WorldWideScience

Sample records for corrugated rail

  1. Assessment of rail long-pitch corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valehrach, Jan; Guziur, Petr; Riha, Tomas; Plasek, Otto

    2017-09-01

    The paper focuses on defects of the running surface of the rail, namely the rail corrugation defect and specifically long-pitch corrugation in curves of small radii. These defects cause a shorter life of the rails, greater maintenance costs and increase the noise and vibration pollution. Therefore, it is very important to understand the formation and development of the imperfection of the rails. In the paper, various sections of railway tracks in the Czech Republic are listed, each of them completed with comparison of defect development, the particular track superstructure, rolling stock, axle load, traffic load etc. Based on performed measurements, defect development has been proved as different on sections with similar (or even same) parameters. The paper assumes that a train velocity is the significant circumstance for defect development rates. Assessment of track section with under sleeper pads, which are expected to be the one of the possible ways to suppress the corrugation defect development, is included in evaluation.

  2. Fast rail corrugation detection based on texture filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Kaixia

    2018-02-01

    The condition detection of rails in high-speed railway is one of the important means to ensure the safety of railway transportation. In order to replace the traditional manual inspection, save manpower and material resources, and improve the detection speed and accuracy, it is of great significance to develop a machine vision system for locating and identifying defects on rails automatically. Rail defects exhibit different properties and are divided into various categories related to the type and position of flaws on the rail. Several kinds of interrelated factors cause rail defects such as type of rail, construction conditions, and speed and/or frequency of trains using the rail. Rail corrugation is a particular kind of defects that produce an undulatory deformation on the rail heads. In high speed train, the corrugation induces harmful vibrations on wheels and its components and reduces the lifetime of rails. This type of defects should be detected to avoid rail fractures. In this paper, a novel method for fast rail corrugation detection based on texture filtering was proposed.

  3. Trend extraction of rail corrugation measured dynamically based on the relevant low-frequency principal components reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanfu; Liu, Hongli; Ma, Ziji

    2016-01-01

    Rail corrugation dynamic measurement techniques are critical to guarantee transport security and guide rail maintenance. During the inspection process, low-frequency trends caused by rail fluctuation are usually superimposed on rail corrugation and seriously affect the assessment of rail maintenance quality. In order to extract and remove the nonlinear and non-stationary trends from original mixed signals, a hybrid model based ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and modified principal component analysis (MPCA) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the existing de-trending methods based on EMD, this method first considers low-frequency intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) thought to be underlying trend components that maybe contain some unrelated components, such as white noise and low-frequency signal itself, and proposes to use PCA to accurately extract the pure trends from the IMFs containing multiple components. On the other hand, due to the energy contribution ratio between trends and mixed signals is prior unknown, and the principal components (PCs) decomposed by PCA are arranged in order of energy reduction without considering frequency distribution, the proposed method modifies traditional PCA and just selects relevant low-frequency PCs to reconstruct the trends based on the zero-crossing numbers (ZCN) of each PC. Extensive tests are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show the proposed EEMD-PCA-ZCN is an effective tool for trend extraction of rail corrugation measured dynamically. (paper)

  4. The steady-state tangential contact problem for a falling drop type of contact area on corrugated rail by simplified theory of rolling contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jerzy

    1991-10-01

    Investigation of contact mechanical nonlinearities of a mathematical model of corrugation revealed that the typical shape of contact patch resembles a falling drop of water. A contact patch of that shape was approximated with a figure composed of two parts of ellipses with different eccentricities. The contact pressure distribution was assumed as a smoothing ensemble of two paraboloidal distributions. The description of a general case of double half elliptical contact area was given but a special case of double half elliptical contact is more interesting as it possesses some Hertzian properties. It was shown how three geometrical parameters of double half elliptical contact can be chosen when actual, non-Hertzian contact is known. A linear theory was written which indicates that the lateral vibrations of the rail may be excited only due to shape variation on corrugation even if any other cause for these vibrations does not exist. For nonlinear theory a computer program, based on FASTSIM algorithm by Kalker, was written. The aim is to calculate the creep forces and frictional power density distribution over the contact area. Also, a graphic program visualizing the solution was written. Numerical results are not provided; unattended and unsolved problems relevant for this type of contact are listed.

  5. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  6. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  7. Nonlinear finite element modeling of corrugated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C. Gilchrist; J. C. Suhling; T. J. Urbanik

    1999-01-01

    In this research, an investigation on the mechanical behavior of corrugated board has been performed using finite element analysis. Numerical finite element models for corrugated board geometries have been created and executed. Both geometric (large deformation) and material nonlinearities were included in the models. The analyses were performed using the commercial...

  8. Flow induced pulsations caused by corrugated tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shatto, D.P.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Corrugated tubes can produce a tonal noise when used for gas transport, for instance in the case of flexible risers. The whistling sound is generated by shear layer instability due to the boundary layer separation at each corrugation. This whistling is examined by investigating the frequency,

  9. Flow induced pulsations generated in corrugated tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Swindell, R.; Tummers, R.

    2008-01-01

    Corrugated tubes can produce a tonal noise when used for gas transport, for instance in the case of flexible risers. The whistling sound is generated by shear layer instability due to the boundary layer separation at each corrugation. This whistling is examined by investigating the frequency,

  10. Corrugated megathrust revealed offshore from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared; Silver, Eli A.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Brothers, Daniel; Bangs, Nathan L.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Wood, Ruby; Okamato, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Exhumed faults are rough, often exhibiting topographic corrugations oriented in the direction of slip; such features are fundamental to mechanical processes that drive earthquakes and fault evolution. However, our understanding of corrugation genesis remains limited due to a lack of in situ observations at depth, especially at subducting plate boundaries. Here we present three-dimensional seismic reflection data of the Costa Rica subduction zone that image a shallow megathrust fault characterized by corrugated, and chaotic and weakly corrugated topographies. The corrugated surfaces extend from near the trench to several kilometres down-dip, exhibit high reflection amplitudes (consistent with high fluid content/pressure) and trend 11–18° oblique to subduction, suggesting 15 to 25 mm yr−1 of trench-parallel slip partitioning across the plate boundary. The corrugations form along portions of the megathrust with greater cumulative slip and may act as fluid conduits. In contrast, weakly corrugated areas occur adjacent to active plate bending faults where the megathrust has migrated up-section, forming a nascent fault surface. The variations in megathrust roughness imaged here suggest that abandonment and then reestablishment of the megathrust up-section transiently increases fault roughness. Analogous corrugations may exist along significant portions of subduction megathrusts globally.

  11. Electromagnetic radiation of electrons in corrugated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ktitorov, S. A., E-mail: ktitorov@mail.ioffe.ru; Myhamadiarov, R. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Bremsstrahlung in corrugated single-layer graphene in the presence of a ballistic transport current is analyzed. Radiation of a similar nature is observed in undulators and wigglers. Regular and chaotic corrugations (ripples) are considered. It is shown that the quadratic relation between the Monge membrane function and the synthetic calibration field leads to the appearance of a central peak in the radiation spectral density. Possible formation mechanisms of single-layer graphene corrugation are proposed. In one case, the corrugation is considered as an incommensurate superstructure in a two-dimensional crystal, resulting from instability developing in the optical phonon subsystem with the formation of a periodic soliton train. Corrugation results from the interaction of subsystems. Another possible mechanism consists in instability of the membrane flat state due to strong fluctuations characteristic of two-dimensional systems.

  12. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igenbergs, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator

  13. Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 42006

  14. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Nikolaeva; S. A. Podkopaev

    2015-01-01

    Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a gener...

  15. Cells on corrugations for pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyde, R.

    1993-01-01

    Old cardboard boxes constitute 12% of landfills. White rot fungus can be grown on the boxes and buried in contaminated soil. The fungus needs air which is entrapped in the corrugations. The fungus is sensitive to large amounts of TNT but it is protected when inside the corrugations. Fast food containers are filling landfills. Lactic acid production needs air and the polymers are biodegradable. When corrugations are put in a half full rotary unit, holes in the valleys make drops, and mass transfer to drops is much higher than to a flat surface. A lab corrugator has been made from an old washing machine wringer, so other fibers can be corrugated. When the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis is grown on Tyvek fiber, lead and six valent chromium are removed from wastewater in a few seconds. Zymomonas on rotating fibers converts sugar to alcohol in 10--15 minutes and when a light is shown into flat rotating discs, it hits a thin moving film to destroy dioxin. Salt on roads causes millions of dollars damage to bridges and cars but calcium magnesium acetate is not corrosive and can be made with cells on rotating fibers

  16. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a generatrix of the meridian surface.Unlike other types of pressure elastic members (bellows, tube spring, the elastic characteristics of which are close to linear, an elastic characteristic of the corrugated membrane (typical movement versus external load is nonlinear. Therefore, the corrugated membranes can be used to measure quantities, nonlinearly related to the pressure (e.g., aircraft air speed, its altitude, pipeline fluid or gas flow rate. Another feature of the corrugated membrane is that significant movements are possible within the elastic material state. However, a significant non-linearity of membrane characteristics leads to severe complicated calculation.This article is aimed at calculating the corrugated membrane to obtain the elastic characteristics and the deformed shape of the membrane meridian, as well as at investigating the processes of buckling. As the calculation model, a thin-walled axisymmetric shell rotation is assumed. The material properties are linearly elastic. We consider a corrugated membrane of sinusoidal profile. The membrane load is a uniform pressure.The algorithm for calculating the mathematical model of an axisymmetric corrugated membrane of constant thickness, based on the Reissner’s theory of elastic thin shells, was realized as the author's program in C language. To solve the nonlinear problem were used a method of changing the subspace of control parameters, developed by S.S., Gavriushin, and a parameter marching method

  17. Managing rail service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Popović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The service life of rails depends especially on the operational loads and speeds on the railway lines, as well as on the rail maintenance policy. There are multiple aspects of rail maintenance optimization. The following article considers optimisation of rail maintenance activities relating to rail head surface condition in order to reduce corrective work on track geometry, as well as to minimize the overall costs for track maintenance. The objects of this research are issues and challenges related to rail and track maintenance in curves on modern conventional railway lines for mixed traffic.

  18. Optimum fiber distribution in singlewall corrugated fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik; William E. Denniston

    1979-01-01

    Determining optimum distribution of fiber through rational design of corrugated fiberboard could result in significant reductions in fiber required to meet end-use conditions, with subsequent reductions in price pressure and extension of the softwood timber supply. A theory of thin plates under large deformations is developed that is both kinematically and physically...

  19. Stiffness Matrices and Anisotropy in the Trapezoidal Corrugated Composite Sheets

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    Mohammad Golzar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the some applications like as morphing technology, high strain and anisotropic behavior are essential design requirements. The corrugated composite sheets due to their special geometries have potential to high deflection under axial loading through longitudinal direction of corrugation. In this research, the strain and the anisotropic behavior of corrugated composite sheets are investigated by fabricating glass/epoxy samples with trapezoidal geometries. For evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the composites the samples were subjected to tension and flexural tests in the longitudinal and transverse directions of corrugation. In order to determine anisotropic behavior of the corrugated sheets, two approaches were introduced: (1 tensile anisotropic (E* and (2 flexural anisotropic (D*. The anisotropic behavior and ultimate deflections were investigated theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, mechanical behaviors based on theoretical and experimental analysis including the elastic constants and stiffness matrices of trapezoidal corrugated composite sheets were studied and the results were verified by finite element method. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions were compared with those of experimental tests. Finally, the load-displacement curves of tensile tests in longitudinal direction of corrugation, the ultimate deflection and anisotropy behavior of these exclusive composite sheets in the corrugated composite sheets were studied experimentally. The experimental results of the trapezoidal corrugated sheets showed that one of the most important parameters in the ultimate strain was amplitude of the corrugation elements. Generally, increasing the amplitude and element per length unit of trapezoidal corrugated specimen led to higher ultimate strain.

  20. Passive heat transfer enhancement in 3D corrugated tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navickaité, Kristina; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    transfer and fluid flow with a constant wall temperature and total pressure drop. The governing equations for these problems were solved using the Finite Element Method. The results of numerical modelling show significant increase in NTU for double corrugated tubes compared to a circular tube. The friction......An innovative hydraulic design was studied for corrugated tube geometry for a heat exchanger. An ellipse based double corrugation was used as a concept of the geometry. The hydraulic diameter (Dh) is maintained over the tube length while the shape of the cross section varies continuously along...... the flow direction. 38 corrugated tubes with a Dh of 5 mm were studied numerically with corrugation heights from 0.23 to 0.69 mm and corrugation periods from 5 to 50 mm for laminar flow with water. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as a tool to study the effect of corrugation geometry on heat...

  1. Rail projects gather steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    The global recession hit rail companies hard, as demand for bulk commodities such as coal was affected. But green shoots of recovery are now appearing, with many rail companies announcing new haulage contracts. 3 figs.

  2. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  3. Implications of rail electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    A model is developed to investigate possible effects of rail electrodynamics on the performance of railguns. This model describes the oscillatory nature of the rail motion in response to the Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force of material which is behind the rails. In this simple model the rails are found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The rail dynamic behavior induces local electric fields. The authors investigate the significance of these electric fields on stationary particles (lab frame) and on particles moving at the velocity of the plasma/projectile system (projectile frame)

  4. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Silicon Carbide Corrugated Mirrors for Space Telescopes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) proposes technology development to manufacture monolithic, lightweight silicon carbide corrugated mirrors (SCCM) suitable for...

  6. Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow through a microparallel channel with corrugated walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buren, Mandula; Jian, Yongjun; Chang, Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a perturbation method is introduced to study the electromagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) flow in a microparallel channel with slightly corrugated walls. The corrugations of the two walls are periodic sinusoidal waves of small amplitude either in phase or half-period out of phase, and the perturbation solutions of velocity and volume flow rate are obtained. Using numerical computation the effects of the corrugations on the flow are graphically analysed. The results show that the influence of corrugation on the flow decreases with Hartmann number. The phase difference of wall corrugations becomes unimportant when the wavenumber is greater than 3 or when the Hartmann number is greater than 4. With the increase in wavenumber, the decreasing effects of corrugations on the flow increase. When the wavenumber is smaller than the threshold wavenumber (it is a function of Hartmann number) and the wall corrugations are half-period out of phase, the corrugations can enhance the mean velocity of EMHD flow. However, the mean velocity is always decreased when the corrugations are in phase. (paper)

  7. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...

  8. Aerodynamic Improvements to Cargo Carrying Rail Cars due to Roof Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Robert; Maynes, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with the transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. We provide an assessment of the influence of the roof structure on aerodynamic performance of two dissimilar rail cars, namely automobile carrying cars and coal carrying cars. Currently, the roof material for automobile carrying rail cars is corrugated steel, with the corrugation aligned perpendicular to the direction of travel. Coal cars are currently left uncovered for loading convenience and on the return leg from the power plant are empty. Aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the tops of both these car types. For the automobile-carrying cars, testing is performed for the corrugated and smooth roof configurations. This modification alone has the potential of reducing the car drag coefficient by nominally 25%. A broader study is performed for the coal cars, with data being acquired for coal filled models, empty models, and several cover prototype configurations. The results reveal that implementation of a cover may yield reductions in the aerodynamic drag for both coal filled (nominally 7%) and empty coal cars (nominally 30%).

  9. On the whistling of corrugated pipes with narrow cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; González Diez, N.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes with a corrugated inner surface, as used inflexible pipes for gas production and transport, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocities are higher than a certain onset velocity. The onset velocity for classical corrugated pipes can be predicted on basis of the geometry

  10. Dynamic tension testing equipment for paperboard and corrugated fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Godshall

    1965-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a method, the testing equipment, and the instrumentation with which dynamic stress-strain information may be obtained for paperboards and built-up corrugated fiberboards as used in corrugated fiberboard containers. Much information is available on the properties of these materials when subjected to static or low rates of...

  11. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  12. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  13. RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing is DLR’s rail simulation and testing laboratory (see Figure 1. It is the implementation of a fully modular concept for the simulation of on-board and trackside control and safety technology. The RailSiTe® laboratory additionally comprises the RailSET (Railway Simulation Environment for Train Drivers and Operators human-factors laboratory, a realistic environment containing a realistic train mockup including 3D simulation.

  14. Composite corrugated structures for morphing wing skin applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thill, C; Etches, J A; Bond, I P; Potter, K D; Weaver, P M

    2010-01-01

    Composite corrugated structures are known for their anisotropic properties. They exhibit relatively high stiffness parallel (longitudinal) to the corrugation direction and are relatively compliant in the direction perpendicular (transverse) to the corrugation. Thus, they offer a potential solution for morphing skin panels (MSPs) in the trailing edge region of a wing as a morphing control surface. In this paper, an overview of the work carried out by the present authors over the last few years on corrugated structures for morphing skin applications is first given. The second part of the paper presents recent work on the application of corrugated sandwich structures. Panels made from multiple unit cells of corrugated sandwich structures are used as MSPs in the trailing edge region of a scaled morphing aerofoil section. The aerofoil section features an internal actuation mechanism that allows chordwise length and camber change of the trailing edge region (aft 35% chord). Wind tunnel testing was carried out to demonstrate the MSP concept but also to explore its limitations. Suggestions for improvements arising from this study were deduced, one of which includes an investigation of a segmented skin. The overall results of this study show that the MSP concept exploiting corrugated sandwich structures offers a potential solution for local morphing wing skins for low speed and small air vehicles

  15. Bronze railing from Mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Miloje R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The hoard containing components of bronze railing was discovered in trench 7 during excavations at Mediana in 2000. Railing consists of cancelli and herms with busts of deities between them. Railing was constructed in such a way that it was possible to disassemble and reassemble it. Three cancelli one fragmented semicancellus cast together with herm and herms, one with bust of Aesculapius and other with bust of Luna. It could be concluded that railing consisted of two segments with passage between them. Male deities were represented on the left segment of the railing and female deities on the right segment. Detailed analysis revealed that Aesculapius as well as Luna bear strong mark of classical Greek and Hellenistic art, which experienced some kind of renaissance in the time of Constantine I. It is very probable that we can recognize the portrait of Faustina, Constantine’s wife in the portrait of Luna. According to the historical events the railing could have been produced before 325 AD when Constantine definitively accepted Christianity at Council of Nicaea. It is difficult to say where the railing had been produced. It had been most probably brought to Mediana during the stay of emperor Julian in Niš in 361. The sculptures found in one room of the villa with peristyle had probably been brought at the same time. The apse of triclinium of this villa had most likely been arranged as small shrine with bronze railing at its entrance. The railing was buried in 378 after battle of Adrianople and invasion of Goths in diocese Dacia.

  16. Mathematical Model for Thin-walled Corrugated Tube under Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyvazian Arameh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, theoretical investigation of corrugated aluminum tubes is performed to predicting the energy absorption characteristics. Aim to deform plastic tubes in predetermined intervals, corrugations are introduced on its surface. Theoretical relations are presented for predicting the energy absorption and mean crushing load of corrugated tubes. Other than that, corrugation helps to control the failure mode.

  17. CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE DESIGN OF UNCONVENTIONAL CORRUGATED BOARD STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIDONI Nadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper depicts a few contributions on the design of several unconventional corrugated board structures. In general, cardboard and corrugated cardboard is strongly linked to packaging. However, limiting these materials to their primary use does nothing else but to restrict the possibilities of using them in other interesting areas. Consequently, new structures built from cardboard have been imagined and in the paper there are presented a few unconventional uses of the corrugated fiberboard, namely as furniture elements, along with the technology used in the design and the manufacturing process.

  18. The influence of rail surface irregularities on contact forces and local stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Robin; Torstensson, Peter T.; Kabo, Elena; Larsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial rail surface irregularities on promoting further surface degradation is investigated. The study concerns rolling contact fatigue formation, in particular in the form of the so-called squats. The impact of surface irregularities in the form of dimples is quantified by peak magnitudes of dynamic contact stresses and contact forces. To this end simulations of two-dimensional (later extended to three-dimensional) vertical dynamic vehicle-track interaction are employed. The most influencing parameters are identified. It is shown that even very shallow dimples might have a large impact on local contact stresses. Peak magnitudes of contact forces and stresses due to the influence of rail dimples are shown to exceed those due to rail corrugation.

  19. A dynamic wheel-rail impact analysis of railway track under wheel flat by finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jian; Gu, Yuantong; Murray, Martin Howard

    2013-06-01

    Wheel-rail interaction is one of the most important research topics in railway engineering. It involves track impact response, track vibration and track safety. Track structure failures caused by wheel-rail impact forces can lead to significant economic loss for track owners through damage to rails and to the sleepers beneath. Wheel-rail impact forces occur because of imperfections in the wheels or rails such as wheel flats, irregular wheel profiles, rail corrugations and differences in the heights of rails connected at a welded joint. A wheel flat can cause a large dynamic impact force as well as a forced vibration with a high frequency, which can cause damage to the track structure. In the present work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the impact analysis induced by the wheel flat is developed by the use of the FE analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS and validated by another validated simulation. The effect of wheel flats on impact forces is thoroughly investigated. It is found that the presence of a wheel flat will significantly increase the dynamic impact force on both rail and sleeper. The impact force will monotonically increase with the size of wheel flats. The relationships between the impact force and the wheel flat size are explored from this FEA and they are important for track engineers to improve their understanding of the design and maintenance of the track system.

  20. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  1. Optical properties of nonimaging concentrators with corrugated reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roennelid, Mats; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjorn

    1994-09-01

    A ray tracing study has been performed on the optical properties of cylindrical nonimaging concentrators with linear corrugated reflectors. The corrugations are assumed to be V-formed and to have an extension parallel to the meridian plane of the concentrators. It is shown that the acceptance angle for radiation incident in the meridian plane can be increased for moderate corrugations. This increased acceptance is balanced by a decreased acceptance of radiation from other directions. Calculations of angular acceptance for a 2X compound parabolic concentrator is presented. It is shown that the annual irradiation on a solar collector with booster reflector can be increased if corrugated reflectors are used instead of smooth reflectors.

  2. Theoretical prediction on corrugated sandwich panels under bending loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chengfu; Hou, Shujuan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, an aluminum corrugated sandwich panel with triangular core under bending loads was investigated. Firstly, the equivalent material parameters of the triangular corrugated core layer, which could be considered as an orthotropic panel, were obtained by using Castigliano's theorem and equivalent homogeneous model. Secondly, contributions of the corrugated core layer and two face panels were both considered to compute the equivalent material parameters of the whole structure through the classical lamination theory, and these equivalent material parameters were compared with finite element analysis solutions. Then, based on the Mindlin orthotropic plate theory, this study obtain the closed-form solutions of the displacement for a corrugated sandwich panel under bending loads in specified boundary conditions, and parameters study and comparison by the finite element method were executed simultaneously.

  3. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  4. Bandwidth Study of the Microwave Reflectors with Rectangular Corrugations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; He, Wenlong; Donaldson, Craig R.; Cross, Adrian W.

    2016-09-01

    The mode-selective microwave reflector with periodic rectangular corrugations in the inner surface of a circular metallic waveguide is studied in this paper. The relations between the bandwidth and reflection coefficient for different numbers of corrugation sections were studied through a global optimization method. Two types of reflectors were investigated. One does not consider the phase response and the other does. Both types of broadband reflectors operating at W-band were machined and measured to verify the numerical simulations.

  5. Impact of Corrugated Paperboard Structure on Puncture Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidas Bivainis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its excellentprotective properties, lightness, a reasonable price, and ecology, corrugated paperboardis one of the most popular materials used in the production of packaging for variousproducts. During transportation or storage, packaging with goods can be exposedto the mass of other commodities, dropping from heights and transportationshock loads, which can lead to their puncture damage. Depending on the purposeand size of the packaging, the thickness, grammage, constituent paper layers,numbers of layers and type of fluting of corrugated paperboard used in itsproduction differ. A standard triangular prism, corrugated paperboard fixationplates and a universal tension-compression machine were used to investigate theimpact of corrugated paperboard structure and other parameters on the punctureresistance of the material. The investigation determines the maximum punctureload and estimates energy required to penetrate the corrugated paperboard. Itwas found that the greatest puncture resistance is demonstrated by paperboardwith a larger number of corrugating flutings and the board produced from harderpaper with a smaller amount of recycled paper. It was established that thegrammage of three-layered paperboard with two different fluting profiles has thegreatest impact on the level of static puncture energy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5713

  6. 77 FR 17121 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Rail Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...% of the Class A Common Units of TransRail, giving RailTex a 70% ownership interest in TransRail and control of W&C through TransRail. The MG Principals will retain the Class B Common Units of TransRail... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35605] RailAmerica, Inc...

  7. A Rails / Django Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruby on Rails (“Rails” is the dominant web programming framework for Ruby and, even outside the Ruby community, is considered the epitome of the latest generation of high-productivity, open source web development tools. Django is one of many competing web development frameworks for Python. It is notable, first, for being highly regarded amongst Python programmers, and second, for being one of the few of the new generation of framework that does not ape Ruby on Rails. Both Rails and Django claim greatly enhanced productivity, compared with more traditional web development frameworks. In this paper, we compare the two frameworks from the point of view of a developer attempting to choose one of the two frameworks for a new project.

  8. Rail inspection of RCF defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Popović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rail defects due to rolling contact fatigue (RCF threaten the traffic safety around the world. That hazard is more distinct on railways without adequate maintenance strategy. Realization of interoperability of European railway network demands from every infrastructure manager to have a maintenance plan for the infrastructure subsystem. Besides that, this plan includes rail inspection and strategy against RCF defects. This paper emphasizes the importance of rail inspection and early detection of RCF because the most of RCF crack should be removed in rail grinding campaigns (preventive, cyclical and corrective activities during the whole rail service life.

  9. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented and the ......The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... light rail projects...

  10. Bootstrap for rails

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Syed Fazle

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer who has a basic understanding of Ruby on Rails, this is the book for you. You should definitely have previous knowledge about HTML and how it works. However, CSS and JavaScript knowledge is optional for this book.

  11. Numerical analysis of beam with sinusoidally corrugated webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Pieńko, Michał; Łagoda, GraŻyna

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents numerical tests results of the steel beam with sinusoidally corrugated web, which were performed in the Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2010. The analysis was preceded by laboratory tests including the beam's work under the influence of the four point bending as well as the study of material characteristics. Significant web's thickness and use of tools available in the software allowed to analyze the behavior of the plate girder as beam, and also to observe the occurrence of stresses in the characteristic element - the corrugated web. The stress distribution observed on the both web's surfaces was analyzed.

  12. Mass transfer in corrugated-plate membrane modules. I. Hyperfiltration experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, M.J.; Racz, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    The application of corrugations as turbulence promoters in membrane filtration was studied. This study showed that it is possible to deform an originally flat membrane to a corrugated shape without damaging it. In hyperfiltration experiments using corrugated cellulose acetate membranes it was found

  13. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S f =353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S f =225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S f =210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs

  14. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube: Voice of the Dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a “Hummer” and as a musical instrument, the “Voice of the Dragon.” The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  15. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube : voice of the dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a "Hummer" and as a musical instrument, the "Voice of the Dragon." The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  16. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  17. Rail base corrosion and cracking prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Rail base corrosion combined with fatigue or damage can significantly reduce rail life. Studies were done to examine the relative contribution of damage, corrosion, and fatigue on rail life. The combined effects can be separated into constituent fact...

  18. Heat shrink formation of a corrugated thin film thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tianlei; Peavey, Jennifer L.; David Shelby, M.; Ferguson, Scott; O’Connor, Brendan T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Demonstrate and characterize a thermoelectric generator with a corrugated geometry. • Employ a novel heat shrink fabrication approach compatible with low-cost processing. • Use thermal impedance modeling to explore design potential. • Corrugated design shown to be advantageous for low heat-flux density applications. - Abstract: A thin film thermoelectric (TE) generator with a corrugated architecture is demonstrated formed using a heat-shrink fabrication approach. Fabrication of the corrugated TE structure consists of depositing thin film thermoelectric elements onto a planar non-shrink polyimide substrate that is then sandwiched between two uniaxial stretch-oriented co-polyester (PET) films. The heat shrink PET films are adhered to the polyimide in select locations, such that when the structure is placed in a high temperature environment, the outer films shrink resulting in a corrugated core film and thermoelectric elements spanning between the outer PET films. The module has a cross-plane heat transfer architecture similar to a conventional bulk TE module, but with heat transfer in the plane of the thin film thermoelectric elements, which assists in maintaining a significant temperature difference across the thermoelectric junctions. In this demonstration, Ag and Ni films are used as the thermoelectric elements and a Seebeck coefficient of 14 μV K −1 is measured with a maximum power output of 0.22 nW per couple at a temperature difference of 7.0 K. We then theoretically consider the performance of this device architecture with high performance thermoelectric materials in the heat sink limited regime. The results show that the heat-shrink approach is a simple fabrication method that may be advantageous in large-area, low power density applications. The fabrication method is also compatible with simple geometric modification to achieve various form factors and power densities to customize the TE generator for a range of applications

  19. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance

  20. On the Fully-Developed Heat Transfer Enhancing Flow Field in Sinusoidally, Spirally Corrugated Tubes Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Jakob; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A numerical study has been carried out to investigate heat transfer enhancing flow field in 28 geometrically different sinusoidally, spirally corrugated tubes. To vary the corrugation, the height of corrugation e/D and the length between two successive corrugated sections p/D are varied in the ra...

  1. Shear Behavior of Corrugated Steel Webs in H Shape Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In bridge engineering, girders with corrugated steel webs have shown good mechanical properties. With the promotion of composite bridge with corrugated steel webs, in particular steel-concrete composite girder bridge with corrugated steel webs, it is necessary to study the shear performance and buckling of the corrugated webs. In this research, by conducting experiment incorporated with finite element analysis, the stability of H shape beam welded with corrugated webs was tested and three failure modes were observed. Structural data including load-deflection, load-strain, and shear capacity of tested beam specimens were collected and compared with FEM analytical results by ANSYS software. The effects of web thickness, corrugation, and stiffening on shear capacity of corrugated webs were further discussed.

  2. Rails - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds310

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are the detections of Virginia rail (Rallus limicola), Sora (Porzana carolina), and California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) from 13 survey points...

  3. Deformation and lifetime behaviour of cyclic loaded rail and wheel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denne, B.; Lang, K.-H.; Loehe, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1

    2000-07-01

    Corrugation, shelling and squats are some unexpected technical problems caused by increasing service tonnage, increasing load of the rails and increasing train speed at Deutsche Bahn AG lines since the last decades. As the complex phenomena of rolling contact fatigue in the rail / wheel system is difficult to understand extensive investigations have to be done to describe the multiaxial rolling contact fatigue processes and to develop and verify multiaxial fatigue criteria and lifetime predictions. To reach this aim a reliable fatigue data base of the utilised steels is required. To obtain such data, specimens were worked out of rails and wheels used in high speed traffic. With these specimens the lifetime behaviour and the endurance limit were estimated from push-pull tests. For the rail steel stress and total strain controlled fatigue tests were performed. The resulting lifetime behaviour is compared. In the wheel there are several regions with different microstructures due to the heat treatment at the end of the manufacturing process. Specimens were taken from the wheel rim representing these different microstructures. With these specimens stress controlled fatigue tests were performed. The influence of the different microstructures on the deformation and lifetime behaviour is showed. (orig.)

  4. Modelling and simulation of dynamic wheel-rail interaction using a roller rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyakwo, A; Pislaru, C; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between the wheel and rail greatly influences the dynamic response of railway vehicles on the track. A roller rig facility can be used to study and monitor real time parameters that influence wheel-rail interaction such as wear, adhesion, friction and corrugation without actual field tests being carried out. This paper presents the development of the mathematical models for full scale roller rig and 1/5 scale roller rig and the wear prediction model based on KTH wear function. The simulated critical speed for the 1/5 scale roller rig is about one-fifth of the critical speed for the full scale model so the simulated results compare well with the theory related to wheel-rail contact and dynamics. Also the differences between the simulated rolling radii for the full scale model with and without wear function are analysed. This paper presents the initial stage of a large scale research project where the influence of wear on the wheel-rail performance will be studied in more depth.

  5. Free Rail Tickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Nielsen, Thomas Thomas Alexander Sick

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the potential of Bluetooth and WiFi sensor network tracking to estimate the flow of passengers on rails. The article shows that this technology makes it possible to estimate the relative flow in the network, even when used in a setup with a minimum of sensors on selected...... railway stations, and also how free tickets influence the relative flow on routes in the network. This paper presents the first contribution where Bluetooth and WiFi tracking data has been used to estimate the impact of free tickets on railways in Denmark....

  6. Web Services on Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This PDF will show you how your small business or enterprise can publish its APIs (application programming interface) to a developer community just like the behemoths of the Internet--Google, Yahoo!, eBay, and Amazon. These giants already offer their APIs to other programmers and allow for add-on services and mash-ups to develop from them--but until recently, the capability for most enterprises to do the same was limited by a myriad of competing standards and a lack of easy-to-use tools to accomplish the task. Ruby on Rails levels the playing field for companies by simplifying the process

  7. The mechanism of selective corrugation removal by KOH anisotropic wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikida, M; Inagaki, N; Sasaki, H; Amakawa, H; Fukuzawa, K; Sato, K

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of selective corrugation removal by anisotropic wet etching—which reduces a periodic corrugation, called 'scalloping', formed on the sidewalls of microstructures by the Bosch process in deep reactive-ion etching (D-RIE)—was investigated. In particular, the corrugation-removal mechanism was analyzed by using the etching rate distribution pattern, and two equations for predicting the corrugation-removal time by the etching were derived. A Si{1 0 0} wafer was first etched by D-RIE at a depth of 29.4 µm (60 cycles) to form the corrugation on the sidewall surface. The height and pitch of the corrugation were 196 and 494 nm, respectively. Selective removal of the corrugation by using 50% KOH (40 °C) was experimentally tried. The corrugation formed on Si{1 0 0} sidewall surfaces was gradually reduced in size as the etching progressed, and it was completely removed after 5 min of etching. Similarly, the corrugation formed on a Si{1 1 0} sidewall surface was also selectively removed by KOH etching (etching time: 3 min). The roughness value of the sidewall surface was reduced from 17.6 nm to a few nanometers by the etching. These results confirm that the corrugation-removal mechanism using anisotropic wet etching can be explained in terms of the distribution pattern of etching rate

  8. Design and manufacturing of skins based on composite corrugated laminates for morphing aerodynamic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Alessandro; Fournier, Stephane; Borlandelli, Elena; Bettini, Paolo; Sala, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The paper discusses the approaches for the design and manufacturing of morphing skins based on rectangular-shaped composite corrugated laminates and proposes a novel solution to prevent detrimental effects of corrugation on aerodynamic performances. Additionally, more complex corrugated shapes are presented and analysed. The manufacturing issues related to the production of corrugated laminates are discussed and tests are performed to compare different solutions and to assess the validity of analytical and numerical predictions. The solution presented to develop an aerodynamically efficient skin consists in the integration of an elastomeric cover in the corrugated laminate. The related manufacturing process is presented and assessed, and a fully nonlinear numerical model is developed and characterized to study the behaviour of this skin concept in different load conditions. Finally, configurations based on combinations of individual rectangular-shaped corrugated panels are considered. Their structural properties are numerically investigated by varying geometrical parameters. Performance indices are defined to compare structural stiffness contributions in non-morphing directions with the ones of conventional panels of the same weight. Numerical studies also show that the extension of the concept to complex corrugated shapes may improve both the design flexibility and some specific performances with respect to rectangular shaped corrugations. The overall results validate the design approaches and manufacturing processes to produce corrugated laminates and indicate that the solution for the integration of an elastomeric cover is a feasible and promising method to enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of corrugated skins.

  9. Measuring autogenous strain of concrete with corrugated moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    A reliable technique to quantify autogenous strain is a prerequisite to numerical modeling in stress calculations for high performance concrete. The introducing of a special kind of corrugated tube mould helps to transforming volume strain measurement into liner strain measurement in horizontal...... direction for fluid concrete, which not only realizes the continuous monitoring of the autogenous shrinkage since casting, but also effectively eliminates the disturbance resulting from gravity, temperature variation and mould restraint on measuring results. Based on this measuring technique, this paper...

  10. Dispersion of helically corrugated waveguides: Analytical, numerical, and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, G.; Ronald, K.; Young, A.R.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Cross, A.W.; Konoplev, I.V.; He, W.; Thomson, J.; Whyte, C.G.; Samsonov, S.V.; Denisov, G.G.; Bratman, V.L.

    2004-01-01

    Helically corrugated waveguides have recently been studied for use in various applications such as interaction regions in gyrotron traveling-wave tubes and gyrotron backward-wave oscillators and as a dispersive medium for passive microwave pulse compression. The paper presents a summary of various methods that can be used for analysis of the wave dispersion of such waveguides. The results obtained from an analytical approach, simulations with the three-dimensional numerical code MAGIC, and cold microwave measurements are analyzed and compared

  11. 75 FR 76520 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... family by converting two of its subsidiaries from corporations into limited liability companies: (1... Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Corporate Family... Railroad Company (TSRR), Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH) and...

  12. Theory of static friction: temperature and corrugation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, A; Brigazzi, M; Santoro, G; Bortolani, V

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the static friction, as a function of temperature, between two thick solid slabs. The upper one is formed of light particles and the substrate of heavy particles. We focus our attention on the interaction between the phonon fields of the two blocks and on the interface corrugation, among the various mechanisms responsible for the friction. To give evidence of the role played by the dynamical interaction of the substrate with the upper block, we consider both a substrate formed by fixed atoms and a substrate formed by mobile atoms. To study the effect of the corrugation, we model it by changing the range parameter σ in the Lennard-Jones interaction potential. We found that in the case of the mobile substrate there is a large momentum transfer from the substrate to the upper block. This momentum transfer increases on increasing the temperature and produces a large disorder in the upper block favouring a decrease of the static friction with respect to the case for a rigid substrate. Reducing the corrugation, we found that with a rigid substrate the upper block becomes nearly commensurate, producing an enhancement of the static friction with respect to that with a mobile substrate

  13. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  14. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  15. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  16. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  17. 78 FR 10581 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail). We are establishing a... vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, and intercity... for their service. We may pay travel expenses for a limited number of persons who would otherwise be...

  18. Head first rails a learner's companion to ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Ready to transport your web applications into the Web 2.0 era? Head First Rails takes your programming -- and productivity -- to the max. You'll learn everything from the fundamentals of Rails scaffolding to building customized interactive web apps using Rails' rich set of tools and the MVC framework. By the time you're finished, you'll have learned more than just another web framework. You'll master database interactions, integration with Ajax and XML, rich content, and even dynamic graphing of your data -- all in a fraction of the time it takes to build the same apps with Java, PHP, ASP.NE

  19. Scheduling freight trains in rail-rail transshipment yards

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Boysen; Erwin Pesch

    2008-01-01

    Transshipment yards, where gantry cranes allow for an effcient transshipment of containers between different freight trains, are important entities in modern railway systems and facilitate the general shift from point-to-point transport to hub-and-spoke railway systems. Modern rail-rail transshipment yards accelerate container handling, so that multiple smaller trains with equal destination can be consolidated to a reduced number of trains without jeopardizing on time deliveries. An important...

  20. Ruby on Rails for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd

    2007-01-01

    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'

  1. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  2. Light Rails to Sustainable Mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    that there is not one overall rationale for implementing light rail, many arguments are evident in various contexts. Furthermore, findings in this paper show that planners, policy makers and other stakeholders shape stories for or against the implementation of light rail through the use of narratives that are linked...... infrastructure projects and urban interventions through the political process and secure the outcome of these projects are recognisable in proportion to the visionary concept....

  3. Spoof surface plasmons propagating along a periodically corrugated coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, Nahid; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Using the rigorous mode-matching technique, we have investigated a periodically corrugated perfectly conducting coaxial waveguide for the possibility of propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons. To verify our results, the computed band diagram of the structure has been compared with the one obtained using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. The obtained spoof surface plasmon modes have been shown to be highly localized and slowly propagating. Variations of the obtained modal frequencies and mode profiles as a function of the depth and width of the grooves have also been investigated.

  4. Spoof surface plasmons propagating along a periodically corrugated coaxial waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebi, Nahid; Shahabadi, Mahmoud, E-mail: n.talebi@ece.ut.ac.i [Photonics Research Laboratory, Center of Excellence for Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-07

    Using the rigorous mode-matching technique, we have investigated a periodically corrugated perfectly conducting coaxial waveguide for the possibility of propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons. To verify our results, the computed band diagram of the structure has been compared with the one obtained using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. The obtained spoof surface plasmon modes have been shown to be highly localized and slowly propagating. Variations of the obtained modal frequencies and mode profiles as a function of the depth and width of the grooves have also been investigated.

  5. Mass transfer in corrugated-plate membrane modules. II. Ultrafiltration experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, M.J.; Stevanovic, S.; Racz, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    The application of corrugations as turbulence promoters in membrane filtration was studied. In ultrafiltration experiments with polysulfone membranes using Dextran T70 as solute, it was found that the corrugations result in reduced energy consumption or pressure drop compared with flat membranes at

  6. Direct measurements of acoustic damping and sound amplification in corrugated pipes with flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Vijlbrief, O.; Lunde, K.

    2015-01-01

    The flow-induced pulsations in corrugated pipes result from a feedback loop between an acoustic resonator and the noise amplification at each shear layer in the axisymmetric cavities forming the corrugations. The quality factor of the resonator is determined by the reflection coefficients at the

  7. Whistling of pipes with narrow corrugations: scale model tests and consequences for carcass design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes for gas production and transport with a corrugated inner surface, as used in flexible pipes, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocity is larger than a certain velocity. This onset velocity is dependent on the geometry of the corrugations, the operational conditions and

  8. Mathematical model of dynamic interaction between wheel-set and rail track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bureika

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this title is to show how the effects on maximum bending tensions at different locations in the track caused by simultaneous changes of the various parameters can be estimated in a rational manner The dynamic of vertical interaction between a moving rigid wheel and a flexible railway track is investigated. A round and smooth wheel tread and an initially straight and non-corrugated rail surface are assumed in the present optimisation study. Asymmetric linear three-dimensional beam structure model of a finite length of the track is suggested including rail, pads, sleepers and ballast with spatially non-proportional damping. Transient bending tensions in sleepers and rail are calculated. The influence of eight selected track parameters on the dynamic behaviour of the track is investigated. A two-level fractional factorial design method is used in the search for a combination of numerical levels of these parameters making the maximum bending tensions the minimum. Finally, the main conclusions are given.

  9. Determination of transfer parameters in corrugated plates exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lima Filho, S. da.

    1984-01-01

    In this work is presented a experimental study about the forced convenction problem in vee-corrugated exchangers, with flow in the transversal sense, and parallel plates exchangers in which the isotermal plate is equivalent to the absobing one and the other plate is adiabatic. Global values of the transfer coefficients were experimentally obtained by application of the Naphthalene Sublimation Technique in accordance with the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The results were expressed in terms of Sh sup(-) /Sc sup(0,4) that according to the analogy is equal the Nu sup(-) / Pr sup(0,4) in function of the Reynolds number. The ratio between the lenght of the channel and the average spacing between plates L/2a was ranged in all the exchangers. Parameters of transfer to angles of 45 0 and 31 0 were determined in the corrugated plates exchangers. The experimental results obtained were analyzed and compared among them. Finally practical applications of these results are presented to heat exchangers with similars geometric characteristics. (Author) [pt

  10. Transfer of hydrogen and helium through corrugated, flexible tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schippl, K.

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of liquid gas or cold gas through corrugated tubes is an alternative to rigid systems for the use in reactor technique. Advantages: flexibility for easy installation; these tubes together with their associated terminations and hardware are assembled, leak-tested and evacuated at the factory. This permits simple and cost saving installation on site. All tubes are helium leak-tested with a sensitivity of 10E -9 mbar 1/sec. Following the leak test, the vacuum space is pumped down to the operation vacuum level and properly sealed. The vacuum integrity is guaranteed as a result of the high degree of cleanliness observed during production and from the use of a specially selected better material inside the vacuum space. Disadvantage: pressure is limited to 20 bar. To fulfil all rules of the reactor safety, different tests have to be done. Because of the longitudinal weld of the corrugated tube, a bursting test of different sizes gives the best information of the liability of this kind of tube. It can be shown that the bursting pressure of such a tube is more than 5 times higher than the max. working pressure

  11. Role of Bénard-Marangoni instabilities during solvent evaporation in polymer surface corrugations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, N; Rharbi, Y

    2009-01-06

    Film formation through the drying of polymer solutions is a widely used process in laboratories and in many industrial applications such as coatings. One of the main goals of these applications is to control the film surface morphology. In many cases, evaporation has been found to yield corrugated patterns on the free surface of films. This has been interpreted in terms of either mechanical or hydrodynamic instabilities. In this article, we present experimental results where mesoscale 2D well-ordered surface corrugation patterns are formed during solvent evaporation from polystyrene/toluene solutions. The transformation of Benard-Marangoni instabilities into surface corrugation is studied during the entire drying process using particle tracking, 3D morphology analyses, etc. We show that the corrugation wavelength is controlled by the Benard-Marangoni instability, whereas the corrugation amplitude is controlled by a mechanism that involves a high evaporation rate.

  12. Some design aspects of a two-stage rail-to-rail CMOS op amp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage low-voltage CMOS op amp with rail-to-rail input and output voltage ranges is presented. The circuit uses complementary differential input pairs to achieve the rail-to-rail common-mode input voltage range. The differential pairs operate in strong inversion, and the constant

  13. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area

  14. Environmental impact assessment of rail infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This project resulted in three products: a comprehensive "Sustainable Rail Checklist," a rail planning GIS database, and a web GIS tool that integrates sustainability metrics and facilitates a rapid assessment before a formal NEPA process is implemen...

  15. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of OMB Approval of Information Collection. SUMMARY... collection, Rail Depreciation Studies. See 78 FR 18676 (Mar. 27, 2013). This collection, codified at 49 CFR...

  16. Vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králíček J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle and is the extension of the previously presented work “Modelování podvozku kolejového vozidla s poddajným rámem”. The vibroacoustical analysis uses the outcomes of the dynamical analysis of rail vehicle bogie i.e. surface velocities of the bogie frame to compute the acoustic power radiated by the bogie frame and forces acting in the bogie-body interface. The radiated power and the force spectra are then used as the excitation to the rail body model in the environment Auto-SEA to compute the interior acoustic quantities.

  17. Undergraduate Certificate in Rail Transportation/Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    A shift in the U.S. transportation environment has led to a revival in rail transport, especially in : freight rail1. In the meantime, an aging rail employee demographic presents a severe threat to : sufficient level of individuals equipped to handle...

  18. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... of impact assessment required for the rail infrastructure, facilities, and service improvements contained in State rail plans. Other issues raised by commenters included the importance of involving... to emphasize the importance of preparing State rail plans within the policy and procedural contexts...

  19. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  20. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) high. (4) While engaged in big game angling, the minimum rail height may be reduced to not less than... section as applicable must be installed when big game angling is not being conducted. (e) Where the... that a higher rail would interfere with the fishing operation and the lower rail would not...

  1. A CMOS rail-to-rail linear VI-converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, P.P.; Vervoort, P.P.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A linear CMOS VI-converter operating in strong inversion with a common-mode input range from the negative to the positive supply rail is presented. The circuit consists of three linear VI-converters based on the difference of squares principle. Two of these perform the actual V to I conversion,

  2. Flow around a corrugated wing over the range of dragonfly flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padinjattayil, Sooraj; Agrawal, Amit

    2017-11-01

    The dragonfly flight is very much affected by the corrugations on their wings. A PIV based study is conducted on a rigid corrugated wing for a range of Reynolds number 300-12000 and three different angles of attack (5°-15°) to understand the mechanism of dragonfly flight better. The study revealed that the shape of the corrugation plays a key role in generating vortices. The vortices trapped in the valleys of corrugation dictates the shape of a virtual airfoil around the corrugated wing. A fluid roller bearing effect is created over the virtual airfoil when the trapped vortices merge with each other. A travelling wave produced by the moving virtual boundary around the fluid roller bearings avoids the formation of boundary layer on the virtual surface, thereby leading to high aerodynamic performance. It is found that the lift coefficient increases as the number of vortices increases on the suction surface. Also, it is shown that the partially merged co- rotating vortices give higher lift as compared to fully merged vortices. Further, the virtual airfoil formed around the corrugated wing is compared with a superhydrophobic airfoil which exhibits slip on its surface; several similarities in their flow characteristics are observed. The corrugated airfoil performs superior to the superhydrophobic airfoil in the aerodynamic efficiency due to the virtual slip caused by the travelling wave.

  3. THE BAINITIC STEELS FOR RAILS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hlavatý

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Actual trends of worldwide railway transport development are characterized by increasing speed and growth of railway’s axels load. Increasing load together with transverse, longitudinal wheel displacement and braking on the rails results into heavy surface tension. One of many applications for bainitic steel is in railway transport for highly strength and wear resistant rails. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, wear, rolling contact fatigue, bending stress and thermal stress during rail welding process and rails resurfacing.

  4. Modeling noncontact atomic force microscopy resolution on corrugated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Burson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Key developments in NC-AFM have generally involved atomically flat crystalline surfaces. However, many surfaces of technological interest are not atomically flat. We discuss the experimental difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images of rough surfaces, with amorphous SiO2 as a specific case. We develop a quasi-1-D minimal model for noncontact atomic force microscopy, based on van der Waals interactions between a spherical tip and the surface, explicitly accounting for the corrugated substrate (modeled as a sinusoid. The model results show an attenuation of the topographic contours by ~30% for tip distances within 5 Å of the surface. Results also indicate a deviation from the Hamaker force law for a sphere interacting with a flat surface.

  5. Thin polymer films on chemically patterned, corrugated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoghegan, Mark; Wang Chun; Rehse, Nicolaus; Magerle, Robert; Krausch, Georg

    2005-01-01

    We study the effect of a chemical pattern on the wetting and dewetting behaviour of thin polystyrene (PS) films on regularly corrugated silicon substrates. Our results reveal that the film preparation, annealing method, and confinement play a critical role in the final film structure. On evaporating gold on both sides of the facets (such that it covered the crests of the facets, and not the troughs), we observed dewetting, which proceeded to the gold, demonstrating an enthalpic effect contrary to the outcome previously observed when gold was only evaporated on one side of the facet. We also coated the substrate with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS); this led to a gold and OTS striped structure. PS films several nanometres thick dewet such substrates, with a preferential direction for dewetting in the direction of the stripes forming droplets of a considerably larger size than the stripes

  6. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic and structural characteristics of a corrugated wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Kyle

    Previous experimental studies on static, bio-inspired corrugated wings have shown that they produce favorable aerodynamic properties such as delayed stall compared to streamlined wings and flat plates at high Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 4x104). The majority of studies have been carried out with scaled models of dragonfly forewings from the Aeshna Cyanea in either wind tunnels or water channels. In this thesis, the aerodynamics of a corrugated airfoil was studied using computational fluid dynamics methods at a low Reynolds number of 1000. Structural analysis was also performed using the commercial software SolidWorks 2009. The flow field is described by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on an overlapping grid using the pressure-Poisson method. The equations are discretized in space with second-order accurate central differences. Time integration is achieved through the second-order Crank-Nicolson implicit method. The complex vortex structures that form in the corrugated airfoil valleys and around the corrugated airfoil are studied in detail. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements from corrugated wings and also with simulations of a flat plate. Contrary to the studies at high Reynolds numbers, our study shows that at low Reynolds numbers the wing corrugation does not provide any aerodynamic benefit compared to a smoothed flat plate. Instead, the corrugated profile generates more pressure drag which is only partially offset by the reduction of friction drag, leading to more total drag than the flat plate. Structural analysis shows that the wing corrugation can increase the resistance to bending moments on the wing structure. A smoothed structure has to be three times thicker to provide the same stiffness. It was concluded the corrugated wing has the structural benefit to provide the same resistance to bending moments with a much reduced weight.

  7. Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesset, F.; Maurice, G.; Halter, F.; Mazellier, N.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar

  8. Numerical Investigation of the Fully-Developed Periodic Flow Field for Optimal Heat Transfer in Spirally Corrugated Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Jakob; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Sørensen, Kim

    Even though the corrugated tube is a widely used technique to enhance transfer heat, the exact heat transfer enhancing mechanism remains relatively un-documented. Most studies attribute the favourable heat transfer characteristics to a swirling flow being present at higher corrugation....... In this study, a systematic approach relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to study and compare the heat transfer characteristics with the detailed flow field in the spirally corrugated tubes. By comparing the flow in 12 different spirally corrugated tubes at a fixed Reynolds number of 5000......, this study compares the flow field with the surface averaged Nusselt number to gain valuable insight into which flow phenomena causes favourable heat transfer characteristics. While the flow at low corrugations approximates the non-corrugated tube, higher corrugations of h/D creates a significant tangential...

  9. Beam Expansion of Blind Spot Detection Radar Antennas Using a Radome with Defected Corrugated Inner Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayeon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A beam expanding radome for 76.5 GHz automotive radar antennas is presented whose inner surface is engraved with corrugations. The radar used for blind spot detection (BSD requires a very wide beam width to ensure longer time for tracking out-of-sight objects. It is found that the corrugations modulate the phase velocities of the waves along the surface, which increases beam width in the far field. In addition, defects in the corrugation increase beam width even further. The presented structure satisfies the beam width requirement while keeping a low profile.

  10. Application of the method of integral equations to calculating the electrodynamic characteristics of periodically corrugated waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.E.; Rodygin, L.V.; Fil'chenko, S.E.; Yunakovskii, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for calculating the electrodynamic characteristics of periodically corrugated waveguide systems. This method is based on representing the field as the solution of the Helmholtz vector equation in the form of a simple layer potential, transformed with the use of the Floquet conditions. Systems of compound integral equations based on a weighted vector function of the simple layer potential are derived for waveguides with azimuthally symmetric and helical corrugations. A numerical realization of the Fourier method is cited for seeking the dispersion relation of azimuthally symmetric waves of a circular corrugated waveguide

  11. A corrugated perfect magnetic conductor surface supporting spoof surface magnon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-liang; Li, Zhuo; Gu, Chang-qing; Ning, Ping-ping; Xu, Bing-zheng; Niu, Zhen-yi; Zhao, Yong-jiu

    2014-05-05

    In this paper, we demonstrate that spoof surface magnon polaritons (SSMPs) can propagate along a corrugated perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) surface. From duality theorem, the existence of surface electromagnetic modes on corrugated PMC surfaces are manifest to be transverse electric (TE) mode compared with the transverse magnetic (TM) mode of spoof surface plasmon plaritons (SSPPs) excited on corrugated perfect electric conductor surfaces. Theoretical deduction through modal expansion method and simulation results clearly verify that SSMPs share the same dispersion relationship with the SSPPs. It is worth noting that this metamaterial will have more similar properties and potential applications as the SSPPs in large number of areas.

  12. Personal interests hinder Rail Baltica

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi

  13. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  14. Modeling of the plastic flow kinematics in the forming process of the lightweight flange corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Fomenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the forming maximum possibilities of the flange corrugation by stretching with a free movement of the billets end in the rigid sectional matrices detachable by the flexible filler.

  15. Axial Crushing Behaviors of Thin-Walled Corrugated and Circular Tubes - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz-Ur-Rahim, Mohd.; Bharti, P. K.; Umer, Afaque

    2017-10-01

    With the help of finite element analysis, this research paper deals with the energy absorption and collapse behavior with different corrugated section geometries of hollow tubes made of aluminum alloy 6060-T4. Literature available experimental data were used to validate the numerical models of the structures investigated. Based on the results available for symmetric crushing of circular tubes, models were developed to investigate corrugated thin-walled structures behavior. To study the collapse mechanism and energy absorbing ability in axial compression, the simulation was carried in ABAQUS /EXPLICIT code. In the simulation part, specimens were prepared and axially crushed to one-fourth length of the tube and the energy diagram of crushing force versus axial displacement is shown. The effect of various parameters such as pitch, mean diameter, corrugation, amplitude, the thickness is demonstrated with the help of diagrams. The overall result shows that the corrugated section geometry could be a good alternative to the conventional tubes.

  16. Atom chips in the real world: the effects of wire corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, T.; Estève, J.; Figl, C.; Trebbia, J.-B.; Aussibal, C.; Nguyen, H.; Mailly, D.; Bouchoule, I.; Westbrook, C. I.; Aspect, A.

    2005-02-01

    We present a detailed model describing the effects of wire corrugation on the trapping potential experienced by a cloud of atoms above a current carrying micro wire. We calculate the distortion of the current distribution due to corrugation and then derive the corresponding roughness in the magnetic field above the wire. Scaling laws are derived for the roughness as a function of height above a ribbon shaped wire. We also present experimental data on micro wire traps using cold atoms which complement some previously published measurements [CITE] and which demonstrate that wire corrugation can satisfactorily explain our observations of atom cloud fragmentation above electroplated gold wires. Finally, we present measurements of the corrugation of new wires fabricated by electron beam lithography and evaporation of gold. These wires appear to be substantially smoother than electroplated wires.

  17. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  18. 49 CFR 214.523 - Hi-rail vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hi-rail vehicles. 214.523 Section 214.523..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.523 Hi-rail vehicles. (a) The hi-rail gear of all hi-rail vehicles shall be inspected for...

  19. Rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.; Villecco, R.A.; Graham, F.R.

    1991-01-01

    A model is developed to investigate rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun. This model describes the rail motion in response to the transitory Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force from the material which is between the rails and the containment structure. In this model the distance between the rails is found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The magnetic field and the dynamic behavior of the rails induce local electric fields. We investigate the significance of these electric fields in the laboratory frame and in the projectile frame. In the lab frame, rail electrodynamics induces local electric fields which have maximums spaced behind the projectile at locations where βt p is an odd multiple of π, where t p is the time since the projectile has passed an axial location on the rails. When the projectile is accelerating, rail dynamics induce electric fields in the projectile frame which have maximums where βt p is an even multiple of π. As the projectile velocity increases, the locations of the peak voltages move farther behind the projectile. For the CHECMATE railgun, calculations indicate that the rail displacement is on the order of 2 mm, the rail velocity is on the order of 50 m/s, and the voltages induced in the projectile frame are on the order of 20--40 V

  20. Influence of presence of inclined centered baffle and corrugation frequency on natural convection heat transfer flow of air inside a square enclosure with corrugated side walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Salam Hadi; Jabbar, Mohammed Yousif; Mohamad, Ahmad Saddy [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Babylon University, Babylon Province (Iraq)

    2011-09-15

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of presence of insulated inclined centered baffle and corrugation frequency on the steady natural convection in a sinusoidal corrugated enclosure. The present study is based on such a configuration where the two vertical sinusoidal walls are maintained at constant low temperature whereas a constant heat flux source whose length is 80% of the width of the enclosure is discretely embedded in the bottom wall. The remaining parts of the bottom wall and the top wall are adiabatic. The finite volume method has been used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes and the energy conservation equations of the fluid medium in the enclosure in order to investigate the effects of baffle inclination angles, corrugation frequencies and Grashof numbers on the fluid flow and heat transfer in the enclosure. The values of the governing parameters are the Grashof number Gr (10{sup 3}-10{sup 6}), the corrugation frequencies CF (1, 2 and 3), baffle inclination angles (0 deg. {<=} {phi} {<=} 150 deg.) and Prandtl number Pr (0.71). Results are presented in the form of streamline and isotherm plots. The results of this investigation are illustrated that the average Nusselt number increases with increase in both the Grashof number and corrugation frequency for different baffle inclination angles and the presence of inclined baffle and increasing the corrugation frequency have significant effects on the average Nusselt numbers, streamlines and isotherms inside the enclosure. The obtained numerical results have been compared with literature ones, and it gives a reliable agreement. (authors)

  1. Exergy Based Performance Analysis of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Sharma; Som Nath Saha

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the performance, based on exergy analysis of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater based on energy balance equations has been presented and the results obtained have been compared with that of a conventional flat-plate solar air heater. The double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater performs thermally better than the flat plate double flow and conventional flat-plate solar air heate...

  2. Numerical analysis of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbeck, Leszek [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics Piotrowo Street No. 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Paczos, Piotr [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics Jana Pawla IIStreet No. 24, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The strength problem of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending is presented.The beam are made of steel and formed by three mutually orthogonal corrugated layers. The finite element analysis (FEA) of the sandwich beam is performed with the use of the FEM system - ABAQUS. The relationship between the applied load and deflection in three-point bending is considered.

  3. Atom chips in the real world: the effects of wire corrugation

    OpenAIRE

    Schumm , Thorsten; Estève , Jérôme; Aussibal , Christine; Figl , Cristina; Trebbia , Jean-Baptiste; Nguyen , Hai; Mailly , Dominique; Bouchoule , Isabelle; Westbrook , Christoph I; Aspect , Alain

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We present a detailed model describing the effects of wire corrugation on the trapping potential experienced by a cloud of atoms above a current carrying micro wire. We calculate the distortion of the current distribution due to corrugation and then derive the corresponding roughness in the magnetic field above the wire. Scaling laws are derived for the roughness as a function of height above a ribbon shaped wire. We also present experimental data on micro wire traps u...

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Corrugated Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayyani, Iman; Ziaei-Rad, Saeed; Salehi, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Tensile and flexural characteristics of corrugated laminate panels were studied using numerical and analytical methods and compared with experimental data. Prepreg laminates of glass fiber plain woven cloth were hand-laid by use of a heat gun to ease the creation of the panel. The corrugated panels were then manufactured by using a trapezoidal machined aluminium mould. First, a series of simple tension tests were performed on standard samples to evaluate the material characteristics. Next, the corrugated panels were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests. The force-displacement graphs were recorded. Numerical and analytical solutions were proposed to simulate the mechanical behavior of the panels. In order to model the energy dissipation due to delamination phenomenon observed in tensile tests in all members of corrugated core, plastic behavior was assigned to the whole geometry, not only to the corner regions. Contrary to the literature, it is shown that the three-stage mechanical behavior of composite corrugated core is not confined to aramid reinforced corrugated laminates and can be observed in other types such as fiber glass. The results reveal that the mechanical behavior of the core in tension is sensitive to the variation of core height. In addition, for the first time, the behavior of composite corrugated core was studied and verified in bending. Finally, the analytical and numerical results were validated by comparing them with experimental data. A good degree of correlation was observed which showed the suitability of the finite element model for predicting the mechanical behavior of corrugated laminate panels.

  5. Plasma influence on the dispersion properties of finite-length, corrugated waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Shkvarunets, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Weaver, J.; Carmel, Y.; Rodgers, J.; Antonsen, T.; Granatstein, V.L.; Destler, W.W.; Ogura, K.; Minami, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the electromagnetic properties of transverse magnetic modes in a corrugated-wall cavity filled with a radially inhomogeneous plasma. The shifts of the .resonant frequencies of a finite-length, corrugated cavity were measured as a function of the background plasma density and the dispersion diagram was reconstructed up to a peak plasma density of 1012 em - 3. Good agreement with a calculated dispersion diagram is obtained for plasma densities below 5 X 1011 ...

  6. Plasma influence on the dispersion properties of finite-length, corrugated waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkvarunets, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Weaver, J.; Carmel, Y.; Rodgers, J.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Granatstein, V. L.; Destler, W. W.; Ogura, K.; Minami, K.

    1996-03-01

    We present an experimental study of the electromagnetic properties of transverse magnetic modes in a corrugated-wall cavity filled with a radially inhomogeneous plasma. The shifts of the resonant frequencies of a finite-length, corrugated cavity were measured as a function of the background plasma density and the dispersion diagram was reconstructed up to a peak plasma density of 1012 cm-3. Good agreement with a calculated dispersion diagram is obtained for plasma densities below 5×1011 cm-3.

  7. Determination of rail wear and short-time wear measurements of rails applying radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    An energetic model has been developed for calculating rail wear. Short-time wear tests on rails after surface activation and following activity measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated values

  8. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  9. Hybrid rail gun electromagnetic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.W.; Hachen, H.; Lee, A.; Legh, G.; Lin, T.; Mattay, S.; Wipf, S.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on hybrid rail accelerators are presented. It is shown that the side surface areas and in some cases sabots of the projectile can be used to provide substantial amount of additional thrust. Moreover, it is shown that in most cases examined, external magnetic fields can be conveniently incorporated in the accelerator designs to supplement the rail-induced fields. Total thrusts in excess of 10 MN for kilogram-sized projectiles can in principle be established with driving currents of the order of 1 MA. No obvious stress limitations are foreseen. The percentages of thrust from external magnetic fields are sufficiently high that the use of which should be encouraged. The increased flexibility in the projectile shapes available permits the use of the proposed hybrid electromagnetic launcher technology in a variety of new areas, such as thrust boosts in conventional chemical rockets and other similar applications. Furthermore, the additional thrust obtained from the use of side surface areas greatly increases the maximum permissable thrust otherwise limited by material strength considerations. Thrust analyses for projectiles in several hybrid rail accelerator designs are discussed. Some laboratory experimental observations are presented

  10. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  11. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Squeal noise from wheel/rail and brake disc/pad frictional contact is typical in railways. ... squeal noise by multibody simulation of a rail car running on rigid rails. ... system, traditional complex eigenvalue analysis by finite element was used.

  12. Excitation of Surface Electromagnetic Waves on Railroad Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-31

    UMTA's Office of Rail Technology research programs aim to improve urban rail transportation systems safety. This rail-transit research study attempts to develop an onboard, separate and independent obstacle-detection system--Surface Electromagnetic W...

  13. Potential scenarios of concern for high speed rail operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    Currently, multiple operating authorities are proposing the : introduction of high-speed rail service in the United States. : While high-speed rail service shares a number of basic : principles with conventional-speed rail service, the operational : ...

  14. 75 FR 55631 - U. S. Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... the proposed construction is to enable U. S. Rail to serve the BRT as a common carrier and to deliver... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35141] U. S. Rail Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  15. Corrugated Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A.; Choi, K. K.; Das, N. C.; La, A.; Jhabvala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The corrugated quantum-well infrared photodetector (C-QWIP) uses total internal reflection to couple normal incident light into the optically active quantum wells. The coupling efficiency has been shown to be relatively independent of the pixel size and wavelength thus making the C-QWIP a candidate for detectors over the entire infrared spectrum. The broadband coupling efficiency of the C-QWIP makes it an ideal candidate for multiwavelength detectors. We fabricated and tested C-QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) with cutoff wavelengths of 11.2 and 16.2 micrometers. Each FPA has 256 x 256 pixels that are bump-bonded to a direct injection readout circuit. Both FPAs provided infrared imagery with good aesthetic attributes. For the 11.2-micrometers FPA, background-limited performance (BLIP) was observed at 60 K with f/3 optics. For the 16.2-micrometers FPA, BLIP was observed at 38 K. Besides the reduction of dark current in C-QWIP structures, the measured internal quantum efficiency (eta) remains to be high. The values for responsivity and quantum efficiency obtained from the FPA results agree well with those measured for single devices.

  16. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  17. Waste paper recycling opportunities for government action. Vol. 4, corrugated waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.; Love, P.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes current and expected corrugated waste market conditions in Canada, with the objective of identifying government initiatives which could permanently increase recovery levels. Short-term, practical measures are featured. National and regional demand, generation and recovery levels are examined, along with imports and exports to the USA. Over 70% of corrugated waste is consumed in Ontario and Quebec, and most of this waste is generated in those two provinces. Average recovery rates in most major urban areas are estimated at 30-40%. Future demand, generation, and recovery are estimated, and it is suggested that there will be enough domestic demand to permit reclamation of nearly 35% of Canada's total corrugated wastes. This potential level is not expected to change significantly, and new demand opportunities appear minimal. Examination of the potential for future imports from the USA indicates that availability will tighten over the medium term, necessitating a search for new corrugated waste supply sources. Possible sources include supermakets, retail chains and large assembly manufacturing establishments; one of the most promising of these sources is shopping malls, and a study is appended which examines the feasibility of a corrugated waste source separation program within a hypothetical mall. Possible government actions are outlined to improve reclamation and recycling of corrugated waste in Canada, including the improvement of local recovery capabilities in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec, and the reduction of freight costs for moving corrugated waste from low-recovery areas to high-demand areas. 26 refs., 9 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Heat transfer enhancement and pumping power optimization using CuO-water nanofluid through rectangular corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Musfequs; Ehsan, Mohammad Monjurul; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul

    2017-06-01

    Heat transfer enhancement by corrugation in fluid domain is a popular method. The rate of improvement is more when it is used highly thermal conductive fluid as heating or cooling medium. In this present study, heat transfer augmentation was investigated numerically by implementing corrugation in the fluid domain and nanofluid as the base fluid in the turbulent forced convection regime. Finite volume method (FVM) was applied to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. All the numerical simulations were considered for single phase flow. A rectangle corrugated pipe with 5000 W/m2 constant heat flux subjected to the corrugated wall was considered as the fluid domain. In the range of Reynolds number 15000 to 40000, thermo-physical and hydrodynamic behavior was investigated by using CuO-water nanofluid from 1% to 5% volume fraction as the base fluid through the corrugated fluid domain. Corrugation justification was performed by changing the amplitude of the corrugation and the corrugation wave length for obtaining the increased heat transfer rate with minimum pumping power. For using CuO-water nanofluid, augmentation was also found more in the rectangle corrugated pipe both in heat transfer and pumping power requirement with the increase of Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanofluid. For the increased pumping power, optimization of pumping power by using nanofluid was also performed for economic finding.

  19. 49 CFR 213.113 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... smooth, bright, or dark, round or oval surface substantially at a right angle to the length of the rail... in the head of the rail as a smooth, bright, or dark surface progressing until substantially at a... head, and extending into or through it. A crack or rust streak may show under the head close to the web...

  20. 75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... input into the development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In addition, the notice presents the overall plan design, Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) goals in...

  1. A low-voltage Op Amp with rail-to-rail constant-gm input stage and a class AB rail-to-rail output stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, J.H.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper a low-voltage two-stage Op Amp is presented. The Op Amp features rail-to-rail operation and has an @put stage with a constant transconductance (%) over the entire common-mode input range. The input stage consists of an n- and a PMOS differential pair connected in parallel. The constant

  2. The physics of wheel-rail stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.

    2018-05-01

    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure.

  3. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  4. Method for Predicting Thermal Buckling in Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A method is proposed herein for predicting the onset of thermal buckling in rails in such a way as to provide a means of avoiding this type of potentially devastating failure. The method consists of the development of a thermomechanical model of rail...

  5. Buckling analysis of continuous welded rail track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous welded rail track, compared to jointed track not only reduces maintenance costs, but also increases life time of track components and the comfort of passengers. Since expansion of the rails is hardly possible in CWR-track, a temperature increase will result in high compressive stresses

  6. The Physics of Wheel-Rail Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure

  7. Efficiency enhancement of flexible OLEDs by using nano-corrugated substrates and conformal Ag transparent anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Luo, Yu; Feng, Xueming; Pei, Yuechen; Lu, Bingheng; Cheng, Shenggui

    2018-05-01

    In flexible OLEDs (FOLEDs), the traditional ITO anode has disadvantages such as refractive-index mismatches among substrate and other functional layers, leads to light loss of nearly 80%, meanwhile, its brittle nature and lack in raw materials hinder its further applications. We investigated an efficient FOLED using a semi-transparent silver (Ag) anode, whereas the device was built on a nano-corrugated flexible polycarbonate (PC) substrate prepared by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The corrugations were well preserved on each layer of the device, both the micro-cavity effect and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes of light loss were effectively suppressed. As a result, the current efficiency of the FOLED using a conformal corrugated Ag anode enhanced by 100% compared with a planar Ag anode device, and enhanced by 13% with conventional ITO device. In addition, owing to the quasi-periodical arrangements of the corrugations, the device achieved broad spectra and Lambertian angular emission. The Ag anode significantly improved the bending properties of the OLED as compared to the conventional ITO device, leading to a longer lifetime in practical use. The proposed manufacturing strategy will be useful for fabricating nano corrugations on plastic substrate of FOLED in a cost-effective and convenient manner.

  8. Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings and other structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research introduces a methodology of establishing indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process, construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting property. The suggested methodology introduces the system of actions aimed to design constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings. Technological effect is achieved by conducting firing tests of steel construction by non-destructive methods; the evaluation of fire resistance of fire-proof elements of corrugated beams (corrugated web, upper and lower shelves is identified by the least fire-proof element of a welded I-beam. In this methodology fire resistance duration of the constituent elements of a welded I-beam with account of its fire protection ability is described with an analytic function taken as variables. These variables are intensity strength of stresses and the degree of fire protection of a compound element.

  9. Fracture Behaviours in Compression-loaded Triangular Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid N.Z.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure modes occurring in sandwich panels based on the corrugations of aluminium alloy, carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP and glass fibre-reinforced plastic (GFRP are analysed in this work. The fracture behaviour of these sandwich panels under compressive stresses is determined through a series of uniform lateral compression performed on samples with different cell wall thicknesses. Compression test on the corrugated-core sandwich panels were conducted using an Instron series 4505 testing machine. The post-failure examinations of the corrugated-core in different cell wall thickness were conducted using optical microscope. Load-displacement graphs of aluminium alloy, GFRP and CFRP specimens were plotted to show progressive damage development with five unit cells. Four modes of failure were described in the results: buckling, hinges, delamination and debonding. Each of these failure modes may dominate under different cell wall thickness or loading condition, and they may act in combination. The results indicate that thicker composites corrugated-core panels tend can recover more stress and retain more stiffness. This analysis provides a valuable insight into the mechanical behaviour of corrugated-core sandwich panels for use in lightweight engineering applications.

  10. Efficiency enhancement of flexible OLEDs by using nano-corrugated substrates and conformal Ag transparent anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In flexible OLEDs (FOLEDs, the traditional ITO anode has disadvantages such as refractive-index mismatches among substrate and other functional layers, leads to light loss of nearly 80%, meanwhile, its brittle nature and lack in raw materials hinder its further applications. We investigated an efficient FOLED using a semi-transparent silver (Ag anode, whereas the device was built on a nano-corrugated flexible polycarbonate (PC substrate prepared by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The corrugations were well preserved on each layer of the device, both the micro-cavity effect and surface plasmon polariton (SPP modes of light loss were effectively suppressed. As a result, the current efficiency of the FOLED using a conformal corrugated Ag anode enhanced by 100% compared with a planar Ag anode device, and enhanced by 13% with conventional ITO device. In addition, owing to the quasi-periodical arrangements of the corrugations, the device achieved broad spectra and Lambertian angular emission. The Ag anode significantly improved the bending properties of the OLED as compared to the conventional ITO device, leading to a longer lifetime in practical use. The proposed manufacturing strategy will be useful for fabricating nano corrugations on plastic substrate of FOLED in a cost-effective and convenient manner.

  11. Rail inspection using noncontact laser ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyeon; Sohn, Hoon; Han, Soon Woo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a noncontact laser ultrasonic system is proposed for rail defect detection. An Nd Yag pulse laser is used for generation of ultrasonic waves, and the corresponding ultrasonic responses are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. For the detection of rail surface damages, the shape of the excitation laser beam is transformed into a line. On the other hand, a point source laser beam is used for the inspection of defects inside a rail head. Then, the interactions of propagating ultrasonic waves with defects are examined using actual rail specimens. Amplitude attenuation was mainly observed for a surface crack, and reflections were most noticeable from an internal damage. Finally, opportunities and challenges associated with real time rail inspection from a high speed train are discussed

  12. Rail transportation of Fernald remediation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, R.T.; Lojek, D.A.; Motl, G.P.; Weddendorf, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994

  13. Experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics in corrugated and flat plate type heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hun; Jeong, Yong Ki; Jeon, Chung Hwan; Chang, Young June [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyeok [DHT, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was performed to study heat transfer characteristics between corrugated heat exchanger and flat plate type one. While heat capacity(13.86kW) was provided constantly and the flow speed was varied from 2.8 to 17.9m/s, the temperature and the pressure drop were measured. Furthermore, heat transfer coefficient, Colburn factor and Nusselt number were calculated using them. With increase of the flow speed for both exchangers, the coefficient and the pressure drop increased, but Colburn factor decreased. The coefficient, pressure drop and Colburn factor of the corrugated type were all higher than those of the flat one, which is due to the flow interruption with recirculation and reattachment of the corrugated type. The empirical correlations of Nusselt number were suggested for the tested two heat exchangers.

  14. Effect of varying geometrical parameters of trapezoidal corrugated-core sandwich structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid N.Z.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structure is an attractive alternative that increasingly used in the transportation and aerospace industry. Corrugated-core with trapezoidal shape allows enhancing the damage resistance to the sandwich structure, but on the other hand, it changes the structural response of the sandwich structure. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of varying geometrical parameters of trapezoidal corrugated-core sandwich structure under compression loading. The corrugated-core specimen was fabricated using press technique, following the shape of trapezoidal shape. Two different materials were used in the study, glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP and carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP. The result shows that the mechanical properties of the core in compression loading are sensitive to the variation of a number of unit cells and the core thickness.

  15. A magnetically tunable non-Bragg defect mode in a corrugated waveguide filled with liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Fan, Ya-Xian; Liu, Huan; Han, Xu; Lu, Wen-Qiang; Tao, Zhi-Yong

    2018-04-01

    A magnetically tunable, non-Bragg defect mode (NBDM) was created in the terahertz frequency range by inserting a defect in the middle of a periodically corrugated waveguide filled with liquid crystals (LCs). In the periodic waveguide, non-Bragg gaps beyond the Bragg ones, which appear in the transmission spectra, are created by different transverse mode resonances. The transmission spectra of the waveguide containing a defect showed that a defect mode was present inside the non-Bragg gap. The NBDM has quite different features compared to the Bragg defect mode, which includes more complex, high-order guided wave modes. In our study, we filled the corrugated waveguide with LCs to realize the tunability of the NBDM. The simulated results showed that the NBDM in a corrugated waveguide filled with LCs can be used in filters, sensors, switches, and other terahertz integrated devices.

  16. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which i...

  17. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  18. Analysis of minimum rail size in heavy axle load environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The effects of increasing axle loads on rail integrity are examined in this paper. In the present context, rail integrity refers to the prevention and control of rail failures. Rail failures usually occur because cracks or defects develop and grow fr...

  19. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  20. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall be...

  1. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  2. Enhanced heat transfer with corrugated flow channel in anode side of direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidary, H.; Abbassi, A.; Kermani, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of corrugated flow channel on the heat exchange of DMFC is studied. • Corrugated boundary (except rectangular type) increase heat transfer up to 90%. • Average heat transfer in rectangular-corrugated boundary is less than straight one. • In Re > 60, wavy shape boundary has highest heat transfer. • In Re < 60, triangular shape boundary has highest heat transfer. - Abstract: In this paper, heat transfer and flow field analysis in anode side of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is numerically studied. To enhance the heat exchange between bottom cold wall and core flow, bottom wall of fluid delivery channel is considered as corrugated boundary instead of straight (flat) one. Four different shapes of corrugated boundary are recommended here: rectangular shape, trapezoidal shape, triangular shape and wavy (sinusoidal) shape. The top wall of the channel (catalyst layer boundary) is taken as hot boundary, because reaction occurs in catalyst layer and the bottom wall of the channel is considered as cold boundary due to coolant existence. The governing equations are numerically solved in the domain by the control volume approach based on the SIMPLE technique (1972). A wide spectrum of numerical studies is performed over a range of various shape boundaries, Reynolds number, triangle block number, and the triangle block amplitude. The performed parametric studies show that corrugated channel with trapezoidal, triangular and wavy shape enhances the heat exchange up to 90%. With these boundaries, cooling purpose of reacting flow in anode side of DMFCs would be better than straight one. Also, from the analogy between the heat and mass transfer problems, it is expected that the consumption of reacting species within the catalyst layer of DMFCs enhance. The present work provides helpful guidelines to the bipolar plate manufacturers of DMFCs to considerably enhance heat transfer and performance of the anode side of DMFC

  3. [Progressive damage monitoring of corrugated composite skins by the FBG spectral characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Bang-Feng; Lu, Ji-Yun; Gu, Li-Li; Su, Yong-Gang

    2014-03-01

    In the present paper, a method of monitoring progressive damage of composite structures by non-uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) reflection spectrum is proposed. Due to the finite element analysis of corrugated composite skins specimens, the failure process under tensile load and corresponding critical failure loads of corrugated composite skin was predicated. Then, the non-uniform reflection spectrum of FBG sensor could be reconstructed and the corresponding relationship between layer failure order sequence of corrugated composite skin and FBG sensor reflection spectrums was acquired. A monitoring system based on FBG non-uniform reflection spectrum, which can be used to monitor progressive damage of corrugated composite skins, was built. The corrugated composite skins were stretched under this FBG non-uniform reflection spectrum monitoring system. The results indicate that real-time spectrums acquired by FBG non-uniform reflection spectrum monitoring system show the same trend with the reconstruction reflection spectrums. The maximum error between the corresponding failure and the predictive value is 8.6%, which proves the feasibility of using FBG sensor to monitor progressive damage of corrugated composite skin. In this method, the real-time changes in the FBG non-uniform reflection spectrum within the scope of failure were acquired through the way of monitoring and predicating, and at the same time, the progressive damage extent and layer failure sequence of corru- gated composite skin was estimated, and without destroying the structure of the specimen, the method is easy and simple to operate. The measurement and transmission section of the system are completely composed of optical fiber, which provides new ideas and experimental reference for the field of dynamic monitoring of smart skin.

  4. Model for predicting the frequency of broken rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vesković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Broken rails can cause train delays, trains cancelations and, unfortunately, they are common causes of accidents. This affects planning of a resources, budget and organization of railway track maintenance. Planning of railway track maintenance cannot be done without an estimation of number of rails that will be replaced due to the broken rail incidents. There are many factors that influence broken rails and the most common are: rail age, annual gross tonnage, degree of curve and temperature in the time of breakage. The fuzzy logic model uses acquired data as input variables to predict the frequency of broken rails for the certain rail types on some Sections.

  5. Comparison of heat transfer in straight and corrugated minichannels with two-phase flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peukert P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of heat transfer rates performed with an experimental condensation heat exchanger are reported for a corrugated minichannel tube and for a straight minichannel tube. The two cases were compared at same flow regimes. The corrugation appears advantageous for relatively low steam pressures and flow rates where much higher heat transfer rates were observed close to the steam entrance, thus allowing shortening the heat exchanger with the associated advantages of costs lowering and smaller built-up space. At high steam pressures and high flow rates both tubes performed similarly.

  6. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Structural Response of Corrugated Blast Wall Depending on Blast Load Pulse Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Sohn

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon explosions are one of most hazardous events for workers on offshore platforms. To protect structures against explosion loads, corrugated blast walls are typically installed. However, the profiles of real explosion loads are quite different depending on the congestion and confinement of Topside structures. As the level of congestion and confinement increases, the explosion load increases by up to 8 bar, and the rising time of the load decreases. This study primarily aims to investigate the structural behavior characteristics of corrugated blast walls under different types of explosion loadings. Four loading shapes were applied in the structural response analysis, which utilized a dynamic nonlinear finite element method.

  8. Corrugated thimble tube for controlling control rod descent in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetzow, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A thimble tube construction is described which will provide a controlled descent for a control rod while minimizing the reaction forces which must be absorbed by the thimble tube and reducing the possibility that a foreign particle could interfere with the free descent of a control rod. A thimble tube is formed with helically-corrugate internal walls which cooperate with a control rod contained in the tube in an emergency situation to provide a progressively-increasing hydraulic restraining force as each adjacent corrugation is encountered

  9. Squeezed-light generation in a nonlinear planar waveguide with a periodic corrugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Jan Jr.; Haderka, Ondrej; Sibilia, Concita; Bertolotti, Mario; Scalora, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Two-mode nonlinear interaction (second-harmonic and second-subharmonic generation) in a planar waveguide with a small periodic corrugation at the surface is studied. Scattering of the interacting fields on the corrugation leads to constructive interference that enhances the nonlinear process provided that all the interactions are phase matched. Conditions for the overall phase matching are found. Compared with a perfectly quasi-phase-matched waveguide, better values of squeezing as well as higher intensities are reached under these conditions. Procedure for finding optimum values of parameters for squeezed-light generation is described

  10. Rail-induced Traffic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s railway has exerted an enormous influence on the intercity passenger transport structure in recent years. However, it has not satisfied the passengers’ travel demand due to induced traffic. This paper is committed to solving such issue, with the aim of satisfying the current travel demand, and of anticipating the demand of the predicted traffic growth over the next 20 to 30 years. The paper has considered the increase in rail passenger kilometres caused by the growth of rail kilometres as rail-induced traffic. Based on the concept and former research of induced traffic, the panel data of 26 provinces and 3 municipalities of China between the year 2000 and 2014 were collected, and the elasticity models (including elasticity-based model, distributed lag model, high-speed rail (HSR elasticity model and rail efficiency model have been constructed. The results show the importance of model formation incorporation of rail-induced traffic. It is better to get the correct value in divided zones with different train frequencies or incorporation rail efficiency in cities or provinces. The lag time and rail types also need to be considered. In summary, the results analysis not only confirms the existence of rail-induced traffic, but also provides substantial recommendations to train operation planning.

  11. Electrodynamic wear of rails in high current density rail gun discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.T.; Caldwell, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high current, high speed power sources, has in recent years allowed rail guns to produce very high velocity (> 10 km/sec) macroscopic particles (> 1/10 grams). A continuing problem is the structural integrity of the components under these loadings and in particular, the rail wear due to the high current density plasma contacts. In this investigation a small bore rail gun (6x5 mm) was used with a 10.6 kjoule capacitor energy source to examine the modes of rail damage. The rails were constructed of 110 copper base material. These rails were used in an uncoated condition and also with plasma sprayed coatings of W and W/WC. The resulting surface wear was characterized by standard metallurgical techniques and analyzed for the various coatings

  12. Active current management for four-rail railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, J.H.; Weldon, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a system of auxiliary conductors designed to reduce current density peaks in railgun rails for four-rail, round-bore railguns is described. The effects on rail current density and projectile force are discussed. Railgun cross-sectional designs are presented for round-bore, four-rail railguns which operate at lower peak current densities and develop greater projectile forces than conventional two-rail, round-bore railguns

  13. Rail gun powered by an integral explosive generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    We propose the use of a rail gun powered by an explosive magnetic flux compression generator built into the rail gun itself in which the rails of the gun are driven together behind the projectile by explosives. The magnetic field established between the rails by an initial current supplied by an external source at the breech of the gun is trapped and compressed by the collapsing rails to accelerate the projectile down the bore of the gun

  14. Electric rail gun application to space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the possibility of using the DC electric gun principles as a space vehicle propulsion system, capable of producing intermediate thrust levels. The application of an electromagnetic launch technique, called the DC electric rail gun, to the space propulsion concept of O'Neill, is examined. It is determined that the DC electric rail gun offers very high projectile accelerations and a very significant potential for reducing the size and mass of a reaction motor for space application. A detailed description of rail gun principles is given and some simple expressions for the accelerating force, gun impedance, power supply requirements, and system performance are discussed

  15. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm x 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described

  16. Multiphysics modeling of a rail gun launcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y W Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A finite element based multiphysics modeling was conducted for a rail gunlauncher to predict the exit velocity of the launch object, and temperaturedistribution. For this modeling, electromagnetic field analysis, heat transferanalysis, thermal stress analysis, and dynamic analysis were conducted fora system consisting of two parallel rails and a moving armature. In particular,an emphasis was given to model the contact interface between rails andthe armature. A contact theory was used to estimate the electric as well asthermal conductivities at the interface. Using the developed model, aparametric study was conducted to understand effects of variousparameters on the exit velocity as well as the temperature distribution in therail gun launcher.

  17. Capistrano and the Rails Application Lifecycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mornini, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to make your Rails deployments pain-free with Capistrano! This Short Cut shows you how to use Capistrano to automate the deployment of your Rails applications. It teaches you the basics, but also goes far beyond. It shows you realistic deployment scenarios, including some with complex server farms. It includes a quick reference to Capistrano. As your Rails applications grow, it becomes increasingly important to automate deployment and to keep your development environment well organized. Capistrano is the right tool for the job, and this PDF shows you how to use it effectively.

  18. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power...... consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

  19. Impact of the rail-pad multi-discrete model upon the prediction of the rail response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, T.; Leu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Wheel/rail vibration has many technical effects such as wear of the rolling surfaces, rolling noise, settlement of the ballast and subgrade etc. This vibration is depending on the rail pad characteristic and subsequently, it is important to have an accurate overview on the relation between the rail pad characteristic and the level of the wheel/rail vibration. To this end, much theoretical and experimental research has been developed in the past, and for the theoretical approach the track model, in general, and, particularly, the rail pad model is of crucial importance. Usually, the rail pad model is discrete model one, neglecting the length of the rail pad. This fact is questionable because the sleepers span is only 4 times the rail pad length. Using the rail pad discrete model, the rail response is overestimated when the frequency of the excitation equals the pinned-pinned resonance frequency. In this paper, a multi-discrete model for the rail pad, consisting in many Kelvin-Voigt parallel systems, is inserted into an analytical model of the track. The track model is reduced to a rail taken as infinite Timoshenko beam, discretely supported via rail pad, sleeper and ballast. The influence of the number of Kelvin-Voigt systems of the rail pad model on the rail response is analysed.

  20. Quantifying economic benefits for rail infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This project identifies metrics for measuring the benefit of rail infrastructure projects for key : stakeholders. It is important that stakeholders with an interest in community economic development play an active : role in the development of the rai...

  1. Rail Baltica waiting at the station

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi transpordi asekantsleri Eero Pärgmäe sõnul on Eesti 2012. aastal valmis Tallinn-Riia rongiliini avamiseks. Tallinn-Berliini rongiliinist. Siim Kallas lubas aidata edendada Rail Baltica projekti

  2. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  3. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  4. Electron emission at the rail surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, L.; Battech, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the processes by which current is transferred from the cathode rail to the plasma armature in an arc-driven railgun. Three electron emission mechanisms are considered, namely thermionic emission, field-enhanced thermionic emission (or Schottky emission), and photoemission. The author's calculations show that the dominant electron emission mechanism depends, to a great extent, on the work function of the rail surface, the rail surface temperature, the electric field at the rail surface, and the effective radiation temperature of the plasma. For conditions that are considered to be typical of a railgun armature, Schottky emission is the dominant electron emission mechanism, providing current densities on the order of 10 9 A/m 2

  5. Highway-Rail Crossings Inventory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The entire National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory is available in three separate downloadble files. There is a file of all current Public-at-Grade crossings. There...

  6. Rail Engineering and Education Symposium Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    The objective of this project is to develop curricular materials for the Rail Engineering and Education : Symposia held in the summers of 2012 and 2014. : Description of Activities : The main approach to accomplish the activity is to develop and deli...

  7. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  8. Monotron and azimuthally corrugated: application to the high power microwaves generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Pedro Jose de

    2003-01-01

    The present document reports the activity of construction and initial operation of 6.7 GHz operation for high power microwave generation, the study on cylindrical resonators with azimuthally corrugated cross section, the determination of electrical conductivity of metallic materials and development of dielectric resonators for telecommunication applications

  9. Hydraulic and thermal behaviour of a corrugated plane canal. Application to plate-based heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, Alain

    1986-01-01

    As corrugations are often used in heat exchangers in order to promote heat exchange mechanisms through a reduction of boundary layer thickness, an increase of turbulence within the boundary layer, and an increase of exchange surface, the objectives of this research thesis are, on the one hand, to determine the influence of corrugation geometry on heat exchange and friction laws, and, on the other hand, to develop a computing software to describe the flow and heat exchange in the elementary canal. This study is limited to the case of single-phase forced convection in water. After a bibliographical overview on the hydraulic and thermal behaviour of corrugated surfaces used in heat exchangers, the author presents the different studied geometries, and the experimental installation used to determine the friction and exchange coefficient in a vertical duct formed by two corrugated plates. Experimental results are presented and compared with respect to the shape of exchange surfaces. The author then reports the use of two-dimensional code used to describe the flow in an exchanger duct [fr

  10. Pressure drop and stability of flow in Archimedean spiral tube with transverse corrugations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal pressure drop experiments were carried out for the steady Newtonian fluid flow in Archimedean spiral tube with transverse corrugations. Pressure drop correlations and stability criteria for distinguishing the flow regimes have been obtained in a continuous Reynolds number range from 150 to 15 000. The characterizing geometrical groups which take into account all the geometrical parameters of Archimedean spiral and corrugated pipe has been acquired. Before performing experiments over the Archimedean spiral, the corrugated straight pipe having high relative roughness e/d = 0.129 of approximately sinusoidal type was tested in order to obtain correlations for the Darcy friction factor. Insight into the magnitude of pressure loss in the proposed geometry of spiral solar receiver for different flow rates is important because of its effect upon the efficiency of the receiver. Although flow in spiral and corrugated geometries has the advantages of compactness and high heat transfer rates, the disadvantage of greater pressure drops makes hydrodynamic studies relevant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006 i br. TR 33015

  11. Quantifying wave propagation over a corrugated metal using 5 dBi antennas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, MC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available corrugated metal of a shipping container and also in a free space. The free space measurement is used as a reference point to study the influence of the metal on the wave propagation. The transmission coefficient measured over the shipping container...

  12. Design of Ultra-Wideband Tapered Slot Antenna by Using Binomial Transformer with Corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonsiri, Yosita; Thaiwirot, Wanwisa; Akkaraekthalin, Prayoot

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the tapered slot antenna (TSA) with corrugation is proposed for UWB applications. The multi-section binomial transformer is used to design taper profile of the proposed TSA that does not involve using time consuming optimization. A step-by-step procedure for synthesis of the step impedance values related with step slot widths of taper profile is presented. The smooth taper can be achieved by fitting the smoothing curve to the entire step slot. The design of TSA based on this method yields results with a quite flat gain and wide impedance bandwidth covering UWB spectrum from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. To further improve the radiation characteristics, the corrugation is added on the both edges of the proposed TSA. The effects of different corrugation shapes on the improvement of antenna gain and front-to-back ratio (F-to-B ratio) are investigated. To demonstrate the validity of the design, the prototypes of TSA without and with corrugation are fabricated and measured. The results show good agreement between simulation and measurement.

  13. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  14. Measurement with corrugated tubes of early-age autogenous shrinkage of cement-based material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    The use of a special corrugated mould enables transformation of volume strain into horizontal, linear strain measurement in the fluid stage. This allows continuous measurement of the autogenous shrinkage of cement-based materials since casting, and also effectively eliminates unwanted influence...

  15. Design and Realization Aspects of 1-THz Cascade Backward Wave Amplifier Based on Double Corrugated Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, Claudio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bouamrane, Fayçal

    2013-01-01

    The design and fabrication challenges in the first ever attempt to realize a 1-THz vacuum tube amplifier are described. Implementation of innovative solutions including a slow-wave structure in the form of a double corrugated waveguide, lateral tapered input and output couplers, deep X-ray LIGA f...

  16. Self-standing corrugated Ag and Au-nanorods for plasmonic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Solterbeck, C.-H.

    2011-01-01

    We use home-made Si-supported anodized alumina thin film templates for the electrodeposition of large area self-standing Ag- and Au-nanorod (Au-NR) arrays. The deposition conditions chosen, i.e. electrolyte composition and deposition voltage, lead to a corrugated rod morphology, particularly for Au...

  17. Squeezing Molecularly thin Lubricant Films between curved Corrugated Surfaces with long range Elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    3H8, C4H10, C8H18, C9H20, C10H22, C14H30 and C16H34, confined between corrugated gold surfaces. Well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the width is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes...

  18. Corrugation in the nitrogen-graphite potential probed by inelastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Frank, V. L. P.; Taub, H.

    1990-01-01

    -center energy gap of ∼0.4 THz in the acoustic-phonon branches is a factor of 2 larger than calculated from central atom-atom potentials. We conclude that current models of the corrugation in the adatom substrate potential greatly underestimate the lateral restoring forces in this relatively simple molecular...

  19. Identification and prioritization of rail squat defects in the field using rail magnetisation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2015-04-01

    Inevitably, rail squats and studs are continuing to be a serious problem for railway organisations around the world in the 21st century. They are typically classified as the growth of any cracks that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface and some of the cracks propagating to the bottom of rails transversely, and have branched from initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The horizontal crack, which results in a depression of rail surface, induces increased maintenance level, more frequent monitoring, compromised rail testing (as the crack shields the signal echoes), and possible broken rails. This paper presents field investigations using a magnetised-rail testing device developed by MRX Technologies to identify and prioritise the rail squats. Most of the in situ squats were found on the high rail of the transition (variable-radius curved track), which is associated with rolling contact fatigue (RCF). This investigation highlights the field performance of the MRX's surface crack detection technology in comparison with the traditional ultrasonic method and detailed walking inspection. Visually, it was found in the field that the size of the RCF squats varies from very small to moderate. The predicted crack data were obtained by scanning the magnitised rails. The comparison of the actual crack depths (ultrasonic) and the predicted crack depths (MRX device) shows: • A possible correlation for small RCF/ squat cracks. • Poor interpretation of larger defects and welds. The field assessment also suggests some practical issues required for further development, including the detection of rail spalling, deep transverse crack, welding, and so on.

  20. High-strength chromium--molybdenum rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Y.E.; Sawhill, J.M. Jr.; Cias, W.W.; Eldis, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of developing an as-rolled rail of over 100 ksi (689 N/mm 2 ) yield strength. A series of compositions providing both pearlitic and bainitic microstructures was evaluated. A fine pearlitic structure was developed in a 0.73 percent C -- 0.83 percent Mn -- 0.16 percent Si -- 0.75 percent Cr -- 0.21 percent Mo steel by simulating the mill cooling rate of 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Two 100-ton commercial heats were made of this approximate composition and processed into 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Samples tested in the laboratory ranged from 109 to 125 ksi (750 to 860 N/mm 2 ) in yield strength. The chromium-molybdenum rails also exhibited excellent fracture toughness and fatigue properties. Sections of the rail were joined by both flash-butt welding and thermite welding. The hardness peaks produced in the flash-butt welds could be reduced by applying either a postweld current or an induction heating cycle. The high-strength chromium-molybdenum rails have been in service for over eight months in curved sections of an ore railway that carries over 55 million gross long tons per year. 7 tables, 18 figs

  1. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  2. Numerical study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. J.; Wu, S. Q.; Jin, T.

    2017-12-01

    Slush nitrogen has lower temperature, higher density and higher heat capacity than that of liquid nitrogen at normal boiling point. It is considered to be a potential coolant for high-temperature superconductive cables (HTS) that would decrease nitrogen consumption and storage cost. The corrugated pipe can help with the enhancement of heat transfer and flexibility of the coolants for HTS cables. In this paper, a 3-D Euler-Euler two-fluid model has been developed to study the flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a horizontal helically corrugated pipe. By comparing with the empirical formula for pressure drop, the numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the prediction of slush nitrogen flow in corrugated pipes. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a horizontal pipe at various working conditions (inlet solid fraction of 0-20%, inlet velocity of 0-3 m/s, heat flux of 0-12 kW/m2) have been analyzed. The friction factor of slush nitrogen is lower than that of subcooled liquid nitrogen when the slush Reynolds number is higher than 4.2×104. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of slush nitrogen flow in the corrugated pipe is higher than that of subcooled liquid nitrogen at velocities which is higher than that 1.76 m/s, 0.91 m/s and 0.55 m/s for slush nitrogen with solid fraction of 5%, 10% and 20%, respectively. The slush nitrogen has been confirmed to have better heat transfer performance and lower pressure drop instead of using liquid nitrogen flowing through a helically corrugated pipe.

  3. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  4. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

  5. Research on a 170 GHz, 2 MW coaxial cavity gyrotron with inner-outer corrugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shenyong, E-mail: houshenyong@sohu.com [Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing, 408001 (China); Yu, Sheng; Li, Hongfu [University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, a coaxial cavity gyrotron with inner-outer corrugation is researched. The electron kineto-equations and the first order transmission line equations of the gyrotron are derived from Lorentz force equation and the transmission line theory, respectively. And then, a 2 MW, 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron with inner-outer corrugation is designed. By means of numerical calculation, the beam-wave interaction of the coaxial cavity gyrotron with inner-outer corrugation is investigated. Results show that the efficient and the outpower of the gyrotron are 42.3% and 2.38 MW, respectively.

  6. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezzini-Aouad, M.; Flahaut, P.; Hariri, S.; Winiar, L.

    2010-06-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  7. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  8. Determination of the primary technical parameters of the test bench for controlling the temperature of rails and rail bars of continuous welded rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertychnyi Vitalii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors determining the reliability and safety of operation of the continuous welded rail track is the temperature of the rails. All conditions of laying, repair and maintenance of the track during the entire cycle of rails operation depend on it. The existing rail temperature monitoring method does not take into account a few significant factors and that leads to significant errors in determining the actual temperature of the rail bar. The authors propose a new rail temperature measurement method on a special test bench which maximally simulates possible environmental operating conditions for the rail bars, the profile of the roadway (embankment or cut, as well as the actual spatial latitude and meridian location of the rail slabs. At the bench, the studied rails are fastened with the help of rail braces on half ties, in the ballast bed, with sizes in accordance with the existing reference documents. At the first stage, the most common KB-65 intermediate fastener for the continuous welded rail in Ukraine will be used, while in subsequent stages KPP-5 fastening will be used.

  9. Characterization of deformed pearlitic rail steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikas, Dimitrios; Meyer, Knut Andreas; Ahlström, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Pearlitic steels are commonly used for railway rails because they combine good strength and wear properties. During service, the passage of trains results in a large accumulation of shear strains in the surface layer of the rail, leading to crack initiation. Knowledge of the material properties in this region is therefore important for fatigue life prediction. As the strain is limited to a thin surface layer, very large strain gradients can be found. This makes it very difficult to quantify changes in material behavior. In this study hardness measurements were performed close to the surface using the Knoop hardness test method. The orientation of the pearlitic lamellas was measured to give an overview of the deformed microstructure in the surface of the rail. Microstructural characterization of the material was done by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the changes in the microstructure due to the large deformation. A strong gradient can be observed in the top 50 μm of the rail, while deeper into the rail the microstructure of the base material is preserved.

  10. Structural response of a rail acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The transient response of a 0.4 by 0.6 cm rectangular bore rail accelerator was analyzed by a three dimensional finite element code. The copper rail deflected to a peak value of 0.08 mm in compression and then oscillated at an amplitude of 0.02 mm. Simultaneously the insulating side wall of glass fabric base, epoxy resin laminate (G-10) was compressed to a peak value of 0.13 mm and rebounded to a steady state in extension. Projectile pinch or blowby due to the rail extension or compression, respectively, can be identified by examining the time history of the rail displacement. The effect of blowby was most significant at the side wall characterized by mm size displacement in compression. Dynamic stress calculations indicate that the G-10 supporting material behind the rail is subjected to over 21 MPa at which the G-10 could fail if the laminate was not carefully oriented. Results for a polycarbonate resin (Lexan) side wall show much larger displacements and stresses than for G-10. The tradeoff between the transparency of Lexan and the mechanical strength of G-10 for sidewall material is obvious. Displacement calculations from the modal method are smaller than the results from the direct integration method by almost an order of magnitude, because the high frequency effect is neglected. 12 references

  11. Hard-driven rail-gun tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.; Adams, D.F.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.; Kerrisk, J.F.; Marsh, S.P.; Parker, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    A number of prototype rail-gun designs have been tested, powered by explosive magnetic flux compression generators. Peak currents as high as 1.3 MA were delivered. Rail guns with 50-mm-thick Kevlar fiberwound structural shells were able to survive these high currents with minimum mechanical damage and were refired after enlarging the bores 0.2 to 0.4 mm to remove arc damage. In some tests, mechanical damage occurred that was apparently caused by the rebound of the gun after firing. Although the Kevlar shells had more than adequate strength, they appeared to lack sufficient stiffness, allowing excessive deflections. The use of a steel structural shell with a Kevlar sleeve was an improvement. Intrusion into the seams of the rail guns and condensation of material from the plasma armature were observed. Improved sealing of seams is indicated. In some cases, we suspect maldistribution of current within the gun; that is, not all the current delivered to the breech of the gun seemed to reach the plasma armature. Experiments are being designed to quantify the effects discussed. Rail guns of advanced design are being fabricated. An 18-g titanium projectile was accelerated to 2.4 km/s in a 16-mm-round-bore, 0.6-m-long gun, 4-6 g polycarbonate projectiles were accelerated to 3.5 km/s in 13-mm-square-bore, 1.2-m-long rail guns. All tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure

  12. The literature of the California black rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Sanford R.

    1974-01-01

    Few birds have remained so little known as the California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). Although first collected in 1859 or before and reported in 1874 (Ridgway 1874), its life history, distribution, and status have remained so obscure that even a sight record of the bird is deemed worthy of a report in some ornithological publications. Because degradation and loss of freshwater and saltwater marshlands in California may be detrimentally affecting the black rail, both the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (1973) and the California Department of Fish and Game (1972) have classified it as rare and worthy of further study. The 84 papers and notes both summarized in this report and included in its bibliography include essentially all that is currently known about the California black rail. Only 11 of these papers consider the life history of this rail in any detail. The rest are distribution notes and some of the more important papers on the closely related eastern black rail (L. j. jamaicensis). The latter are included for comparative purposes, or because they may lend clues to currently unknown facets of the life history of the western race.

  13. Prototype Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This report is the Project Report for the Rail Crossing Violation Warning (RCVW) safety application developed for the project on Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application and Infrastructure Connection, providing a means for equipped connected vehic...

  14. Phase I development of an aesthetic, precast concrete bridge rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Precast concrete bridge rail systems offer several advantages over traditional cast-in-place rail designs, including reduced construction : time and costs, installation in a wide range of environmental conditions, easier maintenance and repair, impro...

  15. Rail Base Corrosion and Cracking Prevention: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    EWI was engaged by the Federal Railroad Administration to research rail treatments to prevent rail base corrosion in corrosive environments. A coating system was selected in Phase 1 and recommended for field trials. In Phase 2, four railroads sponsor...

  16. Energy efficiency and reliability solutions for rail operations and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study included examining energy consumption of : the facilities comprising the three major rail yards on the New Haven Rail Line as : well as platform stations and identifying energy efficiency and cost savings : opportunities f...

  17. An automated system for rail transit infrastructure inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This project applied commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) : technologies such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), laser, GIS, and GPS to passenger rail : inspections. An integrated rail inspection system that can be mounted on hi...

  18. 77 FR 17121 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. [[Page 17122

  19. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rail renaissance, market segmentation, South Africa, state of logistics, ... The modal imbalance is the result of a historical rail investment backlog, with ..... vector that can be thought of as a chromosome in genetic terms, while the values used.

  20. Effects of die profile on grain refinement in Al–Mg alloy processed by repetitive corrugation and straightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangapandian, N., E-mail: erpandian@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Balasivanandha Prabu, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Padmanabhan, K.A. [Centre for Nanotechnology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that a proper selection of corrugation die profile and die parameters is essential for achieving homogeneous grain refinement in materials subjected to repetitive corrugation and straightening (RCS). An Al–Mg (AA 5083) alloy was subjected to the RCS process using three different corrugation die profiles (V-groove, Flat groove, and Semi-circular groove), followed by straightening to determine the allowable maximum number of passes prior to surface cracking/fracture. Mechanical properties, i.e., hardness and tensile strength of the RCS samples were measured and compared as functions of corrugation die profiles and number of passes and the changes in microstructure. Grain refinement was studied using Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  1. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-08

    announced that it will expand the capacity on its aging high speed line between Tokyo and Osaka, the most heavily traveled intercity rail segment in the...United States, in most of these countries intercity rail travel (including both conventional and high speed rail) represents less than 10% of all...that is sometimes mentioned by its advocates. Intercity passenger rail transport is relatively safe, at least compared with highway travel . And HSR in

  2. Shear evaluation of tapered bridge girder panels with steel corrugated webs near the supports of continuous bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Zevallos, E.; Hassanein, M.F.; Real Saladrigas, Esther; Mirambell Arrizabalaga, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Because of public construction budgets were cut over the last few years, new bridge girders with corrugated webs to reduce the construction costs have become more widely studied and used. In spite that tapered bridge girders with corrugated webs (BGCWs) are used in modern bridges, their shear strength and behaviour rarely exists in literature. Based on available literature, the web of the linearly tapered BGCWs may be divided into three typologies with different structural response to shear f...

  3. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of a...

  4. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu [Changzhou Key Laboratory of Sensor Networks and Environmental Sensing, College of IOT, Hohai University Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213022 (China)

    2014-02-18

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  5. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency

  6. A technology to improve formability for aluminum alloy thin-wall corrugated sheet component hydroforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosively forming projectile (EFP had been traditional adopted for the aluminum thin-walled corrugated sheet, whose deformation range is large but the formability is poor, and this process usually has problems of poor surface quality, long manufacturing cycle and high cost. The active hydroforming process was suggested to solve these issues during EFP. A new technology named as blank bulging by turning the upside down active hydroforming technology was proposed to overcome difficulties in non-uniform thickness distribution and cracking failure of corrugated sheet during the conventional hydroforming process. Both numerical simulations and experiments were conducted for this new technology. The result show that the deformation capacity of aluminum alloys can be improved effectively, and the more uniform distribution of wall thickness was obtained by this new method. It is conducted that the new method is universal for thin-walled, shallow drawing parts with complex section.

  7. Impact of substrate corrugation on the sliding friction levels of adsorbed films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, T; Krim, J

    2005-08-12

    We report a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) study of sliding friction for solid xenon monolayers at 77 K on Cu(111), Ni(111), graphene/Ni(111), and C(60) substrates. Simulations have predicted a strong dependence of phononic friction coefficient (eta) on surface corrugation in systems with similar lattice spacing, eta approximately U(2)(0), but this has never before been shown experimentally. In order to make direct comparisons with theory, substrates with similar lattice spacing but varying amplitudes of surface corrugation were studied. QCM data reveal friction levels proportional to U(2)(0), validating current theoretical and numerical predictions. Measurements of Xe/C(60) are also included for comparison purposes.

  8. Stark effect of excitons in corrugated lateral surface superlattices: effect of centre-of-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Sun

    1998-11-01

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of excitons in GaAs/AlAs corrugated lateral surface superlattices (CLSSLs) is calculated. Blue and red shifts in the exciton energies are predicted for the heavy- and light-excitons in the CLSSLs, respectively, comparing with those in the unmodulated quantum well due to the different effective hole masses in the parallel direction. Sensitive dependence of the QCSE on the hole effective mass in the parallel direction is expected because of the ''centre-of-mass'' quantization (CMQ) induced by the periodic corrugated interfaces of the CLSSLs. The effect of the CMQ on the exciton mini-bands and the localization of the excitons in the CLSSLs is discussed. (author)

  9. SELF-TRAPPING OF DISKOSEISMIC CORRUGATION MODES IN NEUTRON STAR SPACETIMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, David [Center for Theory and Computation, Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Pappas, George [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We examine the effects of higher-order multipole contributions of rotating neutron star (NS) spacetimes on the propagation of corrugation (c-)modes within a thin accretion disk. We find that the Lense–Thirring precession frequency, which determines the propagation region of the low-frequency fundamental corrugation modes, can experience a turnover allowing for c-modes to become self-trapped for sufficiently high dimensionless spin j and quadrupole rotational deformability α. If such self-trapping c-modes can be detected, e.g., through phase-resolved spectroscopy of the iron line for a high-spin low-mass accreting neutron star, this could potentially constrain the spin-induced NS quadrupole and the NS equation of state.

  10. Self-Trapping of Diskoseismic Corrugation Modes in Neutron Star Spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, David; Pappas, George

    2016-02-01

    We examine the effects of higher-order multipole contributions of rotating neutron star (NS) spacetimes on the propagation of corrugation (c-)modes within a thin accretion disk. We find that the Lense-Thirring precession frequency, which determines the propagation region of the low-frequency fundamental corrugation modes, can experience a turnover allowing for c-modes to become self-trapped for sufficiently high dimensionless spin j and quadrupole rotational deformability α. If such self-trapping c-modes can be detected, e.g., through phase-resolved spectroscopy of the iron line for a high-spin low-mass accreting neutron star, this could potentially constrain the spin-induced NS quadrupole and the NS equation of state.

  11. Corrugated structure insertion for extending the SASE bandwidth up to 3% at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagorodnov, I.; Feng, G.; Limberg, T.

    2016-07-15

    The usage of X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) in femtosecond nanocrystallography involves sequential illumination of many small crystals of arbitrary orientation. Hence a wide radiation bandwidth will be useful in order to obtain and to index a larger number of Bragg peaks used for determination of the crystal orientation. Considering the baseline configuration of the European XFEL in Hamburg, and based on beam dynamics simulations, we demonstrate here that the usage of corrugated structures allows for a considerable increase in radiation bandwidth. Data collection with a 3% bandwidth, a few microjoule radiation pulse energy, a few femtosecond pulse duration, and a photon energy of 5.4 keV is possible. For this study we have developed an analytical modal representation of the short-range wake function of the flat corrugated structures for arbitrary offsets of the source and the witness particles.

  12. Two-phase flow patterns in adiabatic and diabatic corrugated plate gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, A.-E.; Kabelac, S.; de Vries, B.

    2016-09-01

    Correlations for two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop can be improved considerably, when they are adapted to specific flow patterns. As plate heat exchangers find increasing application as evaporators and condensers, there is a need for flow pattern maps for corrugated plate gaps. This contribution presents experimental results on flow pattern investigations for such a plate heat exchanger background, using an adiabatic visualisation setup as well as a diabatic setup. Three characteristic flow patterns were observed in the considered range of two-phase flow: bubbly flow, film flow and slug flow. The occurrence of these flow patterns is a function of mass flux, void fraction, fluid properties and plate geometry. Two different plate geometries having a corrugation angle of 27° and 63°, respectively and two different fluids (water/air and R365mfc liquid/vapor) have been analysed. A flow pattern map using the momentum flux is presented.

  13. Corrugated structure insertion for extending the SASE bandwidth up to 3% at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.; Feng, G.; Limberg, T.

    2016-07-01

    The usage of X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) in femtosecond nanocrystallography involves sequential illumination of many small crystals of arbitrary orientation. Hence a wide radiation bandwidth will be useful in order to obtain and to index a larger number of Bragg peaks used for determination of the crystal orientation. Considering the baseline configuration of the European XFEL in Hamburg, and based on beam dynamics simulations, we demonstrate here that the usage of corrugated structures allows for a considerable increase in radiation bandwidth. Data collection with a 3% bandwidth, a few microjoule radiation pulse energy, a few femtosecond pulse duration, and a photon energy of 5.4 keV is possible. For this study we have developed an analytical modal representation of the short-range wake function of the flat corrugated structures for arbitrary offsets of the source and the witness particles.

  14. Coupled-Mode Theory for Complex-Index, Corrugated Multilayer Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüder, Hannes; Gerken, Martina; Adam, Jost

    , and by choosing a bi-orthogonal basis, obtained by solving the corresponding adjoint problem. With the once found modal solutions of the unperturbed waveguide, we can calculate the coupling coefficients, which describe the mode coupling caused by the introduced periodic corrugation. [1] C. Kluge et al., Opt......We present a coupled-mode theory (CMT) approach for modelling the modal behaviour of multi- layer thinfilm devices with complex material parameters and periodic corrugations. Our method provides fast computation and extended physical insight as compared to standard numerical methods...... to be non-Hermitian, introducing two major consequences. First, the eigenvalues (i. e. the mode neff) have to be found in the complex plane (Fig. 2). Second, the classical mode orthogonality is no longer valid. We address both challenges by a combination of three complex-root solving algorithms...

  15. Linear friction welding for constructing and repairing rail for high speed and intercity passenger service rail : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This project developed a solid-state welding process based on linear friction welding (LFW) technology. While resistance flash welding or : thermite techniques are tried and true methods for joining rails and performing partial rail replacement repai...

  16. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  17. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...] Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: These final rules govern land-use-exemption permits for solid waste rail transfer facilities. The... Transportation Board over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Act also added three new statutory provisions...

  18. Grinding induced martensite on the surface of rails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, C.J.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    determined. Two different rail types R260 and R350HT that both had been ground by a grinding train were investigated. The rail sections, studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, showed that the surface of both types of rails is covered with WELs. The hardness of the WEL is increased compared...

  19. A big data analysis approach for rail failure risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by

  20. 75 FR 35877 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... available on our Web site, http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting...-3)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2010 rail cost...

  1. 77 FR 58910 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment factor (RCAF...

  2. 76 FR 37191 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... our Web site, http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  3. 75 FR 80895 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the first quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  4. 77 FR 37958 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment...

  5. 78 FR 37660 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board approves the third quarter 2013 Rail Cost Adjustment Factor...

  6. 78 FR 17764 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2013 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  7. 76 FR 59483 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  8. 76 FR 16037 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  9. 75 FR 17462 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... decision may be purchased by contacting the office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...-2)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2010 Rail Cost...

  10. 75 FR 58019 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2010 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  11. 76 FR 80448 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. EP 290 (Sub-No. 5) (2012-1)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the first quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment factor (RCAF...

  12. Lamb wave band gaps in one-dimensional radial phononic crystal plates with periodic double-sided corrugations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinggang [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); School of Transportation, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Tianning [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Wang, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Li, Suobin [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical investigation of Lamb wave propagation in one-dimensional radial phononic crystal (RPC) plates with periodic double-sided corrugations. The dispersion relations, the power transmission spectra, and the displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied by using the finite element method based on two-dimensional axial symmetry models in cylindrical coordinates. Numerical results show that the proposed RPC plates with periodic double-sided corrugations can yield several band gaps with a variable bandwidth for Lamb waves. The formation mechanism of band gaps in the double-sided RPC plates is attributed to the coupling between the Lamb modes and the in-phase and out-phases resonant eigenmodes of the double-sided corrugations. We investigate the evolution of band gaps in the double-sided RPC plates with the corrugation heights on both sides arranged from an asymmetrical distribution to a symmetrical distribution gradually. Significantly, with the introduction of symmetric double-sided corrugations, the antisymmetric Lamb mode is suppressed by the in-phase resonant eigenmodes of the double-sided corrugations, resulting in the disappearance of the lowest band gap. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically.

  13. Variable stiffness corrugated composite structure with shape memory polymer for morphing skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwu; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Yanju

    2017-03-01

    This work presents a variable stiffness corrugated structure based on a shape memory polymer (SMP) composite with corrugated laminates as reinforcement that shows smooth aerodynamic surface, extreme mechanical anisotropy and variable stiffness for potential morphing skin applications. The smart composite corrugated structure shows a low in-plane stiffness to minimize the actuation energy, but also possess high out-of-plane stiffness to transfer the aerodynamic pressure load. The skin provides an external smooth aerodynamic surface because of the one-sided filling with the SMP. Due to variable stiffness of the shape memory polymer the morphing skin exhibits a variable stiffness with a change of temperature, which can help the skin adjust its stiffness according different service environments and also lock the temporary shape without external force. Analytical models related to the transverse and bending stiffness are derived and validated using finite element techniques. The stiffness of the morphing skin is further investigated by performing a parametric analysis against the geometry of the corrugation and various sets of SMP fillers. The theoretical and numerical models show a good agreement and demonstrate the potential of this morphing skin concept for morphing aircraft applications. We also perform a feasibility study of the use of this morphing skin in a variable camber morphing wing baseline. The results show that the morphing skin concept exhibits sufficient bending stiffness to withstand the aerodynamic load at low speed (less than 0.3 Ma), while demonstrating a large transverse stiffness variation (up to 191 times) that helps to create a maximum mechanical efficiency of the structure under varying external conditions.

  14. Uses of four-fold coaxial corrugated piping in low temperature technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A; Rohner, P [Kabel- und Metallwerke Gutehoffnungshuette A.G., Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    The increasing uses of superconducting equipment in various areas of research and technology, including even medicine, create an increasing demand for suitable transfer lines for liquid helium which still remains practically the only suitable coolant. This paper reports on flexible four-fold coaxial corrugated piping lines which can combine a forword flow and a return flow channel for the coolant and which can be designed for various operating conditions. The mechanical and thermal properties of such piping lines are discussed.

  15. Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, D.A.; Brunkov, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm"−"1. At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq"4 law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q"−"3"."1"5 but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.

  16. Psychometric properties of startle and corrugator response in NPU, affective picture viewing, and resting state tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jesse T; Bradford, Daniel E; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of critical psychometric properties of commonly used psychophysiology laboratory tasks/measures within the NIMH RDoC. Participants (N = 128) completed the no-shock, predictable shock, unpredictable shock (NPU) task, affective picture viewing task, and resting state task at two study visits separated by 1 week. We examined potentiation/modulation scores in NPU (predictable or unpredictable shock vs. no-shock) and affective picture viewing tasks (pleasant or unpleasant vs. neutral pictures) for startle and corrugator responses with two commonly used quantification methods. We quantified startle potentiation/modulation scores with raw and standardized responses. We quantified corrugator potentiation/modulation in the time and frequency domains. We quantified general startle reactivity in the resting state task as the mean raw startle response during the task. For these three tasks, two measures, and two quantification methods, we evaluated effect size robustness and stability, internal consistency (i.e., split-half reliability), and 1-week temporal stability. The psychometric properties of startle potentiation in the NPU task were good, but concerns were noted for corrugator potentiation in this task. Some concerns also were noted for the psychometric properties of both startle and corrugator modulation in the affective picture viewing task, in particular, for pleasant picture modulation. Psychometric properties of general startle reactivity in the resting state task were good. Some salient differences in the psychometric properties of the NPU and affective picture viewing tasks were observed within and across quantification methods. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Evaluation of Thermo-Fluid Performance of Compact Heat Exchanger with Corrugated Wall Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Nam Il; Lee, Won Jae

    2006-01-01

    One of the key components of an indirect nuclear hydrogen production system is an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). For the IHX, a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is known as one of the promising types due to its compactness and ability to operate at high temperatures and under high pressures. The PCHE is a relatively new heat exchanger. It has been commercially manufactured only since 1985 and solely by one British vendor, HeatricTM. Due to its short history and limited production, sufficient information about the PCHE is not available for the design of the IHX in open literatures. The predominant shape of flow channels of the PCHE is laterally corrugated. The flow in a corrugated wall channel is very interesting since a variety of flow phenomena can be considered by changing the amplitude-to-wavelength ratio. In the present paper, thermo-fluid performance of a heat exchanger with a typical PCHE geometry has been evaluated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to analyze a gas flow behavior in a corrugated wall channel

  18. Flow Regimes of Air-Water Counterflow Through Cross Corrugated Parallel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, V.F.

    2000-06-07

    Heretofore unknown flow regimes of air-water counterflow through a pair of transparent vertical parallel cross corrugated plates were observed via high-speed video. Air flows upward driven by pressure gradient and water, downward driven by gravity. The crimp geometry of the corrugations was drawn from typical corrugated sheets used as filling material in modern structured packed towers. Four regimes were featured, namely, rivulet, bicontinuous, flooding fronts, and flooding waves. It is conceivable that the regimes observed might constitute the basis for understanding how gas and liquid phases contend for available space in the interstices of structured packings in packed towers. Flow regime transitions were expressed in terms of liquid load (liquid superficial velocity) and gas flow factor parameters commonly used in pressure drop and capacity curves. We have carefully examined the range of parameters equivalent to the ill-understood high-liquid-flow operation in packed towers. More importantly, our findings should prove valuable in validating improved first-principles modeling of gas-liquid flows in these industrially important devices.

  19. Improvement of formability for fabricating thin continuously corrugated structures in sheet metal forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Woo; Park, Sang Hu; Park, Seong Hun; Ha, Man Yeong; Jeong, Ho Seung; Cho, Jong Rae

    2012-01-01

    A stamping process is widely used for fabricating various sheet metal parts for vehicles, airplanes, and electronic devices by the merit of low processing cost and high productivity. Recently, the use of thin sheets with a corrugated structure for sheet metal parts has rapidly increased for use in energy management devices, such as heat exchangers, separators in fuel cells, and many others. However, it is not easy to make thin corrugated structures directly using a single step stamping process due to their geometrical complexity and very thin thickness. To solve this problem, a multi step stamping (MSS) process that includes a heat treatment process to improve formability is proposed in this work: the sequential process is the initial stamping, heat treatment, and final shaping. By the proposed method, we achieved successful results in fabricating thin corrugated structures with an average thickness of 75μm and increased formability of about 31% compared to the single step stamping process. Such structures can be used in a plate-type heat exchanger requiring low weight and a compact shape

  20. Corrugation Architecture Enabled Ultraflexible Wafer-Scale High-Efficiency Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2018-01-02

    Advanced classes of modern application require new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience, large-scale, low cost, and excellent power conversion efficiency. Conventional crystalline silicon-based solar cells offer one of the most highly efficient power sources, but a key challenge remains to attain mechanical resilience while preserving electrical performance. A complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based integration strategy where corrugation architecture enables ultraflexible and low-cost solar cell modules from bulk monocrystalline large-scale (127 × 127 cm) silicon solar wafers with a 17% power conversion efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness of 240 μm and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells can reversibly withstand high mechanical stress and can be deformed to zigzag and bifacial modules. These corrugation silicon-based solar cells offer ultraflexibility with high stability over 1000 bending cycles including convex and concave bending to broaden the application spectrum. Finally, the smallest bending radius of curvature lower than 140 μm of the back contacts is shown that carries the solar cells segments.

  1. Soda-Anthraquinone Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr.) Rind Linerboard and Corrugated Medium Paper: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Mubarak Sa'adon, Amir; Ika Sukarno, Khairil; Fadrol Hisham Yusoff, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A preliminary test was conducted to investigate the characteristics of linerboard and corrugated medium paper made from durian rind waste. Naturally dried durian rinds were pulped according to Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with a condition of 20% active alkali, 0.1% AQ, 7:1 liquor to material ratio, 120 minutes cooking time and 170°C cooking temperature. The linerboard and corrugated medium paper with a basis weight of 120 gsm were prepared and evaluated according to Malaysian International Organization for Standardization (MS ISO) and Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). The results indicate that the characteristics of durian rind linerboard are comparable with other wood or non-wood based paper and current commercial paper. However, low CMT value for corrugated medium and water absorptiveness quality for linerboard could be improved in future. Based on the bulk density (0.672 g/cm3), burst index (3.12 kPa.m2/g) and RCT (2.00 N.m2/g), the durian rind has shown a good potential and suitable as an alternative raw material source for linerboard industry.

  2. Corrugation Architecture Enabled Ultraflexible Wafer-Scale High-Efficiency Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Sepulveda, Adrian C.; Wicaksono, Irmandy; Nour, Maha A.; Wehbe, Nimer; Almislem, Amani Saleh Saad; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Syed, Ahad; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Advanced classes of modern application require new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience, large-scale, low cost, and excellent power conversion efficiency. Conventional crystalline silicon-based solar cells offer one of the most highly efficient power sources, but a key challenge remains to attain mechanical resilience while preserving electrical performance. A complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based integration strategy where corrugation architecture enables ultraflexible and low-cost solar cell modules from bulk monocrystalline large-scale (127 × 127 cm) silicon solar wafers with a 17% power conversion efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness of 240 μm and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells can reversibly withstand high mechanical stress and can be deformed to zigzag and bifacial modules. These corrugation silicon-based solar cells offer ultraflexibility with high stability over 1000 bending cycles including convex and concave bending to broaden the application spectrum. Finally, the smallest bending radius of curvature lower than 140 μm of the back contacts is shown that carries the solar cells segments.

  3. Compact Elliptically Tapered Slot Antenna with Non-uniform Corrugations for Ultra-wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm^3. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.

  4. Practical reporting with Ruby and Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Berube, David

    2008-01-01

    Business intelligence and real time reporting mechanisms play a major role in any of today s forward looking business plans. With many of these solutions being moved to the Web, the popular Rails framework and its underlying Ruby language are playing a major role alongside web services in building the reporting solutions of tomorrow. Practical Reporting with Ruby and Rails is the first book to comprehensively introduce this popular framework, guiding readers through a wide ranging array of features. Note this isn t a staid guide to generating traditional reports, but rather it shows you how th

  5. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... noncarrier limited liability company that owns not less than 51% of the equity interests in PRH. PRH owns 100% of the stock of Patriot. Patriot is a noncarrier holding company that owns 100% of the stock of six...). Patriot currently controls the following six Class III rail carriers: Tennessee Southern Railroad Company...

  6. A Current-Mode Common-Mode Feedback Circuit (CMFB) with Rail-to-Rail Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadet, Apirak; Kasemsuwan, Varakorn

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a current-mode common-mode feedback (CMFB) circuit with rail-to-rail operation. The CMFB is a stand-alone circuit, which can be connected to any low voltage transconductor without changing or upsetting the existing circuit. The proposed CMFB employs current mirrors, operating as common-mode detector and current amplifier to enhance the loop gain of the CMFB. The circuit employs positive feedback to enhance the output impedance and gain. The circuit has been designed using a 0.18 μm CMOS technology under 1V supply and analyzed using HSPICE with BSIM3V3 device models. A pseudo-differential amplifier using two common sources and the proposed CMFB shows rail to rail output swing (± 0.7 V) with low common-mode gain (-36 dB) and power dissipation of 390 μW.

  7. How to Park Freight Trains on Rail-Rail Transshipment Yards: The Train Location Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kellner; Nils Boysen; Malte Fliedner

    2010-01-01

    In modern rail-rail transshipment yards huge gantry cranes spanning all railway tracks allow for an efficent transshipment of containers between different freight trains. This way, multiple trains loaded with cargo for varying destinations can be consolidated to a reduced number of homogeneous trains, which is an essential requirement of hub-and-spoke railway systems. An important problem during the daily operations of such a transshipment yard is the train location problem, which assigns eac...

  8. Performance criteria for EM rail launchers with solid or transition armatures and laminated rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Velocity limitations of EM Rail Launchers with solid armatures due to the velocity skin-effect are assessed for a range of homogeneous materials (copper, aluminium, molybdenum and tungsten). Performance criteria as limited by armature melting in the region adjacent to the rail/armature contact surface and by rail surface melting are deduced analytically based on defined electro-thermal reference conditions. The performance criteria predict the reference transition velocity at which the solid contact surface changes to mainly a melted contact surface which is shown to be a fundamental property of the materials. The paper shows that the critical factors in obtaining a high transition velocity are a relatively high resistivity armature material combined with high temperature rail surface coatings. For example a transition velocity of >2.0 km/s for a molybdenum armature and a tungsten rail surface coating on a copper rail are predicted compared with <0.5 km/s for the aluminium/copper combination frequently used

  9. Immersive visualization of rail simulation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The prime objective of this project was to create scientific, immersive visualizations of a Rail-simulation. This project is a part of a larger initiative that consists of three distinct parts. The first step consists of performing a finite element a...

  10. Microscopic investigation of surface layers on rails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Svoboda, Jiří; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Daves, W.; Fischer, F. D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 239, č. 2 (2005), s. 132-141 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2041105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Mössbauer phase analysis * TEM * rail Subject RIV: JO - Structural Engineering Impact factor: 1.263, year: 2005

  11. Modeling and experimental study of a corrugated wick type solar still: Comparative study with a simple basin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrawy, K.K.; Alosaimy, A.S.; Mahrous, A.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of corrugated wick type solar still is compared with simple type. • Corrugated porous surface contributes by about 75% of the total productivity. • Productivity of corrugated solar still was 34% more than that for simple type. - Abstract: In the present work, the productivity of a solar still is modified by forming the evaporative surface as a corrugated shape as well as by decreasing the heat capacity with the use of a porous material. This target has been achieved by using black clothes in a corrugated shape that are immersed in water where the clothes absorbs water and get saturated by capillary effect. Along with the proposed corrugated wick type solar still, a simple basin still type was fabricated and tested to compare the enhancement accomplished by the developed solar still. Inclined reflectors were used to augment the solar radiation incident on the plane of the developed solar stills. The energy balance in the developed mathematical models takes into consideration the glass covers, the porous material, along with the portion of water exposed to the transmitted solar radiation as well as the portion of water shaded by the corrugated surface. The developed mathematical model was validated by fabricating and testing two models for the proposed and simple basin solar stills under the same conditions. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results has been detected. It has been found that an improvement of about 34% in the productivity for the proposed wick type solar still is gained as compared to the simple basin case. Also, the best tilt angle for the inclined reflector has been found to be about 30° with respect to the vertical direction of the setup under consideration.

  12. Acces to railway stations and its potential in increasing rail use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.R.E.; Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2008-01-01

    The propensity to travel by rail, and not, for example by car, can be considered to be a factor of the rail service offered, the access to it and the characteristics of the population served. Efforts to increase rail use usually focus on the rail service itself while the accessibility of the rail

  13. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South's 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government's transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960's. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail

  14. Multi-objective shape optimization of double pipe heat exchanger with inner corrugated tube using RSM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Huai-Zhi; Li, Bing-Xi; Wu, Hao; Shao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Integrated a fully developing three-dimensional heat transfer and flow model, a multi-objective optimization aims to fulfill the geometric design for double-tube heat exchangers with inner corrugated tube is investigated in this work with RSM. Dimensionless corrugation pitch (p/D), dimensionless corrugation height (H/D), dimensionless corrugation radius (r/D) and Reynolds number (Re) are considered as four design parameters. Considering the process parameters, the characteristic numbers involving heat transfer characteristic, resistance characteristic and overall heat transfer performance calculated by CFD, and are served as objective functions to the RSM (Nu c , f c , Nu c /Nu s , f c /f s and h in this paper). The results of optimal designs are a set of multiple optimum solutions, called 'Pareto optimal solutions'. It reveals the identical tendency of Nu c /Nu s and f c /f s reflecting the conflict between them that means augmenting the heat transfer performance with various design parameters in the optimal situation inevitably sacrificed the increase of flow resistance. According to the Pareto optimal curves, the optimum designing parameters of double pipe heat exchanger with inner corrugated tube under the constrains of Nu c /Nu s ≥1.2 are found to be P/D = 0.82, H/D = 0.22, r/D = 0.23, Re = 26,263, corresponding to the maximum value of η = 1.12. (authors)

  15. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  16. Swimming behaviour and ascent paths of brook trout in a corrugated culvert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Bergeron, Normand E.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Culverts may restrict fish movements under some hydraulic conditions such as shallow flow depths or high velocities. Although swimming capacity imposes limits to passage performance, behaviour also plays an important role in the ability of fish to overcome velocity barriers. Corrugated metal culverts are characterized by unsteady flow and existence of low‐velocity zones, which can improve passage success. Here, we describe swimming behaviour and ascent paths of 148 wild brook trout in a 1.5‐m section of a corrugated metal culvert located in Raquette Stream, Québec, Canada. Five passage trials were conducted in mid‐August, corresponding to specific mean cross‐sectional flow velocities ranging from 0.30 to 0.63 m/s. Fish were individually introduced to the culvert and their movements recorded with a camera located above the water. Lateral and longitudinal positions were recorded at a rate of 3 Hz in order to identify ascent paths. These positions were related to the distribution of flow depths and velocities in the culvert. Brook trout selected flow velocities from 0.2 to 0.5 m/s during their ascents, which corresponded to the available flow velocities in the culvert at the low‐flow conditions. This however resulted in the use of low‐velocity zones at higher flows, mainly located along the walls of the culvert. Some fish also used the corrugations for sheltering, although the behaviour was marginal and did not occur at the highest flow condition. This study improves knowledge on fish behaviour during culvert ascents, which is an important aspect for developing reliable and accurate estimates of fish passage ability.

  17. Improving indoor air quality by using the new generation of corrugated cardboard-based filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiani, Gabriele; Del Curto, Barbara; Cigada, Alberto

    2012-09-27

    Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is strictly affected by the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP). Air filtration is by far the most feasible suggestion to improve IAQ. Unfortunately, highly effective HEPA filters also have a few major weaknesses that have hindered their widespread use. There is therefore a renewed interest in developing novel, cost-effective filtration systems. We have recently reported the development of cardboard-based filters for bacterial removal that were further implemented and tested herein. A parallelepiped filter manufactured by aligning strips of corrugated cardboard and surrounded by a cardboard frame was specifically designed with an internal pocket holding a partially cut antistatic pleated fabric (HP). This filter, together with its parent version (CTRL) and a commercially sourced specimen (CAF), were assessed comparatively in a long-time test to assess their effectiveness on TSP removal. We found that the TSP abatement efficiency (E%) of the HP filter was relatively high and invariable over the 93 days of test and the pressure drop (PD%) decrease because of filter clogging was moderate. Most important, the HP filter was the most effective if assessed in terms of overall yield (Y%) and its performance was quite constant over the entire period considered. This work disclosed this novel class of corrugated cardboard-based filters as promising tools to ameliorate IAQ in light of their good TSP removal properties that endure over time. Moreover, cardboard is a lightweight, inexpensive, and eco-friendly material and corrugated cardboard-based air filters are very easy to shape and mount on and/or replace in existing ventilation systems.

  18. Spoof surface plasmon modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces at terahertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Du, Chao-Hai; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) have many potential applications such as imaging and sensing, communications, innovative leaky wave antenna and many other passive devices in the microwave and terahertz (THz) spectrum. The extraordinary properties of SSPs (e.g. extremely strong near field, enhanced beam–wave interaction) make them especially attractive for developing novel THz electronic sources. SSP modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces are investigated and analyzed both theoretically and numerically in this paper. The analytical SSP dispersion expressions of symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are obtained with a simplified modal field expansion method; the results are also verified by the finite integration method. Additionally, the propagation losses are also considered for real copper surfaces with a limited constant conductivity in a THz regime. It is shown that the asymptotical frequency of the symmetric mode at the Brillouin boundary decreases along with the decreased gap size between these two corrugated metal surfaces while the asymptotical frequency increases for the anti-symmetric mode. The anti-symmetric mode demonstrates larger propagation losses than the symmetric mode. Further, the losses for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes decrease when this gap size enlarges. By decreasing groove depth, the asymptotical frequency increases for both the symmetric and the anti-symmetric mode, but the variation of propagation losses is more complicated. Propagation losses increase along with the increased period. Our studies on the dispersion characteristics and propagation losses of SSP modes on this doubly corrugated metallic structure with various parameters is instructive for numerous applications such as waveguides, circuitry systems with high integration, filters and powerful electronic sources in the THz regime. (paper)

  19. Long-Term Performance of Primary and Secondary Electroactive Biofilms Using Layered Corrugated Carbon Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudler, André; Riedl, Sebastian; Schröder, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The performance of primary and secondary electroactive biofilms grown on layered corrugated carbon (LCC) electrodes was studied over a period of several months. With an average projected current density of 6.7 mA cm −2 , the studied secondary electroactive biofilms outperformed the primary biofilms (3.0 mA cm −2 ) over the entire experimental period. At the same time, both, primary and secondary biofilms, exhibited a constant Coulomb efficiency of about 89%. The study further illustrates that three-dimensional electrodes such as LCC allow a sustained long-term performance without significant decrease in electrode performance.

  20. Ohmic losses in coaxial resonators with longitudinal inner-outer corrugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenyong Hou, A. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing 408001 (China); Sheng Yu, B.; Hongfu Li, C.; Qixiang Zhao, D. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xiang Li, E. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, a coaxial resonator with longitudinal inner-outer corrugation is introduced. Its eigen-equation and expression of ohmic losses are derived. Ohmic losses in the cavity are investigated. Results show that ohmic losses in the outer and inner conductors share a similar variation trend, while the former is larger than the later. What's more, changes of the inner and outer slot depth and width induce different variations of ohmic losses on the surface of the inner and outer conductors.

  1. Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Corrugated Cooling Fin with Louvered Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Simon Kaltoft; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba Mir; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the article is to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance of a corrugated cooling fin with louvered surfaces. The investigation is carried out using the fin geometry of one most commonly used liquid-to-air heat exchangers. The investigation was carried out by numerically...... simulating the airflow with louvered fin geometry. The simulation model was verified by comparing simulated j- and f-factors with the corresponding values of several experimental correlations. The j-factors deviated less than 10.7 % from two of the experimental correlations, whereas deviations ranging...

  2. Theory and Monte-Carlo simulation of adsorbates on corrugated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vives, E.; Lindgård, P.-A.

    1993-01-01

    -phase between the commensurate and incommensurate phase stabilized by defects. Special attention has been given to the study of the epitaxial rotation angles of the different phases. Available experimental data is in agreement with the simulations and with a general theory for the epitaxial rotation which takes......Phase transitions in systems of adsorbed molecules on corrugated surfaces are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. Particularly, we have studied the phase diagram of D2 on graphite as a function of coverage and temperature. We have demonstrated the existence of an intermediate gamma...

  3. Numerical simulation study of gas-liquid reactive mass transfer along corrugated sheets with interface tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, Y.

    2008-11-01

    This work is done within the framework of gas treatment and CO 2 capture process development. The main objective of the present work is to fill the gap between classical experiments and industrial conditions by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The physical problem considered corresponds to the liquid film flow down a corrugate surface under gravity in present of a gas phase. The chemical species in the gas phase absorb in the liquid phase and react. Numerical calculations are carried out in order to determine the impact of physical and geometrical properties on reactive mass transfer in industrial operating conditions. (author)

  4. Optimization of a Conical Corrugated Antenna Using Multiobjective Heuristics for Radio-Astronomy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ruiz, S.; Sánchez Montero, R.; Tercero-Martínez, F.; López-Espí, P. L.; López-Fernandez, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a tree sections corrugated horn antenna with a modified linear profile, using NURBS, suitable for radio-astronomy applications. The operating band ranges from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz. The aperture efficiency is higher than 84% and the return losses are greater than 20 dB in the whole bandwidth. The antenna optimization has been carried out with multiobjective versions of an evolutionary algorithm (EA) and a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. We show that bot...

  5. Long-Term Performance of Primary and Secondary Electroactive Biofilms Using Layered Corrugated Carbon Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudler, André; Riedl, Sebastian; Schröder, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.schroeder@tu-bs.de [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-07-30

    The performance of primary and secondary electroactive biofilms grown on layered corrugated carbon (LCC) electrodes was studied over a period of several months. With an average projected current density of 6.7 mA cm{sup −2}, the studied secondary electroactive biofilms outperformed the primary biofilms (3.0 mA cm{sup −2}) over the entire experimental period. At the same time, both, primary and secondary biofilms, exhibited a constant Coulomb efficiency of about 89%. The study further illustrates that three-dimensional electrodes such as LCC allow a sustained long-term performance without significant decrease in electrode performance.

  6. Analytical and Numerical Study of Foam-Filled Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels under Low Velocity Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri Damghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and finite element simulations are used to predict the effect of core density on the energy absorption of composite sandwich panels under low-velocity impact. The composite sandwich panel contains two facesheets and a foam-filled corrugated core. Analytical model is defined as a two degree-of-freedom system based on equivalent mass, spring, and dashpot to predict the local and global deformation response of a simply supported panel. The results signify a good agreement between analytical and numerical predictions.

  7. Dual nature of localization in guiding systems with randomly corrugated boundaries: Anderson-type versus entropic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Yu.V.; Shostenko, L.D.

    2015-01-01

    A unified theory for the conductance of an infinitely long multimode quantum wire whose finite segment has randomly rough lateral boundaries is developed. It enables one to rigorously take account of all feasible mechanisms of wave scattering, both related to boundary roughness and to contacts between the wire rough section and the perfect leads within the same technical frameworks. The rough part of the conducting wire is shown to act as a mode-specific randomly modulated effective potential barrier whose height is governed essentially by the asperity slope. The mean height of the barrier, which is proportional to the average slope squared, specifies the number of conducting channels. Under relatively small asperity amplitude this number can take on arbitrary small, up to zero, values if the asperities are sufficiently sharp. The consecutive channel cut-off that arises when the asperity sharpness increases can be regarded as a kind of localization, which is not related to the disorder per se but rather is of entropic or (equivalently) geometric origin. The fluctuating part of the effective barrier results in two fundamentally different types of guided wave scattering, viz., inter- and intramode scattering. The intermode scattering is shown to be for the most part very strong except in the cases of (a) extremely smooth asperities, (b) excessively small length of the corrugated segment, and (c) the asperities sharp enough for only one conducting channel to remain in the wire. Under strong intermode scattering, a new set of conducting channels develops in the corrugated waveguide, which have the form of asymptotically decoupled extended modes subject to individual solely intramode random potentials. In view of this fact, two transport regimes only are realizable in randomly corrugated multimode waveguides, specifically, the ballistic and the localized regime, the latter characteristic of one-dimensional random systems. Two kinds of localization are thus shown to

  8. Návrh Rail-to-Rail proudového konvejoru v technologii CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Hudzik, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práca sa zaoberá návrhom rail-to-rail prúdového konvejora druhej generácie v technológii CMOS. Opisuje princípy funkcie jednotlivých generácii prúdových konvejorov a taktiež základný princíp návrhu prúdového konvejora druhej generácie založeného na operačnom zosilňovači. Venuje sa obvodovému riešeniu vstupného rail-to-rail stupňa a koncového stupňa v triede AB. Cieľom tejto práce je navrhnúť, charakterizovať vlastnosti a vytvoriť topológiu prúdového konvejora druhej generácie s rail...

  9. Simply rails 2 the ultimate beginner's guide to Ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Want to learn all about Ruby on Rails 2.0, the web application framework that is inspiring developers around the world? The second edition of this practical, hands on book will: show you how to install Ruby on Rails on Windows, Mac, or Linux walk you, step by step, through the development of a Web 2.0 social news application, just like digg.com show you how to test, debug, benchmark, and deploy your Rails application Unlike other Rails books, this book doesn't assume that you are an experienced web developer, or that you've used Ruby before. An entire chapter is devoted to learning Ruby in a fun way, using the interactive Ruby console, so you can follow along at home. You'll be an accomplished Ruby programmer in no time! The example application that the book builds - a user-generated news web site - is built upon with each following chapter, and concepts such as sessions, cookies and basic AJAX usage are gradually introduced. Different aspects of Rails, such as user authentication, session cookies, and automa...

  10. Applying the polluter-pays principle to rail: Environmental differentiation of rail access charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Rigat, A.; Turro Calvet, M.; Ubalde Claver, Ll.

    2016-07-01

    Environmental charges to rail service operators are still at an early stage of implementation in Europe. Current schemes are dissimilar and most of them have a very limited scope or do not provide effective incentives to abate environmental impacts. This is due to several practical difficulties in implementing internalisation pricing schemes in the railway sector. The first difficulty arises from the lack of internalisation in other transport modes and the small competitive margin of railways. Increasing the overall level of rail charges could affect their survival. A second difficulty is due to the uncertainties in the valuation of external costs and in the establishment of the optimal level of charges. On top of that, the imperfect competition in the rail market and its operational and financial rigidities imply that pricing decisions could be unfair and produce undesired demand effects. These difficulties should not prevent, however, advancing towards the application to rail of adequate charging methods for its environmental costs. This paper addresses the problem of setting environmentally differentiated rail charges through an analytical approach. A generalised formulation is developed that sets the level of charges as a function of the degree of internalisation in other modes. Then, the optimal trade-off in the level of differentiation is assessed to extract general guidelines. Based on this, both the derived overall costs and benefits and the impacts on each agent are quantified. (Author)

  11. Analysis of rail welding methods for mine rail access with the use of modern technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltsev, A. A.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Kriukov, R. E.; Shishkin, P. E.

    2017-09-01

    Welded joint zones are weak sections of the railway track for all traffic cases (in the case of high-speed traffic and heavy traffic). In the paper advantages and disadvantages of the basic ways of rails welding, which are widely used today, are considered: electrocontact and aluminothermic. Carefully selected mode of differentially thermally strengthened rails string will allow the process of correction after heat treatment to be minimized and internal residual compressive stresses to be kept. Particular attention should be paid to the method of rails welding, in which after rails welding during their cooling it is offered to perform quasi-isothermal exposure in the temperature range of fine structure formation by passing pulses of alternating electric current through the welded joint maintaining this temperature until the end of the transformation. The use of quasi-isothermal exposure at a temperature of 600 - 650 °C makes it possible to obtain a finely dispersed structure of the welded seam of rails without additional heat treatment.

  12. Optimization of wheel-rail interface friction using top-of-rail friction modifiers: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Roshan; Dasaka, Satyanarayana Murty

    2018-05-01

    High Speed Railways and Dedicated Freight Corridors are the need of the day for fast and efficient transportation of the ever growing population and freight across long distances of travel. With the increase in speeds and axle loads carried by these trains, wearing out of rails and train wheel sections are a common issue, which is due to the increase in friction at the wheel-rail interfaces. For the cases where the wheel-rail interface friction is less than optimum, as in case of high speed trains with very low axle loads, wheel-slips are imminent and loss of traction occurs when the trains accelerate rapidly or brake all of a sudden. These vast variety of traction problems around the wheel-rail interface friction need to be mitigated carefully, so that the contact interface friction neither ascents too high to cause material wear and need for added locomotive power, nor be on the lower side to cause wheel-slips and loss of traction at high speeds. Top-of-rail friction modifiers are engineered surface coatings applied on top of rails, to maintain an optimum frictional contact between the train wheels and the rails. Extensive research works in the area of wheel-rail tribology have revealed that the optimum frictional coefficients at wheel-rail interfaces lie at a value of around 0.35. Application of top-of-rail (TOR) friction modifiers on rail surfaces add an extra layer of material coating on top of the rails, with a surface frictional coefficient of the desired range. This study reviews the common types of rail friction modifiers, the methods for their application, issues related with the application of friction modifiers, and a guideline on selection of the right class of coating material based on site specific requirements of the railway networks.

  13. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.

  14. INFRASTRUCTURE IN RAIL TRANSPORT IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Brito dos Santos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is the second mode most used in the country, due to the low cost of transporting large volumes over long distances. Although there was no investment in the expansion for a long time, after privatization there was a resumption of maintenance and expansion of the railways, but it is far from achieving international quality and performance indices. The objective of this work was a study on the rail transport in the country, to raise the structure of the Brazilian railway network. For the development of this article, the method used was bibliographic research in books, articles and websites. Although the Brazilian railway network is just over 12% of the railroad network in the United States, after the privatization of the sector, growth has resumed. The Bioceanic, a railroad that will connect the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, will improve the flow of agricultural production to overseas

  15. A novel permanent magnetic rail for HTS levitation propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Halbach Array has a characteristic advantage that the spatial fundamental field is canceled on one side of the array while the field intensity on the other side is enhanced. So this array could be used in the design of high temperature superconducting permanent magnetic levitation rail to improve the surface magnetic field and levitation force. This paper compared the surface magnetic field of the Halbach Array rail and two conventional levitation rails at first. Then proposed the potential advantages of Halbach Array applied in permanent magnetic rail system. But the Halbach Array rail is mechanical instability. An novel improved Halbach Array rail is proposed in this paper. The new structure combined the advantages of traditional structure and Halbach Array structure, solved the problem of mechanical instability, and carried on the advantage of Halbach Array on the magnetic field distribution at the same time.

  16. Rail Impact Testing. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-15

    impact test. The rail impact test is used to verify structural integrity of the test item and the adequacy of the tie-down system and tie-down...strength of provisions, connection and supporting structural frame, paragraph 5.2.3 ** Superscript...parts, to include outriggers and booms) without advanced approval by SDDCTEA. Torque nuts on wire rope clips to their correct value. Torque cable

  17. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  18. Market size and vertical structure in the rail way industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Noriaki; Mizutani, Fumitoshi

    2011-01-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to discuss the relation between market size and vertical structure in the railway industry. The framework is based on a simple downstream monopoly model with two input suppliers, labor forces and the rail infrastructure firm. The operation of the downstream firm (i.e., the train operating firm) generates costs on the rail infrastructure firm. We show that the downstream firm with a larger market size is more likely to integrate with the rail infrastructure f...

  19. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team's analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor

  20. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  1. Control of rolling contact fatigue on premium rails in revenue service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Effective rail maintenance strategies are : essential for controlling rolling contact fatigue : (RCF) and reducing wear of rails under heavy : axle load (HAL) operations. In an effort to : optimize rail maintenance strategies in revenue : service, Tr...

  2. In-Service Performance and Costs of Methods to Control Urban Rail System Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    This study evaluates the acoustic and economic effectiveness of five methods of controlling wheel/rail noise and vibration on urban rail transit systems, namely: rail grinding, wheel truing, resilient wheels, ring-damped wheels, and welded vs. jointe...

  3. Fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of bainitic rail steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The microstructuremechanical properties relationships, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth and fracture surface morphology of J6 bainitic, manganese, and pearlitic rail steels were studied. Microstructuremechanical properties correlation ...

  4. A Big Data Analysis Approach for Rail Failure Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ali; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrzad; Hajizadeh, Siamak; Núñez, Alfredo; Babuska, Robert; Dollevoet, Rolf; Li, Zili; De Schutter, Bart

    2017-08-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by analyzing a type of rail surface defect called squats that are detected automatically among the huge number of records from video cameras. We propose an image processing approach for automatic detection of squats, especially severe types that are prone to rail breaks. We measure the visual length of the squats and use them to model the failure risk. For the assessment of the rail failure risk, we estimate the probability of rail failure based on the growth of squats. Moreover, we perform severity and crack growth analyses to consider the impact of rail traffic loads on defects in three different growth scenarios. The failure risk estimations are provided for several samples of squats with different crack growth lengths on a busy rail track of the Dutch railway network. The results illustrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed approach. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  6. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  7. NASTRAN buckling study of a linear induction motor reaction rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    NASTRAN was used to study problems associated with the installation of a linear induction motor reaction rail test track. Specific problems studied include determination of the critical axial compressive buckling stress and establishment of the lateral stiffness of the reaction rail under combined loads. NASTRAN results were compared with experimentally obtained values and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The reaction rail was found to buckle at an axial compressive stress of 11,400 pounds per square inch. The results of this investigation were used to select procedures for installation of the reaction rail.

  8. Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on corrugated cardboards for packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Göthel, Frank [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Zichner, Ralf [Department Printed Functionalities, Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Chemnitz (Germany); Baumann, Reinhard R. [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Department Printed Functionalities, Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on cardboard substrates. • Development of primer layer to compensate the absorptiveness of the cardboard and the rough surface. • Manufacturing of UHF antennas in a fully digital manner for packaging applications. - Abstract: In this study, a method based on inkjet printing has been established to develop UHF antennas on a corrugated cardboard for packaging applications. The use of such a standardized, paper-based packaging substrate as material for printing electronics is challenging in terms of its high surface roughness and high ink absorption rate, especially when depositing very thin films with inkjet printing technology. However, we could obtain well-defined silver layers on the cardboard substrates due to a primer layer approach. The primer layer is based on a UV-curable ink formulation and deposited as well as the silver ink with inkjet printing technology. Industrial relevant printheads were chosen for the deposition of the materials. The usage of inkjet printing allows highest flexibility in terms of pattern design. The primer layer was proven to optimize the surface characteristics of the substrate, mainly reducing the surface roughness and water absorptiveness. Thanks to the primer layer approach, ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) antennas were deposited by inkjet printing on the corrugated cardboards. Along with the characterization and interpretation of electrical properties of the established conductive antenna patterns, the performance of the printed antennas were analyzed in detail by measuring the scattering parameter S{sub 11} and the antenna gain.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Half-corrugated Channel Flow by Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Rastan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the present study, a two dimensional half-corrugated channel flow is simulated at Reynolds number of 104, in no-slip condition (hydrophilic surfaces( using various low Reynolds turbulence models as well as standard k-ε model; and an appropriate turbulence model (k-ω 1998 model( is proposed. Then, in order to evaluate the proposed solution method in simulation of flow adjacent to hydrophobic surfaces, turbulent flow is simulated in simple channel and the results are compared with the literature. Finally, two dimensional half-corrugated channel flow at Reynolds number of 104 is simulated again in vicinity of hydrophobic surfaces for varoius slip lengths. The results show that this method is capable of drag reduction in such a way that an increase of 200 μm in slip length leads to a massive drag reduction up to 38%. In addition, to access a significant drag reduction in turbulent flows, the non-dimensionalized slip length should be larger than the minimum.

  10. Performance analysis of solar air heater with jet impingement on corrugated absorber plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanossi M. Aboghrara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the experimental investigation outlet temperature and efficiency, of Solar Air heater (SAH. The experimental test set up designed and fabricated to study the effect of jet impingement on the corrugated absorber plate, through circular jets in a duct flow of solar air heater, and compared with conventional solar air heater on flat plat absorber. Under effect of mass flow rate (ṁ of air and solar radiation on outlet air temperature, and efficiency, are analyzed. Results show the flow jet impingement on corrugated plat absorber is a strong function of heat transfer enhancement. The present investigation concludes that the mass flow rate of air substantially influences the heat transfer on solar air heaters. And the thermal efficiency of proposed design duct is observed almost 14% more as compare to the smooth duct. At solar radiation 500–1000 (W/M2, 308 K ambient temperature and 0.01–0.03 (Kg/S mass flow rate

  11. Removal of VOCs from air stream with corrugated sheet as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Arshad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large proportional of volatile organic compounds (VOCs are released into the environment from various industrial processes. The current study elucidates an application of a simple adsorption phenomenon for removal of three main types of VOCs, i.e., benzene, xylene and toluene, from an air stream. Two kinds of adsorbents namely acid digested adsorbent and activated carbon are prepared to assess the removal efficiency of each adsorbent in the indoor workplace environment. The results illustrate that the adsorbents prepared from corrugated sheets were remarkably effective for the removal of each pollutant type. Nevertheless, activated carbon showed high potential of adsorbing the targeted VOC compared to the acid digested adsorbent. The uptake by the adsorbents was in the following order: benzene > xylene > toluene. Moreover, maximum adsorption of benzene, toluene and xylene occurred at 20 °C and 1.5 cm/s for both adsorbents whereas minimum success was attained at 30 °C and 1.0 cm/s. However, adsorption pattern are found to be similar for each of the the three aromatic hydrocarbons. It is concluded that the corrugated sheets waste can be a considered as a successful and cost-effective solution towards effective removal of targeted pollutants in the air stream.

  12. Corrugation of Phase-Separated Lipid Bilayers Supported by Nanoporous Silica Xerogel Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goksu, E I; Nellis, B A; Lin, W; Satcher Jr., J H; Groves, J T; Risbud, S H; Longo, M L

    2008-10-30

    Lipid bilayers supported by substrates with nanometer-scale surface corrugations holds interest in understanding both nanoparticle-membrane interactions and the challenges of constructing models of cell membranes on surfaces with desirable properties, e.g. porosity. Here, we successfully form a two-phase (gel-fluid) lipid bilayer supported by nanoporous silica xerogel. Surface topology, diffusion, and lipid density in comparison to mica-supported lipid bilayers were characterized by AFM, FRAP, FCS, and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, respectively. We found that the two-phase lipid bilayer follows the xerogel surface contours. The corrugation imparted on the lipid bilayer results in a lipid density that is twice that on a flat mica surface. In direct agreement with the doubling of actual bilayer area in a projected area, we find that the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of lipids on xerogel ({approx}1.7 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) is predictably lower than on mica ({approx}4.1 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) by both FRAP and FCS techniques. Furthermore, the gel-phase domains on xerogel compared to mica were larger and less numerous. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a relatively defect-free continuous two-phase bilayer that penetrates approximately midway into the first layer of {approx}50 nm xerogel beads.

  13. Mass transport enhancement in redox flow batteries with corrugated fluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Kleber Marques; Marschewski, Julian; Ebejer, Neil; Ruch, Patrick; Cotta, Renato Machado; Michel, Bruno; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2017-08-01

    We propose a facile, novel concept of mass transfer enhancement in flow batteries based on electrolyte guidance in rationally designed corrugated channel systems. The proposed fluidic networks employ periodic throttling of the flow to optimally deflect the electrolytes into the porous electrode, targeting enhancement of the electrolyte-electrode interaction. Theoretical analysis is conducted with channels in the form of trapezoidal waves, confirming and detailing the mass transport enhancement mechanism. In dilute concentration experiments with an alkaline quinone redox chemistry, a scaling of the limiting current with Re0.74 is identified, which compares favourably against the Re0.33 scaling typical of diffusion-limited laminar processes. Experimental IR-corrected polarization curves are presented for high concentration conditions, and a significant performance improvement is observed with the narrowing of the nozzles. The adverse effects of periodic throttling on the pumping power are compared with the benefits in terms of power density, and an improvement of up to 102% in net power density is obtained in comparison with the flow-by case employing straight parallel channels. The proposed novel concept of corrugated fluidic networks comes with facile fabrication and contributes to the improvement of the transport characteristics and overall performance of redox flow battery systems.

  14. Characterization of low-frequency acoustic wave propagation through a periodic corrugated waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changyong; Huang, Lixi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a periodic corrugated waveguide structure is proposed, and its unit-cell is analyzed by the wave finite element method. In low-frequency range, the unit-cell is treated as an equivalent fluid through a homogenization process, and the equivalent acoustic parameters are obtained, which are validated by finite structure simulations and experiments. The proposed structure is shown to add tortuosity to the waveguide, hence higher equivalent fluid density is achieved, while the system elastic modulus remains unchanged. As a result, the equivalent speed of sound is smaller than normal air. The application of such change of speed of sound is demonstrated in the classic quarter-wavelength resonator based on the corrugated waveguide, which gives a lower resonance frequency with the same side branch length. When the waveguide is filled with porous materials, the added tortuosity enhances the broadband, low-frequency sound absorption by increasing the equivalent mass without bringing in excess damping, the latter being partly responsible for the poor performance of usual porous materials in the low-frequency region. Therefore, the proposed structure provides another dimension for the design and optimization of porous sound absorption materials.

  15. Hierarchical synthesis of corrugated photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} microsphere architectures on natural pollen surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Ozensoy, Emrah, E-mail: ozensoy@fen.bilkent.edu.tr

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO{sub 2} microspheres. • Characterization of photocatalysts as a function of temperature. • Photocatalytic activities studied in the gas and solution phases. - Abstract: Biomaterials are challenging, yet vastly promising templates for engineering unusual inorganic materials with unprecedented surface and structural properties. In the current work, a novel biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO{sub 2} microspheres by utilizing a sol-gel methodology where Ambrosia trifida (Ab, Giant ragweed) pollen was exploited as the initial biological support surface. Hierarchically synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were structurally characterized in detail via SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET techniques in order to shed light on the surface chemistry, crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of these novel material architectures. Photocatalytic functionality of the synthesized materials was demonstrated both in gas phase as well as in liquid phase. Along these lines, air and water purification capabilities of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were established by performing photocatalytic oxidative NOx(g) storage and Rhodamine B(aq) degradation experiments; respectively. The synthetic approach presented herein offers new opportunities to design and create sophisticated functional materials that can be used in micro reactor systems, adsorbents, drug delivery systems, catalytic processes, and sensor technologies.

  16. A survey of wheel-rail contact models for rail vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymand, Sajjad Z.; Keylin, Alexander; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Accurate and efficient contact models for wheel-rail interaction are essential for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle. Assessment of the contact forces and moments, as well as contact geometry provide a fundamental foundation for such tasks as design of braking and traction control systems, prediction of wheel and rail wear, and evaluation of ride safety and comfort. This paper discusses the evolution and the current state of the theories for solving the wheel-rail contact problem for rolling stock. The well-known theories for modelling both normal contact (Hertzian and non-Hertzian) and tangential contact (Kalker's linear theory, FASTSIM, CONTACT, Polach's theory, etc.) are reviewed. The paper discusses the simplifying assumptions for developing these models and compares their functionality. The experimental studies for evaluation of contact models are also reviewed. This paper concludes with discussing open areas in contact mechanics that require further research for developing better models to represent the wheel-rail interaction.

  17. Keeping rail on track: preliminary findings on safety culture in Australian rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Verna; Rainbird, Sophia; Dorrian, Jill; Paterson, Jessica; Cattani, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    'Safety culture' is identified in the literature as a critical element of healthy and safe workplaces. How can rail organizations ensure that consistently effective work health and safety cultures are maintained across the diversity of their operations? This paper reports on research that is currently underway in the Australian rail industry aimed at producing a Model of Best Practice in Safety Culture for the industry. Located in rail organizations dedicated to the mining industry as well as urban rail and national freight operations, the research examines the constructs of organizational culture that impact on the development and maintenance of healthy and safe workplaces. The research uses a multi-method approach incorporating quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus groups, interviews and document analysis) methods along with a participative process to identify interventions to improve the organization and develop plans for their implementation. The research uses as its analytical framework the 10 Platinum Rules, from the findings of earlier research in the New South Wales (Australia) mining industry, Digging Deeper. Data collection is underway at the time of writing and preliminary findings are presented at this stage. The research method may be adapted for use as a form of organizational review of safety and health in organizational culture.

  18. Rail for inspection/maintenance device in TOKAMAK type container of a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    A circular rail divided into four arcuate parts for an inspection/maintenance device which runs in a TOKAMAK type container is disposed. Each of the divided rails is supported at the center of the outer surface rotatably by extendable rail supporting shafts. Each of the divided rail is constituted such that it can be contained between limiters disposed at the outer side of the TOKAMAK container when each of the rail support shafts is contracted. With such a constitution, each of the rail support shafts and arcuate rail is contracted and rotated from the outside of the TOKAMAK type container by an actuator. In order to form a circular rail, each of the rail support shafts is extended toward the center of the TOKAMAK type container, and then each of the arcuate rails is rotated into a horizontal state. Then, the joint portions of each of the arcuate rails are connected by using remote controllable locking rods. (I.S.)

  19. Kinematic analysis on rail development into vacuum vessel for ITER blanket maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The vehicle manipulator system for blanket maintenance is used as a main driving mechanism for rail development, and three driving mechanisms d1, d2 (or d2') and d3 are used as cycle sequence of the repeated operations for rail development. This repeated operation can develop the articulated rail into the vacuum vessel. The rail development scenario, kinematic analysis model for rail development without any driving mechanisms in the rail joints, equations defined the angular between two rail links, identification of rail link at repeated operation, numerical analysis results on rail deployment under the forced position control of l i+1 , new rail development scenario using two driving mechanisms d1 and d2''under one cycle sequence of the repeated operations, and rail development test are reported. (S.Y.)

  20. U-rans model for the prediction of the acoustic sound power generated in a whistling corrugated pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; González Díez, N.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Nakiboǧlu, G.; Hirschberg, A.

    2013-01-01

    Corrugated pipes, as used in flexible risers for gas production or in domestic appliances, can whistle when a flow is imposed through the pipe. Nakiboglu et al [1, 2] have developed a method to compute the acoustic source term for axi-symmetric cavities. The method is based on the resolution of

  1. Impact of interfacial imperfection on transverse wave in a functionally graded piezoelectric material structure with corrugated boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Santan; Kumari, Richa

    2018-03-01

    The propagation behavior of Love-type wave in a corrugated functionally graded piezoelectric material layered structure has been taken into account. Concretely, the layered structure incorporates a corrugated functionally graded piezoelectric material layer imperfectly bonded to a functionally graded piezoelectric material half-space. An analytical treatment has been employed to determine the dispersion relation for both cases of electrically open condition and electrically short condition. The phase velocity of the Love-type wave has been computed numerically and its dependence on the wave number has been depicted graphically for a specific type of corrugated boundary surfaces for both said conditions. The crux of the study lies in the fact that the imperfect bonding of the interface, the corrugated boundaries present in the layer, and the material properties of the layer and the half-space strongly influence the phase velocity of the Love-type wave. It can be remarkably noted that the imperfect bonding of the interface reduces the phase velocity of the Love-type wave significantly. As a special case of the problem, it is noticed that the procured dispersion relation for both cases of electrically open and electrically short conditions is in accordance with the classical Love wave equation.

  2. Growth of InP directly on Si by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Kataria, Himanshu; Sun, Yan-Ting; Lourdudoss, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to achieve an InP–Si heterointerface, a new and generic method, the corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) technique in a hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor, was studied. An InP seed layer on Si (0 0 1) was patterned into closely spaced etched mesa stripes, revealing the Si surface in between them. The surface with the mesa stripes resembles a corrugated surface. The top and sidewalls of the mesa stripes were then covered by a SiO 2 mask after which the line openings on top of the mesa stripes were patterned. Growth of InP was performed on this corrugated surface. It is shown that growth of InP emerges selectively from the openings and not on the exposed silicon surface, but gradually spreads laterally to create a direct interface with the silicon, hence the name CELOG. We study the growth behavior using growth parameters. The lateral growth is bounded by high index boundary planes of {3 3 1} and {2 1 1}. The atomic arrangement of these planes, crystallographic orientation dependent dopant incorporation and gas phase supersaturation are shown to affect the extent of lateral growth. A lateral to vertical growth rate ratio as large as 3.6 is achieved. X-ray diffraction studies confirm substantial crystalline quality improvement of the CELOG InP compared to the InP seed layer. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of a direct InP–Si heterointerface by CELOG without threading dislocations. While CELOG is shown to avoid dislocations that could arise due to the large lattice mismatch (8%) between InP and Si, staking faults could be seen in the layer. These are probably created by the surface roughness of the Si surface or SiO 2 mask which in turn would have been a consequence of the initial process treatments. The direct InP–Si heterointerface can find applications in high efficiency and cost-effective Si based III–V semiconductor multijunction solar cells and optoelectronics integration. (paper)

  3. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, Gert

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port

  4. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  5. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  6. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aesma, Madis

    2005-01-01

    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  7. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  8. Semi-supervised rail defect detection from imbalanced image data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Tax, D.M.J.; Acarman, Tankut

    2016-01-01

    Rail defect detection by video cameras has recently gained much attention in both
    academia and industry. Rail image data has two properties. It is highly imbalanced towards the non-defective class and it has a large number of unlabeled data samples available for semisupervised learning

  9. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...-0108; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal... rule is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot... enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008. The final rule develops this pilot...

  10. 49 CFR 213.343 - Continuous welded rail (CWR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and...) Designation of a desired rail installation temperature range for the geographic area in which the CWR is... installation temperature range when adjusting CWR. (b) Rail anchoring or fastening requirements that will...

  11. Causal analysis of passenger train accidents on freight rail corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A number of economic, technical and political factors have limited the development of new, dedicated, very-high-speed rail systems in North America. Consequently, most, near-term development of improved or expanded passenger rail service in the U.S. ...

  12. 77 FR 76169 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ....stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the AAR's proposed rebasing calculations and...

  13. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  14. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  15. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years. Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories. Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants. Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia. Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  16. Rail Trails and Property Values: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenian, Ella; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rail Trail and Property Values dataset includes information on a set of n = 104 homes which sold in Northampton, Massachusetts in 2007. The dataset provides house information (square footage, acreage, number of bedrooms, etc.), price estimates (from Zillow.com) at four time points, location, distance from a rail trail in the community, biking…

  17. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  18. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  19. The latest technical solutions in rail vehicles drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the latest trends and solutions used in the offers of rail vehicles manufacturers. The study is mainly concerned with the technical solutions used in hybrid rail vehicles, whose development has become one of the priorities for the development of rail vehicles in the European Union in recent years. Stricter emissions standards for harmful compounds in the European Union have forced manufacturers to use increasingly sophisticated technology, including hybrid drives and alternative fuels. The products and solutions offered by the major manufacturers on the market, along with their capabilities and future applications are described. The predicted trends in the development of propulsion technology for rail and road-rail vehicles are also indicated in view of the current legislative aspirations among the EU Member States.

  20. Simulations of roughness initiation and growth on railway rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X.; Thompson, D. J.; Jones, C. J. C.; Xie, G.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Allen, P.; Hsu, S. S.

    2006-06-01

    A model for the prediction of the initiation and growth of roughness on the rail is presented. The vertical interaction between a train and the track is calculated as a time history for single or multiple wheels moving on periodically supported rails, using a wavenumber-based approach. This vertical dynamic wheel/rail force arises from the varying stiffness due to discrete supports (i.e. parametric excitation) and the roughness excitation on the railhead. The tangential contact problem between the wheel and rail is modelled using an unsteady two-dimensional approach and also using the three-dimensional contact model, FASTSIM. This enables the slip and stick regions in the contact patch to be identified from the input geometry and creepage between the wheel and rail. The long-term wear growth is then predicted by applying repeated passages of the vehicle wheelsets, as part of an iterative solution.

  1. Effects of carbon coating and pore corrugation on capillary condensation of nitrogen in SBA-15 mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu

    2013-09-24

    To examine the origin of an ink-bottle-like structure in SBA-15 formed by carbon coating and the effects of pore corrugation on capillary condensation and evaporation of a vapor in the cylindrical pores, we measured the adsorption isotherms of nitrogen at 77 K on 10 kinds of SBA-15 samples before and after a carbon coating process by the exposure to acetylene at 1073 K, as well as desorption scanning curves and subloops on the untreated samples. These SBA-15 samples were synthesized under the different conditions of initial SiO2/P123 ratio and hydrothermal treatment. SBA-15 with relatively large microporosity tends to form easily constrictions inside the main channels by the carbon coating. This strongly suggests that the rough pore walls of SBA-15 may induce the incomplete wetting of carbon layers on the pore walls to form the constrictions inside the cylindrical pores. A comparison of two subloops implies that the pores of SBA-15 synthesized with a SiO2/P123 ratio of 75 consist of an assembly of connecting domains of different diameters; that is, the pores are highly corrugated. For SBA-15 synthesized with a SiO2/P123 ratio of 60, the amplitude of the pore corrugation is significantly decreased by the prolonged hydrothermal treatment at 373 K. On the other hand, for SBA-15 synthesized with a SiO2/P123 ratio of 45, the amplitude of the corrugation is negligibly small, although the cylindrical pores are interconnected through narrow necks with each other. It is found that the smaller the amplitude of the pore corrugation, the smaller the width of the hysteresis loop.

  2. Fabrication of 20 nm half-pitch gratings by corrugation-directed self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho-Cheol; Rettner, Charles T; Sundstroem, Linnea

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the scaling of modern semiconductor devices is governed by the ability to create scalable high-resolution patterns on substrates. Since it is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extend to smaller dimensions using optical lithography, there is a great deal of interest in alternative patterning methods. The self-assembly of block copolymers in thin films, which provides periodic patterns of 10-50 nm length scales, has been recognized as a promising candidate for such patterning. To be practical, however, this approach must provide control over the orientation and lateral placement of the microdomains. We report here our discovery of the controlled alignment of the lamellar microdomains of a block copolymer containing hybrid material using topographic pre-patterns on substrates. We find that this hybrid material forms lamellae with a half-pitch of approximately 20 nm perpendicular to the lines of a surface corrugation

  3. Particular treatments in Eddy current technique. Application to the control of corrugated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    When the testing of a given product shows that, owing to a particular shape of this product or to its environment, disturbing effects can hide the presence of harmful defects, use must be made of testing artifices or particular treatments enabling an efficient examination to be made. On this score, many eddy current problems are solved by means of the following processes: - use of specific sensors adapted to the geometry of the product, - spectral analysis of the analog results of analyses, - combination of the results of analyses obtained simultaneously at different frequencies (multifrequency techniques). An example of an application is given for corrugated tubes achieved by hollow and helical milling of smooth tubes [fr

  4. Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Urrios, D., E-mail: daniel.navarrourrios@nano.cnr.it [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze – CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, Pisa, I-56127 (Italy); Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F. [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); El-Jallal, S. [IEMN, Universite de Lille 1, Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); PRILM, Université Moulay Ismail, Faculté des sciences, Meknès (Morocco); Oudich, M.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B. [IEMN, Universite de Lille 1, Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Pitanti, A. [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze – CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, Pisa, I-56127 (Italy); Capuj, N. [Depto. Física, Universidad de la Laguna, 38206 (Spain); Tredicucci, A. [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze – CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, Pisa, I-56127 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Griol, A.; Martínez, A. [Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the optomechanical properties of a breathing mechanical mode oscillating at 5.5 GHz in a 1D corrugated Si nanobeam. This mode has an experimental single-particle optomechanical coupling rate of |g{sub o,OM}| = 1.8 MHz (|g{sub o,OM}|/2π = 0.3 MHz) and shows strong dynamical back-action effects at room temperature. The geometrical flexibility of the unit-cell would lend itself to further engineering of the cavity region to localize the mode within the full phononic band-gap present at 4 GHz while keeping high g{sub o,OM} values. This would lead to longer lifetimes at cryogenic temperatures, due to the suppression of acoustic leakage.

  5. SPREADING OF A FLUID JET ON THE CORRUGATED SURFACE OF THE STRUCTURED PACKING OF WET SCRUBBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorodilov A.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new packing for wet scrubbers for cooling exhaust gases of furnaces is presented. Spreading features of the fluid jet on the corrugated surface of the proposed packing have been studied. Flow rate of the liquid flowing through slits to the opposite side of the packing element was determined. Several regimes of a fluid flow on the surface of the proposed structured packing were determined. An optimal range of rational flow rates for more intense cooling of exhaust gases is proposed. It was discovered that the range of optimum flow rates may be extended if the surface of the packing element is pre-wetted. The way of increasing the rate of effective interfacial surface area for gas-liquid contact per unit volume of the packing of the scrubber is presented.

  6. Flows of Newtonian and Power-Law Fluids in Symmetrically Corrugated Cappilary Fissures and Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, an analytical method for deriving the relationships between the pressure drop and the volumetric flow rate in laminar flow regimes of Newtonian and power-law fluids through symmetrically corrugated capillary fissures and tubes is presented. This method, which is general with regard to fluid and capillary shape, can also be used as a foundation for different fluids, fissures and tubes. It can also be a good base for numerical integration when analytical expressions are hard to obtain due to mathematical complexities. Five converging-diverging or diverging-converging geometrics, viz. wedge and cone, parabolic, hyperbolic, hyperbolic cosine and cosine curve, are used as examples to illustrate the application of this method. For the wedge and cone geometry the present results for the power-law fluid were compared with the results obtained by another method; this comparison indicates a good compatibility between both the results.

  7. Distributed feedback interband cascade lasers with top grating and corrugated sidewalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Feng [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Stocker, Michael [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Pham, John [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Towner, Frederick [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Shen, Kun [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Wang, Jie [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA; Lascola, Kevin [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA

    2018-03-26

    Distributed feedback (DFB) interband cascade lasers (ICLs) with a 1st order top surface grating were designed and fabricated. Partially corrugated sidewalls were implemented to suppress high order lateral modes. The DFB ICLs have 4 mm long and 4.5 mu m wide ridge waveguides and are mounted epi-up on AlN submounts. We demonstrated a continuous-wave (CW) DFB ICL, from a first wafer which has a large detuning of the gain peak from the DFB wavelength, with a side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB. With proper matching of grating feedback and the gain peak wavelength for the second wafer, a DFB ICL was demonstrated with a maximum CW output power and a maximum wall plug efficiency reaching 42 mW and 2%, respectively, at 25 degrees C. The lasing wavelengths of both lasers are around 3.3 mu m at 25 degrees C. Published by AIP Publishing.

  8. Asymptotic freeze-out of the perturbations generated inside a corrugated rarefaction wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouchuk, J.G.; Serrano Rodrigo, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Based on previous work [J. G. Wouchuk and R. Carretero, Phys. Plasmas 10, 4237 (2003)], the conditions of asymptotic freeze-out of the ripples at the tail of a corrugated rarefaction wave are analyzed. The precise location of the freezing-out regions in the space of preshock parameters is tried, and an efficient algorithm for their determination is given. It is seen that asymptotic freeze-out can only happen for gases that have an isentropic exponent γ cr ≅2.2913hellip. It is shown that the late time freeze-out of the ripple perturbations is correlated to the initial tangential velocity profile (at t=0+) inside the expansion fan

  9. Optimization of a Conical Corrugated Antenna Using Multiobjective Heuristics for Radio-Astronomy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. López-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a tree sections corrugated horn antenna with a modified linear profile, using NURBS, suitable for radio-astronomy applications. The operating band ranges from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz. The aperture efficiency is higher than 84% and the return losses are greater than 20 dB in the whole bandwidth. The antenna optimization has been carried out with multiobjective versions of an evolutionary algorithm (EA and a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. We show that both techniques provide good antenna design, but the experience carried out shows that the results of the evolutionary algorithm outperform the particle swarm results.

  10. ANALYSIS OF LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AGILITY IN CORRUGATED BOX INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Daryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several analyses were performed in this case study including the analysis of the business environments and the current supply chain system, which than followed by measurement and comparison of supply chain agility performance indicator. As corrugated box industry work in make/engineer to order system and by considering their competitive situation and uncertain business environment it was concluded that they need agility in their supply chain. The main problem was the unbalance power position with paper supplier that resulting low inbound inventory turns. Focusing on this weakness, two solutions were proposed; those are building higher collaboration with paper suppliers and performing better inventory management by set different inventory control and policy for each inventory class

  11. Flows of Newtonian and Power-Law Fluids in Symmetrically Corrugated Cappilary Fissures and Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical method for deriving the relationships between the pressure drop and the volumetric flow rate in laminar flow regimes of Newtonian and power-law fluids through symmetrically corrugated capillary fissures and tubes is presented. This method, which is general with regard to fluid and capillary shape, can also be used as a foundation for different fluids, fissures and tubes. It can also be a good base for numerical integration when analytical expressions are hard to obtain due to mathematical complexities. Five converging-diverging or diverging-converging geometrics, viz. wedge and cone, parabolic, hyperbolic, hyperbolic cosine and cosine curve, are used as examples to illustrate the application of this method. For the wedge and cone geometry the present results for the power-law fluid were compared with the results obtained by another method; this comparison indicates a good compatibility between both the results.

  12. Using pipe with corrugated walls for a subterahertz free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Stupakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A metallic pipe with corrugated walls supports propagation of a high-frequency mode that is in resonance with a relativistic beam propagating along the axis of the pipe. This mode can be excited by a beam whose length is a fraction of the wavelength. In this paper, we study another option of excitation of the resonant mode—via the mechanism of the free electron laser instability. This mechanism works if the bunch length is much longer than the wavelength of the radiation and, hence, does not require bunch compression. It provides an alternative to excitation by short bunches that can be realized with relatively low energy and low peak-current electron beams.

  13. Theory of the corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J W

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the two-dimensional stability of a shock wave driven by a steadily moving corrugated piston in an inviscid fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. For h≤-1 or h>h(c), where h is the D'yakov parameter and h(c) is the Kontorovich limit, we find that small perturbations on the shock front are unstable and grow--at first quadratically and later linearly--with time. Such instabilities are associated with nonequilibrium fluid states and imply a nonunique solution to the hydrodynamic equations. The above criteria are consistent with instability limits observed in shock-tube experiments involving ionizing and dissociating gases and may have important implications for driven shocks in laser-fusion, astrophysical, and/or detonation studies.

  14. The peeling behaviour of a graphene sheet on a nano-scale corrugated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems. (paper)

  15. Investigation of the stresses in rails : Secondary effects associated with the bending of a centrically loaded rail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolvoort, A.J.; Woestenburg, T.

    1982-01-01

    The flexural behaviour of a rail under purely vertical load acting in the plane of symmetry is investigated in this paper. For this purpose a rail ofNP 46 standard section was subjected to experimental research with the aid of electrical resistance strain gauges in the Laboratory for Highway and

  16. A low-offset low-voltage CMOS Op Amp with rail-to-rail input and output ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Stroet, Peter; Stroet, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A low voltage CMOS op amp is presented. The circuit uses complementary input pairs to achieve a rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. Special attention has been given to the reduction of the op amp's systematic offset voltage. Gain boost amplifiers are connected in a special way to provide

  17. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred

  18. The influence of friction coefficient and wheel/rail profiles on energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idarraga Alarcon, G.A.; Burgelman, N.D.M.; Meza Meza, J.; Toro, A.; Li, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the energy dissipation in a wheel/rail system through friction work modeling. In order to identify the effect of the friction coefficient on the energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact, several simulations were performed using a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle

  19. Thermo-hydraulic characterization of a self-pumping corrugated wall heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidmayer, Kevin; Kumar, Prashant; Lavieille, Pascal; Miscevic, Marc; Topin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Compactness, efficiency and thermal control of the heat exchanger are of critical significance for many electronic industry applications. In this view, a new concept of heat exchanger at millimeter scale is proposed and numerically studied. It consists in dynamically deforming at least one of its walls by a progressive wave in order to create an active corrugated channel. Systematic studies were performed in single-phase flow on the different deformation parameters that allow obtaining the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the system. It has been observed the dynamic wall deformation induces a significant pumping effect. Intensification of heat transfer remains very important even for highly degraded waveforms although the pumping efficiency is reduced in this case. The mechanical power applied on the upper wall to deform it dynamically is linked to the wave shape, amplitude, frequency and outlet-inlet pressure difference. The overall performance of the proposed system has been evaluated and compared to existing static channels. The performance of the proposed heat exchanger evolved in two steps for a given wall deformation. It declines slightly up to a critical value of mechanical power applied on the wall. When this critical value is exceeded, it deteriorates significantly, reaching the performance of existing conventional systems. - Highlights: • A new concept of heat exchanger within channel at millimeter scale is proposed. • Upper wall is deformed dynamically by applying external mechanical power. • Pumping effect is observed and is linked to the wave shape, amplitude and frequency. • Efficient proposed system in low Reynolds number range. • Overall performance is significantly high compared to static corrugated and straight channels.

  20. Computation of wheel-rail contact force for non-mapping wheel-rail profile of Translohr tram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuanjin; Ren, Lihui; Zhou, Jinsong

    2017-09-01

    Translohr tram has steel wheels, in V-like arrangements, as guide wheels. These operate over the guide rails in inverted-V arrangements. However, the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the guide wheels and guide rails are not always mapped one-to-one. In this study, a simplified elastic method is proposed in order to calculate the contact points between the wheels and the rails. By transforming the coordinates, the non-mapping geometric relationship between wheel and rail is converted into a mapping relationship. Considering the Translohr tram's multi-point contact between the guide wheel and the guide rail, the elastic-contact hypothesis take into account the existence of contact patches between the bodies, and the location of the contact points is calculated using a simplified elastic method. In order to speed up the calculation, a multi-dimensional contact table is generated, enabling the use of simulation for Translohr tram running on curvatures with different radii.

  1. 77 FR 65937 - Pioneer Railcorp-Continuation in Control Exemption-Rail Switching Services, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... control of Rail Switching Services, Inc. (RSS), upon RSS's becoming a Class III rail carrier. \\1\\ Pioneer states that it owns 100% of the common stock of its 17 Class III rail carrier subsidiaries: West Michigan...--Continuation in Control Exemption--Rail Switching Services, Inc. Pioneer Railcorp (Pioneer) and its...

  2. 75 FR 51160 - Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P.-Lease and Operation Exemption-BDB Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... truck-rail transfer facility on the property and provide associated rail common carrier services. \\1... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35399] Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P.--Lease and Operation Exemption--BDB Company Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P. (SRT), a noncarrier...

  3. 77 FR 65446 - Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Consolidated Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... common carrier providing interstate rail service, primarily for Dura-Bond, without first obtaining... Industrial Railroad, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation Turtle Creek... Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) and to operate approximately 9.8 miles of rail line between milepost 0...

  4. 49 CFR 38.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. 38....175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. (a) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including... monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e., not used by freight trains) or guideway, in...

  5. 49 CFR 174.59 - Marking and placarding of rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and placarding of rail cars. 174.59... RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.59 Marking and placarding of rail cars. No person may transport a rail car carrying hazardous materials unless it is marked and placarded as required by...

  6. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  7. Momentum equation for arc-driven rail guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batteh, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In several models of arc-driven rail guns, the rails are assumed to be infinitely high to simplify the calculation of the electromagnetic fields which appear in the momentum equation for the arc. This assumption leads to overestimates of the arc pressures and accelerations by approximately a factor of 2 for typical rail-gun geometries. In this paper, we develop a simple method for modifying the momentum equation to account for the effect of finite-height rails on the performance of the rail gun and the properties of the arc. The modification is based on an integration of the Lorentz force across the arc cross section at each axial location in the arc. Application of this technique suggests that, for typical rail-gun geometries and moderately long arcs, the momentum equation appropriate for infinite-height rails can be retained provided that the magnetic pressure term in the equation is scaled by a factor which depends on the effective inductance of the gun. The analysis also indicates that the magnetic pressure gradient actually changes sign near the arc/projectile boundary because of the magnetic fields associated with the arc current

  8. Revisiting the reasons for contact fatigue defects in rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenskiy Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known rail is one of the most significant elements of the whole railway construction. Operation under alternating loads from wheels of the rolling stock and different ambient temperatures lead to appearance and development of rail defects and damages. A great variety of operational factors (freight traffic density, axial loads, traffic speeds, track layout and profile as well as special features of manufacturing and thermal treatment of rails create certain difficulties while identifying reasons for defects and damages. The article deals with an attempt to estimate influence of track layout and lateral forces on appearance of defects and damages in rails on the base of long-term observations of rail operation in Kharkiv Metro. On the basis of the vehicle/track mathematical model which considers structural features of both rolling stock and permanent way in underground systems, the level of lateral forces in curves was calculated. The coefficients of correlation between the track curvature, the level of forces and the amount of defected rails removed were later obtained, that made it possible to determine the dominant factor which may lead to appearance and development of contact fatigue defects in rails laid in curves.

  9. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  10. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  11. SELECTED MODELS OF RAIL MARKETS IN THE CONTEXT OF LIBERALIZATION OF THE RAIL MARKET IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Pietrzak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper author has made an attempt at presenting problems of the operation of European railway transport market against the background of changes taking place in the European Union transport market. These changes are the result of processes aimed at liberalizing the market. In addition, this article defines the conditions of reforms in the Eu-ropean rail market by highlighting various models of its functioning.

  12. LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF THE GLASS RAILING ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Šamec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some basic physical and mechanical properties of glass as structural material are presented. This research is about specifically manufactured glass railing element that will be a part of a pedestrian bridge construction in Zagreb, Croatia. Load bearing capacity test of the glass railing element is conducted within the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Zagreb and obtained experimental results are discussed and compared to the ones provided by the numerical model. Taking into account the behaviour of laminated glass and results of experimental and numerical testing, glass railing element can be regarded as safe.

  13. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  14. RAIL TRAFFIC VOLUME ESTIMATION BASED ON WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Lazarević

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available European transport policy, defined in the White Paper, supports shift from road to rail and waterborne transport. The hypothesis of the paper is that changes in the economic environment influence rail traffic volume. Therefore, a model for prediction of rail traffic volume applied in different economic contexts could be a valuable tool for the transport planners. The model was built using common Machine Learning techniques that learn from the past experience. In the model preparation, world development indicators defined by the World Bank were used as input parameters.

  15. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ) in the laboratory and on an operational rail track (with S-4 60-SAR profile) and example results are presented in this section. The measurements 5 were performed using a Polytec PSV-400-M2-20 high frequency scanning vibrometer 6 equipped with the VD-09 velocity...Hz on operational rail track and to identify the modes that are capable of 16 propagating large distances. 17 18 KEYWORDS: Semi-analytical finite element method; modes of guided wave 19 propagation; laser vibrometer measurement; rail track 20 PACs...

  16. Simulation and Measurement of Wheel on Rail Fatigue and Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Babette

    2015-01-01

    The life of railway wheels and rails has been decreasing in recent years. This is mainly caused by more traffic and running at higher vehicle speed. A higher speed usually generates higher forces, unless compensated by improved track and vehicle designs, in the wheel-rail contact, resulting in more wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) damage to the wheels and rails. As recently as 15 years ago, RCF was not recognised as a serious problem. Nowadays it is a serious problem in many countries a...

  17. Rail inspection system based on iGPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Mulan; Wen, Xiuping

    2018-05-01

    Track parameters include gauge, super elevation, cross level and so on, which could be calculated through the three-dimensional coordinates of the track. The rail inspection system based on iGPS (indoor/infrared GPS) was composed of base station, receiver, rail inspection frame, wireless communication unit, display and control unit and data processing unit. With the continuous movement of the inspection frame, the system could accurately inspect the coordinates of rail; realize the intelligent detection and precision measurement. According to principle of angle intersection measurement, the inspection model was structured, and detection process was given.

  18. TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.S.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm 2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs

  19. Robotics virtual rail system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-07-05

    A virtual track or rail system and method is described for execution by a robot. A user, through a user interface, generates a desired path comprised of at least one segment representative of the virtual track for the robot. Start and end points are assigned to the desired path and velocities are also associated with each of the at least one segment of the desired path. A waypoint file is generated including positions along the virtual track representing the desired path with the positions beginning from the start point to the end point including the velocities of each of the at least one segment. The waypoint file is sent to the robot for traversing along the virtual track.

  20. Impact fusion with a segmented rail gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Richter, B.

    1979-01-01

    The basic rail gun equations are reviewed. The delivery of E = 1 megajoule in dt = 10 nanoseconds, with a specific energy of 20 MJ/g (i.e., a bullet mass of 0.05 g) is considered. These values are taken from the requirements being considered for heavy-ion fusion. Using these numbers, we can solve immediately for the final particle velocity u/sub f/ from E = 1/2 mu/sub f/ 2 to get u/sub f/ = 200 km/sec. For a delivery time of 10 nanoseconds, this velocity implies that the projectile length is about 2 mm. Impact fusion is feasible because of the coincidence that a bullet with all dimensions roughly 2 mm has the required mass

  1. Fundamental relativistic solution for the rail gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liboff, R.L.; Schenter, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    A fully relativistic analysis is made of the dynamics of a rail gun based on three assumptions: (1) Ohm's law is valid in the rest frame of the plasma, (2) total electron momentum is transferred to the projectile, and (3) motion of the projectile is constrained to one direction. With these assumptions, a relativistic equation for the velocity of the projectile is obtained, whose solution monotonically increases to one of two values depending on field strengths. For B>E, the maximum velocity is cE/B, whereas for E>B it is c, where c is the speed of light, and E and B are applied electric and magnetic fields, respectively (in cgs)

  2. Emission Characteristics of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Organic Thin-Films with Planar and Corrugated Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Kuo Wei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the emission characteristics from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs and organic molecular thin films with planar and corrugated structures. In a planar thin film structure, light emission from OLEDs was strongly influenced by the interference effect. With suitable design of microcavity structure and layer thicknesses adjustment, optical characteristics can be engineered to achieve high optical intensity, suitable emission wavelength, and broad viewing angles. To increase the extraction efficiency from OLEDs and organic thin-films, corrugated structure with micro- and nano-scale were applied. Microstructures can effectively redirects the waveguiding light in the substrate outside the device. For nanostructures, it is also possible to couple out the organic and plasmonic modes, not only the substrate mode.

  3. Effects of corrugation shape on frequency band-gaps for longitudinal wave motion in a periodic elastic layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns determining frequency band-gaps for longitudinal wave motion in a periodic waveguide. The waveguide may be considered either as an elastic layer with variable thickness or as a rod with variable cross section. As a result, widths and locations of all frequency band-gaps are det......The paper concerns determining frequency band-gaps for longitudinal wave motion in a periodic waveguide. The waveguide may be considered either as an elastic layer with variable thickness or as a rod with variable cross section. As a result, widths and locations of all frequency band......, harmonic in the corrugation series. The revealed insights into the mechanism of band-gap formation can be used to predict locations and widths of all frequency band-gaps featured by any corrugation shape. These insights are general and can be valid also for other types of wave motion in periodic structures...

  4. An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Sudeok; Yoo, Mina; Lee, Seungjae

    2017-03-06

    The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results.

  5. Three dimensional corrugated organic photovoltaics for building integration; improving the efficiency, oblique angle and diffuse performance of solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kettle, Jeff; Bristow, Noel; Sweet, Tracy K. N.; Jenkins, Nick; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    The lamination of OPV modules to corrugated roof cladding has been undertaken. The 3-dimensional form of the cladding provides three advantages for outdoor OPV deployment; firstly the ‘footprint’ of the solar cell is reduced, which leads to B10% improved power conversion (PCE) efficiency per unit area. Secondly, the oblique angle performance is enhanced, leading to increased output in the early morning and evening. Indoor characterisation showed a 9-fold enhancement in efficiency was obtainab...

  6. High-speed rail turnout literature review : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) turnout design criteria generally address unbalanced lateral acceleration or cant deficiency (CD), cant deficiency change rate (CDCR), and entry and exit jerk. Various countries have adopted different design values for their HSR...

  7. 3D methodology for evaluating rail crossing roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Description of Research Project The overall objective of this project is to investigate develop a quantitative method or measure for determining the need to rehabilitate rail crossings. The scope of the project includes investigation of sensor capabi...

  8. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  9. General Vehicle Test Plan (GVTP) for Urban Rail Transit Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...

  10. In-motion, non-contact rail temperature measurement sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Preventing track buckling incidents (Figure 1) is important to the railroad industry. Track materials, rail steel, for example, experience thermal expansion, which refers to the increase in a materials volume as its temperature rises. Thermal expa...

  11. Balti riigid asutavad Rail Balticu raudteefirma / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel Tallinnas jõuti üksmeelele Euroopa rööpalaiusega Rail Balticu ehitamises. Projekti elluviimiseks luuakse ühisettevõte. Veeldatud maagaasi terminali asukohas üksmeel puudub

  12. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of rail track substructure linear elastic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Most analyses of rail dynamics neglect contribution of the soil, or treat it in a very simple manner such as using spring elements. This can cause accuracy issues in examining dynamics for passenger comfort, derailment, substructure analysis, or othe...

  14. LeRC rail accelerators: test designs and diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zana, L.M.; Kerslake, W.R.; Sturman, J.C.; Wang, S.Y.; Terdan, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed. 15 references

  15. Rail flaw sizing using conventional and phased array ultrasonic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    An approach to detecting and characterizing internal defects in rail through the use of phased array ultrasonic testing has shown the potential to reduce the risk of missed defects and improve transverse defect characterization. : Transportation Tech...

  16. Best practices and strategies for improving rail energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-28

    In support of the FRA Energy, Environment, and Engine (E3) program, this study reviews and evaluates technology development opportunities, equipment upgrades, and best practices (BPs) of international and U.S. passenger and freight rail industry segm...

  17. Measurement of vertical track deflection from a moving rail car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The University of Nebraska has been conducting research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development to develop a system that measures vertical track deflection/modulus from a moving rail car. Previous work ...

  18. Occupant Volume Integrity Evaluation in Passenger Rail Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research, which is intended to enable the growth of high-speed and intercity passenger rail transportation, was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development, as part of the train Occupant Protection r...

  19. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  20. Guidance for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document, part of a series of guides for those concerned with the road or rail transportation of dangerous goods, provides detailed recommendations for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive materials by rail. It covers the relevant legislation and regulations on the carriage of such dangerous goods to assist those involved with compliance. (UK)

  1. 49 CFR 37.79 - Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.79 Section 37.79 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. Each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system making a... system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities...

  2. 49 CFR 37.81 - Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.81 Section 37.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system which, after August 25, 1990, purchases or leases a used rapid or...

  3. 78 FR 36017 - MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad-Operation Exemption-Hilco SP Rail, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35725] MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad-- Operation Exemption--Hilco SP Rail, LLC MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad (MCM), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption...

  4. Experimental evaluation of the performances of cellulosic pads made out of Kraft and NSSC corrugated papers as evaporative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzegar, Mahsa; Layeghi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Ghanbar; Hamzeh, Yahya; Khorasani, Manouchehr

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We experimentally evaluated the performances of cellulosic pads. ► A number of experiments have been done in a wind tunnel. ► The results showed that cooling efficiency improves with decrease of air velocity and flute size. ► Water consumption increases with the increase of air velocity. ► Cooling efficiency of various pads was also compared. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performances of cellulosic pads made out of Kraft and NSSC corrugated papers in three flute sizes, experimentally. A number of experiments have been done in a wind tunnel in order to evaluate the cooling efficiency and water consumption as a function of air velocity. The tests were carried out at three levels of air velocity (1.8, 2.25, and 2.67 ms −1 ) for three flute sizes of Kraft and NSSC corrugated papers (2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 mm). Analysis of the results indicated that cooling efficiency improves with decrease of air velocity and flute size of corrugated papers; however, water consumption increases with the increase of air velocity. The results were compared with each other and it was shown that the cellulosic pad made out of Kraft paper with 2.5 mm flute size has the highest performance (92%) at 1.8 ms −1 air velocity in comparison with the other cellulosic pads.

  5. A highly successful model? The rail franchising business in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Jupe, Robert E.; Funnell, Warwick N.

    2017-01-01

    A crucial feature of rail privatisation in Britain was franchising. Passenger services were franchised in competitive bidding processes to train operators which were meant to function with declining subsidy. The paper adopts the framework of social cost-benefit analysis to examine rail privatisation's impact on three key groups; consumers, producers and the government. It establishes that privatisation did not achieve all the supposed benefits. Further, franchising only appears to be profitab...

  6. The economic effects of high speed rail investment

    OpenAIRE

    de Rus, Ginés

    2008-01-01

    The allocation of traffic between different transport modes follows transport user decisions which depend on the generalized cost of travel in the available alternatives. High Speed Rail (HSR) investment is a government decision with significant effects on the generalized cost of rail transport; and therefore on the modal split in corridors where private operators compete for traffic and charge prices close to total producer costs (infrastructure included). The rationale for HSR investment is...

  7. Evaluating autonomous acoustic surveying techniques for rails in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Lydia L.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing interest toward the use of autonomous recording units (ARUs) for acoustic surveying of secretive marsh bird populations. However, there is little information on how ARUs compare to human surveyors or how best to use ARU data that can be collected continuously throughout the day. We used ARUs to conduct 2 acoustic surveys for king (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) within a tidal marsh complex along the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA, during May–July 2015. To determine the effectiveness of an ARU in replacing human personnel, we compared results of callback point‐count surveys with concurrent acoustic recordings and calculated estimates of detection probability for both rail species combined. The success of ARUs at detecting rails that human observers recorded decreased with distance (P ≤ 0.001), such that at 75 m, only 34.0% of human‐detected rails were detected by the ARU. To determine a subsampling scheme for continuous ARU data that allows for effective surveying of presence and call rates of rails, we used ARUs to conduct 15 continuous 48‐hr passive surveys, generating 720 hr of recordings. We established 5 subsampling periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min to evaluate ARU‐based presence and vocalization detections of rails compared with each of the full 60‐min sampling of ARU‐based detection of rails. All subsampling periods resulted in different (P ≤ 0.001) detection rates and unstandardized vocalization rates compared with the hourly sampling period. However, standardized vocalization counts from the 30‐min subsampling period were not different from vocalization counts of the full hourly sampling period. When surveying rail species in estuarine environments, species‐, habitat‐, and ARU‐specific limitations to ARU sampling should be considered when making inferences about abundances and distributions from ARU data. 

  8. A Preliminary Review of Fatigue Among Rail Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Jialin Fan; Andrew P. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a severe problem in the rail industry, which may jeopardize train crew's health and safety. Nonetheless, a preliminary review of all empirical evidence for train crew fatigue is still lacking. The aim of the present paper is, therefore, to provide a preliminary description of occupational fatigue in the rail industry. This paper reviews the literature with the research question examining the risk factors associated with train crew fatigue, covering both papers published...

  9. System and prospects of China's intercity rail transit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ming

    2018-06-01

    City clusters and metropolitan areas in China are flourishing in the midst of the deepening urbanization in the country, thereby resulting in the emergence of intercity rail transit. Intercity railways connect mainline and urban railways for an integrated regional transportation system that underpins and leads the development of city clusters and metropolitan areas. This study explores the development mode and service characteristics of intercity rail transit, as well as proposes overviews on this system and prospects of its future technology in China.

  10. California statewide model for high-speed rail

    OpenAIRE

    Outwater, Maren; Tierney, Kevin; Bradley, Mark; Sall, Elizabeth; Kuppam, Arun; Modugala, Vamsee

    2010-01-01

    The California High Speed Rail Authority (CHSRA) and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) have developed a new statewide model to support evaluation of high-speed rail alternatives in the State of California. This statewide model will also support future planning activities of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). The approach to this statewide model explicitly recognizes the unique characteristics of intraregional travel demand and interregional travel demand. A...

  11. Optimal energy management of urban rail systems: Key performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overall picture of urban rail energy use is provided. • Performance indicators are developed for urban rail system energy optimisation. • A multi-level methodology for assessing energy efficiency measures is presented. - Abstract: Urban rail systems are facing increasing pressure to minimise their energy consumption and thusly reduce their operational costs and environmental impact. However, given the complexity of such systems, this can only be effectively achieved through a holistic approach which considers the numerous interdependences between subsystems (i.e. vehicles, operations and infrastructure). Such an approach requires a comprehensive set of energy consumption-related Key Performance Indicators (KEPIs) that enable: a multilevel analysis of the actual energy performance of the system; an assessment of potential energy saving strategies; and the monitoring of the results of implemented measures. This paper proposes an original, complete list of KEPIs developed through a scientific approach validated by different stakeholders. It consists of a hierarchical list of 22 indicators divided into two levels: 10 key performance indicators, to ascertain the performance of the whole system and complete subsystems; and 12 performance indicators, to evaluate the performance of single units within subsystems, for example, a single rail vehicle or station. Additionally, the paper gives a brief insight into urban rail energy usage by providing an adequate context in which to understand the proposed KEPIs, together with a methodology describing their application when optimising the energy consumption of urban rail systems

  12. Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oude Elberink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

  13. Intercity passenger rail : the congress faces critical decisions about the role of and funding for intercity passenger rail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-25

    With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...

  14. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Yiqiang; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Hongliang

    2011-01-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 x 183 μm 2 . Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN A SPIRALLY COILED CORRUGATED TUBE WITH RADIANT HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Đorđević

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Archimedean spiral coil made of a transversely corrugated tube was exposed to radiant heating in order to represent a heat absorber of the parabolic dish solar concentrator. The main advantage of the considered innovative design solution is a coupling effect of the two passive methods for heat transfer enhancement - coiling of the flow channel and changes in surface roughness. The curvature ratio of the spiral coil varies from 0.029 to 0.234, while water and a mixture of propylene glycol and water are used as heat transfer fluids. The unique focus of this study is on specific boundary conditions since the heat flux upon the tube external surfaces varies not only in the circumferential direction, but in the axial direction as well. Instrumentation of the laboratory model of the heat absorber mounted in the radiation field includes measurement of inlet fluid flow rate, pressure drop, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and 35 type K thermocouples welded to the coil surface. A thermal analysis of the experimentally obtained data implies taking into consideration the externally applied radiation field, convective and radiative heat losses, conduction through the tube wall and convection to the internal fluid. The experimental results have shown significant enhancement of the heat transfer rate compared to spirally coiled smooth tubes, up to 240% in the turbulent flow regime.

  16. Sound Transmission Loss Through a Corrugated-Core Sandwich Panel with Integrated Acoustic Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.; Zalewski, Bart F; Beck, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the effect of structurally integrated resonators on the transmission loss of a sandwich panel. The sandwich panel has facesheets over a corrugated core, which creates long aligned chambers that run parallel to the facesheets. When ports are introduced through the facesheet, the long chambers within the core can be used as low-frequency acoustic resonators. By integrating the resonators within the structure they contribute to the static load bearing capability of the panel while also attenuating noise. An analytical model of a panel with embedded resonators is derived and compared with numerical simulations. Predictions show that acoustic resonators can significantly improve the transmission loss of the sandwich panel around the natural frequency of the resonators. In one configuration with 0.813 m long internal chambers, the diffuse field transmission loss is improved by more than 22 dB around 104 Hz. The benefit is achieved with no added mass or volume relative to the baseline structure. The embedded resonators are effective because they radiate sound out-of-phase with the structure. This results in destructive interference, which leads to less transmitted sound power.

  17. Material selection for elastic energy absorption in origami-inspired compliant corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, Sean S; Delimont, Isaac L; Howell, Larry L; Fullwood, David T

    2014-01-01

    Elastic absorption of kinetic energy and distribution of impact forces are required in many applications. Recent attention to the potential for using origami in engineering may provide new methods for energy absorption and force distribution. A three-stage strategy is presented for selecting materials for such origami-inspired designs that can deform to achieve a desired motion without yielding, absorb elastic strain energy, and be lightweight or cost effective. Two material indices are derived to meet these requirements based on compliant mechanism theory. Finite element analysis is used to investigate the effects of the material stiffness in the Miura-ori tessellation on its energy absorption and force distribution characteristics compared with a triangular wave corrugation. An example is presented of how the method can be used to select a material for a general energy absorption application of the Miura-ori. Whereas the focus of this study is the Miura-ori tessellation, the methods developed can be applied to other tessellated patterns used in energy absorbing or force distribution applications. (paper)

  18. Disinfection of corrugated tubing by ozone and ultrasound in mechanically ventilated tracheostomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M S; Ferreira, J R F; da Silva, K B; de Oliveira Bacelar Simplício, I; de Lima, C J; Fernandes, A B

    2015-08-01

    Medical equipment coming into contact with non-intact skin or mucous membranes is classified as semi-critical material. This equipment requires at least high-level disinfection, as the major risk in all invasive procedures is the introduction of pathogenic microbes causing hospital-associated infections. To evaluate the capacity of ozone gas and ultrasound to disinfect semi-critical, thermally sensitive material. Used corrugated tubing from mechanically ventilated tracheostomized patients in the intensive care unit was obtained. Enzymatic detergent was applied for 15min before different disinfection techniques were evaluated as follows: Group A (0.2% peracetic acid); Group B (ultrasound for 60min); Group C (application of ozone gas at a concentration of 33mg/L for 15min); Group D (ultrasound for 30min and ozone for 15min); Group E (ultrasound for 60min and ozone for 15min). Application of ultrasound for 60min reduced the level of microbial contamination by 4 log10, whereas ozone alone and the other two combined techniques (ultrasound and ozone) and the peracetic acid reduced the level of microbial contamination by 5 log10. Ozone was the most advantageous technique taking into consideration processing time, ease of use, effectiveness, and cost. The use of ozone gas to disinfect semi-critical material proved to be technically feasible and extremely promising. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam

  20. High-power corrugates waveguide components for mm-wave fusion heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olstad, R.A.; Doane, J.L.; Moeller, C.P.; O'Neill, R.C.; Di Martino, M.

    1996-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last year in the U.S., Japan, Russia, and Europe in developing high power long pulse gyrotrons for fusion plasma heating and current drive. These advanced gyrotrons typically operate at a frequency in the range 82 GHz to 170 GHz at nearly megawatt power levels for pulse lengths up to 5 s. To take advantage of these new microwave sources for fusion research, new and improved transmission line components are needed to reliably transmit microwave power to plasmas with minimal losses. Over the last year, General Atomics and collaborating companies (Spinner GmbH in Europe and Toshiba Corporation in Japan) have developed a wide variety of new components which meet the demanding power, pulse length, frequency, and vacuum requirements for effective utilization of the new generation of gyrotrons. These components include low-loss straight corrugated waveguides, miter bends, miter bend polarizers, power monitors, waveguide bellows, de breaks, waveguide switches, dummy loads, and distributed windows. These components have been developed with several different waveguide diameters (32, 64, and 89 mm) and frequency ranges (82 GHz to 170 GHz). This paper describes the design requirements of selected components and their calculated and measured performance characteristics

  1. Spontaneous acoustic emission of a corrugated shock wave in the presence of a reflecting surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouchuk, J.G.; Lopez Cavada, J.

    2004-01-01

    An analytic model to study perturbation evolution in the space between a corrugated shock and a piston surface is presented. The conditions for stable oscillation patterns are obtained by looking at the poles of the exact Laplace transform. It is seen that besides the standard D'yakov-Kontorovich (DK) mode of oscillation, the shock surface can exhibit an additional finite set of discrete frequencies, due to the interaction with the piston which reflects sound waves from behind. The additional eigenmodes are excited when the shock is launched at t=0 + . The first eigenmode (the DK mode) is always present, if the Hugoniot curve has the correct slope in the V-p plane. However, the additional frequencies could be excited for strong enough shocks. The predictions of the model are verified for particular cases by studying a van der Waals gas, as in the work of Bates and Montgomery [Phys. Fluids 11, 462 (1999); Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1180 (2000)]. Only acoustic emission modes are considered

  2. The Fluid-Solid Interaction Dynamics between Underwater Explosion Bubble and Corrugated Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich structures with highly porous 2D cores or 3D (three-dimensional periodic cores can effectively withstand underwater explosion load. In most of the previous studies of sandwich structure antiblast dynamics, the underwater explosion (UNDEX bubble phase was neglected. As the UNDEX bubble load is one of the severest damage sources that may lead to structure large plastic deformation and crevasses failure, the failure mechanisms of sandwich structures might not be accurate if only shock wave is considered. In this paper, detailed 3D finite element (FE numerical models of UNDEX bubble-LCSP (lightweight corrugated sandwich plates interaction are developed by using MSC.Dytran. Upon the validated FE model, the bubble shape, impact pressure, and fluid field velocities for different stand-off distances are studied. Based on numerical results, the failure modes of LCSP and the whole damage process are obtained. It is demonstrated that the UNDEX bubble collapse jet local load plays a more significant role than the UNDEX shock wave load especially in near-field underwater explosion.

  3. Quasi-phase-matched acceleration of electrons in a corrugated plasma channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Yoon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A laser pulse propagating in a corrugated plasma channel is composed of spatial harmonics whose phase velocities can be subluminal. The phase velocity of a spatial harmonic can be matched to the speed of a relativistic electron resulting in direct acceleration by the guided laser field in a plasma waveguide and linear energy gain over the interaction length. Here we examine the fully self-consistent interaction of the laser pulse and electron beam using particle-in-cell (PIC simulations. For low electron beam densities, we find that the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse pushes plasma channel electrons towards the propagation axis, which deflects the beam electrons. When the beam density is high, the space charge force of the beam drives the channel electrons off axis, providing collimation of the beam. In addition, we consider a ramped density profile for lowering the threshold energy for trapping in a subluminal spatial harmonic. By using a density ramp, the trapping energy for a normalized vector potential of a_{0}=0.1 is reduced from a relativistic factor γ_{0}=170 to γ_{0}=20.

  4. Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Review on Potential for Corrugated Core of Sandwich Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers, characterized by sustainability, have gained a considerable attention in recent years, due to their advantages of environmental acceptability and commercial viability. In this paper, the characterization of natural fibers including the mechanical properties and alkalization of fibers is presented. Most recent study had gone through the mercerization process to improve the toughness of natural fibers; which is a well-known hydrophilic material. Traditional reinforcement method was commonly used to fabricate a natural fiber composite such as hand lay-up and mold press due to its convenience in terms of time and cost. Also, different kind of matrix material used in different kind of natural fibers gave high impact on the tensile and flexural test result. By selecting appropriate chemical treatment, matrix material and fabrication method, the tensile and flexural test gives different results and findings. As most researchers tend to use metals to create corrugated cores for sandwich structure, it is possible to develop this structure using natural fibers such as kenaf, wood dust, and other natural fibers.

  5. Corrugated paraffin nanocomposite films as large stroke thermal actuators and self-activating thermal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copic, Davor; Hart, A John

    2015-04-22

    High performance active materials are of rapidly growing interest for applications including soft robotics, microfluidic systems, and morphing composites. In particular, paraffin wax has been used to actuate miniature pumps, solenoid valves, and composite fibers, yet its deployment is typically limited by the need for external volume constraint. We demonstrate that compact, high-performance paraffin actuators can be made by confining paraffin within vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) films. This large-stroke vertical actuation is enabled by strong capillary interaction between paraffin and CNTs and by engineering the CNT morphology by mechanical compression before capillary-driven infiltration of the molten paraffin. The maximum actuation strain of the corrugated CNT-paraffin films (∼0.02-0.2) is comparable to natural muscle, yet the maximum stress is limited to ∼10 kPa by collapse of the CNT network. We also show how a CNT-paraffin film can serve as a self-activating thermal interface that closes a gap when it is heated. These new CNT-paraffin film actuators could be produced by large-area CNT growth, infiltration, and lamination methods, and are attractive for use in miniature systems due to their self-contained design.

  6. Mock-up tests of rail-mounted vehicle type in-vessel transporter/manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, K.; Kakaudate, S.; Fukatsu, S.

    1995-01-01

    A rail-mounted vehicle system has been developed for remote maintenance of in-vessel components for fusion experimental reactor. In this system, a rail deploying/storing system is installed at outside of the reactor core and used to deploy a rail transporter and vehicle/manipulator for the in-vessel maintenance. A prototype of the rail deploying/storing system has been fabricated for mockup tests. This paper describes structural design of the prototypical rail deploying/storing system and results of the performance tests such as payload capacity, position control and rail deployment/storage performance

  7. Pressure-amplified Common Rail System for commercial vehicles; Druckuebersetztes Common-Rail-System fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, Rolf; Parche, Marcus; Alvarez-Avila, Carlos [Bosch AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Diesel Systems; Krauss, Jost; Rosenau, Bernd [Bosch AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Common-Rail-Systeme

    2009-05-15

    The key to a successful layout of a combustion system for commercial vehicles is in the management of peak torque operation points. For this purpose, Bosch has enhanced its Common Rail System with increasing degrees of freedom - i.e. with flexible rate shaping. A second solenoid valve activates a pressure-amplifier inside the injector, an optimized offset of nozzle needle timing reduces the injection rate by half right at the start of injection, and the formation of nitrogen oxide is reduced considerably. This enables the engine manufacturer to adhere to the emission limits while further reducing fuel consumption and the engine-related effort for the air sytem. (orig.)

  8. Finite element analysis of rail-wheel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, F.; Kharlamov, Y.A.; Islam, S.; Khan, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Damage mechanisms such as surface cracks, plastic deformation and wear can significantly reduce the service life of railway track and rolling stock. They also have a negative impact on the rolling noise as well as: on the riding comfort. A proper understanding of these mechanisms requires a detailed knowledge of physical interaction between wheel and rail. Furthermore, demands for higher train speeds and increased axle loads implies that the consequences of larger contact. forces between wheel and rail must be thoroughly investigated. Two methods have traditionally been used to investigate the rail-wheel contact, that is the Hertz analytical method and simplified numerical method based on the boundary element (BE) method. These methods rely on a half-space assumption and a linear material model. This paper presents that to overcome these limitations, a tool for FE-based quasistatic wheel-rail contact simulations has been developed. The tool is a library of ANSYS macro routines for configuring, meshing and loading of a parametric wheel-rail model. The meshing is based on measured wheel and rail profiles. The wheel and rail materials in the contact region are treated as elastic-plastic with kinematic hardening. By controlling the values of the configuration parameters, representations of various driving cases can be generated. The quasi-static loads are obtained from train motion. Interaction phenomena such as rolling, spinning and sidling can be included. The modeling tool and a methodology are described in the presented paper. Significant differences in the calculated state between the FE solution and the traditional approaches can be observed. These differences are most significant in situations with flange contact. (author)

  9. Research on Miniature Calibre Rail-Guns for the Mechanical Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronggang Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail-gun should not only be used to military applications, but also can be developed as applications in the civilian aspects of the market. With the development of the electromagnetic launch technology, based on the similarity theory, using the existing rail-gun model to guide the construction of more economical miniature calibre rail-guns, and apply it in some machinery and equipment, this idea will open up a wider rail-gun application space. This article will focus on the feasibility of application of miniature calibre rail-guns in the mechanical arm. This paper designs the schematic diagram, then theoretical analyzes force conditions of the armature in the mechanical arm, calculates the possible range of the current amplitude and so on. The existing rail-gun model can be used to guides design the circuit diagram of the miniature calibre rail-gun. Based on the similarity theory and many simulation experiments, designed the experimental parameters of a miniature rail-gun and analyzed the current, Lorentz force, velocity, and location of the existing rail-gun and miniature rail-gun. The results show that the rail-gun launching technology applied to robot arms is feasibility. The application of miniature calibre rail-guns in the mechanical arm will benefit to the further development of rail-guns.

  10. Florida intercity high speed rail passenger service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, F.T.; Watford, S.; Moore, G.; Des, A. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Plans for a new high-speed rail (HSR) transportation system in Florida were reviewed. HSR is believed to be the least expensive, most energy-efficient and least environmentally harmful alternative to air and highway travel. The system in Florida will be used as a case study to determine its overall impact on the environment, people and economy. The 300-plus mile system will move travelers at speeds of over 200 mph between Miami, Orlando, and Tampa. The study will identify the impacts of a HSR system on existing transportation networks, environment, energy, growth and growth distribution, safety, economy, travel time, and tourism. Transportation problems and the innovative mechanisms needed to realize the joint public and private venture approach to planning, locating, permitting, managing, financing, constructing and maintaining an inter-regional HSR line for the state were studied. The all-electric train would greatly help the environment in two ways: (1) zero emissions from the train itself, and (2) the reduction of trips by automobile and aircraft would reduce the amount of fuel and energy being used. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Security improvements for rail movements of SNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.R.; Gronager, J.E.; Shemigon, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise Eleron have teamed to lead a project to enhance the overall security of Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM) transportation of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) shipments. The effort is called the Railcar Transportation Security Project and is part of the overall DOE Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) program addressing the enhancement of nuclear material control, accounting, and physical protection for Russian SNM. The goal of this MPC and A project is to significantly increase the security of Russian MINATOM highly enriched SNM rail shipments. To accomplish this, the MPC and A Railcar Transportation Security program will provide an enhanced, yet cost effective, railcar transportation security system. The system incorporates a balance between the traditional detection, communications, delay, and response security elements to significantly improve the security of MINATOM SNM shipments. The strategy of this program is to use rapid upgrades to implement mature security technologies as quickly as possible. The rapid upgrades emphasize rapidly deployable delay elements, enhanced radio communications, and intrusion detection and surveillance. Upgraded railcars have begun operation during FY98. Subsequent upgrades will build upon the rapid upgrades and eventually be integrated into a final deployed system configuration. This paper provides an overview of the program, with a summary of performance of the deployed railcars

  12. Wireless Communications in Smart Rail Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Briso-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway, subway, airplane, and other transportation systems have drawn an increasing interest on the use of wireless communications for critical and noncritical services to improve performance, reliability, and passengers experience. Smart transportation systems require the use of critical communications for operation and control, and wideband services can be provided using noncritical communications. High speed train (HST is one of the best test cases for the analysis of communication links and specification of the general requirements for train control and supervision, passenger communications, and onboard and infrastructure wireless sensors. In this paper, we analyze in detail critical and noncritical networks mainly using the HST as a test case. First, the different types of links for smart rail transportation are described, specifying the main requirements of the transportation systems, communications, and their applications for different services. Then, we propose a network architecture and requirements of the communication technologies for critical and noncritical data. Finally, an analysis is made for the future technologies, including the fifth-generation (5G communications, millimeter wave (mmWave, terahertz (THz, and satellites for critical and high-capacity communications in transportation.

  13. The Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, R.

    2005-01-01

    On July 23,2002, the President of the United States signed into law a joint resolution of the United States Congress designating the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorizes construction of the repository and receipt and possession of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive at Yucca Mountain, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) would be responsible for transporting these materials to the Yucca Mountain repository as part of its obligation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Part of the site recommendation decision included the analysis of a nation-wide shipping campaign to the proposed repository site. The ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada'' (February 2002) (Repository EIS) evaluated the potential impacts of the transportation of 70,000 Metric Tons of Heavy Metal spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 locations around the nation to the potential repository in Nevada over a 24 year shipping campaign. In the Repository EIS, DOE identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. In December 2003, based on public comments and the environmental analyses in the Repository EIS, DOE identified a preference for the Caliente rail corridor in Nevada. On April 8, 2004, DOE issued a Record of Decision (ROD) on the Mode of Transportation and Nevada Rail Corridor for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. In this ROD, the DOE announced that it had decided to select the mostly rail scenario analyzed in the Repository EIS as the transportation mode both on a national basis and in the State of Nevada. Under the mostly rail

  14. An air-based corrugated cavity-receiver for solar parabolic trough concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, Roman; Pedretti, Andrea; Barbato, Maurizio; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze a novel tubular cavity-receiver for solar parabolic trough collectors. • Four-fold solar concentration ratio is reached compared to conventional receivers. • Efficient operation at up to 500 °C is possible. • The pumping power requirement is found to be acceptably low. - Abstract: A tubular cavity-receiver that uses air as the heat transfer fluid is evaluated numerically using a validated heat transfer model. The receiver is designed for use on a large-span (9 m net concentrator aperture width) solar parabolic trough concentrator. Through the combination of a parabolic primary concentrator with a nonimaging secondary concentrator, the collector reaches a solar concentration ratio of 97.5. Four different receiver configurations are considered, with smooth or V-corrugated absorber tube and single- or double-glazed aperture window. The collector’s performance is characterized by its optical efficiency and heat loss. The optical efficiency is determined with the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Radiative heat exchange inside the receiver is calculated with the net radiation method. The 2D steady-state energy equation, which couples conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer, is solved for the solid domains of the receiver cross-section, using finite-volume techniques. Simulations for Sevilla/Spain at the summer solstice at solar noon (direct normal solar irradiance: 847 W m −2 , solar incidence angle: 13.9°) yield collector efficiencies between 60% and 65% at a heat transfer fluid temperature of 125 °C and between 37% and 42% at 500 °C, depending on the receiver configuration. The optical losses amount to more than 30% of the incident solar radiation and constitute the largest source of energy loss. For a 200 m long collector module operated between 300 and 500 °C, the isentropic pumping power required to pump the HTF through the receiver is between 11 and 17 kW

  15. An InP/Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by self-aligned corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y. T.; Omanakuttan, G.; Lourdudoss, S.

    2015-01-01

    An n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) method is presented. N-InP/p-Si heterojunction has been achieved from a suitable pattern containing circular shaped openings in a triangular lattice on the InP seed layer on p-Si substrate and subsequent CELOG of completely coalesced n-InP. To avoid current path through the seed layer in the final photodiode, semi-insulating InP:Fe was grown with adequate thickness prior to n-InP growth in a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor. The n-InP/p-Si heterointerface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature cross-sectional photoluminescence (PL) mapping illustrates the defect reduction effect in InP grown on Si by CELOG method. The InP PL intensity measured above the InP/Si heterojunction is comparable to that of InP grown on a native planar substrate indicating low interface defect density of CELOG InP despite of 8% lattice mismatch with Si. The processed n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiodes show diode characteristics from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements with a dark current density of 0.324 mA/cm 2 at a reverse voltage of −1 V. Under the illumination of AM1.5 conditions, the InP/Si heterojunction photodiode exhibited photovoltaic effect with an open circuit voltage of 180 mV, a short circuit current density of 1.89 mA/cm 2 , an external quantum efficiency of 4.3%, and an internal quantum efficiency of 6.4%. This demonstration of epitaxially grown InP/Si heterojunction photodiode will open the door for low cost and high efficiency solar cells and photonic integration of III-Vs on silicon

  16. White-Light Emission and Structural Distortion in New Corrugated Two-Dimensional Lead Bromide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Wasielewski, Michael R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-03-29

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites are developing rapidly as high performance semiconductors. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskites were found to have white-light, broadband emission in the visible range that was attributed mainly to the role of self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we describe three new 2D lead bromide perovskites incorporating a series of bifunctional ammonium dications as templates which also emit white light: (1) α-(DMEN)PbBr 4 (DMEN = 2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine), which adopts a unique corrugated layered structure in space group Pbca with unit cell a = 18.901(4) Å, b = 11.782(2) Å, and c = 23.680(5) Å; (2) (DMAPA)PbBr 4 (DMAPA = 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine), which crystallizes in P2 1 /c with a = 10.717(2) Å, b = 11.735(2) Å, c = 12.127(2) Å, and β = 111.53(3)°; and (3) (DMABA)PbBr 4 (DMABA = 4-dimethylaminobutylamine), which adopts Aba2 with a = 41.685(8) Å, b = 23.962(5) Å, and c = 12.000(2) Å. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show a correlation between the distortion of the "PbBr 6 " octahedron in the 2D layer and the broadening of PL emission, with the most distorted structure having the broadest emission (183 nm full width at half-maximum) and longest lifetime (τ avg = 1.39 ns). The most distorted member α-(DMEN)PbBr 4 exhibits white-light emission with a color rendering index (CRI) of 73 which is similar to a fluorescent light source and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7863 K, producing "cold" white light.

  17. Theory of potentiostatic current transients for coupled catalytic reaction at random corrugated fractal electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shailendra K.; Kant, Rama

    2010-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model for the first order homogeneous catalytic chemical reaction coupled with an electron transfer (EC') on a rough working electrode. Results are obtained for the various roughness models of electrode corrugations, viz., (i) roughness as an exact periodic function, (ii) roughness as a random function with known statistical properties, and (iii) roughness as a random function with statistical self-affine fractality over a finite range of length scales. Method of Green's function is used in the formulation to obtain second-order perturbation (in roughness profile) expressions for the concentration, the local current density and the current transients. A general operator structure between these quantities and arbitrary roughness profile is emphasized. The statistically averaged (randomly rough) electrode response is obtained by an ensemble averaging over all possible surface configurations. An elegant mathematical formula between the average electrochemical current transient and surface structure factor or power-spectrum of roughness is obtained. This formula is used to obtain an explicit equation for the current on an approximately self-affine (or realistic) fractal electrode with a limited range of length scales of irregularities. This description of realistic fractal is obtained by cutoff power law power-spectrum of roughness. The realistic fractal power-spectrum consists of four physical characteristics, viz., the fractal dimension (D H ), lower (l) and upper (L) cutoff length scales of fractality and a proportionality factor (μ), which is related to the topothesy or strength of fractality. Numerical calculations are performed on final results to understand the effect of catalytic reaction and fractal morphological characteristics on potentiostatic current transients.

  18. Evaluating autonomous acoustic surveying techniques for rails in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Lydia L.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing interest toward the use of autonomous recording units (ARUs) for acoustic surveying of secretive marsh bird populations. However, there is little information on how ARUs compare to human surveyors or how best to use ARU data that can be collected continuously throughout the day. We used ARUs to conduct 2 acoustic surveys for king (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) within a tidal marsh complex along the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA, during May–July 2015. To determine the effectiveness of an ARU in replacing human personnel, we compared results of callback point‐count surveys with concurrent acoustic recordings and calculated estimates of detection probability for both rail species combined. The success of ARUs at detecting rails that human observers recorded decreased with distance (P ≤ 0.001), such that at of human‐recorded rails also were detected by the ARU, but at >75 m, only 34.0% of human‐detected rails were detected by the ARU. To determine a subsampling scheme for continuous ARU data that allows for effective surveying of presence and call rates of rails, we used ARUs to conduct 15 continuous 48‐hr passive surveys, generating 720 hr of recordings. We established 5 subsampling periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min to evaluate ARU‐based presence and vocalization detections of rails compared with each of the full 60‐min sampling of ARU‐based detection of rails. All subsampling periods resulted in different (P ≤ 0.001) detection rates and unstandardized vocalization rates compared with the hourly sampling period. However, standardized vocalization counts from the 30‐min subsampling period were not different from vocalization counts of the full hourly sampling period. When surveying rail species in estuarine environments, species‐, habitat‐, and ARU‐specific limitations to ARU sampling should be considered when making inferences about abundances and distributions from ARU data. 

  19. Reversal of neuromuscular block with sugammadex: a comparison of the corrugator supercilii and adductor pollicis muscles in a randomized dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Yamamoto, Y; Kitajima, O; Maeda, T; Suzuki, T

    2015-08-01

    Neuromuscular monitoring using the corrugator supercilii muscle is associated with a number of challenges. The aim of this study was to assess reversal of a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex according to monitoring either using the corrugator supercilii muscle or the adductor pollicis muscle. We hypothesized that a larger dose of sugammadex would be required to obtain a train-of-four (TOF) ratio of 1.0 with the corrugator supercilii muscle than with the adductor pollicis muscle. Forty patients aged 20-60 years and 40 patients aged ≥ 70 years were enrolled. After induction of anesthesia, we recorded the corrugator supercilii muscle response to facial nerve stimulation and the adductor pollicis muscle response to ulnar nerve stimulation using acceleromyography. All patients received 1 mg/kg rocuronium. When the first twitch (T1) of TOF recovered to 10% of control values at the corrugator supercilii, rocuronium infusion was commenced to maintain a T1 of 10% of the control at the corrugator supercilii. Immediately after discontinuation of rocuronium infusion, 2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg of sugammadex was administered. The time for recovery to a TOF ratio of 1.0 and the number of patients not reaching a TOF ratio of 1.0 by 5 min at each dose and muscle was recorded. When neuromuscular block at the corrugator supercilii was maintained at a T1 of 10% of control, that at the adductor pollicis was deep (post-tetanic count ≤ 5). Sugammadex 4 mg/kg completely antagonized neuromuscular block at both muscles within 5 min. The time to a TOF ratio of 1.0 at the adductor pollicis was significantly longer in the group ≥ 70 years than the group 20-60 years (mean (SD): 178 (42.8) s vs. 120 (9.4) s, P sugammadex reversed neuromuscular blockade at the corrugator supercilii but not at the adductor pollicis, with 10 patients in the group 20-60 years and 8 patients in the group ≥ 70 years requiring an additional sugammadex (P

  20. Large scale implementation of guided wave based broken rail monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Francois A.; Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.

    2015-03-01

    A guided wave ultrasound system has been developed over the past 17 years to detect breaks in continuously welded rail track. Installation of the version 4 system on an 840 km long heavy duty freight line was conducted between January 2013 and June 2014. The system operates in pitch - catch mode with alternate transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. If the acoustic signal is not received at the receive station an alarm is triggered to indicate a break in the rail between the transmit station and the receive station. The system is permanently installed, powered by solar panels and issues broken rail alarms using the GSM network where available, and digital radio technology in other areas. A total of 931 stations were installed and the entire length of rail is interrogated every fifteen minutes. The system operates reliably although some problems involving unreliable GSM communication and theft of solar panels have been experienced. In the first two months of operation four broken rails were detected and train operation was halted temporarily for repairs.

  1. Structural parameter optimization design for Halbach permanent maglev rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J.

    2010-01-01

    Maglev rail is an important part of the magnetic levitation launch system. Reducing the manufacturing cost of magnetic levitation rail is the key problem for the development of magnetic levitation launch system. The Halbach permanent array has an advantage that the fundamental spatial field is cancelled on one side of the array while the field on the other side is enhanced. So this array used in the design of high temperature superconducting permanent maglev rail could improve the surface magnetic field and the levitation force. In order to make the best use of Nd-Fe-B (NdFeB) material and reduce the cost of maglev rail, the effect of the rail's structural parameters on levitation force and the utilization rate of NdFeB material are analyzed. The optimal ranges of these structural parameters are obtained. The mutual impact of these parameters is also discussed. The optimization method of these structure parameters is proposed at the end of this paper.

  2. Structural parameter optimization design for Halbach permanent maglev rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F., E-mail: guofang19830119@163.co [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J. [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-11-01

    Maglev rail is an important part of the magnetic levitation launch system. Reducing the manufacturing cost of magnetic levitation rail is the key problem for the development of magnetic levitation launch system. The Halbach permanent array has an advantage that the fundamental spatial field is cancelled on one side of the array while the field on the other side is enhanced. So this array used in the design of high temperature superconducting permanent maglev rail could improve the surface magnetic field and the levitation force. In order to make the best use of Nd-Fe-B (NdFeB) material and reduce the cost of maglev rail, the effect of the rail's structural parameters on levitation force and the utilization rate of NdFeB material are analyzed. The optimal ranges of these structural parameters are obtained. The mutual impact of these parameters is also discussed. The optimization method of these structure parameters is proposed at the end of this paper.

  3. Taanlased pidasid Pärnut läbivat Rail Balticat kalleimaks / Raavo Raadik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raadik, Raavo

    2007-01-01

    Taani konsultatsioonifirma COWI tutvustas uuringut, milles analüüsiti Balti riike Euroopaga ühendava raudtee Rail Baltica majanduslikku tasuvust ning selle loomiseks vajalike investeeringute mahtu. Kaart: Rail Baltica võimalik teekond Eestis

  4. Partial digitization method of wave processes in rail lines on the discrete basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyurekhodzhaev, A.N.; Ibraev, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Analytical solution of the problem about longitudinal vibration of the rail which lies on the ties taking into account contact dry friction between wheel and rail is provided by the method of partial digitization and Laplace dual integral transformation. (author)

  5. High-Speed Rail and Local Land Development : Case Studies in London and Las Vegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of a high-speed rail system depends, in part, upon locating rail stations close to urban centers and integrating them into broader transportation networks and the urban realm. In addition, through economies of agglomeration, successful h...

  6. Frequency Domain Computer Programs for Prediction and Analysis of Rail Vehicle Dynamics : Volume 1. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Frequency domain computer programs developed or acquired by TSC for the analysis of rail vehicle dynamics are described in two volumes. Volume I defines the general analytical capabilities required for computer programs applicable to single rail vehi...

  7. Sustainability and Displacement: Assessing the Spatial Pattern of Residential Moves Near Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rail transits association with gentrification has been a presence in the public discourse for some time and Los Angeles is no different. There is a prevailing public perception that Los Angeles' recent boom in rail transit development causes an in...

  8. Study on improving rail energy efficiency (E2) : best practices and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    A recent Volpe Center report [1] for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Rail Energy, Environment, and Engine (E3) Technology research and development program reviewed rail industry best practices (BPs) and strategies for improving energy e...

  9. HRTPO strategic campaign and vision plan for passenger rail : phase 1 overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    SUBJECT: : TEMS (Transportation Economics & Management Systems, Inc.), the consultant specializing in : passenger rail planning, was secured by the HRTPO and its partner DRPT to evaluate the potential : passenger rail service alternative defined by t...

  10. KEMAMPUAN GENTENG PLASTIK BERGELOMBANG (CORRUGATED PLASTIC SEBAGAI BIOFILTER PARTIKEL AMONIAK DAN BAHAN ORGANIK DI MEDIA BUDIDAYA DAN LIMBAH CAIR BUDIDAYA IKAN (Performance of Corrugated Plastic as Biofilter of Ammonia Particle and Organic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Muslim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pertumbuhan budidaya ikan dalam beberapa dekade ini berkembang sangat pesat, hal ini karena permintaan akan ikan meningkat. Meningkatnya kegiatan budidaya ikan selalu diiringi dengan meningkatnya limbah yang dihasilkan. Hal ini akan sangat cepat berpengaruh bila sistem budidaya yang dipakai adalah semi intesif atau intensif. Limbah tersebut harus segera dihilangkan atau dikurangi, karena akan berdampak pada ikan yang dibudidaya dan lingkungan seperti sungai dan laut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah ingin mengetahui kemampuan genteng plastik bergelombang mengurangi limbah yang dihasilkan budidaya ikan yaitu Total Suspended Sediment (TSS, Suspended Sediment (SS, amoniak dan bahan organik (COD. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa air limbah budidaya ikan yang mengandung TSS, SS, amoniak dan bahan organik setelah dilewatkan dengan genteng plastik bergelombang konsentrasinya menurun dengan tingkat efisiensi pengurangan yang terjadi di dalam kolam ikan dan di luar kolam ikan adalah sebagai berikut: 74,51% dan 54,42% (TSS; 39,20% dan 49,12% (SS; 19,82% dan 14,2% (amoniak; dan 24,82% dan 22,47% (COD. Ternyata genteng plastik bergelombang mempunyai tingkat pengurangan (g/m3/hr dan tingkat pengurangan spesifik (mg/m2/hr terhadap kandungan amoniak lebih efektif bila dibandingkan dengan material lain seperti plastic rolls, scrub pads, pipa PVC dan lain sebagainya.   ABSTRACT Aquaculture has been developing rapidly during the last few decades; it is due to the increase of fish demand. Increasing aquaculture activities especially with semi-intensive and intensive system have significant effect on waste production, which has to be removed or to be reduced quickly because will effect on fish in rearing tank and environment when through away to environment such as river and sea. The objectives of this study were to know the capability of corrugated plastic to remove or to reduce wastes content produced by aquaculture activities, i.e, Total Suspended

  11. Flexible Engineering Structures from the Corrugated Metal Sheets - Comparison of Costs of Solutions used in the Road Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdakowska, E.

    2017-11-01

    The flexible structures from the corrugated metal sheets are used in particular in the road building, especially as passages for animals. Easy and quick assembly, as well as lower realization costs when compared to the traditional solutions increase interest in such structures. Availability and variety of systems allows for searching for solutions which are the best and optimal in the economical range. The article presents the comparison of costs of the basic materials used in various systems of flexible structures from the corrugated metal sheets. In order to determine the costs of the material solutions the data for two systems used in Poland (for construction of the upper passages for animals) since 2008 have been used. The cost estimation for the basic materials required for realization of 1 m2 of the flexible structure from the corrugated steel sheets have been prepared with use of prices obtained directly from the Polish contractors and manufacturers, as well as process included in the quarterly information (Sekocenbud). The difference of prices of materials available on the market allows the investor for selecting the structure depending on the needs and financial possibilities, as well as for achieving some savings. The savings in case of purchasing sheets of identical parameters (thickness, profile characteristics) are from approx. 4% to 8% per 1 m2 of sheet. The connectors in form of bolts M20 cl. 8.8 of various lengths are an expense from 3.00 PLN to 3.50 PLN. Those values may seem low, but taking into consideration amounts connected with construction of many square meters of structure they may become very important factor in the total investment costs.

  12. Detection method based on Kalman filter for high speed rail defect AE signal on wheel-rail rolling rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiushi; Shen, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Nondestructive test (NDT) of rails has been carried out intermittently in traditional approaches, which highly restricts the detection efficiency under rapid development of high speed railway nowadays. It is necessary to put forward a dynamic rail defect detection method for rail health monitoring. Acoustic emission (AE) as a practical real-time detection technology takes advantage of dynamic AE signal emitted from plastic deformation of material. Detection capacities of AE on rail defects have been verified due to its sensitivity and dynamic merits. Whereas the application under normal train service circumstance has been impeded by synchronous background noises, which are directly linked to the wheel speed. In this paper, surveys on a wheel-rail rolling rig are performed to investigate defect AE signals with varying speed. A dynamic denoising method based on Kalman filter is proposed and its detection effectiveness and flexibility are demonstrated by theory and computational results. Moreover, after comparative analysis of modelling precision at different speeds, it is predicted that the method is also applicable for high speed condition beyond experiments.

  13. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  14. Neutron measurement of residual stresses in a used railway rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, P.J.; Low, K.S.; Mills, G.; Webster, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The high resolution neutron diffraction technique has been applied to determine, non-destructively, the residual stress distribution developed in the head of a railway rail after normal service. Measurements were made, using the neutron strain scanner at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, on a transverse slice of rail 12mm thick taken from a section of straight track. The rail head was scanned in the three principal orientations in a series of parallel traverses sufficiently close to enable a two-dimensional matrix of data to be accumulated and vertical, transverse and longitudinal residual stress contours to be drawn. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and unique characteristics of the neutron technique to determine nondestructively and continuously the residual stresses inside engineering components

  15. Structural analysis of the ITER Divertor toroidal rails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viganò, F., E-mail: Fabio.Vigano@LTCalcoli.it [L.T. Calcoli SaS, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Escourbiac, F.; Gicquel, S.; Komarov, V. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Lucca, F. [L.T. Calcoli SaS, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Merola, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Ngnitewe, R. [L.T. Calcoli SaS, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    The Divertor is one of the most technically challenging components of the ITER machine, which has the main function of extracting the power conducted in the scrape-off layer while maintaining the plasma purity. There are 54 Divertor cassettes installed in the vacuum vessel (VV). Each cassette body (CB) is fastened on the inner and outer concentric Divertor toroidal rails. The comprehensive assessment (in accordance with the Structural Design Criteria for ITER In-vessel Components: ITER SDC-IC) of the Divertor toroidal rails has been performed during design activity based on performing of thermal and stress analyses at operating conditions of neutron stage of ITER operation. This paper outlines the engineering aspects of the ITER Divertor toroidal rails and focuses on some critical regions of the present design highlighted by the performed structural assessment. The structural assessment has been performed with help of using Finite Element (FE) Abaqus code and based on criteria given by ITER SDC-IC.

  16. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  17. Linear and/or curvilinear rail mount system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jackie D. (Inventor); Harris, Lawanna L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    One or more linear and/or curvilinear mounting rails are coupled to a structure. Each mounting rail defines a channel and at least one cartridge assembly is engaged in the channel. Each cartridge assembly includes a housing that slides within the channel. The housing defines a curvilinearly-shaped recess longitudinally aligned with the channel when the housing is in engagement therewith. The cartridge assembly also includes a cleat fitted in the recess for sliding engagement therealong. The cleat can be coupled to a fastener that passes through the mounting rail and the housing when the housing is so-engaged in the channel. The cleat is positioned in the recess by a position of the fastener.

  18. 75 FR 16552 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; Enhancing intercity travel options; Ensuring a state of good repair of key intercity passenger rail assets... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail... selections for the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program. This notice builds on the program...

  19. MASH Test 3-11 on the T131RC Bridge Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) currently uses the TxDOT Type T101RC Bridge Rail, : a steel post and beam bridge rail anchored to the top of concrete curbs. The T101RC Bridge Rail is : 27 inches in height and can be anchored to the top of ...

  20. An investigation on the desired properties of friction modifiers for slippery rails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Arias Cuevas, O.

    2009-01-01

    The adhesion level between wheel and rail has been since the beginning of railway a crucial parameter in the design and operation of rail vehicles. In the last decades, many railway organizations have suffered from low adhesion problems as consequence of the increased exploitation of the rail

  1. 30 CFR 57.9102 - Movement of independently operating rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movement of independently operating rail... NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9102 Movement of independently operating rail equipment. Movement of two or more pieces of rail equipment operating independently on the same...

  2. 30 CFR 56.9102 - Movement of independently operating rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movement of independently operating rail... MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9102 Movement of independently operating rail equipment. Movement of two or more pieces of rail equipment operating independently on the same track shall...

  3. Investigating the lubricity and electrical insulation caused by sanding in dry wheel–rail contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Cuevas, O.; Li, Z.; Lewis, R.

    2009-01-01

    The adhesion (or available friction) in the wheel–rail contact is the most important parameter for the braking and traction operation of rail vehicles. Since the beginning of railway transportation, sanding from the locomotive has been a common practice to enhance the wheel–rail adhesion. In recent

  4. Home school student visit and introduction to rail transportation and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This project consisted of hosting local Champaign-Urbana, Illinois home school students for a visit to : the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) at the University of Illinois at Urbana- : Champaign (UIUC). Beyond visiting RailTEC, st...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., monorails and systems. 1192.175 Section 1192.175 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. (a... steel-wheel-on-steel-rail technology, and monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e...

  6. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification number will be a unique number to be assigned by CBP upon the implementation of the Automated... implementation of the Automated Commercial Environment); (8) The place where the rail carrier takes possession of... being shipped by rail; (10) Container numbers (for containerized shipments) or the rail car numbers; and...

  7. Plans for crash-tested wood bridge railings for concrete decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Ronald K. Faller; Barry T. Rosson; Paula D. Hilbrich Lee; Sheila Rimal. Duwadi

    1998-01-01

    As part of a continuing cooperative research between the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF); the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL); and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), several crashworthy wood bridge railings and approach railing transitions have been adapted for use on concrete bridge decks. These railings meet testing and...

  8. Used fuel rail shock and vibration testing options analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-25

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  9. The Impact of Rail Fare Increases on Locational Behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackett, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Many people who work in London live over 30 miles from their jobs and travel to work by rail. Their decisions about the choice of home and job have been influenced by the cost of travel at the time of the decision and the anticipated changes, with subsequent implications for the value of housing. Over the past ten years there has been a decline in employment in central London, with a concomitant growth in employment in the surrounding area, leading to a shift from rail to road for the journey...

  10. Information and Telecommunications Technology – Factor of Sustainable Rail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Stelian Balan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among today’s modes of transportation, rail remains of great interest because of its explicit advantages arising from the fact that it is the least polluting and most environmentally friendly. These are just some of the reasons why, in recent years, the European Union strategies seek to develop and implement programs to revive Community’s rail transport. The paper makes a brief analysis of the economic impact of the implementation of information and telecommunication technologies in railway transport, technologies that can contribute significantly to the achievement of sustainable, competitive and reliable transport

  11. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  12. A 0.8V, 7μA, rail-to-rail input/output, constant Gm operational amplifier in standard digital 0.18μm CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citakovic, J; Nielsen, I. Riis; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel

    2005-01-01

    A two-stage amplifier, operational at 0.8V and drawing 7μA, has been integrated in a standard digital 0.18μm CMOS process. Rail-to-rail operations at the input are enabled by complementary transistor pairs with gm control. The efficient rail-to-rail output stage is biased in class AB. The measured...

  13. Experimental investigation of laminar flow of viscous oil through a circular tube having integral axial corrugation roughness and fitted with twisted tapes with oblique teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sagnik; Saha, Sujoy Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The experimental friction factor and Nusselt number data for laminar flow of viscous oil through a circular duct having integral axial corrugation roughness and fitted with twisted tapes with oblique teeth have been presented. Predictive friction factor and Nusselt number correlations have also been presented. The thermohydraulic performance has been evaluated. The major findings of this experimental investigation are that the twisted tapes with oblique teeth in combination with integral axial corrugation roughness perform significantly better than the individual enhancement technique acting alone for laminar flow through a circular duct up to a certain value of fin parameter.

  14. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  15. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  16. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars...

  17. Reflection and refraction of elastic waves at a corrugated interface in a bi-material transversely isotropic full-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shad-Manamen, N.; Eskandari-Ghadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The existing theory for wave propagation through a soil layer are not compatible with the real soil layers because in the theory the layers are flat and the sub-layers are parallel, while in real the soil layers are not flat and they may not be parallel. Thus, wave propagations through a corrugated interface are so important. In this paper, a two dimensional SH-wave propagation through a corrugated interface between two linear transversely isotropic half-spaces is assessed. In order to do this, Lord Rayleigh's method is accepted to express the non-flat surface by a Fourier series. In this way, the amplitude of the reflected and transmitted waves is analytically determined in terms of the incident SH-wave amplitude. It is shown that except for the regular reflected and refracted waves, some irregular reflected and refracted waves are exist, and the amplitudes of these waves vary in terms of the angle and frequency of incident wave, equation of surface, and the material properties of the domains. The numerical computations for some cases of different amplitude/wave-length ratio of the interface are done. This work is an extension of Asano's paper (1960) for a more complicated interface, where more non-zero coefficients are considered in expressing the equation of surface in the form of Fourier series. The analytical results for some simpler case of isotropic domain are collapsed on Asano's results (1960). In addition, the numerical evaluation is in good agreement with Asano's.

  18. Evaluation of Fatigue Strength Improvement by CFRP Laminates and Shot Peening onto the Tension Flanges Joining Corrugated SteelWebs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yu Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrugated steel web with inherent high out-of-plane stiffness has a promising application in configuring large span highway bridge girders. Due to the irregularity of the configuration details, the local stress concentration poses a major fatigue problem for the welded flange plates of high strength low alloy structural steels. In this work, the methods of applying CFRP laminate and shot peening onto the surfaces of the tension flanges were employed with the purpose of improving the fatigue strength of such configuration details. The effectiveness of this method in the improvement of fatigue strength has been examined experimentally. Test results show that the shot peening significantly increases hardness and roughness in contrast to these without treatment. Also, it has beneficial effects on the fatigue strength enhancement when compared against the test data of the joints with CFRP strengthening. The stiffness degradation during the loading progress is compared with each treatment. Incorporating the stress acting on the constituent parts of the CFRP laminates, a discussion is made regarding the mechanism of the retrofit and related influencing factors such as corrosion and economic cost. This work could enhance the understanding of the CFRP and shot peening in repairing such welded details and shed light on the reinforcement design of welded joints between corrugated steel webs and flange plates.

  19. Liquid Metal Droplet and Micro Corrugated Diaphragm RF-MEMS for reconfigurable RF filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Wasim

    detail and have proved pivotal to this work. The second part of the dissertation focuses on the Liquid Metal Droplet RF-MEMS. A novel tunable RF MEMS resonator that is based upon electrostatic control over the morphology of a liquid metal droplet (LMD) is conceived. We demonstrate an LMD evanescent-mode cavity resonator that simultaneously achieves wide analog tuning from 12 to 18 GHz with a measured quality factor of 1400-1840. A droplet of 250-mum diameter is utilized and the applied bias is limited to 100 V. This device operates on a principle called Electro-Wetting On Dielectric (EWOD). The liquid metal employed is a non-toxic eutectic alloy of Gallium, Indium and Tin known as Galinstan. This device also exploits interfacial surface energy and viscous body forces that dominate at nanoliter scale. We then apply our Liquid Metal Droplet (LMD) RF-MEMS architecture to demonstrate a continuously tunable electrostatic Ku-Band Filter. A 2-pole bandpass filter with measured insertion loss of less than 0.4dB and 3dB FBW of 3.4% is achieved using a Galinstan droplet of 250mum diameter and bias limited to 100V. We demonstrate that the LMD is insensitive to gravity by performing inversion and tilt experiments. In addition, we study its thermal tolerance by subjecting the LMD up to 150° C. The third part of the dissertation is dedicated to the Micro-Corrugated Diaphragm (MCD) RF-MEMS. We present an evanescent-mode cavity bandpass filter with state-of-the-art RF performance metrics like 4:1 tuning ratio from 5 to 20 GHz with less than 2dB insertion loss and 2-6% 3dB bandwidth. Micro-Corrugated Diaphragm (MCD) is a novel electrostatic MEMS design specifically engineered to provide large-scale analog deflections necessary for such continuous and wide tunable filtering with very high quality factor. We demonstrate a 1.25mm radius and 2mum thick Gold MCD which provides 30mum total deflection with nearly 60% analog range. We also present a detailed and systematic MCD design

  20. Field homogeneity improvement of maglev NdFeB magnetic rails from joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Dai, Q; Deng, C Y; Sun, R X; Zheng, J; Chen, Z; Sun, Y; Wang, H; Yuan, Z D; Fang, C; Deng, Z G

    2016-01-01

    An ideal magnetic rail should provide a homogeneous magnetic field along the longitudinal direction to guarantee the reliable friction-free operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicles. But in reality, magnetic field inhomogeneity may occur due to lots of reasons; the joint gap is the most direct one. Joint gaps inevitably exist between adjacent segments and influence the longitudinal magnetic field homogeneity above the rail since any magnetic rails are consisting of many permanent magnet segments. To improve the running performance of maglev systems, two new rail joints are proposed based on the normal rail joint, which are named as mitered rail joint and overlapped rail joint. It is found that the overlapped rail joint has a better effect to provide a competitive homogeneous magnetic field. And the further structure optimization has been done to ensure maglev vehicle operation as stable as possible when passing through those joint gaps. The results show that the overlapped rail joint with optimal parameters can significantly reduce the magnetic field inhomogeneity comparing with the other two rail joints. In addition, an appropriate gap was suggested when balancing the thermal expansion of magnets and homogenous magnetic field, which is considered valuable references for the future design of the magnetic rails.

  1. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M; Brown, Barbara B; Tribby, Calvin P; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J; Smith, Ken R; Jensen, Wyatt

    2016-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the "displacement" measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant ( p rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services.

  2. Three-dimensional rail cooling analysis for a repetitively fired railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3-D) rail cooling analysis for fabrication and demonstration of a stand-alone repetitive fire compulsator driven 9 MJ gun system which has been performed to assure the entire rail can be maintained below its thermal limit for multiple shots. The 3-D rail thermal model can predict the temperature, pressure, and convective heat transfer coefficient variations of the coolant along the 10 m long copper rail. The 9-MJ projectiles will be fired every 20 s for 3 min. Water cooling was used in the model for its high cooling capacity. Single liquid phase heat transfer was assumed in the cooling analysis. For multiple shots, the temperature difference between the rail and the water was enhanced due to accumulated heat in the rail. As a result, the heat removal by water increased from shot-to-shot. The rail temperature initially increased and finally stabilized after a number of shots

  3. 76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... provides that the proposed pilot program would not be made available to more than two Amtrak intercity... operation; provisions for accommodating the traveling public, including proposed arrangements for stations... program developed by this part will not be made available to more than two Amtrak intercity passenger rail...

  4. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from cross...

  5. A multimedia streaming system for urban rail environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    using the Wi-Fi Direct connectivity and data exchange is coordinated by using the Peer-to-Peer Streaming Peer Protocol. This work presents the solution and evaluates it in the scope of urban rail deployment. Network emulation tests are used to analyze the factors impacting the number of concurrent users...

  6. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  7. Local ontology for a dual-rail qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    We show that quantum predictions for the dual-rail realisation of a qubit can be faithfully simulated with classical stochastic gates and particles which interact entirely in a local manner. In the presented model 'non-locality' appears only on the epistemic level of description. (paper)

  8. Application of HLA in the Optimization of Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, R.E.J.; Middelkoop, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch rail infrastructure manager – Prorail – utilizes simulation to perform research in a number of areas of railtransport.One area that is of particular interest is that of the analysis of Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) of trains. The aim of DTM is to manage plan/timetable deviations from

  9. Rail Baltica keerab Raplale selja? / Toivo Räägel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räägel, Toivo, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Rapla juhte üllatas kiirraudtee Rail Baltica suunamine Rapla ja Pärnu suunalt Valga peale, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium toob valiku põhjenduseks sealse parema infrastruktuuri, kuid kinnitab samas, et 10 aasta pärast peaks ka Pärnu suunal valmima kiirraudtee

  10. Burkhardt plaanib rajada Rail Balticat / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Raudteest loobuma pidanud Edward Burkhardt hakkab arendama Rail Balticat ning otsib võimalust panna Eesti ja Soome vahele käima vagunipraam. Vt. samas: Raudtee müüjad endiselt nördinud. Küsimustele vastab Eesti Raudtee uus juht Kaido Simmermann

  11. Siim Kallas tutvustas nelja riigi presidentidele Rail Balticu kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni transpordivolinik Siim Kallas tutvustas 2. detsembril 2011 Vihula mõisas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele, Läti presidendile Andris Bērziņšile, Leedu presidendile Dalia Grybauskaitėle ja Poola presidendile Bronisław Komorowskile Baltimaid ülejäänud Euroopaga ühendava Rail Balticu projekti

  12. A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity.

  13. Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This business plan describes the methods by which the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT will partner with Iowa counties and cities to fund Iowas share of the operating and maintenance cost for the Chicago-Iowa City passenger-rail service, an ...

  14. Mechatronic modeling of real-time wheel-rail contact

    CERN Document Server

    Bosso, Nicola; Gugliotta, Antonio; Somà, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Real-time simulations of the behaviour of a rail vehicle require realistic solutions of the wheel-rail contact problem which can work in a real-time mode. Examples of such solutions for the online mode have been well known and are implemented within standard and commercial tools for the simulation codes for rail vehicle dynamics. This book is the result of the research activities carried out by the Railway Technology Lab of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Politecnico di Torino. This book presents work on the project for the development of a real-time wheel-rail contact model and provides the simulation results obtained with dSpace real-time hardware. Besides this, the implementation of the contact model for the development of a real-time model for the complex mechatronic system of a scaled test rig is presented in this book and may be useful for the further validation of the real-time contact model with experiments on a full scale test rig.

  15. BIM Interoperability Limitations: Australian and Malaysian Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenley Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM is defined as a process involving the generation and management of digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. The purpose of interoperability in integrated or “open” BIM is to facilitate the information exchange between different digital systems, models and tools. There has been effort towards data interoperability with development of open source standards and object-oriented models, such as industry foundation classes (IFC for vertical infrastructure. However, the lack of open data standards for the information exchange for horizontal infrastructure limits the adoption and effectiveness of integrated BIM. The paper outlines two interoperability issues for construction of rail infrastructure. The issues are presented in two case study reports, one from Australia and one from Malaysia. The each case study includes: a description of the project, the application of BIM in the project, a discussion of the promised BIM interoperability solution plus the identification of the unresolved lack of interoperability for horizontal infrastructure project management. The Moreton Bay Rail project in Australia introduces general software interoperability issues. The Light Rail Extension project in Kuala Lumpur outlines an example of the integration problems related to two different location data structures. The paper highlights how the continuing lack of data interoperability limits utilisation of integrated BIM for horizontal infrastructure rail projects.

  16. Deep convolutional neural networks for detection of rail surface defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Estevez, Pablo A.; Angelov, Plamen P.; Del Moral Hernandez, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network solution to the analysis of image data for the detection of rail surface defects. The images are obtained from many hours of automated video recordings. This huge amount of data makes it impossible to manually inspect the images and

  17. Rail assembly for use in a radioactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An improved rail assembly and method of construction thereof is disclosed herein that is particularly adapted for use with a crane trolley in a hot cell environment which is exposed to airborne and liquidborne radioactive contaminants. The rail assembly is generally comprised of a support wall having an elongated, rail-housing recess having a floor, side wall and ceiling. The floor of the recess is defined at least in party by the load-bearing surface of a rail, and is substantially flat, level and crevice-free to facilitate the drainage of liquids out of the recess. The ceiling of the recess overhangs and thereby captures trolley wheels within the recess to prevent them from becoming dislodged from the recess during a seismic disturbance. Finally, the interior of the recess includes a power track having a slot for receiving a sliding electrical connector from the crane trolley. The power track is mounted in an upper corner of the recess with its connector-receiving groove oriented downwardly to facilitate the drainage of liquidborne contaminants and to discourage the collection of airborne contaminants within the track

  18. 76 FR 16538 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... leaving in place the rules issued in 2009, which were drafted without any input from industry and other... discarded by residential dwellings, hotels, motels, and other similar permanent or temporary housing... notice concerning the acquisition shall include a statement that a solid waste rail transfer facility...

  19. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  20. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, L

    2016-01-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl (paper)