durations than those observed for FWHM, respectively. Additionally, changes in density and distribution of dislocations are observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with the technique of focused ion beam. The results are very encouraging for the development of a future indicator of fatigue damage initiation for pipe steels based on microstructural changes measured by X-ray diffraction.

  13. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels: Role of the initial dislocation structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, B.; Lesage, J.; Pasqualino, I.; Bemporad, E.; Benseddiq, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is the second part of an ongoing study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels [B. Pinheiro et al., Mat. Sci. Eng., A 532 (2012) 158–166]. Microdeformations and residual stresses (macrostresses) are evaluated by X-ray diffraction during alternating bending fatigue tests on samples taken from an API 5L X60 grade steel pipe. Microdeformations are evaluated from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the diffraction peak and residual stresses are estimated from the peak shift. Here, to understand the role of the initial dislocation structure, annealed samples are considered. As previously found for as-machined samples, the evolution of microdeformations shows three regular successive stages, but now with an increase during the first stage. The amplitude of each stage is accentuated with increasing stress amplitude, while its duration is reduced. Residual stresses show a similar trend, with stages of the same durations than those observed for FWHM, respectively. Additionally, changes in density and distribution of dislocations are observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with the technique of focused ion beam. The results are very encouraging for the development of a future indicator of fatigue damage initiation for pipe steels based on microstructural changes measured by X-ray diffraction

  14. MODEL TESTS AND 3D ELASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR STEEL PIPE PILES WITH WINGS IN STALLED IN SOIL CEMENT COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Toshiyuki; Teramoto, Shuntarou; Kimura, Makoto

    Steel pipe piles with wings installed in soil cement column is a composite foundation of pile consisting of soil improvement with cement and steel pipe with wings. This type of pile shows higher vertical bearing capacity when compared to steel pipe piles that are installed without soil cement. It is thought the wings contribute to higher bearing capacity of this type of piles. The wings are also thought to play the role of structural unification of pile foundations and load transfer. In this study, model test and 3D elastic finite element analysis was carried out in order to elucidate the effect of wings on the structural unification of pile foundation and the load transfer mechanism. Firstly, the model test was carried out in order to grasp the influence of pile with and without wings, the shape of wings of the pile and the unconfined compression strength of the soil cement on the structural unification of the pile foundation. The numerical analysis of the model test was then carried out on the intermediate part of the pile foundation with wings and mathematical model developed. Finally load tran sfer mechanism was checked for the entire length of the pile through this mathematical model and the load sharing ratio of the wings and stress distribution occurring in the soil cement clarified. In addition, the effect of the wing interval on the structural unification of the pile foundation and load transfer was also checked and clarified.

  15. Stress-assisted, microbial-induced corrosion of stainless steel primary piping and other aging issues at the Omega West Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.

    1995-01-01

    After the discovery of cooling system leak of about 284 liters per twenty-four (24) hour period, an investigation determined that the 76.2-cm diameter, 33.5-m long stainless-steel (304) OWR delay line was losing water at the same nominal rate. An excavation effort revealed that a circumferential crack, approximately 0.0025 cm in width, extended around the bottom half of the delay line. In addition, other evidence of what appeared to be microcracking and pitting that originated at random nucleated sites around the pipe were also found. Results of destructive analysis and nondestructive testing allowed Los Alamos staff to conclude that the direct cause for the main crack and other pitting resulted from stress-assisted, microbial-induced corrosion of the stainless steel primary piping. The results also indicated that microbial action from bacteria that are normally present in earth can be extremely harmful to stainless- steel piping under certain conditions. Other potential problems that could have also eventually led to a permanent shutdown of the OWR were discussed. These problems, although never encountered nor associated with the current shutdown, were identified in aging studies and are associated with: (1) the water-cooled, bismuth gamma-ray shield and, (2) the aluminum thermal column head seal that prevents reactor vessel water from entering into the graphite-filled thermal column

  16. Underwater cutting of stainless steel plate and pipe for dismantling reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, M.; Tateiwa, F.; Kanatani, F.; Yamashita, S.

    1982-01-01

    A consumable electrode water jet cutting technique is described. Satisfactory underwater cutting of 80mm stainless steel plate using a current of 2000A and at a water depth of 200mm has been demonstrated. The electrical requirements for this arc welding method applied to cutting were found to be approximately one third those required for conventional plasma arc cutting for the same thickness plate. An application of this technique might be found in the dismantling of atomic reactor pressure vessels, and parts of commercial atomic reactors. (author)

  17. Development of super duplex stainless steel for water-supply pipe and valve in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kim, Jun Sick; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Zin Hyung

    2000-01-01

    Austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels are very attractive as material for water-supply facilities in atomic power plants where both high mechanical strength and excellent resistance to localized and stress corrosion are required. However, these alloys have a problem to get sensitive to embrittlement when exposed to temperatures of 250 ∼ 1050 deg C. So far, there have been large efforts to improve this alloy. In this paper, a new developed alloy designed to improve not resistance to the embrittlement but also mechanical and corrosion properties compared with existing commercial alloys were introduced with some experimental results. (author)

  18. Pulsed eddy current differential probe to detect the defects in a stainless steel pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angani, C. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, C. G.; Leela, P.; Kishore, M.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an electromagnetic nondestructive technique widely used to detect and quantify the flaws in conducting materials. In the present study a differential Hall-sensor probe which is used in the PEC system has been fabricated for the detection of defects in stainless steel pipelines. The differential probe has an exciting coil with two Hall-sensors. A stainless steel test sample with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches under different depths of 1-5 mm was made and the sample was laminated by plastic insulation having uniform thickness to simulate the pipelines in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The driving coil in the probe is excited by a rectangular current pulse and the resultant response, which is the difference of the two Hall-sensors, has been detected as the PEC probe signal. The discriminating time domain features of the detected pulse such as peak value and time to zero are used to interpret the experimental results with the defects in the test sample. A feature extraction technique such as spectral power density has been devised to infer the PEC response.

  19. Effect of artificial aging on the microstructure of weldment on API 5L X-52 steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J.M.; Albiter, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of artificial aging on the microstructure in the weldment of an API 5L X-52 steel pipe were studied. Aging was performed at 250 deg. C over a period of 1000 h and values were recorded at every 100 h intervals. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed precipitation strengthening from nearly circular Nb-C containing nanoparticles for the base metal and heat affected zone, and cementite for the weld metal. The largest amount of precipitation in the weldment zone was obtained at 500 h, due to peak-aging, which showed the highest particle density. The weld metal was more susceptible to aging, exhibiting the highest increase in precipitation at 500 h, followed by the heat affected zone. After 500 h, the deterioration in the microstructure was caused by the coarsening of particles due to over-aging. The base metal showed the larger increment in particle size after 900 h of aging accompanied by a bigger decrease in fine particles than in the weld metal

  20. Random cyclic stress-strain responses of a stainless steel pipe-weld metal. I. A statistical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.X.; Wang, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.199, p.315-26, 2000. This paper pays a special attention to the issue that there is a significant scatter of the stress-strain responses of a nuclear engineering material, 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-weld metal. Statistical investigation is made to the cyclic stress amplitudes of this material. Three considerations are given. They consist of the total fit, the consistency with fatigue physics and the safety in practice of the seven commonly used statistical distributions, namely Weibull (two- and three-parameter), normal, lognormal, extreme minimum value, extreme maximum value and exponential. Results reveal that the data follow meanwhile the seven distributions but the local effects of the distributions yield a significant difference. Any of the normal, lognormal, extreme minimum value and extreme maximum value distributions might be an appropriate assumed distribution for characterizing the data. The normal and extreme minimum models are excellent. Other distributions do not fit the data as they violate two or three of the mentioned considerations. (orig.)

  1. 77 FR 32508 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... pipe, oil country tubular goods, boiler tubing, cold- drawn or cold-rolled mechanical tubing, pipe and... in the marketing process and selling functions along the chain of distribution between the producer...

  2. Creep properties and microstructure evaluation of weld joint of the pipe made of P92 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasl, Josef; Jandova, Dagmar; Chvostova, Eva [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic); Folkova, Eva [SKODA POWER a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    One-side weld joint of W type was prepared from P92 type steel using GTAW and SMAW method. Creep test to the rupture of smooth cross-weld samples has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 575 to 650 C and at stresses from 70 to 240 MPa. Fractographic analysis, hardness measurement and detailed study of submicrostructure have been performed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Changes of microstructure were correlated with the creep strength. Increase in size of secondary phases and cavities formation were evident after creep tests at temperatures above 575 C. Voids were concentrated in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones, where fracture occurred. In addition, a sporadic occurrence of individual cavities was found out in the base material and the weld metal after tests at 625 and 650 C. During creep exposures at temperatures above 600 C Laves phase precipitated. (orig.)

  3. Variations of fracture toughness and stress-strain curve of cold worked stainless steel and their influence on failure strength of cracked pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess failure probability of cracked components, it is important to know the variations of the material properties and their influence on the failure load assessment. In this study, variations of the fracture toughness and stress-strain curve were investigated for cold worked stainless steel. The variations of the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths obtained using 8 specimens of 20% cold worked stainless steel (CW20) were 77 MPa and 81 MPa, respectively. The respective variations were decreased to 13 and 21 MPa for 40% cold worked material (CW40). Namely, the variation in the tensile strength was decreased by hardening. The COVs (coefficients of variation) of fracture toughness were 7.3% and 16.7% for CW20 and CW40, respectively. Namely, the variation in the fracture toughness was increased by hardening. Then, in order to investigate the influence of the variations in the material properties on failure load of a cracked pipe, flaw assessments were performed for a cracked pipe subjected to a global bending load. Using the obtained material properties led to variation in the failure load. The variation in the failure load of the cracked pipe caused by the variation in the stress-strain curve was less than 1.5% for the COV. The variation in the failure load caused by fracture toughness variation was relatively large for CW40, although it was less than 2.0% for the maximum case. It was concluded that the hardening induced by cold working does not cause significant variation in the failure load of cracked stainless steel pipe. (author)

  4. Nonlinear finite element modeling of corrugated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C. Gilchrist; J. C. Suhling; T. J. Urbanik

    1999-01-01

    In this research, an investigation on the mechanical behavior of corrugated board has been performed using finite element analysis. Numerical finite element models for corrugated board geometries have been created and executed. Both geometric (large deformation) and material nonlinearities were included in the models. The analyses were performed using the commercial...

  5. Flow induced pulsations caused by corrugated tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shatto, D.P.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Corrugated tubes can produce a tonal noise when used for gas transport, for instance in the case of flexible risers. The whistling sound is generated by shear layer instability due to the boundary layer separation at each corrugation. This whistling is examined by investigating the frequency,

  6. Flow induced pulsations generated in corrugated tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Swindell, R.; Tummers, R.

    2008-01-01

    Corrugated tubes can produce a tonal noise when used for gas transport, for instance in the case of flexible risers. The whistling sound is generated by shear layer instability due to the boundary layer separation at each corrugation. This whistling is examined by investigating the frequency,

  7. Corrugated megathrust revealed offshore from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared; Silver, Eli A.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Brothers, Daniel; Bangs, Nathan L.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Wood, Ruby; Okamato, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Exhumed faults are rough, often exhibiting topographic corrugations oriented in the direction of slip; such features are fundamental to mechanical processes that drive earthquakes and fault evolution. However, our understanding of corrugation genesis remains limited due to a lack of in situ observations at depth, especially at subducting plate boundaries. Here we present three-dimensional seismic reflection data of the Costa Rica subduction zone that image a shallow megathrust fault characterized by corrugated, and chaotic and weakly corrugated topographies. The corrugated surfaces extend from near the trench to several kilometres down-dip, exhibit high reflection amplitudes (consistent with high fluid content/pressure) and trend 11–18° oblique to subduction, suggesting 15 to 25 mm yr−1 of trench-parallel slip partitioning across the plate boundary. The corrugations form along portions of the megathrust with greater cumulative slip and may act as fluid conduits. In contrast, weakly corrugated areas occur adjacent to active plate bending faults where the megathrust has migrated up-section, forming a nascent fault surface. The variations in megathrust roughness imaged here suggest that abandonment and then reestablishment of the megathrust up-section transiently increases fault roughness. Analogous corrugations may exist along significant portions of subduction megathrusts globally.

  8. Electromagnetic radiation of electrons in corrugated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ktitorov, S. A., E-mail: ktitorov@mail.ioffe.ru; Myhamadiarov, R. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Bremsstrahlung in corrugated single-layer graphene in the presence of a ballistic transport current is analyzed. Radiation of a similar nature is observed in undulators and wigglers. Regular and chaotic corrugations (ripples) are considered. It is shown that the quadratic relation between the Monge membrane function and the synthetic calibration field leads to the appearance of a central peak in the radiation spectral density. Possible formation mechanisms of single-layer graphene corrugation are proposed. In one case, the corrugation is considered as an incommensurate superstructure in a two-dimensional crystal, resulting from instability developing in the optical phonon subsystem with the formation of a periodic soliton train. Corrugation results from the interaction of subsystems. Another possible mechanism consists in instability of the membrane flat state due to strong fluctuations characteristic of two-dimensional systems.

  9. Random cyclic stress-strain responses of a stainless steel pipe-weld metal. II. A modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.X.; Wang, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.199, p.303-14, 2000. This paper pays special attention to an issue that there is a significant scatter of the stress-strain responses of a nuclear engineering material, 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-weld metal. Efforts are made to reveal the random fatigue damage character by fracture surface observations and to model the random responses by introducing probability-based stress-strain curves of Ramberg-Osgood relation and its modified form. Results reveal that the fatigue damage is subjected to, 3-D interacting and involved microcracks. The three stages, namely microstructural short cracks (MSC), physical short cracks (PSC) and long cracks (LC) subdivided by Miller and de los Rios, can give a good characterization of the damage process. Both micro- and macro-behaviour of the material have the character of three stages. The 3-D effects are strong in the MSC stage, tend to a gradual decrease in the PSC stage, and then show saturation after going to the LC stage. Intrinsic causes of the random behaviour are the difference and evolution of the microstructural conditions ahead of the dominant crack tips. The 'effectively short fatigue crack criterion' introduced by Zhao et al. in observing the material surface short crack behaviour could facilitate an understanding of the mechanism of interaction and evolution. Based on the previous obtained appropriate assumed distribution, normal model, for the cyclic stress amplitude, the probability-based curves are approximated by the mean value and standard deviation cyclic stress-strain curves. Then, fatigue analysis at arbitrarily given reliability can be conveniently made according to the normal distribution function. To estimate these curves, a maximum likelihood method is developed. The analysis reveals that the curves could give a good modeling of the random responses of material. (orig.)

  10. Mean strain effects on the random cyclic strain-life relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean strain effects on the random cyclic strain-life relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. In order to save costs of specimens and tests, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is applied to manage the present strain-controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, respectively, -1, -0.52, 0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48, are applied to study the effects. Total 104 specimens are fatigued. Since the material exhibits an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress under the six ratios and, in addition, there is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case, previous Zhao's random strain-life relations are therefore applied for effective characterization of the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Coffin-Manson equation.Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average fatigue lives, the standard deviations of the logarithms of fatigue lives, and the fatigue lives under different survival probabilities and confidences. The results reveal that the ratios greater than zero exhibit a positive effect of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under the survival probability of 0.999 and the confidence of 95%. A negative effect is exhibited for the case of the ratios less than zero. In addition, the assessment of the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion for the practice of higher reliabilities. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into account the average lives, the scattering regularity of test data, and the size of sampling. (author)

  11. Pressure drop and stability of flow in Archimedean spiral tube with transverse corrugations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal pressure drop experiments were carried out for the steady Newtonian fluid flow in Archimedean spiral tube with transverse corrugations. Pressure drop correlations and stability criteria for distinguishing the flow regimes have been obtained in a continuous Reynolds number range from 150 to 15 000. The characterizing geometrical groups which take into account all the geometrical parameters of Archimedean spiral and corrugated pipe has been acquired. Before performing experiments over the Archimedean spiral, the corrugated straight pipe having high relative roughness e/d = 0.129 of approximately sinusoidal type was tested in order to obtain correlations for the Darcy friction factor. Insight into the magnitude of pressure loss in the proposed geometry of spiral solar receiver for different flow rates is important because of its effect upon the efficiency of the receiver. Although flow in spiral and corrugated geometries has the advantages of compactness and high heat transfer rates, the disadvantage of greater pressure drops makes hydrodynamic studies relevant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006 i br. TR 33015

  12. Modification of the Structure of Low-Carbon Pipe Steel by Helical Rolling, and the Increase in Its Strength and Cold Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyagina, L. S.; Gordienko, A. I.; Pochivalov, Yu. I.; Smirnova, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports the investigation results on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon pipe steel after helical rolling. The processing of the steel leads to the refinement of ferritic grains from 12 (for the coarse-grained state) to 5 μm, to the strengthening of ferrite by carbide particles, a decrease in the total fraction of perlite grains, a more uniform alternation of ferrite and perlite, and the formation of regions with bainitic structure. The mechanical properties of the steel have been determined in the conditions of static and dynamic loading in the range of test temperatures from +20 to-70°C. As a result of processing, the ultimate tensile strength increases (from 650 to 770 MPa at a rolling temperature from 920°C) and the viscoplastic properties at negative temperatures are improved significantly. The ductile-brittle transition temperature of the rolled steel decreases from-32 to-55°C and the impact toughness at the test temperature-40°C increases eight times compared to the initial state of the steel.

  13. Hydrogen assisted cracking and CO2 corrosion behaviors of low-alloy steel with high strength used for armor layer of flexible pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenguang; Gao, Xiuhua; Du, Linxiu; Li, Jianping; Zhou, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaonan; Wang, Yuxin; Liu, Chuan; Xu, Guoxiang; Misra, R. D. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) were carried out to study hydrogen assisted cracking behavior (HIC, SSCC and HE) of high strength pipeline steel used for armor layer of flexible pipe in ocean. The CO2 corrosion behavior of designed steel with high strength was studied by using immersion experiment. The experimental results demonstrate that the corrosion resistance of designed steel with tempered martensite to HIC, SSCC and HE is excellent according to specific standards, which contributes to the low concentration of dislocation and vacancies previously formed in cold rolling process. The corrosion mechanism of hydrogen induced cracking of designed steel, which involves in producing process, microstructure and cracking behavior, is proposed. The designed steel with tempered martensite shows excellent corrosion resistance to CO2 corrosion. Cr-rich compound was first formed on the coupon surface exposed to CO2-saturated brine condition and chlorine, one of the corrosion ions in solution, was rich in the inner layer of corrosion products.

  14. Effects of Induction Heat Bending Process on Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of ASME SA312 Gr.TP304 Stainless Steel Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam In; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Kyung Soo; Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae; Sung, Gi Ho; Sung, Gi Ho

    2015-01-01

    The usage of bending products recently have increased since many industries such as automobile, aerospace, shipbuilding, and chemical plants need the application of pipings. Bending process is one of the inevitable steps to fabricate the facilities. Induction heat bending is composed of compressive bending process by local heating and cooling. This work focused on the effect of induction heat bending process on the properties of ASME SA312 Gr. TP304 stainless steel pipes. Tests were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. In order to determine intergranular corrosion resistance, Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) test and ASTM A262 practice A and C tests were done. Every specimen revealed non-metallic inclusion free under the criteria of 1.5i of the standard and the induction heat bending process did not affect the non-metallic inclusion in the alloys. Also, all the bended specimens had finer grain size than ASTM grain size number 5 corresponding to the grain sizes of the base metal and thus the grain size of the pipe bended by induction heat bending process is acceptable. Hardness of transition start, bend, and transition end areas of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel was a little higher than that of base metal. Intergranular corrosion behavior was determined by ASTM A262 practice A and C and DL-EPR test, and respectively step structure, corrosion rate under 0.3 mm/y, and Degree of Sensitization (DOS) of 0.001 - 0.075 % were obtained. That is, the induction heat bending process didn't affect the intergranular corrosion behavior of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel

  15. Using an equation based on flow stress to estimate structural integrity of annealed Type 304 stainless steel plate and pipes containing surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, W.G.; Place, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the influence of defects on structural component integrity is needed. Generally accepted analytical techniques are not available for the very ductile materials used in many nuclear reactor components. Some results are presented from a test programme to obtain data by which to evaluate proposed models. Plate and pipe specimens containing surface flaws were fabricated from annealed Type 304 stainless steel and tested at room temperature. An evaluation of an empirical equation based on flow stress is presented. In essentially all instances the flow stress is not a constant but varies as a function of the size of the surface flaw. (author)

  16. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ..., Toyota Tsusho American Inc. (``TAI''), and Salem Steel North America, LLC (``Salem Steel'') on August 26... material injury, or threat of material injury, does not exist, this proceeding will be terminated and all...

  17. Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 42006

  18. Study on feasibility of replacing 321 with 316LN stainless steel for main reactor coolant pipe material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yijun

    2013-01-01

    The metallurgical, physical and mechanical performance, and the corrosion and welding properties of 00Cr17Ni12Mo2 (controlled Nitrogen, ANSI316LN) and 0Cr18Ni10Ti (ANSI321SS) for main pipe material were analyzed comparatively in this paper. The feasibility of 316LN pipe material manufacturing was studied too. The analysis results showed that under the operation condition of the nuclear reactor, the general properties of 316LN are better than that of 321SS. Therefore, 316LN could be used for main pipe material, replacing 321SS. (authors)

  19. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Nikolaeva; S. A. Podkopaev

    2015-01-01

    Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a gener...

  20. Assessment of the sulfide corrosion fatigue strength for a multi-pass welded A106 Gr B steel pipe below the low SSCC limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyu Young; Bae, Dong Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the area of heavy construction, welding processes are vital in the production and maintenance of pipelines and power plants. Welding processes happen to produce residual stresses and change the metal structure as a result of the large nonlinear thermal loading that is created by a moving heat source. The fusion welding process generates formidable welding residual stresses and metallurgical change, which increase the crack driving force and reduce the resistance to the brittle fracture as well as the environmental fracture. This is a serious problem with many alloys as well as the A106 Gr B steel pipe. This pipe that is used in petrochemical and heavy chemical plants either degrades due to corrosive environments, e.g., chlorides and sulfides, and/or become damaged during service due to the various corrosion damage mechanisms. Thus, in this study, after numerically and experimentally analyzing the welding residual stress of a multi-pass welded A106 Gr B steel pipe, the sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) characteristics were assessed in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution that was saturated with H 2 S gas at room temperature on the basis of NACE TM 0177-90. The specimens used are of two kinds: un-notched and notched. Then, the sulfide corrosion fatigue (SCF) strength for the un-notched specimen was assessed below the low SSCC limit that was previously obtained from the SSCC tests for the notched specimen. From the results, in terms of the SSCC and SCF, all the specimens failed at the heat-affected zone, where a high welding residual stress is distributed. It was found that the low SSCC limit of un-notched specimens (σSSCCun-notched) was 46% (230 MPa) of the ultimate tensile strength (σU=502 MPa) of a multi-pass welded A106 Gr B steel pipe, and the notched specimens (σSSCCnotched) had 40% (200 MPa) of the ultimate tensile strength. Thus, it was determined that σSSCCun-notched was 13% lower than σSSCCnotched. Further, the sulfide corrosion fatigue limit (

  1. Reduction of heat losses on the skid pipe system of reheating furnaces in the steel industry; Verringerung der Waermeverluste am Tragrohrsystem von Waermeoefen in der Stahlindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Michael; Huegel, Frank [FBB Engineering GmbH, Moenchengladbach (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    New technology can improve the energy efficiency of thermo processing equipment, innovative technology can ultimately help to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from existing facilities and simultaneously ensure that the equipment can also operate more economically. The result of consequent development at FBB ENGINEERING GmbH for insulation of skid pipe systems of reheating furnaces in steel industry (walking beam -, pusher type furnace) are efficient pre-fabricated shells made of ultra-light weight castable FLB-11/150-I1 with thermo technical optimized sandwich design that lead to significant and sustainable reduction of heat losses and are responsible for high energy saving potential. Thermo technical CFD simulations, laboratory tests, field trials and complete installations of skid pipe systems show that compared to dense castable heat loss in the skid pipe cooling systems can be reduced up to 30 % and more with pre-fabricated shells made of ultra-light weight castable FLB-11/150-I1. (orig.)

  2. 77 FR 72818 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... description outlined above are included in the scope of this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular... Analysts, through Robert James, Program Manager, entitled ``Final Results in the 2010/2011 Administrative...

  3. 78 FR 286 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... the scope of this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular goods, boiler tubing, cold-drawn or... order (``APO'') of their responsibility concerning the disposition of proprietary information disclosed...

  4. Use of Neuber's rule to estimate the fatigue life of notched specimens of ASME SA 106-B steel piping in 2880C air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fatigue strain-life tests were conducted on notched specimens of ADMESA 106-B piping steel at PWR operating temperatures (288 0 C (550 0 F)), under completely reversed loading. Fatigue limits at 10 7 cycles were estimated for smooth specimens to be 185 M Pa (26.8 ksi) at 24 0 C and 232 MPa (33.7 ksi) at 288 0 C. The higher fatigue strength observed at the PWR temperature is postulated to be caused by dynamic strain aging processes. However, a reduction in fatigue strength in the low cycle fatigue regime was observed in 288 0 C air environment tests, which may indicate that the current ASME Section III design curve for carbon steels is nonconservative in its positioning. Notch strain histories were estimated for the notched specimen tests using various interpretations of Neuber's rule. It was concluded that the use of the fatigue notch concentration factor (K f ) in the Neuber relation in conjunction with the uniaxial cyclic stress-strain curve provided the best correlation of notched specimen fatigue data with results obtained from smooth specimen tests. The notched specimen strain-life results derived from the application of Neuber's rule alone proved to be conservative when compared with smooth specimen test results to such an extent that Neuber-generated notch stresses and strain amplitudes cannot accurately be compared with the mean data curves derived from the ASME Section III fatigue curves for carbon steels which are based on net section stress measurements. (author)

  5. Stress-free reference for neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in butt-welded joints of austenitic stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Tsuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Moriai, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Stress-free lattice spacing d_0 has the most influence on reliability of neutron stress measurements made using an angle dispersive method. However, it is hard to evaluate the lattice spacing of welded structures and ductile materials such as stainless steel accurately. In this study, suitable measurement conditions for d_0 of welded pipe joints of austenitic stainless steel were discussed. The d_0 values derived from {311} and {111} reflections, which are often used in austenitic stainless steel for residual stress measurement, were examined. Comparison of the residual strains and stresses evaluated using the obtained d_0 and the finite element analysis showed that the way the d_0 values were chosen affected the measurement accuracy significantly. The stress measurement accuracy was remarkably improved when the {311} reflection was used and the proper d_0 value was chosen in the respective neutron diffraction measurements. For instance, for the axial diffraction measurements using the {311} reflection, it was recommended that only the axial d_0 value of the {311} reflection be used; the measurements using the {111} reflection were less accurate due to the large Young's modulus. Additionally, a lower diffraction angle was judged to be one of the factors leading to a decrease of the strain measurement accuracy. (author)

  6. 76 FR 78612 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Corporation, we initiated reviews of Arihant Domestic Appliances Ltd., Good Luck Steel Tubes Ltd. and all affiliates, Good Luck Industries, Innoventive Industries Ltd., Jindal Group and all affiliates, Jindal... for a review of the order with respect to Arihant Domestic Appliances Ltd., Good Luck Steel Tubes Ltd...

  7. Energy-saving by the optimization of the operation conditions in the vinylcloride lining steel pipe baking furnace. Enbirainingu kokan yakitsukero no sogyo joken saitekika ni yoru sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Y. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-02-04

    By the investigation of the operation conditions in the small experimental furnace, the improvement of the heat pattern of the steel pipes, and the remodeling and arrangement of the furnace, the progress of the yield and the productivity, and the reduction of the fuel unit were expected. In baking of a PVC pipe with a steel pipe, defects of PVC pipes as the blister of the inner surface occurred often. Accordingly the conditions when the blister occurred were investigated in the experimental furnace and optimized operation conditions when it does not occur were established. Next the flow rate of the hot air and the temperature distribution in the actual furnace were examined and the mechanism of occurrence of the defects of the blister of the inner surface was investigated. As a result, it was proved that the deviation of the hot air flux and the intrusion of the outer air cause it, and the places where the outer air intruded were closed by steel plates. After the improvements the rate of the defects of PVC pipes of the blister of the inner surface was decreased from 5% to 0.5%. Further, by the optimization of the operation conditions the fuel unit decreased and 31% of the rate of the energy-saving was achieved. The reduction of 10,414,000 yen a year was achieved. 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Cells on corrugations for pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyde, R.

    1993-01-01

    Old cardboard boxes constitute 12% of landfills. White rot fungus can be grown on the boxes and buried in contaminated soil. The fungus needs air which is entrapped in the corrugations. The fungus is sensitive to large amounts of TNT but it is protected when inside the corrugations. Fast food containers are filling landfills. Lactic acid production needs air and the polymers are biodegradable. When corrugations are put in a half full rotary unit, holes in the valleys make drops, and mass transfer to drops is much higher than to a flat surface. A lab corrugator has been made from an old washing machine wringer, so other fibers can be corrugated. When the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis is grown on Tyvek fiber, lead and six valent chromium are removed from wastewater in a few seconds. Zymomonas on rotating fibers converts sugar to alcohol in 10--15 minutes and when a light is shown into flat rotating discs, it hits a thin moving film to destroy dioxin. Salt on roads causes millions of dollars damage to bridges and cars but calcium magnesium acetate is not corrosive and can be made with cells on rotating fibers

  9. 76 FR 21331 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import Administration... butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China (PRC), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year...

  10. 77 FR 48965 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With... China (``PRC'') used in structural applications. In King Supply III, the CAFC, reversing the CIT, held... did not give rise to an end use restriction, (2) the Department's original scope ruling was supported...

  11. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... stress levels. Alloy pipes made to ASTM standard A-335 must be used if temperatures and stress levels... not used in standard, line or pressure applications. In addition, finished and unfinished oil country... antidumping duty order from the same country. If not covered by such an OCTG order, finished and unfinished...

  12. 77 FR 64465 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... of the Government of the UAE's (``GUAE''), Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd., KHK... Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd.; KHK 2.06 Scaffolding and Formwork LLC; Universal Tube and Pipe... Industry Usage Data Comment 4 Countervailability of Alita's Tariff Exemptions B. Subsidies Within the Jebel...

  13. 76 FR 4633 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... pipe fittings from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') used in structural applications, pursuant... Timken Co. v. United States, 893 F.2d 337 (Fed. Cir. 1990) (``Timken''), as clarified by Diamond Sawblades Mfrs. Coalition v. United States, 626 F.3d 1374 (Fed. Cir. 2010) (``Diamond Sawblades''), the...

  14. 77 FR 32552 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... pipe. The latter is a consolidated financial statement of a large conglomerate, and includes the.... They also provided the financial statements for an Indonesian producer of identical merchandise, and...- specific export subsidies). Second, we have on the record the financial statements of four Indian producers...

  15. 76 FR 36089 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Tube From Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61 FR 11608 (March 21, 1996), pipe...) (``Assessment Policy Notice''). This clarification will apply to entries of subject merchandise during the... transaction. See Assessment Policy Notice for a full discussion of this clarification. Cash Deposit...

  16. 75 FR 34980 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61 FR 11608 (March 21, 1996), pipe certified to the API 5L line... Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (``Assessment Policy Notice''). This clarification will apply to... there is no rate for the intermediary involved in the transaction. See Assessment Policy Notice for a...

  17. Assessment of rail long-pitch corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valehrach, Jan; Guziur, Petr; Riha, Tomas; Plasek, Otto

    2017-09-01

    The paper focuses on defects of the running surface of the rail, namely the rail corrugation defect and specifically long-pitch corrugation in curves of small radii. These defects cause a shorter life of the rails, greater maintenance costs and increase the noise and vibration pollution. Therefore, it is very important to understand the formation and development of the imperfection of the rails. In the paper, various sections of railway tracks in the Czech Republic are listed, each of them completed with comparison of defect development, the particular track superstructure, rolling stock, axle load, traffic load etc. Based on performed measurements, defect development has been proved as different on sections with similar (or even same) parameters. The paper assumes that a train velocity is the significant circumstance for defect development rates. Assessment of track section with under sleeper pads, which are expected to be the one of the possible ways to suppress the corrugation defect development, is included in evaluation.

  18. Microstructure and Microsegregation of an Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Produced on Steel Pipes by the Cold Metal Transfer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the development of microstructure and variations in chemical composition in commercial Inconel 625 coatings on a ferritic-pearlitic steel overlaid by the CMT method.

  19. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a generatrix of the meridian surface.Unlike other types of pressure elastic members (bellows, tube spring, the elastic characteristics of which are close to linear, an elastic characteristic of the corrugated membrane (typical movement versus external load is nonlinear. Therefore, the corrugated membranes can be used to measure quantities, nonlinearly related to the pressure (e.g., aircraft air speed, its altitude, pipeline fluid or gas flow rate. Another feature of the corrugated membrane is that significant movements are possible within the elastic material state. However, a significant non-linearity of membrane characteristics leads to severe complicated calculation.This article is aimed at calculating the corrugated membrane to obtain the elastic characteristics and the deformed shape of the membrane meridian, as well as at investigating the processes of buckling. As the calculation model, a thin-walled axisymmetric shell rotation is assumed. The material properties are linearly elastic. We consider a corrugated membrane of sinusoidal profile. The membrane load is a uniform pressure.The algorithm for calculating the mathematical model of an axisymmetric corrugated membrane of constant thickness, based on the Reissner’s theory of elastic thin shells, was realized as the author's program in C language. To solve the nonlinear problem were used a method of changing the subspace of control parameters, developed by S.S., Gavriushin, and a parameter marching method

  20. Experimentation and numerical simulation of steel fibre reinforced concrete pipes; Experimentacion y simulacion numerica de tubos de hormigon con fibras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, A. de la; Domingues de Figueiredo, A.; Aguado, A.; Molins, C.; Chama Neto, P. J.

    2011-07-01

    The results concerning on an experimental and a numerical study related to SFRCP are presented. Eighteen pipes with an internal diameter of 600 mm and fibre dosages of 10, 20 and 40 kg/m3 were manufactured and tested. Some technological aspects were concluded. Likewise, a numerical parameterized model was implemented. With this model, the simulation of the resistant behaviour of SFRCP can be performed. In this sense, the results experimentally obtained were contrasted with those suggested by means MAP reaching very satisfactory correlations. Taking it into account, it could be said that the numerical model is a useful tool for the optimal design of the SFRCP fibre dosages, avoiding the need of the systematic employment of the test as an indirect design method. Consequently, the use of this model would reduce the overall cost of the pipes and would give fibres a boost as a solution for this structural typology. (Author) 27 refs.

  1. Using X-Ray portable fluorescence for alloy contents measurement of steel pipe and optimization of Flow Accelerated Corrosion kinetic calculation with BRT-CICEROTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevin, Stephane; Moutrille, Marie-Pierre; Qiu, Gonghao; Miller, Cecile; Mellin, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    EDF has developed during these 15 last years a software called BRT-CICERO TM for the surveillance of the secondary piping system of its Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). This software enables the operator to calculate the FAC wear rates taking into account all the influencing parameters such as: pipe isometrics, chromium content of the steel, chemical conditioning and operating parameters of the secondary circuit (temperature, pressure, etc.). This is a major tool for the operators to organize the maintenance and to plan the inspections. In the framework of the French pressure vessel law issued on March 15, 2000, the software BRT-CICERO TM has been recognized by the French authority for the FAC surveillance on the secondary pressure piping lines of the EDF 58 NPPs. It takes advantage of the experience feedback of EDF's fleet, of the R and D improvements (especially from the laboratory tests conducted on EDF's CIROCO loop) and is frequently updated. Kinetics calculations made with BRT-CICERO TM are highly dependent of chromium, copper and molybdenum contents of steel. These values are measured on site by X-ray portable fluorescence. EDF elaborated a measurement procedure with a validation process and verification of the measurement devices using certified blocks standard. This procedure enables EDF and service provider companies to measure more than 6 thousand components per year. These values are input in BRT-CICERO TM and the flow accelerated corrosion kinetic is calculated with a higher accuracy than before alloy contents measurement. The next version of BRT-CICERO will take into account chromium, copper and molybdenum contents. The actual version is using only chromium contents. This paper describes the X-Ray fluorescence and the procedure used at EDF. The advantage and drawbacks of this technique are discussed. According to research and development studies, the future algorithm for FAC calculation with these 3 alloys contents is described. Because of

  2. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  3. Residual stress evaluation by X-Ray diffraction and hole-drilling in an API 5L X70 steel pipe bent by hot induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglias, Rodrigo Braga; Alves, Juciane Maria; Botelho, Ramon Alves; Baeta Junior, Eustaquio de Souza; Santos, Igor Cuzzuol dos; Moraes, Nicki Robbers Darciano Cajueiro de; Oliveira, Rebeca Vieira de; Diniz, Saulo Brinco; Brandao, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The API 5L X70 steel is used in high-pressure gas transmission pipelines. Because of this, knowledge of presence of residual stress and their magnitude is important to assess the material integrity in service. For the pipeline manufacturing, tubes need to be curved which is often made using the hot induction bending process. This process can introduce different residual stress depending of tube position. For this research, in order to evaluate the residual stress, was used an API 5L X70 tube that was previously curved by hot induction process. Samples were taken from the extrados, intrados, neutral line and straight section of the curved tube. Residual stresses were studied by two conventional methods: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Hole-Drilling, which are destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively, in order to assess their qualitative responses. Each of these methods presents particular methodologies in sample preparation and material analysis, but also they differ in factors such time consumption and cost of the analysis. The qualitative responses obtained by the two different methods were comparable and satisfactory and pointed out the existence of a compressive residual stress state in steel pipe. (author)

  4. Residual stress evaluation by X-Ray diffraction and hole-drilling in an API 5L X70 steel pipe bent by hot induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceglias, Rodrigo Braga; Alves, Juciane Maria; Botelho, Ramon Alves; Baeta Junior, Eustaquio de Souza; Santos, Igor Cuzzuol dos; Moraes, Nicki Robbers Darciano Cajueiro de; Oliveira, Rebeca Vieira de; Diniz, Saulo Brinco; Brandao, Luiz Paulo, E-mail: brandao@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais

    2016-09-15

    The API 5L X70 steel is used in high-pressure gas transmission pipelines. Because of this, knowledge of presence of residual stress and their magnitude is important to assess the material integrity in service. For the pipeline manufacturing, tubes need to be curved which is often made using the hot induction bending process. This process can introduce different residual stress depending of tube position. For this research, in order to evaluate the residual stress, was used an API 5L X70 tube that was previously curved by hot induction process. Samples were taken from the extrados, intrados, neutral line and straight section of the curved tube. Residual stresses were studied by two conventional methods: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Hole-Drilling, which are destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively, in order to assess their qualitative responses. Each of these methods presents particular methodologies in sample preparation and material analysis, but also they differ in factors such time consumption and cost of the analysis. The qualitative responses obtained by the two different methods were comparable and satisfactory and pointed out the existence of a compressive residual stress state in steel pipe. (author)

  5. Sensitiaztion of austenitic stainless steels and its significance as regards stress-corrosion cracking of BWR pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.; Otterberg, R.

    1984-05-01

    A critical literature evaluation dealing with sensitization of austenitic stainless steels and its importance in the context of intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-temperature, oxygenated water is presented. The factors influencing the degree of sensitization are discussed, principally for type-304 stainless steels, both as regards sensitization arising as a result of isothermal holding within the critical temperature range and weld sensitization. The phenomenon of low-temperature sensitization is described and its potential significance under BWR operating conditions speculated upon. The principal features of and mechanisms controlling IGSCC of sensitized 304 steels in BWR-type environments are reviewed and some thoughts are given to the relevance of laboratory SCC testing in predicting the occurrence of cracking in actual BWR systems. Finally various countermeasures against IGSCC in existing and projected reactors are presented and discussed. (Author)

  6. Simplified pipe gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, H.; Nordskov, A.; Sass, B.; Visler, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified version of a deuterium pellet gun based on the pipe gun principle is described. The pipe gun is made from a continuous tube of stainless steel and gas is fed in from the muzzle end only. It is indicated that the pellet length is determined by the temperature gradient along the barrel right outside the freezing cell. Velocities of around 1000 m/s with a scatter of +- 2% are obtained with a propellant gas pressure of 40 bar

  7. Optimum fiber distribution in singlewall corrugated fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik; William E. Denniston

    1979-01-01

    Determining optimum distribution of fiber through rational design of corrugated fiberboard could result in significant reductions in fiber required to meet end-use conditions, with subsequent reductions in price pressure and extension of the softwood timber supply. A theory of thin plates under large deformations is developed that is both kinematically and physically...

  8. Stiffness Matrices and Anisotropy in the Trapezoidal Corrugated Composite Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golzar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the some applications like as morphing technology, high strain and anisotropic behavior are essential design requirements. The corrugated composite sheets due to their special geometries have potential to high deflection under axial loading through longitudinal direction of corrugation. In this research, the strain and the anisotropic behavior of corrugated composite sheets are investigated by fabricating glass/epoxy samples with trapezoidal geometries. For evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the composites the samples were subjected to tension and flexural tests in the longitudinal and transverse directions of corrugation. In order to determine anisotropic behavior of the corrugated sheets, two approaches were introduced: (1 tensile anisotropic (E* and (2 flexural anisotropic (D*. The anisotropic behavior and ultimate deflections were investigated theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, mechanical behaviors based on theoretical and experimental analysis including the elastic constants and stiffness matrices of trapezoidal corrugated composite sheets were studied and the results were verified by finite element method. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions were compared with those of experimental tests. Finally, the load-displacement curves of tensile tests in longitudinal direction of corrugation, the ultimate deflection and anisotropy behavior of these exclusive composite sheets in the corrugated composite sheets were studied experimentally. The experimental results of the trapezoidal corrugated sheets showed that one of the most important parameters in the ultimate strain was amplitude of the corrugation elements. Generally, increasing the amplitude and element per length unit of trapezoidal corrugated specimen led to higher ultimate strain.

  9. Passive heat transfer enhancement in 3D corrugated tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navickaité, Kristina; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    transfer and fluid flow with a constant wall temperature and total pressure drop. The governing equations for these problems were solved using the Finite Element Method. The results of numerical modelling show significant increase in NTU for double corrugated tubes compared to a circular tube. The friction......An innovative hydraulic design was studied for corrugated tube geometry for a heat exchanger. An ellipse based double corrugation was used as a concept of the geometry. The hydraulic diameter (Dh) is maintained over the tube length while the shape of the cross section varies continuously along...... the flow direction. 38 corrugated tubes with a Dh of 5 mm were studied numerically with corrugation heights from 0.23 to 0.69 mm and corrugation periods from 5 to 50 mm for laminar flow with water. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as a tool to study the effect of corrugation geometry on heat...

  10. Numerical investigation on residual stress distribution and evolution during multipass narrow gap welding of thick-walled stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Zhang, J.X.; Xue, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We performed pass-by-pass simulation of stresses for welding of thick-walled pipes. → The distributions and evolution of the residual stresses are demonstrated. → After the groove is filled to a height, the through-wall stress is almost unchanged. - Abstracts: The detailed pass-by-pass finite element (FE) simulation is presented to investigate the residual stresses in narrow gap multipass welding of pipes with a wall thickness of 70 mm and 73 weld passes. The simulated residual stress on the outer surface is validated with the experimental one. The distribution and evolution of the through-wall residual stresses are demonstrated. The investigated results show that the residual stresses on the outer and inner surfaces are tensile in the weld zone and its vicinity. The through-wall axial residual stresses at the weld center line and the HAZ line demonstrate a distribution of bending type. The through-wall hoop residual stress within the weld is mostly tensile. After the groove is filled to a certain height, the peak tensile stresses and the stress distribution patterns for both axial and hoop stresses remain almost unchanged.

  11. Efficient simulation of flow and heat transfer in arbitrarily shaped pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen Esquivel, P.I.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of fluids through pipes is a very common application. Corrugated pipes have characteristics such as local stiffness and flexibility that makes them convenient in several application areas such as offshore LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) transfer, cryogenic engineering, domestic appliances,

  12. Pipes out of the chromium-molybdenum 12Kh2M1 steel intended for power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saf'yanov, A.V.; Plyatskovskij, O.A.; Khokhlov-Nekrasov, O.G.; Palatnikova, E.S.; Karpenko, N.P.

    1977-01-01

    Vanadiumless steel 12Kh2M1 (2.25%Cr, 1%Mo) known to be applied abroad has been used for production of 325x60 mm tubes. The technology involves heating of the blanks to 1270-1300 deg C, their piercing in a double-roller mill, rolling on a pilger mill 8-16'' in thick wall caliber rolls, thermal treatment (normalizing at 930-960 deg C for 1 hour and tempering at 730+-10 deg C for 4 hours and etching (12-22% H 2 SO 4 and up to 143 g/l FeSO 4 ) for 3-4 hours at 55-65 deg C. Good technological properties of the steel and its capacity of working at 540-580 deg C are confirmed. Vanadium alloying of boiler steels does not provide for essential improvement of oxydation resistance and long term strength, but decreases the workability and enhances scatter of working parameters on account of minor variations of chemical composition

  13. Creep performance of welded pipe material made of 7CrMoVTiB10-10 (T/P24) steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, Juhani; Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma; Holmstroem, Stefan; Nevasmaa, Pekka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Haekkilae, Juha [Foster Wheeler Energia, Varkaus (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    The creep strength of welded low-alloy ferritic steels is typically somewhat lower than that for parent metal, but this is generally due to an inherent weakness of the heat affected zone and accounted for in the common design codes. However, the parent material strength is much higher in certain modern low alloy steels such as 7CrMoVTiB10-10 (P24), and then it can be a significant challenge to develop weld metals (welding consumables) to match this strength. Acceptable weld performance has been previously demonstrated for thin-wall tubes where sufficient mixing with the base material can occur. The objective of this work was to achieve satisfactory properties for a thick-wall welded pipe by using an Nb-modified consumable to avoid weld metal weakening due to arc losses of Ti of a consumable composition approximately matching the base material. A considerable improvement was indeed noted in comparison with earlier experience using matching electrode composition. All short term test results for weld qualification showed acceptable properties, the cross-weld creep strength remain very close to the -20% band from the parent metal creep strength. However, creep testing at lowest stress levels approaching those expected in service resulted in weld metal failure. Although a clear improvement is evident from the previous generation of weld metals, there appears to be some further scope of development of the welding consumables, to improve the long term creep ductility of the welded joints particularly when applying production-like welding parameters. (orig.)

  14. Circumferential welding of API X80 steel pipes; Soldagem circunferencial em tubos de aco da classe API X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello Branco, J.F.; Bott, Ivani de S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia]. E-mails: joaofcb@uol.com.br; bott@dcmm.puc-rio.br; Fedele, R.A. [Boehler Thyssen Welding, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: engenharia@btwbr.com.br; Souza, Luis Felipe G. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial Mecanica]. E-mail: lfelipe@cefet-rj.br

    2003-07-01

    The present work is a part of an extensive program for the development of API 5L Gr.X80 grade steel , produced by the well-known UOE production process, for pipeline fabrication. The current stage of this program involves the characterization and performance evaluation/qualification of girth welds produced by Shield Metal Arc Weld (SMAW) under simulated field conditions, with tubes fixed in the horizontal position. Three types of electrodes were utilized for the basic tasks; the root pass, the hot pass and fill and cap passes. The root pass was carried out with an E-6010 electrode to avoid incomplete joint penetration. The hot pass, applied over the root pass, was performed with an E-9010-G electrode. The fill and cap passes were executed with E-10018-G electrodes. The welded joints produced were evaluated according to the API 1104 specification, which requires: side bend, nick- break and tensile tests. Additionally, non-destructive tests, Charpy-V impact tests and metallographic characterization were undertaken. It was verified that this welding procedure, based on three types of electrodes, could produce welded joints in accordance to the API 1104 specification. These results ensure the applicability of the API 5L Gr. X80 steel developed in this research project for use in pipeline construction. (author)

  15. Effect of ferrite on the precipitation of σ phase in cast austenitic stainless steel used for primary coolant pipes of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Na, E-mail: wangyongqiang1124@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-11-15

    The effect of ferrite phase on the precipitation of σ phase in a Z3CN20.09M cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) used for primary coolant pipes of pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants was investigated by using isothermal heat-treatment, optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques. The influence of different morphologies and volume fractions of ferrite in the σ phase formation mechanism was discussed. The amount of σ phase precipitated in all specimens with different microstructures increased with increasing of aging time, however, the precipitation rate is significant different. The formation of σ phase in specimens with the coarsest ferrite and the dispersively smallest ferrite is slowest. The lowest level Cr content in ferrite and fewest α/γ interfaces in specimen are the main reasons for the slowest σ precipitation due to they are unfavorable for the kinetics and thermodynamics of phase transformation respectively. By contraries, the fastest formation of σ phase takes place in specimens with narrow and long ferrite due to the most α/γ interfaces and higher Cr content in ferrite which are beneficial for preferential nucleation and formation thermodynamics of σ phase. (author)

  16. Review of the models and mechanisms for environmentally-assisted crack growth of pressure vessel and piping steels in PWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.; Gabetta, G.; Hanninen, H.

    1985-12-01

    The crack-tip micromechanisms and the computational models for environmentally-assisted cracking in pressure vessel and piping steels in high-temperature, low-oxygen (PWR), reactor-grade water are described and evaluated in this report. The report begins with a brief description of the critical variables which are known to affect environmentally-assisted subcritical cracking in these metal/environment systems. The micromechanistic models are discussed in some detail, with anodic dissolution and hydrogen assistance being the prime candidates for the successful explanation of the observed phenomena. The anodic dissolution model offers far better quantification of the environmentally-assisted crack growth rates, but tends to overpredict the rates for a large number of conditions. The hydrogen assistance models qualitatively could account for a wider range of effects, but quantification of the model is virtually nonexistent. A variety of calculational models are in various stages of development; all of them are far from use as a predictive tool. Crack-tip strain rate models have received the most attention, and the approach to their use has been to partition the environmentally-assisted growth rates into a mechanically-driven component, with the environmental enhancement superposed. The environment component is then correlated with a calculated crack-tip strain rate. 141 refs., 59 figs

  17. Ice plugging of pipes using liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents a study on the ice plugging of pipe using liquid nitrogen, and is based on a literature review and on discussions with individuals who use the technique. Emphasis is placed on ferritic alloys, primarily carbon steels, in pipe sized up to 60 cm in diameter and on austenitic stainless steels in pipe sizes up to 30 cm in diameter. This technique is frequently used for leak testing in nuclear facilities

  18. Differential Hall-sensor Pulsed Eddy Current Probe for the Detection of Wall thinning in an Insulated Stainless Steel Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D. G.; Angani, Chandra S.; Cheong, Y. M.; Kim, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    The local wall thinning is one of the most important factors to limit the life-extension of large structures, such as the pipe lines in the NPPs. The pipelines are covered with a thermal insulator for low thermal loss. The PEC testing is the promising technological approach to the NDT, and it has been principally developed for the measurement of surface flaws, subsurface flaws and corrosion. In the pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique, the excitation coil is driven by repeated pulses. According to the skin - depth relationship multiple frequency components penetrate to different depths, hence the PEC technique has the potential for bringing up deeper information about the tested sample. Because of the potential advantages of the PEC, prevalent investigations on this technique have been done. In the present study a differential probe which is used in the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) system has been fabricated for the detection of wall thinning of insulated pipelines in a nuclear power plant (NPP). This technique can be used as a potential tool to detect the corrosion or the wall thinning of the pipelines without removing the insulation

  19. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Silicon Carbide Corrugated Mirrors for Space Telescopes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) proposes technology development to manufacture monolithic, lightweight silicon carbide corrugated mirrors (SCCM) suitable for...

  1. Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow through a microparallel channel with corrugated walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buren, Mandula; Jian, Yongjun; Chang, Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a perturbation method is introduced to study the electromagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) flow in a microparallel channel with slightly corrugated walls. The corrugations of the two walls are periodic sinusoidal waves of small amplitude either in phase or half-period out of phase, and the perturbation solutions of velocity and volume flow rate are obtained. Using numerical computation the effects of the corrugations on the flow are graphically analysed. The results show that the influence of corrugation on the flow decreases with Hartmann number. The phase difference of wall corrugations becomes unimportant when the wavenumber is greater than 3 or when the Hartmann number is greater than 4. With the increase in wavenumber, the decreasing effects of corrugations on the flow increase. When the wavenumber is smaller than the threshold wavenumber (it is a function of Hartmann number) and the wall corrugations are half-period out of phase, the corrugations can enhance the mean velocity of EMHD flow. However, the mean velocity is always decreased when the corrugations are in phase. (paper)

  2. On the whistling of corrugated pipes : effect of pipe length and flow profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Golliard, J.; Hirschberg, A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of sound production by internal flows has a broad range of applications such as: monitoring of respiratory sound of intensive care patients, design of vocal folds prosthesis, design of efficient mufflers, control of the stability of large scale natural gas transport, reduction of

  3. Dynamic experiments on cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Brunet, G.; Buland, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to apply the leak before break concept to piping systems, the behavior of cracked pipes under dynamic, and especially seismic loading must be studied. In a first phase, an experimental program on cracked stainless steel pipes under quasi-static monotonic loading has been conducted. In this paper, the dynamic tests on the same pipe geometry are described. These tests have been performed on a shaking table with a mono frequency input signal. The main parameter of the tests is the frequency of excitation versus the frequency of the system

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., “Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High Pressure Service at... by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM D2517—Thermosetting plastic pipe and tubing, “Standard Specification...

  5. 46 CFR 34.25-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) Distribution piping shall be of materials resistant to corrosion, except that steel or iron pipe may be used if inside corrosion resistant...

  6. Dynamic tension testing equipment for paperboard and corrugated fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Godshall

    1965-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a method, the testing equipment, and the instrumentation with which dynamic stress-strain information may be obtained for paperboards and built-up corrugated fiberboards as used in corrugated fiberboard containers. Much information is available on the properties of these materials when subjected to static or low rates of...

  7. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through either one or two vertical transparent blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. Five experiments with one pipe and six with two parallel pipes were carried out. The main purpose of the experiments was to study loads caused by chugging (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. In the experiments the initial temperature of the condensation pool water varied from 12 deg. C to 55 deg. C, the steam flow rate from 40 g/s to 1 300 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 120 deg. C to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with only one transparent blowdown pipe chugging phenomenon didn't occur as intensified as in the preceding experiments carried out with a DN200 stainless steel pipe. With the steel blowdown pipe even 10 times higher pressure pulses were registered inside the pipe. Meanwhile, loads registered in the pool didn't indicate significant differences between the steel and polycarbonate pipe experiments. In the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes, the steamwater interface moved almost synchronously up and down inside both pipes. Chugging was stronger than in the one pipe experiments and even two times higher loads were measured inside the pipes. The loads at the blowdown pipe outlet were approximately the same as in the one pipe cases. Other registered loads around the pool were about 50-100 % higher than with one pipe. The experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes gave contradictory results compared to the earlier studies dealing with chugging loads in case of multiple pipes. Contributing

  8. Effects of mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed for the effects of the mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. From saving the size of specimens, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is proposed to operate the present strain-controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, are applied to study the effects. Fatigue test has been carried out on totally 104 specimens. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and the saturation hysteresis loops under the six ratios hold an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress. There is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case. Previous Zhao's random stress-strain relations are therefore applied to characterizing effectively the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Ramberg-Osgood equation. Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average stress amplitudes, the standard deviations of the stress amplitudes, and the stress amplitudes under different survival probabilities and confidences. The results reveal that the ratios act a relatively decreasing effect to the stress amplitudes under higher survival probabilities and confidences. The strongest effect appears at the ratio of 0.029, and a weaker effect acts as the distance increase of the ratio from the zero. In addition, it is indicated that the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into account the scattering regularity of test data and the size of sampling. (author)

  9. Effect of Dynamic Reheating Controlled by the Weaving Width on the Microstructure of GTA Bead-On-Pipe Weld Metal of 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Joon Sung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW with three different heat inputs controlled by the weaving width was performed to understand their effects on the microstructural changes during bead-on-pipe welding of super duplex stainless steel. The microstructure of the weld metals was categorized into three different types of zones: non-reheated, reheated type, and reheating-free zone. Even though single-pass welding with different weaving widths was employed, a reheated microstructure was detected, which has been previously observed with multiple pass welding. This phenomenon was called “dynamic reheating”, because it was produced by the weaving operation during welding regardless of the weaving width. The categorized area fraction varied with the weaving width change. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD results at the edge (the area near the fusion line of the low-heat-input condition indicated a higher austenite volume fraction and a lower Cr2N fraction than that of the medium heat input condition. Thus, it described an inverse relationship, because higher heat input provided a lower austenite fraction. In addition, it was observed clearly that the austenite fraction at the medium heat input condition was dramatically increased by reheating, while the Cr2N fraction was reduced. Regardless of the weaving width, reheating contributed to the increase of the austenite fraction, further reducing the Cr2N quantity. The edge areas in the map showed an inverse relationship in the reheated area fraction between low heat input and medium heat input. For this reason, the austenite fraction on the weld metal was determined not only by the heat input, but also by the amount of reheating.

  10. Behaviour of steel pipe exposed to fouling by heavy oil during core-annular flow; Comportamento de tubo de aco exposto a sujeira de oleo pesado durante escoamento nucleo-anular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Adriana; Bannwart, Antonio C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The use of water-assisted technologies such as core-annular flow to the pipelines of viscous oils has been proposed as an attractive alternative for production and transportation of heavy crudes in both onshore and offshore scenarios. Usually, core-annular flow can be created by injecting a relatively small water flow rate laterally in the pipe, so as to form a thin water annulus surrounding the viscous oil, which is pumped through the center. The reduction in friction losses obtained thanks to lubrication by water is significant, since the pressure drop in a steady state core flow becomes comparable to water flow only. For a complete assessment of core flow technology, however, unwanted effects associated with possible oil adhesion onto the pipe wall should be investigated, since these may cause severe fouling of the wall and pressure drop increase. It has been observed that oil adhesion on metallic surfaces may occur for certain types of crude and oilphilic pipe materials. In this work we present results of pressure drop monitoring during 35 hour-operation of a heavy oil-water core annular flow in a 26.08 mm. i.d. horizontal steel pipe. The oil used is described in terms of its main components and the results of static wet ability tests are also presented for comparison (author)

  11. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  12. Composite corrugated structures for morphing wing skin applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thill, C; Etches, J A; Bond, I P; Potter, K D; Weaver, P M

    2010-01-01

    Composite corrugated structures are known for their anisotropic properties. They exhibit relatively high stiffness parallel (longitudinal) to the corrugation direction and are relatively compliant in the direction perpendicular (transverse) to the corrugation. Thus, they offer a potential solution for morphing skin panels (MSPs) in the trailing edge region of a wing as a morphing control surface. In this paper, an overview of the work carried out by the present authors over the last few years on corrugated structures for morphing skin applications is first given. The second part of the paper presents recent work on the application of corrugated sandwich structures. Panels made from multiple unit cells of corrugated sandwich structures are used as MSPs in the trailing edge region of a scaled morphing aerofoil section. The aerofoil section features an internal actuation mechanism that allows chordwise length and camber change of the trailing edge region (aft 35% chord). Wind tunnel testing was carried out to demonstrate the MSP concept but also to explore its limitations. Suggestions for improvements arising from this study were deduced, one of which includes an investigation of a segmented skin. The overall results of this study show that the MSP concept exploiting corrugated sandwich structures offers a potential solution for local morphing wing skins for low speed and small air vehicles

  13. Research on 16Mo3 (16M Steel Pipes Overlaid with Haynes Nicro625 Alloy Using MIG (131 Method / Badania Rur Ze Stali 16Mo3 (16M Napawanych Metodą MIG (131 Stopem Haynes Nicro625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golański G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a pipe made of 16Mo3 steel, overlaid with superalloy based on Haynes NiCro625 nickel. The overlay weld was overlaid using the MIG (131 method. The performed macro - and microscopic tests have shown the correct structure of the overlay weld without any welding unconformities. The examined overlay weld was characterized by a dendritic structure of the primary crystals accumulating towards the heat removal. It has been proved that the content of iron in the surface zone does not exceed 7%, and the steel-superalloy joint shows the highest properties in comparison with the materials joined.

  14. UOE Pipe Manufacturing Process Simulation: Equipment Designing and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistoian, Dmitri; Chirchor, Mihael

    2017-12-01

    UOE pipe manufacturing process influence directly on pipeline resilience and operation capacity. At present most spreaded pipe manufacturing method is UOE. This method is based on cold forming. After each technological step appears a certain stress and strain level. For pipe stress strain study is designed and constructed special equipment that simulate entire technological process.UOE pipe equipment is dedicated for manufacturing of longitudinally submerged arc welded DN 400 (16 inch) steel pipe.

  15. Mathematical Model for Thin-walled Corrugated Tube under Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyvazian Arameh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, theoretical investigation of corrugated aluminum tubes is performed to predicting the energy absorption characteristics. Aim to deform plastic tubes in predetermined intervals, corrugations are introduced on its surface. Theoretical relations are presented for predicting the energy absorption and mean crushing load of corrugated tubes. Other than that, corrugation helps to control the failure mode.

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE DESIGN OF UNCONVENTIONAL CORRUGATED BOARD STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIDONI Nadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper depicts a few contributions on the design of several unconventional corrugated board structures. In general, cardboard and corrugated cardboard is strongly linked to packaging. However, limiting these materials to their primary use does nothing else but to restrict the possibilities of using them in other interesting areas. Consequently, new structures built from cardboard have been imagined and in the paper there are presented a few unconventional uses of the corrugated fiberboard, namely as furniture elements, along with the technology used in the design and the manufacturing process.

  17. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Muhammad; Soedardjo, B.; Arhatari, Dewi; Andryansyah; Haryanto, Mudi; Triyadi, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  18. The effects of cyclic and dynamic loading on the fracture resistance of nuclear piping steels. Technical report, October 1992--April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results of the material property evaluation efforts performed within Task 3 of the IPIRG-2 Program. Several related investigations were conducted. (1) Quasi-static, cyclic-load compact tension specimen experiments were conducted using parameters similar to those used in IPIRG-1 experiments on 6-inch nominal diameter through-wall-cracked pipes. These experiments were conducted on a TP304 base metal, an A106 Grade B base metal, and their respective submerged-arc welds. The results showed that when using a constant cyclic displacement increment, the compact tension experiments could predict the through-wall-cracked pipe crack initiation toughness, but a different control procedure is needed to reproduce the pipe cyclic crack growth in the compact tension tests. (2) Analyses conducted showed that for 6-inch diameter pipe, the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve can be used in making cyclic pipe moment predictions; however, sensitivity analyses suggest that the maximum moments decrease slightly from cyclic toughness degradation as the pipe diameter increases. (3) Dynamic stress-strain and compact tension tests were conducted to expand on the existing dynamic database. Results from dynamic moment predictions suggest that the dynamic compact tension J-R and the quasi-static stress-strain curves are the appropriate material properties to use in making dynamic pipe moment predictions.

  19. The effects of cyclic and dynamic loading on the fracture resistance of nuclear piping steels. Technical report, October 1992--April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results of the material property evaluation efforts performed within Task 3 of the IPIRG-2 Program. Several related investigations were conducted. (1) Quasi-static, cyclic-load compact tension specimen experiments were conducted using parameters similar to those used in IPIRG-1 experiments on 6-inch nominal diameter through-wall-cracked pipes. These experiments were conducted on a TP304 base metal, an A106 Grade B base metal, and their respective submerged-arc welds. The results showed that when using a constant cyclic displacement increment, the compact tension experiments could predict the through-wall-cracked pipe crack initiation toughness, but a different control procedure is needed to reproduce the pipe cyclic crack growth in the compact tension tests. (2) Analyses conducted showed that for 6-inch diameter pipe, the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve can be used in making cyclic pipe moment predictions; however, sensitivity analyses suggest that the maximum moments decrease slightly from cyclic toughness degradation as the pipe diameter increases. (3) Dynamic stress-strain and compact tension tests were conducted to expand on the existing dynamic database. Results from dynamic moment predictions suggest that the dynamic compact tension J-R and the quasi-static stress-strain curves are the appropriate material properties to use in making dynamic pipe moment predictions

  20. Hardness and microstructural characterization of API 5L X70 steel pipes welded by HF/ERW process; Caracterizacao microestrutural e de dureza em tubos de aco API 5L X70 soldados pelo processo HF/ERW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcada, Mauricio Vieira; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Nascimento, Marcelino Pereira do [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    The materials that stand in the manufacture of steel pipes are called API, that should have, high mechanical resistance, high corrosion resistance, high fatigue resistance, good weldability, and other properties. Thus, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the microstructure and hardness of welded joints by the HF/ERW process of API 5L X70 steel pipes. The microstructural analysis was performed using a surface finish with grit sizes from 220 to 25 {mu}m e polishing with diamond paste from 9 {mu}m to 0.05 {mu}m; the revelation was made with 3% Nital attack. The Vickers hardness was performed across the welded joint by 33 points to indentation. The results were: 80.5 {+-} 3.4% of ferrite and 19.5 {+-} 3.4% of perlite for microanalysis. As for hardness, the values were: 215.69 HV10 for weld line, 218.65 HV10 for ZTA and 218.95 HV10 for base metal. (author)

  1. Optical properties of nonimaging concentrators with corrugated reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roennelid, Mats; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjorn

    1994-09-01

    A ray tracing study has been performed on the optical properties of cylindrical nonimaging concentrators with linear corrugated reflectors. The corrugations are assumed to be V-formed and to have an extension parallel to the meridian plane of the concentrators. It is shown that the acceptance angle for radiation incident in the meridian plane can be increased for moderate corrugations. This increased acceptance is balanced by a decreased acceptance of radiation from other directions. Calculations of angular acceptance for a 2X compound parabolic concentrator is presented. It is shown that the annual irradiation on a solar collector with booster reflector can be increased if corrugated reflectors are used instead of smooth reflectors.

  2. Theoretical prediction on corrugated sandwich panels under bending loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chengfu; Hou, Shujuan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, an aluminum corrugated sandwich panel with triangular core under bending loads was investigated. Firstly, the equivalent material parameters of the triangular corrugated core layer, which could be considered as an orthotropic panel, were obtained by using Castigliano's theorem and equivalent homogeneous model. Secondly, contributions of the corrugated core layer and two face panels were both considered to compute the equivalent material parameters of the whole structure through the classical lamination theory, and these equivalent material parameters were compared with finite element analysis solutions. Then, based on the Mindlin orthotropic plate theory, this study obtain the closed-form solutions of the displacement for a corrugated sandwich panel under bending loads in specified boundary conditions, and parameters study and comparison by the finite element method were executed simultaneously.

  3. Internal biocorrosion of steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, F G; Bramhill, B

    1990-03-31

    The effects of biocide dose on the development of corrosive microbial biofilms, corrosion rates, and deposition of corrosion deposits at an oilfield water injection field test facility near Wainwright, Alberta were evaluated. Attached microbial populations were allowed to develop in five test lines during the first four weeks of operation during two separate experimental runs. The biocide was injected for ten weeks into four lines in paired combinations of two different concentrations and time intervals. A differnt cocodiamine-based biocide formulation was used in each experimental run. Ultraviolet irradiation was used to disinfect input water streams on two test lines under biocide treatment during the last four weeks of the first experimental run. In the first experimental run all test lines were heavily colonized by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acid-producing bacteria (APB). Bacterial counts were lower over the corresponding period in the second experimental run, suggesting that a decrease in nutrient availability had occurred. In both experiments, a steady decline in bacterial counts was observed after biocide treatment started. Turnover rates of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide were also inhibited by biocide. Changes in dosage levels and UV disinfection of input water streams did not significantly alter biocide performance in either of the experimental runs; however, the biocide used in the second experiment was less effective against SRB than the formulation used in the first experiment. This difference, and the lack of response to changes in dosage levels, implies that biocide efficacy depends strongly on penetration through biofilms of attached bacteria. Biocide treatment did prevent further increases in corrosion rates, as observed during both experimental runs in untreated control lines. 32 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  5. Bandwidth Study of the Microwave Reflectors with Rectangular Corrugations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; He, Wenlong; Donaldson, Craig R.; Cross, Adrian W.

    2016-09-01

    The mode-selective microwave reflector with periodic rectangular corrugations in the inner surface of a circular metallic waveguide is studied in this paper. The relations between the bandwidth and reflection coefficient for different numbers of corrugation sections were studied through a global optimization method. Two types of reflectors were investigated. One does not consider the phase response and the other does. Both types of broadband reflectors operating at W-band were machined and measured to verify the numerical simulations.

  6. Impact of Corrugated Paperboard Structure on Puncture Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidas Bivainis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its excellentprotective properties, lightness, a reasonable price, and ecology, corrugated paperboardis one of the most popular materials used in the production of packaging for variousproducts. During transportation or storage, packaging with goods can be exposedto the mass of other commodities, dropping from heights and transportationshock loads, which can lead to their puncture damage. Depending on the purposeand size of the packaging, the thickness, grammage, constituent paper layers,numbers of layers and type of fluting of corrugated paperboard used in itsproduction differ. A standard triangular prism, corrugated paperboard fixationplates and a universal tension-compression machine were used to investigate theimpact of corrugated paperboard structure and other parameters on the punctureresistance of the material. The investigation determines the maximum punctureload and estimates energy required to penetrate the corrugated paperboard. Itwas found that the greatest puncture resistance is demonstrated by paperboardwith a larger number of corrugating flutings and the board produced from harderpaper with a smaller amount of recycled paper. It was established that thegrammage of three-layered paperboard with two different fluting profiles has thegreatest impact on the level of static puncture energy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5713

  7. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine whether an increase in the damping values used in seismic structural analyses of nuclear piping systems is justified. Increasing the allowable damping would allow fewer piping supports which could lead to safer, more reliable, and less costly piping systems. Test data from availble literature were examined to determine the important parameters contributing to piping system damping, and each was investigated in separate-effects tests. From the combined results a world pipe damping data bank was established and multiple regression analyses performed to assess the relative contributions of the various parameters. The program is being extended to determine damping applicable to higher frequency (33 to 100 Hz) fluid-induced loadings. The goals of the program are to establish a methodology for predicting piping system damping and to recommend revised guidelines for the damping values to be included in analyses

  8. Demonstration and Validation of Controlled Low-Strength Materials for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Steel Pipes: Final Report on Project F09-A17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    steel surfaces. Two different CLSM blends were tested. Both used cement and a flowability admixture, but one used native soil instead of standard...by about 63% in the soil cement . Therefore, CLSMs can reduce the cost of applying CP to buried steel structures. The return-on-investment ratio for...was exposed in the native-soil backfill to deter- mine the corrosion rate in the absence of any flowable fill or soil cement . The removable steel

  9. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been developed to assess the available piping damping data, to generate additional data and conduct seperate effects tests, and to establish a plan for reporting and storing future test results into a data bank. This effort is providing some of the basis for developing higher allowable damping values for piping seismic analyses, which will potentially permit removal of a considerable number of piping supports, particularly snubbers. This in turn will lead to more flexible piping systems which will be less susceptible to thermal cracking, will be easier to maintain and inspect, as well as less costly

  10. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance. (b...

  12. A Multifrequency Notch Filter for Millimeter Wave Plasma Diagnostics based on Photonic Bandgaps in Corrugated Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive millimeter wave diagnostics need often to be protected against unwanted radiation like, for example, stray radiation from high power Electron Cyclotron Heating applied in nuclear fusion plasmas. A notch filter based on a waveguide Bragg reflector (photonic band-gap may provide several stop bands of defined width within up to two standard waveguide frequency bands. A Bragg reflector that reflects an incident fundamental TE11 into a TM1n mode close to cutoff is combined with two waveguide tapers to fundamental waveguide diameter. Here the fundamental TE11 mode is the only propagating mode at both ends of the reflector. The incident TE11 mode couples through the taper and is converted to the high order TM1n mode by the Bragg structure at the specific Bragg resonances. The TM1n mode is trapped in the oversized waveguide section by the tapers. Once reflected at the input taper it will be converted back into the TE11 mode which then can pass through the taper. Therefore at higher order Bragg resonances, the filter acts as a reflector for the incoming TE11 mode. Outside of the Bragg resonances the TE11 mode can propagate through the oversized waveguide structure with only very small Ohmic attenuation compared to propagating in a fundamental waveguide. Coupling to other modes is negligible in the non-resonant case due to the small corrugation amplitude (typically 0.05·λ0, where λ0 is the free space wavelength. A Bragg reflector for 105 and 140 GHz was optimized by mode matching (scattering matrix simulations and manufactured by SWISSto12 SA, where the required mechanical accuracy of ± 5 μm could be achieved by stacking stainless steel rings, manufactured by micro-machining, in a high precision guiding pipe. The two smooth-wall tapers were fabricated by electroforming. Several measurements were performed using vector network analyzers from Agilent (E8362B, ABmm (MVNA 8-350 and Rohde&Schwarz (ZVA24 together with frequency multipliers. The

  13. Qualification of new design of flexible pipe against singing: testing at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Lunde, K.; Vijlbrief, O.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible pipes for production of oil and gas typically present a corrugated inner surface. This has been identified as the cause of "singing risers": Flow-Induced Pulsations due to the interaction of sound waves with the shear layers at the small cavities present at each of the multiple

  14. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by gas inside a heated steel pipe when rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. While the effective focal length of such a system has previously been studied...

  15. Pipe connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated

  16. Applications of the essay at slow deformation velocity in pipes of stainless steel AISI-304; Aplicaciones del ensayo a velocidad de deformacion lenta en tuberias de acero inoxidable AISI-304

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L.; Mora R, T. De la [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays is carried out research related with the degradation mechanisms of structures, systems and/or components in the nuclear power plants, since many of the involved processes are those responsible for the dependability of these, of the integrity of the components and of the aspects of safety. The purpose of this work, was to determine the grade of susceptibility to the corrosion of a pipe of Austenitic stainless steel AISI 304, in a solution of Na CI (3.5%) to the temperatures of 60 and 90 C, in two different thermal treatments - 1. - Sensitive 650 C by 4 hours and cooled in water. 2. Solubilized to 1050 C by 1 hour and cooled in water.

  17. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  18. Survival of indicator organisms, e.g. E. coli in drinking water pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Silhan, J.; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.

    2006-01-01

    The survival of E. coli was investigated in used drinking water pipes from households. The investigation showed that E. coli survived longer in plastic pipes than in cupper pipes and galvanized steel pipes. The investigation also showed longer survival at cold water temperatures (15?C) than at hot...

  19. IPM Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submit A Report View Reports List [+] View Reports Map [+] CDM Alert System Sign Up For Alerts User Login Annual Epidemic Histories Annual Season Summaries Contact Us ipmPIPE User Login Web Administrator Login

  20. Pipe grabber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Mubashirov, S.G.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-05-15

    A pipe grabber is suggested which contains a housing, clamping elements and centering mechanism with drive installed on the lower end of the housing. In order to improve the reliable operation of the pipe grabber, the centering mechanism is made in the form of a reinforced ringed flexible shaft, while the drive is made in the form of elastic rotating discs. In this case the direction of rotation of the discs and the flexible shaft is the opposite.

  1. Carneiro hidráulico com tubulação de alimentação em aço galvanizado e em PVC Hydraulic ram pump perfomance with PVC and steel pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Abate

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A recente crise da energia convencional tem ocasionado a exploração de fontes alternativas de energia. O bombeamento de água utilizando carneiro hidráulico é amplamente empregado em propriedades onde a energia elétrica é escassa ou inexistente. Procurando dar subsídios técnicos para a utilização do PVC nos sistemas de alimentação de um carneiro hidráulico, foi desenvolvido um experimento com objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de um carneiro hidráulico quando alimentado por uma tubulação de PVC e outra de aço galvanizado, sob três alturas de queda (2,1, 3,8 e 4,7 m. Foi utilizada a equação de D'Aubussion's para a avaliação do rendimento, calculado a partir de leituras de altura de recalque, vazão de escape, vazão de recalque e altura de alimentação. Pode-se conseguir o máximo rendimento com o carneiro hidráulico utilizando-se de tubulação de PVC com até 4,2 m de desnível; além desse valor a tubulação de aço galvanizado é mais eficiente.The recent conventional energy crisis is leading to the exploration of alternative energy sources. The pumping of water using ram pumps is widely used in farms where electric energy is scarce or inexistent. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of an hydraulic ram pump utilizing two kinds of supply pipes (PVC and steel using three different supply heads (2.1, 3.8 and 4.7. Delivery head, delivery discharge, waste discharge and supply head were utilized to calculate the yield of the hydraulic ram by the equation of D'Aubussion. The maximum yield of the hydraulic ram was obtained for the PVC pipe for the 4.2 m head; for heads higher than 4.2 m the steel pipe was more efficient.

  2. Mass transfer in corrugated-plate membrane modules. I. Hyperfiltration experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, M.J.; Racz, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    The application of corrugations as turbulence promoters in membrane filtration was studied. This study showed that it is possible to deform an originally flat membrane to a corrugated shape without damaging it. In hyperfiltration experiments using corrugated cellulose acetate membranes it was found

  3. Influences of lumped passes on welding residual stress of a thick-walled nuclear rotor steel pipe by multipass narrow gap welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Long, E-mail: mse.longtan@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Jianxun; Zhuang, Dong [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Chuan [Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Welding Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The internal residual stress of the thick-walled pipe is measured by using the local removal blind hole method. • Two lumped-pass models are developed to reduce computational cost. • The effect of lumped passes on the welding residual stress is discussed. • Reasonable lumped-pass model can guarantee the accuracy and improve the computational efficiency. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the lumped passes simulation on the distribution of residual stresses before and after heat treatment in a thick-walled nuclear power rotor pipe with a 89-pass narrow gap welding process. The local removal blind hole method was used to measure internal residual stress of the thick-walled pipe after post weld heat treatment (PWHT). Based on the ANSYS software, a two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model is employed. Two lumped-pass models of M-5th model (five weld beads as one lumped pass) and M-10th model (ten weld beads as one lumped pass) were developed to reduce computational cost. Based on the results in this study, the distributions of residual stresses of a thick-walled welded pipe before and after PWHT are developed. Meanwhile, the distribution of the through-wall axial residual stress along the weld center line is demonstrated to be a self-equilibrating type. In addition, the investigation results show that reasonable and reliable lumped-pass model can not only guarantee the accuracy of the simulated results, but also improve the computational efficiency in the thermo-elastic–plastic FE analysis procedure. Therefore, from the viewpoint of engineering application the developed lumped-pass computational procedure is a promising and useful method to predict residual stress of large and complex welded structures.

  4. Influences of lumped passes on welding residual stress of a thick-walled nuclear rotor steel pipe by multipass narrow gap welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Long; Zhang, Jianxun; Zhuang, Dong; Liu, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The internal residual stress of the thick-walled pipe is measured by using the local removal blind hole method. • Two lumped-pass models are developed to reduce computational cost. • The effect of lumped passes on the welding residual stress is discussed. • Reasonable lumped-pass model can guarantee the accuracy and improve the computational efficiency. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the lumped passes simulation on the distribution of residual stresses before and after heat treatment in a thick-walled nuclear power rotor pipe with a 89-pass narrow gap welding process. The local removal blind hole method was used to measure internal residual stress of the thick-walled pipe after post weld heat treatment (PWHT). Based on the ANSYS software, a two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model is employed. Two lumped-pass models of M-5th model (five weld beads as one lumped pass) and M-10th model (ten weld beads as one lumped pass) were developed to reduce computational cost. Based on the results in this study, the distributions of residual stresses of a thick-walled welded pipe before and after PWHT are developed. Meanwhile, the distribution of the through-wall axial residual stress along the weld center line is demonstrated to be a self-equilibrating type. In addition, the investigation results show that reasonable and reliable lumped-pass model can not only guarantee the accuracy of the simulated results, but also improve the computational efficiency in the thermo-elastic–plastic FE analysis procedure. Therefore, from the viewpoint of engineering application the developed lumped-pass computational procedure is a promising and useful method to predict residual stress of large and complex welded structures

  5. 78 FR 62583 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Pressure Pipe From Malaysia: Request for Extension of Preliminary Determination,'' ``Welded Stainless Steel... Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Postponement of...: Charles Riggle (Malaysia), Brandon [[Page 62584

  6. Development of ideal solution and validation of stiffness and strength by finite element method for truss-wall corrugated cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Ho [Samjung E and W, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hwan [Korea Institute of Materials Science,Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je Hyun [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The objective of this study is to find the density, stiffness, and strength of truss-wall unit cell models. The diamond-corrugation, triangular-corrugation, and Navtruss-corrugation models are used for the unit cell. The ideal solutions derived for these are based on solid wall unit cell models and are developed using the Gibson-Ashby theory. To verify the ideal solutions of the models, the density, strength, and stiffness are simulated using ABAQUS software and compared with the ideal solutions on a log-log scale. The material properties of stainless steel 304 are applied. The diameter is 0.5 mm; the opening width is 0.5 mm; and the corrugation angle is 45 .deg. . Consequently, the relative Young's modulus and relative yield strength of the truss-wall unit models are good matches for the ideal expectations. It may be possible to apply a truss-wall model to diverse fields such as transportation or biomedical applications as one of the open-cell cellular solids.

  7. Development of ideal solution and validation of stiffness and strength by finite element method for truss-wall corrugated cellular solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Je Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find the density, stiffness, and strength of truss-wall unit cell models. The diamond-corrugation, triangular-corrugation, and Navtruss-corrugation models are used for the unit cell. The ideal solutions derived for these are based on solid wall unit cell models and are developed using the Gibson-Ashby theory. To verify the ideal solutions of the models, the density, strength, and stiffness are simulated using ABAQUS software and compared with the ideal solutions on a log-log scale. The material properties of stainless steel 304 are applied. The diameter is 0.5 mm; the opening width is 0.5 mm; and the corrugation angle is 45 .deg. . Consequently, the relative Young's modulus and relative yield strength of the truss-wall unit models are good matches for the ideal expectations. It may be possible to apply a truss-wall model to diverse fields such as transportation or biomedical applications as one of the open-cell cellular solids.

  8. Effects of Induction Heat Bending and Heat Treatment on the Boric Acid Corrosion of Low Alloy Steel Pipe for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Kim, Young-Sik [Andong National University, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun-Young; Park, Heung-Bae [KEPCO EandC, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi-Ho; Shin, Min-Chul [Sungil SIM Co. Ltd, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In many plants, including nuclear power plants, pipelines are composed of numerous fittings such as elbows. When plants use these fittings, welding points need to be increased, and the number of inspections also then increases. As an alternative to welding, the pipe bending process forms bent pipe by applying strain at low or high temperatures. This work investigates how heat treatment affects on the boric acid corrosion of ASME SA335 Gr. P22 caused by the induction heat bending process. Microstructure analysis and immersion corrosion tests were performed. It was shown that every area of the induction heat bent pipe exhibited a high corrosion rate in the boric acid corrosion test. This behavior was due to the enrichment of phosphorous in the ferrite phase, which occurred during the induction heat bending process. This caused the ferrite phase to act as a corrosion initiation site. However, when re-heat treatment was applied after the bending process, it enhanced corrosion resistance. It was proved that this resistance was closely related to the degree of the phosphorus segregation in the ferrite phase.

  9. Manufacture of mold of polymeric composite water pipe reinforced charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar; Misdawati; Idris, M.; Nasution, F. K.; Harahap, U. N.; Simanjuntak, R. K.; Jufrizal; Pranoto, S.

    2018-03-01

    In general, household wastewater pipelines currently use thermoplastic pipes of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). This material is known to be not high heat resistant, contains hazardous chemicals (toxins), relatively inhospitable, and relatively more expensive. Therefore, researchers make innovations utilizing natural materials in the form of wood charcoal as the basic material of making the water pipe. Making this pipe requires a simple mold design that can be worked in the scale of household and intermediate industries. This research aims to produce water pipe mold with simple design, easy to do, and making time relatively short. Some considerations for molding materials are weight of mold, ease of raw material, strong, sturdy, and able to cast. Pipe molds are grouped into 4 (four) main parts, including: outer diameter pipe molding, pipe inside diameter, pipe holder, and pipe alignment control. Some materials have been tested as raw materials for outer diameter of pipes, such as wood, iron / steel, cement, and thermoset. The best results are obtained on thermoset material, where the process of disassembling is easier and the resulting mold weight is relatively lighter. For the inside diameter of the pipe is used stainless steel, because in addition to be resistant to chemical processes that occur, in this part of the mold must hold the press load due to shrinkage of raw materials of the pipe during the process of hardening (polymerization). Therefore, it needs high pressure resistant material and does not blend with the raw material of the pipe. The base of the mold is made of stainless steel material because it must be resistant to corrosion due to chemical processes. As for the adjustment of the pipe is made of ST 37 carbon steel, because its function is only as a regulator of the alignment of the pipe structure.

  10. Failure pressure of straight pipe with wall thinning under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Suzuki, Tomohisa; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The failure pressure of pipe with wall thinning was investigated by using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses (FEA). With careful modeling of the pipe and flaw geometry in addition to a proper stress-strain relation of the material, FEA could estimate the precise burst pressure obtained by the tests. FEA was conducted by assuming three kinds of materials: line pipe steel, carbon steel, and stainless steel. The failure pressure obtained using line pipe steel was the lowest under the same flaw size condition, when the failure pressure was normalized by the value of unflawed pipe defined using the flow stress. On the other hand, when the failure pressure was normalized by the results of FEA obtained for unflawed pipe under various flaw and pipe configurations, the failure pressures of carbon steel and line pipe steel were almost the same and lower than that of stainless steel. This suggests that the existing assessment criteria developed for line pipe steel can be applied to make a conservative assessment of carbon steel and stainless steel

  11. Piping inspection round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths

  12. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  13. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  14. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-03-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  15. The effect of hot bending and thermal ageing on creep and microstructure evolution in thick-walled P92 steel pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Kuchařová, Květa; Král, Petr; Kvapilová, Marie; Svobodová, M.; Čmakal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 644, SEP (2015), s. 297-309 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010260; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Steel * Thermomechanical processing * Mechanical characterization * Electron microscopy * Ageing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015

  16. Heat shrink formation of a corrugated thin film thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tianlei; Peavey, Jennifer L.; David Shelby, M.; Ferguson, Scott; O’Connor, Brendan T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Demonstrate and characterize a thermoelectric generator with a corrugated geometry. • Employ a novel heat shrink fabrication approach compatible with low-cost processing. • Use thermal impedance modeling to explore design potential. • Corrugated design shown to be advantageous for low heat-flux density applications. - Abstract: A thin film thermoelectric (TE) generator with a corrugated architecture is demonstrated formed using a heat-shrink fabrication approach. Fabrication of the corrugated TE structure consists of depositing thin film thermoelectric elements onto a planar non-shrink polyimide substrate that is then sandwiched between two uniaxial stretch-oriented co-polyester (PET) films. The heat shrink PET films are adhered to the polyimide in select locations, such that when the structure is placed in a high temperature environment, the outer films shrink resulting in a corrugated core film and thermoelectric elements spanning between the outer PET films. The module has a cross-plane heat transfer architecture similar to a conventional bulk TE module, but with heat transfer in the plane of the thin film thermoelectric elements, which assists in maintaining a significant temperature difference across the thermoelectric junctions. In this demonstration, Ag and Ni films are used as the thermoelectric elements and a Seebeck coefficient of 14 μV K −1 is measured with a maximum power output of 0.22 nW per couple at a temperature difference of 7.0 K. We then theoretically consider the performance of this device architecture with high performance thermoelectric materials in the heat sink limited regime. The results show that the heat-shrink approach is a simple fabrication method that may be advantageous in large-area, low power density applications. The fabrication method is also compatible with simple geometric modification to achieve various form factors and power densities to customize the TE generator for a range of applications

  17. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  18. On the Fully-Developed Heat Transfer Enhancing Flow Field in Sinusoidally, Spirally Corrugated Tubes Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Jakob; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A numerical study has been carried out to investigate heat transfer enhancing flow field in 28 geometrically different sinusoidally, spirally corrugated tubes. To vary the corrugation, the height of corrugation e/D and the length between two successive corrugated sections p/D are varied in the ra...

  19. Comparison of ICEPEL predictions with single elbow flexible piping system experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Moneim, M.T.; Chang, Y.W.

    1978-01-01

    The ICEPEL Code for coupled hydrodynamic-structural response analysis of piping systems is used to analyze an experiment on the response of flexible piping systems to internal pressure pulses. The piping system consisted of two flexible Nickel-200 pipes connected in series through a 90 0 thick-walled stainless steel elbow. A tailored pressure pulse generated by a calibrated pulse gun is stabilized in a long thick-walled stainless steel pipe leading to the flexible piping system which ended with a heavy blind flange. The analytical results of pressure and circumferential strain histories are discussed and compared against the experimental data obtained by Stanford Research Institute

  20. Secondary pipe rupture at Mihama unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajime Ito; Takehiko Sera

    2005-01-01

    The secondary system pipe rupture occurred on August 9, 2004, while Mihama unit 3 was operating at the rated thermal power. The rupture took place on the condensate line-A piping between the No.4 LP heater and the deaerator, downstream of an orifice used for measuring the condensate flux. The pipe is made of carbon steel, and normally has 558.8 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness. The pipe wall had thinned to 0.4 mm at the point of minimum thickness. It is estimated that the disturbed flow of water downstream of the orifice caused erosion/corrosion and developed wall thinning, leading to a rupture at the thinnest section under internal pressure, about 1MPa. Observation of the pipe internal surface revealed a scale-like pattern typical in this kind of phenomenon. Eleven workers who were preparing for an annual outage that was to start from August 14 suffered burn injuries, of who five died. Since around 1975, we, Kansai Electric, have been checking pipe wall thickness while focusing on the thinning of carbon steel piping in the secondary system. Summarizing the results from such investigation and reviewing the latest technical knowledge including operating experience from overseas utilities, we compiled the pipe thickness management guideline for PWR secondary pipes, 1990. The pipe section that ruptured at the Mihama unit 3 should have been included within the inspection scopes according to the guideline but was not registered on the inspection list. It had not been corrected for almost thirty years. As the result, this pipe section had not been inspected even once since the beginning of the plant operation, 1976. It seems that the quality assurance and maintenance management had not functioned well regarding the secondary system piping management, although we were responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants as licensee. We will review the secondary system inspection procedure and also improve the pipe thickness management guideline. And also, we would replace

  1. Response of buried pipes to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanega, C.; Cremonini, M.G.; Mirone, M.; Luciani, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the analyses carried out to determine an effective layout and the dynamic response of safety related cooling water pipes, buried in backfill, for the Alto Lazio Nuclear Power Plant in Italy, subjected to missile impact loading at the backfill surface. The pipes are composed of a steel plate encased in two layers of high-quality reinforced concrete. The methodology comprises three steps. The first step is the definition of the 'free-field' dynamic response of the backfill soil, not considering the presence of the pipes, through a dynamic finite element direct integration analysis utilizing an axisymmetric model. The second step is the pipe-soil interaction analysis, which is conducted by utilizing the soil displacement and stress time-histories obtained in the previous steps. Soil stress time-histories, combined with the geostatic and other operational stresses (such as those due to temperature and pressure), are used to obtain the actions in the pipe walls due to ring type deformation. For the third step, the analysis of the beam type response, a lumped parameter model is developed which accounts for the soil stiffness, the pipe characteristics and the position of the pipe with respect to the impact area. In addition, the effect of the presence of large concrete structures, such as tunnels, between the ground surface and the pipe is evaluated. The results of the structural analyses lead to defining the required steel thickness and also allow the choice of appropriate embedment depth and layout of redundant lines. The final results of the analysis is not only the strength verification of the pipe section, but also the definition of an effective layout of the lines in terms of position, depth, steel thickness and joint design. (orig.)

  2. KEMAMPUAN GENTENG PLASTIK BERGELOMBANG (CORRUGATED PLASTIC SEBAGAI BIOFILTER PARTIKEL AMONIAK DAN BAHAN ORGANIK DI MEDIA BUDIDAYA DAN LIMBAH CAIR BUDIDAYA IKAN (Performance of Corrugated Plastic as Biofilter of Ammonia Particle and Organic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Muslim

    2010-07-01

    Sediment (TSS, Suspended Sediment (SS, ammonia and organic matter (COD. The result of the study showed that corrugated plastic effectively reduced TSS, SS, ammonia and COD both within rearing tank and in the outside of rearing tank with removal efficiency: 74.51% and 54.42% (TSS; 39.20% and 49.12% (SS; 19.82% and 14.2% (ammonia; and 24.82% and 22.47% (COD. When corrugated plastic is compared with other materials such as plastic rolls, scrub pads, PVC pipes etc, it is shown that corrugated plastic performed significantly higher removal rate (g/m3/d and specific removal rate (mg/m2/d to ammonia.

  3. The mechanism of selective corrugation removal by KOH anisotropic wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikida, M; Inagaki, N; Sasaki, H; Amakawa, H; Fukuzawa, K; Sato, K

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of selective corrugation removal by anisotropic wet etching—which reduces a periodic corrugation, called 'scalloping', formed on the sidewalls of microstructures by the Bosch process in deep reactive-ion etching (D-RIE)—was investigated. In particular, the corrugation-removal mechanism was analyzed by using the etching rate distribution pattern, and two equations for predicting the corrugation-removal time by the etching were derived. A Si{1 0 0} wafer was first etched by D-RIE at a depth of 29.4 µm (60 cycles) to form the corrugation on the sidewall surface. The height and pitch of the corrugation were 196 and 494 nm, respectively. Selective removal of the corrugation by using 50% KOH (40 °C) was experimentally tried. The corrugation formed on Si{1 0 0} sidewall surfaces was gradually reduced in size as the etching progressed, and it was completely removed after 5 min of etching. Similarly, the corrugation formed on a Si{1 1 0} sidewall surface was also selectively removed by KOH etching (etching time: 3 min). The roughness value of the sidewall surface was reduced from 17.6 nm to a few nanometers by the etching. These results confirm that the corrugation-removal mechanism using anisotropic wet etching can be explained in terms of the distribution pattern of etching rate

  4. Design and manufacturing of skins based on composite corrugated laminates for morphing aerodynamic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Alessandro; Fournier, Stephane; Borlandelli, Elena; Bettini, Paolo; Sala, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The paper discusses the approaches for the design and manufacturing of morphing skins based on rectangular-shaped composite corrugated laminates and proposes a novel solution to prevent detrimental effects of corrugation on aerodynamic performances. Additionally, more complex corrugated shapes are presented and analysed. The manufacturing issues related to the production of corrugated laminates are discussed and tests are performed to compare different solutions and to assess the validity of analytical and numerical predictions. The solution presented to develop an aerodynamically efficient skin consists in the integration of an elastomeric cover in the corrugated laminate. The related manufacturing process is presented and assessed, and a fully nonlinear numerical model is developed and characterized to study the behaviour of this skin concept in different load conditions. Finally, configurations based on combinations of individual rectangular-shaped corrugated panels are considered. Their structural properties are numerically investigated by varying geometrical parameters. Performance indices are defined to compare structural stiffness contributions in non-morphing directions with the ones of conventional panels of the same weight. Numerical studies also show that the extension of the concept to complex corrugated shapes may improve both the design flexibility and some specific performances with respect to rectangular shaped corrugations. The overall results validate the design approaches and manufacturing processes to produce corrugated laminates and indicate that the solution for the integration of an elastomeric cover is a feasible and promising method to enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of corrugated skins.

  5. Vacuum pipe for e+e- interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, C.T.

    1982-10-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of the beryllium vacuum chamber within the Mark II detector at SLAC is described. The Be chamber encloses one interaction point of the PEP circulating ring and is a part of its beam pipe. The Be chamber is captured within the Secondary Vertex Detector (SVD), a drift chamber, which is in turn centered in the Mark II drift chamber. Both ends of the beryllium pipe are brazed to aluminum/stainless transitions for connection to stainless steel bellows. A concentric radiation-screen liner of titanium foil runs the full length of the beryllium pipe

  6. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  7. Measuring autogenous strain of concrete with corrugated moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    A reliable technique to quantify autogenous strain is a prerequisite to numerical modeling in stress calculations for high performance concrete. The introducing of a special kind of corrugated tube mould helps to transforming volume strain measurement into liner strain measurement in horizontal...... direction for fluid concrete, which not only realizes the continuous monitoring of the autogenous shrinkage since casting, but also effectively eliminates the disturbance resulting from gravity, temperature variation and mould restraint on measuring results. Based on this measuring technique, this paper...

  8. Dispersion of helically corrugated waveguides: Analytical, numerical, and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, G.; Ronald, K.; Young, A.R.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Cross, A.W.; Konoplev, I.V.; He, W.; Thomson, J.; Whyte, C.G.; Samsonov, S.V.; Denisov, G.G.; Bratman, V.L.

    2004-01-01

    Helically corrugated waveguides have recently been studied for use in various applications such as interaction regions in gyrotron traveling-wave tubes and gyrotron backward-wave oscillators and as a dispersive medium for passive microwave pulse compression. The paper presents a summary of various methods that can be used for analysis of the wave dispersion of such waveguides. The results obtained from an analytical approach, simulations with the three-dimensional numerical code MAGIC, and cold microwave measurements are analyzed and compared

  9. Development of seamless forged pipe and fitting for BWR recirculation loop piping with improved resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Keizo; Tsukada, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Iwadate, Tadao; Ono, Shinichi

    1981-01-01

    As a primary remedy for IGSCC of primary loop piping, especially Recirculation Loop Piping of BWR, extra low carbon stainless steel with high nitrogen content has become to be used. While, in order to make In-service Inspection easier and complete, new design of piping which decrease both number and total length of weld line has been considered. Japan Steel Works has developed the research on large size seamless forged pipe and fitting made from high nitrogen extra low carbon 316 stainless steel. This paper describes the key points of manufacturing technology as well as the material properties, especially strength and intergranular-corrosion and intergranular- stress-corrosion-cracking-resistivities of these forged pipe and fitting. (author)

  10. Fast rail corrugation detection based on texture filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Kaixia

    2018-02-01

    The condition detection of rails in high-speed railway is one of the important means to ensure the safety of railway transportation. In order to replace the traditional manual inspection, save manpower and material resources, and improve the detection speed and accuracy, it is of great significance to develop a machine vision system for locating and identifying defects on rails automatically. Rail defects exhibit different properties and are divided into various categories related to the type and position of flaws on the rail. Several kinds of interrelated factors cause rail defects such as type of rail, construction conditions, and speed and/or frequency of trains using the rail. Rail corrugation is a particular kind of defects that produce an undulatory deformation on the rail heads. In high speed train, the corrugation induces harmful vibrations on wheels and its components and reduces the lifetime of rails. This type of defects should be detected to avoid rail fractures. In this paper, a novel method for fast rail corrugation detection based on texture filtering was proposed.

  11. Theory of static friction: temperature and corrugation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, A; Brigazzi, M; Santoro, G; Bortolani, V

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the static friction, as a function of temperature, between two thick solid slabs. The upper one is formed of light particles and the substrate of heavy particles. We focus our attention on the interaction between the phonon fields of the two blocks and on the interface corrugation, among the various mechanisms responsible for the friction. To give evidence of the role played by the dynamical interaction of the substrate with the upper block, we consider both a substrate formed by fixed atoms and a substrate formed by mobile atoms. To study the effect of the corrugation, we model it by changing the range parameter σ in the Lennard-Jones interaction potential. We found that in the case of the mobile substrate there is a large momentum transfer from the substrate to the upper block. This momentum transfer increases on increasing the temperature and produces a large disorder in the upper block favouring a decrease of the static friction with respect to the case for a rigid substrate. Reducing the corrugation, we found that with a rigid substrate the upper block becomes nearly commensurate, producing an enhancement of the static friction with respect to that with a mobile substrate

  12. Flexible Engineering Structures from the Corrugated Metal Sheets - Comparison of Costs of Solutions used in the Road Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdakowska, E.

    2017-11-01

    The flexible structures from the corrugated metal sheets are used in particular in the road building, especially as passages for animals. Easy and quick assembly, as well as lower realization costs when compared to the traditional solutions increase interest in such structures. Availability and variety of systems allows for searching for solutions which are the best and optimal in the economical range. The article presents the comparison of costs of the basic materials used in various systems of flexible structures from the corrugated metal sheets. In order to determine the costs of the material solutions the data for two systems used in Poland (for construction of the upper passages for animals) since 2008 have been used. The cost estimation for the basic materials required for realization of 1 m2 of the flexible structure from the corrugated steel sheets have been prepared with use of prices obtained directly from the Polish contractors and manufacturers, as well as process included in the quarterly information (Sekocenbud). The difference of prices of materials available on the market allows the investor for selecting the structure depending on the needs and financial possibilities, as well as for achieving some savings. The savings in case of purchasing sheets of identical parameters (thickness, profile characteristics) are from approx. 4% to 8% per 1 m2 of sheet. The connectors in form of bolts M20 cl. 8.8 of various lengths are an expense from 3.00 PLN to 3.50 PLN. Those values may seem low, but taking into consideration amounts connected with construction of many square meters of structure they may become very important factor in the total investment costs.

  13. Utilization of steel bellows expansion joints to improve the earthquake resistance of pipelines and piping-systems; Einsatz von Stahlkompensatoren zur Erhoehung der Erdbebensicherheit von Rohrleitungen und Rohrsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbe, H. [IWK Regler und Kompensatoren GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Ingenieurbuero

    2001-07-01

    Seismic damages of lifelines could cause catastrophic consequences for life and environment. Defects in the gas system could be the reason for fires, the lack of water because of broken water pipes leads to problems in fire-fighting. The loss of potable water service could cause epidemics, further a preventing energy transmission and media service in hospitals could lead to difficulties in the medical treatment of victims. For instants during the Kobe 1995 earthquake, Kobe's water system sustained approximately 2000 breaks. The resulting lack of water contributed significantly to the fire problem due to the damages of Kobe's gas system. (orig.) [German] Erdbebenbedingte Schaeden an Versorgungsleitungen koennen katastrophale Folgen fuer Menschen und Umwelt hervorrufen. Defekte Gasleitungen koennen Ursache fuer Grossbraende sein, deren Bekaempfung durch zerstoerte Wasserversorgungsleitungen erschwert oder unmoeglich ist, eine unterbrochene Trinkwasserversorgung kann zu Epidemien fuehren, nicht zuletzt kann eine unterbrochene Energie- bzw. Medienversorgung in Krankenhaeusern zu Problemen bei der Versorgung von Verletzten fuehren. Das Wassernetz Kobes erfuhr beispielsweise infolge des Erdbebens 1995 mehr als 2000 Brueche. Wegen des zerstoerten Wasserversorgungsnetzes war eine Bekaempfung des Grossfeuers, hervorgerufen durch Brueche im Gasnetz, nicht moeglich. (orig.)

  14. Welding simulation of large-diameter thick-walled stainless steel pipe joints. Fast computation of residual stress and influence of heat source model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Serizawa, Hisashi; Nakacho, Keiji; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    There are many weld zones in the apparatus and piping installed in nuclear power plants and residual stress generated in the zone by weld process is the most important influence factor for maintaining structural integrity. Though the weld residual stress is frequently evaluated using numerical simulation, fast simulation techniques have been demanded because of the enormous calculation times used. Recently, the fast weld residual stress evaluation based on three-dimensional accurate analysis became available through development of the Iterative Substructure Method (ISM). In this study, the computational performance of the welding simulation code using the ISM was improved to get faster computations and more accurate welding simulation. By adding functions such as parallel processing, the computation speed was much faster than that of the conventional finite element method code. Furthermore, the accuracy of the improved code was validated by measurements. The influence of two different weld heat source models on the simulation results was also investigated and it was found that the moving heat source was effective to achieve accurate weld simulation for multi-pass welds. (author)

  15. Intergranular corrosion in unserviced austenitic stainless steel pipes made of alloy 904L; Kornzerfall in nicht betriebsbeanspruchten rostfreien austenitischen Rohren aus Alloy 904L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Andreas; Cagliyan, Erhan; Fischer, Boromir; Giller, Madeleine; Riesenbeck, Susanne [Siemens AG, Energy Sector, Berlin (Germany). Gasturbinenwerk Berlin

    2017-09-01

    Seamless tubes of the highly corrosion resistant austenitic steel 1.4539, X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 (Alloy 904L) were observed to exhibit signs of inter-crystalline damage to a depth of several layers of grains and in particular on their internal surface. The material had been stored and had not been put into service. A number of hypotheses had been discussed to explain the predominant cause of the damage. Using optical light and scanning electron microscopy investigation techniques, clear evidence was obtained indicating it to be inter-crystalline corrosion due to the sensitisation of the grain boundaries. The most probable cause of this was determined to be the presence of residual deposits from the rolling process, which due to poor cleaning, had not been completely removed prior to the final solution annealing treatment. This explaining why predominantly the internal surface of the tubes was affected.

  16. Storage analysis of steel pipes used in pipelines; Analise do sistema de estocagem de tubos de aco para dutos de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Carlos E.C.; Silva, Breno S.; Fernandes, Lincoln F.; Santos Junior, Sergio J.F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Louzada, Carlos H.C.M.

    2005-07-01

    New pipelines, request the use of great amount of tubes stored during its construction. Therefore, the cost generated by the storage areas motivates the reconsideration of the stockpiling system. Large areas demand high costs related to its acquisition or rent. The use of small areas can reduce the immediate cost with rent, but also can increase the total cost due to damage of the tubes or increase the risk at the storage conditions. The same considerations could be made for inadequate use of support materials on the stockpiling piles, regarding the quality or amount used. This work presents the modelling of the pyramidal stockpiling system of steel tubes and evaluations to a better configuration. (author)

  17. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  18. Automatic guided wave communication system using steel pipes as communication channel for flood detection in steel offshoreoilrigs; Sistema automatico de comunicacion de ondas guiadas para la deteccion de tubos de refuerzo inundados en plataformas petroleras costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijarez Cstro, Rito; Martinez Ramirez, Fernando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-10-09

    An automatic guided wave Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) system, using steel tubes as communication channel, for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of offshore oilrigs is presented. The system employs two smart piezoelectric based sensors and modulators and a demodulator based on a piezoelectric transducer, a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and a microcontroller. Experiments performed in the laboratory, in a tubular steel heliport structure and the base of a deck of an oilrig under construction, have successfully distinguished automatically guided wave encoded information. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta un trabajo de investigacion en el cual se desarrolla un sistema automatico de comunicacion de ondas guiadas por modulacion por posicion de pulsos (PPM), orientado a la deteccion de miembros inundados en los tubos de refuerzo de las plataformas petroleras costa fuera. El sistema utiliza de manera novedosa tubos de acero como medio de comunicacion y emplea dos sensores/moduladores inteligentes compuestos de cristales piezoelectricos, electronica basada en un microcontrolador y baterias. La instrumentacion del demodulador consta de un transductor piezoelectrico de ultrasonido, un procesador digital de senales (DSP) y un microcontrolador, el cual lleva a cabo de manera automatica la deteccion de ondas guiadas. Los experimentos se realizaron en aire, en laboratorio, en una estructura tubular de acero del helipuerto y en la base de una plataforma bajo construccion.

  19. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  20. Team effort leads to versatile handling solution for pipe manufacturer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-09-15

    This article discussed the development of a new pipe-handling system that resulted in increased efficiencies in plant-to-yard transport for a custom steel pipe manufacturer. In the previous system, loaders would move finished pipe to the yard for storage. However, for transport loading, the pipe would have to be brought back indoors because only the inside cranes could handle loading the pipe without damaging the special outer coating on the pipe. In the new pipe-handling system, the loader is replaced with a Sennebogen 850 M rubber-tired material handler, which was developed for the steel recycling industry. The generator that comes on the material handler is retrofitted to power a purpose-built pipe-handler attachment. The machine's higher lifting reach allows for higher stacking, effectively increasing the capacity of the yard. The new pipe-handling machine allows trucks to be loaded right in the yard, eliminating the need to double-handle the pipe. 1 fig.

  1. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of methods for evaluating characteristics of high-strength, large-diameter steel pipes for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Chokoatsu tennen gas pipeline yo kokyodo daikei kokan no tokusei hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The pipelines for safely transmitting superhigh-pressure natural gas should have excellent characteristics. The steel pipe is required to have a sufficient toughness, more concretely Charpy impact-absorbing energy, to prevent propagating shear fracture characteristic of natural gas pipelines. Recently, the natural gas pipeline is increasingly required to have higher design pressures (15 Mpa or higher) and grade (X80 or higher). In order to develop the techniques for simulating crack propagation in the propagating shear fracture of natural gas pipe lines as part of the programs to cope with these trends, the 1998 efforts were directed to reviewing the research results obtained so far and analysis of the problems to be solved and tasks to be taken, based on which the analytical procedure for gas releasing phenomena during the fracture process was basically developed, the material characteristic data were collected by the laboratory scale toughness tests, and the preliminary tests with rupture disks were conducted to verify the above analytical procedure. These efforts have established the bases for evaluating the characteristics of high-strength, large-diameter steel pipes in the light of safety against fracture, and greatly advanced the program towards the final target of developing the international specification drafts for toughness. (NEDO)

  2. Spoof surface plasmons propagating along a periodically corrugated coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, Nahid; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Using the rigorous mode-matching technique, we have investigated a periodically corrugated perfectly conducting coaxial waveguide for the possibility of propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons. To verify our results, the computed band diagram of the structure has been compared with the one obtained using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. The obtained spoof surface plasmon modes have been shown to be highly localized and slowly propagating. Variations of the obtained modal frequencies and mode profiles as a function of the depth and width of the grooves have also been investigated.

  3. Spoof surface plasmons propagating along a periodically corrugated coaxial waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebi, Nahid; Shahabadi, Mahmoud, E-mail: n.talebi@ece.ut.ac.i [Photonics Research Laboratory, Center of Excellence for Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-07

    Using the rigorous mode-matching technique, we have investigated a periodically corrugated perfectly conducting coaxial waveguide for the possibility of propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons. To verify our results, the computed band diagram of the structure has been compared with the one obtained using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. The obtained spoof surface plasmon modes have been shown to be highly localized and slowly propagating. Variations of the obtained modal frequencies and mode profiles as a function of the depth and width of the grooves have also been investigated.

  4. Pipe rupture test results; 6 in. pipe whip test under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1983-02-01

    A series of pipe rupture tests has been performed in JAERI to demonstrate the safety of the primary coolant circuits in the event of pipe rupture, in nuclear power plants. The present report summarizes the results of 6 in. pipe whip tests (RUN 5605, 5606), under BWR LOCA conditions (285 0 C, 6.8 MPa), which were performed in August, 1981. The test pipe is made of Type 304 stainless steel and its outer diameter is 6 in. and its thickness is 11.1 mm. The restraints are made of Type 304 stainless steel and its diameter is 16.0 mm. Two restraints were set on the restraint support with clearance of 100 mm. Overhang length was varied as the parameter in these tests and was 300 mm or 700 mm. The following results are obtained. (1) The deformations of a pipe and restraints are limited effectively by shorter overhang length of 300. However, they become larger when the overhang length is 700 mm, and the pipe deforms especially at the setting point of restraints. (2) Velocity at the free end of pipe becomes about 30 m/sec just after the break. However, velocity at the setting point of restraint becomes about only 4 m/sec just after the break. (3) It seems from the comparison between the 4 in. tests and 6 in. tests that the maximum restraint force of 6 in. tests is about two times as large as that of 4 in. tests. (author)

  5. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-01-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ''like for like'' replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants

  6. Authors's reply to 'Generation of surface degraded layer on austenitic stainless steel piping exposed to flowing sodium in a loop: inter comparison of long term exposure data', by S. Rajendran Pillai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Vaidehi; Ganesan, V.; Borgstedt, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    This is an elaborate author's reply to a comment 'Generation of surface degraded layer on austenitic steel piping exposed to flowing sodium in a loop: inter comparison of long term exposure data' by S. Rajendran Pillai appearing in this proceedings. The basic misunderstanding as seen in the above comment about the mass loss due to sodium exposure, which is reflected throughout the above comment, has been explained in detail in this reply for better understanding of the phenomenon. It is precisely mentioned and understood that Thorley and Tyzack model deals with complete mass loss and not mere degradation. The total mass loss corresponds to mass loss due to wall thinning and that due to degraded layer formation. Though Thorley and Tyzack model is the most pioneering model in the field of sodium corrosion, the inadequacies of this model for materials without molybdenum such as SS 304 with very long exposure in sodium is clearly brought out in this paper. This model has been successfully applied to calculate life of clad tubes, which have relatively short stay in reactor core. Yoshida models are highlighted and compared with our experimental results. Yoshida models are not valid below certain durations owing to the empirical nature of such expressions. Thorley and Tyzack model can be used for SS 316 LN as this alloy contains molybdenum and nitrogen both of which imparts corrosion resistance in sodium. What is required is that one needs to establish the extent to which this model can be applied for materials exposed to high temperatures and very long durations. The details are discussed in this reply

  7. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Pipe rupture test results; 4 inch pipe whip tests under BWR operational condition-clearance parameter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Syuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Kato, Rokuro; Saito, Kazuo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of pipe rupture studies in JAERI is to perform the model tests on pipe whip, restraint behavior, jet impingement and jet thrust force, and to establish the computational method for analyzing these phenomena. This report describes the experimental results of pipe whip on the pipe specimens of 4 inch in diameter under BWR condition on which the pressure is 6.77 MPa and the temperature is 285 0 C. The pipe specimens were 114.3 mm (4 inch) in diameter and 8.6 mm in thickness and 4500 mm in length. Four pipe whip restraints used in the tests were the U-bar type of 8 mm in diameter and fabricated from type 304 stainless steel. The experimental parameter was the clearance (30, 50 and 100 mm). The dynamic strain behavior of the pipe specimen and the restraints was investigated by strain gages and their residual deformation was obtained by measuring marking points provided on their surface. The Pressure-time history in the pipe specimens was also obtained by pressure gages. The maximum pipe strain is caused near the restraints and increases with increase of the clearance. The experimental results of pipe whip tests indicate the effectiveness of pipe whip restraints. The ratio of absorbed strain energy of the pipe specimen to that of the restraints is nearly constant for different clearances at the overhang length of 400 mm. (author)

  9. Mass transfer in corrugated-plate membrane modules. II. Ultrafiltration experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, M.J.; Stevanovic, S.; Racz, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    The application of corrugations as turbulence promoters in membrane filtration was studied. In ultrafiltration experiments with polysulfone membranes using Dextran T70 as solute, it was found that the corrugations result in reduced energy consumption or pressure drop compared with flat membranes at

  10. Finite-element analysis of flawed and unflawed pipe tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.J.; Nickell, R.E.; Sullaway, M.F.

    1989-12-01

    Contemporary versions of the general purpose, nonlinear finite element program ABAQUS have been used in structural response verification exercises on flawed and unflawed austenitic stainless steel and ferritic steel piping. Among the topics examined, through comparison between ABAQUS calculations and test results, were: (1) the effect of using variations in the stress-strain relationship from the test article material on the calculated response; (2) the convergence properties of various finite element representations of the pipe geometry, using shell, beam and continuum models; (3) the effect of test system compliance; and (4) the validity of ABAQUS J-integral routines for flawed pipe evaluations. The study was culminated by the development and demonstration of a ''macroelement'' representation for the flawed pipe section. The macroelement can be inserted into an existing piping system model, in order to accurately treat the crack-opening and crack-closing static and dynamic response. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  11. Small-bore-piping seismic-test findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Barta, D.A.; Anderson, M.J.

    1981-12-01

    Description is given of a test series in which a 1-inch diameter stainless steel pipe system was subjected to dynamic testing. The test system consisted of approximately 40-feet of schedule 40 pipe, with several bends and risers, supported from a rigid test frame. FFTF prototypic pipe clamps, dead weight supports, mechanical snubbers, and insulation were utilized. Several variations of the pipe support configuration were tested. Measured test results are compared with analytical predictions for each configuration. Plans for future testing are discussed

  12. Determination of transfer parameters in corrugated plates exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lima Filho, S. da.

    1984-01-01

    In this work is presented a experimental study about the forced convenction problem in vee-corrugated exchangers, with flow in the transversal sense, and parallel plates exchangers in which the isotermal plate is equivalent to the absobing one and the other plate is adiabatic. Global values of the transfer coefficients were experimentally obtained by application of the Naphthalene Sublimation Technique in accordance with the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The results were expressed in terms of Sh sup(-) /Sc sup(0,4) that according to the analogy is equal the Nu sup(-) / Pr sup(0,4) in function of the Reynolds number. The ratio between the lenght of the channel and the average spacing between plates L/2a was ranged in all the exchangers. Parameters of transfer to angles of 45 0 and 31 0 were determined in the corrugated plates exchangers. The experimental results obtained were analyzed and compared among them. Finally practical applications of these results are presented to heat exchangers with similars geometric characteristics. (Author) [pt

  13. Transfer of hydrogen and helium through corrugated, flexible tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schippl, K.

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of liquid gas or cold gas through corrugated tubes is an alternative to rigid systems for the use in reactor technique. Advantages: flexibility for easy installation; these tubes together with their associated terminations and hardware are assembled, leak-tested and evacuated at the factory. This permits simple and cost saving installation on site. All tubes are helium leak-tested with a sensitivity of 10E -9 mbar 1/sec. Following the leak test, the vacuum space is pumped down to the operation vacuum level and properly sealed. The vacuum integrity is guaranteed as a result of the high degree of cleanliness observed during production and from the use of a specially selected better material inside the vacuum space. Disadvantage: pressure is limited to 20 bar. To fulfil all rules of the reactor safety, different tests have to be done. Because of the longitudinal weld of the corrugated tube, a bursting test of different sizes gives the best information of the liability of this kind of tube. It can be shown that the bursting pressure of such a tube is more than 5 times higher than the max. working pressure

  14. Role of Bénard-Marangoni instabilities during solvent evaporation in polymer surface corrugations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, N; Rharbi, Y

    2009-01-06

    Film formation through the drying of polymer solutions is a widely used process in laboratories and in many industrial applications such as coatings. One of the main goals of these applications is to control the film surface morphology. In many cases, evaporation has been found to yield corrugated patterns on the free surface of films. This has been interpreted in terms of either mechanical or hydrodynamic instabilities. In this article, we present experimental results where mesoscale 2D well-ordered surface corrugation patterns are formed during solvent evaporation from polystyrene/toluene solutions. The transformation of Benard-Marangoni instabilities into surface corrugation is studied during the entire drying process using particle tracking, 3D morphology analyses, etc. We show that the corrugation wavelength is controlled by the Benard-Marangoni instability, whereas the corrugation amplitude is controlled by a mechanism that involves a high evaporation rate.

  15. New portable pipe wall thickness measuring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascente, Joseph E.

    1998-03-01

    One of the biggest inspection challenges facing many of the process industries; namely the petrochemical, refining, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries is: How to effectively examine their insulated piping? While there are a number of failure mechanisms involved in various process piping systems, piping degradation through corrosion and erosion are by far the most prevalent. This degradation can be in the form of external corrosion under insulation, internal corrosion through a variety of mechanisms, and internal erosion caused by the flow of the product through the pipe. Refineries, chemical plants and electrical power plants have MANY thousands of miles of pipe that are insulated to prevent heat loss or heat absorption. This insulation is often made up of several materials, with calcium based material being the most dense. The insulating material is usually wrapped with an aluminum or stainless steel outer wrap. Verification of wall thickness of these pipes can be accomplished by removing the insulation and doing an ultrasound inspection or by taking x- rays at a tangent to the edge of the pipe through the insulation. Both of these processes are slow and expensive. The time required to obtain data is measured in hours per meter. The ultrasound method requires that the insulation be plugged after the inspection. The surface needs to be cleaned or the resulting data will not be accurate. The tangent x-ray only shows two thicknesses and requires that the area be roped off because of radiation safety.

  16. Modelling of fiberglass pipe destruction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Николаев

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important current issue of oil and gas industry of using tubes made of high-strength composite corrosion resistant materials. In order to improve operational safety of industrial pipes it is feasible to use composite fiberglass tubes. More than half of the accidents at oil and gas sites happen at oil gathering systems due to high corrosiveness of pumped fluid. To reduce number of accidents and improve environmental protection we need to solve the issue of industrial pipes durability. This problem could be solved by using composite materials from fiberglass, which have required physical and mechanical properties for oil pipes. The durability and strength can be monitored by a fiberglass winding method, number of layers in composite material and high corrosion-resistance properties of fiberglass. Usage of high-strength composite materials in oil production is economically feasible; fiberglass pipes production is cheaper than steel pipes. Fiberglass has small volume weight, which simplifies pipe transportation and installation. In order to identify the efficiency of using high-strength composite materials at oil production sites we conducted a research of their physical-mechanical properties and modelled fiber pipe destruction process.

  17. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  18. Piping equipment. Mastering fluids; Materiel petrole. La maitrise des fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouvay et Cauvin

    1998-10-01

    This new edition of the blue bible for pipemen details the most recent developments in American standards (API, ASTM, ASME). It is aimed at end-users in specifically purchasing departments, standardization, new projects and maintenance personal in the oil and chemicals industries as well as engineering companies, pipe-makers and boiler-makers. Contains descriptions of both materials specifications such as carbon steel, stainless steel and steel alloys, and dimensions of line components. (author)

  19. The response of liquid-filled pipes to vapour collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijsseling, A.S.; Fan, D.

    1991-01-01

    The collapse of vapour cavities in liquid is usually accompanied with almost instantaneous pressure rises. These pressure rises impose severe loads on liquid-conveying pipes whenever the cavities become sufficiently large. Due to the impact nature of loadings, movement of the pipe walls can be expected. Tests are performed in a water-filled closed pipe suspended by thin steel wires. Vaporous cavities are induced in the liquid by hitting the pipe axially by a steel rod. The volume of the cavities can be varied by changing the initial pressure of the water. The developing and collapsing of cavities in the liquid is inferred from pressure measurements. Strain gauges and a laser Doppler vibrometer are used to record the response of the pipe to these pressures. The test results are compared with predictions from a numerical model. The model describes 1) axial stress wave propagations in the pipe and 2) water hammer and cavitation phenomena in the liquid. Pipe and liquid interact via 1) the radial expansion and contraction of the pipe wall and 2) the closed ends of the pipe, where large vapour cavities may develop. (author)

  20. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  1. Casing free district heating pipes; Mantelfria fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Nilsson, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyurethane insulation (PUR foam) on district heating pipes acts as protection against water if it is of good quality, i.e. free from cracks, cavities and other defects. On the other hand water vapour easily diffuses through PUR foam. However this is not a problem as long as the steel pipe is warmer than the surface layer, since the high temperature will prevent the vapour from condensating. What will happen with the insulation of a casing free district heating pipe where the ground water level occasionally reaches above the pipe has not been studied in detail. The current project has studied to what extent moisture enters the PUR foam insulation of two approximately one meter long district heating pipes without casing which have been in the ground for four years. Occasionally, the ground-water has entirely covered the pipes. In addition, the foam has been studied with respect to damage from the surrounding backfill material. Test specimens were taken out of the casing free pipes and were analysed with respect to moisture content. Additional measurements were done with a moisture indicator, and the electric resistance between the steel pipes and the four surveillance wires in each pipe was measured. The results from the various measurement techniques were the compared. The results show that the PUR foam remains dry as long as the service pipe is hot if no defects, such as crack and cavities, are present. Close to the service pipe, the foam actually dries out over time. The moisture content of the middle layer remains more or less constant. Only the colder parts on the outside exhibit an increase in moisture content. It was also seen that defects may lead to water ingress with subsequent humidification of the foam. However, the damaged foam area is limited. This is not the case for a regular pipe with a vapour tight casing, where experience show that moisture tend to spread along the pipe. The pipes were buried in sand and no

  2. Electrical design of a 110-ft long muon pipe with automatic degaussing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1985-11-01

    This memo describes a magnetized cylindrical pipe made from tape wound grain oriented low carbon steel rolls. Grain oriented steel yields much higher magnetic fields at low ampereturns than cast iron or other steel pipes. This is especially important when only a few windings are allowed in the inner bore. The power supply and operating cost are also much lower. The pipe has a high (approx.9 kG) remnant field, but is automatically degaussed upon shutdown of the DC excitation power supply. A remnant field detector senses whether degaussing was successful. The pipe is used in the muon beam line. Its magnetic field deflects unwanted halo muons. Tests need to be conducted with and without pipe field. It is therefore desirable that the pipe field automatically returns to zero when the DC excitation is shut off. This can be rather easily accomplished

  3. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  4. Flow around a corrugated wing over the range of dragonfly flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padinjattayil, Sooraj; Agrawal, Amit

    2017-11-01

    The dragonfly flight is very much affected by the corrugations on their wings. A PIV based study is conducted on a rigid corrugated wing for a range of Reynolds number 300-12000 and three different angles of attack (5°-15°) to understand the mechanism of dragonfly flight better. The study revealed that the shape of the corrugation plays a key role in generating vortices. The vortices trapped in the valleys of corrugation dictates the shape of a virtual airfoil around the corrugated wing. A fluid roller bearing effect is created over the virtual airfoil when the trapped vortices merge with each other. A travelling wave produced by the moving virtual boundary around the fluid roller bearings avoids the formation of boundary layer on the virtual surface, thereby leading to high aerodynamic performance. It is found that the lift coefficient increases as the number of vortices increases on the suction surface. Also, it is shown that the partially merged co- rotating vortices give higher lift as compared to fully merged vortices. Further, the virtual airfoil formed around the corrugated wing is compared with a superhydrophobic airfoil which exhibits slip on its surface; several similarities in their flow characteristics are observed. The corrugated airfoil performs superior to the superhydrophobic airfoil in the aerodynamic efficiency due to the virtual slip caused by the travelling wave.

  5. Rupture hardware minimization in pressurized water reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Ski, J.J.; Chexal, V.; Norris, D.M.; Goldstein, N.A.; Beaudoin, B.F.; Quinones, D.F.; Server, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    For much of the high-energy piping in light reactor systems, fracture mechanics calculations can be used to assure pipe failure resistance, thus allowing the elimination of excessive rupture restraint hardware both inside and outside containment. These calculations use the concept of leak-before-break (LBB) and include part-through-wall flaw fatigue crack propagation, through-wall flaw detectable leakage, and through-wall flaw stability analyses. Performing these analyses not only reduces initial construction, future maintenance, and radiation exposure costs, but also improves the overall safety and integrity of the plant since much more is known about the piping and its capabilities than would be the case had the analyses not been performed. This paper presents the LBB methodology applied a Beaver Valley Power Station- Unit 2 (BVPS-2); the application for two specific lines, one inside containment (stainless steel) and the other outside containment (ferrutic steel), is shown in a generic sense using a simple parametric matrix. The overall results for BVPS-2 indicate that pipe rupture hardware is not necessary for stainless steel lines inside containment greater than or equal to 6-in. (152-mm) nominal pipe size that have passed a screening criteria designed to eliminate potential problem systems (such as the feedwater system). Similarly, some ferritic steel line as small as 3-in. (76-mm) diameter (outside containment) can qualify for pipe rupture hardware elemination

  6. Pipe rupture hardware minimization in pressurized water reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Szyslowski, J.J.; Chexal, V.; Norris, D.M.; Goldstein, N.A.; Beaudoin, B.; Quinones, D.; Server, W.

    1987-01-01

    For much of the high energy piping in light water reactor systems, fracture mechanics calculations can be used to assure pipe failure resistance, thus allowing the elimination of excessive rupture restraint hardware both inside and outside containment. These calculations use the concept of leak-before-break (LBB) and include part-through-wall flaw fatigue crack propagation, through-wall flaw detectable leakage, and through-wall flaw stability analyses. Performing these analyses not only reduces initial construction, future maintenance, and radiation exposure costs, but the overall safety and integrity of the plant are improved since much more is known about the piping and its capabilities than would be the case had the analyses not been performed. This paper presents the LBB methodology applied at Beaver Valley Power Station - Unit 2 (BVPS-2); the application for two specific lines, one inside containment (stainless steel) and the other outside containment (ferritic steel), is shown in a generic sense using a simple parametric matrix. The overall results for BVPS-2 indicate that pipe rupture hardware is not necessary for stainless steel lines inside containment greater than or equal to 6-in (152 mm) nominal pipe size that have passed a screening criteria designed to eliminate potential problem systems (such as the feedwater system). Similarly, some ferritic steel lines as small as 3-in (76 mm) diameter (outside containment) can qualify for pipe rupture hardware elimination

  7. Field investigation on structural performance of the buried UPVC pipes with and without geogrid reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teja, Akkineni Surya; Rajkumar, R.; Gokula Krishnan, B.; Aravindh, R.

    2018-02-01

    Buried pipes are used mainly for water supply and drainage besides many other applications such as oil, liquefied natural gas, coal slurries and mine tailings. The pipes used may be rigid (reinforced concrete, vitrified clay and ductile iron) or flexible (Steel, UPVC, aluminium, Fiber glass and High-density polyethylene) although the distinction between them is blurring. Flexible pipe design is governed by deflection or buckling. UPVC pipes are preferred due to light weight, long term chemical stability and cost efficiency. This project aims to study the load deformation behaviour of the buried pipe and stress variation across the cross section of the pipe under static loading along with the influence of depth of embedment, density of backfill on the deformation and stresses in pipe and the deformation behaviour of buried pipe when soil is reinforced with geogrid reinforcement and evaluate the structural performance of the pipe.

  8. Modeling noncontact atomic force microscopy resolution on corrugated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Burson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Key developments in NC-AFM have generally involved atomically flat crystalline surfaces. However, many surfaces of technological interest are not atomically flat. We discuss the experimental difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images of rough surfaces, with amorphous SiO2 as a specific case. We develop a quasi-1-D minimal model for noncontact atomic force microscopy, based on van der Waals interactions between a spherical tip and the surface, explicitly accounting for the corrugated substrate (modeled as a sinusoid. The model results show an attenuation of the topographic contours by ~30% for tip distances within 5 Å of the surface. Results also indicate a deviation from the Hamaker force law for a sphere interacting with a flat surface.

  9. Thin polymer films on chemically patterned, corrugated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoghegan, Mark; Wang Chun; Rehse, Nicolaus; Magerle, Robert; Krausch, Georg

    2005-01-01

    We study the effect of a chemical pattern on the wetting and dewetting behaviour of thin polystyrene (PS) films on regularly corrugated silicon substrates. Our results reveal that the film preparation, annealing method, and confinement play a critical role in the final film structure. On evaporating gold on both sides of the facets (such that it covered the crests of the facets, and not the troughs), we observed dewetting, which proceeded to the gold, demonstrating an enthalpic effect contrary to the outcome previously observed when gold was only evaporated on one side of the facet. We also coated the substrate with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS); this led to a gold and OTS striped structure. PS films several nanometres thick dewet such substrates, with a preferential direction for dewetting in the direction of the stripes forming droplets of a considerably larger size than the stripes

  10. Evaluation of flawed-pipe experiments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform elastic plastic fracture mechanics evaluations of experimental data that have become available from the NRC Degraded Pipe Program, Phase II (DPII) and other NRC and EPRI sponsored programs. These evaluations were used to assess flaw evaluation procedures for austenitic and ferritic steel piping. The results also have application to leak before break fracture mechanics analysis. An improved relationship was developed for computing the J-Integral for pipes containing throughwall flaws and loaded in pure bending. The results from several DPII experiments were compared to predictions based on new J estimation scheme solutions for circumferential, finite length part-throughwall flaws in pipes with bending loading. Comparisons of experimental maximum loads with those predicted using procedures in Paragraph IWB-3640, Section XI of the ASME Code indicate that the Code flaw evaluation procedures and allowables for austenitic steel pipe are appropriate and conservative. However, the comparisons also indicate that the base metal Code allowable loads may be about 15 to 20% high for small diameter piping (less than 8-inch diameter) at allowable a/t larger than about 0.5. The work further indicates that there is justification for reducing the conservatism in IWB-3640 allowable flaw sizes and loads for austenitic steel pipe with submerged or shielded metal arc welds.

  11. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic and structural characteristics of a corrugated wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Kyle

    Previous experimental studies on static, bio-inspired corrugated wings have shown that they produce favorable aerodynamic properties such as delayed stall compared to streamlined wings and flat plates at high Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 4x104). The majority of studies have been carried out with scaled models of dragonfly forewings from the Aeshna Cyanea in either wind tunnels or water channels. In this thesis, the aerodynamics of a corrugated airfoil was studied using computational fluid dynamics methods at a low Reynolds number of 1000. Structural analysis was also performed using the commercial software SolidWorks 2009. The flow field is described by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on an overlapping grid using the pressure-Poisson method. The equations are discretized in space with second-order accurate central differences. Time integration is achieved through the second-order Crank-Nicolson implicit method. The complex vortex structures that form in the corrugated airfoil valleys and around the corrugated airfoil are studied in detail. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements from corrugated wings and also with simulations of a flat plate. Contrary to the studies at high Reynolds numbers, our study shows that at low Reynolds numbers the wing corrugation does not provide any aerodynamic benefit compared to a smoothed flat plate. Instead, the corrugated profile generates more pressure drag which is only partially offset by the reduction of friction drag, leading to more total drag than the flat plate. Structural analysis shows that the wing corrugation can increase the resistance to bending moments on the wing structure. A smoothed structure has to be three times thicker to provide the same stiffness. It was concluded the corrugated wing has the structural benefit to provide the same resistance to bending moments with a much reduced weight.

  12. Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesset, F.; Maurice, G.; Halter, F.; Mazellier, N.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar

  13. Numerical Investigation of the Fully-Developed Periodic Flow Field for Optimal Heat Transfer in Spirally Corrugated Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Jakob; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Sørensen, Kim

    Even though the corrugated tube is a widely used technique to enhance transfer heat, the exact heat transfer enhancing mechanism remains relatively un-documented. Most studies attribute the favourable heat transfer characteristics to a swirling flow being present at higher corrugation....... In this study, a systematic approach relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to study and compare the heat transfer characteristics with the detailed flow field in the spirally corrugated tubes. By comparing the flow in 12 different spirally corrugated tubes at a fixed Reynolds number of 5000......, this study compares the flow field with the surface averaged Nusselt number to gain valuable insight into which flow phenomena causes favourable heat transfer characteristics. While the flow at low corrugations approximates the non-corrugated tube, higher corrugations of h/D creates a significant tangential...

  14. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique development......-w$ relationship is presented. Structural development involved definition of a new type of semi-flexiblecement based pipe, i.e. a cement based pipe characterized by the fact that the soil-pipe interaction related to pipe deformation is an importantcontribution to the in-situ load carrying capacity of the pipe...

  15. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  16. Beam Expansion of Blind Spot Detection Radar Antennas Using a Radome with Defected Corrugated Inner Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayeon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A beam expanding radome for 76.5 GHz automotive radar antennas is presented whose inner surface is engraved with corrugations. The radar used for blind spot detection (BSD requires a very wide beam width to ensure longer time for tracking out-of-sight objects. It is found that the corrugations modulate the phase velocities of the waves along the surface, which increases beam width in the far field. In addition, defects in the corrugation increase beam width even further. The presented structure satisfies the beam width requirement while keeping a low profile.

  17. Application of the method of integral equations to calculating the electrodynamic characteristics of periodically corrugated waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.E.; Rodygin, L.V.; Fil'chenko, S.E.; Yunakovskii, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for calculating the electrodynamic characteristics of periodically corrugated waveguide systems. This method is based on representing the field as the solution of the Helmholtz vector equation in the form of a simple layer potential, transformed with the use of the Floquet conditions. Systems of compound integral equations based on a weighted vector function of the simple layer potential are derived for waveguides with azimuthally symmetric and helical corrugations. A numerical realization of the Fourier method is cited for seeking the dispersion relation of azimuthally symmetric waves of a circular corrugated waveguide

  18. A corrugated perfect magnetic conductor surface supporting spoof surface magnon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-liang; Li, Zhuo; Gu, Chang-qing; Ning, Ping-ping; Xu, Bing-zheng; Niu, Zhen-yi; Zhao, Yong-jiu

    2014-05-05

    In this paper, we demonstrate that spoof surface magnon polaritons (SSMPs) can propagate along a corrugated perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) surface. From duality theorem, the existence of surface electromagnetic modes on corrugated PMC surfaces are manifest to be transverse electric (TE) mode compared with the transverse magnetic (TM) mode of spoof surface plasmon plaritons (SSPPs) excited on corrugated perfect electric conductor surfaces. Theoretical deduction through modal expansion method and simulation results clearly verify that SSMPs share the same dispersion relationship with the SSPPs. It is worth noting that this metamaterial will have more similar properties and potential applications as the SSPPs in large number of areas.

  19. Residual stress improvement for pipe weld by means of induction heating pre-flawed pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, T.; Yoshida, K.; Okamoto, A.

    1980-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) has been found in type 304 stainless steel piping of several BWR plants. It is already well known that IGSCC is most likely to occur when three essential factors, material sensitization, high tensile stress and corrosive environment, are present. If the welding residual stress is sufficiently high (200 to approximately 400 MPa) in the inside piping surface near the welded joint, then it may be one of the biggest contributors to IGSCC. If the residual stress is reduced or reversed by some way, the IGSCC will be effectively mitigated. In this paper a method to improve the residual stress named IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) is explained. IHSI aims to improve the condition of residual stress in the inside pipe surface using the thermal stress induced by the temperature difference in pipe wall, that is produced when the pipe is heated from the outside surface by an induction heating coil and cooled on the inside surface by water simultaneously. This method becomes more attractive when it can be successfully applied to in-service piping which might have some pre-flaw. In order to verify the validity of IHSI for such piping, some experiments and calculations using finite element method were conducted. These results are mainly discussed in this paper from the view-points of residual stress, flaw behaviour during IHSI and material deterioration. (author)

  20. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984

  1. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-01-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years

  2. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  3. Modeling of the plastic flow kinematics in the forming process of the lightweight flange corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Fomenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the forming maximum possibilities of the flange corrugation by stretching with a free movement of the billets end in the rigid sectional matrices detachable by the flexible filler.

  4. Axial Crushing Behaviors of Thin-Walled Corrugated and Circular Tubes - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz-Ur-Rahim, Mohd.; Bharti, P. K.; Umer, Afaque

    2017-10-01

    With the help of finite element analysis, this research paper deals with the energy absorption and collapse behavior with different corrugated section geometries of hollow tubes made of aluminum alloy 6060-T4. Literature available experimental data were used to validate the numerical models of the structures investigated. Based on the results available for symmetric crushing of circular tubes, models were developed to investigate corrugated thin-walled structures behavior. To study the collapse mechanism and energy absorbing ability in axial compression, the simulation was carried in ABAQUS /EXPLICIT code. In the simulation part, specimens were prepared and axially crushed to one-fourth length of the tube and the energy diagram of crushing force versus axial displacement is shown. The effect of various parameters such as pitch, mean diameter, corrugation, amplitude, the thickness is demonstrated with the help of diagrams. The overall result shows that the corrugated section geometry could be a good alternative to the conventional tubes.

  5. Atom chips in the real world: the effects of wire corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, T.; Estève, J.; Figl, C.; Trebbia, J.-B.; Aussibal, C.; Nguyen, H.; Mailly, D.; Bouchoule, I.; Westbrook, C. I.; Aspect, A.

    2005-02-01

    We present a detailed model describing the effects of wire corrugation on the trapping potential experienced by a cloud of atoms above a current carrying micro wire. We calculate the distortion of the current distribution due to corrugation and then derive the corresponding roughness in the magnetic field above the wire. Scaling laws are derived for the roughness as a function of height above a ribbon shaped wire. We also present experimental data on micro wire traps using cold atoms which complement some previously published measurements [CITE] and which demonstrate that wire corrugation can satisfactorily explain our observations of atom cloud fragmentation above electroplated gold wires. Finally, we present measurements of the corrugation of new wires fabricated by electron beam lithography and evaporation of gold. These wires appear to be substantially smoother than electroplated wires.

  6. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  7. Solar heating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson-Rider, G.

    1977-10-04

    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  8. Nonlinear piping damping and response predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Weiner, E.O.; Lindquist, M.R.; Anderson, M.J.; Wagner, S.E.

    1986-10-01

    The high level dynamic testing of four prototypic piping systems, used to provide benchmarks for analytical prediction comparisons, is overviewed. The size of pipe tested ranged from one-inch to six-inches in diameter and consisted of carbon steel or stainless steel material. Failure of the tested systems included progressive gross deformation or some combination of ratchetting-fatigue. Pretest failure predictions and post test comparisons using simplified elastic and elasto-plastic methods are presented. Detailed non-linear inelastic analyses are also shown, along with a typical ratchet-fatigue failure calculation. A simplified method for calculating modal equivalent viscous damping for snubbers and plastic hinges is also described. Conclusions are made regarding the applicability of the various analytical failure predictive methods and recommendations are made for future analytic and test efforts

  9. Influence of presence of inclined centered baffle and corrugation frequency on natural convection heat transfer flow of air inside a square enclosure with corrugated side walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Salam Hadi; Jabbar, Mohammed Yousif; Mohamad, Ahmad Saddy [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Babylon University, Babylon Province (Iraq)

    2011-09-15

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of presence of insulated inclined centered baffle and corrugation frequency on the steady natural convection in a sinusoidal corrugated enclosure. The present study is based on such a configuration where the two vertical sinusoidal walls are maintained at constant low temperature whereas a constant heat flux source whose length is 80% of the width of the enclosure is discretely embedded in the bottom wall. The remaining parts of the bottom wall and the top wall are adiabatic. The finite volume method has been used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes and the energy conservation equations of the fluid medium in the enclosure in order to investigate the effects of baffle inclination angles, corrugation frequencies and Grashof numbers on the fluid flow and heat transfer in the enclosure. The values of the governing parameters are the Grashof number Gr (10{sup 3}-10{sup 6}), the corrugation frequencies CF (1, 2 and 3), baffle inclination angles (0 deg. {<=} {phi} {<=} 150 deg.) and Prandtl number Pr (0.71). Results are presented in the form of streamline and isotherm plots. The results of this investigation are illustrated that the average Nusselt number increases with increase in both the Grashof number and corrugation frequency for different baffle inclination angles and the presence of inclined baffle and increasing the corrugation frequency have significant effects on the average Nusselt numbers, streamlines and isotherms inside the enclosure. The obtained numerical results have been compared with literature ones, and it gives a reliable agreement. (authors)

  10. A numerical study on the conjugate natural convection in a circular pipe containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myoung-Young; Choi, Hyoung-Gwon [Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, the effect of material property of pipe on the conjugate natural convection in a circular pipe containing water was investigated by solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with energy equations of the water and pipe. Natural convection and conduction of water inside the pipe was coupled with the conduction of the pipe whose bottom was subject to uniform heat source. From the present grid resolution and time-step independent solutions, it has been confirmed that the water temperature inside a PVC pipe was higher than that inside a steel pipe due to the smaller heat capacity of PVC and that the streamline patterns of the two cases were found to be opposite because the thermal diffusivity of steel (PVC) is larger (smaller) than that of water such that steel (PVC) pipe is heated faster (slower) than water. Furthermore, a quantitative comparison of heat flux to water was performed by examining the distributions of the heat flux along the inside walls of steel/PVC. The average temperature of water inside steel was found to be higher than that inside PVC at the initial stage of heating. On the other hand, PVC provided a larger heat flux to water when it reached a steady value.

  11. Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ishigami, Ryoya; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser was studied for application to nuclear decommissioning. Successful cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel plates up to 300 mm in thickness was demonstrated, as was that of thick steel components such as simulated reactor vessel walls, a large pipe, and a gate valve. The results indicate that laser cutting applied to nuclear decommissioning is a promising technology. (author)

  12. Failure analysis on a ruptured petrochemical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Mohd [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Kamardin, A. [Univ. Malaysia Perlis, Jejawi, Arau (Malaysia). School of Materials Engineering

    2010-08-15

    The failure took place on a welded elbow pipe which exhibited a catastrophic transverse rupture. The failure was located on the welding HAZ region, parallel to the welding path. Branching cracks were detected at the edge of the rupture area. Deposits of corrosion products were also spotted. The optical microscope analysis showed the presence of transgranular failures which were related to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and were predominantly caused by the welding residual stress. The significant difference in hardness between the welded area and the pipe confirmed the findings. Moreover, the failure was also caused by the low Mo content in the stainless steel pipe which was detected by means of spark emission spectrometer. (orig.)

  13. Exergy Based Performance Analysis of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Sharma; Som Nath Saha

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the performance, based on exergy analysis of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater based on energy balance equations has been presented and the results obtained have been compared with that of a conventional flat-plate solar air heater. The double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater performs thermally better than the flat plate double flow and conventional flat-plate solar air heate...

  14. Atom chips in the real world: the effects of wire corrugation

    OpenAIRE

    Schumm , Thorsten; Estève , Jérôme; Aussibal , Christine; Figl , Cristina; Trebbia , Jean-Baptiste; Nguyen , Hai; Mailly , Dominique; Bouchoule , Isabelle; Westbrook , Christoph I; Aspect , Alain

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We present a detailed model describing the effects of wire corrugation on the trapping potential experienced by a cloud of atoms above a current carrying micro wire. We calculate the distortion of the current distribution due to corrugation and then derive the corresponding roughness in the magnetic field above the wire. Scaling laws are derived for the roughness as a function of height above a ribbon shaped wire. We also present experimental data on micro wire traps u...

  15. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Corrugated Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayyani, Iman; Ziaei-Rad, Saeed; Salehi, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Tensile and flexural characteristics of corrugated laminate panels were studied using numerical and analytical methods and compared with experimental data. Prepreg laminates of glass fiber plain woven cloth were hand-laid by use of a heat gun to ease the creation of the panel. The corrugated panels were then manufactured by using a trapezoidal machined aluminium mould. First, a series of simple tension tests were performed on standard samples to evaluate the material characteristics. Next, the corrugated panels were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests. The force-displacement graphs were recorded. Numerical and analytical solutions were proposed to simulate the mechanical behavior of the panels. In order to model the energy dissipation due to delamination phenomenon observed in tensile tests in all members of corrugated core, plastic behavior was assigned to the whole geometry, not only to the corner regions. Contrary to the literature, it is shown that the three-stage mechanical behavior of composite corrugated core is not confined to aramid reinforced corrugated laminates and can be observed in other types such as fiber glass. The results reveal that the mechanical behavior of the core in tension is sensitive to the variation of core height. In addition, for the first time, the behavior of composite corrugated core was studied and verified in bending. Finally, the analytical and numerical results were validated by comparing them with experimental data. A good degree of correlation was observed which showed the suitability of the finite element model for predicting the mechanical behavior of corrugated laminate panels.

  16. Plasma influence on the dispersion properties of finite-length, corrugated waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Shkvarunets, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Weaver, J.; Carmel, Y.; Rodgers, J.; Antonsen, T.; Granatstein, V.L.; Destler, W.W.; Ogura, K.; Minami, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the electromagnetic properties of transverse magnetic modes in a corrugated-wall cavity filled with a radially inhomogeneous plasma. The shifts of the .resonant frequencies of a finite-length, corrugated cavity were measured as a function of the background plasma density and the dispersion diagram was reconstructed up to a peak plasma density of 1012 em - 3. Good agreement with a calculated dispersion diagram is obtained for plasma densities below 5 X 1011 ...

  17. Plasma influence on the dispersion properties of finite-length, corrugated waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkvarunets, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Weaver, J.; Carmel, Y.; Rodgers, J.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Granatstein, V. L.; Destler, W. W.; Ogura, K.; Minami, K.

    1996-03-01

    We present an experimental study of the electromagnetic properties of transverse magnetic modes in a corrugated-wall cavity filled with a radially inhomogeneous plasma. The shifts of the resonant frequencies of a finite-length, corrugated cavity were measured as a function of the background plasma density and the dispersion diagram was reconstructed up to a peak plasma density of 1012 cm-3. Good agreement with a calculated dispersion diagram is obtained for plasma densities below 5×1011 cm-3.

  18. Probabilistic based design rules for intersystem LOCAS in ABWR piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Wesley, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for probability-based standards for low-pressure piping systems that are attached to the reactor coolant loops of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) which could experience reactor coolant loop temperatures and pressures because of multiple isolation valve failures. This accident condition is called an intersystem loss-of-coolant accident (ISLOCA). The methodology was applied to various sizes of carbon and stainless steel piping designed to advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) temperatures and pressures

  19. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLEXIBLE BURIED PIPE DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR UNDER VARIOUS BACKFILL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Uğur TERZİ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation characteristics of polyethylene based flexible pipes are different than rigid pipes such as concrete and iron pipes. Deflection patterns and stress-strain behaviors of flexible pipes have strict relation between the engineering properties of backfill and its settlement method. In this study, deformation behavior of a 100 mm HDPE flexible pipe under vertical loads is investigated in laboratory conditions. Steel test box, pressurized membrane, raining system, linear position transducers and strain gauge rosettes are used in the laboratory tests. In order to analyze the buried pipe performance; Masada Derivation Formula which is mostly used by designers is employed. According to the test and mathematical studies, it is understood that relative density of backfill and its settlement method is a considerable effect on buried pipe performance and Masada Derivation method is very efficient for predicting the pipe performance.

  20. Study on pipe deflection by using numerical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini; Zaki Mubarak, Amir; Agustiar, Rizki

    2018-05-01

    Piping systems are widely used in a refinery or oil and gas industry. The piping system must be properly designed to avoid failure or leakage. Pipe stress analysis is conducted to analyze the loads and critical stress occurred, so that the failure of the pipe can be avoided. In this research, it is analyzed the deflection of a pipe by using Finite Element Method. The pipe is made of A358 / 304SS SCH10S Stainless Steel. It is 16 inches in size with the distance between supports is 10 meters. The fluid flown is Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) with the range of temperature of -120 ° C to -170 ° C, and a density of 461.1 kg / m 3. The flow of LNG causes deflection of the pipe. The pipe deflection must be within the permissible tolerable range. The objective is to analyze the deflection occurred in the piping system. Based on the calculation and simulation, the deflection is 4.4983 mm, which is below the maximum limit of deflection allowed, which is 20.3 mm.