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Sample records for corpus striatum

  1. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Histone Neural Corpus Striatum SRX323783,SRX68...686034,SRX686033 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 TFs and others Neural Corpus Striatum SRX14835...4,SRX148353,SRX148355,SRX148352 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 All antigens Neural Corpus Striatum SRX686035,...033,SRX148353,SRX657170,SRX657175,SRX323781,SRX148352 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Corpus Striatum SRX65717...3,SRX657178,SRX657179,SRX657174 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Unclassified Neural Corpus Striatum SRX148357,...SRX148356 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 TFs and others Neural Corpus Striatum SRX14835...4,SRX148355,SRX148353,SRX148352 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Unclassified Neural Corpus Striatum SRX148357,...SRX148356 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 All antigens Neural Corpus Striatum SRX686034,...355,SRX657170,SRX657175,SRX148352,SRX686037,SRX148353 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Unclassified Neural Corpus Striatum SRX148357,...SRX148356 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Input control Neural Corpus Striatum SRX686031...,SRX686032,SRX657170,SRX657175 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Corpus Striatum SRX65717...4,SRX657179,SRX657178,SRX657173 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 All antigens Neural Corpus Striatum SRX686038,...356,SRX148353,SRX148355,SRX657170,SRX657175,SRX148352 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Input control Neural Corpus Striatum SRX686032...,SRX686031,SRX657170,SRX657175 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Input control Neural Corpus Striatum SRX686031...,SRX686032,SRX657175,SRX657170 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 TFs and others Neural Corpus Striatum SRX14835...4,SRX148355,SRX148352,SRX148353 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Corpus Striatum SRX65717...3,SRX657178,SRX657174,SRX657179 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Corpus Striatum SRX65717...4,SRX657179,SRX657173,SRX657178 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 TFs and others Neural Corpus Striatum SRX14835...4,SRX148355,SRX148353,SRX148352 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 All antigens Neural Corpus Striatum SRX323783,...034,SRX686033,SRX148353,SRX657175,SRX657170,SRX148352 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Histone Neural Corpus Striatum SRX686034,SRX68...686038,SRX686037 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Input control Neural Corpus Striatum SRX686031...,SRX686032,SRX657170,SRX657175 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum mm9 Unclassified Neural Corpus Striatum SRX148357,...SRX148356 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum.bed ...

  3. Effects of compound rehmannia formula on dopamine transporter content in the corpus striatum of Parkinson's disease rats treated with levodopa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijng Luo; Jiancheng He

    2011-01-01

    Long-term application of levodopa (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, L-DOPA) for Parkinson's disease can lead to adverse effects and reduce the amount of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the corpus striatum. The present study attempted to verify whether increasing the amount of DAT can reduce the adverse effects of L-DOPA. The specific radioactive uptake value of DAT in the corpus striatum of the lesioned hemisphere was significantly decreased, but was significantly increased following administration of compound rehmannia formula [Radix rehmanniae preparata (prepared rehmannia root), Concha margaritifera usta (nacre), Radix paeoniae alba (white peony alba), Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen root), Scorpio (scorpion), green tea] for 4 weeks. The changes in DAT 125I-beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-iodophenyl) tropane autoradiography were consistent with those in radioactivity. The results revealed that the compound rehmannia formula can reduce the adverse effects of L-DOPA in treating Parkinson′s disease, possibly by increasing the amount of DAT.

  4. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Jobin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acetylcholine (ACh, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, regulate the activities of central and peripheral functions through interactions with muscarinic receptors. Changes in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. Previous reports from our laboratory on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats showed down regulation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pancreatic islets. In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ – diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. We observed that insulin treatment brought back the decreased maximal velocity (Vmax of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease in maximal number (Bmax and affinity (Kd of total muscarinic receptors whereas muscarinic M1 receptors were increased with decrease in affinity in diabetic rats. We observed that, in all cases, the binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with insulin. Real-time PCR experiment confirmed the increase in muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression and a similar reversal with insulin treatment. These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors.

  5. Effect of borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii on expression levels of four amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study collected cerebrospinal fluid samples from the corpus striatum in rats treated with borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii using brain microdialysis technology. Levels of excitatory neurotransmitters aspartic acid and glutamate, as well as inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and ?-aminobutyric acid, were measured in samples using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, phosphate gradient elution, and fluorescence detection. Results showed that concentrations of all four amino acid neurotransmitters significantly increased in the corpus striatum following treatment with borneol or moschus, but effects due to borneol were more significant than moschus. Acorus tatarinowii treatment increased ?-aminobutyric acid expression, but decreased glutamate concentrations. Storax increased aspartic acid concentrations and decreased glycine expression. Results demonstrated that borneol and moschus exhibited significant effects on con amino acid neurotransmitter expression; storax exhibited excitatory effects, and acorus tatarinowii resulted in inhibitory effects.

  6. Changes in /sup 3/H-substance P receptor binding in the rat brain after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P.

    1986-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the substantia nigra contains the highest concentration of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in the brain. Paradoxically, it also appears to contain one of the lowest concentrations of substance P receptors in the brain. One possibility is that the massive amount of SPLI blocks the binding of the radioligand to the substance P receptor and/or down-regulates the number of substance P receptors present in this structure. Since greater than 95% of the SPLI within the substantia nigra originates from the corpus striatum, we have lesioned this area and measured the changes in substance P receptor concentration in the substantia nigra and other corpus striatal projection areas. A semiquantitative autoradiographic technique for measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-substance P to substance P receptors was used in conjunction with tritium-sensitive film. 3H-substance P binding was measured in both the corpus striatum and its projection areas after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum. At either 4 or 21 d after the lesion there was approximately a 90% loss of substance P receptors in the rostral striatum, a 74% loss in the globus pallidus, a 57% increase in receptor number in lamina I and II of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex, and no apparent change in the number of receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, superior colliculus, and central gray. These findings suggest that the low concentration of substance P receptors found within the substantia nigra is not due the massive SPLI innervation, since removal of greater than 95% of the SPLI had no measurable effect on the concentration of substance P receptors.

  7. Silica nanoparticles mediated neuronal cell death in corpus striatum of rat brain: implication of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Arshiya; Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Mahdi, Farzana; Tripathi, Sandeep; Ahmad, Iqbal; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Khanna, Vinay K.; Singh, Ranjana; Patel, Devendra K.; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-11-01

    Extensive uses of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in biomedical and industrial fields have increased the risk of exposure, resulting concerns about their safety. We focussed on some of the safety aspects by studying neurobehavioural impairment, oxidative stress (OS), neurochemical and ultrastructural changes in corpus striatum (CS) of male Wistar rats exposed to 80-nm SiNPs. Moreover, its role in inducing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis was also investigated. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioural indices, and a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) and protein carbonyl content, whereas there was a significant decrease in the activities of the enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting impaired antioxidant defence system. Protein (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, caspase 12 and CHOP/Gadd153) and mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and CHOP/Gadd153, cytochrome c) expression studies of mitochondrial and ER stress-related apoptotic factors suggested that both the cell organelles were involved in OS-mediated apoptosis in treated rat brain CS. Moreover, electron microscopic studies clearly showed mitochondrial and ER dysfunction. In conclusion, the result of the study suggested that subchronic SiNPs' exposure has the potential to alter the behavioural activity and also to bring about changes in biochemical, neurochemical and ultrastructural profiles in CS region of rat brain. Furthermore, we also report SiNPs-induced apoptosis in CS, through mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated signalling.

  8. Differential vulnerability of substantia nigra and corpus striatum to oxidative insult induced by reduced dietary levels of essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriqueta Dias Cardoso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with unbalanced levels of essential fatty acids (EFA. The response of certain brain regions to OS, however, is not uniform and a selective vulnerability or resilience can occur. In our previous study on rat brains, we observed that a two-generation EFA dietary restriction reduced the number and size of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN rostro-dorso-medial. To understand whether OS contributes to this effect, we assessed the status of lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant markers in both SN and corpus striatum (CS of rats submitted to this dietary treatment for one (F1 or two (F2 generations. Wistar rats were raised from conception on control or experimental diets containing adequate or reduced levels of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, respectively. Lipid peroxidation (LP was measured using the thiobarbituric acid reaction method (TBARS and the total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD and catalase (CAT enzymatic activities were assessed. The experimental diet significantly reduced the docosahexaenoic acid levels of SN phospholipids in the F1 (~28% and F2 (~50% groups. In F1 adult animals of the experimental group there was no LP in both SN and CS. Consistently, there was a significant increase in the t-SOD activity (p<0.01 in both regions. In EF2 young animals, degeneration in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons and a significant increase in LP (p<0.01 and decrease in the CAT activity (p<0.001 were detected in the SN, while no inter-group difference was found for these parameters in the CS. Conversely, a significant increase in t-SOD activity (p<0.05 was detected in the CS of the experimental group compared to the control. The results show that unbalanced EFA dietary levels reduce the redox balance in the SN and reveal mechanisms of resilience in the CS under this stressful condition.

  9. Effect of single-use versus combined-use moschus and diazepam on expression of amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed expressional changes of excitatory neurotransmitters and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum after single-use and combined-use diazepam and Chinese herb moschus. The influence of moschus on the central nervous system was analyzed, in particular whether moschus increased penetration of other drugs into the brain. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which included pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde detection, showed varied increased levels of excitatory neurotransmitters, including aspartate and glutamate, and inhibitory neurotransmitters, including glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid, in the corpus striatum after treatment with moschus alone, diazepam alone, or a combination of both. Compared with the diazepam group, aspartate levels significantly decreased at 30 and 60-105 minutes after combined treatment with moschus, while glutamate significantly increased at 45 and 75-105 minutes, glycine levels significantly increased at 105 minutes, and γ-aminobutyric acid increased at 30 and 75-105 minutes. These findings suggested that moschus increased the inhibition effects of diazepam on the brain.

  10. Effects of human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the bilateral corpus striatum in a rat model of Tourette's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei Liu; Yuwei Wang; Mingji Yi

    2010-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome is treated by behavioral or pharmacological therapy.However,patients with malignant Tourette's syndrome also exhibit life-threatening symptoms,which are unresponsive to conservative treatments or neurosurgical procedures,such as deep brain stimulation.In recent years,mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)have shown therapeutic potential in many neurological diseases.Therefore,the present study proposed to use MSC transplantation as a novel therapy for Tourette's syndrome.Stereotypic behaviors in Tourette's syndrome rats decreased significantly at21 days after human MSCs transplantation into the striatum.Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed survival of transplanted human MSCs and differentiation into neurons and astrocytes in the rat brain.Results suggest that intrastriatal transplantation of human MSCs could provide therapeutic potential for Tourette's syndrome.

  11. Study on developmental laws of neural stem cells in corpus striatum from the different human fetal brain%不同胎龄脑纹状体神经干细胞的发育规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓娟; 杜江; 封志纯

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic effect of neural stem cells receives increasingly confirmation in retrogressive diseases of nervous system: however, the develoopmental laws of neural stem cells of different fetal age have not been fully evaluated.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the developmental laws of neural stem cells in corpus striatum from different human fetal brains for expanding clinical applications of neural sten cells in pediatrics fields.DESIGN: A prospective experimental study with non-random inter-control.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: This study was completed in the Laboratory of Pediatric Center of Military. 30 embryos from induced labor by water bags were obtained from Department of Obstetrics in a certain tertiary hospital in Goangzhou City with the consents from family members or mothers of the fetals. 30 embryos were divided into five groups according to gestational age of 24,26, 28, 30 and 32 weeks with six fetals in each group.INTERVENTIONS: Immunohistochemical technique and optical microscope were adopted in the study by the author.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Shapes and growth modes of neural stem cells in corpus striatum from different human fetal brains were assessed with immunohistochemical techniques.RESULTS: Neural stem cells existed in corpus striatum in different fetal age including round, oval and triangle cells. Theound and oval cells were more than triangle cells that merely presented in corpus striatum of fetal brains aged at 30 and 32 weeks. Every type of cells had big or small ones with up to three enations. Nuclei were in round and oval shapes having 1 to 4 nucleoli. Most of the cells had rarefaction chromatin and few cells had compact chromatin. Most of neural sten cells in five groups grew in a single growth mode. Neural stem cells at the age of 30 weeks were found in corpus striatum and of occasionally with symmetric cleavage growth mode. Neural stem cells at the age 28 weeks were found in corpus striatum and with symmetric cleavage and multi

  12. Effect of Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill on TH and DAT Protein and Gene Expression in Prefrontal Cortex and Corpus Striatum of SHR Rats%孔圣枕中丹对SHR大鼠前额叶皮质及纹状体TH、DAT蛋白和基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐谦; 陈晓刚; 谭丽丽; 许双虹; 罗荣敬; 关莉; 蒋红兰; 李宜瑞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill on TH and DAT protein and gene expression in prefrontal cortex and corpus striatum of rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD).Methods Thirty SHR rats were randomly divided into three groups. The three groups were given gastric garage with Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill, methylphenidate hydrochloride, normal saline, respectively. The treatment lasted 28 days. Immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting, in situ hybridization and fluorescence quantitative PCR were used to detect TH and DAT protein and gene expression in prefrontal cortex and corpus striatum of rats.Results TH protein and gene expression in the rat prefrontal cortex and corpus striatum of Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill group was higher than that in methylphenidate hydrochloride group, and TH expression in methylphenidate hydrochloride group was higher than that in the saline control group. DAT protein and gene expression in Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill group was lower than that in methylphenidate hydrochloride group,while methylphenidate hydrochloride group had lower DAT protein and gene expression than that in the saline control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The therapeutic mechanism of Kongsheng Zhenzhong Pill for ADHD is probably related with affecting the central regulation of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia loop of the DA nerve signal transduction.%目的 探讨孔圣枕中丹对注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)动物模型SHR大鼠前额叶皮质、纹状体TH、DAT蛋白和基因表达的影响.方法 90只SHR雄性大鼠分为3批,每批大鼠随机分为3组,分别用孔圣枕中丹、盐酸哌甲酯和生理盐水灌胃28 d,采用免疫组化法、WESTERN BLOT、原位杂交法和荧光定量PCR检测其前额叶皮质、纹状体TH、DAT蛋白和基因的表达.结果 SHR大鼠前额叶皮质及纹状体TH蛋白和基因的表达,孔圣枕中丹组高于盐酸哌甲酯组,盐酸哌甲酯组又高于生理盐水对照

  13. Effects of propofol combined with electroconvulsive therapy on glutamate content in hippocampus and corpus striatum in mentally depressed rats%异丙酚联合电休克对抑郁大鼠海马和纹状体谷氨酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军; 闵苏; 魏珂; 曹俊; 黎平; 汪涛

    2008-01-01

    Objective Effects of propofol combined with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on glutamate content in hippocampus and corpus striatum in mentally depressed rats. Methods Sixty adult SD rats weighing 180-300 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=12 each):group Ⅰcontrol (C);group Ⅱmental depression (D); group Ⅲpropofol (P); group Ⅳ electric shock (E) and group Ⅴprepofol + electric shock (M). In group D, P, E and M (group Ⅱ-Ⅴ) mental depression was induced by exposing the animals to different kinds of stresses every day for 21 days. After successful induction of mental depression, the animals received intraperitoncol propofol 100 mg/kg (in group P) or electric shock (in group E) or propofol 100 mg/kg + electric shock (in group M) every other day for 2 weeks. The establishment of mental depression was asscssed by behavior using open-field test and glucose water consumption test (glucose water consumption/total fluid consumption). The two tests were performed one day before induction of mental depression, on the 2nd day after mental depression had been induced and on the 2nd day after treatment.The learning and memory functions were evaluated using Morris water maze on the 2nd day after treatment. The glutamate content in the hippocampus and corpus striatum was measured with chromatometry. Results The behavior scores and glucose water consumption were significantly decreased on the 2nd day after the establishment of mental depression and treatment in group D, P, E and M as compared with group C. The learning ability and memory of the animals in group D, P, and E were significantly decreased in group D, P and E as compared with group C and M. The glutamate content in hippocampus and corpus striatum was significantly higher in group D and P and significantly lower in group E and M than in group C. Conclusion Propofol combined with electorconvulsive therapy can improve the learning ability and memory of mentally depressed rats through recovery of glutamate

  14. Old Persian corpus [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavant, M.

    2011-01-01

    XML Old Persian corpus. The corpus is based on publicly available data on the Web. Those data can be traced back to the grammar of Old Persian by Kent (1950). The corpus contains those data and is arranged in a way suitable for corpus searches.

  15. [Reinforcement learning by striatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2009-04-01

    Recently, computational models of reinforcement learning have been applied for the analysis of neuroimaging data. It has been clarified that the striatum plays a key role in decision making. We review the reinforcement learning theory and the biological structures such as the brain and signals such as neuromodulators associated with reinforcement learning. We also investigated the function of the striatum and the neurotransmitter serotonin in reward prediction. We first studied the brain mechanisms for reward prediction at different time scales. Our experiment on the striatum showed that the ventroanterior regions are involved in predicting immediate rewards and the dorsoposterior regions are involved in predicting future rewards. Further, we investigated whether serotonin regulates both the reward selection and the striatum function are specialized reward prediction at different time scales. To this end, we regulated the dietary intake of tryptophan, a precursor of serotonin. Our experiment showed that the activity of the ventral part of the striatum was correlated with reward prediction at shorter time scales, and this activity was stronger at low serotonin levels. By contrast, the activity of the dorsal part of the striatum was correlated with reward prediction at longer time scales, and this activity was stronger at high serotonin levels. Further, a higher proportion of small reward choices, together with a higher rate of discounting of delayed rewards is observed in the low-serotonin condition than in the control and high-serotonin conditions. Further examinations are required in future to assess the relation between the disturbance of reward prediction caused by low serotonin and mental disorders related to serotonin such as depression.

  16. Corpus Linguistics Facilitates English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思亲

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been widely applied in English teaching. Corpus linguistics has changed the way to teach English. The essay discusses two approaches in English teaching based on corpus, corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach. It finds out that both corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach facilitate English teaching in their own ways.

  17. 电针对脑缺血再灌注模型大鼠纹状体NMDA受体NR2亚基蛋白表达的影响%Effect of electroacupuncture on protein expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR2 in corpus striatum of rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈梅红; 刘晓华; 项晓人; 沈洁; 张莹; 舒兆瑞; 李忠仁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture( EA) on the protein expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B in corpus striatum of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CI/R) , and explore the rivalry effect of EA on excitatory amino acids and molecular biology mechanism of the effect of EA. Methods 15 healthy male SD rats were randomized into sham,model and EA group ( n = 5). CI/R mode) was established by right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours. EA (3 Hz, 1~3 mA) was applied to"Dazhui" (GV 14) and"Baihui" (GV 20) for 30 minutes. The expressions of NR2A and NR2B protein were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with sham group, the expression of NR2A was decreased and the expression of the NR2B was increased in corpus striatum of rats in model group. Compared with model group, the number of NR2A positive neurons in EA group was increased markedly (P <0. 01) , the average grey scale of NR2A positive neurons in EA group was lower ( P <0. 05 ) , and the average optical density in EA group were higher (P <0. 05). The number and the average optical density of NR2B positive neurons in EA group was decreased markedly (P <0.05) , and the average grey scale of NR2B positive neurons in EA group was higher (P <0. 05). Conclusions EA treatment could increase the protein expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, and decrease the protein expression of subunit NR2B, which indicates that EA treatment may be against toxic effect of excitatory amino acids, relieve neural injury.%目的 观察脑缺血再灌注模型大鼠受损侧纹状体组织中NMDA受体调节亚单位NR2A和NR2B蛋白表达及其电针干预后的变化,探讨电针对缺血再灌注兴奋性氨基酸毒性的拮抗作用,进一步阐明电针治疗缺血性脑血管疾病的机制.方法 用数字随机表将15只SD大鼠随机分成3组:假手术组、模型组、电针组,每组各5只.采用改良Longa线栓法制作大脑中动脉

  18. CALBC silver standard corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio José; Van Mulligen, Erik M; Kang, Ning; Kors, Jan; Milward, David; Corbett, Peter; Buyko, Ekaterina; Beisswanger, Elena; Hahn, Udo

    2010-02-01

    The CALBC initiative aims to provide a large-scale biomedical text corpus that contains semantic annotations for named entities of different kinds. The generation of this corpus requires that the annotations from different automatic annotation systems be harmonized. In the first phase, the annotation systems from five participants (EMBL-EBI, EMC Rotterdam, NLM, JULIE Lab Jena, and Linguamatics) were gathered. All annotations were delivered in a common annotation format that included concept identifiers in the boundary assignments and that enabled comparison and alignment of the results. During the harmonization phase, the results produced from those different systems were integrated in a single harmonized corpus ("silver standard" corpus) by applying a voting scheme. We give an overview of the processed data and the principles of harmonization--formal boundary reconciliation and semantic matching of named entities. Finally, all submissions of the participants were evaluated against that silver standard corpus. We found that species and disease annotations are better standardized amongst the partners than the annotations of genes and proteins. The raw corpus is now available for additional named entity annotations. Parts of it will be made available later on for a public challenge. We expect that we can improve corpus building activities both in terms of the numbers of named entity classes being covered, as well as the size of the corpus in terms of annotated documents.

  19. IUS-LEX-CORPUS: CORPUS MYSTICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Pozzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sfruttando gli ingenti materiali a disposizione degli studiosi dal 1964 negli archivi, nelle banche dati, nei dizionari e nei lessici d'autore dell'ILIESI-CNR, il contributo considera una serie di momenti nella storia del pensiero, dalla politeía antica al cosmopolitismo moderno, che mettono in risalto le implicazioni filosofiche presenti nella polisemia del trinomio lex-ius-corpus.

  20. Corpus Design for Malay Corpus-based Speech Synthesis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Swee Tan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Speech corpus is one of the major components in corpus-based synthesis. The quality and coverage in speech corpus will affect the quality of synthesis speech sound. Approach: This study proposes a corpus design for Malay corpus-based speech synthesis system. This includes the study of design criteria in corpus-based speech synthesis, Malay corpus based database design and the concatenation engine in Malay corpus-based synthesis system. A set of 10 millions digital text corpuses for Malay language has been collected from Malay internet news. This text corpus had been analyzed using word frequency count to find out all high frequency words to be used for designing the sentences for speech corpus. Results: Altogether 381 sentences for speech corpus had been designed using 70% of high frequency words from 10 million text corpus. It consists of 16826 phoneme units and the total storage size is 37.6Mb. All the phone units are phonetically transcribed to preserve the phonetic context of its origin that will be used for phonetic context unit. This speech corpus had been labeled at phoneme level and used for variable length continuous phoneme based concatenation. Speech corpus is one of the major components in corpus-based synthesis. The quality and coverage in speech corpus will affect the quality of synthesized speech sound. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study has proposed a platform for designing speech corpus especially for Malay Text to Speech which can be further enhanced to support more coverage and higher naturalness of synthetic speech.

  1. Corpus Annotation for Parser Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    CARROLL, JOHN; Minnen, Guido; Briscoe, Ted

    1999-01-01

    We describe a recently developed corpus annotation scheme for evaluating parsers that avoids shortcomings of current methods. The scheme encodes grammatical relations between heads and dependents, and has been used to mark up a new public-domain corpus of naturally occurring English text. We show how the corpus can be used to evaluate the accuracy of a robust parser, and relate the corpus to extant resources.

  2. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  3. Tagging the Teleman Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Brants, T; Brants, Thorsten; Samuelsson, Christer

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were carried out comparing the Swedish Teleman and the English Susanne corpora using an HMM-based and a novel reductionistic statistical part-of-speech tagger. They indicate that tagging the Teleman corpus is the more difficult task, and that the performance of the two different taggers is comparable.

  4. Learning and motivation in the human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohamy, Daphna

    2011-06-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic change in our understanding of the role of the striatum in behavior. Early perspectives emphasized a role for the striatum in habitual learning of stimulus-response associations and sequences of actions. Recent advances from human neuroimaging research suggest a broader role for the striatum in motivated learning. New findings demonstrate that the striatum represents multiple learning signals and highlight the contribution of the striatum across many cognitive domains and contexts. Recent findings also emphasize interactions between the striatum and other specialized brain systems for learning. Together, these findings suggest that the striatum contributes to a distributed network that learns to select actions based on their predicted value in order to optimize behavior.

  5. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  6. Du corpus au dictionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemin, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose an automatic process to build multi-lingual lexico-semantic resources. The goal of these resources is to browse semantically textual information contained in texts of different languages. This method uses a mathematical model called Atlas s\\'emantiques in order to represent the different senses of each word. It uses the linguistic relations between words to create graphs that are projected into a semantic space. These projections constitute semantic maps that denote the sense trends of each given word. This model is fed with syntactic relations between words extracted from a corpus. Therefore, the lexico-semantic resource produced describes all the words and all their meanings observed in the corpus. The sense trends are expressed by syntactic contexts, typical for a given meaning. The link between each sense trend and the utterances used to build the sense trend are also stored in an index. Thus all the instances of a word in a particular sense are linked and can be browsed easily...

  7. Towards an integrated corpus stylistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Dan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, the use of corpora in stylistic analysis has grown in popularity. However, questions still remain over the remit of corpus stylistics, its distinction from corpus linguistics generally and its capacity to explain complex stylistic effects. This article argues in favour of an integrated corpus stylistics; that is, an approach to corpus stylistics that integrates it with other stylistic methods and analytical frameworks. I suggest that this approach is needed for two main reasons: (i it is analytically necessary in order to fully explain stylistic effects in texts, and (ii integrating corpus methods with other stylistic tools is what will distinguish corpus stylistics from corpus linguistics. My argument is supported by reference to examples from Mark Haddon’s no vel The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time and the HBO TV series Deadwood. Both these examples rely for their explanation on a combination of corpus stylistic analytical techniques and other stylistic methods of analysis.

  8. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  9. [Corpus Hermeticum in history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, R

    2001-01-01

    The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieliński) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of

  10. Corpus vitreum, retina og chorioidea biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh

    2002-01-01

    oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...

  11. Choline Acetyltransferase Activity in Striatum of Neonatal Rats Increased by Nerve Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, William C.; Rutkowski, J. Lynn; Tennekoon, Gihan I.; Buchanan, Karen; Johnston, Michael V.

    1985-07-01

    Some neurodegenerative disorders may be caused by abnormal synthesis or utilization of trophic molecules required to support neuronal survival. A test of this hypothesis requires that trophic agents specific for the affected neurons be identified. Cholinergic neurons in the corpus striatum of neonatal rats were found to respond to intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor with prominent, dose-dependent, selective increases in choline acetyltransferase activity. Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain also respond to nerve growth factor in this way. These actions of nerve growth factor may indicate its involvement in the normal function of forebrain cholinergic neurons as well as in neurodegenerative disorders involving such cells.

  12. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus and radial arrangement of gyri along the interhemispheric fissure. Hence it was reported as isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis and this article describes the Embryogenesis, anatomy, developmental anomalies and its clinical manifestations & prognosis.

  13. Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom

    Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

  14. Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, B.E.

    1983-08-01

    The embryology of the corpus callosum is briefly reviewed in relation to dysgenesis and associated malformations. The morphology, etiology, clinical and radiological features of such malformations are discussed and illustrated.

  15. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-01-01

    Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus an...

  16. Orfismo en el Corpus Philostrateum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Lizcano Rejano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We search through the Corpus Philostrateum for the presence of connections between this literary production and Orphismus – its system of beliefs, its peculiar interpretation of the traditional Greek mythology, its proposal for a particular way of life. Also, we try to determine the relation, that we can find in this corpus between the ideology and customs that the Pythagoreans and Orphics supported.

  17. The Bulgarian National Corpus: Theory and Practice in Corpus Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses several key concepts related to the development of corpora and reconsiders them in light of recent developments in NLP. On the basis of an overview of present-day corpora, we conclude that the dominant practices of corpus design do not utilise adequately the technologies and, as a result, fail to meet the demands of corpus linguistics, computational lexicology and computational linguistics alike.We proceed to lay out a data-driven approach to corpus design, which integrates the best practices of traditional corpus linguistics with the potential of the latest technologies allowing fast collection, automatic metadata description and annotation of large amounts of data. Thus, the gist of the approach we propose is that corpus design should be centred on amassing large amounts of mono- and multilingual texts and on providing them with a detailed metadata description and high-quality multi-level annotation.We go on to illustrate this concept with a description of the compilation, structuring, documentation, and annotation of the Bulgarian National Corpus (BulNC. At present it consists of a Bulgarian part of 979.6 million words, constituting the corpus kernel, and 33 Bulgarian-X language corpora, totalling 972.3 million words, 1.95 billion words altogether. The BulNC is supplied with a comprehensive metadata description, which allows us to organise the texts according to different principles. The Bulgarian part of the BulNC is automatically processed (tokenised and sentence split and  annotated at several levels: morphosyntactic tagging, lemmatisation, word-sense annotation, annotation of noun phrases and named entities. Some levels of annotation are also applied to the Bulgarian-English parallel corpus with the prospect of expanding multilingual annotation both in terms of linguistic levels and the number of languages for which it is available. We conclude with a brief evaluation of the quality of the corpus and an outline of

  18. DEVELOPING SOFTWARE FOR CORPUS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mason

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable software is available. Apart from software itself, data formats are also of great importance for text processing. But again, many practitioners are not very aware of the options available to them, and thus idiosyncratic text formats often make sharing of resources difficult if not impossible. This article discusses some issues relating to both data and processing which should aid researchers to become more aware of the choices available to them when it comes to using computers in linguistic research. It also describes an easy way towards automating some common text processing tasks that can easily be acquired without knowledge of actual computer programming.

  19. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  20. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone. 165.808 Section 165.808 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone. (a) The following areas...

  1. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post...

  2. Sept approches à un corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La linguistique moderne permet d'analyser la langue parlée dans sa spécificité discursive et situationnelle, syntaxique et lexicale, lui accordant ainsi un statut égal à celui de l'écrit. Le choix de présenter sept approches différentes à un même corpus de base donne lieu d'un côté à une analyse...

  3. Hypnotizability and Corpus Callosum Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, James Edward

    1999-01-01

    Hypnotizability and Corpus Callosum Morphology By James E. Horton Committee Chair: Helen J. Crawford, Ph.D. Department of Psychology (Abstract) In general, highly hypnotizable individuals ("highs") have exhibited greater abilities to focus attention and inhibit pain than low hypnotizable individuals ("lows"). Furthermore, highs appear to have faster neural processing than lows. The present study investigated differences between lows and highs in morphological volume of s...

  4. MUSAN: A Music, Speech, and Noise Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, David; Chen, Guoguo; Povey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a new corpus of music, speech, and noise. This dataset is suitable for training models for voice activity detection (VAD) and music/speech discrimination. Our corpus is released under a flexible Creative Commons license. The dataset consists of music from several genres, speech from twelve languages, and a wide assortment of technical and non-technical noises. We demonstrate use of this corpus for music/speech discrimination on Broadcast news and VAD for speaker identif...

  5. Targeting neuronal populations of the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre F Durieux

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is critically involved in motor and motivational functions. The dorsal striatum, caudate-putamen, is primarily implicated in motor control and the learning of habits and skills, whereas the ventral striatum, the nucleus accumbens (NAc, is essential for motivation and drug reinforcement. The GABA medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, about 95% of striatal neurons, which are targets of the cerebral cortex and the midbrain dopaminergic neurons, form two pathways. The dopamine D1 receptor–positive (D1R striatonigral MSNs project to the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata (direct pathway and co-express D1R and substance P, whereas dopamine D2 receptor–positive (D2R striatopallidal MSNs project to the lateral globus pallidus (indirect pathway and co-express D2R, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR and enkephalin (Enk. The specific role of the two efferent pathways in motor and motivational control remained poorly understood until recently. Indeed, D1R striatonigral and D2R striatopallidal neurons, are intermingled and morphologically indistinguishable, and, hence, cannot be functionally dissociated with techniques such as chemical lesions or surgery.In view of the still debated respective functions of projection D2R-striatopallidal and D1R-striatonigral neurons and striatal interneurons, both in motor control and learning but also in more cognitive processes such as motivation, the present review sum up the development of new models and techniques (BAC transgenesis, optogenetic, viral transgenesis allowing the selective targeting of these striatal neuronal populations in adult animal brain to understand their specific roles.

  6. Enhancing Writing Pedagogy with Learner Corpus Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotos, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting "learning driven data" in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC)…

  7. The Multimedia Adult ESL Learner Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Stephen; Harris, Kathryn; Setzler, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Describes what may be the first of a new generation of corpora: the Multimedia Adult ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) Learner Corpus. The corpus is notable for containing language produced by very low level learners in language classrooms and for the fact that the transcribed language remains linked to video recordings. (Author/VWL)

  8. Network Analysis with the Enron Email Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .

    2015-01-01

    We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…

  9. Corpus-Based Investigations of Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines a representative text corpus to gain insights into language structure and use and to open new areas of linguistic inquiry. Various illustrations are presented that provide a glimpse into the value of corpus-based investigations for increasing one's understanding of language use and imparting insights important for designing effective…

  10. Corpus delicti / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    Leonhard Lapini, Sirje Runge, Andres Toltsi ja Mare Vindi 1960ndate lõpu ja 1970ndate alguse tööde näitusest "Corpus in spe" Deco galeriis ning nimetatud kunstnike ja Urmo Rausi uudisloomingu näitusest "Corpus" Tallinna Linnagaleriis

  11. Corpus delicti / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    Leonhard Lapini, Sirje Runge, Andres Toltsi ja Mare Vindi 1960ndate lõpu ja 1970ndate alguse tööde näitusest "Corpus in spe" Deco galeriis ning nimetatud kunstnike ja Urmo Rausi uudisloomingu näitusest "Corpus" Tallinna Linnagaleriis

  12. To Teach Spoken Grammar With Corpus Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li

    2016-01-01

    Using scripted materials in spoken language teaching has been challenged in recent years. Accordingly, many scholars have proposed to employ corpus in spoken language teaching. This article proved it is an efficient way to teach spoken grammar by combining scripted materials with authentic materials from corpus.

  13. Angiogenesis in the corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulff Christine

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The corpus luteum (CL is a site of intense angiogenesis. Within a short period, this is followed either by controlled regression of the microvascular tree in the non-fertile cycle, or maintenance and stabilisation of the new vasculature a conceptual cycle. The molecular regulation of these diverse aspects is examined. The CL provides a unique model system in which to study the cellular and molecular regulation of angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been found to have a major role in the CL. By targeting its action at specific stages of the luteal phase in vivo by antagonists, profound inhibitory effects on luteal angiogenesis and function are observed.

  14. Interactions between Corpus and Lexicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of papers stems from the Fifth Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages, held in May 2012 as a satellite to the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference in Istanbul. While there has been occasional attention for sign languages at the main LREC conference......, the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the third time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on the interaction between...... corpus and lexicon. More than half of the papers presented contribute to this topic. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  15. Cooperation between the Hippocampus and the Striatum during Episodic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Talya; Shohamy, Daphna; Levy, Dana Rubi; Reggev, Niv; Maril, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum are thought to play distinct roles in learning and memory, each supporting an independent memory system. A fundamental question is whether, and how, these systems interact to jointly contribute to learning and memory. In particular, it remains unknown whether the striatum contributes selectively to implicit,…

  16. Cooperation between the Hippocampus and the Striatum during Episodic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Talya; Shohamy, Daphna; Levy, Dana Rubi; Reggev, Niv; Maril, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum are thought to play distinct roles in learning and memory, each supporting an independent memory system. A fundamental question is whether, and how, these systems interact to jointly contribute to learning and memory. In particular, it remains unknown whether the striatum contributes selectively to implicit,…

  17. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  18. Human amniotic epithelial cells express specific markers of nerve cells and migrate along the nerve fibers in the corpus callosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyuan Wu; Guozhen Hui; Yi Lu; Tianjin Liu; Qin Huang; Lihe Guo

    2012-01-01

    Human amniotic epithelial cells were isolated from a piece of fresh amnion. Using immunocytochemical methods, we investigated the expression of neuronal phenotypes (microtubule-associated protein-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin) in human amniotic epithelial cells. The conditioned medium of human amniotic epithelial cells promoted the growth and proliferation of rat glial cells cultured in vitro, and this effect was dose-dependent. Human amniotic epithelial cells were further transplanted into the corpus striatum of healthy adult rats and the grafted cells could integrate with the host and migrate 1-2 mm along the nerve fibers in corpus callosum. Our experimental findings indicate that human amniotic epithelial cells may be a new kind of seed cells for use in neurograft.

  19. CORPUS AND FREQUENCY GRAMMAR CORPUS VOCABULARY OF THE CHURCH SLAVONIC LANGUAGE AS PART OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Dobrushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current  state of  work on the Corpus of Church Slavonic within the Russian National Corpus. The Corpus is different from the collection of texts by the presence of a special markup (grammatical, structural, metatextual and  the  possibility to  search by this markup. The article considers the content, describes the main genre headings, according to which the texts included in the Corpus are distributed, describes  the principles of the metamarkup that differ from those used in other Corpuses  within the Russian National Corpus. Where necessary, the historical information,  on the basis of  which a certain decision was made, is provided. Since typing search queries on the keyboard presents certain difficulties  for Church Slavonic texts, we offer several options for simplified spelling transmission, which enable a person to enter a query with limited capabilities of a standard keyboard. Finally, the article describes the frequency grammar vocabulary created during the work on the project.

  20. A Corpus-Based Study of Idioms in Academic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rita; Mendis, Dushyanthi

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the advantages and limitations of a corpus-based approach to researching and teaching idioms in a specific genre by drawing on a specialized corpus of 1.7 million words of academic discourse, the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Argues that evidence from such a corpus can be informative for language teachers when the primary…

  1. Clinical Correlates of Corpus Callosal Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1998-01-01

    The clinical correlates of agenesis of the corpus callosum were examined in 56 cases (37 adult, 19 pediatric) reported to the British Neurological Surveillance Unit (BNSU) and surveyed at the Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

  2. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  3. A ROUGH GUIDE TO DOING CORPUS STYLISTICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tania M. G. Shepherd; Tony Berber Sardinha

    2015-01-01

    .... The second is to analyse a prize winning novel by English writer Julian Barnes, by resorting to the tenets and working tools of one of the newest branch of Stylistics, the so-called Corpus stylistics...

  4. Notes on Compiling a Corpus- Based Dictionary*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    words and phrases in a language, a fact that is often underestimated or even disliked by ... Differences between the traditional approach and the corpus approach ... almost no attention is paid to nouns, the largest of the word classes. The latter.

  5. Integrating corpus consultation in language studies

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Chambers

    2005-01-01

    peer-reviewed Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001), there is little evidence to suggest that direct corpus consultation is coming to be seen as a complement or alternative to consultation of a dictionary, cou...

  6. The Overall Introduction of Corpus Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琳华; 李旭辉; 杨晓伟

    2011-01-01

    @@ i.Preface Corpus can be defined as "…a collection of texts assumed to be represent-ative of a given language put together so that it can be used for linguistic analy-sis" (Tognini - Bonelli 2001 : 2).It is built through collecting authentic lan-guage material.A corpus is a very important basis for language teaching and research.It is also a very important source of information for complication of dictionaries, grammar books and teaching materials.

  7. Striatum on the anxiety map: Small detours into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Tiffany; Davis, Andrew; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the most sensitive period for the development of pathological anxiety. Moreover, specific neural changes associated with the striatum might be related to adolescent vulnerability to anxiety. Up to now, the study of anxiety has primarily focused on the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), while the striatum has typically not been considered as part of the anxiety system. This review proposes the addition of the striatum, a complex, multi-component structure, to the anxiety network by underscoring two lines of research. First, the co-occurrence of the adolescent striatal development with the peak vulnerability of adolescents to anxiety disorders might potentially reflect a causal relationship. Second, the recognition of the role of the striatum in fundamental behavioral processes that do affect anxiety supports the putative importance of the striatum in anxiety. These behavioral processes include (1) attention, (2) conditioning/prediction error, and (3) motivation. This review proposes a simplistic schematic representation of the anxiety circuitry that includes the striatum, and aims to promote further work in this direction, as the role of the striatum in shaping an anxiety phenotype during adolescence could have critical implications for understanding and preventing the peak onset of anxiety disorders during this period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Duškin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus The Semantics Laboratory Team of Institute of Slavic Studies of Polish Academy of Sciences is planning to begin work on the creation of a Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus. The three selected languages are representatives of the main groups of Slavic languages: Bulgarian represents the southern group of Slavic languages, Polish – the western group of Slavic languages, Russian – the eastern group of Slavic languages. Our project will be the first parallel corpus of these three languages. The planned corpus will be based on material, dating from one period (the 20th century and will have a synchronous nature. The project will not constitute the sum of the separate corpora of selected languages. One of the problems with creating multilingual parallel corpora are different proportions of translated texts between the selected languages, for example, Polish literature is often translated into Bulgarian, but not vice versa. Bulgarian, Russian and Polish differ typologically – Bulgarian is an analytic language, Polish and Russian are synthetic. The parallel corpus should have compatible annotation, while taking into account the characteristic features of the selected languages. We hope that the Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus will serve as a source of linguistic material of contrastive language studies and may prove to be a big help for linguists, translators, terminologists and students of linguistics. The results of our work will be available on the Internet.

  9. Compiling a Corpus for Teaching Medical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de la Teja Bosch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: medical translation has countless documentary sources; the major difficulty lies in knowing how to assess them. The corpus is the ideal tool to perform this activity in a rapid and reliable way, and to define the learning objectives based on text typology and oriented towards professional practice.Objective: to compile an electronic corpus that meets the requirements of the professional practice to perform specialized medical translation. Methods: a pedagogical research was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. The units of analysis involved records from translators of the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center and specialized translators in this field, who completed a questionnaire to accurately determine their information needs, conditioning the corpus design criteria. The analysis of a set of texts extracted from highly reputable sources led to the text selection and final compilation. Subsequently, the validation of the corpus as a documentary tool for teaching specialized medical translation was performed. Results: there was a concentration of translation assignments in the topics: malignant tumors, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and pneumonias. The predominant text typologies were: evaluative and dissemination of current research, with plenty original articles and reviews. The text corpus design criteria were: unannotated, documented, specialized, monitor and comparable. Conclusions: the corpus is a useful tool to show the lexical, terminological, semantic, discursive and contextual particularities of biomedical communication. It allows defining learning objectives and translation problems. Key words: teaching; translating; medicine

  10. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal...

  11. Learner corpora: the case of the NOSE corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díaz-Negrillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the scope of learner corpus research and describes a learner corpus by Spanish university students of English, the NOn-native Spanish corpus of English (NOSE. It presents the corpus data, its annotation and how it can be retrieved and exploited for research purposes in the areas of interlanguage studies and automatic recognition of learner-specific features. It also reviews the various research topics that have been investigated in the corpus.

  12. The striatal mosaic in primates: patterns of neuropeptide immunoreactivity differentiate the ventral striatum from the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L J; Hadfield, M G; Dellovade, T L; Price, D L

    1991-01-01

    Patterns of immunoreactivity for calcium-binding protein, tyrosine hydroxylase and four neuropeptides in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and ventromedial parts of the caudate nucleus and putamen) were compared to patterns of these markers in the dorsal striatum (the majority of the neostriatum) in rhesus monkey. The striatal mosaic was delineated by calcium-binding protein and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivities. Both markers were found preferentially in the matrix of the dorsal striatum. The mosaic configurations of tyrosine hydroxylase, but not calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity, were similar in dorsal and ventral striatal regions. Substance P and leucine-enkephalin were not distributed homogeneously; distinct types and the prevalence of patches of substance P and leucine-enkephalin immunoreactivity distinguish the dorsal striatum from the ventral striatum and distinguish the caudate nucleus from the putamen. In the dorsal striatum, substance P and leucine-enkephalin patches consist of dense islands of immunoreactive neurons and puncta or clusters of immunoreactive neurons marginated by a dense rim of terminal-like puncta; the matrix was also enriched in leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons but contained less substance P-immunoreactive neurons. Patches were more prominent in the caudate nucleus than in the putamen. In the caudate, compartments low in tyrosine hydroxylase and calcium-binding protein immunoreactivities corresponded to cytologically identified cell islands and to patches enriched in substance P and leucine-enkephalin. These patches had a discrete infrastructure based on the location of substance P and leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons and terminals. In the ventral striatum, patches that showed low levels of substance P and leucine-enkephalin immunoreactivities were embedded in a matrix rich in immunoreactive cell bodies, fibers and terminals. In the accumbens, regions showing little tyrosine

  13. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  14. Microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanel-Borowski Katherina

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cyclic nature of the capillary bed in the corpus luteum offers a unique experimental model to examine the life cycle of endothelial cells, involving discrete physiologically regulated steps of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and blood vessel regression. The granulosa cells and theca cells of the developing antral follicle and the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum produce and respond to angiogenic factors and vasoactive peptides. Following ovulation the neovascularization during the early stages of corpus luteum development has been compared to the rapid angiogenesis observed during tumor formation. On the other end of the spectrum, the microvascular endothelial cells are the first cells to undergo apoptosis at the onset of corpus luteum regression. Important insights on the morphology and function of luteal endothelial cells have been gained from a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on endothelial cells. Endothelial cells communicate with cells comprising the functional unit of the corpus luteum, i.e., other vascular cells, steroidogenic cells, and immune cells. This review is designed to provide an overview of the types of endothelial cells present in the corpus luteum and their involvement in corpus luteum development and regression. Available evidence indicates that microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum are not alike, and may differ during the process of angiogenesis and angioregression. The contributions of vasoactive peptides generated by the luteal endothelin-1 and the renin-angiotensin systems are discussed in context with the function of endothelial cells during corpus luteum formation and regression. The ability of two cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma, are evaluated as paracrine mediators of endothelial cell function during angioregression. Finally, chemokines are discussed as a vital endothelial cell secretory products that contribute to the recruitment of

  15. Learner-Corpus Interaction: A Locus of Microgenesis in Corpus-Assisted L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the processes through which learners interact with a corpus system and microgenetic development emerges from the interaction. The corpus system described in this paper is capable of retrieving highly relevant textual examples tailored to individual needs. Data were collected from an undergraduate ESL composition course in North…

  16. 77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi... from portions of the Corpus Christi Bayfront area during the HITS Triathlon on February 18th and 19th, 2012. This Special Local Regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of HITS Triathlon...

  17. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J;

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results: PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion: Our findings...

  18. Biofilm production by multiresistant Corynebacterium striatum associated with nosocomial outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Cassius; Faria, Yuri Vieira; Sant’Anna, Lincoln de Oliveira; Viana, Vanilda Gonçalves; Seabra, Sérgio Henrique; de Souza, Mônica Cristina; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Hirata, Raphael; Moreira, Lílian de Oliveira; de Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a potentially pathogenic microorganism that causes nosocomial outbreaks. However, little is known about its virulence factors that may contribute to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We investigated the biofilm production on abiotic surfaces of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and multidrug-susceptible (MDS) strains of C. striatum of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types I-MDR, II-MDR, III-MDS and IV-MDS isolated during a nosocomial outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results showed that C. striatum was able to adhere to hydrophilic and hydrophobic abiotic surfaces. The C. striatum 1987/I-MDR strain, predominantly isolated from patients undergoing endotracheal intubation procedures, showed the greatest ability to adhere to all surfaces. C. striatum bound fibrinogen to its surface, which contributed to biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed the production of mature biofilms on polyurethane catheters by all pulsotypes. In conclusion, biofilm production may contribute to the establishment of HAIs caused by C. striatum. PMID:25946249

  19. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  20. INTEGRATING CORPUS CONSULTATION IN LANGUAGE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Chambers

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001, there is little evidence to suggest that direct corpus consultation is coming to be seen as a complement or alternative to consultation of a dictionary, course book, or grammar by the majority of learners. There is thus a need for research to underpin the integration of corpora and concordancing in the language-learning environment.This study begins with an account of published research relating to course design and structure in the area of corpus consultation by language learners. The focus then narrows to the initial training of learners in corpus consultation, using as an example a course involving undergraduate students on several language degree programmes. The results of the students' consultation of the corpora are examined, including choice of search word(s, analytical skills, the problems encountered, and their evaluation of the activity. The results reveal how corpus consultation can complement traditional language-learning resources, while also raising questions concerning its integration in the language-learning environment.

  1. KoralQuery -- A General Corpus Query Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The task-oriented and format-driven development of corpus query systems has led to the creation of numerous corpus query languages (QLs) that vary strongly in expressiveness and syntax. This is a severe impediment for the interoperability of corpus analysis systems, which lack a common protocol....... In this paper, we present KoralQuery, a JSON-LD based general corpus query protocol, aiming to be independent of particular QLs, tasks and corpus formats. In addition to describing the system of types and operations that KoralQuery is built on, we exemplify the representation of corpus queries in the serialized...

  2. A Corpus for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mollá Aliod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Automated text summarisers that find the best clinical evidence reported in collections of medical literature are of potential benefit for the practice of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. Research and development of text summarisers for EBM, however, is impeded by the lack of corpora to train and test such systems. Aims To produce a corpus for research in EBM summarisation. Method We sourced the “Clinical Inquiries” section of the Journal of Family Practice (JFP and obtained a sizeable sample of questions and evidence based summaries. We further processed the summaries by combining automated techniques, human annotations, and crowdsourcing techniques to identify the PubMed IDs of the references. Results The corpus has 456 questions, 1,396 answer components, 3,036 answer justifications, and 2,908 references. Conclusion The corpus is now available for the research community at http://sourceforge.net/projects/ebmsumcorpus.

  3. Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kennedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a semester-long apprenticeship in corpus use which does not demand of them the high level of language proficiency, attention to detail in observation, and logical rigour that we consider necessary for rewarding work in the learner-as-researcher role. Instead, we introduce a corpus initially as an aid to the imagination in writing, and then to achieving accuracy through specific grammatical problem solving. We see this as the groundwork for subsequent development of the students’ research skills with corpus data. This paper describes the approach we have adopted to the corpus apprenticeship and reports on an evaluation of its effectiveness through case studies of three students and their use of a corpus and bilingual dictionary as reference resources when writing. Drawing on insights from the case studies, we outline a working definition of corpus-consultation literacy for our learning context and identify some refinements to be made to our apprenticeship.

  4. Using a Corpus for Teaching Turkish Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Guvenir, H A; Oflazer, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary phase of our ongoing research towards developing an intelligent tutoring environment for Turkish grammar. One of the components of this environment is a corpus search tool which, among other aspects of the language, will be used to present the learner sample sentences along with their morphological analyses. Following a brief introduction to the Turkish language and its morphology, the paper describes the morphological analysis and ambiguity resolution used to construct the corpus used in the search tool. Finally, implementation issues and details involving the user interface of the tool are discussed.

  5. Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational corpus linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ebensgaard Jensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data and method and also off ers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented towards an acknowledgment of corpus linguistics' alignment with the digital humanities.

  6. arTenTen: Arabic Corpus and Word Sketches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressy Arts

    2014-12-01

    The article also presents the ‘sketch grammar’ (the basis for the word sketches in detail, describes the process of building and processing the corpus, and considers the role of the corpus in additional research on Arabic.

  7. Corpus-based lexicography for lesser-resourced languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In many cases sincere attempts at corpus designs and the compilation of ..... for example, Prinsloo and De Schryver (2003: 110) give a schematic illustration .... graphic rulers and block systems could be compiled from a corpus as small as.

  8. Two directions of change in one corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2015-01-01

    Cheshire et al. (2005) argue that different levels of language do not necessarily follow the same patterns of change over time. In an attempt to test this prediction, this article reports on a comparison between two quantitative corpus studies of Tyneside English which are partly based on the sam...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... gender and callosal measures in patient and control groups. In all groups of ..... our intelligence and problem-solving ability. The prefrontal cortex plays a role in the regulation of complex cognitive, emotional and .... in the corpus callosum in abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A preliminary study. J.

  10. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  11. Rheumatic diseases in the Corpus Hippocraticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Squillace

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Medecine of V and IV centuries B.C. attested in the Corpus Hippocraticum ascribes all diseases to the rheuma, i.e. the flux of humours into the body. This flux produces not only the rise of cold, hoarsness, cough, reddenings, dropsy, but also arthritis, sciatica, gout.

  12. Two directions of change in one corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2015-01-01

    Cheshire et al. (2005) argue that different levels of language do not necessarily follow the same patterns of change over time. In an attempt to test this prediction, this article reports on a comparison between two quantitative corpus studies of Tyneside English which are partly based on the same...

  13. CORPUS-BASED TRANSLATION RESEARCH: ITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corpus-based translation research emerged in the late 1990s as a new area of re- search in ... tics goes back to the early 1960s when the “first-generation” of one-million .... and then takes an average count at the end; allowing one to compare.

  14. The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William White

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus (YCAC contains harmonic and rhythmic information for a dataset of Western European Classical art music. This corpus is based on data from classicalarchives.com, a repository of thousands of user-generated MIDI representations of pieces from several periods of Western European music history. The YCAC makes available metadata for each MIDI file, as well as a list of pitch simultaneities ("salami slices" in the MIDI file. Metadata include the piece's composer, the composer's country of origin, date of composition, genre (e.g., symphony, piano sonata, nocturne, etc., instrumentation, meter, and key. The processing step groups the file's pitches into vertical slices each time a pitch is added or subtracted from the texture, recording the slice's offset (measured in the number of quarter notes separating the event from the file's beginning, highest pitch, lowest pitch, prime form, scale-degrees in relation to the global key (as determined by experts, and local key information (as determined by a windowed key-profile analysis. The corpus contains 13,769 MIDI files by 571 composers yielding over 14,051,144 vertical slices. This paper outlines several properties of this corpus, along with a representative study using this dataset.

  15. A Massive Chinese Floral Corpus Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Through the efforts of several generations of Chinese botanists over the past 50years, a massive 80-volume corpus (in 126 books) on China's flora,Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Chinese edition), has finally been completed. This was announced at a press meeting on March 31 in Beijing.

  16. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net....263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in determining the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  17. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward of... said breakwater; and eastward of the Corpus Christi sea wall....

  18. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

  19. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  20. The Nordic Dialect Corpus – a joint research infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Bondi Johannessen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Nordic Dialect Corpus as of June 2010. The corpus is a tool that combines a number of useful features that together makes it a unique and very advanced resource for researchers of many fields of language search. The corpus is web-based and features full audio-visual representation linked to transcriptions and translations.

  1. KoralQuery -- A General Corpus Query Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The task-oriented and format-driven development of corpus query systems has led to the creation of numerous corpus query languages (QLs) that vary strongly in expressiveness and syntax. This is a severe impediment for the interoperability of corpus analysis systems, which lack a common protocol...... format and illustrate use cases in the KorAP project....

  2. An annotated corpus for the analysis of VP ellipsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Johan; Spenader, J.

    2011-01-01

    Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE) has been studied in great depth in theoretical linguistics, but empirical studies of VPE are rare. We extend the few previous corpus studies with an annotated corpus of VPE in all 25 sections of the Wall Street Journal corpus (WSJ) distributed with the Penn Treebank. We an

  3. An annotated corpus for the analysis of VP ellipsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Johan; Spenader, J.

    2011-01-01

    Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE) has been studied in great depth in theoretical linguistics, but empirical studies of VPE are rare. We extend the few previous corpus studies with an annotated corpus of VPE in all 25 sections of the Wall Street Journal corpus (WSJ) distributed with the Penn Treebank. We

  4. MEANTIME, the NewsReader Multilingual Event and Time Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minard, A.-L.; Speranza, M; Urizar, R.; Altuna, B.; Erp, van M.G.J.; Schoen, A.M.; Son, van C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the NewsReader MEANTIME corpus, a semantically annotated corpus of Wikinews articles. The corpus consists of 480 news articles, i.e. 120 English news articles and their translations in Spanish, Italian, and Dutch. MEANTIME contains annotations at different levels. The docum

  5. The Use of Corpus for Close Synonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naci KAYAOĞLU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Using corpora is still in its infancy in foreign language classes in spite of its great benefits and potential to offer solutions to the various challenges in foreign language instruction both for teachers and learners. This partly stems from a lack of interest and practical knowledge about the pedagogic role that the corpora can play. There is a pressing need to convince teachers of the great benefits of corpora with empirical data.Purpose of Study: This research aims to explore the feasibility of using a corpus to help students differentiate between close synonyms which have similar meanings but cannot be substituted one for the other.Method: This is quasi-experimental research based on a pre and post-test (one shot design design. To this end, participants were introduced to the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA and asked to refer to the corpus when deciding the appropriate close synonym in the 50 sentences given. Participants were also interviewed upon completion of the task with the COCA about their use of corpus.Findings and Results: The t-test showed that the use of corpus for deciding on close synonyms proved to be very effective as there was a statistically significant difference in participants‟ performance on the vocabulary portion of the pretest and post-test.Conclusion and Recommendations: The present paper suggests that corpora can be a very rich and effective source of empirical data both for teachers and students to make foreign language learning more meaningful and enjoyable. Providing learners more exposure to authentic examples, corpora can be utilized for pedagogic purposes from syllabus design to materials development. Yet, it needs to be integrated into language courses. Teachersshould be made fully aware of what corpora offer for language teaching.

  6. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released. Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens, our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection, the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are

  7. Septic arthritis in a native knee due to Corynebacterium striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Collada, Juan; Rico Nieto, Alicia; Díaz de Bustamante Ussia, Macarena; Balsa Criado, Alejandro

    2017-03-07

    We describe a case of septic arthritis in a native knee due to Corynebacterium striatum, gram-positive bacilli that are usually commensal organisms of skin and mucosal membranes, but are seldom implicated in native septic arthritis. An 84-year-old man with Corynebacterium striatum septic arthritis of his native left knee and no response to conventional antibiotic therapy. Thus, the patient was allowed to take dalbavancin for compassionate use, with an excellent clinical outcome. This case emphasizes de role of Corynebacterium striatum in native joint infections and highlights the importance of early detection and appropriate treatment in improving the clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi. 334.800 Section 334.800 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval...

  9. Applying corpus methods to written academic texts: Explorations of MICUSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Römer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on explorations of the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers (MICUSP, the present paper provides an introduction to the central techniques in corpus analysis, including the creation and examination of word lists, keyword lists, concordances, and cluster lists. It also presents a MICUSP-based case study of the demonstrative pronoun this and the distribution and use of its attended and unattended forms in different disciplinary subsets of the corpus. The paper aims to demonstrate how corpus linguistics and corpus methods can contribute to writing research and provide fruitful insights into student academic writing.

  10. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  11. Quantitative assessment of corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardoe, Heath R; Mandelstam, Simone A; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated systematic differences in corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Differences in corpus callosum mid-sagittal area and subregional area changes were measured using an automated software-based method. Heterotopic gray matter deposits were automatically labeled and compared with corpus callosum changes. The spatial pattern of corpus callosum changes were interpreted in the context of the characteristic anterior-posterior development of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals. Individuals with periventricular nodular heterotopia were imaged at the Melbourne Brain Center or as part of the multi-site Epilepsy Phenome Genome project. Whole brain T1 weighted MRI was acquired in cases (n=48) and controls (n=663). The corpus callosum was segmented on the mid-sagittal plane using the software "yuki". Heterotopic gray matter and intracranial brain volume was measured using Freesurfer. Differences in corpus callosum area and subregional areas were assessed, as well as the relationship between corpus callosum area and heterotopic GM volume. The anterior-posterior distribution of corpus callosum changes and heterotopic GM nodules were quantified using a novel metric and compared with each other. Corpus callosum area was reduced by 14% in PVNH (p=1.59×10(-9)). The magnitude of the effect was least in the genu (7% reduction) and greatest in the isthmus and splenium (26% reduction). Individuals with higher heterotopic GM volume had a smaller corpus callosum. Heterotopic GM volume was highest in posterior brain regions, however there was no linear relationship between the anterior-posterior position of corpus callosum changes and PVNH nodules. Reduced corpus callosum area is strongly associated with PVNH, and is probably associated with abnormal brain development in this neurological disorder. The primarily posterior corpus callosum changes may inform our understanding of the etiology of PVNH. Our results suggest that

  12. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, A

    1998-01-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the simi...

  13. DEVELOPING AN ONLINE CORPUS OF FORMOSAN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-May Sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have now matured to the point of enabling researchers to create a repository of language resources, especially for those languages facing the crisis of endangerment. The development of an online platform of corpora, made possible by recent advances in data storage, character-encoding and web technology, has profound consequences for the accessibility, quantity, quality and interoperability of linguistic field data. This is of particular significance for Formosan languages in Taiwan, many of which are on the verge of extinction. As a response to the recognition of this burgeoning problem, the key objectives of the establishment of the NTU Corpus of Formosan Languages aim to document and thus preserve valuable linguistic data, as well as relevant ethnological and cultural information. This paper will introduce some of the theoretical bases behind this initiative, as well as the procedures, transcription conventions, database normalization, in-house system and three special features in the creation of this corpus.

  14. Bayesian Stratified Sampling to Assess Corpus Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hochberg, J; Thomas, T; Hall, S; Hochberg, Judith; Scovel, Clint; Thomas, Timothy; Hall, Sam

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. We exemplify the method by addressing the question, "What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?" We estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Stratified sampling is used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3100 documents to fewer than 1000. The stratification is based on observed characteristics of real documents, while the sampling procedure incorporates a Bayesian version of Neyman allocation. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  15. An Automatic Collocation Extraction from Arabic Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgabbar M. Saif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The identification of collocations is very important part in natural language processing applications that require some degree of semantic interpretation such as, machine translation, information retrieval and text summarization. Because of the complexities of Arabic, the collocations undergo some variations such as, morphological, graphical, syntactic variation that constitutes the difficulties of identifying the collocation. Approach: We used the hybrid method for extracting the collocations from Arabic corpus that is based on linguistic information and association measures. Results: This method extracted the bi-gram candidates of Arabic collocation from corpus and evaluated the association measures by using the n-best evaluation method. We reported the precision values for each association measure in each n-best list. Conclusion: The experimental results showed that the log-likelihood ratio is the best association measure that achieved highest precision.

  16. A ROUGH GUIDE TO DOING CORPUS STYLISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. G. Shepherd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has two main purposes. The first is to provide a short panorama of existing trends within computer-assisted stylistics. The second is to analyse a prize winning novel by English writer Julian Barnes, by resorting to the tenets and working tools of one of the newest branch of Stylistics, the so-called Corpus stylistics. To this end, the article starts by looking at various attempts at defining what style is and their implications to the definition of the discipline known as Stylistics. Then the paper presents recent work within the field of Corpus stylistics, as it describes the uses of computational tools as part of the stylistician tool kit. Finally, the paper provides a variety of ways with which a literary work may be approached digitally with a view to showing how computational tools can aid the stylistician in acts of interpretation.

  17. Corpus-based Studies on Nursing Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Fairus Nor Mohamad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available English for Specific Purposes (ESP educators often face dilemma in deciding what lexical items to teach their students. In the field of English for Nursing Purposes (ENP, there is no exception on this issue as well. Only by analyzing the nursing corpus made up of essential core textbooks that can provide better insights and guide to both nursing students and educators. This research aims to highlight the 2,000 most frequently used nursing words across the core textbooks of nursing and to profile the types of ‘low frequency’ lexis which comprise the nursing corpus in terms of the General Service List (GSL and Academic Word List (AWL lexis coverage. By knowing the frequently used nursing words would further reduce students’ reading deficiency if the students use the 2000-word list.

  18. Classifier Assignment by Corpus-based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sornlertlamvanich, V; Meknavin, S; Sornlertlamvanich, Virach; Pantachat, Wantanee; Meknavin, Surapant

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for selecting an appropriate classifier word for a noun. In Thai language, it frequently happens that there is fluctuation in the choice of classifier for a given concrete noun, both from the point of view of the whole spe ech community and individual speakers. Basically, there is no exect rule for classifier selection. As far as we can do in the rule-based approach is to give a default rule to pick up a corresponding classifier of each noun. Registration of classifier for each noun is limited to the type of unit classifier because other types are open due to the meaning of representation. We propose a corpus-based method (Biber, 1993; Nagao, 1993; Smadja, 1993) which generates Noun Classifier Associations (NCA) to overcome the problems in classifier assignment and semantic construction of noun phrase. The NCA is created statistically from a large corpus and recomposed under concept hierarchy constraints and frequency of occurrences.

  19. Dopaminergic neurotransmission in ventral and dorsal striatum differentially modulates alcohol Reinforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Hesseling, Peter; Styles, Matthew; Baars, Annemarie M; Lozeman-van 't Klooster, José G; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2017-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been widely implicated in the reinforcing properties of substances of abuse. However, the striatum is functionally heterogeneous, and previous work has mostly focused on psychostimulant drugs. Therefore, we investigated how dopamine within striatal

  20. MR-billeddiagnostik af corpus pineale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevad, Line; Gøbel Madsen, Camilla; Siebner, Hartwig R.;

    2014-01-01

    Tilgængeligheden af højopløselige MR-teknikker har ført til større opmærksomhed på og nye spørgsmål vedrørende corpus pineales (CP) funktion og kliniske betydning. Dertil kommer en stigende interesse for hormonet melatonins kliniske betydning og relation til forandringer i CP. I denne statusartikel...

  1. USING CORPUS DATA IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Levinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corpora have not yet become an everyday tool of a Russian language teacher in Russia. My goal is to demonstrate a wide range of usagebased approaches which can be applied in the teaching of L1 to children. I present the benefits of exploiting Russian National Corpus as a valuable pedagogical resource, as well as obstacles which can be caused by using data-based teaching methods.

  2. Conditional Sentences: ELT typology and corpus evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielatos, Costas

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study examining the representation of the typology of conditional sentences presented in English language teaching (ELT) materials (coursebooks and grammars) in a random sample of 1,000 conditional sentences from the British National Corpus. The if-clause and main clause of the conditional sentences in the sample was annotated for the form of the main verb (particularly tense and aspect), the modal auxiliaries and other lexis expressing modality, ti...

  3. Ventral striatum lesions enhance stimulus and response encoding in dorsal striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C.; Bissonette, Gregory B.; Lichtenberg, Nina T; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of addiction is thought to reflect a transition from goal-directed to stimulus-response driven behavior, functions attributed to ventral (VS) and dorsal striatum (DS), respectively. In line with this theory, neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged drug use progress from VS to DS. Here, we ask if VS dysfunction alone, independent of drug use, can impact neural selectivity in DS. Methods To address this issue we recorded from single neurons in DS while rats performed an odor-guided choice task for differently valued rewards in rats with and without unilateral VS lesions. In a separate group of animals we used bilateral VS lesions to determine if VS was critical for performance on this task. Results We describe data showing that unilateral lesions of VS enhance neural representations in DS during performance of a task that is dependent on VS. Furthermore, we show VS is critical for reward-guided decision-making initially, but rats regain function after several days. Conclusion These results suggest that loss of VS function, independent of chronic drug use, can trigger stronger encoding in DS in a reward-guided decision-making task and that the transition from VS to DS governed behavior observed in addiction might be due, in part, to initial loss of VS function. PMID:23790313

  4. Ventral striatum lesions enhance stimulus and response encoding in dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Lichtenberg, Nina T; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2014-01-15

    The development of addiction is thought to reflect a transition from goal-directed to stimulus-response driven behavior, functions attributed to ventral (VS) and dorsal striatum (DS), respectively. In line with this theory, neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged drug use progress from VS to DS. Here we ask if VS dysfunction alone, independent of drug use, can affect neural selectivity in DS. To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in DS while rats performed an odor-guided choice task for differently valued rewards in rats with and without unilateral VS lesions. In a separate group of animals, we used bilateral VS lesions to determine if VS was critical for performance on this task. We describe data showing that unilateral lesions of VS enhance neural representations in DS during performance of a task that is dependent on VS. Furthermore, we show that VS is critical for reward-guided decision-making initially, but that rats regain function after several days. These results suggest that loss of VS function, independent of chronic drug use, can trigger stronger encoding in DS in a reward-guided decision-making task and that the transition from VS to DS governed behavior observed in addiction might be due, in part, to initial loss of VS function. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended.

  6. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media

    OpenAIRE

    Epifanio, E. C.; Veroy, R. L.; Uyenco, F.; Cajipe, G. J. B.; Laserna, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  7. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, E C; Veroy, R L; Uyenco, F; Cajipe, G J; Laserna, E C

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  8. A metaphor corpus in business press headlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honesto Herrera Soler

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In linguistics a corpus typically involves a finite body of texts which are considered to be representative of a particular variety of language at a specific time (McEnery & Wilson, 2001. Those are the assumptions we have had in mind in this metaphor corpus based on business press headlines. Our body of texts is a finite number of headlines drawn from the specific field of the business sections of three newspapers: Financial Times, El País and El Mundo, published over a period running from January to July 2003. Compiling a small corpus of non-literal instantiations as different authors have done (Cortés de los Ríos, 2001; Kövecses, 2002; Charteris-Black, 2003; Koller, 2004; Deignan, 2005; and others will enable us first to identify whether the contextual meaning of a word or a multiword unit of headline contrasts with its basic meaning and whether the contextual meaning can be understood by comparison with that basic meaning, and then to categorize, both in the Spanish and in the British press, the different linguistic realizations of a headline in terms of their syntactic structure, metaphor foci and source domains.

  9. Dynamic Changes in Acetylcholine Output in the Medial Striatum during Place Reversal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzino, Michael E.; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present studies explored the role of the medial striatum in learning when task contingencies change. Experiment 1 examined whether the medial striatum is involved in place reversal learning. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. Injections of the local anesthetic, bupivacaine, into the medial striatum, did…

  10. A Corpus-based Approach to Philological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Boschetti, Federico

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is the application of techniques developed in the domain of corpus linguistics to a collection of ancient Greek texts, taking into account not only the canonical text established by modern editors, but also the variant readings recorded in the critical apparatus or in the repertories of conjectures. The dissertation is divided in three connected parts: construction, mapping and analysis of the corpus. The first part is devoted to corpus construction and it is focused ...

  11. The Significance of Self-built Learners’ Written English Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Researchers have reached an agreement that corpus exerts an important role in the English teaching and learning,and several learners’ corpus have been established.This paper aims to discuss the necessity and significance of establishing self-built learners’ written English corpus in the hope that teachers and learners will get to know it and use it effectively in their practice.

  12. On Automating and Standardising Corpus Callosum Analysis in Brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Corpus callosum analysis is influenced by many factors. The effort in controlling these has previously been incomplete and scattered. This paper sketches a complete pipeline for automated corpus callosum analysis from magnetic resonance images, with focus on measurement standardisation....... The presented pipeline deals with i) estimation of the mid-sagittal plane, ii) localisation and registration of the corpus callosum, iii) parameterisation and representation of its contour, and iv) means of standardising the traditional reference area measurements....

  13. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Lynn K.; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with t...

  14. Delusional Disorder in a Patient with Corpus Callosum Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, M. S.; Saha, Rashmita; Doval, Nimisha

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger’s syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, dis...

  15. Delusional Disorder in a Patient with Corpus Callosum Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S; Saha, Rashmita; Doval, Nimisha

    2016-12-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger's syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, disturbed sleep and reduced appetite. She had a history of seizure disorder of ten years duration, which was controlled with carbamazepine and levetiracetam. Neurological examination was normal. On MRI, corpus callosum agenesis was detected. She was put on an atypical antipsychotic quetiapine to which her psychiatric symptoms responded completely.

  16. Corpus & Its Application in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺华国; 王璇

    2004-01-01

    Taking advantage of vast electronic text resources, the corpus-based approach has contributed a lot to linguistic research. It can be applied to almost all areas of investigations in linguistics (Biber, Conrad and Reppen, 1998) . At the same time the role of corpora in the language classroom remains a great controversy. Some linguists believe that corpora are of great help to the language teachers whereas some others hold a negative view on its application to language teaching. As this argument is still under debate , many language teachers are applying corpora to their own teaching and this is the best way to evaluate the adoption of corpora in language classroom.

  17. Two directions of change in one corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2015-01-01

    Cheshire et al. (2005) argue that different levels of language do not necessarily follow the same patterns of change over time. In an attempt to test this prediction, this article reports on a comparison between two quantitative corpus studies of Tyneside English which are partly based on the same...... forms. The second study was a study of seven morphosyntactic variables based on data collected in the 1960s, 1994 and 2007-2009. This study found that the variables under investigation were either stable over time or used more frequently in the most recent data. Thus, the comparison of the two studies...... at a time when this area is undergoing vast changes....

  18. Inferring cultural models from corpus data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    developed methods of inferring cultural models from observed behavior – in particular observed verbal behavior (including both spoken and written language). While there are plenty of studies of the reflection of cultural models in artificially generated verbal behavior, not much research has been made...... of constructional discursive behavior, the present paper offers a covarying collexeme analysis of the [too ADJ to V]-construction in the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The purpose is to discover the extent to which its force-dynamic constructional semantics interacts with cultural models. We focus...

  19. Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Claire; Miceli, Tiziana

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a…

  20. Creating a Live, Public Short Message Service Corpus: The NUS SMS Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Short Message Service (SMS) messages are largely sent directly from one person to another from their mobile phones. They represent a means of personal communication that is an important communicative artifact in our current digital era. As most existing studies have used private access to SMS corpora, comparative studies using the same raw SMS data has not been possible up to now. We describe our efforts to collect a public SMS corpus to address this problem. We use a battery of methodologies to collect the corpus, paying particular attention to privacy issues to address contributors’ concerns. Our live project collects new SMS message submissions, checks their quality and adds the valid messages, releasing the resultant corpus as XML and as SQL dumps, along with corpus statistics, every month. We opportunistically collect as much metadata about the messages and their sender as possible, so as to enable different types of analyses. To date, we have collected about 60,000 messages, focusing on English and...

  1. Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Make Distinct Contributions to Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D; Dal Monte, Olga; Lucas, Daniel R; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2016-10-19

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with an RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys' choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy trade-off that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL.

  2. Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Fino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, the NO synthase and cholinergic interneurons also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway.

  3. The involvement of the striatum in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives.

  4. Aversive counterconditioning attenuates reward signalling in the ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marije Kaag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient rewards such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signalling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signalling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  5. Modeling influences of dopamine on synchronization behavior of striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Yüksel

    2017-10-06

    A network model of striatum that comprises medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) is constructed following the work of Humphries et al. (2009). The dynamic behavior of striatum microcircuit is investigated using a dopamine-modulated modified Izhikevich neuron model. The influences of dopamine on the synchronization behavior of the striatal microcircuit and the dependence on receptor type are investigated with and without time delay. To investigate the role of two types of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2, on the overall activity of the striatum microcircuit, the activities of two groups are considered as disconnected and connected. When the connection exists between D1 and D2 sub-networks with zero dopamine and time delay, neuronal activity decreases because of an inhibitory effect of the connected neurons of the other sub-network. In the presence of dopamine, an increase in the activity of D1 type MSNs and quiescent behavior of D2 type MSNs are observed when the time delay is zero. However, the diversity in synchronization of D1 and D2 type MSNs is observed for different synaptic time delays and synaptic strengths in the case that dopamine is present.

  6. Direct and indirect dorsolateral striatum pathways reinforce different action strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ana M; Galvão-Ferreira, Pedro; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2016-04-04

    The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, are critical for action reinforcement [1,2]. The dorsal striatum, which can be further subdivided into dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral (DLS) striatum, is mainly composed of two subpopulations of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs): dopamine D1 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatonigral or direct pathway (dMSNs); and dopamine D2 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatopallidal or indirect pathway (iMSNs) [3]. It has been suggested that each pathway has opposing roles in reinforcement, with dMSNs being important to learn positive reinforcement and iMSNs to learn to avoid undesired actions (Go/No-Go) [1]. Furthermore, optogenetic self-stimulation of dMSNs in DMS leads to reinforcement of actions, while self-stimulation of iMSNs leads to avoidance of actions [2]. However, in DLS, which has been implicated in the consolidation of well-trained actions and habits in mice [4,5], both pathways are active during lever-pressing for reward [6]. Furthermore, extensive skill training leads to long-lasting potentiation of glutamatergic inputs into both dMSNs and iMSNs [4]. We report here that, in DLS, both dMSNs and iMSNs are involved in positive reinforcement, but support different action strategies.

  7. Named Entity Recognition Using Web Document Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Karaa, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a named entity recognition approach in textual corpus. This Named Entity (NE) can be a named: location, person, organization, date, time, etc., characterized by instances. A NE is found in texts accompanied by contexts: words that are left or right of the NE. The work mainly aims at identifying contexts inducing the NE's nature. As such, The occurrence of the word "President" in a text, means that this word or context may be followed by the name of a president as President "Obama". Likewise, a word preceded by the string "footballer" induces that this is the name of a footballer. NE recognition may be viewed as a classification method, where every word is assigned to a NE class, regarding the context. The aim of this study is then to identify and classify the contexts that are most relevant to recognize a NE, those which are frequently found with the NE. A learning approach using training corpus: web documents, constructed from learning examples is then suggested. Frequency representatio...

  8. Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kocoń

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr This article presents the result of the recent research in the interpretation of Polish expressions that refer to time. These expressions are the source of information when something happens, how often something occurs or how long something lasts. Temporal information, which can be extracted from text automatically, plays significant role in many information extraction systems, such as question answering, discourse analysis, event recognition and many more. We prepared PLIMEX — a broad description of Polish temporal expressions with annotation guidelines, based on the state-of-the-art solutions for English, mainly TimeML specification. We also adapted the solution to capture the local semantics of temporal expressions, called LTIMEX. Temporal description also supports further event identification and extends event description model, focusing at anchoring events in time, ordering events and reasoning about the persistence of events. We prepared the specification, which is designed to address these issues and we annotated all documents in Polish Corpus of Wroclaw University of Technology (KPWr using our annotation guidelines.

  9. Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Marcińczuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish The paper presents a typology of events built on the basis of TimeML specification adapted to Polish language. Some changes were introduced to the definition of the event categories and a motivation for event categorization was formulated. The event annotation task is presented on two levels – ontology level (language independent and text mentions (language dependant. The various types of event mentions in Polish text are discussed. A procedure for annotation of event mentions in Polish texts is presented and evaluated. In the evaluation a randomly selected set of documents from the Corpus of Wrocław University of Technology (called KPWr was annotated by two linguists and the annotator agreement was calculated. The evaluation was done in two iterations. After the first evaluation we revised and improved the annotation procedure. The second evaluation showed a significant improvement of the agreement between annotators. The current work was focused on annotation and categorisation of event mentions in text. The future work will be focused on description of event with a set of attributes, arguments and relations.

  10. Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, and Corpus Linguistics: Ideal Language Versus Real Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beaugrande, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Highlights modes of evidence in large corpus research that may be significant for Sociolinguistics. Suggests that corpus data can help Sociolinguistics engage with issues and variations in usage that are less abstract then phonetics, phonology, and grammar but more proximate to the socially vital issues of the 20th century. (Author/VWL)

  11. The Analysis of The Happy Prince Based on Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui

    2014-01-01

    As a new and rising discipline, Corpus Linguistics can be applied in the field of literary criticism to analyze literary text. Analyzing“The Happy Prince”written by the famous British writer Oscar Wilde with corpus can help reveal how the plot, por-traits of people and the rhetorical devices express the theme of the story.

  12. Corpus-based Study on English Synonym Discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺倩静

    2014-01-01

    Corpus is widely used with the rapid development of corpus technology.This paper mainly introduces cor-pus-based study on English synonym discrimination which is effective in grasping English near synonyms. This cor-pus-based study may also give some implications on English learning.

  13. DutchParl: A corpus of parliamentary documents in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.; Schuth, A.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.; Rosner, M.; Tapias, D.

    2010-01-01

    A corpus called DutchParl is created which aims to contain all digitally available parliamentary documents written in the Dutch language. The first version of DutchParl contains documents from the parliaments of The Netherlands, Flanders and Belgium. The corpus is divided along three dimensions: per

  14. TwNC: a Multifaceted Dutch News Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland; Jong, de Franciska; Hessen, van Arjan; Hondorp, Hendri

    2007-01-01

    This contribution describes the Twente News Corpus (TwNC), a multifaceted corpus for Dutch that is being deployed in a number of NLP research projects among which tracks within the Dutch national research programme MultimediaN, the NWO programme CATCH, and the Dutch-Flemish programme STEVIN. The de

  15. Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, and Corpus Linguistics: Ideal Language Versus Real Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beaugrande, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Highlights modes of evidence in large corpus research that may be significant for Sociolinguistics. Suggests that corpus data can help Sociolinguistics engage with issues and variations in usage that are less abstract then phonetics, phonology, and grammar but more proximate to the socially vital issues of the 20th century. (Author/VWL)

  16. Designing a Corpus for Translation and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Describes a million-word corpus for English-Italian translation students. Outlines the design, which makes multiple types of comparisons possible among originals and translations and illustrates how to use the corpus to teach sociocultural insights, discourse-structuring expressions, and lexical patterns. (Author/VWL)

  17. Corpus-Supported Academic Writing: How Can Technology Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…

  18. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  19. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  20. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  1. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  2. Building a semantically annotated corpus of clinical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Angus; Gaizauskas, Robert; Hepple, Mark; Demetriou, George; Guo, Yikun; Roberts, Ian; Setzer, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the construction of a semantically annotated corpus of clinical texts for use in the development and evaluation of systems for automatically extracting clinically significant information from the textual component of patient records. The paper details the sampling of textual material from a collection of 20,000 cancer patient records, the development of a semantic annotation scheme, the annotation methodology, the distribution of annotations in the final corpus, and the use of the corpus for development of an adaptive information extraction system. The resulting corpus is the most richly semantically annotated resource for clinical text processing built to date, whose value has been demonstrated through its use in developing an effective information extraction system. The detailed presentation of our corpus construction and annotation methodology will be of value to others seeking to build high-quality semantically annotated corpora in biomedical domains.

  3. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender....... There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  4. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).

  5. Insights from a Learner Corpus as Opposed to a Native Corpus about Cohesive Devices in an Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…

  6. Consultation de corpus et styles d’apprentissage Corpus consultation and learning styles

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Boulton

    2012-01-01

    Les corpus représentent une ressource avec de multiples possibilités pour l’apprentissage des langues, mais les résultats d’expériences avec les étudiants sont moins convaincants qu’on pourrait l’espérer. Une explication serait que les résultats quantitatifs cachent la diversité des profils d’apprenants. Cette étude décrit une expérience où des étudiants en architecture consultent soit un corpus, soit un dictionnaire pour résoudre des difficultés précises d’usage en anglais, et complètent un ...

  7. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root 'sublux.' It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as 'subluxation:' i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation.

  8. Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics Metáfora e linguística de corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I look at four different aspects of metaphor research from a corpus linguistic perspective, namely: (1 the lexicogrammar of metaphors, which refers to the patterning of linguistic metaphor revealed by corpus analysis; (2 metaphor probabilities, which is a facet of metaphor that emerges from frequency-based studies of metaphor; (3 dimensions of metaphor variation, or the search for systematic parameters of variation in metaphor use across different registers; and (4 automated metaphor retrieval, which relates to the development of software to help identify metaphors in corpora. I argue that these four aspects are interrelated, and that advances in one of them can drive changes in the others.Neste artigo discuto quarto aspectos da pesquisa sobre metáfora do ponto de vista da linguística de corpus: (1 a lexicogramática das metáforas, que se refere aos padrões da metáfora linguística revelados pela análise de corpus; (2 probabilidades metafóricas, que é uma faceta da metáfora que emerge a partir dos estudos relacionados à freqüência de metáforas; (3 dimensões da variação de metáforas, ou a busca por parâmetros sistemáticos de variação de uso de metáfora em diferentes gêneros; e (4 captura automática de metáfora, que está relacionada ao desenvolvimento de softwares que auxiliam na identificação de metáforas em corpora. I defendo que esses quatro aspectos são interrelacionados, e que progressos em um deles podem acarretar mudanças nos outros.

  9. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  10. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Language corpora are now indispensable to dictionary compilation. They help broaden the role of the dictionary from standardizing the vocabulary to recording a language. The trilingual corpus generated by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University gives a record of business languages used in Hong Kong. It differs from other corpora in that (1 it includes English, Chinese and Japanese; (2 it shows local characteristics; and (3 it focuses on a specific area (financial services, including banking, accounting, auditing, insurance and investment. The paper discusses various issues of setting up a tricorpus, and how to make full use of the data to generate a trilingual lexicon.

    Keywords: MULTILINGUAL, SPECIAL PURPOSE, CORPUS, LEXICON

    Opsomming: Van sakekorpus tot sakeleksikon. Taalkorpora is tans onontbeerlik virdie samestelling van woordeboeke. Hulle help om die rol van die woordeboek uit te brei vanaf diestandaardisering van die woordeskat tot die optekening van ‘n taal. Die drietalige korpus wat deurdie Hongkongse Politegniese Universiteit ontwikkel is, verskaf ‘n opgawe van die saketale wat inHongkong gebruik word. Dit verskil van ander korpora deurdat (1 dit Engels, Chinees and Japaneesinsluit; (2 dit plaaslike eienskappe vertoon; en (3 dit op 'n spesifieke gebied (finansiële dienste,insluitende bankwese, rekeningkunde, ouditering, versekering en belegging fokus. Die artikelbespreek verskillende aspekte van die totstandbrenging van 'n drietalige korpus, en hoe om vollegebruik te maak van die data om 'n drietalige leksikon te genereer.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIG, SPESIALE DOEL, KORPUS, LEKSIKON

  11. Postnatal ontogenesis of molecular clock in mouse striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanning; Liu, Shu; Li, Ning; Xu, Shengli; Zhang, Yanli; Chan, Piu

    2009-04-01

    Striatum is an important brain area whose function is related to motor, emotion and motivation. Interestingly, biological and physiological circadian rhythms have been found in the striatum extensively, suggesting molecular clock machinery works efficiently therein. However, the striatal expression profiles of clock genes have not been characterized systematically. In addition, little is known about when the expression rhythms start during postnatal ontogenesis. In the present study, 24 h mRNA oscillations of 6 principle clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Cry1, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha) were examined in mouse striatum, at early postnatal stage (postnatal day 3), pre-weaning stage (postnatal day 14) and in adult (postnatal day 60). At P3, no daily oscillation was found for all clock genes. At P14, a significant time effect was identified only for Rev-erb alpha and Npas2. At P60, the daily oscillations of these clock genes were at least borderline significant, with peak time at Circadian time (CT) 01 for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2 and Cry1; at CT 13 for Per1; and at CT 07 for Rev-erb alpha. In addition, the overall mean mRNA levels of these clock genes also underwent a dynamic change postnatally. For Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha, the expression level increased throughout the postnatal ontogenesis from P3, P14 to P60. For Cry1, however, the abundance at P3 and P60 were similar while that at P14 was much lower. In conclusion, the striatal molecular clock machinery, although works efficiently in adult, develops gradually after birth in mice.

  12. Study of Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum Carrageenans Growing in T oliara, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoamazava, A.

    1996-01-01

    The phycocolloids of two species of red algae, Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum, were studied. Eucheuma denticu/atum was found to contain mainly iota carrageenan, while kappa carrageenan was the main component in Eucheuma striatum. The carrageenan content in E. denticu/atum varied from 50 to 55'Yo; in E. striatum it varied from 42 to 51 %. Considering these yields and the abundance of these species in the Toliara area, the two Eucheuma spp. Are attractive for industrial exploitatio...

  13. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with

  14. Holistic corpus-based dialectology Dialetologia holística baseada em corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Szmrecsanyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with sketching future directions for corpus-based dialectology. We advocate a holistic approach to the study of geographically conditioned linguistic variability, and we present a suitable methodology, 'corpusbased dialectometry', in exactly this spirit. Specifically, we argue that in order to live up to the potential of the corpus-based method, practitioners need to (i abandon their exclusive focus on individual linguistic features in favor of the study of feature aggregates, (ii draw on computationally advanced multivariate analysis techniques (such as multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, and (iii aid interpretation of empirical results by marshalling state-of-the-art data visualization techniques. To exemplify this line of analysis, we present a case study which explores joint frequency variability of 57 morphosyntax features in 34 dialects all over Great Britain.Este artigo debruça-se sobre o esboço propositivo de futuras direções para a dialetologia baseada em corpus. Defendemos uma abordagem holística para o estudo da variabilidade linguística geograficamente condicionada, e apresentamos uma metodologia adequada para tal - a dialetometria baseada em corpus. Mais especificamente, defendemos que para que se obtenham todos os resultados esperados da metodologia de corpus, pesquisadores devem: (i abandonar seu foco exclusivo em traços linguísticos individuais em favor do estudo dos agregados de traços, (ii amparar-se em métodos computacionais avançados de técnicas de análise multivariada (tais como escalagem multidimensional, análise de clusters, e análise de componente principal, e (iii auxiliar a interpretação de resultados empíricos através da utilização do estado da arte em técnicas de visualização. A fim de exemplificarmos essa linha de análise, apresentamos um estudo de caso que explora a variabilidade da frequência agregada de 57 tra

  15. Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pavesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients’ behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  16. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value.

  17. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  18. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  19. Application of multilingual corpus in contrastive studies (on the example of the Bulgarian-Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of multilingual corpus in contrastive studies (on the example of the Bulgarian-Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus In this paper we present applications of a trilingual corpus in language research. Comparative and contrastive studies of Polish and Bulgarian as well as Polish and Lithuanian have been already conducted, but up to the best of our knowledge no such studies exist for Bulgarian and Lithuanian. On the one hand, it is interesting to note that two Slavic languages are compared to a Baltic language (Lithuanian. On the other hand, the three languages are marginally present in the EU because of the later ascension of the three countries to the EU. The paper shortly describes the first electronic Bulgarian–Polish–Lithuanian experimental corpus, currently under development only for research. We also focus our attention on the morphosyntactic annotation of the parallel trilingual corpus according to the Corpus Encoding Standard: we present a review of the Part-of-Speech (POS classification of the participle in the three languages – Bulgarian, Polish, and Lithuanian in comparison to another POS, the adjective. We briefly discuss tagsets for corpus annotation from the point of view of possible unification in the future with some examples.

  20. New Advances in Corpus-based Lexicography*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvi Hurskainen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article presents various approaches used in corpus-based computational lexico-graphy. A claim is made that in order for computational lexicography to be efficient, precise and comprehensive, it should utilize the method where the corpus text is first analysed, and the results of this analysis is then processed further to meet the needs of a dictionary. This method has several advantages, including high precision and recall, as well as the possibility to automate the process much further than with more traditional computational methods. The frequency list obtained by using the lemma (the equivalent of the headword as basis helps in selecting the words to be in-cluded in the dictionary. The approach is demonstrated through various phases by applying SALAMA (the Swahili Language Manager to the process. Manual work will be needed in the phase when examples of use are selected from the corpus, and possibly modified. However, the list of examples of use, arranged alphabetically according to the corresponding headword, can also be produced automatically. Thus the alphabetical list of headwords with examples of use is the mate-rial on which the lexicographer works manually. The article deals with problems encountered in compiling traditional printed dictionaries, and it excludes electronic dictionaries and thesauri.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTA-TIONAL LINGUISTICS, AUTOMATIC COMPILATION, DICTIONARY TESTING, INFORMA-TION RETRIEVAL, MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS, SEMANTIC ANALYSIS, DISAMBIGUA-TION, HEURISTICS

    Opsomming: Nuwe ontwikkelinge in korpusgebaseerde leksikografie. Hier-die artikel beskryf verskillende benaderings wat in korpusgebaseerde rekenaarleksikografie ge-bruik word. Daar word aangevoer dat vir rekenaarleksikografie om doelmatig, noukeurig en omvattend te wees, dit die metode behoort te gebruik waarby die korpusteks eers ontleed word, en die resultaat van hierdie ontleding dan verder

  1. A Corpus-based Discourse Analysis on Barack Obama’s Weekly Addresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯丽

    2015-01-01

    With the development and application of computational corpus, corpus linguistics has made great development. The daily life has seen the application and significance of corpus. Especialy in teaching for it can not only supply textbooks directly but also plays a large role in the outline of textbook and composition correction. Hence, corpus is widely applied.

  2. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the acoustic realisation of tone in short continuous utterances in Yoruba. Fundamental frequency contours are extracted for automatically aligned syllables from a speech corpus of 33 speakers collected for speech recognition...

  3. The Shona Corpus and the Problem of Tagging*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    writer encountered when he took part in building the Shona corpus. An analysis of the ... Corpora may exist in two forms, namely, nontagged/unannotated or ..... word in the construction, Ndakaapplaya where a Shona vowel -a- has been.

  4. Linguistic complexity: English vs. Polish, text vs. corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Orczyk, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rank-frequency distributions of words in selected English and Polish texts. We show that for the lemmatized (basic) word forms the scale-invariant regime breaks after about two decades, while it might be consistent for the whole range of ranks for the inflected word forms. We also find that for a corpus consisting of texts written by different authors the basic scale-invariant regime is broken more strongly than in the case of comparable corpus consisting of texts written by the same author. Similarly, for a corpus consisting of texts translated into Polish from other languages the scale-invariant regime is broken more strongly than for a comparable corpus of native Polish texts. Moreover, we find that if the words are tagged with their proper part of speech, only verbs show rank-frequency distribution that is almost scale-invariant.

  5. OLD RUSSIAN MANUSCRIPTS IN THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Moldovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with different types of the corpus representation of Old Russian manuscripts in their ability to solve linguistics problems. Collections of digital copies and e-books in PDF and DjVu formats are the simplest and widely spread type of electronic resources, containing old Russian manuscripts. Theoretically  more interesting, though much more difficult, is the representation  of digitized  editions as textual corpora and databases.  The main attention in the article is paid to the historical subcorpus within the Russian National Corpus representing the sources of the XI-XVII centuries and consisting of four parts: the Old Russian corpus, the Corpus of birchbark letters, the Middle Russian and the Church-Slavonic corpora.

  6. Architecture of the Corpus Spongiosum : An Anatomical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenhof, Sarah R; de Graaf, Petra; Soeterik, Timo F W; Neeter, Lidewij M F H; Zilverschoon, Marijn; Spinder, Matty; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Heck-de Kort, Laetitia

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Urethral reconstruction is performed for urethral stricture or hypospadias correction. Research on urethral tissue engineering is increasing. Because the corpus spongiosum is important to support the urethra, urethral tissue engineering should ideally be combined with reconstruction of a co

  7. Delusional Disorder in a Patient with Corpus Callosum Agenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rashmita; Doval, Nimisha

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger’s syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, disturbed sleep and reduced appetite. She had a history of seizure disorder of ten years duration, which was controlled with carbamazepine and levetiracetam. Neurological examination was normal. On MRI, corpus callosum agenesis was detected. She was put on an atypical antipsychotic quetiapine to which her psychiatric symptoms responded completely. PMID:28208982

  8. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  9. Interleukin-6, age, and corpus callosum integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne M Bettcher

    Full Text Available The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6 and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine, as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories.

  10. Heterotopic respiratory mucosa of the uterine corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarala Ravindran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old, single, Chinese woman presented with pain on the 1st day of menses for more than 30 years. Her dysmenorrhea worsened over years and underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy. The myometrium showed trabeculated appearance, and there were adhesions between ovaries and fallopian tubes. A pale solid brownish mass measuring 1.5 cm and times; 1 cm and times; 0.6 cm with fibrous whitish cut surfaces was present on the lateral wall of the uterus in the lower uterine segment. Histologically, adenomyosis and left ovarian endometriosis were confirmed. The lateral uterine wall nodule showed a tubular structure lined by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Smooth muscle bundles were found around the entire tubular structure. Lobules of salivary type glands containing both serous and mucous cells are present. The pathological diagnosis of heterotopic respiratory mucosa (HRM was made. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HRM of the uterine corpus. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(1.000: 26-28

  11. On the application of corpus in Chinese-English translations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦蕾

    2013-01-01

    In translating from Chinese to English, we Chinese tend to rely on dictionaries or sometimes simply intuition to choose lexes. However, the translated texts still read not that idiomatic as the native speakers',the basic reason lying in the inappropriate collocations. For-tunately, the discovery of corpus laid the quantized basis for the study of collocational behaviors. This article aims to discuss the functions of corpus in bettering C- E translations.

  12. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgman, Matthew W.; Brown, Warren S.; Spezio, Michael L.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Adolphs, Ralph; Paul, Lynn K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not ...

  13. Multi-annotation discursive de corpus écrit

    OpenAIRE

    Péry-Woodley, Marie-Paule

    2011-01-01

    National audience; On the basis of the experience acquired in the course of the ANNODIS project, the following questions are discussed: - what is the annotation campaign for? building an annotated " reference corpus" vs. annotation as an experiment; - defining annotation tasks. Naïve vs. expert annotation; - the annotation manual : from linguistic model to annotation protocol; - automatic pre-processing vs. manual annotation. Segmentation, tagging and mark-ups: steps in corpus preparation; - ...

  14. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago.

  15. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aron Frederik; Baryalei, Mersa Mohammed; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Hinz, Jose; Wiese, Christoph Hermann; Raab, Björn; Kolat, Philipp; Schoendube, Friedrich Albert; Seipelt, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago. PMID:19121214

  16. Detecting Code-Switching in a Multilingual Alpine Heritage Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Martin; Clematide, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes experiments in detecting and annotating code-switching in a large multilingual diachronic corpus of Swiss Alpine texts. The texts are in English, French, German, Italian, Romansh and Swiss German. Because of the multilingual authors (mountaineers, scientists) and the assumed multilingual readers, the texts contain numerous code-switching elements. When building and annotating the corpus, we faced issues of language identification on the sentence and sub-sentential level. ...

  17. The Corpus of English as Lingua Franca in Academic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauranen, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project to make a corpus of English spoken as a lingua franca in university settings in Finland. This corpus is one of the first to address the need for corpora that show the target for English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners whose goal is not to speak with native speakers but to interact in communities where English is a lingua franca.…

  18. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury.

  19. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  20. The Danish NOMCO Corpus Multimodal Interaction in First Acquaintance Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paggio, Patrizia; Navarretta, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Danish NOMCO Corpus, an annotated multimodal collection of video-recorded first acquaintance conversations between Danish speakers. The annotation includes speech transcription including word boundaries, and formal as well as functional coding of gestural behaviours......, specifically head movements, facial expressions, and body posture. The corpus has served as the empirical basis for a number of studies of communication phenomena related to turn management, feedback exchange, information packaging and the expression of emotional attitudes. We describe the annotation scheme...

  1. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sivaraman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India); Raghavendra, Seetharam; Singh, Atampreet; Nair, Muraleedharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-05-15

    We report a 15-year-old boy with autosomal recessive complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC). The involvement of the corpus callosum was characteristic with the genu and body predominantly affected with relative sparing of the splenium. HSP-TCC is being increasingly recognized over a wider geographical area than earlier believed. We now report a case of HSP-TCC from the Indian subcontinent. (orig.)

  2. lexiDB:a scalable corpus database management system

    OpenAIRE

    Coole, Matt; Rayson, Paul Edward; Mariani, John Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    lexiDB is a scalable corpus database management system designed to fulfill corpus linguistics retrieval queries on multi-billion-word multiply-annotated corpora. It is based on a distributed architecture that allows the system to scale out to support ever larger text collections. This paper presents an overview of the architecture behind lexiDB as well as a demonstration of its functionality. We present lexiDB's performance metrics based on the AWS (Amazon Web Services) infrastructure with tw...

  3. Building a Large Annotated Corpus of English: The Penn Treebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-30

    Brill 1991]) or the skeletally parsed corpus ([Weischedel et al 1991], [Pereira and Schabes 1992]). The POS-tagged corpus has also been used to train a...Niv 1991] Niv, Michael, 1991. Syntactic disambiguation. In The Penn Review of Linguistics 14, pages 120-126. [Pereira and Schabes 1992] Pereira...Fernando and Schabes , Yves. 1992. Inside-outside reestimation from partially bracketed corpora. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the

  4. Cocaine exposure shifts the balance of associative encoding from ventral to dorsolateral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Takahashi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Both dorsal and ventral striatum are implicated in the "habitization" of behavior that occurs in addiction. Here we examined the effect of cocaine exposure on associative encoding in these two regions. Neural activity was recorded during go/no-go discrimination learning and reversal. Activity in ventral striatum developed and reversed rapidly, tracking the valence of the predicted outcome, whereas activity in dorsolateral striatum developed and reversed more slowly, tracking discriminative responding. This difference is consistent with the putative roles of these two areas in promoting habit-like behavior. Dorsolateral striatum has been directly implicated in habit or stimulus response learning, whereas ventral striatum appears to be involved indirectly by allowing cues associated with reward to exert a general motivational influence on responding. Interestingly cocaine exposure did not uniformly enhance processing across both regions. Instead cocaine reduced the degree and flexibility of cue-evoked firing in ventral striatum while marginally enhanced cue-selective firing in dorsolateral striatum. Thus cocaine exposure causes regionally specific effects on neural processing in striatum; these effects may promote the habitization of behavior by shifting control from ventral to dorsolateral regions.

  5. Excessive cocaine use results from decreased phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Groblewski, Peter A; Phillips, Paul E M

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by escalating drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) mediates acute reinforcing effects of abused drugs, but with protracted use the dorsolateral striatum is thought to assume control over drug seeking. We measured

  6. Excessive cocaine use results from decreased phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Groblewski, Peter A; Phillips, Paul E M

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by escalating drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) mediates acute reinforcing effects of abused drugs, but with protracted use the dorsolateral striatum is thought to assume control over drug seeking. We measured

  7. Effects of rhynchophylline on monoamine transmitters of striatum and hippocampus in cerebral ischemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUYuan-Fu; XIEXiao-Long; WUQin; WENGuo-Rong; YANGSu-Fen; SHIJing-Shan

    2004-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of rhynchophylline ( Rhy on monoamine transmitters and its metabolites in striatum and hippocampus of cerebral ischemic rats. METItODS The cerebral ischemic injury of rat was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The extracellular fluid of striatum and hippocampus in cerebral ischemic rats was collected by using

  8. Excessive cocaine use results from decreased phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Groblewski, Peter A; Phillips, Paul E M

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by escalating drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) mediates acute reinforcing effects of abused drugs, but with protracted use the dorsolateral striatum is thought to assume control over drug seeking. We measured

  9. Acetylcholine Release in the Hippocampus and Striatum during Place and Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pych, Jason C.; Chang, Qing; Colon-Rivera, Cynthia; Haag, Renee; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    These experiments examined the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and striatum when rats were trained, within single sessions, on place or response versions of food-rewarded mazes. Microdialysis samples of extra-cellular fluid were collected from the hippocampus and striatum at 5-min increments before, during, and after training. These…

  10. Chinese EFL Teachers' Attitudes toward Corpus Use in Collocation Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Chinese EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers ’attitudes to-ward corpus use in collocation instruction. Fourteen Chinese EFL teachers from seven different colleges or universities answered a questionnaire asking their perceptions about corpus use in collocation instruction. The statistical analysis revealed that significant difference (t=2.449, df.=9, p=.037<0.1) was found between males and females in their perception of the learnability of the search-ing technique in collocation corpus. Besides, the result also revealed that significant differences were found between novice and experienced teachers’perception of helpfulness of corpus in writing native-like sentences (t=5.75, df=11, p<0.1), identifying col-location errors in English (t=5.75, df=11, p<0.1), usefulness of corpus in searching for English collocations (t=2.93, df=12, p<0.1), and advocacy of corpus to colleagues(t=5.75, df=11, p<0.1). Finally, some pedagogical implications were put forward.

  11. Neuronal fiber composition of the corpus callosum within some odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Mandy J; Ridgway, Sam H

    2008-07-01

    Odontocetes (toothed whales) evolved from terrestrial mammals approximately 55 million years ago and have since remained on a unique evolutionary trajectory. This study used formalin-fixed tissue and light microscopy to quantify the size and number of fibers along the corpus callosum of the bottlenose dolphin (n = 8). Two other species, the Amazon River dolphin (n = 1) and the killer whale (n = 1), were included for comparison. A large amount of variation in the shape and area of the corpus callosum was observed. The odontocete corpus callosum is a heterogeneous structure with variation in fiber size and density along the length of the corpus callosum in all specimens examined. Using the species with the largest sample size, the bottlenose dolphin, comparisons by sex and age (sexually mature verses immature) were made for the area of the corpus callosum, five subregions, and fiber densities. Although no sex differences were detected, age appeared to affect the size, shape, and fiber composition of the bottlenose dolphin corpus callosum.

  12. The Chinese-English Translational Corpus of Ecotourism in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tong

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed the history of the development of the corpus, especially the translation corpus, this paper explicated the importance of building a Chinese-English translational corpus for specific areas on the basis of the status quo of corpus and the translation need in China. Then how to build a translational corpus of ecotourism promotional materials centred on Inner Mongolia, as well as its applications, is thoroughly discussed.

  13. The Application of Corpus-based Lexical Chunks Approach in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅王星

    2015-01-01

    With the guidance of lexical chunks teaching approach, this article is to discuss the application of corpus-based lexical chunks approach in English teaching by making use of corpus concordance analysis.After comparing the language differences between native language corpus and target language corpus, it advocates that the emphasis of English lexical study should be put on corpus-based study of chunks, aiming to promote the fluency and authenticity of language output in English teaching.

  14. Direct activation of the ventral striatum in anticipation of aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jimmy; McIntosh, Anthony R; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J; Remington, Gary; Kapur, Shitij

    2003-12-18

    The brain "reward" system, centered on the limbic ventral striatum, plays a critical role in the response to pleasure and pain. The ventral striatum is activated in animal and human studies during anticipation of appetitive/pleasurable events, but its role in aversive/painful events is less clear. Here we present data from three human fMRI studies based on aversive conditioning using unpleasant cutaneous electrical stimulation and show that the ventral striatum is reliably activated. This activation is observed during anticipation and is not a consequence of relief after the aversive event. Further, the ventral striatum is activated in anticipation regardless of whether there is an opportunity to avoid the aversive stimulus or not. Our data suggest that the ventral striatum, a crucial element of the brain "reward" system, is directly activated in anticipation of aversive stimuli.

  15. Molecular and functional definition of the developing human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Biasci, Daniele; Cesana, Elisabetta; Menon, Ramesh; Vuono, Romina; Talpo, Francesca; Laguna Goya, Rocio; Lyons, Paul A; Bulfamante, Gaetano P; Muzio, Luca; Martino, Gianvito; Toselli, Mauro; Farina, Cinthia; Barker, Roger A; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The complexity of the human brain derives from the intricate interplay of molecular instructions during development. Here we systematically investigated gene expression changes in the prenatal human striatum and cerebral cortex during development from post-conception weeks 2 to 20. We identified tissue-specific gene coexpression networks, differentially expressed genes and a minimal set of bimodal genes, including those encoding transcription factors, that distinguished striatal from neocortical identities. Unexpected differences from mouse striatal development were discovered. We monitored 36 determinants at the protein level, revealing regional domains of expression and their refinement, during striatal development. We electrophysiologically profiled human striatal neurons differentiated in vitro and determined their refined molecular and functional properties. These results provide a resource and opportunity to gain global understanding of how transcriptional and functional processes converge to specify human striatal and neocortical neurons during development.

  16. Response inhibition signals and miscoding of direction in dorsomedial striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Bryden

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to inhibit action is critical for everyday behavior and is affected by a variety of disorders. Behavioral control and response inhibition is thought to depend on a neural circuit that includes the dorsal striatum, yet the neural signals that lead to response inhibition and its failure are unclear. To address this issue, we recorded from neurons in rat dorsomedial striatum (mDS in a novel task in which rats responded to a spatial cue that signaled that reward would be delivered either to the left or to the right. On 80% of trials rats were instructed to respond in the direction cued by the light (GO. On 20% of trials a second light illuminated instructing the rat to refrain from making the cued movement and move in the opposite direction (STOP. Many neurons in mDS encoded direction, firing more or less strongly for GO movements made ipsilateral or contralateral to the recording electrode. Neurons that fired more strongly for contralateral GO responses were more active when rats were faster, showed reduced activity on STOP trials, and miscoded direction on errors, suggesting that when these neurons were overly active, response inhibition failed. Neurons that decreased firing for contralateral movement were excited during trials in which the rat was required to stop the ipsilateral movement. For these neurons activity was reduced when errors were made and was negatively correlated with movement time suggesting that when these neurons were less active on STOP trials, response inhibition failed. Finally, the activity of a significant number of neurons represented a global inhibitory signal, firing more strongly during response inhibition regardless of response direction. Breakdown by cell type suggests that putative medium spiny neurons tended to fire more strongly under STOP trials, whereas putative interneurons exhibited both activity patterns. 

  17. Response inhibition signals and miscoding of direction in dorsomedial striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Daniel W.; Burton, Amanda C.; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Barnett, Brian R.; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to inhibit action is critical for everyday behavior and is affected by a variety of disorders. Behavioral control and response inhibition is thought to depend on a neural circuit that includes the dorsal striatum, yet the neural signals that lead to response inhibition and its failure are unclear. To address this issue, we recorded from neurons in rat dorsomedial striatum (mDS) in a novel task in which rats responded to a spatial cue that signaled that reward would be delivered either to the left or to the right. On 80% of trials rats were instructed to respond in the direction cued by the light (GO). On 20% of trials a second light illuminated instructing the rat to refrain from making the cued movement and move in the opposite direction (STOP). Many neurons in mDS encoded direction, firing more or less strongly for GO movements made ipsilateral or contralateral to the recording electrode. Neurons that fired more strongly for contralateral GO responses were more active when rats were faster, showed reduced activity on STOP trials, and miscoded direction on errors, suggesting that when these neurons were overly active, response inhibition failed. Neurons that decreased firing for contralateral movement were excited during trials in which the rat was required to stop the ipsilateral movement. For these neurons activity was reduced when errors were made and was negatively correlated with movement time suggesting that when these neurons were less active on STOP trials, response inhibition failed. Finally, the activity of a significant number of neurons represented a global inhibitory signal, firing more strongly during response inhibition regardless of response direction. Breakdown by cell type suggests that putative medium spiny neurons (MSNs) tended to fire more strongly under STOP trials, whereas putative interneurons exhibited both activity patterns. PMID:22973206

  18. Contrast radiographic study of venous drainage of the corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum of the cat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ali Akbar; Gilanpour, Hassan; Veshkini, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drainage routes of the corpus cvernosum penis and the corpus spongiosum penis in the cat using contrast cavernosography. Five male cats, 1.5-2.5 years old, weighing between 4.5 and 5.5 kg were investigated. The cats were anesthetized and the root and the proximal part of the penis were exposed by an incision on the perineum reaching the scrotum. Each cat was radiographed in lateral and dorsal recumbency before and during injection of contrast medium into the erectile bodies. The corpus spongiosum penis was injected at the bulb of the penis and the corpus cavernosum penis at the root. Injection of contrast media into the cavernous bodies showed that both the external and internal iliac veins drain the erectile bodies into the caudal vena cava. Drainage from the corpus spongiosum penis was from the bulb for the proximal part and from the glans for the distal part. The corpus cavernosum penis was drained only proximally, from the crura. There was a network of veins above the pelvic symphysis and the drainage of erectile bodies where through various routes into the internal and external iliac veins.

  19. The nucleus accumbens shell and the dorsolateral striatum mediate the reinforcing effects of cocaine through a serial connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, Maartje M J; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    The reinforcing and addictive properties of cocaine are thought to rely on the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum. The ventromedial [i.e. nucleus accumbens shell (NAcc) shell] and dorsolateral [dorsolateral striatum (DLS)] regions of the striatum are serially connected, and it is thought that

  20. The potential role of the striatum in antisocial behavior and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Yang, Yaling

    2012-11-15

    In this review, we examine the functions of the striatum and the evidence that this brain region may be compromised in antisocial individuals. The striatum is involved in the processing of reward-related information and is thus important in reward-based learning. We review evidence from a growing number of brain imaging studies that have identified differences in the structure or functioning of the striatum either in antisocial groups or in relation to personality traits that are associated with antisocial behavior such as impulsivity and novelty seeking. Evidence from structural imaging studies suggests that the volume of the striatum is increased in antisocial populations, although evidence of localization to specific subregions is inconsistent. Functional imaging studies, which similarly tend to find increased functioning in the striatum, suggest that the striatum is not necessarily hypersensitive to the receipt of reward in antisocial individuals but instead may not be appropriately processing the absence of a reward, resulting in continuous responding to a stimulus that is no longer rewarding. This may impair the ability of individuals to flexibly respond to the environment, thus contributing to impulsivity and antisocial behavior. We conclude by discussing genetic and environmental factors that may affect the development of the striatum.

  1. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and complex terms. These works will encourage the

  2. Corpus Linguistics: Influencing and contributing to the EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Robinson

    2010-01-01

    本論文は英語教育の中でCorpus Linguisticsが、どのように教育学に貢献し、また影響を及ぼしているのかについて考察した。初めに、Corpus Linguisticsについての大まかな理論と、Corpus Linguisticsが新しい一つの手段として今までの規則を変化させる方法について述べている。次に、英語の教育や学習にCorpus Linguisticsが様々な方法で利益をもたらしてるいこと、また教育者にとって役立つことについて述べている。最後に、Corpus Linguisticsを用いて、語彙学習時にどのようにしてEFL学生を援助できるかについて述べている。...

  3. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery and study on the structure and function of a new area in the mammalian striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In our previous study, we found a new subdivision, which is mainly composed of fusiform neurons, in the rat striatum. This new subdivision is located at the caudal border of the striatum surrounding the rostral edge of the globus pallidus. This area was named “marginal division” based on its location. The somatodendritic morphology in the marginal division revealed by Nissl staining and PHA-L label exhibits ovoid to fusiform somata with their long axes dorsoventrally parallel to the border between the striatum and the globus pallidus. The fusiform neurons have two spiny primary dendrites emerging from the two poles of the cell bodies.

  5. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of pulmonary Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naem, S; Tavakoli, M; Javanbakht, J; Alimohammadi, S; Farshid, A A; Mohammad Hassan, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of study was to necropsy and histopathology evaluation of lung Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog. In July 2012, 10 porcupines were collected from Urmia city and transferred to parasitology lab of the veterinary faculty where they were euthanized by ketamine (over 40-90 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In this study the lungs were assessed through naked eyes regarding parasite presence upon washing. The lung tissue was examined under loop microscope in order to finding small worms in lung parenchyma. The worms were removed by Anse forceps and kept in AFA solution, and collected for diagnosis. In order to carrying out pathological tests, some samples prepared and placed in formalin 10 % for fixation. The counted worms frequency in high severe and moderate lungs were as 86 (50 females and 36 males) and 19 (13 females and 16 males) worms respectively. But no worms were observed in healthy lungs. The infestation severity was as; low infestation (1-7 worms), moderate infestation (8-20), severe infestation (21-50) and very severe infestation (more than 50 worms). The lung examinations of non-infested lungs indicated that the lung tissues had no parasite. In addition, no inflammation reactions as inflammatory cells presence were observed, and the air spaces with alveoles' wall in some regions were observable. On histopathological examination, the observed alteration was primarily inflammatory changes, and in some cases the proliferation was also observable. Hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration, somehow the alveolar space was filled, representing bronchopneumonia reaction. The bronchioles had various changes as hypertrophy and hyperplastic in different parts of respiratory system. Hyperemia and hemorrhage were very severe in some cases caused hemosiderosis in the lung. In severe inflammations the pneumonia along with increasing of bronchial cells in the lumen rose as well, leading to severe verminous infestation of the lung. In regard to the obtained results, the

  6. Trilingual aligned corpus – current state and new applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trilingual aligned corpus – current state and new applications This article describes current state of a trilingual parallel corpus consisted of texts in two Slavic (Bulgarian and Polish and one Baltic language (Lithuanian. The corpus contains original literary texts (fiction, novels, and short stories in one of the three languages with translations to the other two, and texts in other languages translated into Bulgarian, Polish, and Lithuanian. A part of the texts are aligned at the sentence level. The authors propose a semantic annotation of verbs appearing in these aligned texts that will facilitate contrastive studies of natural languages. A theoretical background for the proposed semantic annotation is briefly also discussed.

  7. Icariin on relaxation effect of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    NO-cGMP pathway in penile corpus cavernosal smooth muscle plays an important role in penile erection. The level of cGMP is regulated by a balance between the rate of synthesis by guanylate cyclase and the rate of hydrolytic breakdown to guanosine 5′monophosphate (GMP) by phos- phodiesterase 5(PDE5). Icariin is isolated from natural drug Epimedii herba, it is shown to have the relaxation effect on corpus cavernosal smooth muscle of rabbit (IC50: 4×10-4 mol/L), and the mechanism of the relaxation effect of Icariin on corpus cavernosum believed to have the inhibiting effect on PDE5 and activation of NO-cGMP pathway to enhancing penile erection.

  8. Minimally Invasive Robotic Laser Corpus Callosotomy: A Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essayed, Walid I; Deb, Sayantan; Hoffman, Caitlin; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We describe the feasibility of using minimally invasive robotic laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for achieving an anterior two-thirds as well as a complete corpus callosotomy. Methods Ten probe trajectories were plotted on normal magentic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using the Brainlab Stereotactic Planning Software (Brainlab, Munich, Germany). The NeuroBlate® System (Monteris Medical, MN, USA) was used to conform the thermal burn to the corpus callosum along the trajectory of the probe. The distance of the ideal entry site from either the coronal suture and the torcula or nasion and the midline was calculated. The distance of the probe tip from the dorsal and ventral limits of the callosotomy in the sagittal plane were also calculated. Results Anterior two-thirds callosotomy was possible in all patients using a posterior parieto-occipital paramedian trajectory through the non-dominant lobe. The average entry point was 3.64 cm from the midline, 10.6 cm behind the coronal suture, and 9.2 cm above the torcula. The probe tip was an average of 1.4 cm from the anterior commissure. For a total callosotomy, an additional contralaterally placed frontal probe was used to target the posterior one-third of the corpus callosum. The average entry site was 3.3 cm from the midline and 9.1 cm above the nasion. The average distance of the probe tip from the base of the splenium was 0.94 cm. Conclusion The directional thermoablation capability of the NeuroBlate® system allows for targeted lesioning of the corpus callosum, to achieve a two-thirds or complete corpus callosotomy. A laser distance of < 2 cm is sufficient to reach the entire corpus callosum through one trajectory for an anterior two-thirds callosotomy and two trajectories for a complete callosotomy.

  9. Diffusion tensor analysis of corpus callosum in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Shirai, Wakako; Hattori, Takamichi [Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease featuring parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and frontal lobe dysfunction. The corpus callosum which consists of many commissure fibers probably reflects cerebral cortical function. Several previous reports showed atrophy or diffusion abnormalities of anterior corpus callosum in PSP patients, but partitioning method used in these studies was based on data obtained in nonhuman primates. In this study, we performed a diffusion tensor analysis using a new partitioning method for the human corpus callosum. Seven consecutive patients with PSP were compared with 29 age-matched patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and the corpus callosum was partitioned into five areas on the mid-sagittal plane according to a recently established topography of human corpus callosum (CC1-prefrontal area, CC2-premotor and supplementary motor area, CC3-motor area, CC4-sensory area, CC5-parietal, temporal, and occipital area). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each area and differences between groups were analyzed. In the PSP group, FA values were significantly decreased in CC1 and CC2, and ADC values were significantly increased in CC1 and CC2. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed excellent reliability of FA and ADC analyses of CC1 for differentiating PSP from PD. The anterior corpus callosum corresponding to the prefrontal, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices is affected in PSP patients. This analysis can be an additional test for further confirmation of the diagnosis of PSP.

  10. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  11. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  12. From ventral-medial to dorsal-lateral striatum: neural correlates of reward-guided decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C; Nakamura, Kae; Roesch, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is critical for reward-guided and habitual behavior. Anatomical and interference studies suggest a functional heterogeneity within striatum. Medial regions, such as nucleus accumbens core and dorsal medial striatum play roles in goal-directed behavior, while dorsal lateral striatum is critical for control of habitual action. Subdivisions of striatum are topographically connected with different cortical and subcortical structures forming channels that carry information related to limbic, associative, and sensorimotor functions. Here, we describe data showing that as one progresses from ventral-medial to dorsal-lateral striatum, there is a shift from more prominent value encoding to activity more closely related to associative and motor aspects of decision-making. In addition, we will describe data suggesting that striatal circuits work in parallel to control behavior and that regions within striatum can compensate for each other when functions are disrupted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Mowery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL, are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx. However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, adult ACx neurons recovered balanced excitatory-inhibitory synaptic gain and control-like firing rates, but striatal neuron synapses and firing properties did not recover. Thus, a brief period of abnormal cortical activity may induce cellular impairments that persist into adulthood and contribute to neurological disorders that are striatal in origin.

  14. The Shona Corpus and the Problem of Tagging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this paper the writer examines problems the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project (at present the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI? encountered while tagging the Shona corpus. The problems to be highlighted include general problems which apply to more than one language as well as problems peculiar to Shona. The paper was inspired by the challenges the writer encountered when he took part in building the Shona corpus. An analysis of the problems that most corpus builders face shows that more problems are likely to be encountered when dealing with spoken corpora than with written corpora. The paper demonstrates that tagging is an important component of corpus building as it makes it easier for a researcher to extract relevant data. To utilise the benefits of a tagged corpus, the tagging should be thorough and accurate. Wellinformed decisions form an integral part of the tagging process since the utility of a tagged corpus depends largely on the input of the tagging process. This paper shows the need to take the tagging process seriously.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, COMPUTER, CORPUS, ENCODING, FOREIGN WORD, LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOGRAPHY, MONITOR CORPUS, PART OF SPEECH, SCANNING, SHONA, SLANG, TAGGING, TRANSCRIPTION, WORD

    Opsomming: Die Shonakorpus en die probleem van etikettering, In hierdieartikel ondersoek die outeur probleme wat die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project (tansdie African Languages Research Institute (ALRI» teegekom het terwyl die Shonakorpus geetiketteeris. Die probleme wat bespreek word, sluit algemene probleme in wat van toepassing is opmeer as een taa, sowel as spesifieke probleme wat eie aan Shona is. Die artikel het sy ontstaan indie uitdagings wat die outeur teegekom het terwyl hy deel gehad het aan die opbou van die Shonakorpus.'n Ontieding van die probleme waarvoor die meeste korpusbouers te staan kom, toon datdaar waarskynlik meer probleme teegekom word wanneer daar met gesproke

  15. Introduction to an Interlanguage Corpus-WECCL 2.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guan

    2013-01-01

    Authentic and objective material with regard to a certain language is the bare necessity and premise of any kind of lin⁃guistic research and then on the basis of the data, corpus-based approach, which is also addressed as a performance-based ap⁃proach, has been involved in almost every corner of linguistics. Thus far, it is hardly surprising that some typical Corpora are essen⁃tial for contemporary Chinese EFL’s study. WECCL 2.0, as a representative of interlanguage corpus, is introduced in this paper.

  16. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lahey, Mybeth; Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed toward infants, familiar adults, and unfamiliar adult addressees as well as of caregivers' word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults, that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed, that mothers mostly addressed infants with multi-word utterances, and that infants' vocabulary size was unrelated to speech rate, but correlated positively with predominance of continuous caregiver speech (not of isolated words) in the input.

  17. Corpus luteum hemorrhage in women with bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ron; Brenner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Bleeding into the corpus luteum following ovulation rarely has clinical significance in healthy women, but may lead to life-threatening hemorrhage in women with congenital or acquired bleeding disorders. Women who are at an increased risk for corpus luteum hemorrhage (CLH) can be divided in two categories; first, those taking anticoagulants because of a thrombotic disorder; and second, women with congenital bleeding disorders. The management and prevention of CLH is still unsettled and the literature dealing with this problem is based on case reports only. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment options of an acute bleeding event and prevention modalities of CLH in women with bleeding disorders.

  18. Similarity and Difference in Corpus-based Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies has grown considerably over the past fifteen years or so. This paper appraises the uniformity and diversity of descriptive corpus studies of translation in terms of divergent similarity, as intended by Andrew Chesterman (1996, 2004a, 2006). The analysis focuses on the state of the art of research into translation universals, highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of current investigations and their contribution to the progress of the discipline as a whole. The general framework proposed by Chesterman is also used to introduce an envisaged study of Anglicisms whose aim is twofold: to unveil the translation-specific lexical primings of English loan genre.

  19. Combining Corpus and Cognitive Linguistics in English Lexical Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雨佳

    2013-01-01

      Although numerous researches have been done on corpus and cognitive linguistics, only a few researches combine them together, especially in language teaching. It provides a theoretical guidance for combining corpus and cognitive linguistics in Eng⁃lish lexical teaching. Linguists should take both the frequency and cognitive theories into consideration when they decide which word should be included in the lexical syllabus because there is sometimes a difference between the frequency and the tuition. What’s more, the combination in lexical teaching can help EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners to better deal with some common problems such as homonymy and synonymy.

  20. Corpus Juris ja Eesti : [bakalaureusetöö] / Artur Kink ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Eerik Kergandberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kink, Artur

    1999-01-01

    Corpus Jurise taust ja areng - finantshuvide kaitse areng, Corpus Jurise ajalugu; Corpus Jurise õiguslik baas (Amsterdami leping), ülesehitus ja struktuur (üleeuroopalise territoriaalsuse printsiip, kohtuliku kontrolli printsiip, "vastuväitelise" protsessi printsiip, kohaliku õiguse subsidiaarsuse printsiip)

  1. Corpus Juris ja Eesti : [bakalaureusetöö] / Artur Kink ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Eerik Kergandberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kink, Artur

    1999-01-01

    Corpus Jurise taust ja areng - finantshuvide kaitse areng, Corpus Jurise ajalugu; Corpus Jurise õiguslik baas (Amsterdami leping), ülesehitus ja struktuur (üleeuroopalise territoriaalsuse printsiip, kohtuliku kontrolli printsiip, "vastuväitelise" protsessi printsiip, kohaliku õiguse subsidiaarsuse printsiip)

  2. Potentiation by choline of basal and electrically evoked acetylcholine release, as studied using a novel device which both stimulates and perfuses rat corpus striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, S. A.; Kischka, U.; Marshall, D. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA) using a novel probe through which striatal neurons could be both superfused and stimulated electrically in both anesthetized and freely moving awake animals. Optimal stimulation parameters for eliciting ACh release from cholinergic neurons differed from those required for eliciting DA release from dopaminergic terminals: at 0.6 ms pulse duration, 20 Hz and 200 microA, ACh release increased to 357 +/- 30% (P < 0.01) of baseline and was blocked by the addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Pulse durations of 2.0 ms or greater were required to increase DA release. Unlike ACh release, DA release showed no frequency dependence above 5 Hz. The maximal evoked releases of ACh and DA were 556 +/- 94% (P < 0.01) and 254 +/- 38% (P < 0.05) of baseline, respectively. Peripheral administration of choline (Ch) chloride (30-120 mg/kg) to anesthetized animals caused dose-related (r = 0.994, P < 0.01) increases in ACh release; basal release rose from 117 +/- 7% to 141 +/- 5% of initial baseline levels (P < 0.05) and electrically evoked ACh release rose from 386 +/- 38% to 600 +/- 34% (P < 0.01) in rats given 120 mg/kg. However, Ch failed to affect basal or evoked DA release although neostigmine (10 microM) significantly elevated basal DA release (from 36.7 fmol/10 min to 71.5 fmol/10 min; P < 0.05). In awake animals, Ch (120 mg/kg) also elevated both basal (from 106 +/- 7% to 154 +/- 17%; P < 0.05) and electrically evoked (from 146 +/- 13 to 262 +/- 16%; P < 0.01) ACh release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  3. Histopathologic study of eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia caused by Crenosoma striatum in the hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Mousapour, Aliasghar; Dozouri, Rohollah; Eshkevari, Shahab Ramezanpour; Nikzad, Mohammad; Nikzad, Reza; Omidzahir, Shila

    2014-06-01

    Crenosoma striatum is a species of parasitic nematodes from the family Crenosomatidae responsible for pathologic lung lesions in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Infection with C. striatum can cause weight loss, dry cough, and bronchitis. In the present study, hedgehogs killed by road accidents, or trapped and found dead on farms in different parts of Mazandaran province (Iran), were transferred to the laboratory. After dissection, parasite samples collected from the lung were placed into 70% alcohol. After clarification with lactophenol and subsequent staining, the nematodes were identified as C. striatum according to previously published guidelines. For histopathologic examination, lung samples were collected. The tissues were fixed and following routine processing, sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic diagnoses included hyperemia, eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia, thickening of the interstitium, and eosinophilic microabscesses in bronchial airways. Eosinophilic pneumonia was characterized by eosinophil and other mononuclear leukocyte infiltration within the lung interstitium. Crenosoma striatum can lead to mortality in hedgehogs.

  4. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Snagowski, Jan; Laier, Christian; Maderwald, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    One type of Internet addiction is excessive pornography consumption, also referred to as cybersex or Internet pornography addiction. Neuroimaging studies found ventral striatum activity when participants watched explicit sexual stimuli compared to non-explicit sexual/erotic material. We now hypothesized that the ventral striatum should respond to preferred pornographic compared to non-preferred pornographic pictures and that the ventral striatum activity in this contrast should be correlated with subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. We studied 19 heterosexual male participants with a picture paradigm including preferred and non-preferred pornographic materials. Subjects had to evaluate each picture with respect to arousal, unpleasantness, and closeness to ideal. Pictures from the preferred category were rated as more arousing, less unpleasant, and closer to ideal. Ventral striatum response was stronger for the preferred condition compared to non-preferred pictures. Ventral striatum activity in this contrast was correlated with the self-reported symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. The subjective symptom severity was also the only significant predictor in a regression analysis with ventral striatum response as dependent variable and subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, general sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and sexual behavior in the last days as predictors. The results support the role for the ventral striatum in processing reward anticipation and gratification linked to subjectively preferred pornographic material. Mechanisms for reward anticipation in ventral striatum may contribute to a neural explanation of why individuals with certain preferences and sexual fantasies are at-risk for losing their control over Internet pornography consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing a Lexical Database for a Combined Use of Corpus Annotation and Dictionary Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas; Langer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In a combined corpus-dictionary project, you would need one lexical database that could serve as a shared “backbone” for both corpus annotation and dictionary editing, but it is not that easy to define a database structure that applies satisfactorily to both these purposes. In this paper, we...... will exemplify the problem and present ideas on how to model structures in a lexical database that facilitate corpus annotation as well as dictionary editing. The paper is a joint work between the DGS Corpus Project and the DTS Dictionary Project. The two projects come from opposite sides of the spectrum (one...... adjusting a lexical database grown from dictionary making for corpus annotating, one building a lexical database in parallel with corpus annotation and editing a corpus-based dictionary), and we will consider requirements and feasible structures for a database that can serve both corpus and dictionary....

  6. MARK I EXPERIMENTAL CORPUS AND DESCRIPTOR SET FOR THE STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION PROCEDURES FOR MESSAGE CONTENT ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This supplement to TDR-63-159 describes the corpus initially used for experiments with the Statistical Association Procedures for Message Content ... Analysis Program. The ASTIA TABs served as a source from which the initial experimental corpus was drawn.

  7. [Effects of early postnatal exposure to dieldrin on synaptic development of striatum in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ye; Wang, Qu-nan; Wu, Shan

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effects of early postnatal exposure to dieldrin on striatum synaptic development in lactation, adolescence and adulthood of mice. The pups were divided into 5 groups randomly. Three groups were exposed to dieldrin (0.01% DMSO solution) at doses of 0.2, 2.0 and 20.0 microg/kg and two control groups were exposed to DMSO or saline by intraperitoneal injection of every other day from postnatal days (PND) 3 to PND13. The striatum were isolated from brain in lactation (PND14), adolescence (PND36) and adulthood (PND98). Western blot assay was used to detect the expression levels of striatal synaptic proteins. The postnatal exposure to dieldrin could reduce the level of growth associated protein (GAP43) of striatum in lactation in a dose-dependent manner. In adolescence, the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in striatum increased and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), GAP43 and post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) decreased with exposure doses. The level of Synapsin I decreased in adolescence male mice. The changes of expression levels of GFAP, TH and PSD95 proteins lasted to adulthood. Early postnatal exposure to dieldrin could affect the expression level of GAP43 protein in striatum. The expression levels of TH and PSD95 proteins in striatum decreased in adolescence and adulthood. These results indicated that the early postnatal exposure to dieldrin may persistently interfere in the striatal synaptic development.

  8. Using a Corpus in an EFL Classroom to Develop Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    峰松, 和子; MINEMATSU, Kazuko

    2014-01-01

    A corpus is a collection of written or spoken texts, which is stored on a computer. Thispaper examines whether or not a corpus can be used to develop depth of vocabularyknowledge in an EFL classroom. The advantages of using a corpus lie in its authenticity anduse of abundant examples. This suggest that a corpus could be used in fruitful ways tobroaden or deepen learners’ vocabulary. This paper focuses on the latter: developing depthof vocabulary knowledge. Data-driven learning (DLL) is one me...

  9. An Investigation into the Role of Corpus Linguistics in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付期棉

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the features of corpus linguistics and its implication for language teaching. Through literature re-view, this paper points out that corpus linguistics plays an important role in the three major sections in language teaching, namely, materials development, classroom activities and language testing. In addition, the role of learner corpus in language teaching is al-so explored. The challenges facing the application of corpus linguistics into language teaching is finally discussed.

  10. The Danish NOMCO Corpus Multimodal Interaction in First Acquaintance Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paggio, Patrizia; Navarretta, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    , specifically head movements, facial expressions, and body posture. The corpus has served as the empirical basis for a number of studies of communication phenomena related to turn management, feedback exchange, information packaging and the expression of emotional attitudes. We describe the annotation scheme...

  11. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability.

  12. A Danish phonetically annotated spontaneous speech corpus (DanPASS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnum, Nina

    2009-01-01

    A corpus is described consisting of non-scripted monologues and dialogues, recorded by 27 speakers, comprising a total of 73,227 running words, corresponding to 9 h and 46 min of speech. The monologues were recorded as one-way communication with an unseen partner where the speaker performed three...

  13. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  14. Parkinsonism "Plus" Syndrome With Incidental Corpus Callosal Agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanbhogue K R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Parkinsonism ′Plus′ syndrome with cranial CT scan and MRI showing corpus callosal agenesis is reported. There were no clinical signs of callosal separation. The causes for the discrepancies between the lack of clinical signs of callosal separation and imaging appearances are discussed. The callosal agenesis is in all probability incidental.

  15. Parkinsonism "Plus" Syndrome With Incidental Corpus Callosal Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhogue K R; Bennett D; Shankar V; Murugesan S; Stephen A S K; Karnan B; Srikanth S

    1999-01-01

    A case of Parkinsonism ′Plus′ syndrome with cranial CT scan and MRI showing corpus callosal agenesis is reported. There were no clinical signs of callosal separation. The causes for the discrepancies between the lack of clinical signs of callosal separation and imaging appearances are discussed. The callosal agenesis is in all probability incidental.

  16. Agenesis of the corpus callosum. An autopsy study in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Debora; Shapira, Daniel; Ben Sira, Liat; Malinger, Gustavo; Lev, Dorit; Cioca, Andreea; Sharony, Reuven; Lerman Sagie, Tally

    2016-02-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is currently diagnosed prenatally with ultrasound and MRI. While the diagnostic aspects of callosal defects are widely addressed, anatomo-histological data from fetal autopsies are sparse. Callosal defects were present in 50 fetal autopsies. Four distinct groups of complete, partial, hypoplastic, and mixed defects were determined by the gross and histologic details of the corpus callosum. These details helped to rule out other midline defects such as holoprosencephaly. Additional autopsy findings enabled specific diagnoses and suggested etiopathogeneses. Hypoplastic and mixed defects were associated with more abnormalities of the cerebral hemispheres and internal organs. The four groups did not differ according to gender, external dysmorphism, or cerebellar and brainstem anomalies. Defects were classified as syndromic (68 %), encephaloclastic (8 %), undetermined (14 %), or isolated (10 %) based on the autopsy findings. Isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum was diagnosed in only 10 % of the cases in this series, compared to higher numbers diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and MRI. Therefore, the autopsy, through its detailed, careful evaluation of external, as well as gross and histological internal features, can elucidate the etiopathogenesis of agenesis of the corpus callosum and suggest specific diagnoses which cannot be ascertained by prenatal imaging.

  17. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain......, such as age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and progression of the disease....

  18. A Corpus Study of Negative Imperatives in Natural Language Instructions

    CERN Document Server

    Linden, K V; Linden, Keith Vander; Eugenio, Barbara Di

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we define the notion of a preventative expression and discuss a corpus study of such expressions in instructional text. We discuss our coding schema, which takes into account both form and function features, and present measures of inter-coder reliability for those features. We then discuss the correlations that exist between the function and the form features.

  19. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  20. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  1. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  2. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and federal…

  3. Corpus-based collocation research targeted at Japanese language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses corpus-based research on collocations, introduces various tools for querying and extracting Japanese collocations and presents an analysis of Japanese collocations using language corpora and related tools. First, major corpus query tools such as Sketch Engine, NINJAL-NLP, Natsume, Chunagon, which can be used by learners and teachers of Japanese language, are briefly described. Focus then shifts to adjectival and nominal collocates and the resource "Collocation data of adjectives and nouns" which consists of adjective headwords and their nominal collocates extracted from two large corpora, BCCWJ and JpTenTen: 500 adjectives and 9,218 collocate nouns, and 500 adjectives and 23,220 collocate nouns from each corpus respectively. Finally, it is shown that corpus-based resources can be used in the creation of reference materials for learners of the Japanese language. The benefits of empirical research into collocations are also shown by comparing the obtained results with collocations in textbooks for Japanese as foreign language.

  4. Using Corpus Statistics to Remove Redundant Words in Text Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiming; Wilbur, John

    1996-01-01

    Studies aggressive automated word removal in text categorization in large databases based on corpus statistics to reduce the noise in free texts and to enhance the computational efficiency of categorization. Topics include stop word identification, categorization methods for comparison, tests on four document collections, and evaluation…

  5. Combining text clustering and retrieval for corpus adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2007-01-01

    The application-relevant text data are very useful in various natural language applications. Using them can achieve significantly better performance for vocabulary selection, language modeling, which are widely employed in automatic speech recognition, intelligent input method etc. In some situations, however, the relevant data is hard to collect. Thus, the scarcity of application-relevant training text brings difficulty upon these natural language processing. In this paper, only using a small set of application specific text, by combining unsupervised text clustering and text retrieval techniques, the proposed approach can find the relevant text from unorganized large scale corpus, thereby, adapt training corpus towards the application area of interest. We use the performance of n-gram statistical language model, which is trained from the text retrieved and test on the application-specific text, to evaluate the relevance of the text acquired, accordingly, to validate the effectiveness of our corpus adaptation approach. The language models trained from the ranked text bundles present well discriminated perplexities on the application-specific text. The preliminary experiments on short message text and unorganized large corpus demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

  6. The AMI Meeting Corpus: A Pre-announcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carletta, Jean; Ashby, Simone; Bourban, Sebastien; Flynn, Mike; Guillemot, Mael; Hain, Thomas; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Karaiskos, Vasilis; Kraaij, Wessel; Kronenthal, Melissa; Lathoud, Guillaume; Lincoln, Mike; Lisowska, Agnes; McCowan, Iain; Post, Wilfried; Reidsma, Dennis; Wellner, Pierre; Renals, S.; Bengio, S.

    2006-01-01

    The AMI Meeting Corpus is a multi-modal data set consisting of 100 hours of meeting recordings. It is being created in the context of a project that is developing meeting browsing technology and will eventually be released publicly. Some of the meetings it contains are naturally occurring, and some

  7. Semantic Associations in Business English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the semantic associations of words found in the business lexical environment by using a one-million word corpus of both spoken and written Business English. The key method of analysis is that of semantic prosody or semantic association; the notion that words associate with collocates that are themselves related, often either…

  8. The NCHLT speech corpus of the South African languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The NCHLT speech corpus contains wide-band speech from approximately 200 speakers per language, in each of the eleven of cial languages of South Africa. We describe the design and development processes that were undertaken in order to develop...

  9. Creating an Information Retrieval test corpus for Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, D.; Leeuwen, van D.A.; Theune, M.; Nijholt, A.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the first large-scale evaluation of information retrieval systems using Dutch documents and queries. We describe in detail the characteristics of the Dutch test data, which is part of the official CLEF multilingual test corpus, and give an overview of the experimental results of

  10. Väärtused Theognise luulekogumikus Corpus Theognideum / Martin Suuroja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suuroja, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Bibl. lk. 1413-1414. Kokkuvõte "Values in Theognis' collection of poems Corpus Theognideum", lk. 1537-1538. Theognise (552-549) luulekogumiku põhjal analüüsitakse Kreeka ühiskonnas domineerinud väärtusi

  11. Learning unification-based grammars using the Spoken English Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, M; Osborne, Miles; Bridge, Derek

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a grammar learning system that combines model-based and data-driven learning within a single framework. Our results from learning grammars using the Spoken English Corpus (SEC) suggest that combined model-based and data-driven learning can produce a more plausible grammar than is the case when using either learning style isolation.

  12. Väärtused Theognise luulekogumikus Corpus Theognideum / Martin Suuroja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suuroja, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Bibl. lk. 1413-1414. Kokkuvõte "Values in Theognis' collection of poems Corpus Theognideum", lk. 1537-1538. Theognise (552-549) luulekogumiku põhjal analüüsitakse Kreeka ühiskonnas domineerinud väärtusi

  13. A Corpus of Images and Text in Online News

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, L.; Bedjeti, A.; Harmelen, M. van; Elliott, D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several datasets have been released that include images and text, giving impulse to new methods that combine natural language processing and computer vision. However, there is a need for datasets of images in their natural textual context. The ION corpus contains 300K news article

  14. How to expand the corpus of spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华

    2015-01-01

    With the speeding up of economic globalization, English as a global language status is becoming more and more manifest.This article from the spoken corpus concept is introduced, combined with the students' oral English learning methods, guide the students in learning spoken English in different ways to find the effective way to expand the spoken language corpora.

  15. ASR corpus design for resource-scarce languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the number of speakers and the amount of data that is required for the development of useable speaker-independent speech-recognition systems in resource-scarce languages. Their experiments employ the Lwazi corpus, which...

  16. The ubiquity of mouthings in NGT : a corpus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, R.

    2015-01-01

    When deaf signers of Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT, Nederlandse Gebarentaal) sign among themselves, they often combine their signing with moutings: mouthed lexical items from spoken Dutch. Using a corpus of (semi-)spontaneous signing by deaf native signers, this dissertation investigates the

  17. Using the national corpus of russian language in metaphor studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plisetskaya A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes using The National Corpus of Russian Language for metaphor studies. We analyzed the metaphor 'val'utny koridor' (currency corridor looking into the context of its usage in the media and found out some interesting collocations dealing with the origin of the metaphor. The research can be useful for students learning how to use the national language database.

  18. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  19. Reproducibility of corpus cavernosum electromyography in healthy young man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.; Frantzen, J.; Holsheimer, J.; Meuleman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Research on reproducibility of corpus cavernosum electromyography (CC-EMG) is relevant because reproducible signals indicate a biological phenomenon and not an artefact. Reproducible signals are also required to use CC-EMG as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to a

  20. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  1. A Corpus-based Analysis of English Noun Suffixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief analysis of English suffixes. First, make a classification of the English noun suffixes etymologically; then, obtain the frequencies of each English noun suffixes in sub-corpus FR88 and WSJ88, and last draw a conclusion based on the statistics. That is from the word origins we can see its influences on English vocabulary.

  2. How to expand the corpus of spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华

    2015-01-01

    With the speeding up of economic globalization, English as a global language status is becoming more and more manifest.This article from the spoken corpus concept is introduced, combined with the students’ oral English learning methods, guide the students in learning spoken English in different ways to find the effective way to expand the spoken language corpora.

  3. Data modelling in corpus linguistics : How low may we go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Marjolein H.; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' li

  4. Audio description and corpus analysis of popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Balen, J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    In the field of sound and music computing, only a handful of studies are concerned with the pursuit of new musical knowledge. There is a substantial body of corpus analysis research focused on new musical insight, but almost all of it deals with symbolic data: scores, chords or manual annotations. I

  5. Immune Regulation of the Corpus Luteum: A Short Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.A.Andino; A.J.Machado

    1992-01-01

    Recent clinieal and basic studies indicate a role of cytokines in the femate reproductive processes. In tiffs art iclc we review the classical and more advanced literature on cellular immune responses and corpus luteum function and recent evidences of the importance of cytokines on the function and life span of this organ.

  6. Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result…

  7. 76 FR 49285 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... Register June 2, 2011, ] amending Class D airspace at Cabaniss Navy Outlying Field (NOLF), Corpus Christi... Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX (76 FR 31821, Docket No. FAA-2010-1171). Subsequent to publication,...

  8. 26 CFR 1.661(a)-1 - Estates and trusts accumulating income or distributing corpus; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distributing corpus; general. 1.661(a)-1 Section 1.661(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.661(a)-1 Estates and trusts accumulating income or distributing corpus; general. Subpart C, part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Code, is applicable to...

  9. 76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates for... the geographic coordinates, within Class D airspace, of the Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX,...

  10. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.136 Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) consists of the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.643(b)-2 - Dividends allocated to corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dividends allocated to corpus. 1.643(b)-2... to corpus. Extraordinary dividends or taxable stock dividends which the fiduciary, acting in good faith, determines to be allocable to corpus under the terms of the governing instrument and...

  12. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  13. Motivating College Students' Learning English for Specific Purposes Courses through Corpus Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how to motivate technical college students to learn English for specific purposes (ESP) courses through corpus building and enhance their language proficiency during the coursework for their majors. This study explores corpus building skills, how to simplify ESP courses by corpus building for English as second…

  14. Integrating Corpus Work into Secondary Education: From Data-Driven Learning to Needs-Driven Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical case study conducted to investigate the overall conditions and challenges of integrating corpus materials and corpus-based learning activities into English-language classes at a secondary school in Germany. Starting from the observation that in spite of the large amount of research into corpus-based language…

  15. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  16. Sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum: Digital morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Changes in the morphology and the size of the corpus callosum, are related to various pathological conditions. An analysis of these changes requires data about sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum, which we tried to obtain in our study. We also investigated the method of digital morphometry and compared the obtained results with the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance imaging or by planimetry. Methods. A morphological research included 34 human brains (cadavers of both sexes − 19 female and 15 male aged 26−72 years. By digital morphometry using an AutoCAD software we performed measurements in the corpus callosum: the length (L, width in the half of its length (WW’, length of its cortical margin (LCM, area and perimeter of the anterior and posterior callosal segments, as well as the area and perimeter of the corpus callosum section area. The investigated parameters were analyzed and compared between the females and males. Results. There was not a statistically significant difference between the males and females in the investigated parameters of the corpus callosum (t test; p > 0.05, including the mean values of the two most important parameters, the surface of its midsagittal section area (males 654.11 mm2; females 677.40 mm2 and of its perimeter (males 19.61 cm; females 19.72 cm. The results obtained by digital morphometry were in the range of the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance and by planimetry. However, the value of Pearson coefficient of linear correlation between the section surface area and perimeter of the corpus callosum in the males was highly significant (rxy = 0.6943, p < 0.01, while in the females this value was statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Digital morphometry is accurate method in encephalometric investigations. Our results suggest that the problem of sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum is very complex, because the identical variables (section

  17. The role of GPR1 signaling in mice corpus luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Li; Ren, Li-Rong; Sun, Li-Feng; Huang, Chen; Xiao, Tian-Xia; Wang, Bao-Bei; Chen, Jie; Zabel, Brian A; Ren, Peigen; Zhang, Jian V

    2016-07-01

    Chemerin, a chemokine, plays important roles in immune responses, inflammation, adipogenesis, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our recent research has shown that chemerin has an inhibitory effect on hormone secretion from the testis and ovary. However, whether G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), the active receptor for chemerin, regulates steroidogenesis and luteolysis in the corpus luteum is still unknown. In this study, we established a pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin (PMSG-hCG) superovulation model, a prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) luteolysis model, and follicle and corpus luteum culture models to analyze the role of chemerin signaling through GPR1 in the synthesis and secretion of gonadal hormones during follicular/luteal development and luteolysis. Our results, for the first time, show that chemerin and GPR1 are both differentially expressed in the ovary over the course of the estrous cycle, with highest levels in estrus and metestrus. GPR1 has been localized to granulosa cells, cumulus cells, and the corpus luteum by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro, we found that chemerin suppresses hCG-induced progesterone production in cultured follicle and corpus luteum and that this effect is attenuated significantly by anti-GPR1 MAB treatment. Furthermore, when the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was blocked, the attenuating effect of GPR1 MAB was abrogated. Interestingly, PGF2α induces luteolysis through activation of caspase-3, leading to a reduction in progesterone secretion. Treatment with GPR1 MAB blocked the PGF2α effect on caspase-3 expression and progesterone secretion. This study indicates that chemerin/GPR1 signaling directly or indirectly regulates progesterone synthesis and secretion during the processes of follicular development, corpus luteum formation, and PGF2α-induced luteolysis.

  18. A MRI quantitative study of corpus callosum in normal adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible age- and sex-related differences in the various dimensions of corpus callosum among Chinese normal adults. Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 286 healthy adults, including 127 males and 159 females, and ranging in age from 20 to 81 years, were investigated. They were classified into 5 age groups (20-29, 30-9, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-81 years old). Corresponding to the age group sequence above, the male/female ratio of each group respectively was: 25/26, 26/33, 33/50, 32/36, and 11/14. The following dimensions of corpus callosum were systematically measured on the midsagittal T1-weighted images: frontal to occipital pole (represented as line segment AB), total longitudinal dimension of the corpus callosum (CD), the maximum height (EF), the widths of the genu (CX), anterior one third (GH), central region (EZ), posterior one third (MN) and splenium (YD). After that, the obtained data was analyzed statistically. Results: (1) The total longitudinal dimension, maximum height, widths of the genu, central region and splenium were proved to be larger in females. But the widths of the anterior one third and posterior one third were similar in-between. In spite of that, a conspicuous sex-related difference was not found. (2) The total longitudinal dimension and the maximum height of the corpus callosum remained stable in all age subgroups. Yet the widths of the genu, anterior one third, central region, posterior one third and splenium had a tendency of decreasing gradually with aging. Statistical difference was seen in the anterior one third, central region, posterior one third (P<0.05). Conclusion: There is no sex-related difference in all dimensions of corpus callosum. But, with aging, a significant difference is found in the widths of the anterior one third, central region and posterior one third.

  19. Alterations of interneurons in the striatum and frontal cortex of mice during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Risa; Abe, Manami; Kimoto, Hiroki; Imaoka, Eri; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the postnatal alterations of neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons, parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive interneurons, and neurotrophic factors in the mouse striatum and frontal cortex using immunohistochemistry. NeuN, PV, nNOS, nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity were measured in 1-, 2-, 4- and 8-week-old mice. Total number of NeuN-positive neurons was unchanged in the mouse striatum and frontal cortex from 1 up to 8 weeks of age. In contrast, a significant decrease in the number of PV-positive interneurons was observed in the striatum and frontal cortex of 1-, 2- and 4-week-old mice. Furthermore, a significant increase of nNOS-positive interneurons was found in the striatum and frontal cortex of 1- and/or 2-week-old mice. NGF-positive neurons were unchanged in the mouse striatum from 1 up to 8 weeks of age. In the frontal cortex, a significant increase in the number of NGF-positive neurons was observed only in 1-week-old mice. In contrast, a significant increase in the number of NGF-positive glia 1 cells was found in the striatum and frontal cortex of 4-week-old mice. Our double-labeled immunostaining showed that nNOS immunoreactivity was not found in PV-immunopositive interneurons. Furthermore, BDNF immunoreactivity was observed in both nNOS-positive and PV-positive interneurons in the striatum of 1- or 2-week-old mice. These results show that the maturation of nNOS-immunopositive interneurons precedes the maturation of PV-immunopositive interneurons in the striatum and frontal cortex during postnatal development. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the expression of BDNF may play some role in the maturation of interneurons in the striatum and frontal cortex during postnatal development. Moreover, our findings suggest that the expression of NGF in glia cells may play some role in the maturation of glial cells and PV-positive interneurons

  20. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  1. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  2. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... and the fact the no commercial entities and very few recreational fisherman utilize this section of...: The owners or operators of vessels intending to transit the affected waterway during the time of... Corpus Christi or a designated representative. (2) Persons and vessels desiring to enter, transit...

  3. Neural correlates of stimulus-response and response-outcome associations in dorsolateral versus dorsomedial striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Stalnaker

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that there is functional heterogeneity in the control of behavior by the dorsal striatum. Dorsomedial striatum may support goal-directed behavior by representing associations between responses and outcomes (R-O associations. The dorsolateral striatum, in contrast, may support motor habits by encoding associations between stimuli and responses (S-R associations. To test whether neural correlates in striatum in fact conform to this pattern, we recorded single-units in dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum of rats performing a task in which R-O contingencies were manipulated independently of S-R contingencies. Among response-selective neurons in both regions, activity was significantly modulated by the initial stimulus, providing evidence of S-R encoding. Similarly, response selectivity was significantly modulated by the associated outcome in both regions, providing evidence of R-O encoding. In both regions, this outcome-modulation did not seem to reflect the relative value of the expected outcome, but rather its specific identity. Finally, in both regions we found correlates of the available action-outcome contingencies reflected in the baseline activity of many neurons. These results suggest that differences in information content in these two regions may not determine the differential roles they play in controlling behavior, demonstrated in previous studies.

  4. Dorsal striatum responses to reward and punishment: effects of valence and magnitude manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M R; Locke, H M; Stenger, V A; Fiez, J A

    2003-03-01

    The goal of this research was to further our understanding of how the striatum responds to the delivery of affective feedback. Previously, we had found that the striatum showed a pattern of sustained activation after presentation of a monetary reward, in contrast to a decrease in the hemodynamic response after a punishment. In this study, we tested whether the activity of the striatum could be modulated by parametric variations in the amount of financial reward or punishment. We used an event-related fMRI design in which participants received large or small monetary rewards or punishments after performance in a gambling task. A parametric ordering of conditions was observed in the dorsal striatum according to both magnitude and valence. In addition, an early response to the presentation of feedback was observed and replicated in a second experiment with increased temporal resolution. This study further implicates the dorsal striatum as an integral component of a reward circuitry responsible for the control of motivated behavior, serving to code for such feedback properties as valence and magnitude.

  5. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  6. BAS-drive trait modulates dorsomedial striatum activity during reward response-outcome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Fuentes, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Ávila, César

    2016-09-01

    According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, behavioral studies have found that individuals with stronger reward sensitivity easily detect cues of reward and establish faster associations between instrumental responses and reward. Neuroimaging studies have shown that processing anticipatory cues of reward is accompanied by stronger ventral striatum activity in individuals with stronger reward sensitivity. Even though establishing response-outcome contingencies has been consistently associated with dorsal striatum, individual differences in this process are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to study the relation between reward sensitivity and brain activity while processing response-reward contingencies. Forty-five participants completed the BIS/BAS questionnaire and performed a gambling task paradigm in which they received monetary rewards or punishments. Overall, our task replicated previous results that have related processing high reward outcomes with activation of striatum and medial frontal areas, whereas processing high punishment outcomes was associated with stronger activity in insula and middle cingulate. As expected, the individual differences in the activity of dorsomedial striatum correlated positively with BAS-Drive. Our results agree with previous studies that have related the dorsomedial striatum with instrumental performance, and suggest that the individual differences in this area may form part of the neural substrate responsible for modulating instrumental conditioning by reward sensitivity.

  7. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Corpus Christi Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eighth Coast Guard District § 3.40-35 Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Corpus Christi's office is located in Corpus Christi,...

  8. The CLEF corpus: semantic annotation of clinical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Angus; Gaizauskas, Robert; Hepple, Mark; Davis, Neil; Demetriou, George; Guo, Yikun; Kola, Jay; Roberts, Ian; Setzer, Andrea; Tapuria, Archana; Wheeldin, Bill

    2007-10-11

    The Clinical E-Science Framework (CLEF) project is building a framework for the capture, integration and presentation of clinical information: for clinical research, evidence-based health care and genotype-meets-phenotype informatics. A significant portion of the information required by such a framework originates as text, even in EHR-savvy organizations. CLEF uses Information Extraction (IE) to make this unstructured information available. An important part of IE is the identification of semantic entities and relationships. Typical approaches require human annotated documents to provide both evaluation standards and material for system development. CLEF has a corpus of clinical narratives, histopathology reports and imaging reports from 20 thousand patients. We describe the selection of a subset of this corpus for manual annotation of clinical entities and relationships. We describe an annotation methodology and report encouraging initial results of inter-annotator agreement. Comparisons are made between different text sub-genres, and between annotators with different skills.

  9. A Corpus-Based Investigation of Definite Description Use

    CERN Document Server

    Poesio, M; Poesio, Massimo; Vieira, Renata

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a study of definite descriptions use in written texts aimed at assessing the feasibility of annotating corpora with information about definite description interpretation. We ran two experiments, in which subjects were asked to classify the uses of definite descriptions in a corpus of 33 newspaper articles, containing a total of 1412 definite descriptions. We measured the agreement among annotators about the classes assigned to definite descriptions, as well as the agreement about the antecedent assigned to those definites that the annotators classified as being related to an antecedent in the text. The most interesting result of this study from a corpus annotation perspective was the rather low agreement (K=0.63) that we obtained using versions of Hawkins' and Prince's classification schemes; better results (K=0.76) were obtained using the simplified scheme proposed by Fraurud that includes only two classes, first-mention and subsequent-mention. The agreement about antecedents was al...

  10. Capture of Public Servant. Requirements and Substantial habeas corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The capture of the public servant in a criminal investigation is subject to special rules and different to those for the capture of individuals, since the imprisonment of an official can affect continuity, speed and efficiency of the civil service, an equally important constitutional value. Therefore, as a rule capturing the public servant must be preceded by a request for suspensión by the prosecution, and to proceed without suspension, the prosecutor in his providence should motivate the reasons and arguments why not affects the normal functioning of public administration. The lack of motivation for this essential aspect, affords a fact that becomes appropriate procedural habeas corpus as an effective mechanism guarantees of personal freedom. Similarly appropriate habeas corpus when catching public server ordered by a prosecutor without functional competence to advance research, by setting a path made by organic defect.

  11. Academic lexis and disciplinary practice: corpus evidence for specificity

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    Ken Hyland

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unfamiliar words and expressions in academic texts is a serious obstacle to students reading in a second language. EAP has responded to this challenge by taking the view that there is a common core of academic vocabulary which is frequent across an academic register. This paper briefly considers this view by examining the range, frequency, collocation, and meaning of items on the Academic Word List (AWL in a large multidisciplinary corpus. Our corpus analysis shows that individual lexical items on the list often occur and behave in different ways across disciplines and that words commonly contribute to ‘lexical bundles’ which also reflect disciplinary preferences. Our findings question the widely held assumption that there is a single core vocabulary needed for academic study and suggests that teachers should assist students towards developing a more restricted, disciplinary-based lexical repertoire.

  12. Techniques and Rules of Ineffability in the Dionysian Corpus

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    Knepper Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the Dionysian God, or an experience of the Dionysian God, absolutely ineffable? Does the Dionysian corpus assert or perform such ineffability? This paper will argue that the answer to each of these questions is no. The Dionysian God is known hyper-nous as the hyper-ousia cause of all. And the Dionysian corpus unambiguously refers to, asserts of, and metaphorizes about this God just so. In arguing these points, this paper will call upon both the speech act theory of John Searle and the metaphor theory of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. More particularly, it will look to Searle’s rules of reference and predication and conditions of illocutionary acts, as well as Lakoff and Johnson’s schematization of metaphor gestalt and entailment to show how Dionysian expressions of inexpressibility are rule-governed and the Dionysian God is thereby (relatively effable.

  13. A Semantic and Syntactic Journey Through the Dylan Corpus

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    Jean-Charles Khalifa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a corpus-based exploration of Bob Dylan’s lexicon and syntactic structures based on an examination of the 400-plus songs published to date. By means of a simple concordance program, this article analyzes vocabulary frequencies for each main word class (nouns, verbs, and adjectives. A look at modal auxiliaries illustrate a definite mismatch between large corpora and our corpus, which the author interprets as a deliberate will of Dylan’s to avoid being viewed as a “prophet.” A short exploration of complex noun phrases (the 3 patterns N Ø N, N’s N, and N of N sheds new light on the specific vehicles used by Dylan to convey his flamboyant imagery. Last but not least, a look at some syntactic idiosyncrasies (especially the use of “do” and the “a-Ving” form shows a peculiar use of archaic syntax.

  14. Consultation de corpus et styles d'apprentissage.

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Les corpus représentent une ressource avec de multiples possibilités pour l’apprentissage des langues, mais les résultats d’expériences avec les étudiants sont moins convaincants qu’on pourrait l’espérer. Une explication serait que les résultats quantitatifs cachent la diversité des profils d’apprenants. Cette étude décrit une expérience où des étudiants en architecture consultent soit un corpus, soit un dictionnaire pour résoudre des difficultés précises d’usage en anglais, et complètent un ...

  15. Corpus Use and Learning to Translate, almost 20 years on

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    Patricia Rodríguez-Inés

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is almost 20 years since a series of conferences known as CULT (Corpus Use and Learning to Translate started. The first and second took place in Bertinoro, Italy, back in 1997 and 2000, respectively. The third was held in 2004 in Barcelona, and the fourth in 2015 in Alicante. Each was organized by a few enthusiastic lecturers and scholars who also happened to be corpus lovers. Guy Aston, Silvia Bernardini, Dominic Stewart and Federico Zanettin, from the Universitá di Bologna; Allison Beeby, Patricia Rodríguez-Inés and Pilar Sánchez-Gijón, from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; and Daniel Gallego-Hernández, from the Universidad de Alicante, organized CULT conferences in the belief that spreading the word about the usefulness of corpora for teaching and professional translation purposes would have positive results.

  16. Corpus callosum agenesis: Role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

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    Achour Radhouane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA was evaluated by ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with many studies. Ultrasonography was able to suspect CCA by indirect signs but a definitive diagnosis of CCA was achieved in rare cases. MRI was able to diagnose complete CCA in majority of cases. Additional neurological abnormalities including heterotopia, gyration anomaly, asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres, and Dandy-Walker variant were documented, as well as an ocular anomaly which was described, by MRI examination. Prenatal counseling for fetal agenesis of the corpus callosum is difficult as the prognosis is uncertain. The association with other cerebral abnormalities increases the likelihood of a poor outcome and ultrasonographic assessment of the fetal brain is limited. We found MRI to be a safe and useful additional procedure to complement ultrasonographic diagnosis or suspicion of CCA.

  17. MORPOHOLOGICAL POS TAGGING IN ORAL LANGUAGE CORPUS: CHALLENGES FOR AELIUS

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    Gabriel de Ávila Othero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of our work with automatic morphological annotation of excerpts from a corpus of spoken language – belonging to the VARSUL project – using the free morphosyntatic tagger Aelius. We present 20 texts containing 154,530 words, annotated automatically and corrected manually. This paper presents the tagger Aelius and our work of manual review of the texts, as well as our suggestions for improvements of the tool, concerning aspects of oral texts. We verify the performance of morphosyntactic tagging a spoken language corpus, an unprecedented challenge for the tagger. Based on the errors of the tagger, we try to infer certain patterns of annotation to overcome limitations presented by the program, and we propose suggestions for implementations in order to allow Aelius to tag spoken language corpora in a more effective way, specially treating cases such as interjections, apheresis, onomatopeia and conversational markers.

  18. Cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis by the corpus luteum

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    Christenson Lane K

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The synthesis of progesterone by the corpus luteum is essential for the establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. Regulation of luteal steroidogenesis can be broken down into three major events; luteinization (i.e., conversion of an ovulatory follicle, luteal regression, and pregnancy induced luteal maintenance/rescue. While the factors that control these events and dictate the final steroid end products are widely varied among different species, the composition of the corpus luteum (luteinized thecal and granulosa cells and the enzymes and proteins involved in the steroidogenic pathway are relatively similar among all species. The key factors involved in luteal steroidogenesis and several new exciting observations regarding regulation of luteal steroidogenic function are discussed in this review.

  19. Corpus linguistics at the service of English teachers

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    Leonardo Juliano Recski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contemplates how corpus evidence might be used to address teachers' questions about English grammar and suggests that corpus linguistics has an important role to play in raising their awareness to linguistic features and patterns. The article surveys a range of grammatical questions posted by EFL/ESL teachers on four Orkut communities devoted to the teaching and learning of English. It concentrates on three specific types of questions: synonymous lexical items which function differently and are reported to be difficult to teach and explain; linguistic evidence that contradicts the prescriptive grammar rules that teachers have been taught during their education; and collocations that teachers attempt to explicate. In attempting to address the teachers' questions, corpus evidence is used to offer possible explanations. It is suggested that the use of corpus data in addressing these questions is not only convincing but also leads to discoveries of patterns and meanings which might not be found in other reference materials such as grammars and dictionariesEste artículo contempla cómo la evidencia del corpus lingüístico podría ser usado para responder preguntas de los profesores de inglés respecto de la gramática inglesa, y sugiere que el corpus lingüístico tiene un rol importante que jugar para incrementar la advertencia respecto de los patrones y aspectos lingüísticos. El artículo describe una selección de preguntas en torno a gramática inglesa enviadas por profesores de inglés como idioma extranjero y como segunda lengua en cuatro comunidades Orkut dedicados a la enseñanza y aprendizaje del idioma inglés. El artículo se concentra en tres tipos específicos de preguntas: ítemes léxicos sinónimos que funcionan de manera diferente y se reportan como difíciles para enseñar y explicar; evidencia lingüística que contradice las reglas de la gramática prescriptiva, la cual se ha enseñado a los profesores de Ingl

  20. Emotional Intelligence in Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Luke B; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2017-01-23

    People with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) with normal general intelligence have deficits in complex cognitive processing, as well as in social cognition. It is uncertain the extent to which impoverished processing of emotions may contribute to social processing deficiencies. We used the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to clarify the nature of emotional intelligence in 16 adults with AgCC. As hypothesized, persons with AgCC exhibited greater disparities from norms on tests involving more socially complex aspects of emotions. The AgCC group did not differ from norms on the Experiential subscale, but they were significantly below norms on the Strategic subscale. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum is not essential for experiencing and thinking about basic emotions in a "normal" way, but is necessary for more complex processes involving emotions in the context of social interactions.

  1. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices

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    Keith Stuart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, UPV was created. The article presents the practical analysis (frequency, keyword, collocation and cluster analysis that was carried out in the initial phases of the study aimed at establishing the theoretical and practical background and framework for our matrix and network analysis of the scientific discourse of the UPV. In the methodology section, the processes that have allowed us to extract from the corpus the linguistic elements needed to develop co-occurrence matrices, as well as the computer tools used in the research, are described. From these co-occurrence matrices, semantic networks of subject and discipline knowledge were generated. Finally, based on the results obtained, we suggest that it may be viable to extract and to represent the intellectual capital of an academic institution using corpus linguistics methods in combination with the formulations of network theory.En este artículo describimos la investigación que se ha desarrollado en el diseño de una metodología para la representación reticular del conocimiento que se genera en el seno de una institución a partir de un corpus representativo de la producción científica de los integrantes de dicha comunidad discursiva, la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.. Para ello, presentamos las acciones que se realizaron en las fases iniciales del estudio encaminadas a establecer el marco teórico y práctico en el que se inscribe nuestro análisis. En la sección de metodología se describen las herramientas informáticas utilizadas, así como los procesos que nos permitieron disponer de aquellos elementos presentes en el corpus, que nos llevarían al desarrollo de

  2. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70 ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1 ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  3. Corpus de inscripciones sobre la esclavitud infantil en Hispania romana

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Ortiz de Zárate, Santos

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta en este trabajo el corpus epigráfico relativo a la servidumbre infantil en Hispania romana, como base a una serie de estudios sobre la dependencia personal en este ámbito social. This work shows the epigraphic sources dealing with the children-slaves in Roman Spain and sets up a base for future studies about personal dependence in this social sphere.

  4. LAS PERTURBACIONES MENTALES EN EL CORPUS HIPPOCRATICUM. EL CONCEPTO "MANIA"

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINEZ CONESA, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    LA MEDICINA HIPOCRATICA MUESTRA GRAN INTERES POR LOS ESTADOS PATOLOGICOS DE LA MENTE. EL CORPUS HIPPOCRATICUM UTILIZA UNA AMPLIA GAMA DE LOCUCIONES PARA EXPRESAR LOS TRASTORNOS MENTALES, TANTO LOS DE CARACTER TRANSITORIO COMO LOS PERMANENTES O CRONICOS. EN GENERAL, LOS AUTORES CONTINUAN APLICANDO TERMINOS USADOS YA EN LA TRAGEDIA GRIEGA, AUNQUE APORTAN LA ORIGINALIDAD DE LA CREACION DE ALGUNOS NEOLOGISMOS, COMO EL TERMINO "FRENITIS", CON UN SENTIDO ESPECIFICO MEDICO. ENTRE LOS TERMINOS EMPLEA...

  5. A Corpus-based Study of Temporal Signals

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    Derczynski, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Automatic temporal ordering of events described in discourse has been of great interest in recent years. Event orderings are conveyed in text via va rious linguistic mechanisms including the use of expressions such as "before", "after" or "during" that explicitly assert a temporal relation -- temporal signals. In this paper, we investigate the role of temporal signals in temporal relation extraction and provide a quantitative analysis of these expres sions in the TimeBank annotated corpus.

  6. Corpus Luteum Cyst Rupture - US Findings and Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Shang Hun; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Jeong, Yoong Ki [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hung [Dong Kang General Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To describe the US findings of corpus luteum cyst rupture in order to elucidate the associated clinical features. Twenty patients with proven corpus luteum cyst rupture were included in this study. The US findings of these patients were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the presence of designable cyst, size of the cyst, thickness and blood flow of the cyst wall, extension and echogenicity of peritoneal fluid, and involved site (right or left ovary). We also surveyed the clinical features such as the onset period according to the menstrual cycle, and the presence of suspectable cause. Fourteen of the 20 patients revealed designable cysts (mean diameter of 2.6 cm) with thick walled cysts (mean thickness, 4.6 mm, 2.4-6.8 mm) and increased blood flow. Six patients didn't reveal any cyst but only hematoma in adnexa. All patients had hemoperitoneum in the pelvic cavity, and the hemoperitoneum was extended to Morrison's pouch in 8 patients and to the subphrenic space in 6. The cysts occurred in the right adnexa in 15 patients and in the left in 5. Mean interval from the last menstrual period (LMP) was 26 days (13-44 days) and 6 of the 8 patients for whom it had been possible to obtain detailed history taking had had coitus just before the occurrence of symptom. When women who are hospitalized for acute abdomen and who are in luteal phase reveal US findings of hematoma or thick-walled cyst in adnexa and hemoperitoneum, a corpus luteum cyst rupture is highly suspected. In our case study the corpus luteum cyst rupture predominantly occurred in the right side, and the most suspectable cause was trauma such as coitus in the luteal phase

  7. Fibrosis of corpus cavernosum in animals following cavernous nerve ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-LiHu; Li-QuanHu; jianSong; Shi-WenLi; Xin-MinZheng; BeiCheng; Bing-ChunTian

    2004-01-01

    t Aim: To investigate alterations of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum following cavernous neurectomy and its relation to the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Methods: Ten adult male SD rats (neurectomy group) were subject to a bilateral cavernous nerve (CN) resection aseptically under an operating microscope, with 6 sham-operated rats as the control. Fifteen weeks after the operation, the penile specimens were collected and prepared for quantitative-analyzing of ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum with confocal microscopy, and for detecting the expression of TGF-β1 by RT-PCR and westernblot.Results: Smooth muscle cells that show red color after fluorescent-labeling with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanatephalloidin and collagen fibers that produce green autofluorescence after paraformaldehyde fixation were clearly identified under the confocal microscope. Quantification of fluorescent intensity showed that the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum in neurectomy group was 0.265± 0.125, which was significantly lower than that in sham-operated group (0.760±0.196, P<0.01). RT-PCR and western-blot analyses revealed a significantlyhigher expression of TGF-β1 in the penile tissues of the neurectomy animals than that in sham-operated group.Conclusion: Bilateral ablation of CN can lead to fibrosis of corpus cavernosum, which may be related to an increased expression of TGF-β1 induced by hypoxia in cavernous tissue after denervation.

  8. The prevalence of multiword term candidates in a legal corpus

    OpenAIRE

    De Hertog, Dirk; Heylen, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches to term extraction focus on the extraction of multiword units, assuming that multiword units comprise the majority of terms in most subject fields. However, this supposed prevalence of multiword terms has gone largely untested in the literature. In this paper, we perform a quantitative corpus-based analysis of the claim that multiword units are more technical than single word units, and that multiword units are more widespread in specialized domains. As a case study, we look a...

  9. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT: ORAL TRADITION, TRANSLATION STUDIES AND CORPUS LINGUISTICS

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    John ZEMKE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the world’s verbal arts offers an opportunity to consider ways that computational analysis and modeling of narratives may lead to new understandings of how they are constructed, their dynamics and relationships. Similarly, as corpus linguistics operations must define metrics, it offers an occasion to review basic interpretive concepts such as “units of analysis, context, and genre." My essay begins with an admittedly cursory overview from a novice perspective of what capabilities corpus linguistics currently possesses for the analysis and modeling of narratives. Consideration is given to the epistemological issue in the social sciences with the positivistic prescription or empiricist description of units of analysis and the potential pitfalls or advantages corpus linguistics encounters in searching for adequate equivalent terms. This review leads naturally to reflection on the crucial determinative action of context on meaning and the extent to which current computational interfaces are able to account for and integrate into global analysis of linguistic and performance dimensions such as performer, intonation, gesture, diction, idioms and figurative language, setting, audience, time, and occasion. As a tentative conclusion from this review, it can be stated that artificial intelligence for modeling narratives or devising narrative algorithms must develop capacities to account for performance dimensions in order to fulfill their analytical potential.

  10. The Short Infinitive in Slovene: A Corpus-based Approach

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    Sara Može

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an in-depth, corpus-based study on the use of the short and long infinitive in Slovene. After a few introductory remarks followed by a brief theoretical overview of the topic, a categorised list of problematic infinitive structures based upon a previously performed analysis of Šolar, a corpus of student texts, is provided. Šolar’s data gave insight into the whole range of linguistic problems associated with the use of two forms and allowed for the subject of the study, i.e. ‘full verb + infinitival complement’ structures, to be precisely defined. The following section describes the method used to compile a shortlist of high-frequency full verbs co-occurring with infinitival complements from the half-million-word, morphosyntactically and syntactically annotated training corpus that was created within the Communication in Slovene project. Finally, the co-relation between genre, mode and the use of the two forms is examined in detail; based on a quantitative analysis of data extracted from corpora of written (FidaPLUS and spoken language (GOS for each full verb on the shortlist, new findings on the actual use of the short and long infinitive in both written and spoken texts are presented.

  11. Exemplar-based visualization of large document corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhua; Wang, Lijun; Dong, Ming; Hua, Jing

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and electronic information services,text corpus is becoming available on-line at an incredible rate.By displaying text data in a logical layout (e.g., color graphs),text visualization presents a direct way to observe the documents as well as understand the relationship between them.In this paper, we propose a novel technique, Exemplar-based Visualization (EV), to visualize an extremely large text corpus. Capitalizing on recent advances in matrix approximation and decomposition, EV presents a probabilistic multidimensional projection model in the low-rank text subspace with a sound objective function. The probability of each document proportion to the topics is obtained through iterative optimization and embedded to a low dimensional space using parameter embedding.By selecting the representative exemplars, we obtain a compact approximation of the data. This makes the visualization highly efficient and flexible. In addition, the selected exemplars neatly summarize the entire data set and greatly reduce the cognitive overload in the visualization, leading to an easier interpretation of large text corpus. Empirically, we demonstrate the superior performance of EV through extensive experiments performed on the publicly available text data sets.

  12. Memory-Guided Attention: Independent Contributions of the Hippocampus and Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth V; Chun, Marvin M; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-20

    Memory can strongly influence how attention is deployed in future encounters. Though memory dependent on the medial temporal lobes has been shown to drive attention, how other memory systems could concurrently and comparably enhance attention is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that both reinforcement learning and context memory facilitate attention in a visual search task. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we dissociate the mechanisms by which these memories guide attention: trial by trial, the hippocampus (not the striatum) predicted attention benefits from context memory, while the striatum (not the hippocampus) predicted facilitation from rewarded stimulus-response associations. Responses in these regions were also distinctly correlated with individual differences in each type of memory-guided attention. This study provides novel evidence for the role of the striatum in guiding attention, dissociable from hippocampus-dependent context memory.

  13. GABA-ERGIC NEURONS IN THE RAT STRIATUM UNDER NORMAL AND ISCHEMIC INJURY

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    E.S. Petrova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD-67 is a marker of GABA-ergic neurons. The purpose of this study is to examine the distribution of GAD-67-immunopositive neurons in the striatum of rats under experimental conditions, reproducing brief focal cerebral ischemia. Endovascular occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery in rats was performed. Duration of circulatory disorders was 30 min, the time of reperfusion was 48 hours. With counting GAD-67-immunopositive neurons in the striatum was found that the number of GABA-ergic neurons in the striatum ipsilateral hemisphere is reduced by 40%. In the contralateral hemisphere, the distribution and structure of the neurons is not different from controls. It is shown that GABA-ergic neurons are less susceptible to damage, as compared to other neurons phenotypes.

  14. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific…

  15. Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin; Salvatore, Michael F; Pomerleau, Francois; Apparsundaram, Subbu; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2007-11-01

    Extracellular L-glutamate poses a severe excitotoxic threat to neurons and glia when unregulated, therefore low synaptic levels of this neurotransmitter must be maintained via a rapid and robust transport system. A recent study from our laboratory showed a reduced glutamate uptake rate in the striatum of the aged Fischer 344 (F344) rat, yet the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. The current study utilized in vivo electrochemical recordings, immunoblotting and biotinylation in young (6 months), late-middle aged (18 months) and aged (24 months) F344 rats to elucidate the potential role that glutamate transporters (GLT-1, GLAST, and EAAC1) may play in this mechanism. Here we show that the time necessary to clear glutamate from the late-middle aged and aged striatum is significantly prolonged in comparison to the young striatum. In addition, an analysis of various sub-regions of the striatum revealed a marked dorsoventral gradient in terms of glutamate clearance times in the aged striatum, a phenomenon which was not present in the striatum of the animals of the remaining age groups. We also found that the decreased glutamate clearance time observed in the late-middle aged and aged rats is not due to a decrease in the production of total transporter protein among these three transporters. Rather, a significant reduction in the amount of GLAST expressed on the plasma membrane surface in the aged animals (approximately 55% when compared to young rats) may contribute to this phenomenon. These age-related alterations in extracellular l-glutamate regulation may be key contributors to the increased susceptibility of the aged brain to excitotoxic insults such as stroke and hypoxia.

  16. Striatonigrostriatal pathways in primates form an ascending spiral from the shell to the dorsolateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, S N; Fudge, J L; McFarland, N R

    2000-03-15

    Clinical manifestations in diseases affecting the dopamine system include deficits in emotional, cognitive, and motor function. Although the parallel organization of specific corticostriatal pathways is well documented, mechanisms by which dopamine might integrate information across different cortical/basal ganglia circuits are less well understood. We analyzed a collection of retrograde and anterograde tracing studies to understand how the striatonigrostriatal (SNS) subcircuit directs information flow between ventromedial (limbic), central (associative), and dorsolateral (motor) striatal regions. When viewed as a whole, the ventromedial striatum projects to a wide range of the dopamine cells and receives a relatively small dopamine input. In contrast, the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) receives input from a broad expanse of dopamine cells and has a confined input to the substantia nigra (SN). The central striatum (CS) receives input from and projects to a relatively wide range of the SN. The SNS projection from each striatal region contains three substantia nigra components: a dorsal group of nigrostriatal projecting cells, a central region containing both nigrostriatal projecting cells and its reciprocal striatonigral terminal fields, and a ventral region that receives a specific striatonigral projection but does not contain its reciprocal nigrostriatal projection. Examination of results from multiple tracing experiments simultaneously demonstrates an interface between different striatal regions via the midbrain dopamine cells that forms an ascending spiral between regions. The shell influences the core, the core influences the central striatum, and the central striatum influences the dorsolateral striatum. This anatomical arrangement creates a hierarchy of information flow and provides an anatomical basis for the limbic/cognitive/motor interface via the ventral midbrain.

  17. Automatic segmentation method of striatum regions in quantitative susceptibility mapping images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, Saki; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Hirai, Toshinori

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain iron has been detected in various neurodegenerative diseases. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel contrast mechanism in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and enables the quantitative analysis of local tissue susceptibility property. Therefore, automatic segmentation tools of brain regions on QSM images would be helpful for radiologists' quantitative analysis in various neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic segmentation and classification method of striatum regions on QSM images. Our image database consisted of 22 QSM images obtained from healthy volunteers. These images were acquired on a 3.0 T MR scanner. The voxel size was 0.9×0.9×2 mm. The matrix size of each slice image was 256×256 pixels. In our computerized method, a template mating technique was first used for the detection of a slice image containing striatum regions. An image registration technique was subsequently employed for the classification of striatum regions in consideration of the anatomical knowledge. After the image registration, the voxels in the target image which correspond with striatum regions in the reference image were classified into three striatum regions, i.e., head of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. The experimental results indicated that 100% (21/21) of the slice images containing striatum regions were detected accurately. The subjective evaluation of the classification results indicated that 20 (95.2%) of 21 showed good or adequate quality. Our computerized method would be useful for the quantitative analysis of Parkinson diseases in QSM images.

  18. HACIA LA CONSTITUCIÓN DE UN CORPUS DIACRÓNICO DEL ESPAÑOL DE CHILE TOWARDS CHILEAN SPANISH LANGUAGE DIACHRONIC CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL CONTRERAS SEITZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y analiza la constitución de corpus diacrónicos hispánicos (españoles e hispanoamericanos con el objeto de situar el marco de referencia del CorDECh (Corpus Diacrónico del Español de Chile. El trabajo presenta una intersección entre disciplinas tradicionales, como la filología y la paleografía, con especialidades lingüísticas que se han revitalizado en los últimos años, como es el caso de la lingüística del corpus, en virtud de la conformación de un corpus diacrónico del español de Chile. Además, en este texto se da cuenta de los criterios de constitución de este corpus (cronológico, de selección y transcripción documental, diatópico y de variedad de registros; asimismo, se discuten aspectos de la automatización del corpus y las implicancias y proyecciones para el análisis del mismo. Finalmente, se repasan los criterios de etiquetación del corpus, de acuerdo con los aspectos de la Text Encoding Initiative (TEI, adoptados por la RAE en el Prontuario de Marcación SGML, utilizado para el CORDE (Corpus Diacrónico del Español, junto con presentar algunos ejemplos de estos aspectos, para lo cual se utilizó el editor XML/ XSLT Cooktop 2.5.The conformation of Hispanic diachronic corpora (Spanish and Hispano-American in order to place the framework of the CorDECh (Corpus Diacrónico del Español de Chile is described and analyzed in this paper. The work shows an intersection between traditional disciplines, such as the philolology and the paleography, with linguistic disciplines that have been revitalized in the last years, such as corpus linguistics, in order to shape a Chilean Spanish diachronic corpus. In addition, the criteria of corpus formation is presented in this text (chronological, documentary selection and transcription, diatopics and register varieties; in the same way, some aspects of corpora automatization and the implications and projections for its analysis is discussed here. Finally

  19. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  20. Apomorphine-induced circling behaviour in hamsters following unilateral injection of scrapie gent in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorde, J M; Bert, J; Gambarelli, D; Tamalet, J

    1981-03-10

    Twenty golden hamsters received a microinjection of scrapie agent into the left striatum. At different times after inoculation animals were injected intraperitoneally with apomorphine, a direct dopamine receptor agonist. Two types of effects developed simultaneously, starting at about 80 days after infection. First, apomorphine induced a rotational behaviour which showed a progressive destruction of the striatal neurones at the site of injection. This suggest a local spread of scrapie agent by cell to cell transfer in the striatum. Secondly, the clinical signs of scrapie developed, indicating a more widespread distribution of agent throughout the brain.

  1. Ventral striatum gray matter density reduction in patients with schizophrenia and psychotic emotional dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Stegmayer

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Decreased gray matter density in a large cluster including the right ventral striatum was associated with severe symptoms of emotional dysregulation in patients with schizophrenia. The ventral striatum is an important part of the limbic system, and was indicated to be involved in the generation of incentive salience and psychotic symptoms. Only patients with severe emotional dysregulation had decreased gray matter in several brain structures associated with emotion and reward processing compared to healthy controls. The results support the hypothesis that grouping patients according to specific clinical symptoms matched to the limbic system allows identifying patient subgroups with structural abnormalities in the limbic network.

  2. Effects of Bilateral Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsomedial Striatum on Motor Behavior and Instrumental Learning in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamphyle Abedi Mukutenga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dorsal striatum plays an important role in the control of motor activity and learning processes within the basal ganglia circuitry. Furthermore, recent works have suggested functional differentiation between subregions of the dorsal striatumMethods:The present study examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum on motor behavior and learning ability in rats using a series of behavioral tests. 20 male wistar rats were used in the experiment and behavioral assessment were conducted using open field test, rotarod test and 8-arm radial maze.Results:In the open field test, rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum showed a normal motor function in the horizontal locomotor activity, while in rearing activity they displayed a statistically significant motor impairment when compared to sham operated group. In the rotarod test, a deficit in motor coordination and acquisition of skilled behavior was observed in rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum compared to sham. However, radial maze performance revealed similar capacity in the acquisition of learning task between experimental groups.Discussion:Our results support the premise of the existence of functional dissociation between the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral regions of the dorsal striatum. In addition, our data suggest that the associative dorsomedial striatum may be as critical in striatum-based motor control.

  3. Corpus spécialisé et ressource de spécialité

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemin, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    "Semantic Atlas" is a mathematic and statistic model to visualise word senses according to relations between words. The model, that has been applied to proximity relations from a corpus, has shown its ability to distinguish word senses as the corpus' contributors comprehend them. We propose to use the model and a specialised corpus in order to create automatically a specialised dictionary relative to the corpus' domain. A morpho-syntactic analysis performed on the corpus makes it possible to create the dictionary from syntactic relations between lexical units. The semantic resource can be used to navigate semantically - and not only lexically - through the corpus, to create classical dictionaries or for diachronic studies of the language.

  4. A Modular and Flexible Architecture for an Integrated Corpus Query System

    OpenAIRE

    Christ, Oliver

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture of an integrated and extensible corpus query system developed at the University of Stuttgart and gives examples of some of the modules realized within this architecture. The modules form the core of a corpus workbench. Within the proposed architecture, information required for the evaluation of queries may be derived from different knowledge sources (the corpus text, databases, on-line thesauri) and by different means: either through direct lookup in a dat...

  5. A Corpus-based Study on Keywords in The Glass Menagerie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-mei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Corpus-based approach has been an important method. Based on the analysis about some Papers on corpus and corpus-based approach in literary texts, this thesis takes the work of American famous writer Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie as the research object. Guided by the stylistic theoretical framework put forward by Leech and Short, the study con⁃ducts text analysis with Wordsmith and Antconc3.3.1 for studying the keywords of the novel.

  6. A Review on Speech Corpus Development for Automatic Speech Recognition in Indian Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Cini kurian

    2015-01-01

    Corpus development gained much attention due to recent statistics based natural language processing. It has new applications in Language Technology, linguistic research, language education and information exchange. Corpus based Language research has an innovative outlook which will discard the aged linguistic theories. Speech corpus is the essential resources for building a speech recognizer. One of the main challenges faced by speech scientist is the unavailability of these resources. Very f...

  7. An individual subjectivist critique of the use of corpus linguistics to inform pedagogical materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall Richards; Nick Pilcher

    2016-01-01

    Corpus linguistics, or the gathering together of language into a body for analysis and development of materials, is claimed to be an assured, established method (or field) that valuably informs pedagogical materials and knowledge of language (e.g. Ädel 2010; Gardner & Nesi, 2013). The fundamental validity of corpus linguistics is rarely, if ever, critiqued. In this empirical paper we critically consider the foundations of corpus linguistics as being based on an abstract objectivist view of la...

  8. Morphologic Response to a New Inlet, Packery Channel, Corpus Christi, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    additional navigational amenity is that access to the Gulf of Mexico from the Upper Laguna Madre and Corpus Christi Bay system would be about 3 miles (5 km...Emily during construction of the jetties. The inlet connects Corpus Christi Bay and Laguna Madre to the Gulf of Mexico, the first new artificially...Packery Channel was opened by Hurricane Emily during the second year of its construction. This inlet connects Corpus Christi Bay and Upper Laguna

  9. A Research on Bilingual Dictionary Based Sentence Alignment for Chinese English Parallel Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Parallel corpus is of great importance to machine translation, and automatic sentence alignment is the first step towards its processing. This paper puts forward a bilingual dictionary based sentence alignment method for Chinese English parallel corpus, which differs from previous length based algorithm in its knowledge-rich approach. Experimental result shows that this method produces over 93% accuracy with usual English-Chinese dictionaries whose translations cover 31.88%~47.90% of the corpus.

  10. Hippocampal projections to the ventral striatum: from spatial memory to motivated behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, M.M.A; Ito, R.; Lansink, C.S.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Derdikman, D.; Knierim, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple regions of the hippocampal formation project to the ventral striatum, a central node in brain circuits that subserve aspects of motivation. These projections emphasize information flow from the ventral (temporal) pole of the hippocampus and interact with converging projections and

  11. Membrane properties and synaptic connectivity of fast-spiking interneurons in rat ventral striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverna, S.; Canciani, B.; Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro patch-clamp recordings were made to study the membrane properties and synaptic connectivity of fast-spiking interneurons in rat ventral striatum. Using a whole-cell configuration in acutely prepared slices, fast-spiking interneurons were recognized based on their firing properties and their

  12. Differential activation of the dorsal striatum by high-calorie visual food stimuli in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothemund, Yvonne; Preuschhof, Claudia; Bohner, Georg; Bauknecht, Hans-Christian; Klingebiel, Randolf; Flor, Herta; Klapp, Burghard F

    2007-08-15

    The neural systems regulating food intake in obese individuals remain poorly understood. Previous studies applied positron emission tomography and manipulated hunger and satiety to investigate differences in appetitive processing between obese and normal-weight individuals. However, it is not known whether manipulation of stimulus value may yield different neural activity in obese as compared to control subjects when intrinsic physiological states are kept constant. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate 13 obese and 13 normal-weight subjects and manipulated food motivation by presenting visual food stimuli differing in their caloric content and energy density. In contrast to controls, obese women selectively activated the dorsal striatum while viewing high-caloric foods. Moreover, in the high-calorie condition body mass index (BMI) predicted activation in the dorsal striatum, anterior insula, claustrum, posterior cingulate, postcentral and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. The results indicate that in obese individuals simple visual stimulation with food stimuli activates regions related to reward anticipation and habit learning (dorsal striatum). Additionally, high-calorie food images yielded BMI-dependent activations in regions associated with taste information processing (anterior insula and lateral orbitofrontal cortex), motivation (orbitofrontal cortex), emotion as well as memory functions (posterior cingulate). Collectively, the results suggest that the observed activation is independent of the physiological states of hunger and satiation, and thus may contribute to pathological overeating and obesity. Some of the observed activations (dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) are likely to be dopamine-mediated.

  13. Septic arthritis of a native knee joint due to Corynebacterium striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westblade, Lars F; Shams, Farah; Duong, Scott; Tariq, Oosman; Bulbin, Alan; Klirsfeld, Dava; Zhen, Wei; Sakaria, Smita; Ford, Bradley A; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Ginocchio, Christine C

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of septic arthritis of a native knee joint due to Corynebacterium striatum, a rare and unusual cause of septic arthritis of native joints. The isolate was identified by a combination of phenotypic, mass spectrometric, and nucleic acid-based assays and exhibited high-level resistance to most antimicrobials.

  14. Rhes, the Ras homolog enriched in striatum, is reduced under conditions of dopamine supersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L M; LaHoste, G J

    2006-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptors become supersensitive when dopaminergic input is removed through either surgical denervation or pharmacological depletion. Although alterations such as increased D2 receptor binding and increased receptor-G protein coupling have been described in supersensitive striatal tissue, their roles in the mechanism of supersensitivity remain uncertain. The Ras Homolog Enriched in Striatum (Rhes) is expressed in brain areas that receive dopaminergic input, and here we test whether alterations in its expression accompany treatments that promote dopamine receptor supersensitivity in rats. Removal of dopamine input to the striatum by surgical denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in a decrease in rhes mRNA expression throughout striatum, as measured with quantitative in situ hybridization. The decrease was detected as early as two weeks and as late as seven months after surgery. Furthermore, a decrease in rhes mRNA was evident after repeated or acute reserpine treatment. Chronic daily injection of rats with the D2 antagonist eticlopride, which is known to up-regulate D2 receptors without inducing profound receptor supersensitivity, did not alter the expression of rhes mRNA in striatum. Thus, changes in rhes mRNA expression are strictly correlated with receptor supersensitivity, perhaps as a result of continuous removal of dopaminergic input. These findings suggest that rhes mRNA expression is maintained by dopamine and may play a role in determining normal dopamine receptor sensitivity.

  15. Hippocampus leads ventral striatum in replay of place-reward information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Lansink; P.M. Goltstein; J.V. Lankelma; B.L. McNaughton; C.M.A. Pennartz

    2009-01-01

    Associating spatial locations with rewards is fundamental to survival in natural environments and requires the integrity of the hippocampus and ventral striatum. In joint multineuron recordings from these areas, hippocampal-striatal ensembles reactivated together during sleep. This process was espec

  16. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations in the dorsal striatum: glutamate dynamics and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Vinay; Naughton, Sean X; Shi, Xiangdang; Kelley, Leslie K; Yegla, Brittney; Tallarida, Christopher S; Rawls, Scott M; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that diminished ability to control cocaine seeking arises from perturbations in glutamate homeostasis in the nucleus accumbens. However, the neurochemical substrates underlying cocaine-induced neuroadaptations in the dorsal striatum and how these mechanisms link to behavioral plasticity is not clear. We employed glutamate-sensitive microelectrodes and amperometry to study the impact of repeated cocaine administration on glutamate dynamics in the dorsolateral striatum of awake freely-moving rats. Depolarization-evoked glutamate release was robustly increased in cocaine-pretreated rats challenged with cocaine. Moreover, the clearance of glutamate signals elicited either by terminal depolarization or blockade of non-neuronal glutamate transporters slowed down dramatically in cocaine-sensitized rats. Repeated cocaine exposure also reduced the neuronal tone of striatal glutamate. Ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic that activates the astrocytic glutamate transporter, attenuated the effects of repeated cocaine exposure on synaptic glutamate release and glutamate clearance kinetics. Finally, the antagonism of AMPA glutamate receptors in the dorsolateral striatum blocked the development of behavioral sensitization to repeated cocaine administration. Collectively, these data suggest that repeated cocaine exposure disrupts presynaptic glutamate transmission and transporter-mediated clearance mechanisms in the dorsal striatum. Moreover, such alterations produce an over activation of AMPA receptors in this brain region leading to the sensitized behavioral response to repeated cocaine.

  17. Glucocorticoids in the dorsomedial striatum modulate the consolidation of spatial but not procedural memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Y.R.; Serafin, N.; Prado-Alcala, R.A.; Roozendaal, B.; Quirarte, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are known to influence widely interconnected brain networks, thereby enhancing the consolidation of memory of several types of training experiences. In this network, the dorsal striatum plays an important role in transforming goal-directed behavior into habitual behavior. Man

  18. Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation Increases Extracellular Dopamine Levels in the Rat Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eTanaka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation is a non-invasive procedure that achieves polarity-dependent modulation of neuronal membrane potentials. It has recently been used as a functional intervention technique for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases; however, its neuronal mechanisms have not been fully investigated in vivo. Objective/Hypothesis: To investigate whether the application of cathodal or anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation affects extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the rat striatum. Methods: Stimulation and in vivo microdialysis were carried out under urethane anesthesia, and microdialysis probes were slowly inserted into the striatum. After the collection of baseline fractions in the rat striatum, cathodal or anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation was applied continuously for 10 min with a current intensity of 800 µA from an electrode placed on the skin of the scalp. Dialysis samples were collected every 10 min until at least 400 min after the onset of stimulation.Results: Following the application of cathodal, but not anodal, transcranial direct-current stimulation for 10 min, extracellular dopamine levels increased for more than 400 min in the striatum. There were no significant changes in extracellular serotonin levels. Conclusion: These findings suggest that transcranial direct-current stimulation has a direct and/or indirect effect on the dopaminergic system in the rat basal ganglia.

  19. Excitatory amino acid receptors in the ventral tegmental area regulate dopamine release in the ventral striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, M; Westerink, BHC; Moghaddam, B

    1996-01-01

    The role of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in tonic and phasic regulation of dopamine release in the ventral striatum was investigated. Microdialysis in conscious rats was used to assess dopamine release primarily from the nucleus accumbens shell re

  20. Differential effects of the Huntington's disease CAG mutation in striatum and cerebellum are quantitative not qualitative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossale, Elisa; Seong, Ihn Sik; Coser, Kathryn R; Shioda, Toshi; Kohane, Isaac S; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2011-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) involves marked early neurodegeneration in the striatum, whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared despite the ubiquitous expression of full-length mutant huntingtin, implying that inherent tissue-specific differences determine susceptibility to the HD CAG mutation. To understand this tissue specificity, we compared early mutant huntingtin-induced gene expression changes in striatum to those in cerebellum in young Hdh CAG knock-in mice, prior to onset of evident pathological alterations. Endogenous levels of full-length mutant huntingtin caused qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different gene expression changes in the two brain regions. Importantly, the quantitatively different responses in the striatum and cerebellum in mutant mice were well accounted for by the intrinsic molecular differences in gene expression between the striatum and cerebellum in wild-type animals. Tissue-specific gene expression changes in response to the HD mutation, therefore, appear to reflect the different inherent capacities of these tissues to buffer qualitatively similar effects of mutant huntingtin. These findings highlight a role for intrinsic quantitative tissue differences in contributing to HD pathogenesis, and likely to other neurodegenerative disorders exhibiting tissue-specificity, thereby guiding the search for effective therapeutic interventions.

  1. Occurrence of Corynebacterium striatum as an emerging antibiotic-resistant nosocomial pathogen in a Tunisian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibi, Sana; Ferjani, Asma; Boukadida, Jalel; Cano, María Eliecer; Fernández-Martínez, Marta; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navas, Jesús

    2017-08-28

    Corynebacterium striatum is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen increasingly associated with a wide range of human infections and is often resistant to several antibiotics. We investigated the susceptibility of 63 C. striatum isolated at the Farhat-Hached hospital, Sousse (Tunisia), during the period 2011-2014, to a panel of 16 compounds belonging to the main clinically relevant classes of antimicrobial agents. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin. Amikacin and gentamicin also showed good activity (MICs90 = 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively). High rates of resistance to penicillin (82.5%), clindamycin (79.4%), cefotaxime (60.3%), erythromycin (47.6%), ciprofloxacin (36.5%), moxifloxacin (34.9%), and rifampicin (25.4%) were observed. Fifty-nine (93.7%) out of the 63 isolates showed resistance to at least one compound and 31 (49.2%) were multidrug-resistant. Twenty-nine resistance profiles were distinguished among the 59 resistant C. striatum. Most of the strains resistant to fluoroquinolones showed a double mutation leading to an amino acid change in positions 87 and 91 in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene. The 52 strains resistant to penicillin were positive for the gene bla, encoding a class A β-lactamase. Twenty-two PFGE patterns were identified among the 63 C. striatum, indicating that some clones have spread within the hospital.

  2. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holz, N.E.; Boecker-Schlier, R.; Buchmann, A.F.; Blomeyer, D.; Jennen-Steinmetz, C.; Baumeister, S.; Plichta, M.M.; Cattrell, A.; Schumann, G.; Esser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Brandeis, D.; Laucht, M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At

  3. Higher volume of ventral striatum and right prefrontal cortex in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Saskia; Hasselmann, Eva; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated an involvement of the prefrontal cortex and mesolimbic reward system (i.e., ventral striatum) in pathological gambling (PG). However, there is a lack of studies focusing on structural changes in frontostriatal brain regions in adult subjects with PG. In order to study differences in local grey matter volume, 20 male subjects with PG and 21 matched controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Structural brain data were analysed via voxel-based morphometry with a focus on prefrontal areas and ventral striatum. By comparing grey matter volumes in brain regions highly relevant for brain functional changes in PG, the present study found a higher volume in right ventral striatum and right prefrontal cortex by means of voxel-wise morphometry in PG subjects as compared to controls. Our findings demonstrate local grey matter changes in brain areas that have previously been associated with functional changes in PG. Hypertrophy in the prefrontal cortex might be an adaptation at least partly induced by the higher grey matter volume in the ventral striatum and may help to increase cognitive control over gambling impulses. Future research should explore the relationship between functional and structural alterations as well as the course of changes in PG.

  4. Increased Intrinsic Brain Activity in the Striatum Reflects Symptom Dimensions in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Christian; Manoliu, Andrei; Neufang, Susanne; Myers, Nicholas; Peters, Henning; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Scherr, Martin; Mühlau, Mark; Zimmer, Claus; Drzezga, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Bäuml, Josef; Eichele, Tom; Wohlschläger, Afra M.; Riedl, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction is thought to be a fundamental element in schizophrenia. Striatal dopamine dysfunction impacts on reward processing and learning and is present even at rest. Here, we addressed the question whether and how spontaneous neuronal activity in the striatum is altered in schizophrenia. We therefore assessed intrinsic striatal activity and its relation with disorder states and symptom dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. We performed resting-state functional (rs-fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging as well as psychometric assessment in 21 schizophrenic patients during psychosis. On average 9 months later, we acquired follow-up data during psychotic remission and with comparable levels of antipsychotic medication. Twenty-one age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Independent component analysis of fMRI data yielded spatial maps and time-courses of coherent ongoing blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal fluctuations, which were used for group comparisons and correlation analyses with scores of the positive and negative syndrome scale. During psychosis, coherent intrinsic activity of the striatum was increased in the dorsal part and correlated with positive symptoms such as delusion and hallucination. In psychotic remission of the same patients, activity of the ventral striatum was increased and correlated with negative symptoms such as emotional withdrawal and blunted affect. Results were controlled for volumetric and medication effects. These data provide first evidence that in schizophrenia intrinsic activity is changed in the striatum and corresponds to disorder states and symptom dimensions. PMID:22241165

  5. The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum in reputation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Saito, Daisuke N; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-01-01

    How we are viewed by other individuals-our reputation-has a considerable influence on our everyday behaviors and is considered an important concept in explaining altruism, a uniquely human trait. Previously it has been proposed that processing one's own reputation requires a reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a value representation in the striatum. Here, we directly tested this idea using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects disclosed their behavioral tendencies with reference to social norms in the presence or absence of other people, a manipulation that is known to greatly affect an individual's concern for their reputation. The mPFC showed strong activation during self-referential processing, and this activity was enhanced by the mere presence of observers. Moreover, the striatum was also strongly activated when subjects responded in front of observers. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the mPFC and striatum were automatically recruited when the task placed a high demand on processing how one is viewed by others. Taken together, our findings suggest that the mPFC and the striatum play a key role in regulating human social behaviors, and these results provide valuable insight into the neural basis of human altruism.

  6. Identificação de unidades fraseológicas no vocabulário de Star Trek: abordagens corpus-driven e corpus-based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Maciel Peixoto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisou unidades fraseológicas a partir do vocabulário existente no universo fictício de Star Trek. A base teórica usada foi a Teoria Comunicativa da Terminologia e também a Etnoterminologia, além de estudos sobre a Fraseologia. A Linguística de Corpus foi usada como base metodológica, por meio de uma abordagem corpus-driven (direcionada por corpus e outra corpus-based (baseada em corpus. Os dados examinados provieram de um corpus de estudo compilado a partir das legendas em inglês dos seriados e filmes de Star Trek, e analisado via WordSmith Tools, e também de dois corpora online de língua inglesa: o Corpus of Contemporary American English e o Google Books. Os resultados do estudo mostraram exemplos de unidades fraseológicas que são usadas dentro do universo da série, inclusive termos específicos. Além disso, também foram encontradas frases criadas pela série e ressignificadas pelos fãs, tornando-se unidades fraseológicas na língua corrente.

  7. The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Belz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.

  8. A Review on Speech Corpus Development for Automatic Speech Recognition in Indian Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cini kurian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corpus development gained much attention due to recent statistics based natural language processing. It has new applications in Language Technology, linguistic research, language education and information exchange. Corpus based Language research has an innovative outlook which will discard the aged linguistic theories. Speech corpus is the essential resources for building a speech recognizer. One of the main challenges faced by speech scientist is the unavailability of these resources. Very fewer efforts have been made in Indian languages to make these resources available to public compared to English. In this paper we review the efforts made in Indian languages for developing speech corpus for automatic speech recognition.

  9. xGENIA: A comprehensive OWL ontology based on the GENIA corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Rafal; Kurgan, Lukasz; Reformat, Marek

    2007-01-01

    The GENIA ontology is a taxonomy that was developed as a result of manual annotation of a subset of MEDLINE, the GENIA corpus. Both the ontology and corpus have been used as a benchmark to test and develop biological information extraction tools. Recent work shows, however, that there is a demand for a more comprehensive ontology that would go along with the corpus. We propose a complete OWL ontology built on top of the GENIA ontology utilizing the GENIA corpus. The proposed ontology includes...

  10. THE CORPUS OF REGIONAL RUSSIAN-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPERS IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Savchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the corpus of regional and foreign press as a new module within the RNC. Unlike newspaper corpus including only materials of the national press, the new corpus focuses on texts from regional publications. The corpus presently consists of the following subcorpora: 1 newspapers of the Grodno region (7 editions, 1.9 million tokens in total, prepared jointly with the specialists of the Grodno University, 2 Russian regional press of 2010s (13 newspapers, about 2 million tokens, 3 Russian regional press of 1990-2000 (40 newspapers, 2.6 million tokens, 4 regional releases of the national newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" (6.5 million tokens. Our approach to selecting texts, the standards and software for word processing, organization of the corpus inter face are described in the article as well as the prospects of the development of corpus composition and searching instruments.The texts of the regional corpus are provided with morphological, semantic and detailed metatextual annotation. The corpus is freely available at the address http://www.ruscorpora.ru/search-regional.html. The main purpose of this corpus as we see it is to provide researchers with a tool of studying the regional variation of the Russian language.

  11. A corpus-based approach for automated LOINC mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidahussein, Mustafa; Vreeman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the knowledge contained in a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) could be leveraged to help map local terms from other institutions. We developed two models to test our hypothesis. The first based on supervised machine learning was created using Apache's OpenNLP Maxent and the second based on information retrieval was created using Apache's Lucene. The models were validated by a random subsampling method that was repeated 20 times and that used 80/20 splits for training and testing, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of these models on all laboratory terms from three test institutions. For the 20 iterations used for validation of our 80/20 splits Maxent and Lucene ranked the correct LOINC code first for between 70.5% and 71.4% and between 63.7% and 65.0% of local terms, respectively. For all laboratory terms from the three test institutions Maxent ranked the correct LOINC code first for between 73.5% and 84.6% (mean 78.9%) of local terms, whereas Lucene's performance was between 66.5% and 76.6% (mean 71.9%). Using a cut-off score of 0.46 Maxent always ranked the correct LOINC code first for over 57% of local terms. This study showed that a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC contains collective knowledge that can help map terms from other institutions. Using freely available software tools, we developed a data-driven automated approach that operates on term descriptions from existing mappings in the corpus. Accurate and efficient automated mapping methods can help to accelerate adoption of vocabulary standards and promote widespread health information exchange.

  12. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: Prediction of clinical outcomes with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Min Hoan; Woo, Hyun Sik; Sung, Chang Kyu; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Taek Sang [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the determinant pretreatment CT findings that can predict surgical intervention for patients suffering from corpus luteal cyst rupture with hemoperitoneum. From January 2009 to December 2014, a total of 106 female patients (mean age, 26.1 years; range, 17–44 years) who visited the emergency room of our institute for acute abdominal pain and were subsequently diagnosed with ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum were included in the retrospective study. The analysis of CT findings included cyst size, cyst shape, sentinel clot sign, ring of fire sign, hemoperitoneum depth, active bleeding in portal phase and attenuation of hemoperitoneum. The comparison of CT findings between the surgery and conservative management groups was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant CT findings in predicting surgical intervention for a ruptured cyst. Comparative analysis revealed that the presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth were significantly different between the surgery and conservative management groups and were confirmed as significant CT findings for predicting surgery, with adjusted odds ratio (ORs) of 3.773 and 1.318, respectively (p < 0.01). On the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for hemoperitoneum depth, the optimal cut-off value was 5.8 cm with 73.7% sensitivity and 58.6% specificity (Az = 0.711, p = 0.004). In cases with a hemoperitoneum depth > 5.8 cm and concurrent active bleeding, the OR for surgery increased to 5.786. The presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth on a pretreatment CT scan can be predictive warning signs of surgery for a patient with a ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum.

  13. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. (a) Location. The following area is designated as a security zone: all waters of the Corpus Christi...

  14. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shubhankar; Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Potpalle, Dnyaneshwar Ramesh; Dash, Nishant Nilotpal

    2015-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of "RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis" which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India.

  15. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhankar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of "RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis" which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India.

  16. A New Method for Ontology Matching by Using Textual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besat Kassaie

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose a new method in which a text corpus is used as the source of knowledge in conjunction with a machine learning method to find matching between two ontologies .The main objective in this new method is to find similarity of two concepts based on similarity of their instances. We show how contextual knowledge hidden in domain specific documents can help us to boost the machine learning methods by providing enough features. Also we show how taking benefit from this knowledge transcends the current approaches merely detect lexical similarity by either recognizing semantic similarity of concepts.

  17. Exploring the Potential of Corpus Use in Translation Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Pellón, Ismael Arinas

    2014-01-01

    The chapter describes the corpus analysis strategies used with the translation master’s students at the Department of Business Communication at the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences (formerly Aarhus School of Business or ASB). The short time available for the training of specialized transla...... translators only allows for teaching the students methods that they can apply systematically to several professional tasks. The chapter illustrates how the traditional translation training strategies can be combined with the use of concordancing software to cope with translations....

  18. Corpus Analysis of the Various Errors Made by the Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘启迪

    2012-01-01

      The software Wordsmith has been commonly used in corpus linguistics. In this paper, the author used the tool of Con⁃cord in Wordsmith to analyze various errors made by a student. Five passages made by the students are used. After annotating on the errors, the author uses Concord to sort out each error maker and made classification chart of the errors. All the errors are clas⁃sified into two categories:errors caused by carelessness and by language ability. After analyzing, there are mainly three kinds of er⁃rors and in the first category and five kinds of errors in the second category.

  19. Inner change in the Corpus Paulinum: pointers for pastoral counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Campbell-Lane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to establish what perspectives exist on inner change within the “Corpus Paulinum” and how it should be applied in pastoral counselling. The Scriptural guidelines of change that will be examined for the purposes of this article, are found in the following references: Ephesians 4:22-24, Colos- sians 3:8-10, and Romans 12:1-2. The work of the Holy Spirit as “Agent of change” will also be discussed and finally some pointers on inner change and the implications for pastoral counselling will be proposed.

  20. iberoamérica del hábeas corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Enrique Herrera Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El hábeas corpus es actualmente el principal instrumento legal en el mundo para proteger la libertad individual contra las detenciones arbitrarias e ilegales, y así ha sido incluido en los pactos internacionales de derechos humanos y en la mayoría de las Constituciones de Europa y América. Colombia lo consagra hoy como un derecho fundamental intangible y, a la vez, una acción constitucional que tutela la libertad personal cuando alguien es privado de la libertad con violación de las garantías constitucionales o legales, o ésta se prolongue ilegalmente.

  1. Sentiment analysis framework organization based on twitter corpus data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Beres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 2006, Twitter has gathered millions of users. They post daily tweets about news, events or conversations. These tweets express their opinion about the topic they are discussing. Twitter is a large database of content that can be semantically exploited to extract opinions and based on these opinions to classify the users. This paper presents the organization of a sentiment analysis framework based on Twitter corpus data, including crawling tweets and opinion mining of the tweets, making it easy for its users to create portfolios of trustful Twitter accounts.

  2. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Corpus Callosum Aplasia: A 3-Year Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Palm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT is a powerful treatment option in severe or chronic catatonic states and has been reported to be useful in oligophrenic patients. We report the followup medical history of a patient with corpus callosum aplasia (or agenesis who was continuously treated with ECT over three years. First, he improved considerably after a series of ECT, but relapses of catatonia made a continuous, weekly ECT necessary. Due to the severity of the brain malformation, an add-on medication with benzodiazepines and second generation antipsychotics was necessary to treat catatonic symptoms. This case emphasises the benefits of long-term ECT in oligophrenic patients.

  3. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  4. Exploring the Potential of Corpus Use in Translation Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Pellón, Ismael Arinas

    2014-01-01

    The chapter describes the corpus analysis strategies used with the translation master’s students at the Department of Business Communication at the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences (formerly Aarhus School of Business or ASB). The short time available for the training of specialized...... translators only allows for teaching the students methods that they can apply systematically to several professional tasks. The chapter illustrates how the traditional translation training strategies can be combined with the use of concordancing software to cope with translations....

  5. A Corpus-based Study on the Synonyms of Famous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yan-wei; LUO Ying

    2016-01-01

    English is rich in synonyms. According to previous statistics, English synonyms constitute over 60%of the total English vocabulary. To have a good mastery of English lexis is to have a good mastery of English synonyms. Thus, it is significant to know how to distinguish synonyms in learning English. In traditional ways, people get information about synonyms from printed dictionaries. However, it is not enough for learners to understand the real differences of synonyms. This paper adopts a corpus-based approach to analyze the synonyms of "famous" as an example.

  6. Glycine intracerebroventricular administration disrupts mitochondrial energy homeostasis in cerebral cortex and striatum of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Alana Pimentel; Grings, Mateus; Dos Santos Parmeggiani, Belisa; Marcowich, Gustavo Flora; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Zanatta, Angela; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian

    2013-11-01

    High tissue levels of glycine (GLY) are the biochemical hallmark of nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), an inherited metabolic disease clinically characterized by severe neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities. Considering that the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disease are not fully established, the present work investigated the in vivo effects of intracerebroventricular administration of GLY on important parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and striatum from young rats. Our results show that GLY reduced CO₂ production using glucose as substrate and inhibited the activities of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in striatum, whereas no alterations of these parameters were verified in cerebral cortex 30 min after GLY injection. We also observed that GLY diminished the activities of complex IV in cerebral cortex and complex I-III in striatum at 30 min and inhibited complex I-III activity in striatum at 24 h after its injection. Furthermore, GLY reduced the activity of total and mitochondrial creatine kinase in both brain structures 30 min and 24 h after its administration. In contrast, the activity of Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase was not altered by GLY. Finally, the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and creatine, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated or fully prevented the inhibitory effects of GLY on creatine kinase and respiratory complexes in cerebral cortex and striatum. Our data indicate that crucial pathways for energy production and intracellular energy transfer are severely compromised by GLY. It is proposed that bioenergetic impairment induced by GLY in vivo may contribute to the neurological dysfunction found in patients affected by NKH.

  7. A cortical-subcortical syntax pathway linking Broca's area and the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Marc; Rosso, Charlotte; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Bloch, Isabelle; Brugières, Pierre; Duffau, Hugues; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Combinatorial syntax has been shown to be underpinned by cortical key regions such as Broca's area and temporal cortices, and by subcortical structures such as the striatum. The cortical regions are connected via several cortico-to-cortical tracts impacting syntactic processing (e.g., the arcuate) but it remains unclear whether and how the striatum can be integrated into this cortex-centered syntax network. Here, we used a systematic stepwise approach to investigate the existence and syntactic function of an additional deep Broca-striatum pathway. We first asked 15 healthy controls and 12 patients with frontal/striatal lesions to perform three syntax tests. The results obtained were subjected to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to provide an anatomo-functional approximation of the pathway. The significant VLSM clusters were then overlapped with the probability maps of four cortico-cortical language tracts generated for 12 healthy participants (arcuate, extreme capsule fiber system, uncinate, aslant), including a probabilistic Broca-striatum tract. Finally, we carried out quantitative analyses of the relationship between the lesion load along the tracts and syntactic processing, by calculating tract-lesion overlap for each patient and analyzing the correlation with syntactic data. Our findings revealed a Broca-striatum tract linking BA45 with the left caudate head and overlapping with VLSM voxel clusters relating to complex syntax. The lesion load values for this tract were correlated with complex syntax scores, whereas no such correlation was observed for the other tracts. These results extend current syntax-network models, by adding a deep "Broca-caudate pathway," and are consistent with functional accounts of frontostriatal circuits.

  8. Spatial information processing consequences of DAMGO injections into the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Matthew R; Nichol, Jeremy; Madularu, Dan

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of the dorsal striatum, and more specifically, the patch region of the dorsal striatum, in mediating spatial learning and memory. To this end, male, Long Evans rats were bilaterally implanted with cannula aimed at the dorsal striatum. Rats were injected with different doses (0, 0.05, 0.5 or 5 microg/0.5 microl) of [3H]-[D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) into the dorsal striatum daily (Exp. 1) before training on a hidden platform version of the water maze task or during a reversal water maze spatial task (Exp. 2). In both experiments, probe retention tests were given drug free. Results from Exp. 1 showed that intra-striatal injection of the low DAMGO dose (0.05) resulted in enhanced spatial acquisition while the high dose (5.0) produced impairments compared to controls. During the probe test, the low dose group showed better retention of the platform location than controls as well as an enhanced ability to alter their search strategy. In Exp. 2, pretraining alleviated the high dose impairment found in Exp. 1 suggesting a motoric impairment in this group. The low dose group continued to show an enhanced ability to alter their search strategy during the probe test compared to all other groups. The data suggest that the low dose of DAMGO, when injected into the dorsal striatum, eliminates competition with the hippocampus thereby leading to enhanced spatial processing. Alternatively, inhibition of patch-striatal neurons may attenuate a memory decay process. Both alternatives are discussed.

  9. The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: The case of the need for power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (a enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions in behavioral studies and (b activation of the anterior caudate in response to dominant emotional expressions in brain imaging research. We interpret these findings on the basis of Hikosaka, Nakamura, Sakai, and Nakahara's (2002; Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2, 217-222 model of central mechanisms of motor skill learning. The model assigns a critical role to the dorsoanterior striatum in dopamine-driven learning of spatial stimulus sequences. Based on this model, we suggest that the dorsoanterior striatum is the locus of nPower-dependent reinforcement. However, given the centrality of this structure in a wide range of motivational pursuits, we also propose that activity in the dorsoanterior striatum may not only reflect individual differences in nPower, but also in other implicit motives, like the need for achievement or the need for affiliation, provided that the proper incentives for these motives are present during reinforcement learning. We discuss evidence in support of such a general role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation.

  10. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Hlabangana, Linda Tebogo; du Plessis, Vicci; Prabhu, Sanjay P

    2015-02-01

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma.

  11. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Tebogo Hlabangana, Linda [University of the Witwatersrand, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa); Du Plessis, Vicci [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban (South Africa); Prabhu, Sanjay P. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. (orig.)

  12. Revisiting corpus creation and analysis tools for translation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fantinuoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many translation scholars have proposed the use of corpora to allow professional translators to produce high quality texts which read like originals. Yet, the diffusion of this methodology has been modest, one reason being the fact that software for corpora analyses have been developed with the linguist in mind, which means that they are generally complex and cumbersome, offering many advanced features, but lacking the level of usability and the specific features that meet translators’ needs. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed TranslatorBank, a free corpus creation and analysis tool designed for translation tasks. TranslatorBank supports the creation of specialized monolingual corpora from the web; it includes a concordancer with a query system similar to a search engine; it uses basic statistical measures to indicate the reliability of results; it accesses the original documents directly for more contextual information; it includes a statistical and linguistic terminology extraction utility to extract the relevant terminology of the domain and the typical collocations of a given term. Designed to be easy and intuitive to use, the tool may help translation students as well as professionals to increase their translation quality by adhering to the specific linguistic variety of the target text corpus.

  13. EFFE-On – Corpus Online de Escrita e Fala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos o funcionamento de um novo corpus de escrita e fala de crianças (Português LM nos primeiros anos da escolaridade: a EFFE-On. O seu conteúdo está disponível online para pesquisas, dirigindo-se, principalmente, a professores, linguistas e terapeutas da fala. A EFFE-On foi desenvolvida no âmbito do projeto Escreves como Falas - Falas como Escreves? no Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa (CLUL. Entre outras aplicações, o corpus permite identificar formas ortográficas não-convencionais (FN-Cs; comparar ortografias não convencionais com as suas respetivas pronúncias; auxiliar o desenvolvimento e a adequação de materiais pedagógicos e terapêuticos; examinar aspetos fonológicos, morfológicos, sintáticos, discursivos, entre outros relativos ao texto produzido pela criança.  

  14. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis.

  15. Web text corpus extraction system for linguistic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Fabio Cadavid Rengifo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet content, used as text corpus for natural language learning, offers important characteristics for such task, like its huge vo- lume, being permanently up-to-date with linguistic variants and having low time and resource costs regarding the traditional way that text is built for natural language machine learning tasks. This paper describes a system for the automatic extraction of large bodies of text from the Internet as a valuable tool for such learning tasks. A concurrent programming-based, hardware-use opti- misation strategy significantly improving extraction performance is also presented. The strategies incorporated into the system for maximising hardware resource exploitation, thereby reducing extraction time are presented, as are extendibility (supporting digi- tal-content formats and adaptability (regarding how the system cleanses content for obtaining pure natural language samples. The experimental results obtained after processing one of the biggest Spanish domains on the internet, are presented (i.e. es.wikipedia.org. Such results are used for presenting initial conclusions about the validity and applicability of corpus directly ex- tracted from Internet as morphological or syntactical learning input.

  16. Corpus callosotomy in a patient with startle epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Nicolás Garófalo; Hamad, Ana Paula; Marinho, Murilo; Tavares, Igor M; Carrete, Henrique; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Centeno, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Startle epilepsy is a syndrome of reflex epilepsy in which the seizures are precipitated by a sudden and surprising, usually auditory, stimulus. We describe herein a girl who had been suffering with startle-induced seizures since 2 years of age. She had focal, tonic and tonic-clonic seizures, refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Daily tonic seizures led to very frequent falls and morbidity. Neurologically, she had no deficit. Interictal EEG showed slow waves and epileptiform discharges in central and fronto-central regions. Video-polygraphic recordings of seizures, triggered by stimuli, showed generalised symmetric tonic posturing with ictal EEG, characterised by an abrupt and diffuse electrodecremental pattern of fast activity, followed by alpha-theta rhythm superimposed by epileptic discharges predominantly over the vertex and anterior regions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Corpus callosotomy was performed when the patient was 17. Since surgery, the patient (one year follow-up) has remained seizure-free. Corpus callosotomy may be considered in patients with startle epilepsy and tonic seizures, in the absence of focal lesions amenable to surgery. [Published with video sequences].

  17. HACIA LA CONSTITUCIÓN DE UN CORPUS DIACRÓNICO DEL ESPAÑOL DE CHILE TOWARDS CHILEAN SPANISH LANGUAGE DIACHRONIC CORPUS

    OpenAIRE

    MANUEL CONTRERAS SEITZ

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo describe y analiza la constitución de corpus diacrónicos hispánicos (españoles e hispanoamericanos) con el objeto de situar el marco de referencia del CorDECh (Corpus Diacrónico del Español de Chile). El trabajo presenta una intersección entre disciplinas tradicionales, como la filología y la paleografía, con especialidades lingüísticas que se han revitalizado en los últimos años, como es el caso de la lingüística del corpus, en virtud de la conformación de un corpus diacrónico ...

  18. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 in the Dorsomedial Striatum Is a Novel Positive Regulator of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Chen, Oren; Sadot-Sogrin, Yossi; Shaham, Ohad; Barak, Segev

    2017-09-06

    Repeated alcohol intake leads to mesostriatal neuroadaptations, resulting in drinking escalation and addiction phenotypes. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been shown to interact with the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, and has been implicated in the actions of psychostimulants in the brain, and in several psychiatric disorders. Here, we report on a positive regulatory feedback loop of alcohol and FGF2 in rodent models. Specifically, we found that acute alcohol exposure (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) increased the mRNA expression of Fgf2 in the dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum. Longer alcohol exposure (7 d × 2.5 g/kg, i.p.) restricted these increases to the dorsal striatum, and the latter effect was blocked by the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol. Voluntary prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption in a 2-bottle choice procedure increased Fgf2 expression selectively in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of both mice and rats. Importantly, we found that systemic administration of recombinant FGF2 (rFGF2) in mice, or rFGF2 infusion into the dorsal striatum or DMS of rats, increased alcohol consumption and preference, with no similar effects on saccharin or sucrose consumption. Finally, we found that inhibition of the endogenous FGF2 function in the DMS, by an anti-FGF2 neutralizing antibody, suppressed alcohol consumption and preference. Together, our results suggest that alcohol consumption increases the expression of Fgf2 in the DMS, and that striatal FGF2 promotes alcohol consumption, suggesting that FGF2 in the DMS is a positive regulator of alcohol drinking.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Long-term alcohol intake may lead to neuroadaptations in the mesostriatal reward system, resulting in addiction phenotypes. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is crucial for the development and maintenance of the mesostriatal dopaminergic system. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of FGF2 in alcohol-drinking behaviors. We show that alcohol

  19. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Sop [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants.

  20. Infection with Crenosoma striatum lungworm in Long-eared Hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) in Kerman province southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Hedgehogs are distributed in different areas of Iran. Unfortunately, clinical and parasitological studies on parasites of hedgehogs are very few. Crenosoma striatum is a common lungworm in hedgehogs. C. striatum infection can cause weight loss, dry cough, bronchitis with ulcerous reactions based on secondary bacterial infections, pulmonary damage, thickening of the tracheal wall, and pulmonary emphysema up to cardiovascular failure. In this survey, six dead hedgehogs (Hemiechinus auritus) were investigated for lungworm infection. All the six hedgehogs had C. striatum infection in their lungs.

  1. The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Julie A.; Vyatkina, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners' responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal "da"-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by…

  2. TOEFL11: A Corpus of Non-Native English. Research Report. ETS RR-13-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Daniel; Tetreault, Joel; Higgins, Derrick; Cahill, Aoife; Chodorow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This report presents work on the development of a new corpus of non-native English writing. It will be useful for the task of native language identification, as well as grammatical error detection and correction, and automatic essay scoring. In this report, the corpus is described in detail.

  3. An audio-visual corpus for multimodal speech recognition in Dutch language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojdel, J.; Wiggers, P.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the gathering and availability of an audio-visual speech corpus for Dutch language. The corpus was prepared with the multi-modal speech recognition in mind and it is currently used in our research on lip-reading and bimodal speech recognition. It contains the prompts used also i

  4. The Effect of Corpus Assisted Language Teaching on the Learners' Proper Use of Punctuation Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Serkan; Elkatmis, Metin

    2013-01-01

    One of the critical contributions of the emerging technologies in computer sciences is the capability of corpus compilation and processing. Corpus resources and approaches are regarded as a potentially valuable areas both in developing instructional methods and designing pedagogical materials. This study aimed to explore the effect of exposing…

  5. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  6. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  7. A Corpus-based Analysis of Noun-verb Collocation of Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting-ting

    2016-01-01

    Corpus-based analysis is adopted to study the acceptable noun-verb collocation of the word knowledge. Verbs like ac-quire, have etc. are found to be frequently collocate with knowledge, and the Chinese students’favorite patterns like learn knowledge, enlarge knowledge are not acceptable. The finding may encourage teachers to consider about the pedagogical value of corpus while teaching languages.

  8. Ultrasound measurement of the corpus callosum and neural development of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cao, Shikao; Liu, Jiaoran; Du, Zhifang; Guo, Zhimei; Ren, Changjun

    2013-09-15

    Length and thickness of 152 corpus callosa were measured in neonates within 24 hours of birth. Using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment with a neonatal brain-specific probe, corpus callosum length and thickness of the genu, body, and splenium were measured on the standard mid-sagittal plane, and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu was measured in the coronal plane. Results showed that corpus callosum length as well as thickness of the genu and splenium increased with tional age and birth weight, while other measures did not. These three factors on the standard mid-sagittal plane are therefore likely to be suitable for real-time evaluation of corpus callosum velopment in premature infants using cranial ultrasound. Further analysis revealed that thickness of the body and splenium and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu were greater in male infants than in female infants, suggesting that there are sex differences in corpus callosum size during the neonatal period. A second set of measurements were taken from 40 premature infants whose gestational age was 34 weeks or less. Corpus callosum measurements were corrected to a gestational age of 40 weeks, and infants were grouped for analysis depending on the outcome of a neonatal behavioral neurological assessment. Compared with infants with a normal neurological assessment, corpus callosum length and genu and splenium thicknesses were less in those with abnormalities, indicating that corpus callosum growth in premature infants is associated with neurobehavioral development during the early extrauterine stage.

  9. A Corpus-based Contrastive Study of Characteristic of Economic Words and Common Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin-zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Economic English is a significant tool for students. This research intends to analyze the lexical characteristics of eco-nomic English on vocabulary size, lexical density, word length, and frequency distribution from two sources aspects: BROWN Corpus and another corpus built by author, named CEE.

  10. The Effectiveness of Using Corpus-Based Materials in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Turan; Özcan, Yeliz Ergül

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed at finding out the effectiveness of corpus-based vocabulary teaching activities as well as students' attitudes towards concordance-based materials when corpus-based tasks in English vocabulary learning are used. The study was conducted in a preparatory school in a private university. The participants were 28 intermediate level…

  11. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  12. Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewissen, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

  13. The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the pattern of…

  14. Investigating L2 Spoken English through the Role Play Learner Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Andrea; Pedrazzini, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    We describe an exploratory study carried out within the University of Milan, Department of English the aim of which was to analyse features of the spoken English of first-year Modern Languages undergraduates. We compiled a learner corpus, the "Role Play" corpus, which consisted of 69 role-play interactions in English carried out by…

  15. Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Daehyeon

    2010-01-01

    Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

  16. Assessment of NER solutions against the first and second CALBC Silver Standard Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rebholz-Schuhmann (Dietrich); A. Jimeno-Yepes (Antonio); C. Li (Chen); S. Kafkas (Senay); I. Lewin (Ian); N. Kang (Ning); M.A. Corbett (Mark); D. Milward (David); E. Buyko (Ekaterina); E. Beisswanger (Elena); K. Hornbostel (Kerstin); A. Kouznetsov (Alexandre); R. Witte (René); J.B. Laurila (Jonas B); C.J.O. Baker (Christopher JO); C.-J. Kuo (Cheng-Ju); S. Clematide (Simone); F. Rinaldi (Fabio); R. Farkas (Richárd); G. Móra (György); K. Hara (Kazuo); L.I. Furlong (Laura); M. Rautschka (Michael); M.L. Neves (Mariana Lara); A. Pascual-Montano (Alberto); Q. Wei (Qi); N. Collier (Nigel); M.F.M. Chowdhury (Md Faisal Mahbub); A. Lavelli (Alberto); R. Berlanga (Rafael); R. Morante (Roser); V. Van Asch (Vincent); W. Daelemans (Walter); J.L. Marina (José Luís); E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); J.A. Kors (Jan); U. Hahn (Udo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Competitions in text mining have been used to measure the performance of automatic text processing solutions against a manually annotated gold standard corpus (GSC). The preparation of the GSC is time-consuming and costly and the final corpus consists at the most of a few tho

  17. An Evaluation of an Online Bilingual Corpus for the Self-Learning of Legal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, May; Xunfeng, Xu

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a bilingual corpus of legal and documentary texts in English and Chinese and reports a study that sought to evaluate the usefulness of the corpus in the self-learning of legal English. Subjects were Chinese students doing a degree in translation at a university in Hong Kong, where English common law is still used since the handover of…

  18. An Empirical Study on Corpus-Driven English Vocabulary Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkai, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the autonomous English vocabulary learning in corpus-based contexts. Language teaching practice is becoming more learner-centered in the field of language teaching, learner autonomy has been an ongoing concern of foreign language educators in china. As an assistant tool in language learning, corpus makes an easy and quick…

  19. Corpus gastritis in patients with endoscopic diagnosis of reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Boer, W.A. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high level of gastric acid secretion is considered to be a risk factor for reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus. Corpus gastritis may have a protective effect on the oesophagus, because of decreased gastric acid output. AIM: To determine if corpus gastritis is associated with re

  20. Corpus gastritis in patients with endoscopic diagnosis of reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Boer, W.A. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high level of gastric acid secretion is considered to be a risk factor for reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus. Corpus gastritis may have a protective effect on the oesophagus, because of decreased gastric acid output. AIM: To determine if corpus gastritis is associated with

  1. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  2. How Many Words Do Children Know? A Corpus-Based Estimation of Children's Total Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbers, Jutta; Schroeder, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present a new method for estimating children's total vocabulary size based on a language corpus in German. We drew a virtual sample of different lexicon sizes from a corpus and let the virtual sample "take" a vocabulary test by comparing whether the items were included in the virtual lexicons or not. This enabled us to…

  3. Comorbidity is an independent prognostic factor in women with uterine corpus cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette C; Sperling, Cecilie; Christensen, Ib J;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether comorbidity independently affects overall survival in women with uterine corpus cancer. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: A total of 4244 patients registered in the Danish Gynecologic Cancer database with uterine corpus cancer from 1 January...

  4. Methodology of data extraction from a corpus for the conceptual analysis of metaphor in legal English

    OpenAIRE

    Kucheruk, Liliya

    2014-01-01

    The present paper entitled “Methodology of data extraction from a corpus for the conceptual analysis of metaphor in legal English” investigates the main approaches to the study of metaphor in legal language from the point of view of cognitive linguistics. It also offers the most widely spread methods of data extraction form a corpus.

  5. Linking Adverbials in First-Year Korean University EFL Learners' Writing: A Corpus-Informed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Myung-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the frequency and usage patterns of linking adverbials in Korean students' essay writing in comparison with native English writing. The learner corpus used in the present study is composed of 105 essays that were produced by first-year university students in Korea. The control corpus was taken from the American LOCNESS…

  6. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  7. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  8. Assessment of NER solutions against the first and second CALBC Silver Standard Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rebholz-Schuhmann (Dietrich); A. Jimeno-Yepes (Antonio); C. Li (Chen); S. Kafkas (Senay); I. Lewin (Ian); N. Kang (Ning); M.A. Corbett (Mark); D. Milward (David); E. Buyko (Ekaterina); E. Beisswanger (Elena); K. Hornbostel (Kerstin); A. Kouznetsov (Alexandre); R. Witte (René); J.B. Laurila (Jonas B); C.J.O. Baker (Christopher JO); C.-J. Kuo (Cheng-Ju); S. Clematide (Simone); F. Rinaldi (Fabio); R. Farkas (Richárd); G. Móra (György); K. Hara (Kazuo); L.I. Furlong (Laura); M. Rautschka (Michael); M.L. Neves (Mariana Lara); A. Pascual-Montano (Alberto); Q. Wei (Qi); N. Collier (Nigel); M.F.M. Chowdhury (Md Faisal Mahbub); A. Lavelli (Alberto); R. Berlanga (Rafael); R. Morante (Roser); V. Van Asch (Vincent); W. Daelemans (Walter); J.L. Marina (José Luís); E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); J.A. Kors (Jan); U. Hahn (Udo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Competitions in text mining have been used to measure the performance of automatic text processing solutions against a manually annotated gold standard corpus (GSC). The preparation of the GSC is time-consuming and costly and the final corpus consists at the most of a few

  9. KorAP: the new corpus analysis platform at IDS Mannheim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banski, Piotr; Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The KorAP project (“Korpusanalyseplattform der nächste Generation”, “Corpus-analysis platform of the next generation”), carried out at the Institut für Deutsche Sprache (IDS) in Mannheim, Germany, has as its goal the development of a modern, state-of-the-art corpus-analysis platform, capable...

  10. Microstructural changes in thickened corpus callosum in children: contribution of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition. (orig.)

  11. An audio-visual corpus for multimodal speech recognition in Dutch language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojdel, J.; Wiggers, P.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the gathering and availability of an audio-visual speech corpus for Dutch language. The corpus was prepared with the multi-modal speech recognition in mind and it is currently used in our research on lip-reading and bimodal speech recognition. It contains the prompts used also

  12. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  13. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  14. From D-Coi to SoNaR: A reference corpus for Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, N.; Reynaert, M.; Monachesi, P.; van Noord, G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Schuurman, I.; Vandeghinste, V.

    2008-01-01

    The computational linguistics community in The Netherlands and Belgium has long recognized the dire need for a major reference corpus of written Dutch. In part to answer this need, the STEVIN programme was established. To pave the way for the effective building of a 500-million-word reference corpus

  15. The Preference for Self-Correction in a Tai Conversational Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The organization of repair in a corpus of conversations in the Lue, Yuan (or Myang), and Siamese dialects of Tai is examined with regard to the preference for self-correction described previously for an English corpus. In both, repair is an identically organized sequential phenomenon involving repair segments during conversation. (CHK)

  16. An audio-visual corpus for multimodal speech recognition in Dutch language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojdel, J.; Wiggers, P.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the gathering and availability of an audio-visual speech corpus for Dutch language. The corpus was prepared with the multi-modal speech recognition in mind and it is currently used in our research on lip-reading and bimodal speech recognition. It contains the prompts used also i

  17. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  18. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  19. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  20. Designing a Lexical Database for a Combined Use of Corpus Annotation and Dictionary Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas; Langer, Gabriele;

    2016-01-01

    In a combined corpus-dictionary project, you would need one lexical database that could serve as a shared “backbone” for both corpus annotation and dictionary editing, but it is not that easy to define a database structure that applies satisfactorily to both these purposes. In this paper, we will...

  1. Identification of myotropic neuropeptides from the brain and corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the beetle, Zophobas atratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Pawel; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (CC/CA) of adult beetles, Zophobas atratus Fabricius (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen HPLC fractions for myotropic activity in tissues, revealing several cardiostimulatory and cardioinhibitory factors from both the brain and CC/CA. Analysis of HPLC fractions by MALDI-TOF MS identified seven mass ions that could be assigned to other known peptides: leucomyosuppressin (LMS), Tribolium castaneum pyrokinin 2, sulfakinin 1, myoinhibitory peptide 4, a truncated NVP-like peptide, Tenebrio molitor AKH and crustacean cardioactive peptide. In addition, two novel peptides, myosuppressin (pEDVEHVFLRFa), which differs from LMS by one amino acid (E for D at position 4) and pyrokinin-like peptide (LPHYTPRLa) were also identified. To establish cardioactive properties of some of the identified peptides, chemical synthesis was carried out and their activities were tested using the heart bioassay.

  2. A Modular and Flexible Architecture for an Integrated Corpus Query System

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, O

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture of an integrated and extensible corpus query system developed at the University of Stuttgart and gives examples of some of the modules realized within this architecture. The modules form the core of a corpus workbench. Within the proposed architecture, information required for the evaluation of queries may be derived from different knowledge sources (the corpus text, databases, on-line thesauri) and by different means: either through direct lookup in a database or by calling external tools which may infer the necessary information at the time of query evaluation. The information available and the method of information access can be stated declaratively and individually for each corpus, leading to a flexible, extensible and modular corpus workbench.

  3. Eyebrow incision with supraorbital trephination for endoscopic corpus callosotomy: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Smyth, Matthew D; Salter, George; Doughty, Kyle; Blount, Jeffrey P

    2004-03-01

    We describe a novel technique for the partial bisection of the corpus callosum in order to increase the minimally invasiveness of this procedure. Brow incisions with midline trephinations were performed in six adult cadavers. An endoscope was next introduced and used to transect approximately the anterior two-thirds of the corpus callosum. No complications such as injury to the superior sagittal sinus or anterior cerebral artery were encountered in any of our cadaveric specimens. The corpus callosum was easily transected in each specimen. As a feasibility study, we believe this technique could provide a less invasive mechanism for patients who require corpus callosotomy and will minimize much of the morbidity associated with the traditional methods of sectioning the corpus callosum.

  4. Bulgarian sense-annotated corpus – between the tradition and novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian sense-annotated corpus – between the tradition and novelty The Bulgarian Sense-annotated Corpus (BulSemCor is compiled according to the general methodology established by the SemCor project. It is a subset of the Brown Corpus of Bulgarian semantically annotated with a corresponding synonym set (synset in the Bulgarian wordnet. Unlike the bulk of sense-annotated corpora where only (sets of content words are annotated, in BulSemCor each lexical unit has been assigned a sense. The main contributions achieved in the work on BulSemCor are briefly decides in the presented paper: definition of an annotation schema, compilation of an input corpus, development of a sense-annotated corpus, Bulgarian wordnet enlargement.

  5. La linguistique de corpus : une alternative [version abrégée

    OpenAIRE

    Teubert,Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    La linguistique de corpus a été développé pour extraire d’un corpus les connaissances linguistiques nécessaires à l’enseignement des langues ; un corpus étant un ensemble collecté et ordonné de données langagières réelles. Faisant partie de la linguistique appliquée, la linguistique de corpus n’a jamais revendiqué réellement de cadre théorique propre. Cependant, elle a procuré une manière nouvelle de regarder le langage. La linguistique de corpus situe la signification dans le discours, dans ...

  6. Corynebacterium striatum infecting a malignant cutaneous lesion: the emergence of an opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium striatum infectando lesão cutânea maligna: a emergência de um patógeno oportunista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Vargas Superti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We described a case of a 27-year old male patient with skin and soft tissue infection of a neoplastic lesion caused by Corynebacterium striatum, an organism which has been rarely described as a human pathogen. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Successful treatment with penicillin was achieved. The role of the C. striatum as an emerging opportunistic pathogen is discussed.Descrevemos infecção de lesão neoplásica em paciente masculino de 27 anos, envolvendo pele e partes moles, causada por Corynebacterium striatum, um microrganismo raramente descrito como patógeno humano. A identificação foi confirmada por seqüenciamento de DNA. O paciente foi tratado com penicilina, com sucesso. O papel do C. striatum como patógeno oportunista é discutido.

  7. The roles of the nucleus accumbens core, dorsomedial striatum, and dorsolateral striatum in learning: performance and extinction of Pavlovian fear-conditioned responses and instrumental avoidance responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Etieli; Gaspar, Jessica C C; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Barbiero, Janaína K; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F; Blaha, Charles D; Winn, Philip; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the effects of bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc-co), dorsomedial striatum (DMS) or dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of rats on the learning and extinction of Pavlovian and instrumental components of conditioned avoidance responses (CARs). None of the lesions caused sensorimotor deficits that could affect locomotion. Lesions of the NAc-co, but not DMS or DLS, decreased unconditioned and conditioned freezing. The NAc-co and DLS lesioned rats learned the 2-way active avoidance task more slowly. These results suggest: (i) CARs depend on both Pavlovian and instrumental learning; (ii) learning the Pavlovian component of CARs depends on the NAc-co; learning the instrumental component of CARs depends on the DLS, NAc and DMS; (iii) although the NAc-co is also needed for learning the instrumental component, it is not clear whether it plays a role in learning the instrumental component per se or if it simply allows learning of the Pavlovian component which is a pre-condition for learning the instrumental component; (iv) we did not find evidence that the DMS and DLS play the same roles in habit and goal-directed aspects of the instrumental component of CARs as observed in appetitive motivated instrumental responding.

  8. [Assessment of length and area of corpus callosum by three-dimensional ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentainer, Milena; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2010-12-01

    to establish reference values for the length and area of the fetal corpus callosum between the 20th and 33rd weeks of gestation using three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS). this cross-sectional study involved 70 normal pregnancies with gestational age between 20 and 33 weeks. An Accuvix XQ instrument with a convex volumetric transducer (3 to 5 MHz) was used. To assess the corpus callosum, a transfrontal plane was obtained using the metopic suture as an acoustic window. Length was obtained by measuring the distance between the proximal and distal extremities of the corpus callosum. Area was obtained by manual tracing of the external corpus callosum surface. The means, medians, standard deviations, and maximum and minimum values were calculated for the corpus callosum length and area. Scatter graphs were created to analyze the correlation between corpus callosum length and area and gestational age and biparietal diameter, the quality adjustments was verified according to the determination coefficient (R²). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the intraobserver variability. mean corpus callosum length increased from 21.7 (18.6 - 25.2 mm) to 38.7 mm (32.6 - 43.3 mm) between 20 and 33 weeks of pregnancy, respectively. Mean corpus callosum area increased from 55.2 (41.0 - 80.0 mm²) to 142.2 mm² (114.0 - 160.0 mm²), between 20 to 33 weeks of pregnancy, respectively. There was a strong correlation between corpus callosum length and area and gestational age (R² = 0.7 and 0.7, respectively) and biparietal diameter (R² = 0.7 and 0.6, respectively). Intraobserver variability was appropriate, with an ICC of 0.9 and 0.9 for length and area, respectively. reference values for corpus callosum length and area were established for fetuses between 20 and 33 weeks gestation. Intraobserver variability was appropriate.

  9. Effects of citicoline therapy on the network connectivity of the corpus callosum in patients with leukoaraiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Jiang, Hong; Li, Yunxia; Teng, Fei; He, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of citicoline therapy on the network connectivity of the corpus callosum in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) by diffusion tension imaging (DTI). A total of 30 LA patients with Fazekas score of 2 to 3 were voluntarily assigned into citicoline group (n = 14) and control group (n = 16). In citicoline group, citicoline was administered at 0.6 g/d for 1 year. In control group, central nervous system drugs should not be used, except for sleeping pills and antidepressants. Interventions for pre-existing diseases should be conducted in both groups. During the periods of citicoline therapy and post-treatment follow-up, cranial magnetic resonance imaging and DTI were routinely performed in these patients, and the genu, body, and splenium of corpus callosum were selected as the regions of interest (ROIs). The fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of each ROI were determined with PANDA software. On recruitment, there were no significant differences in the general characteristics, blood biochemical results, cognition function, and the FA and MD of the corpus callosum between 2 groups (P > 0.05). After 1-year treatment, the FA of the corpus callosum reduced gradually, but the MD of the corpus callosum tended to increased in both group, although significant differences were not observed. However, the reductions in FA of genu and splenium of corpus callosum in citicoline group were significantly lower than in control group (P < 0.05); the reductions in MD of genu, body, and splenium of corpus callosum in citicoline group were significantly lower than in control group (P < 0.05). In LA patients, the disruption of the network connectivity of the corpus callosum deteriorates over time. Citicoline treatment may delay the reduction in FA of corpus callosum, which might be beneficial for the improvement of network connectivity of the corpus callosum. PMID:28121935

  10. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 regulate epithelial cell proliferation in mouse and human gastric corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitrack, Elise S; Gifford, Gail B; Keeley, Theresa M; Horita, Nobukatsu; Todisco, Andrea; Turgeon, D Kim; Siebel, Christian W; Samuelson, Linda C

    2017-02-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate stem cells and epithelial cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues; however, Notch function in the corpus region of the stomach is poorly understood. In this study we examined the consequences of Notch inhibition and activation on cellular proliferation and differentiation and defined the specific Notch receptors functioning in the mouse and human corpus. Notch pathway activity was observed in the mouse corpus epithelium, and gene expression analysis revealed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 to be the predominant Notch receptors in both mouse and human. Global Notch inhibition for 5 days reduced progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse corpus, as well as in organoids derived from mouse and human corpus tissue. Proliferation effects were mediated through both NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors, as demonstrated by targeting each receptor alone or in combination with Notch receptor inhibitory antibodies. Analysis of differentiation by marker expression showed no change to the major cell lineages; however, there was a modest increase in the number of transitional cells coexpressing markers of mucous neck and chief cells. In contrast to reduced proliferation after pathway inhibition, Notch activation in the adult stomach resulted in increased proliferation coupled with reduced differentiation. These findings suggest that NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 signaling promotes progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse and human gastric corpus, which is consistent with previously defined roles for Notch in promoting stem and progenitor cell proliferation in the intestine and antral stomach. Here we demonstrate that the Notch signaling pathway is essential for proliferation of stem cells in the mouse and human gastric corpus. We identify NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 as the predominant Notch receptors expressed in both mouse and human corpus and show that both receptors are required for corpus stem cell proliferation. We show that chronic Notch activation in corpus stem

  11. Reward Sensitivity Modulates Brain Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex, ACC and Striatum during Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan C.; Costumero, Víctor; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Current perspectives on cognitive control acknowledge that individual differences in motivational dispositions may modulate cognitive processes in the absence of reward contingencies. This work aimed to study the relationship between individual differences in Behavioral Activation System (BAS) sensitivity and the neural underpinnings involved in processing a switching cue in a task-switching paradigm. BAS sensitivity was hypothesized to modulate brain activity in frontal regions, ACC and the striatum. Twenty-eight healthy participants underwent fMRI while performing a switching task, which elicited activity in fronto-striatal regions during the processing of the switch cue. BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the ventral striatum. Combined with previous results, our data indicate that BAS sensitivity modulates the neurocognitive processes involved in task switching in a complex manner depending on task demands. Therefore, individual differences in motivational dispositions may influence cognitive processing in the absence of reward contingencies. PMID:25875640

  12. Corynebacterium striatum Bacteremia Associated with a Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 49-year-old woman visited our emergency department because of exertional dyspnea due to severe left ventricular functional failure. It progressed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and disturbance of consciousness on day 67 of admission. Gram-positive bacilli were detected from two different blood culture samples on day 67 of admission. An API-Coryne test and sequencing (1~615 bp of the 16S rRNA gene were performed, and the strain was identified as Corynebacterium striatum. The bacterium was detected from the removed central venous catheter tip too, and the patient was diagnosed with catheter-related bloodstream infection by C. striatum. However, treatment was not effective, and the patient died on day 73 of admission.

  13. Cellular Taxonomy of the Mouse Striatum as Revealed by Single-Cell RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Ozgun; Stanley, Geoffrey M; Treutlein, Barbara; Neff, Norma F; Camp, J Gray; Malenka, Robert C; Rothwell, Patrick E; Fuccillo, Marc V; Südhof, Thomas C; Quake, Stephen R

    2016-07-26

    The striatum contributes to many cognitive processes and disorders, but its cell types are incompletely characterized. We show that microfluidic and FACS-based single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse striatum provides a well-resolved classification of striatal cell type diversity. Transcriptome analysis revealed ten differentiated, distinct cell types, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal, immune, and vascular cells, and enabled the discovery of numerous marker genes. Furthermore, we identified two discrete subtypes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that have specific markers and that overexpress genes linked to cognitive disorders and addiction. We also describe continuous cellular identities, which increase heterogeneity within discrete cell types. Finally, we identified cell type-specific transcription and splicing factors that shape cellular identities by regulating splicing and expression patterns. Our findings suggest that functional diversity within a complex tissue arises from a small number of discrete cell types, which can exist in a continuous spectrum of functional states.

  14. Cellular Taxonomy of the Mouse Striatum as Revealed by Single-Cell RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgun Gokce

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum contributes to many cognitive processes and disorders, but its cell types are incompletely characterized. We show that microfluidic and FACS-based single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse striatum provides a well-resolved classification of striatal cell type diversity. Transcriptome analysis revealed ten differentiated, distinct cell types, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal, immune, and vascular cells, and enabled the discovery of numerous marker genes. Furthermore, we identified two discrete subtypes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs that have specific markers and that overexpress genes linked to cognitive disorders and addiction. We also describe continuous cellular identities, which increase heterogeneity within discrete cell types. Finally, we identified cell type-specific transcription and splicing factors that shape cellular identities by regulating splicing and expression patterns. Our findings suggest that functional diversity within a complex tissue arises from a small number of discrete cell types, which can exist in a continuous spectrum of functional states.

  15. Corynebacterium striatum Bacteremia Associated with a Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Tomohiro; Yamane, Kunikazu; Terada, Kihei

    2017-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman visited our emergency department because of exertional dyspnea due to severe left ventricular functional failure. It progressed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and disturbance of consciousness on day 67 of admission. Gram-positive bacilli were detected from two different blood culture samples on day 67 of admission. An API-Coryne test and sequencing (1~615 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene were performed, and the strain was identified as Corynebacterium striatum. The bacterium was detected from the removed central venous catheter tip too, and the patient was diagnosed with catheter-related bloodstream infection by C. striatum. However, treatment was not effective, and the patient died on day 73 of admission. PMID:28197349

  16. Studies on the Antiviral Activities in vitro of Polysaccharide from Eucheuma striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CEN,Ying-Zhou; KHOO,Gaik-Ming; YE,Shao-Ming; RUI,Wen

    2004-01-01

    @@ To assay the antiviral activities on HSV-1 and CVB3 in vitro of the polysaccharide from Eucheuma striatum, its antiviral mechanism was explored. Vero cells were infected by HSV-1 and CVB3, and they were cultured with serial dilutions of polysaccharide. The cells cytotoxicity of Polysaccharide was evaluated by the MTT method. The inhibitory effects were evaluated by the cytopathic effect (CPE). Its antiviral mechanism was researched by the method of giving samples in different time. The polysaccharide could inhibit the CPE of cells infected by HSV-1 and CVB3. It showed low cytotoxicity on vero cells. Its antiviral activities were better than those of acyclovir and ribavirin which were run in parallel as the positive control samples. The polysaccharide from Eucheuma striatum has potent antiviral activities. Its antiviral mechanism is that it can prevent the virus from absorbing to the cell surface.

  17. SELEKSI RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus striatum DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN LAJU PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT UNTUK BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya rumput laut di Indonesia semakin berkembang seiring dengan peningkatan permintaan bahan baku industri untuk pasar domestik dan eksport. Rumput laut Kappaphycus striatum, salah satu spesies rumput laut komersil, telah intensif dibudidayakan di perairan pantai. Saat ini, masalah utama yang dihadapi pembudidaya adalah rendahnya kualitas bibit yang berasal dari hasil budidaya. Seleksi varietas merupakan salah satu metode yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan rumput laut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh seleksi varietas terhadap pertumbuhan rumput laut sehingga dapat dilakukan produksi bibit unggul untuk keperluan budidaya. Budidaya rumput laut K. striatum telah dilakukan di Teluk Laikang, Kabupaten Takalar, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan dengan menggunakan metode long line. Seleksi varietas dilakukan berdasarkan parameter laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH dan metode seleksi mengacu pada protokol seleksi yang telah dikembangkan pada rumput laut K. alvarezii. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LPH bibit hasil seleksi lebih tinggi (P

  18. Contributions of the striatum to learning, motivation, and performance: an associative account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeholm, Mimi; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-09-01

    It has long been recognized that the striatum is composed of distinct functional sub-units that are part of multiple cortico-striatal-thalamic circuits. Contemporary research has focused on the contribution of striatal sub-regions to three main phenomena: learning of associations between stimuli, actions and rewards; selection between competing response alternatives; and motivational modulation of motor behavior. Recent proposals have argued for a functional division of the striatum along these lines, attributing, for example, learning to one region and performance to another. Here, we consider empirical data from human and animal studies, as well as theoretical notions from both the psychological and computational literatures, and conclude that striatal sub-regions instead differ most clearly in terms of the associations being encoded in each region.

  19. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells increase dopamine synthesis in the injured striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Huang; Cheng Chang; Jiewen Zhang; Xiaoqun Gao

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that tyrosine hydroxylase or neurturin gene-modified cells transplanted into rats with Parkinson's disease significantly improved behavior and increased striatal dopamine content. In the present study, we transplanted tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin gene-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the damaged striatum of Parkinson's disease model rats. Several weeks after cell transplantation, in addition to an improvement of motor function, tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin proteins were up-regulated in the injured striatum, and importantly, levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid increased significantly. Furthermore, the density of the D2 dopamine receptor in the postsynaptic membranes of dopaminergic neurons was decreased. These results indicate that transplantation of tyrosine hydroxylase and neurturin gene-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells increases dopamine synthesis and significantly improves the behavior of rats with Parkinson's disease.

  20. Differential magnitude coding of gains and omitted rewards in the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni, Andreas; Koeneke, Susan; Velickaite, Agne; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-09-09

    Physiologic studies revealed that neurons in the dopaminergic midbrain of non-human primates encode reward prediction errors. It was furthermore shown that reward prediction errors are adaptively scaled with respect to the range of possible outcomes, enabling sensitive encoding for a large range of reward values. Congruently, neuroimaging studies in humans demonstrated that BOLD-responses in the ventral striatum encode reward prediction errors in similar fashion as dopaminergic midbrain neurons, suggesting that these BOLD-responses may be driven by dopaminergic midbrain activity. However, neuroimaging results are ambiguous with respect to the adaptive scaling of reward prediction errors, leading to the conjecture that under certain circumstances other than dopaminergic midbrain input may drive ventral striatal BOLD-responses. The goal of this study was to substantiate whether BOLD-responses in the ventral striatum rather respond to adaptively scaled reward prediction errors or absolute reward magnitude. In addition, we aimed to identify neuronal structures modulating activity in the ventral striatum. Sixteen healthy participants played a wheel of fortune game, where they could win three differently valued rewards while being scanned. BOLD-responses increased after gaining rewards; this gain was however independent of the absolute reward magnitude. In contrast BOLD-responses upon reward omission decreased with reward magnitude. A psychophysiological interaction analysis identified a cluster in the brainstem in proximity of the dorsal raphe nucleus, a cluster in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and a cluster in the rostral cingulate zone. These clusters changed their connectivity with the ventral striatum in relation to the absolute reward magnitude in reward omission trials.

  1. Whole-brain mapping of inputs to projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingchun; Wang, Daqing; He, Xiaobin; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Xu, Fuqiang; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin

    2015-01-01

    The dorsal striatum integrates inputs from multiple brain areas to coordinate voluntary movements, associative plasticity, and reinforcement learning. Its projection neurons consist of the GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine receptor type 1 (D1) or dopamine receptor type 2 (D2). Cholinergic interneurons account for a small portion of striatal neuron populations, but they play important roles in striatal functions by synapsing onto the MSNs and other local interneurons. By combining the modified rabies virus with specific Cre- mouse lines, a recent study mapped the monosynaptic input patterns to MSNs. Because only a small number of extrastriatal neurons were labeled in the prior study, it is important to reexamine the input patterns of MSNs with higher labeling efficiency. Additionally, the whole-brain innervation pattern of cholinergic interneurons remains unknown. Using the rabies virus-based transsynaptic tracing method in this study, we comprehensively charted the brain areas that provide direct inputs to D1-MSNs, D2-MSNs, and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum. We found that both types of projection neurons and the cholinergic interneurons receive extensive inputs from discrete brain areas in the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other subcortical areas, several of which were not reported in the previous study. The MSNs and cholinergic interneurons share largely common inputs from areas outside the striatum. However, innervations within the dorsal striatum represent a significantly larger proportion of total inputs for cholinergic interneurons than for the MSNs. The comprehensive maps of direct inputs to striatal MSNs and cholinergic interneurons shall assist future functional dissection of the striatal circuits.

  2. Striatum morphometry is associated with cognitive control deficits and symptom severity in internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxi; Yuan, Kai; Yin, Junsen; Feng, Dan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD), identified in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) Section III as a condition warranting more clinical research, may be associated with impaired cognitive control. Previous IGD-related studies had revealed structural abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex, an important part of prefrontal-striatal circuits, which play critical roles in cognitive control. However, little is known about the relationship between the striatal nuclei (caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens) volumes and cognitive control deficit in individuals with IGD. Twenty-seven adolescents with IGD and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls participated in this study. The volume differences of the striatum were assessed by measuring subcortical volume in FreeSurfer. Meanwhile, the Stroop task was used to detect cognitive control deficits. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between striatal volumes and performance in the Stroop task as well as severity in IGD. Relative to controls, the IGD committed more incongruent condition response errors during the Stroop task and showed increased volumes of dorsal striatum (caudate) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). In addition, caudate volume was correlated with Stroop task performance and nucleus accumbens (NAc) volume was associated with the internet addiction test (IAT) score in the IGD group. The increased volumes of the right caudate and NAc and their association with behavioral characteristics (i.e., cognitive control and severity) in IGD were detected in the present study. Our findings suggest that the striatum may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of IGD.

  3. The influence of cannabinoids on learning and memory processes of the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2015-11-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the mammalian endocannabinoid system plays an integral role in learning and memory. Our understanding of how cannabinoids influence memory comes predominantly from studies examining cognitive and emotional memory systems mediated by the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. However, recent evidence suggests that cannabinoids also affect habit or stimulus-response (S-R) memory mediated by the dorsal striatum. Studies implementing a variety of maze tasks in rats indicate that systemic or intra-dorsolateral striatum infusions of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists impair habit memory. In mice, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor knockdown can enhance or impair habit formation, whereas Δ(9)THC tolerance enhances habit formation. Studies in human cannabis users also suggest an enhancement of S-R/habit memory. A tentative conclusion based on the available data is that acute disruption of the endocannabinoid system with either agonists or antagonists impairs, whereas chronic cannabinoid exposure enhances, dorsal striatum-dependent S-R/habit memory. CB1 receptors are required for multiple forms of striatal synaptic plasticity implicated in memory, including short-term and long-term depression. Interactions with the hippocampus-dependent memory system may also have a role in some of the observed effects of cannabinoids on habit memory. The impairing effect often observed with acute cannabinoid administration argues for cannabinoid-based treatments for human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional habit memory system (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder and drug addiction/relapse). In addition, the enhancing effect of repeated cannabinoid exposure on habit memory suggests a novel neurobehavioral mechanism for marijuana addiction involving the dorsal striatum-dependent memory system.

  4. Specific inhibition of kynurenate synthesis enhances extracellular dopamine levels in the rodent striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, L; Wu, H.-Q.; Marinozzi, M; Pellicciari, R; Guidetti, P; Schwarcz, R

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in the endogenous levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a potent α7 nicotinic and NMDA receptor antagonist, affect extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations in the rat brain. Moreover, reductions in KYNA levels increase the vulnerability of striatal neurons to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxic insults. We now assessed the role of a key KYNA-synthesizing enzyme, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), in these processes in the rodent striatum, using KAT II KO mice—which have reduced KYNA levels—and the selective KAT II inhibitor (S)-4-(ethylsulfonyl)benzoylalanine (S-ESBA) as tools. S-ESBA (applied by reverse dialysis) raised extracellular DA levels in the striatum of KYNA-deficient mice threefold and caused a much larger, 15-fold increase in wild-type mice. In the rat striatum, S-ESBA produced a 35% reduction in extracellular KYNA, which was accompanied by a 270% increase in extracellular DA. The latter effect was abolished by co-infusion of 100 nM KYNA. Intrastriatal S-ESBA pre-treatment augmented the size of a striatal quinolinate lesion by 370%, and this potentiation was prevented by co-infusion of KYNA. In separate animals, acute inhibition of KAT II reduced the de novo synthesis of KYNA during an early excitotoxic insult without enhancing the formation of the related neurotoxic metabolites 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinate. Taken together, these results provide further support for the concept that KAT II is a critical determinant of functionally relevant KYNA fluctuations in the rodent striatum. PMID:19138730

  5. Mitochondria in the Striatum of Subjects with Schizophrenia: relationship to treatment response

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Shahza M.; Lahti, Adrienne C.; Conley, Robert R.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness with neuropathology in many regions, including the striatum. The typical symptoms of this disease are psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions), cognitive impairments and the deficit syndrome. Not all patients respond to treatment and in those who do, only psychotic symptoms are improved. Imaging studies support a biological distinction between treatment response and resistance, but postmortem examinations of this issue are rare. The present stu...

  6. Acute administration of l-tyrosine alters energetic metabolism of hippocampus and striatum of infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Andrea C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Furlanetto, Camila B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene that encodes tyrosine aminotransferase, which leads to increased blood tyrosine levels. Considering that tyrosine levels are highly elevated in fluids of patients with tyrosinemia type II, and that previous studies demonstrated significant alterations in brain energy metabolism of young rats caused by l-tyrosine, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acute administration of l-tyrosine on the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, and IV in posterior cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of infant rats. Wistar rats (10 days old) were killed 1h after a single intraperitoneal injection of tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes were evaluated in brain of rats. Our results demonstrated that acute administration of l-tyrosine inhibited the activity of citrate synthase activity in striatum and increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in hippocampus. On the other hand, these enzymes were not affected in posterior cortex. The activities of complex I and complex II were inhibited by acute administration of l-tyrosine in striatum. On the other hand, the acute administration of l-tyrosine increased the activity of activity of complex II-III in hippocampus. Complex IV was not affected by acute administration of l-tyrosine in infant rats. Our results indicate an alteration in the energy metabolism in hippocampus and striatum of infant rats after acute administration of l-tyrosine. If the same effects occur in the brain of the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism impairment may be contribute to possible damage in memory and cognitive processes in patients with tyrosinemia type II.

  7. Human Choice Strategy Varies with Anatomical Projections from Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex to Medial Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piray, Payam; Toni, Ivan; Cools, Roshan

    2016-03-09

    Two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, support decision making. It has recently been hypothesized that this distinction may arise from two computational mechanisms, model-based and model-free reinforcement learning, neuronally implemented in frontostriatal circuits involved in learning and behavioral control. Here, we test whether the relative strength of anatomical connectivity within frontostriatal circuits accounts for variation in human individuals' reliance on model-based and model-free control. This hypothesis was tested by combining diffusion tensor imaging with a multistep decision task known to distinguish model-based and model-free control in humans. We found large interindividual differences in the degree of model-based control, and those differences are predicted by the structural integrity of white-matter tracts from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the medial striatum. Furthermore, an analysis based on masking out of bottom-up tracts suggests that this effect is driven by top-down influences from ventromedial prefrontal cortex to medial striatum. Our findings indicate that individuals with stronger afferences from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the medial striatum are more likely to rely on a model-based strategy to control their instrumental actions. These findings suggest a mechanism for instrumental action control through which medial striatum determines, at least partly, the relative contribution of model-based and model-free systems during decision-making according to top-down model-based information from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings have important implications for understanding the neural circuitry that might be susceptible to pathological computational processes in impulsive/compulsive psychiatric disorders.

  8. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Learning via Positive and Negative Reinforcers in the Human Striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Niznikiewicz, Michael A.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2011-01-01

    The human striatum has been previously implicated in the processing of positive reinforcement, but less is known about its role in processing negative reinforcement. In this experiment, participants learn specific approach or avoid responses, mediated by positive and negative reinforcers respectively, to investigate how affective learning and associated neural activity are influenced by the motivational context in which learning occurs. The paradigm was divided into two discrete sessions, whe...

  9. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liptak Amy R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

  10. Case report: Malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christmas Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours and are most frequently found in the testes and ovary. Extragonadal teratomas are rare and mainly occur in midline structures. Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix. Case Presentation We report an 82-year-old lady presenting with post-menopausal bleeding. Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed. Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy. Six months after surgery she relapsed with para-aortic lymphadenopathy and was treated with a taxane, etoposide and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Conclusion In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies.

  11. Corpus Linguistics, the World Wide Web, and English Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Meyer

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how the Web can serve as a resource for teaching modality in English to prospective teachers of ESL, EFL and ESP. The first section demonstrates how texts taken from two different registers on the Web can be used to teach epistemic modality (e.g. how modal verbs such as may and could express notions of probability and certainty. The second section explores how the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE can be searched to study deontic modality, specifically how the expressions should and might want to are used by teachers and advisors to give advice to students. The discussion demonstrates that teaching grammar is most effective when it is based on real data rather than contrived and decontextualized examples in grammar books.

  12. Corpus-Driven Knowledge Acquisition for Discourse Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Soderland, S; Soderland, Stephen; Lehnert, Wendy

    1994-01-01

    The availability of large on-line text corpora provides a natural and promising bridge between the worlds of natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML). In recent years, the NLP community has been aggressively investigating statistical techniques to drive part-of-speech taggers, but application-specific text corpora can be used to drive knowledge acquisition at much higher levels as well. In this paper we will show how ML techniques can be used to support knowledge acquisition for information extraction systems. It is often very difficult to specify an explicit domain model for many information extraction applications, and it is always labor intensive to implement hand-coded heuristics for each new domain. We have discovered that it is nevertheless possible to use ML algorithms in order to capture knowledge that is only implicitly present in a representative text corpus. Our work addresses issues traditionally associated with discourse analysis and intersentential inference generation, and de...

  13. The development of cohesion in a learner corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A. Neary-Sundquist

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of cohesive devices (pragmatic markers and conjunctions in a 24,000-word corpus of transcribed oral data from 47 learners and native speakers of English. Both of these cohesive devices increase with proficiency level, but not in the same way. Conjunction use seems to increase steadily, and only the differences between the highest and lowest proficiency levels were found to be statistically significant. Pragmatic marker use, however, remains fairly stable across the three lowest proficiency levels and rises drastically for the two highest proficiency levels, and the two higher proficiency levels are significantly different from the two lower levels in their use of pragmatic markers. The results are compared to native speaker rates of cohesive device use for the same tasks and under the same conditions.

  14. Embedding epistemic modals in English: A corpus-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Hacquard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether epistemic modals contribute to the truth conditions of the sentences they appear in is a matter of active debate in the literature. Fueling this debate is the lack of consensus about the extent to which epistemics can appear in the scope of other operators. This corpus study investigates the distribution of epistemics in naturalistic data. Our results indicate that they do embed, supporting the view that they contribute semantic content. However, their distribution is limited, compared to that of other modals. This limited distribution seems to call for a nuanced account: while epistemics are semantically contentful, they may require special licensing conditions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.4 BibTeX info

  15. [Urethroplasty in hypoplastic-dysplastic corpus spongiosum and short urethra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitarelli, Antonio; Divenuto, Lucia; Altomare, Mauro; Masiello, Giuseppe; Pagliarulo, Arcangelo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital penile curvature and chordee are a rare malformative condition most frequently associated with hypospadias, but varying degrees of penile curvature are observed with an orthotopic meatus. Disease becomes evident after puberty, when curvature becomes more apparent with erection. We present a case of a young man (16 years old), with ventral congenital penile curvature without hypospadias and with hypoplastic-dysplastic corpus spongiosum and short urethra, who could not have normal sexual intercourses. The patient underwent first-stage urethroplasty with urethral opening and graft of buccal mucosa and creation of a temporary hypospadic meatus. No post-operative complications were observed. There were no residual penile curvatures. Results are promising and satisfactory after the first surgical stage and provide a solid ground for the final reconstruction.

  16. Decreased rates of terpene emissions in Ornithopus compressus L. and Trifolium striatum L. by ozone exposure and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusia, Joan; Bermejo-Bermejo, Victoria; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-11-01

    Increasing tropospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen soil availability (N) are two of the main drivers of global change. They both may affect gas exchange, including plant emission of volatiles such as terpenes. We conducted an experiment using open-top chambers to analyze these possible effects on two leguminous species of Mediterranean pastures that are known to have different O3 sensitivity, Ornithopus compressus and Trifolium striatum. O3 exposure and N fertilization did not affect the photosynthetic rates of O. compressus and T. striatum, although O3 tended to induce an increase in the stomatal conductance of both species, especially T. striatum, the most sensitive species. O3 and N soil availability reduced the emission of terpenes in O. compressus and T. striatum. If these responses are confirmed as a general pattern, O3 could affect the competitiveness of these species.

  17. 34 CFR 628.44 - When and for what purposes may a grantee use the endowment fund corpus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... endowment fund corpus? 628.44 Section 628.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... for what purposes may a grantee use the endowment fund corpus? (a)(1) During the grant period, a grantee may not withdraw or spend any part of the endowment fund corpus. (2) If, during the grant...

  18. 78 FR 44523 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 122 Under Alternative Site Framework; Corpus Christi, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...; Corpus Christi, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Port of Corpus Christi Authority, grantee of Foreign..., Kleberg and Bee Counties, Texas, within and adjacent to the Corpus Christi Customs and Border...

  19. Book review:Jeanne McCarten’s Teaching Vocabulary:Lessons from the Corpus,Lessons for the Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑶

    2015-01-01

    Corpus is now playing a significant role in various researchingfields,pedagogy included.Jeanne McCarten introduces her corpus-based method of vocabulary teaching in the book Teaching Vocabulary:Lessons from the Corpus,Lessons for the Classroom.This book review introduces you this book and makes some pertinent comments on it.

  20. The International Corpus of Learner English: A New Resource for Foreign Language Learning and Teaching and Second Language Acquisition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Sylviane

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the International Corpus of Learner English, outlining the learner and task variables in the corpus of texts written by English-as-a-Foreign-Language university undergraduates. The design of the corpus and sampling of students with different native languages make contrastive interlanguage analyses and error analyses…