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Sample records for corpus luteum presence

  1. Corpus Luteum Cyst Rupture - US Findings and Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Shang Hun; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Jeong, Yoong Ki [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hung [Dong Kang General Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To describe the US findings of corpus luteum cyst rupture in order to elucidate the associated clinical features. Twenty patients with proven corpus luteum cyst rupture were included in this study. The US findings of these patients were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the presence of designable cyst, size of the cyst, thickness and blood flow of the cyst wall, extension and echogenicity of peritoneal fluid, and involved site (right or left ovary). We also surveyed the clinical features such as the onset period according to the menstrual cycle, and the presence of suspectable cause. Fourteen of the 20 patients revealed designable cysts (mean diameter of 2.6 cm) with thick walled cysts (mean thickness, 4.6 mm, 2.4-6.8 mm) and increased blood flow. Six patients didn't reveal any cyst but only hematoma in adnexa. All patients had hemoperitoneum in the pelvic cavity, and the hemoperitoneum was extended to Morrison's pouch in 8 patients and to the subphrenic space in 6. The cysts occurred in the right adnexa in 15 patients and in the left in 5. Mean interval from the last menstrual period (LMP) was 26 days (13-44 days) and 6 of the 8 patients for whom it had been possible to obtain detailed history taking had had coitus just before the occurrence of symptom. When women who are hospitalized for acute abdomen and who are in luteal phase reveal US findings of hematoma or thick-walled cyst in adnexa and hemoperitoneum, a corpus luteum cyst rupture is highly suspected. In our case study the corpus luteum cyst rupture predominantly occurred in the right side, and the most suspectable cause was trauma such as coitus in the luteal phase

  2. Cytokines and Angiogenesis in the Corpus Luteum

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    António M. Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL, regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF, interferon gamma (IFNG, or Fas ligand (FASL, pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL.

  3. The significance of estradiol metabolites in human corpus luteum physiology.

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    Devoto, Luigi; Henríquez, Soledad; Kohen, Paulina; Strauss, Jerome F

    2017-07-01

    The human corpus luteum (CL) is a temporary endocrine gland derived from the ovulated follicle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for steroid hormone production required to support menstrual cyclicity, endometrial receptivity for successful implantation, and the maintenance of early pregnancy. Endocrine and paracrine-autocrine molecular mechanisms associated with progesterone production throughout the luteal phase are critical for the development, maintenance, regression, and rescue by hCG which sustains CL function into early pregnancy. However, the signaling systems driving the regression of the primate corpus luteum in non-conception cycles are not well understood. Recently, there has been interest in the functional roles of estradiol metabolites (EMs), mostly in estrogen-producing tissues. The human CL produces a number of EMs, and it has been postulated that the EMs acting via paracrine-autocrine pathways affect angiogenesis or LH-mediated events. The present review describes advances in understanding the role of EMs in the functional lifespan and regression of the human CL in non-conception cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

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    Liptak Amy R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

  5. Neural analysis of bovine ovaries ultrasound images in the identification process of the corpus luteum

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    Górna, K.; Jaśkowski, B. M.; Okoń, P.; Czechlowski, M.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Idziaszek, P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to shown the neural image analysis as a method useful for identifying the development stage of the domestic bovine corpus luteum on digital USG (UltraSonoGraphy) images. Corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland that develops after ovulation from the follicle secretory cells. The aim of CL is the production of progesterone, which regulates many reproductive functions. In the presented studies, identification of the corpus luteum was carried out on the basis of information contained in ultrasound digital images. Development stage of the corpus luteum was considered in two aspects: just before and middle of domination phase and luteolysis and degradation phase. Prior to the classification, the ultrasound images have been processed using a GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix). To generate a classification model, a Neural Networks module implemented in the STATISTICA was used. Five representative parameters describing the ultrasound image were used as learner variables. On the output of the artificial neural network was generated information about the development stage of the corpus luteum. Results of this study indicate that neural image analysis combined with GLCM texture analysis may be a useful tool for identifying the bovine corpus luteum in the context of its development phase. Best-generated artificial neural network model was the structure of MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron) 5:5-17-1:1.

  6. Estrogen and oxytocin receptors in the canine corpus luteum during pregnancy and parturition

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    Gisele Almeida Lima Veiga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression of genes encoding the receptors for estrogen (ERαmRNA and oxytocin (OTRmRNA was studied in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the levels of ERαmRNA and OTRmRNA in the corpus luteum of bitches during Early (up to 20 days of gestation, Mid (20 to 40 days and Late Pregnancy (40 to 60 days, and Parturition (first stage of labor. The corpus luteum expressed mRNA for OTR, however ERα mRNA was not detected. There was a reduction of OTR mRNA expression in the corpus luteum from gestational Day 20 onward, which suggests an important role of OTR mRNA in the mechanism of pregnancy recognition in dogs. We concluded that the expression of OTR mRNA in canine corpus luteum vary over time, which support the idea that the sensitivity and response to hormone therapy can vary along the course of pregnancy and labor. Moreover, the canine CL lacks ERα mRNA expression during pregnancy.

  7. Tankyrase inhibition regulates corpus luteum development and luteal function in gonadotropin-treated rats.

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    Accialini, Paula; Irusta, Griselda; Bechis, Andrés; Bas, Diana; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia; Tesone, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Tankyrases are physiological regulators of Axin, a protein involved in several cellular processes, including Wnt signaling. Here, we investigated the effect of a specific Tankyrase inhibitor (XAV939) in follicular-luteal dynamics, and its possible relationship with ovarian vascular development. Studies were designed to analyze the effect of intrabursa administration of XAV939 in gonadotropin-treated prepubertal rats. In particular, we examined follicle and corpus luteum development, steroidogenesis, angiogenic markers, and apoptotic parameters. We found that in vivo inhibition of Wnt signaling impaired corpus luteum development, with a decrease in the number of corpora lutea balanced by a high number of cysts; decreased circulating progesterone levels, likely due to a decrease in Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein content in the corpus luteum; and increased pro-apoptotic parameters. In addition, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, Vascular endothelium growth factor 120 content, and endothelial cell area were diminished in corpora lutea of inhibitor-treated ovaries. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin signaling appears to participate in the regulation of corpus luteum development and luteal cell function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of breed and corpus luteum on pregnancy rate of bovine embryo recipients

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    Ériklis Nogueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pregnancy rates of recipients of different breed groups (Nellore and crossbreed, as well as the effects of size and type of the corpus luteum (CL on plasmatic concentrations of progesterone and pregnancy rates of embryo recipients. A total of 152 heifers were synchronized with progesterone implants and on the day of embryo transfer, previously obtained by superovulation and frozen in ethylene glycol, the diameter and type of the corpus luteum (cavitary and compact was measured and blood was collected for progesterone measurement. The pregnancy rate was 44.1%, with a diameter of corpus luteum higher in recipients that became pregnant (2.03±0.41 compared with non-pregnant ones (1.86±0.34 cm. Plasmatic concentrations of progesterone did not differ between pregnant (1.50±1.05 and non-pregnant (1.31±0.91 ng/mL animals. The type of corpus luteum did not influence the pregnancy rates. Only Angus and crossbred Marchigiana differ among themselves in pregnancy rates (33.3 and 59.2%, respectively. The pregnancy probability was affected only by CL diameter, but not by P4 plasmatic concentration. Selection of the corpus luteum size at the time of embryo transfer is an important factor to increase pregnancy rates in recipients, and compact and cavitary corpora lutea do not influence the pregnancy rates of bovine embryo recipients. Nellore recipients have pregnancy rates that are satisfactory and comparable to crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus recipients.

  9. Increased Stress-Activated Protein Kinase Astivity During PGF2alpha Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in Buffalo Corpus Luteum

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Vijay K; Natrajan, T; Medhamurthy, R

    2001-01-01

    Corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine structure which develops from the remains of the Graffian follicle after ovulation in mammals. Prolongation of its function is required during pregnancy, while cessation of its function is a must for the initiation of a new reproductive cycle. In a number of farm animals including the bovine species, Prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) is recognized as a physiological death signal/luteolysin for the regression of the corpus luteum. Despite the central role pl...

  10. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

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    António Galvão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP, Ghrelin (GHR and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4, prostaglandin (PG E2 and PGF2α, nitric oxide (nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF; macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation, in equine corpus luteum (CL from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2α, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated.

  11. Biochemical and endocrine aspects of oxytocin production by the mammalian corpus luteum

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    Stormshak Fredrick

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A review of the current state of knowledge of oxytocin production by the preovulatory follicle and corpus luteum is presented. Corpora lutea of a number of mammalian species have been found to synthesize oxytocin. However, the synthesis and secretion of this nanopeptide by the corpus luteum of the ruminant has been most extensively studied because of the potential role of this peptide in facilitating luteal regression. While much information exists relative to various biochemical and endocrine factors that impact on oxytocin gene expression, this aspect about luteal synthesis of this peptide hormone remains enigmatic. Prostaglandin F-2α (PGF-2α has been shown to be a primary endogenous hormone responsible for triggering luteal secretion of oxytocin. Details are provided regarding the PGF-2α-induced intracellular signal transduction pathway that ultimately results in exocytosis of luteal oxytocin. Evidence is also presented for potential autocrine/paracrine actions of oxytocin in regulating progesterone production by luteal and granulosa cells. Concluding remarks highlight aspects about luteal oxytocin production that require further research.

  12. Early transcriptome responses of the bovine midcycle corpus luteum to prostaglandin F2a includes cytokine signaling

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    In ruminants, prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2a)-mediated luteolysis is essential prior to estrous cycle resumption, and is a target for improving fertility. To deduce early PGF2a-provoked changes in the corpus luteum a short time-course (0.5–4 h) was performed on cows at midcycle. A microarray-determin...

  13. Hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes, hepatic portal blood flow, and corpus luteum blood perfusion in lactating dairy cattle

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    In ruminants, a decrease in pregnancy rates may be due to decreased concentrations of progesterone (P4). It is important to note that both production from the corpus luteum and/or hepatic steroid inactivation impacts peripheral concentrations of P4. Cattle with an elevated dry matter intake have inc...

  14. Function of the corpus luteum, the endometrium and the trophoblast after treatment of tubal pregnancy by prostaglandin F2 alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejtorp, M; Sørensen, Steen; Ruge, S

    1993-01-01

    The activity of the corpus luteum, the endometrium and the trophoblast was studied after local medical treatment of 31 women with tubal pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of progesterone, the secretory endometrial protein placental protein 14 (PP14), and human chorionic gonadotrophin...

  15. Prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr expression on porcine corpus luteum microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs

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    Forni Monica

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The corpus luteum (CL is a transient endocrine gland and prostaglandin F2-alpha is considered to be the principal luteolysin in pigs. In this species, the in vivo administration of prostaglandin F2-alpha induces apoptosis in large vessels as early as 6 hours after administration. The presence of the prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr on the microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs of the porcine corpus luteum has not yet been defined. The aim of the study was to assess FPr expression in pCL-MVECs in the early and mid-luteal phases (EL-p, ML-p, and during pregnancy (P-p. Moreover, the effectiveness of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment in inducing pCL-MVEC apoptosis was tested. Methods Porcine CLs were collected in the EL and ML phases and during P-p. All CLs from each animal were minced together and the homogenates underwent enzymatic digestion. The pCL-MVECs were then positively selected by an immunomagnetic separation protocol using Dynabeads coated with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody and seeded in flasks in the presence of EGM 2-MV (Microvascular Endothelial Cell Medium-2. After 4 days of culture, the cells underwent additional immunomagnetic selection and were seeded in flasks until the confluent stage. PCR Real time, western blot and immunodetection assays were utilized to assess the presence of FPr on pCL-MVEC primary cultures. Furthermore, the influence of culture time (freshly isolated, cultured overnight and at confluence and hormonal treatment (P4 and E2 on FPr expression in pCL-MVECs was also investigated. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay of pCL-MVECs exposed to prostaglandin F2-alpha. Results We obtained primary cultures of pCL-MVECs from all animals. FPr mRNA and protein levels showed the highest value (ANOVA in CL-MVECs derived from the early-luteal phase. Moreover, freshly isolated MVECs showed a higher FPr mRNA value than those cultured overnight and confluent cells (ANOVA. prostaglandin F2-alpha

  16. Follicle growth, corpus luteum function and their effects on embryo development in postpartum dairy cows.

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    Wathes, D C; Taylor, V J; Cheng, Z; Mann, G E

    2003-01-01

    Absent or irregular ovarian cycles in lactating dairy cows are caused by failure to ovulate the dominant follicle at the appropriate time. The follicle then either regresses or develops into a cyst. This process can be triggered by a variety of metabolic and disease factors that act at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to inhibit pulsatile LH secretion and the LH surge, and at the ovary to reduce follicular growth and oestradiol production. Cows of poor energy status have low circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Predisposing factors include calving difficulties, inappropriate diet, reduced intake of dry matter and a high rate of body condition score loss. Various stressors predispose the follicle to cyst development by inhibiting the LH surge and ovulation; these include common infections, such as mastitis. Even when ovulation does occur, poor follicular development may result in production of an inadequate corpus luteum. The timing of the increase in progesterone in the early luteal phase (days 4-5) appears to be a key determinant of fertility, probably because it alters the secretory activity of the reproductive tract, thus influencing embryonic growth and interferon-tau production. A period of negative energy balance after calving can reduce fertility even though metabolic parameters have apparently improved at the time of service.

  17. Relationship among preovulatory follicle, corpus luteum and progesterone in oestrus synchronized buffaloes

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    C. Pacelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult buffaloes were used for this study. The animals were synchronized by PRID+PMSG+PGF2α and artificially inseminated. The ovaries were ultrasonografically examined to study the preovulatory follicle (PF and the successive corpus luteum (CL. At the same time, blood sample were collected for P4 determination carried out by RIA. On the basis of echogenic appearance, the corpora lutea (CLs were classified as belonging to grade 1, 2 or 3. Significant difference was found in the diameter of PF and in that of CL in relation to the CL echogenic appearance. Well defined granular CL, distinguishable from the ovarian stroma and dark grey in colour (grade 3 resulted to have a bigger diameter compared with CLs belonging to a grade 1 or 2, and resulted to derive from a larger PF. Positive correlation was found between plasma P4 concentration and CL diameter. The PF diameter was larger in buffaloes become pregnant after AI respect to the non-pregnant. The CL diameter, also, was significantly larger in the pregnant buffalo compared to the non-pregnant since the first observation at day 7, while significant difference in P4 value was found starting from day 21 after AI.

  18. Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows

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    H. J. Chung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5 and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90. A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each. Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4 was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5. Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE, and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows.

  19. Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum

    KAUST Repository

    Prokopiou, Sotiris A.

    2013-12-13

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian tissue that grows in the wound space created by follicular rupture. It produces the progesterone needed in the uterus to maintain pregnancy. Rapid growth of the CL and progesterone transport to the uterus require angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, a process which is regulated by proteins that include fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this paper we develop a system of time-dependent ordinary differential equations to model CL growth. The dependent variables represent FGF2, endothelial cells (ECs), luteal cells, and stromal cells (like pericytes), by assuming that the CL volume is a continuum of the three cell types. We assume that if the CL volume exceeds that of the ovulated follicle, then growth is inhibited. This threshold volume partitions the system dynamics into two regimes, so that the model may be classified as a Filippov (piecewise smooth) system. We show that normal CL growth requires an appropriate balance between the growth rates of luteal and stromal cells. We investigate how angiogenesis influences CL growth by considering how the system dynamics depend on the dimensionless EC proliferation rate, {Mathematical expression}. We find that weak (low {Mathematical expression}) or strong (high {Mathematical expression}) angiogenesis leads to \\'pathological\\' CL growth, since the loss of CL constituents compromises progesterone production or delivery. However, for intermediate values of {Mathematical expression}, normal CL growth is predicted. The implications of these results for cow fertility are also discussed. For example, inadequate angiogenesis has been linked to infertility in dairy cows. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. The interface of the immune and reproductive systems in the ovary: lessons learned from the corpus luteum of domestic animal models.

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    Pate, Joy L; Toyokawa, Koji; Walusimbi, Sadhat; Brzezicka, Edyta

    2010-10-01

    The dynamic changes that characterize the female reproductive system are regulated by hormones. However, local cell-to-cell interactions may mediate responsiveness of tissues to hormonal signals. The corpus luteum (CL) is an excellent model for understanding how immune cells are recruited into tissues and the role played by those cells in regulating tissue homeostasis or demise. Leukocytes are recruited into the CL throughout its lifespan, and leukocyte-derived cytokines have been found in corpora lutea of all species examined. The proinflammatory cytokines inhibit gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis, profoundly stimulate prostaglandin synthesis by luteal cells, and promote apoptosis. However, there is mounting evidence that leukocytes and luteal cells communicate in different ways to maintain homeostasis within the functional CL. Domestic animals have provided important information regarding the presence and role of immune cells in the CL.

  1. Transcriptomic and bioinformatics analysis of the early time-course of the response to prostaglandin F2 alpha in the bovine corpus luteum

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    RNA expression analysis was performed on the corpus luteum tissue at five time points after prostaglandin F2 alpha treatment of midcycle cows using an Affymetrix Bovine Gene v1 Array. The normalized linear microarray data was uploaded to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE94069). Subsequent statistical ana...

  2. Effect of GnRH analogue administration on Day 7 after natural mating on formation accessory corpus luteum, progesterone concentration and conception rate in llamas (Lama glama).

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    Abalos, Marcos C; Acuña, Francisco; Cancino, Andrea K; Aller, Juan F

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of exogenous GnRH administered 7 days after breeding on the formation of an accessory corpus luteum (ACL), plasma progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations and pregnancy rates. Adult females (n = 71) having a follicle ≥ 7 mm in diameter in the ovary were naturally mated (Day 0). On Day 7, ultrasonic examination was performed to confirm the occurrence of ovulation as evidenced by presence of an induced corpus luteum (ICL). Females with an ICL plus a dominant follicle ≥ 7 mm (n = 56) were treated with saline solution (SS, n = 29) or GnRH analogue (n = 27). On Day 14, the formation of an ACL was observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected on Days 7 and 14 to quantify plasma P 4 concentrations. On Day 14, 21 of 27 (77.8%) females in the GnRH group developed an ACL, whereas females in the SS group did not. Progesterone concentrations on Day 7 and 14 in those llamas diagnosed as pregnant on Day 30 were not different (P > 0.05) between groups. In addition, P 4 concentration was similar for GnRH-treated females having two CL to those with a single CL. Pregnancy rates were similar (P > 0.05) between SS and GnRH groups (55.2% compared with 74.1% respectively) and the pregnancy rate for the GnRH group was not affected (P > 0.05) by the number of CL observed at Day 14 (66.6% and 75.6% for females with one and two CL respectively). In conclusion, GnRH administration on Day 7 after breeding leads to ACL formation; however, neither the plasma P 4 concentration nor pregnancy rate was affected by having an ACL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of GnRH to induce an accessory corpus luteum in buffaloes fixed time artificially inseminated

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    P.S. Baruselli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to induce an accessory corpus luteum (CL in buffaloes fixed time artificially inseminated. Two hundred and forty buffaloes received the treatment sequence GnRH/PGF2α/GnRH after which were inseminated artificially. Six days after the insemination, the animals were divided in two groups (G1 = Control and G2 = GnRH and received 0 μg or 25 μg of GnRH to induce an accessory CL. After twenty four days (D40, pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography and 79 buffalo (G1, n = 39; G2, n = 40 were randomly selected to verify the ovary status by ultrasound. Fifty three pregnant buffaloes (G1, n = 32; G2, n = 21 were followed to verify the birth rate. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. The conception rate, the accessory CL rate and the birth rate were higher in G2 than in G1 (P<0.05. The use of GnRH to induce an accessory CL in buffaloes increased the conception and birth rates. Thus, the increase of the cost of Ovsynch protocol with the thirty dose of GnRH is rewarded by the increment on conception and birth rates and reduction of days open.

  4. Androgen Deficiency During Mid- and Late Pregnancy Alters Progesterone Production and Metabolism in the Porcine Corpus Luteum

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    Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E.; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy. PMID:24429677

  5. Corpus luteum as a novel target of weight changes that contribute to impaired female reproductive physiology and function.

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    Kuokkanen, Satu; Polotsky, Alex J; Chosich, Justin; Bradford, Andrew P; Jasinska, Anna; Phang, Tzu; Santoro, Nanette; Appt, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Obesity and malnutrition are associated with decreased fecundity in women. Impaired reproductive capacity in obese women is often attributed to anovulation. However, obese women with ovulatory cycles also have reduced fertility, but the etiology of their impaired reproduction is only partially understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that obesity directly impairs oocyte and embryo quality as well as endometrial receptivity. In obese women, urinary progesterone metabolite excretion is decreased, but in excess of what can be explained by suppressed gonadotropin secretion, suggesting that apart from its central effect obesity may directly affect progesterone (P4) production. These observations have led to the novel hypothesis that obesity directly affects corpus luteum (CL) function. Similarly, we hypothesize that weight loss may contribute to luteal dysfunction. Here, we propose a non-human primate model, the vervet monkey, to examine the effect of weight gain and loss on menstrual cycle parameters and CL gene expression. In this model, weight gain and loss did not significantly alter menstrual cyclicity; however, both induced alterations in the CL transcriptome. In the weight gain monkey, we observed that impaired mid-luteal P4 secretion was associated with downregulation of steroidogenic pathways in CL. Collectively, these preliminary findings support our hypothesis that weight gain and loss may contribute to CL dysfunction. The vervet model described and preliminary observations provide a basis for a larger study to address this important question. Understanding the mechanisms by which weight gain and loss contribute to reproductive dysfunction can assist in the development of targeted treatments to enhance women's reproductive capability when it is desired. CL: corpus luteum; P4: progesterone; E2: estradiol; PDG: pregnanediol 3-glucoronide; LH: luteinizing hormone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotropin releasing hormone; BMI: body mass index

  6. Signaling mechanisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced death of microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum

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    Rueda Bo R

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The microvasculature of the corpus luteum (CL, which comprises greater than 50% of the total number of cells in the CL, is thought to be the first structure to undergo degeneration via apoptosis during luteolysis. These studies compared the apoptotic potential of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, TNFα; interferon gamma, IFNγ; soluble Fas ligand, sFasL, a FAS activating antibody (FasAb, and the luteolytic hormone prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α on CL-derived endothelial (CLENDO cells. Neither sFasL, FasAb nor PGF2α had any effect on CLENDO cell viability. Utilizing morphological and biochemical parameters it was evident that TNFα and IFNγ initiated apoptosis in long-term cultures. However, TNFα was the most potent stimulus for CLENDO cell apoptosis at early time points. Unlike many other studies described in non-reproductive cell types, TNFα induced apoptosis of CLENDO cells occurs in the absence of inhibitors of protein synthesis. TNFα-induced death is typically associated with acute activation of distinct intracellular signaling pathways (e.g. MAPK and sphingomyelin pathways. Treatment with TNFα for 5–30 min activated MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK, and increased ceramide accumulation. Ceramide, a product of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, can serve as an upstream activator of members of the MAPK family independently in numerous cell types, and is a well-established pro-apoptotic second messenger. Like TNFα, treatment of CLENDO cells with exogenous ceramide significantly induced endothelial apoptosis. Ceramide also activated the JNK pathway, but had no effect on ERK and p38 MAPKs. Pretreatment of CLENDO cells with glutathione (GSH, an intracellular reducing agent and known inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS or TNFα-induced apoptosis, significantly attenuated TNFα-induced apoptosis. It is hypothesized that TNFα kills CLENDO cells through elevation of reactive oxygen species, and intracellular signals that promote

  7. Progesterone, estrogen, and androgen receptors in the corpus luteum of the domestic cat, Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelkina, Olga; Zschockelt, Lina; Painer, Johanna; Serra, Rodrigo; Villaespesa, Francisco; Krause, Eberhard; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the species studied, the corpus luteum (CL) of Iberian and Eurasian lynx physiologically persists in the ovary for more than 2 years and continues to secrete progesterone. Such persistent CL (perCL) transition into the next cycle and are present in the ovary together with the freshly formed CL (frCL) of a new ovulation. To date, the mechanisms supporting such CL persistence are not known. We analyzed the potential receptivity of feline CL to sex steroids through mRNA measurements of progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane components (PGRMC) 1 and 2, estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 and ESR2, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), and androgen receptor (AR). All receptors were present in domestic cat CL during pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase, in frCL and perCL of post-mating Iberian lynx and in perCL of pre-mating Eurasian lynx. Mass spectrometry detected the presence of PGRMC1 protein in frCL and perCL of the Iberian lynx. In both domestic cat and lynx CL, PGR, PGRMC1, and ESR1 proteins were localized in luteal cells by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of PGR, PGRMC1, PGRMC2, ESR1, and AR changed significantly throughout the domestic cat luteal phase. This may indicate involvement of these receptors in the processes of formation, maintenance, and regression of feline CL. In Iberian lynx, expression of PGRMC1, PGRCM2, ESR1, GPER1, and AR was significantly higher in perCL compared with frCL, whereas ESR2 was reversed. High mRNA amounts of these receptors in perCL suggest that physiological persistence of lynx CL may be partly regulated by actions of sex steroids through their nuclear and/or membrane receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Dynamics of microRNA Transcriptome in Bovine Corpus Luteum during Its Formation, Function, and Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rreze M. Gecaj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation, function, and subsequent regression of the ovarian corpus luteum (CL are dynamic processes that enable ovary cyclical activity. Studies in whole ovary tissue have found microRNAs (miRNAs to by critical for ovary function. However, relatively little is known about the role of miRNAs in the bovine CL. Utilizing small RNA next-generation sequencing we profiled miRNA transcriptome in bovine CL during the entire physiological estrous cycle, by sampling the CL on days: d 1–2, d 3–4, and d 5–7 (early CL, eCL, d 8–12 (mid CL, mCL, d 13–16 (late CL, lCL, and d > 18 (regressed CL, rCL. We characterized patterns of miRNAs abundance and identified 42 miRNAs that were consistent significantly different expressed (DE in the eCL relative to their expression at each of the analyzed stages (mCL, lCL, and rCL. Out of these, bta-miR-210-3p, −2898, −96, −7-5p, −183-5p, −182, and −202 showed drastic up-regulation with a fold-change of ≥2.0 and adjusted P < 0.01 in the eCL, while bta-miR-146a was downregulated at lCL and rCL vs. the eCL. Another 24, 11, and 21 miRNAs were significantly DE only between individual comparisons, eCL vs. the mCL, lCL, and rCL, respectively. Irrespective of cycle stage two miRNAs, bta-miR-21-5p and bta-miR-143 were identified as the most abundant miRNAs species and show opposing expression abundance. Whilst bta-miR-21-5p peaked in number of reads in the eCL and was significantly downregulated in the mCL and lCL, bta-miR-143 reached its peak in the rCL and is significantly downregulated in the eCL. MiRNAs with significant DE in at least one cycle stage (CL class were further grouped into eight distinct clusters by the self-organizing tree algorithm (SOTA. Half of the clusters contain miRNAs with low-expression, whilst the other half contain miRNAs with high-expression levels during eCL. Prediction analysis for significantly DE miRNAs resulted in target genes involved with CL formation

  9. Involvement of Src family of kinases and cAMP phosphodiesterase in the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor-mediated signaling in the corpus luteum of monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Shah B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher primates, during non-pregnant cycles, it is indisputable that circulating LH is essential for maintenance of corpus luteum (CL function. On the other hand, during pregnancy, CL function gets rescued by the LH analogue, chorionic gonadotropin (CG. The molecular mechanisms involved in the control of luteal function during spontaneous luteolysis and rescue processes are not completely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that LH/CGR activation triggers proliferation and transformation of target cells by various signaling molecules as evident from studies demonstrating participation of Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs and MAP kinases in hCG-mediated actions in Leydig cells. Since circulating LH concentration does not vary during luteal regression, it was hypothesized that decreased responsiveness of luteal cells to LH might occur due to changes in LH/CGR expression dynamics, modulation of SFKs or interference with steroid biosynthesis. Methods Since, maintenance of structure and function of CL is dependent on the presence of functional LH/CGR its expression dynamics as well as mRNA and protein expressions of SFKs were determined throughout the luteal phase. Employing well characterized luteolysis and CL rescue animal models, activities of SFKs, cAMP phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE and expression of SR-B1 (a membrane receptor associated with trafficking of cholesterol ester were examined. Also, studies were carried out to investigate the mechanisms responsible for decline in progesterone biosynthesis in CL during the latter part of the non-pregnant cycle. Results and discussion The decreased responsiveness of CL to LH during late luteal phase could not be accounted for by changes in LH/CGR mRNA levels, its transcript variants or protein. Results obtained employing model systems depicting different functional states of CL revealed increased activity of SFKs [pSrc (Y-416] and PDE as well as decreased expression of SR-B1

  10. Estrous cycle-dependent changes of Fas expression in the bovine corpus luteum: influence of keratin 8/18 intermediate filaments and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Alice

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fas expression and Fas-induced apoptosis are mechanisms attributed to the selective destruction of cells of the corpus luteum (CL during luteal regression. In certain cell-types, sensitivity to these death-inducing mechanisms is due to the loss or cleavage of keratin-containing intermediate filaments. Specifically, keratin 8/18 (K8/K18 filaments are hypothesized to influence cell death in part by regulating Fas expression at the cell surface. Methods Here, Fas expression on bovine luteal cells was quantified by flow cytometry during the early (Day 5, postovulation and late stages (Days 16–18, postovulation of CL function, and the relationship between Fas expression, K8/K18 filament expression and cytokine-induced cell death in vitro was evaluated. Results Both total and cell surface expression of Fas on luteal cells was greater for early versus late stage bovine CL (89% vs. 44% of cells for total Fas; 65% vs.18% of cells for cell surface Fas; respectively, P0.05, n=4 CL/stage, despite evidence these conditions increased Fas expression on HepG2 cells (P0.05 or stage of CL (P>0.05, n= 4 CL/stage on this outcome. Conclusion In conclusion, we rejected our null hypothesis that the cell surface expression of Fas does not differ between luteal cells of early and late stage CL. The results also did not support the idea that K8/K18 filaments influence the expression of Fas on the surface of bovine luteal cells. Potential downstream effects of these filaments on death signaling, however, remain a possibility. Importantly, the elevated expression of Fas observed on cells of early stage bovine CL compared to late stage bovine CL raises a provocative question concerning the physiological role(s of Fas in the corpus luteum, particularly during early luteal development.

  11. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Effect of the presence of corpus luteum on the ovary and the new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CL) on the meiotic competence of the ewe oocytes. In addition, due to the pivotal roles of oocyte recovery methods on efficiency of in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization, this study considered the new oocyte recovery method “Oocyte ...

  13. Effect of the presence of corpus luteum on the ovary and the new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    IVF). To improve the efficiency of. IVP, many laboratories and expertise are involved in developing the subdivision of IVP. Choosing the best and the most efficient oocyte recovery method is the most important and the first step for ...

  14. Effect of the presence of corpus luteum on the ovary and the new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... competence of the ewe oocytes. In addition, due to the pivotal roles of oocyte recovery methods on efficiency of in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization, this study considered the new oocyte recovery method “Oocyte Recovery with Centrifuge” (ORC); Ovine ovaries were obtained from local abattoir at.

  15. The absence of corpus luteum formation alters the endocrine profile and affects follicular development during the first follicular wave in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Matsui, Motozumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Sudo, Natsuko; Sato, Ayako; Shirasuna, Koumei; Tetsuka, Masa; Kida, Katsuya; Schams, Dieter; Miyamoto, Akio

    2008-12-01

    We previously established a bovine experimental model showing that the corpus luteum (CL) does not appear following aspiration of the preovulatory follicle before the onset of LH surge. Using this model, the present study aimed to determine the profile of follicular development and the endocrinological environment in the absence of CL with variable nadir circulating progesterone (P(4)) concentrations during the oestrous cycle in cattle. Luteolysis was induced in heifers and cows and they were assigned either to have the dominant follicle aspirated (CL-absent) or ovulation induced (CL-present). Ultrasound scanning to observe the diameter of each follicle and blood collection was performed from the day of follicular aspiration or ovulation and continued for 6 days. The CL-absent cattle maintained nadir circulating P(4) throughout the experimental period and showed a similar diameter between the largest and second largest follicle, resulting in co-dominant follicles. Oestradiol (E(2)) concentrations were greater in the CL-absent cows than in the CL-present cows at day -1, day 1 and day 2 from follicular deviation. The CL-absent cows had a higher basal concentration, area under the curve (AUC), pulse amplitude and pulse frequency of LH than the CL-present cows. After follicular deviation, the CL-absent cows showed a greater basal concentration, AUC and pulse amplitude of growth hormone (GH) than the CL-present cows. These results suggest that the absence of CL accompanying nadir circulating P(4) induces an enhancement of LH pulses, which involves the growth of the co-dominant follicles. Our results also suggest that circulating levels of P(4) and E(2) affect pulsatile GH secretion in cattle.

  16. Targeted progesterone supplementation improves fertility in lactating dairy cows without a corpus luteum at the initiation of the timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Martinez, N; Greco, L F; Barbosa, L F S P; Bueno, P P; Scagion, L F S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of supplemental progesterone on fertility in lactating dairy cows lacking a corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows were subjected to the 5-d timed AI program (d -8 GnRH, d -3 and -2 PGF2α, d 0 GnRH and AI). Cows had their ovaries scanned by ultrasonography on d -8 and those bearing a CL were considered to be in diestrus (DI; n=946). Cows that lacked a CL on d -8 were assigned to remain as untreated control (CON; n=234) or receive 2 controlled internal drug release (CIDR) inserts containing progesterone (2CIDR; n=218) from d -8 to -3, as a single insert has been proven insufficient to modulate fertility in cows without CL. Blood was analyzed for progesterone and estradiol concentrations. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 34 and 62 after AI. Progesterone concentrations during the timed AI program were lowest for CON, intermediate for 2CIDR, and highest for DI. Supplementation increased progesterone concentrations between d -7 and -3 compared with CON (2.65 vs. 0.51 ng/mL). Ovulation to the first GnRH was not affected by treatment. However, a greater proportion of CON and 2CIDR cows had a new CL on d -3 compared with DI cows (66.7 vs. 61.9 vs. 52.0%). In cows with a new CL, the diameter of the ovulatory follicle was larger for CON than 2CIDR, and intermediate for DI (18.7 vs. 16.5 vs. 17.7 mm). Concentrations of estradiol on d -3 did not differ among treatments; however, DI cows had greater estradiol concentrations at AI compared with CON or 2CIDR cows. Pregnancy per AI was less for CON compared with 2CIDR or DI on d 32 (30.8 vs. 46.8 vs. 49.9%) and 64 (28.6 vs. 43.7 vs. 47.3%), indicating that supplementation with progesterone reestablished fertility in cows lacking a CL on d -8. A greater proportion of nonpregnant CON cows had a short reinsemination interval compared with 2CIDR or DI (11.1 vs. 3.5 vs. 5.7%). Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss

  17. Prostaglandin F2alpha- and FAS-activating antibody-induced regression of the corpus luteum involves caspase-8 and is defective in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavell Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We recently demonstrated that caspase-3 is important for apoptosis during spontaneous involution of the corpus luteum (CL. These studies tested if prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α or FAS regulated luteal regression, utilize a caspase-3 dependent pathway to execute luteal cell apoptosis, and if the two receptors work via independent or potentially shared intracellular signaling components/pathways to activate caspase-3. Wild-type (WT or caspase-3 deficient female mice, 25–26 days old, were given 10 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG intraperitoneally (IP followed by 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG IP 46 h later to synchronize ovulation. The animals were then injected with IgG (2 micrograms, i.v., the FAS-activating antibody Jo2 (2 micrograms, i.v., or PGF2α (10 micrograms, i.p. at 24 or 48 h post-ovulation. Ovaries from each group were collected 8 h later for assessment of active caspase-3 enzyme and apoptosis (measured by the TUNEL assay in the CL. Regardless of genotype or treatment, CL in ovaries collected from mice injected 24 h after ovulation showed no evidence of active caspase-3 or apoptosis. However, PGF2α or Jo2 at 48 h post-ovulation and collected 8 h later induced caspase-3 activation in 13.2 ± 1.8% and 13.7 ± 2.2 % of the cells, respectively and resulted in 16.35 ± 0.7% (PGF2α and 14.3 ± 2.5% TUNEL-positive cells when compared to 1.48 ± 0.8% of cells CL in IgG treated controls. In contrast, CL in ovaries collected from caspase-3 deficient mice whether treated with PGF2α , Jo2, or control IgG at 48 h post-ovulation showed little evidence of active caspase-3 or apoptosis. CL of WT mice treated with Jo2 at 48 h post-ovulation had an 8-fold increase in the activity of caspase-8, an activator of caspase-3 that is coupled to the FAS death receptor. Somewhat unexpectedly, however, treatment of WT mice with PGF2α at 48 h post-ovulation resulted in a 22-fold increase in caspase-8 activity in the CL, despite the fact

  18. CORPUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Gerd; Berger, Gerald; Freytag, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable consumption has become an increasingly important topic on the European political agenda. At the same time, for many years now European researchers have been exploring ways towards greener consumption and produced sound evidence with potential to serve as a basis for policy......-making on sustainable consumption. Yet this huge body of research has, up until now, been underutilized. The purpose of the CORPUS project has been to explore innovative modalities for enhancing the connectivity between policy-making and research in the area of sustainable consumption. In this chapter we describe our...... experience with a knowledge brokerage system comprised of two intertwined building blocks, a series of “policy meets research” workshops which attracted almost 300 professionals from all over Europe, and a web platform named “SCP Knowledge Hub” which evolved into a major knowledge repository for almost 900...

  19. Produção de progesterona in vitro pelas células do corpo lúteo bovino ao longo da gestação In vitro progesterone production from bovine corpus luteum throughout gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana N. La Paz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para testar a hipótese de que células luteínicas bovinas em cultivo, provenientes dos três terços de gestação, comportam-se da mesma maneira que células in vivo em relação à produção de P4. Foram coletadas amostras de corpos lúteos (CL de 90 (n=3, 150 (n=3 e 210 (n=3 dias de gestação obtidos em abatedouro. Sob condições assépticas, as células foram mecanicamente dispersas e cultivadas em placas de 96 poços. Após 24 horas de cultivo foram feitas a lavagem dos poços e a adição do precursor pregnenolona. Os tratamentos foram realizados em octuplicata para cada tempo de tratamento (24, 48 e 96 horas com três repetições de cada período gestacional. As amostras de meio de cultura e as células foram coletadas 24, 48 e 96 horas após adição do precursor e acondicionadas em freezer a -20ºC até o processamento. A progesterona foi dosada através de radioimunoensaio e o conteúdo protéico pelo método de Lowry. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente e considerados diferentes quando pThe aim was to test the hypothesis that cultivated bovine luteal cells from three different thirds of pregnancy behave the same way as in vivo luteal cells relative to P4 production. Corpus luteum samples from days 90 (n=3, 150 (n=3 and 210 (n=3 of pregnancy were obtained at a local slaughterhouse. Under aseptic conditions cells were mechanically dispersed and cultivated in a 96 wells-plate. After 24 hours of culture, cells were washed and the precursor pregnenolone was added. Experiments were conducted eight times for each studied time period (24, 48 and 96 h and three times for each gestational age. Culture medium and cells were collected after 24, 48 and 96 hours of precursor addition and kept frozen at -20ºC until processing. Progesterone was measured by RIA and protein content by Lowry's method. Results were statistically analyzed and considered different when p <0.05. A higher P4 production

  20. A field study to unravel factors that are significantly associated with the secretory activity of the corpus luteum during the first three postpartum cycles in high yielding dairy cows, based on the amount of steroidogenic and endothelial cells present in the luteal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-12-01

    Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3β-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Treatment of chronic anovulation and corpus luteum deficiency with epimestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Prieto, J; Martinez, M R; Pesenti, B; Villalobos, A S; Clavijo, M G

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients presenting with anovulatory syndrome (AS, 4 patients), inadequate luteal phase (ILP, 3 patients) and short luteal phase (SLP, 3 patients) were treated with epimestrol for 29 cycles in total. The initial treatment was always 10 mg/day for 10 days followed by a modification of the daily dose and/or length of treatment needed. Ovulation was induced in all 4 AS patients with an adequate luteal phase (ALP) in 3 of them. In all other patients (with ILP and SLP) an ALP was induced; 2 of them became pregnant. No side-effects were reported.

  2. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Penicillium luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyako Oshikata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Japanese male had severe bronchial asthma had increased mold-containing sputum. Serum total IgE level had increased to 798 IU/mL and antigen-specific precipitating antibodies to P. luteum and P. notatum were present but not those reactive toward any species of Aspergillus. Chest computed tomography revealed central bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickness. After antigen-specific provocation with 10 mg/mL of P. luteum, the patient developed asthma exacerbation, but not with A. fumigatus. We present a rare case of Penicillium-induced allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by P. luteum.

  3. Habeas Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    For article are studied questions of maintenance protection of the rights and freedom of the person in criminal legal proceedings by means of instructions habeas corpus. The author investigates historical aspects of formation of instructions habeas corpus and their value now.

  4. Corpus ABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Lima Benevides

    2017-06-01

    ABSTRACT:The present paper presents the task of compiling a linguistic corpus of Brazilian Portuguese, which was undertaken by the authors. It is called ABG Corpus, and this article is also about the computational tools developed for the task. Our main goal is to reunite a large amount of texts, both from spoken and written language to, in the best way possible, represent the Brazilian language in a way that we could use it as a database for our researches, Guide (2016 and Benevides (2017. The ABG corpus has 3.616.625 word tokens and 92.602 types of words, being that 1.938.805 of those tokens are from spoken language corpora and 1.676.820 tokens come from written corpora. Based on the corpus linguistics framework and through the use of computational tools developed using Python, this article shows and provides access to the ABG Corpus, the computational tools (stress marker, phonological structure identifier, syllabifier, as well as some phonological information (stress and syllable related, already present on the corpus. We end by inviting the community to further expand our findings and explore this new tool.

  5. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  6. Corpus gastritis is protective against reflux oesophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    El-Serag, H; Sonnenberg, A; Jamal, M; Inadomi, J; Crooks, L; Feddersen, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Gastric acid is important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. Acid production by the gastric corpus is reduced in corpus gastritis.
AIMS—To determine whether corpus gastritis protects against reflux oesophagitis.
METHODS—Patients presenting for elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were studied. Two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia and stained with haematoxylin/eosin and Diff-Quick II stains. The presence and severity of gastritis were graded a...

  7. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds from Colchicum luteum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic extract from corms of the Colchicum luteum Baker (Liliaceae) was investigated phytochemically. During phytochemical studies, compounds 1 - 4 were isolated from the n-butanol fraction. These compounds were identified as colchicines 1, β - Lumicolchicine 2, chlorogenic acid 3 and 3', 4', ...

  8. Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Renee Boeck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthy therapeutic relationships enhance wholeness and healing; they are the key to effective health promotion. Therapeutic nursing presence demonstrates caring, empathy, and connection, qualities required to build rapport and trust between nurse and patient. This concept analysis’ purpose was to illuminate the various forms of the meanings of presence and the value placed on them. The science of nursing often precedes the art and spirituality of nursing. This is due to focusing primarily on the high acuity of the patients being seen in conjunction with shortage of personnel and resources. Patient dissatisfaction continues to be a growing concern. The nursing shortage crisis continues along with more nurses experiencing moral distress, compassion fatigue, and/or burnout. In nurses’ haste to complete their duties, are we facing the risk of overlooking one of the original gifts of the nursing profession? This would be the gift of genuine presence. This concept analysis aims to identify the attributes that are essential to the concept of presence, and to clarify its nursing usage, by following the strategy suggested by Walker and Avant. It is important to reflect on various ways of providing presence in the clinical setting. By exploring the spiritual, literary, psychological, and nursing literature, there is a diverse yet similar interconnectivity of what presence may represent. Observations and experiences of a range of sensatory and kinesthetic perceptions are revealed to ascertain the attributes discerning commonalities and themes of presence. Nursing presence is considered to be an essential state of holistic nursing as well as a core competency in contemporary nursing. Clarifying the significance of presence in nursing invites the prospect of additional evidence-based research that may place the intrinsic value of presence as a continuing theoretical foundation.

  9. Follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth and regression in multiparous buffalo cows and buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ojeda R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Characterize the follicular dynamics and luteal growth and regression pattern of multiparous (MB and heifer (BH Murrah buffaloes in Colombian tropical conditions. Material and methods. Ten MB and ten BH were synchronized with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. No artificial insemination was performed during the estrous and daily ultrasound examinations were performed 15 days later to determine the number and diameter of the structures present in both ovaries in the subsequent natural estrous cycle. The Student’s T test was used to evaluate differences between MB and BH. All data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results. The length of the estrous cycle was 22.00±4.50 days for MB and 22.00±2.70 days for BH. Follicular growth occurs in one (n=1; 5.89%, two (n=14; 82.35% or three waves (n=2; 11.76%. The first wave initiated the day after ovulation with the recruitment of 8.33±2.06 and 10.00±2.72 follicles in MB and BH, while the second wave started on day 11.00±2.00 and 10.50±2.82, presenting 8.37±2.26 and 8.00±1.51 follicles. The third wave began on day 16.21±3.10 showing 6.50±1.70 follicles, only BM had three waves. The maximum luteal diameter was 19.58±4.16 mm and 17.74±3.32 mm respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups for these variables. Conclusions. These results show that the follicular development in buffaloes occurs in waves, where two waves is the most common pattern, as previously reported by other authors.

  10. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 α on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17β and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 α content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 α on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 α elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Serial transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the porcine corpus luteum in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björkman, S.; Yun, J.; Niku, M.; Oliviero, C.; Soede, N.M.; Peltoniemi, O.A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study was to develop and describe a transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy method for luteal tissue in the porcine and to evaluate the effects of the method on the reproductive tract, ovarian status and pregnancy status. Biopsies were performed in four multiparous sows on Days

  12. Seasonal variation in plasma and corpus luteum oestradiol.17[3and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Oestradiol is considered the major hormone controlling vitellogenesis in reptiles and the involvement, if any, of other steroids is still unclear (Licht. 1984; Guraya 1989). In Cordy/us p. po/yzonus, high oestradiol·17i3 concentrations coincided ...

  13. Neofusicoccum luteum as a pathogen on Tejocote (Crataegus mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony O. ADESEMOYE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tejocote (Crataegus mexicana, a small pome crab-apple-like fruit, is becoming economically important in California with increasing production, so consideration of diseases that hinder the yield is important. Diseased trees of tejocote were observed in four orchards of Riverside and San Diego Counties of California. Ten symptomatic/asymptomatic samples were studied from each of the orchards. Five most frequently isolated fungi were identified on the basis of morphological characters and sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and partial β-tubulin gene. Three isolates were identified as Neofusicoccum luteum and two as Phomopsis sp. Pathogenicity tests were conducted by inoculating detached shoots of healthy tejocote trees. Significant lesions were observed on all shoots inoculated with the three N. luteum isolates (designated UCR1190, UCR1191, and UCR1192, but not on the shoots inoculated with other isolates or the non-inoculated controls. Results indicated that all three N. luteum isolates are aggressive pathogens on tejocote. This pathosystem should be further studied with a goal of designing appropriate disease management strategies.

  14. Corpus PAAU 92

    OpenAIRE

    Institut Universitari de Lingstica Aplicada; Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada

    2010-01-01

    Corpus 92. Este CD-Rom constituye el soporte digital del libro “El Corpus PAAU 1992: estudios descriptivos, textos y vocabulario”. En él se incluyen tanto los textos que han sido objeto de análisis en este proyecto como los listados del vocabulario que conforma el Corpus 92.

  15. CORPUS AND FREQUENCY GRAMMAR CORPUS VOCABULARY OF THE CHURCH SLAVONIC LANGUAGE AS PART OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Dobrushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current  state of  work on the Corpus of Church Slavonic within the Russian National Corpus. The Corpus is different from the collection of texts by the presence of a special markup (grammatical, structural, metatextual and  the  possibility to  search by this markup. The article considers the content, describes the main genre headings, according to which the texts included in the Corpus are distributed, describes  the principles of the metamarkup that differ from those used in other Corpuses  within the Russian National Corpus. Where necessary, the historical information,  on the basis of  which a certain decision was made, is provided. Since typing search queries on the keyboard presents certain difficulties  for Church Slavonic texts, we offer several options for simplified spelling transmission, which enable a person to enter a query with limited capabilities of a standard keyboard. Finally, the article describes the frequency grammar vocabulary created during the work on the project.

  16. CLUVI Parallel Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Universidade de Vigo. Grupo de investigación TALG

    2012-01-01

    The CLUVI Corpus of the University of Vigo is an open collection of parallel text corpora developed under the direction of Xavier Gómez Guinovart (2003-2012) that covers specific areas of the contemporary Galician language. With 23 million words, the CLUVI Corpus comprises six main parallel corpora belonging to five specialised registers or domains (fiction, computing, popular science, law and administration) and involving five different language combinations (Galician-Spanish bilingual trans...

  17. A new disease of Erica arborea in Italy caused by Neofusicoccum luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto T. LINALDEDDU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shoot blight was observed on Erica arborea L., in a natural growing area on Caprera Island (Italy, during 2011 and 2012. Fungal isolates obtained from 324 symptomatic shoots were identified as Neofusicoccum luteum by analysis of morphological and cultural characteristics, as well as DNA sequence data of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS of the ribosomal DNA and part of the translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha (EF-1α gene. Pathogenicity of the fungus was verified by stem inoculation of 3-year-old seedlings of E. arborea. This is the first report of N. luteum as a pathogen of E. arborea. 

  18. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10(-7)M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (Pcontractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tagging the Teleman Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Brants, T; Brants, Thorsten; Samuelsson, Christer

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were carried out comparing the Swedish Teleman and the English Susanne corpora using an HMM-based and a novel reductionistic statistical part-of-speech tagger. They indicate that tagging the Teleman corpus is the more difficult task, and that the performance of the two different taggers is comparable.

  20. CREATING AND PROCESSING A CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihantoro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to describe some crucial importance of corpus and text processing. Corpus is a projection of how language is used by its speakers. Technology support has improved corpus for easier maintenance, made it space-saving, and it may electronically structure its data. The latest offers much freedom for corpus users to access and exploit it for language teaching, analysis or other specified tasks. This paper will demonstrate how to use open-access corpus on internet such as Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA and British National Corpus (BNC. Besides how to use a corpus, another crucial importance that this paper seeks to describe is how to build a corpus. In this paper, the writer will use UNITEX, a corpus (text-based processing software. This software will demonstrate steps of corpus building, ranging from text collection, annotation, electronic dictionary application to some natural language based operations ranging from pattern matching, concordance, to simple extraction. It will show how graph technology may outperform regular expression, a retrieval method exploited by other corpus processor, in terms of writing output.

  1. Developing Software for Corpus Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable…

  2. Yaounde French Speech Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    distribution unlimited. iii Contents List of Tables iiv 1 Introduction 1 2 Data 1 2.1 Collection Set-Up 1 2.2 Audio Data Specifications 1 2.3...6 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 1 1 Introduction The Yaounde French Speech (YFS) corpus contains speech...94. Have you ever had any broken bones? 95. What bones have you broken? 96. Do you have worms? 97. Do you have malaria ? 98. Do you have

  3. Web corpus construction

    CERN Document Server

    Schafer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The World Wide Web constitutes the largest existing source of texts written in a great variety of languages. A feasible and sound way of exploiting this data for linguistic research is to compile a static corpus for a given language. There are several adavantages of this approach: (i) Working with such corpora obviates the problems encountered when using Internet search engines in quantitative linguistic research (such as non-transparent ranking algorithms). (ii) Creating a corpus from web data is virtually free. (iii) The size of corpora compiled from the WWW may exceed by several orders of magnitudes the size of language resources offered elsewhere. (iv) The data is locally available to the user, and it can be linguistically post-processed and queried with the tools preferred by her/him. This book addresses the main practical tasks in the creation of web corpora up to giga-token size. Among these tasks are the sampling process (i.e., web crawling) and the usual cleanups including boilerplate removal and rem...

  4. Corpus Approaches to Language Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines how corpus linguistics--and more specifically the corpus-assisted discourse studies approach--can add useful dimensions to studies of language ideology. First, it is argued that the identification of words of high, low, and statistically significant frequency can help in the identification and exploration of language ideologies…

  5. Habeas Corpus and "Enemy Combatants"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan

    2008-01-01

    The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle, and…

  6. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Moon, Min Hoan; Jeong, Jun Yong [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of ruptured corpus luteal cysts. Six patients with a surgically proven ruptured corpus luteal cyst were included in this series. The prospective CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the size and shape of the cyst, the thickness and enhancement pattern of its wall, the attenuation of its contents, and peritoneal fluid. The mean diameter of the cysts was 2.8 (range, 1.5-4.8) cm; three were round and three were oval. The mean thickness of the cyst wall was 4.7 (range, 1-10) mm; in all six cases it showed strong enhancement, and in three was discontinuous. In five of six cases, the cystic contents showed high attenuation. Peritoneal fluid was present in all cases, and its attenuation was higher, especially around the uterus and adnexa, than that of urine present in the bladder. In a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of an ovarian cyst with an enhancing rim and highly attenuated contents, as well as highly attenuated peritoneal fluid, a ruptured corpus luteal cyst should be suspected. Other possible evidence of this is focal interruption of the cyst wall and the presence of peritoneal fluid around the adnexa.

  7. Corpus vitreum, retina og chorioidea biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh

    2002-01-01

    oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...

  8. The ATIS sign language corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Bungeroth, Jan; Stein, Daniel; Dreuw, Philippe; Ney, Hermann; Morrissey, Sara; Way, Andy; van Zijl, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    Systems that automatically process sign language rely on appropriate data. We therefore present the ATIS sign language corpus that is based on the domain of air travel information. It is available for five languages, English, German, Irish sign language, German sign language and South African sign language. The corpus can be used for different tasks like automatic statistical translation and automatic sign language recognition and it allows the specific modelling of spatial references in sign...

  9. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sergeeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives (Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified. The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention.

  10. Corpus cavernosum electromyography revisited: defining the origin of the signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Laura S; Jiang, Xiaogang; Gottsch, Henry P; Yang, Claire C

    2012-02-01

    We performed this study to identify the source of complexes recorded during corpus cavernosum electromyography. A total of 10 healthy male volunteers 19 to 54 years old (mean age 36) with normal erectile function, participated in the study. A Porti electrodiagnostic system (TMS International, Enschede, The Netherlands) connected to a notebook computer recorded low frequency corpus cavernosum electromyography complexes via penile surface electrodes in 3 phases. In phase 1 baseline corpus cavernosum electromyography was recorded for 30 minutes. In phase 2 penile skin block was performed followed by 30 minutes of corpus cavernosum electromyography recording. Phase 3 consisted of intracavernous block followed by corpus cavernosum electromyography recording for 30 minutes. During all 3 phases startling auditory stimuli and median nerve stimulation were used at random intervals to evoke a sympathetic nervous system response. A suprapubic electrode was used as a control to record sympathetic electrodermal activity. In phase 1 all subjects had spontaneous and evoked corpus cavernosum complexes. The penile skin block used in phase 2 did not affect the presence of these complexes, which remained present in all subjects. During phase 3 no spontaneous or evoked corpus cavernosum complexes were recorded in any subjects, indicating that the intracavernous block eliminated the corporally generated signal. All subjects in all 3 phases demonstrated a sympathetic electrodermal response in the suprapubic electrode in response to evoking stimuli. This study confirms the penile cavernous tissue, and not the penile skin or surrounding tissue, as the origin of the corpus cavernosum electromyography complex. Further refinement of this technique may render it useful in the evaluation of neurogenic and myogenic erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DEVELOPING SOFTWARE FOR CORPUS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mason

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable software is available. Apart from software itself, data formats are also of great importance for text processing. But again, many practitioners are not very aware of the options available to them, and thus idiosyncratic text formats often make sharing of resources difficult if not impossible. This article discusses some issues relating to both data and processing which should aid researchers to become more aware of the choices available to them when it comes to using computers in linguistic research. It also describes an easy way towards automating some common text processing tasks that can easily be acquired without knowledge of actual computer programming.

  12. A Balanced and Representative Corpus: The Effects of Strict Corpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, even today the language has no corpus which is balanced or representative owing to the fact that almost all of the available corpora are compiled from the written standard language and the written dialects. The majority of the Northern Sotho dialects do not have written orthographies, and the few dialects which ...

  13. The Corpus of Czech Verse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecháč, Petr; Kolár, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 107-118 ISSN 2346-6901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/11/1825 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech poetry * versification * corpus linguistics * theory of verse Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  14. Integrating Corpus Tools on Intensive CELTA Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Ben

    2017-01-01

    In the fields of Corpus Linguistics and Teacher Education, there is a substantial body of research relating to corpus applications in the classroom. However, the majority of such work relates to teacher training in tertiary education. In this article, a research project is described in which corpus training was included as part of a Certificate in…

  15. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  16. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post court-martial...

  17. The Provo Corpus: A large eye-tracking corpus with predictability norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Steven G; Christianson, Kiel

    2017-05-18

    This article presents the Provo Corpus, a corpus of eye-tracking data with accompanying predictability norms. The predictability norms for the Provo Corpus differ from those of other corpora. In addition to traditional cloze scores that estimate the predictability of the full orthographic form of each word, the Provo Corpus also includes measures of the predictability of the morpho-syntactic and semantic information for each word. This makes the Provo Corpus ideal for studying predictive processes in reading. Some analyses using these data have previously been reported elsewhere (Luke & Christianson, 2016). The Provo Corpus is available for download on the Open Science Framework, at https://osf.io/sjefs .

  18. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, C A; Randel, R D; Stelzleni, A M; Caldwell, L C; Welsh, T H

    2011-12-01

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus × Hereford heifers were used in 2 successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if luteal function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake was determined for heifers beginning at 12.3 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 1 and at 9.1 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 2. Heifers were assigned to dry-lot pens (n = 6 to 9 heifers/pen) with electronic gates to measure individual feed intake of a total mixed ration for 70 and 72 d in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Residual feed intake was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. At 14.4 ± 0.1 mo of age, all heifers were provided a restricted amount of feed to supply 40% of their maintenance energy requirements for 21 d. Estrous cycles of heifers were synchronized with PGF(2α) on d -10, 0, and 11 relative to start of restriction. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma on d 14 to 21 of restriction were used to determine if heifers ovulated. Overall ADG and ADFI were 0.83 ± 0.02 and 7.37 ± 0.67 kg/d, respectively, for yr 1; and 0.50 ± 0.02 and 5.66 ± 0.09 kg/d, respectively, for yr 2. There was no correlation between RFI and BW, ADG, ADFI, or ultrasound measure of backfat, nor was RFI related to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma. All heifers lost BW and had reduced backfat (P 0.5 SD below the mean) than heifers with a greater RFI (>0.5 SD above the mean). It is concluded that RFI is not related to luteal function during acute submaintenance feeding, but that short-term restriction of nutrient intake can alter luteal function that may compromise fertility, even in heifers that exhibit estrus and ovulate.

  19. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: Effect of the deciduoma reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telleria Carlos M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL, which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP, in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL, is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD, involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD, involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. Methods PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 ± 0.09 days (n = 14. Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP+D, PSP was extended to 18 ± 2.2 days (n = 8. In PSP + D rats, serum progesterone and PRL levels, and luteal 3betaHSD activities were higher than in pseudopregnant rats on day 11. Decidualization also prevented the increase in luteal 20alphaHSD activities observed on day 11 of PSP. Administration of the dopaminergic agonist CB154 in PSP + D rats on day 10 of PSP induced a decline in both serum PRL and progesterone on day 11 of PSP, values that were not different from that of pseudopregnant controls. Conclusions We have established that during the final period of PSP a decline in progesterone biosynthesis occurs before the increase in progesterone catabolism. We have also shown that decidualization in pseudopregnant rats extends the life of the CL by prolonging the production of pituitary PRL, and by maintaining high 3betaHSD and low 20alphaHSD activities within the CL leading to sustained production of progesterone.

  20. Susceptibility of the corpus luteum to prostaglandin F2α in alpacas after induced ovulation with seminal plasma and GnRH

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani M., Camilo; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Huanca L., Wilfredo; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Echevarría C., Luisa; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Cordero R., Aída; Facultad de Zootecnia, Departamento de Nutrición, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Huanca M., Willian Fahrid; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Limache C., Tito; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Jorge Basadre Grohmann, Tacna

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la susceptibilidad del cuerpo lúteo al cloprostenol sódico (análogo sintético de la PGF2a) durante el desarrollo de la fase luteal en alpacas inducidas a ovulación con plasma seminal o con GnRH. El plasma seminal se obtuvo de muestras de semen de alpaca colectadas mediante vagina artificial, y diluido en proporción 1:1 en buffer fosfato salino (PBS), centrifugado y conservado a -20 °C. Se utilizaron 96 alpacas hembras con folículo >7 mm que fuer...

  1. The structure of an entry in the National corpus of Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengi V. Ondar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary information technologies and mathematical modelling has made creating corpora of natural languages significantly easier. A corpus is an information and reference system based on a collection of digitally processed texts. A corpus includes various written and oral texts in the given language, a set of dictionaries and markup – information on the properties of the text. It is the presence of the markup which distinguishes a corpus from an electronic library. At the moment, national corpora are being set up for many languages of the Russian Federation, including those of the Turkic peoples. Faculty members, postgraduate and undergraduate students at Tuvan State University and Siberian Federal University are working on the National corpus of Tuvan language. This article describes the structure of a dictionary entry in the National corpus of Tuvan language. The corpus database comprises the following tables: MAIN – the headword table, RUS, ENG, GER — translations of the headword into three languages, MORPHOLOGY — the table containing morphological data on the headword. The database is built in Microsoft Office Access. Working with the corpus dictionary includes the following functions: adding, editing and removing an entry, entry search (with transcription, setting and visualizing morphological features of a headword. The project allows us to view the corpus dictionary as a multi-structure entity with a complex hierarchical structure and a dictionary entry as its key component. The corpus dictionary we developed can be used for studying Tuvan language in its pronunciation, orthography and word analysis, as well as for searching for words and collocations in the texts included into the corpus.

  2. Cryobacterium flavum sp. nov. and Cryobacterium luteum sp. nov., isolated from glacier ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Hongcan; Wen, Ying; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

    2012-06-01

    Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, strains Hh8(T), Hh15(T) and Hh40-2, were isolated from the No. 1 glacier in Xinjiang, north-west China. Colonies of strain Hh8(T) were orange-yellow, convex and round on PYG plates. Strain Hh8(T) grew at 0-19 °C and pH 5.5-10.5. Colonies of strain Hh15(T), which was able to grow at 0-20 °C and pH 5.5-12, were lemon yellow, convex and round on PYG plates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these three strains were related to members of the genus Cryobacterium. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(15:1) A. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, two novel species, Cryobacterium flavum sp. nov. (type strain Hh8(T) = CGMCC 1.11215(T) = NBRC 107879(T)) and Cryobacterium luteum sp. nov. (type strain Hh15(T) = CGMCC 1.11210(T) = NBRC 107880(T)), are proposed.

  3. Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas-Salminen, Aïno

    2013-01-01

    ECOLE MATERNELLE, NIVEAU 1 (4 ANS - 4 ANS 1/2) 1 Galope galope galopeGalope dans la campagnePour chercer à manger Audrey 4 ans 1/2, Aurore 4 ans 2 Mon petit pingouinVa voir son amiPetit poisson Audrey 4 ans 1/2 3 Ma mamie MargueriteLucky LuckTacatackTapipi Audrey 4 ans 1/2, Sophie 4 ans 1/2 4 Poupée fleurEn pelucheEn pelucheUne tableEn pelucheQui s'appelle FleurOn pourraitAppeler TagadaFleur Audrey 4 ans 1/2, Aurore 4 ans 5 Mon petit lion va voir mon ami lionVa voir perroquetSon petit perroqu...

  4. The human motor corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter fiber bundle to connect the two hemispheres of the brain. It is thought to be essential for interhemispheric transfer of information. The motor CC is that part of the CC which connects the primary motor cortices. Relatively little is known, in particular in humans, about where these fibers are located in the CC, what their function is, and how the structure of the motor CC relates to its function. This review surveys current knowledge about the human motor CC, with a focus on recent studies which assessed the motor CC by multimodal advanced neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques.

  5. Thick Corpus Callosum in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupper, Aviv; Konen, Osnat; Halevy, Ayelet; Cohen, Rony; Aharoni, Sharon; Shuper, Avinoam

    2017-04-01

    A thick corpus callosum (TCC) can be associated with a very grave outcome in fetuses, but its clinical presentation in older children seems to be markedly different. The corpus callosum (CC) was defined as thick based on observations and impressions. We reviewed cases of children who were diagnosed as TCC based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The pertinent clinical data of these children were collected, and their CCs were measured. Out of 2,552 brain MRI images, those of 37 children were initially considered as showing a TCC. Those initial imaging were reviewed by an experienced neuroradiologist, who confirmed the diagnosis in 34 children (1.3%): 13 had neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1), 9 had epilepsy, 3 had macrocephaly capillary malformation (MCM) syndrome, 3 had autistic spectrum disorder, 1 had a Chiari-1 malformation, and 1 had increased head circumference. No specific neurologic disorder could be defined in seven children. The measured thickness of the CC in these children was comparable to those published in the literature for adults. A TCC is a rare brain malformation that can be found in neuropathologies with apparently diverse pathognomonic mechanisms, such as NF-1 and MCM. It is not necessarily associated with life-threatening conditions, instead being a relatively benign finding, different in nature from that reported in fetuses.

  6. Corpus delicti / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    Leonhard Lapini, Sirje Runge, Andres Toltsi ja Mare Vindi 1960ndate lõpu ja 1970ndate alguse tööde näitusest "Corpus in spe" Deco galeriis ning nimetatud kunstnike ja Urmo Rausi uudisloomingu näitusest "Corpus" Tallinna Linnagaleriis

  7. Corpus Linguistics: Discovering How We Use language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, John

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…

  8. Academic lexis and disciplinary practice: corpus evidence for specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hyland

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unfamiliar words and expressions in academic texts is a serious obstacle to students reading in a second language. EAP has responded to this challenge by taking the view that there is a common core of academic vocabulary which is frequent across an academic register. This paper briefly considers this view by examining the range, frequency, collocation, and meaning of items on the Academic Word List (AWL in a large multidisciplinary corpus. Our corpus analysis shows that individual lexical items on the list often occur and behave in different ways across disciplines and that words commonly contribute to ‘lexical bundles’ which also reflect disciplinary preferences. Our findings question the widely held assumption that there is a single core vocabulary needed for academic study and suggests that teachers should assist students towards developing a more restricted, disciplinary-based lexical repertoire.

  9. Corpus stylistics: speech, writing and thought presentation in a corpus of English writing.

    OpenAIRE

    Semino, Elena; Short, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    This book represents a new direction at the interface between the fields of stylistics and corpus linguistics, namely the use of a corpus methodology to investigate the ways in which people's words and thoughts are presented in written narratives. A 260,000 word electronic corpus of late 20th century written texts, including fiction, news reports and (auto)biographies is analysed by the authors, providing a detailed account of new theoretical insights, comparisons between different text types...

  10. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  11. A Corpus-Based Study of Idioms in Academic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rita; Mendis, Dushyanthi

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the advantages and limitations of a corpus-based approach to researching and teaching idioms in a specific genre by drawing on a specialized corpus of 1.7 million words of academic discourse, the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Argues that evidence from such a corpus can be informative for language teachers when the primary…

  12. Making Corpus-Based Language Practice Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald James

    1998-01-01

    While in academic circles the benefits of using a corpus as a means of undertaking language analysis are increasing widely appreciated, this has not led to the widespread use of corpora by language teachers, or materials producers, in making teaching materials. This paper, based on the making of a set of corpus-based exercises and their evaluation by ESL students, considers why this may be and suggests how the various obstacles to their use may be overcome.

  13. Determination of the complete genomic sequence of Neofusicoccum luteum mitovirus 1 (NLMV1), a novel mitovirus associated with a phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Armelle; Nivault, Aurélia; Faure, Chantal; Theil, Sébastien; Comont, Gwenaëlle; Candresse, Thierry; Corio-Costet, Marie-France

    2017-08-01

    Neofusicoccum luteum species belongs to the Botryosphaeriaceae family and is involved in grapevine wood decay diseases. The present study reports the discovery and the molecular characterization of a novel mitovirus infecting this fungus. Double-stranded RNAs were purified from cultivated N. luteum and analysed by next generation sequencing. Using contigs showing BlastX homology with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of various members of the family Narnaviridae, a single contig of approximately 1.2 kb was constructed. The genomic sequence was completed and phylogenetic analyses indicated that this virus represents a new member of the genus Mitovirus, for which the name of "Neofusicoccum luteum mitovirus 1" is proposed. The genome is 2,389 nucleotides long and, based on the fungal mitochondrial genetic code, it encodes a putative protein of 710 amino acids, homologous to the RdRps of members of the Narnaviridae family. The neofusicoccum luteus mitovirus 1 (NLMV1) RdRp contains the six conserved motifs previously reported for mitoviral RdRps. Our findings represent the first evidence that a mycovirus can infect N. luteum, an important pathogenic fungus of grapevine.

  14. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  15. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: Prediction of clinical outcomes with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Min Hoan; Woo, Hyun Sik; Sung, Chang Kyu; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Taek Sang [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the determinant pretreatment CT findings that can predict surgical intervention for patients suffering from corpus luteal cyst rupture with hemoperitoneum. From January 2009 to December 2014, a total of 106 female patients (mean age, 26.1 years; range, 17–44 years) who visited the emergency room of our institute for acute abdominal pain and were subsequently diagnosed with ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum were included in the retrospective study. The analysis of CT findings included cyst size, cyst shape, sentinel clot sign, ring of fire sign, hemoperitoneum depth, active bleeding in portal phase and attenuation of hemoperitoneum. The comparison of CT findings between the surgery and conservative management groups was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant CT findings in predicting surgical intervention for a ruptured cyst. Comparative analysis revealed that the presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth were significantly different between the surgery and conservative management groups and were confirmed as significant CT findings for predicting surgery, with adjusted odds ratio (ORs) of 3.773 and 1.318, respectively (p < 0.01). On the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for hemoperitoneum depth, the optimal cut-off value was 5.8 cm with 73.7% sensitivity and 58.6% specificity (Az = 0.711, p = 0.004). In cases with a hemoperitoneum depth > 5.8 cm and concurrent active bleeding, the OR for surgery increased to 5.786. The presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth on a pretreatment CT scan can be predictive warning signs of surgery for a patient with a ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum.

  16. Corpus callosum atrophy in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Young-Min; Na, Duk L; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Manho

    2005-10-01

    Neuropathologic changes in Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) involve variable brain structures. Corpus callosum involvement in WE, however, is largely unknown. The authors investigated the degree and the pattern of corpus callosum changes in WE according to the etiologies. Nineteen patients with WE (between 34 and 81 years) and 19 age- and sex-matched control participants were included. The total cross-sectional callosal area and 5 callosal subregions (C1-C5) were measured by tracing outer margins in the midsagittal sections. Subregions were determined by placing radial dividers with 10 rays. The pixel numbers for corpus callosums were calculated, and the values obtained were adjusted for head size variations. The causes of WE were alcoholism (10), intestinal surgery (5), anorexia (3), and hyperemesis gravidarum (1). The mean size of the total corpus callosum was significantly reduced in alcoholic WE (P< .001; 527.8 +/- 70.8 mm2 for alcoholic WE; 664.6 +/- 58.1 mm2 for the corresponding controls), but not in nonalcoholic WE. In subregion analysis, prefrontal callosum (C2) atrophy was the most prominent in alcoholic WE. In contrast, only splenium (C5) was atrophied in nonalcoholic WE. The degree of atrophy did not change throughout the follow-up period (mean 5.3 weeks). This study suggests that the extent and location of corpus callosum atrophy differs between alcoholic WE and nonalcoholic WE, implying separate contribution of alcohol neurotoxicity and nutritional deficiency.

  17. Comparison of spontaneous, UV-induced, and nitrosoguanidine-induced mutability to drug resistance in myxobacteria. [Polyangium luteum, Myxococcus xanthus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, K.

    1978-09-01

    The uv survival curves of different strains of myxobacteria exhibited shoulders; in the case of Polyangium luteum, an unusual double shoulder appeared. Repair inhibitors like acriflavine, caffeine, and coumarin reduced the survival of uv-irradiated cells if the drugs were incorporated in the post-irradiation plating medium. The shoulders were reduced, but the final inactivation slopes were not affected by the repair inhibitors. Those strains that were resistant to uv were also more resistant to being killed by nitrosoguanidine. A variety of drug-resistant mutants occurred. The spontaneous mutation frequencies to drug resistance varied with the drug and the strain used. Drug-resistant mutants were inducible by uv irradiation and nitrosoguanidine. The uv mutability of Myxococcus xanthus was high compared to Cystobacter sp. However, the nitrosoguanidine mutability of M. xanthus was low compared to the other strains.

  18. Résidence du Corpus Troporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Iversen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Les membres du Corpus Troporum, animé depuis des années par Gunilla Iversen (Stockholm, sont invités en résidence au Centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre. Ce court séjour est destiné à mettre au point la publication du projet Sapientia- eloquentia. Il a été demandé au groupe d’organiser une journée sur les séquences et tropes de dédicace d’église (dimanche 23 octobre 2005.Presentation of the research project Corpus TroporumThe research project Corpus Troporum (formerly “Projektet Troper” h...

  19. KoralQuery -- A General Corpus Query Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The task-oriented and format-driven development of corpus query systems has led to the creation of numerous corpus query languages (QLs) that vary strongly in expressiveness and syntax. This is a severe impediment for the interoperability of corpus analysis systems, which lack a common protocol....... In this paper, we present KoralQuery, a JSON-LD based general corpus query protocol, aiming to be independent of particular QLs, tasks and corpus formats. In addition to describing the system of types and operations that KoralQuery is built on, we exemplify the representation of corpus queries in the serialized...

  20. Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kennedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a semester-long apprenticeship in corpus use which does not demand of them the high level of language proficiency, attention to detail in observation, and logical rigour that we consider necessary for rewarding work in the learner-as-researcher role. Instead, we introduce a corpus initially as an aid to the imagination in writing, and then to achieving accuracy through specific grammatical problem solving. We see this as the groundwork for subsequent development of the students’ research skills with corpus data. This paper describes the approach we have adopted to the corpus apprenticeship and reports on an evaluation of its effectiveness through case studies of three students and their use of a corpus and bilingual dictionary as reference resources when writing. Drawing on insights from the case studies, we outline a working definition of corpus-consultation literacy for our learning context and identify some refinements to be made to our apprenticeship.

  1. Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  2. Unique Cellular Lineage Composition of the First Gland of the Mouse Gastric Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Andrew; Petersen, Christine P; Choi, Eunyoung; Engevik, Amy C; Goldenring, James R

    2017-01-01

    The glandular stomach has two major zones: the acid secreting corpus and the gastrin cell-containing antrum. Nevertheless, a single gland lies at the transition between the forestomach and corpus in the mouse stomach. We have sought to define the lineages that make up this gland unit at the squamocolumnar junction. The first gland in mice showed a notable absence of characteristic corpus lineages, including parietal cells and chief cells. In contrast, the gland showed strong staining of Griffonia simplicifolia-II (GSII)-lectin-positive mucous cells at the bases of glands, which were also positive for CD44 variant 9 and Clusterin. Prominent numbers of doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) positive tuft cells were present in the first gland. The first gland contained Lgr5-expressing putative progenitor cells, and a large proportion of the cells were positive for Sox2. The cells of the first gland stained strongly for MUC4 and EpCAM, but both were absent in the normal corpus mucosa. The present studies indicate that the first gland in the corpus represents a unique anatomic entity. The presence of a concentration of progenitor cells and sensory tuft cells in this gland suggests that it may represent a source of reserve reparative cells for adapting to severe mucosal damage.

  3. Use of Google Scholar in corpus-driven EAP research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brezina, V.

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the Google Scholar search engine. These resources (Google Scholar virtual corpus) are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. Google Scholar,

  4. Age-related signal intensity changes in the corpus callosum: assessment with three orthogonal FLAIR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Tomimoto, Hidekazu [Kyoto University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Junya [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The presence of age-related hyperintensities of the corpus callosum has not been thoroughly evaluated. Fifty-two patients of 50 years of age or older (mean, 71 years; range, 50-87 years) were included in this study. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were obtained in three orthogonal planes. Periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were graded according to Fazekas' rating scale. Correlations between the presence of hyperintensities in the corpus callosum and age, and the grade of PVH and DWMH were statistically analyzed. PVH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=28), grade 2 (n=10), or grade 3 (n=10). DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=8), or grade 3 (n=15). Hyperintensity was considered present in the corpus callosum in 31 of the 52 patients (60%). In these 31 patients, PVH was categorized as grade 1 (n=16), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=8), while DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=1), grade 1 (n=10), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=13). The presence of callosal hyperintensities was significantly correlated with age (p=0.001), and with PVH (p=0.04) and DWMH grades (p=0.004). Hyperintensities may be present in the corpus callosum with aging, and are correlated with PVH and DWMH. (orig.)

  5. Rheumatic diseases in the Corpus Hippocraticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Squillace

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Medecine of V and IV centuries B.C. attested in the Corpus Hippocraticum ascribes all diseases to the rheuma, i.e. the flux of humours into the body. This flux produces not only the rise of cold, hoarsness, cough, reddenings, dropsy, but also arthritis, sciatica, gout.

  6. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  7. Corpus-Based Studies on Nursing Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Alif Fairus Nor; Jin, Ng Yu

    2013-01-01

    English for Specific Purposes (ESP) educators often face dilemma in deciding what lexical items to teach their students. In the field of English for Nursing Purposes (ENP), there is no exception on this issue as well. Only by analyzing the nursing corpus made up of essential core textbooks that can provide better insights and guide to both nursing…

  8. Topics in Corpus-Based Dutch Syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Leonoor Johanneke van der

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation, corpus data is applied in various kinds of linguistic analyses. The data serves as a source of examples and counterexamples in a theoretical linguistic analysis of the Dutch cleft construction, as the source of quantitative data in a probabilistic account of the dative

  9. The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William White

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus (YCAC contains harmonic and rhythmic information for a dataset of Western European Classical art music. This corpus is based on data from classicalarchives.com, a repository of thousands of user-generated MIDI representations of pieces from several periods of Western European music history. The YCAC makes available metadata for each MIDI file, as well as a list of pitch simultaneities ("salami slices" in the MIDI file. Metadata include the piece's composer, the composer's country of origin, date of composition, genre (e.g., symphony, piano sonata, nocturne, etc., instrumentation, meter, and key. The processing step groups the file's pitches into vertical slices each time a pitch is added or subtracted from the texture, recording the slice's offset (measured in the number of quarter notes separating the event from the file's beginning, highest pitch, lowest pitch, prime form, scale-degrees in relation to the global key (as determined by experts, and local key information (as determined by a windowed key-profile analysis. The corpus contains 13,769 MIDI files by 571 composers yielding over 14,051,144 vertical slices. This paper outlines several properties of this corpus, along with a representative study using this dataset.

  10. Notes on Compiling a Corpus- Based Dictionary*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    useful in the compilation of a dictionary. Thus, a brief survey of some of the major steps of dic- tionary compilation is presented here, supplemented by the original Czech data, analyzed in their raw, though semiotically classified form. Keywords: MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES, CORPUS LEXICOGRAPHY, SYNTAG-.

  11. The methodology of corpus cavernosum electromyography revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X. G.; Wijkstra, H.; Meuleman, E. J. H.; Wagner, G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The methodology of corpus cavernosum electromyography (CC-EMG) was revisited, in order to overcome current methodological difficulties that hinder its clinical application. Materials and methods: Using an 8-channel device, CC-EMG was performed in 12 healthy volunteers. Surface electrodes

  12. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    lingual corpus generated by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University gives a record of business lan- guages used in Hong Kong. .... or "sublanguages". A sublanguage in the definition of Grishman and Kittredge. (1986: ix) is a ... materials from companies, government institutions and library on-line data- bases. The bilingual ...

  13. Experimental model of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Regadas, Rommel P.; Maria E. A. Moraes; Mesquita,Francisco J. C.; Joao B. G. Cerqueira; Gonzaga-Silva,Lucio F.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra) was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Th...

  14. The Use of Corpus for Close Synonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naci KAYAOĞLU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Using corpora is still in its infancy in foreign language classes in spite of its great benefits and potential to offer solutions to the various challenges in foreign language instruction both for teachers and learners. This partly stems from a lack of interest and practical knowledge about the pedagogic role that the corpora can play. There is a pressing need to convince teachers of the great benefits of corpora with empirical data.Purpose of Study: This research aims to explore the feasibility of using a corpus to help students differentiate between close synonyms which have similar meanings but cannot be substituted one for the other.Method: This is quasi-experimental research based on a pre and post-test (one shot design design. To this end, participants were introduced to the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA and asked to refer to the corpus when deciding the appropriate close synonym in the 50 sentences given. Participants were also interviewed upon completion of the task with the COCA about their use of corpus.Findings and Results: The t-test showed that the use of corpus for deciding on close synonyms proved to be very effective as there was a statistically significant difference in participants‟ performance on the vocabulary portion of the pretest and post-test.Conclusion and Recommendations: The present paper suggests that corpora can be a very rich and effective source of empirical data both for teachers and students to make foreign language learning more meaningful and enjoyable. Providing learners more exposure to authentic examples, corpora can be utilized for pedagogic purposes from syllabus design to materials development. Yet, it needs to be integrated into language courses. Teachersshould be made fully aware of what corpora offer for language teaching.

  15. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released. Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens, our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection, the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are

  16. Divergent approaches to corpus processing: the need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As this proves the invaluable status of a corpus, the article assesses the processing of the Shona corpus and discusses how some aspects of the processing may impact negatively on its quality. Keywords: corpus, standardisation, data, headword, lexicography, retrieve, transcribe, tagging, encoding, parsing, divergent ...

  17. Corpus-based lexicography for lesser-resourced languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    languages of the world. This article, however, focuses on lesser-resourced languages for ... number of printed material such as many of the African languages, a corpus of. 10 million words can be regarded as a "big corpus". ... compilation versus increasing the corpus size. Macrostructural compilation mainly concerns the ...

  18. The Nordic Dialect Corpus – a joint research infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Bondi Johannessen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Nordic Dialect Corpus as of June 2010. The corpus is a tool that combines a number of useful features that together makes it a unique and very advanced resource for researchers of many fields of language search. The corpus is web-based and features full audio-visual representation linked to transcriptions and translations.

  19. Corpus Linguistics and Language Testing: Navigating Uncharted Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The use of corpora and corpus linguistic methods in language testing research is increasing at an accelerated pace. The growing body of language testing research that uses corpus linguistic data is a testament to their utility in test development and validation. Although there are many reasons to be optimistic about the future of using corpus data…

  20. The Effect of Corpus-Based Instruction on Pragmatic Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Su, Yunwen

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the effect of using corpus-based materials and activities for the instruction of pragmatic routines under two conditions: implementing direct corpus searches by learners during classroom instruction and working with teacher-developed corpus-based materials. The outcome is compared to a repeated-test control group. Pragmatic…

  1. Dictionary Writing System (DWS) + Corpus Query Package (CQP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the integrated corpus query functionality of the dictionary compilation software TshwaneLex is analysed. Attention is given to the handling of both raw corpus data and annotated corpus data. With regard to the latter it is shown how, with a minimum of human effort, machine learning techniques can be employed ...

  2. Divergent Approaches to Corpus Processing: The Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    tion of some vital aspects of the corpus. One of the acclaimed advantages of a corpus is that it allows research to be done on natural language. An ideal corpus should be a body of texts com- bined in a principled way to become a reliable language bank from which researchers retrieve data for various research purposes.

  3. Dictionary Writing System (DWS) + Corpus Query Package (CQP):

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: In this article the integrated corpus query functionality of the dictionary compilation software TshwaneLex is analysed. Attention is given to the handling of both raw corpus data and annotated corpus data. With regard to the latter it is shown how, with a minimum of human effort, machine learning techniques can be ...

  4. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, A

    1998-01-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the simi...

  5. A ROUGH GUIDE TO DOING CORPUS STYLISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. G. Shepherd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has two main purposes. The first is to provide a short panorama of existing trends within computer-assisted stylistics. The second is to analyse a prize winning novel by English writer Julian Barnes, by resorting to the tenets and working tools of one of the newest branch of Stylistics, the so-called Corpus stylistics. To this end, the article starts by looking at various attempts at defining what style is and their implications to the definition of the discipline known as Stylistics. Then the paper presents recent work within the field of Corpus stylistics, as it describes the uses of computational tools as part of the stylistician tool kit. Finally, the paper provides a variety of ways with which a literary work may be approached digitally with a view to showing how computational tools can aid the stylistician in acts of interpretation.

  6. DEVELOPING AN ONLINE CORPUS OF FORMOSAN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-May Sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have now matured to the point of enabling researchers to create a repository of language resources, especially for those languages facing the crisis of endangerment. The development of an online platform of corpora, made possible by recent advances in data storage, character-encoding and web technology, has profound consequences for the accessibility, quantity, quality and interoperability of linguistic field data. This is of particular significance for Formosan languages in Taiwan, many of which are on the verge of extinction. As a response to the recognition of this burgeoning problem, the key objectives of the establishment of the NTU Corpus of Formosan Languages aim to document and thus preserve valuable linguistic data, as well as relevant ethnological and cultural information. This paper will introduce some of the theoretical bases behind this initiative, as well as the procedures, transcription conventions, database normalization, in-house system and three special features in the creation of this corpus.

  7. A Large Scale Corpus of Gulf Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Salam; Habash, Nizar; Abdulrahim, Dana; Hassan, Sara

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Most Arabic natural language processing tools and resources are developed to serve Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), which is the official written language in the Arab World. Some Dialectal Arabic varieties, notably Egyptian Arabic, have received some attention lately and have a growing collection of resources that include annotated corpora and morphological analyzers and taggers. Gulf Arabic, however, lags behind in that respect. In this paper, we present the Gumar Corpus...

  8. Margit Frenk y su Nuevo corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Gómez Moreno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available More than an article-review about Margit Frenk’s Nuevo corpus, this is a real laus to an entire life, more than half a century of devoted research. On top of a highly positive assesment of this two thousand and two hundred pages book, this note provides some new materials (lyrical ballads, songs for dances, children playsongs, etc., obtained mainly from one source: Rosario Moreno Montoro, the author’s mother

  9. CORPUS CHRISTI E A FOME NO MUNDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto dos Santos Dutra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A festa religiosa de Corpus Christi, data da instituição da Eucaristia, neste ano foi comemorada no dia 15 de junho. Neste sacramento, entende a Igreja católica, o próprio Cristo se comunica para nutrir e salvar o homem. Expressão e síntese do cristianismo, é a identificação do sacrifício de Cristo com o sacrifício do homem.

  10. CORPUS CHRISTI E A FOME NO MUNDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto dos Santos Dutra

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A festa religiosa de Corpus Christi, data da instituição da Eucaristia, neste ano foi comemorada no dia 15 de junho. Neste sacramento, entende a Igreja católica, o próprio Cristo se comunica para nutrir e salvar o homem. Expressão e síntese do cristianismo, é a identificação do sacrifício de Cristo com o sacrifício do homem.

  11. MR-billeddiagnostik af corpus pineale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevad, Line; Gøbel Madsen, Camilla; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2014-01-01

    Tilgængeligheden af højopløselige MR-teknikker har ført til større opmærksomhed på og nye spørgsmål vedrørende corpus pineales (CP) funktion og kliniske betydning. Dertil kommer en stigende interesse for hormonet melatonins kliniske betydning og relation til forandringer i CP. I denne statusartikel...

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ENGLISH ADJECTIVAL COMPOUNDS: CORPUS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ž. Jovanović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the main formal characteristics of English compound words in adjectival sentence positions, systematized and based on language corpus analysis. The analysis of the compounds along the lines of their composite form, the constituent elements of these words, their interrelationships and other features is accompanied by numerous contextualized examples. The paper provides a statistical confirmation of the fact that compound adjectives make the most prominent group of adjectival compounds (65%, as well as it makes a statement about certain important orthographic implications. Further on, the typical English adjectival compound wouldbe the one with a noun as the first and past participle as the second element of the compound. On the basis of the research conducted here, it can be also concluded that the presence of inflectional morphemes in adjectival compounds is semantically conditioned, and that derivatives only infrequently serve as elements of compoundadjectivals.

  13. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  14. Corpus Linguistics: theory, interfaces and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Pacheco de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma visão geral da Linguística de Corpus, caracterizando-a como uma área do conhecimento; levando em consideração sua interface com outras áreas; e ilustrando suas aplicações, com foco mais específico no português do Brasil. Para atingir este objetivo, este artigo discute características da Linguística de Corpus que a distinguem de outras áreas, tais como: (1 a perspectiva de linguagem que adota e a forma de fazer pesquisas empíricas, com auxílio de ferramentas computacionais e com base em evidências linguísticas extraídas de corpora; (2 a possibilidade de trazer contribuições teóricas para os estudos da linguagem, através de novas descrições de diferentes usos da língua; (3 as interfaces de pesquisa com outras áreas, tais como Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional, Linguística Aplicada e Linguística Computacional; (4 o desenvolvimento da área, inclusive no Brasil, devido às novas perspectivas que possibilita em relação à lexicografia, léxico-gramática, estudos da variação linguística em gêneros discursivos e estudos interculturais. Através da discussão dos pontos acima, espera-se indicar que a Linguística de Corpus é uma área que permite o aprofundamento sobre o conhecimento empírico de diferentes línguas estudadas, levando a novas concepções teóricas sobre a linguagem, não podendo ser considerada, portanto, apenas como uma metodologia de análise. No final do trabalho, serão brevemente apresentadas três pesquisas que incluem dados da língua portuguesa, visando exemplificar aplicações da Linguística de Corpus para o estudo do uso do português. Esses trabalhos foram desenvolvidos a partir do CORPOBRAS PUC-Rio, compilado com o objetivo de ser um corpus representativo do português do Brasil1 .

  15. Transient Splenial Lesion of the Corpus Callosum Related to Migraine with Aura in a Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Olcay; Kutlubay, Büşra; Besci, Tolga; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Baltacıoğlu, Feyyaz; Türkdoğan, Dilşad

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum are rare radiological findings first described in association with epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs and viral encephalitis. However, subsequently more cases were described associated with diverse clinical conditions. We describe a 13-year-old girl suffering from migraine with aura presenting with headache, right-sided hemiparesis and encephalopathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ovoid lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The patient's neurological symptoms resolved within 3 days without therapy and the lesion disappeared in follow up magnetic resonance images obtained 3 weeks after the onset of the symptoms. Migraine with aura was considered to be the cause of the lesion. To our knowledge the present case is the first report of a pediatric patient with a diagnosis of migraine with aura presenting with hemiparesis and encephalopathy. A diagnosis of transient lesion of the corpus callosum should be suspected in patients with migraine with aura presenting with hemiparesis and encephalopathy. A mild course and a good prognosis might be expected in the presence of a splenial lesion of the corpus callosum.

  16. Georgian Dialect Corpus: Linguistic and Encyclopedic Information in Online Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beridze Marina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Georgian Dialect Corpus (GDC has been created within the framework of the project “Linguistic Portrait of Georgia”. It was the first attempt to create a structured corpus of Georgian dialects. The work of this project includes building the technical framework for a corpus, collecting the corpus (text data of Georgian dialects including the lexicographic data (dictionaries, their linguistic processing, digitizing, developing annotation framework, making decision on the morphosyntactic annotation. Currently, the Georgian Dialect Corpus is a platform consisting of the dialect corpus, the text library, the lexicographical database/online dialect dictionaries. For the purposes of developing the lexicographical database and dialect dictionaries, we have created a new program – the Lexicographic Editor. It allows us to structure and improve the dictionaries with multiple linguistic and lexicographic information. The lexicographic concept of the GDC has been developed taking into consideration linguistic and social features of the Georgian dialects.

  17. Learner corpus profiles the case of Romanian learner English

    CERN Document Server

    Chitez, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The first three chapters of the book offer relevant information on the new methodological approach, learner corpus profiling, and the exemplifying case, Romanian Learner English. The description of the Romanian Corpus of Learner English is also given special attention. The following three chapters include corpus-based frequency analyses of selected grammatical categories (articles, prepositions, genitives), combined with error analyses. In the concluding discussion, the book summarizes the features compiled as lexico-grammatical profiles.

  18. The YLI-MED Corpus: Characteristics, Procedures, and Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd, Julia; Borth, Damian; Elizalde, Benjamin; Friedland, Gerald; Gallagher, Heather; Gottlieb, Luke; Janin, Adam; Karabashlieva, Sara; Takahashi, Jocelyn; Won, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The YLI Multimedia Event Detection corpus is a public-domain index of videos with annotations and computed features, specialized for research in multimedia event detection (MED), i.e., automatically identifying what's happening in a video by analyzing the audio and visual content. The videos indexed in the YLI-MED corpus are a subset of the larger YLI feature corpus, which is being developed by the International Computer Science Institute and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory based on th...

  19. New directions in corpus-based translation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fantinuoli, Claudio; Zanettin, Federico; Rapp, Reinhard; Hansen-Schirra, Silvia; Čulo, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies has become a major paradigm and research methodology and has investigated a wide variety of topics in the last two decades. The contributions to this volume add to the range of corpus-based studies by providing examples of some less explored applications of corpus analysis methods to translation research. They show that the area keeps evolving as it constantly opens up to different frameworks and approaches, from appraisal theory to process-oriented analysis, ...

  20. New directions in corpus-based translation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zanettin, Federico; Doms, Steven; Fantinuoli, Claudio; Fotopoulou, Angeliki; Lapshinova-Koltunski, Ekaterina; Mouka, Effie; Neumann,Stella; Niemietz, Paula; Pontrandolfo, Gianluca; Sanz, Zuriñe; SARIDAKIS, IOANNIS E.; Serbina, Tatiana; Uribarri, Ibon; Zanettin, Frederico; Zubillaga, Naroa

    2015-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies has become a major paradigm and research methodology and has investigated a wide variety of topics in the last two decades. The contributions to this volume add to the range of corpus-based studies by providing examples of some less explored applications of corpus analysis methods to translation research. They show that the area keeps evolving as it constantly opens up to different frameworks and approaches, from appraisal theory to process-oriented analysis, ...

  1. What's In a Note: Construction of a Suicide Note Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestian, John P; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Linn-Gust, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an initiative to create and annotate a corpus of suicide notes that can be used for machine learning. Ultimately, the corpus included 1,278 notes that were written by someone who died by suicide. Each note was reviewed by at least three annotators who mapped words or sentences to a schema of emotions. This corpus has already been used for extensive scientific research.

  2. Central modals in an aviation corpus: frequency and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielatos, Costas; Sarmento, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine the frequency and distribution of central modals (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would) in aviation manuals, using a corpus-based, and predominantly quantitative, approach. For that purpose, a corpus consisting of three manuals for the BOEING 737 was compiled. The study will also explore the extent to which a mostly automated quantitative analysis of an unannotated corpus can yield helpful insights into the frequency and distribution of central moda...

  3. Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational) corpus linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ebensgaard Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an ove...

  4. Die Corpus Christianum in die Middeleeue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Botha

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corpus Christianum in the Middle Ages. The origin and development of the idea of Christianity as a single society in the Roman Empire under the leadership of the state or emperor and the Church or pope is investigated. The idea developed differently in the East and the West. In the East it developed into Caeseropapismand in the West, although linked to a notion of theocracy, it developed into eccesiocracy or papalcracy: both being caricatures.

  5. Afasia: Corpus mixto de lenguaje conversacional

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sacristán, Carlos; Serra Alegre, Enric; Veyrat Rigat, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Se ofrece en este estudio una muestra representativa de lenguaje conversacional integrada por siete conversaciones mantenidas por otros tantos sujetos afásicos con interlocutores que son familiares próximos y/o miembros del Grupo de Investigación en Neurolingüística y Lingüística Clínica de la Universitat de València. El conjunto se integra en el Corpus PerLA (ISBN obra completa 978-84-370-6250-1, del año 2005) que viene elaborando el referido equipo de investigación desde el año 2000 para da...

  6. Cavernous lymphangioma arising from uterine corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furui, Tatsuro; Imai, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Sato, Eriko; Tamaya, Teruhiko

    2003-07-01

    A rare case of giant uterine lymphangioma was experienced. A 44-year-old female noted a rapidly grown abdominal tumor and its accompanied symptoms, progressive abdominal distension, lumbago, and developed leg edema. Ultrasonography made a possible diagnosis of a huge ovarian tumor; postoperative diagnosis was cavernous lymphangioma arising from the uterus. According to the literature, lymphangioma itself is a rare tumor, and giant lymphangioma arising from uterine corpus is extremely rare. We experienced an extremely rare case of uterine lymphangioma and ultrasound tomography better imaged the tumor inside.

  7. Spirosoma spitsbergense sp. nov. and Spirosoma luteum sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil, and emended description of the genus Spirosoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2009-01-01

    of the genus Spirosoma. 16S rRNA gene sequence data indicated that the three isolates could be divided into two clusters: (i) strain SPM-9T and (ii) strains SPM-10T and M5-H2. This grouping was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Strains SPM-9T and SPM-10T exhibited 92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence...... is SPM-9T (=NCIMB 14407T=DSM 19989T) and the type strain of Spirosoma luteum is SPM-10T (=NCIMB 14406T=DSM 19990T). An emended description of the genus Spirosoma is also proposed....

  8. Light-controlled relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum using NOBL-1, a novel nitric oxide releaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hotta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate whether relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum could be controlled with NOBL-1, a novel, lightcontrollable nitric oxide (NO releaser. Materials and Methods: Fifteen-week-old male Wistar-ST rats were used. The penile corpus cavernosum was prepared and used in an isometric tension study. After noradrenaline (10−5 M achieved precontraction, the penile corpus cavernosum was irradiated by light (470–500 nm with and without NOBL-1 (10−6 M. In addition, we noted rats’ responses to light with vardenafil (10−6 M, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5 inhibitor. Next, responses to light in the presence of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10−5 M, were measured. All measurements were performed in pretreated L-NAME (10−4 M conditions to inhibit endogenous NO production. Results: Corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, was unchanged by light irradiation in the absence of NOBL-1. However, in the presence of NOBL-1, corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, relaxed in response to light irradiation. After blue light irradiation ceased, tension returned. In addition, the light response was obviously enhanced in the presence of a PDE-5 inhibitor. Conclusions: This study showed that rat corpus cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation can be light-controlled using NOBL-1, a novel, light sensitive NO releaser. Though further in vivo studies are needed to investigate possible usefulness, NOBL-1 may be prove to be a useful tool for erectile dysfunction therapy, specifically in the field of penile rehabilitation.

  9. Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kocoń

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr This article presents the result of the recent research in the interpretation of Polish expressions that refer to time. These expressions are the source of information when something happens, how often something occurs or how long something lasts. Temporal information, which can be extracted from text automatically, plays significant role in many information extraction systems, such as question answering, discourse analysis, event recognition and many more. We prepared PLIMEX — a broad description of Polish temporal expressions with annotation guidelines, based on the state-of-the-art solutions for English, mainly TimeML specification. We also adapted the solution to capture the local semantics of temporal expressions, called LTIMEX. Temporal description also supports further event identification and extends event description model, focusing at anchoring events in time, ordering events and reasoning about the persistence of events. We prepared the specification, which is designed to address these issues and we annotated all documents in Polish Corpus of Wroclaw University of Technology (KPWr using our annotation guidelines.

  10. Prognostic value of corpus callosum injuries in severe head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuendez, Marta; Castaño-León, Ana; Ramos, Ana; Hilario, Amaya; Gómez, Pedro A; Lagares, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between corpus callosum (CC) injury and prognosis in traumatic axonal injury (TAI). We retrospectively reviewed 264 patients with severe head trauma who underwent a conventional MR imaging in the first 60 days after injury. They were selected from a prospectively collected database of 1048 patients with severe head trauma admitted in our hospital. TAI lesions were defined as areas of increased signal intensity on T2 and FLAIR or areas of decreased signal on gradient-echo T2. We attempted to determine whether any MR imaging findings of TAI lesions at CC could be related to prognosis. Neurological impairment was assessed at 1 year after injury by means of GOS-E (good outcome being GOS-E 4/5 and bad outcome being GOS-E motor score at admission, and pupillary reactivity) and the Extended model (including CT information and second insults). We found 97 patients (37 %) with TAI at CC and 167 patients (63 %) without CC lesions at MR. A total of 62 % of the patients with CC lesions had poor outcome, whereas 38 % showed good prognosis. The presence of TAI lesions at the corpus callosum was associated with poor outcome 1 year after brain trauma (p CC lesions measured on T2 and FLAIR sequences was negatively correlated with the GOS-E after adjustment for independent prognostic factors (p = 0.01, OR 2.23, 95 % CI:1.17-4.26). Also the presence of lesions at splenium was statistically related to worse prognosis (p = 0.002, OR 8.1, 95 % CI: 2.2-29.82). We did not find statistical significance in outcome between hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic CC lesions. The presence of CC is associated with a poor outcome. The total volume of the CC lesion is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome in severe head trauma.

  11. Infarction of the corpus callosum: a retrospective clinical investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate patients with ischemic infarctions in the territory of the corpus callosum to advance our understanding of this rare stroke subtype by providing comprehensive descriptive and epidemiological data.From January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2014, all cases of acute ischemic stroke diagnosed by clinical manifestation and diffusion weighted imaging in Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were investigated. The patients presenting with corpus callosum infarctions were selected and further allocated into genu and/or body and splenium infarction groups. Proportion, lesion patterns, clinical features, risk factors and etiology of corpus callosum infarction were analyzed.Out of 1,629 cases, 59 patients (3.6% with corpus callosum infarctions were identified by diffusion weighted imaging, including 7 patients who had ischemic lesions restricted to the corpus callosum territory. Thirty six patients had lesions in the splenium (61.0%. Corpus callosum infarction patients suffered from a broad spectrum of symptoms including weakness and/or numbness of the limbs, clumsy speech, and vertigo, which could not be explained by lesions in corpus callosum. A classical callosal disconnection syndrome was found in 2 out of all patients with corpus callosum infarctions. Statistical differences in the risk factor and infarct pattern between the genu and/or body group and splenium group were revealed.Corpus callosum infarction and the callosal disconnection syndrome were generally rare. The most susceptible location of ischemic corpus callosum lesion was the splenium. Splenium infarctions were often associated with bilateral cerebral hemisphere involvement (46.2%. The genu and/or body infarctions were associated with atherosclerosis. The most common cause of corpus callosum infarction probably was embolism.

  12. Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the online world, fraudsterscaneasily manipulate people to gain something and usually for monetary gain. Corpus development research can be use identify keywords used by fraudsters online to prevent the crime. The aim of this research is to develop a corpus for Malay investment fraud so that it can be used in ...

  13. What Does Corpus Linguistics Have to Offer to Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…

  14. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  15. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  16. Divergent approaches to corpus processing: the need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also discusses the problem ensuing from an attempt to standardise the formats used in the handling of the corpus. The way a corpus is processed is critical in determining its quality. This article aims to show how the different linguistic backgrounds of the processors affect the apprecia-tion of some vital aspects of the ...

  17. DutchParl: A corpus of parliamentary documents in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.; Schuth, A.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.; Rosner, M.; Tapias, D.

    2010-01-01

    A corpus called DutchParl is created which aims to contain all digitally available parliamentary documents written in the Dutch language. The first version of DutchParl contains documents from the parliaments of The Netherlands, Flanders and Belgium. The corpus is divided along three dimensions: per

  18. Corpus applications for the African languages, with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to illustrate the feasibility of corpus applications for the African languages at present, the article first considers 'fundamental linguistic research' in the ... due attention by means of the corpus-aided compilation of pronunciation guides and textbooks, and the teaching of morpho-syntactic and contrastive structures.

  19. On Automating and Standardising Corpus Callosum Analysis in Brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Corpus callosum analysis is influenced by many factors. The effort in controlling these has previously been incomplete and scattered. This paper sketches a complete pipeline for automated corpus callosum analysis from magnetic resonance images, with focus on measurement standardisation. The prese...

  20. TwNC: a Multifaceted Dutch News Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution describes the Twente News Corpus (TwNC), a multifaceted corpus for Dutch that is being deployed in a number of NLP research projects among which tracks within the Dutch national research programme MultimediaN, the NWO programme CATCH, and the Dutch-Flemish programme STEVIN. The

  1. Corpus-Supported Academic Writing: How Can Technology Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…

  2. The Ndebele Language Corpus: A Review of Some Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: The Ndebele language corpus described here is that compiled by the ALLEX Project. (now ALRI) at the University of Zimbabwe. It is intended to reflect as much as possible the Nde- bele language as spoken in Zimbabwe. The Ndebele language corpus was built in order to provide much-needed material for the ...

  3. Corpus-based translation research: its development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corpus-based translation research emerged in the late 1990s as a new area of research in the discipline of translation studies. It is informed by a specific area of linguistics known as corpus linguistics which involves the analysis of large corpora of authentic running text by means of computer software. Within linguistics, this ...

  4. Translation features in a comparable corpus of Afrikaans newspaper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    translated texts with regard to various aspects that could be investigated by means of a monolingual comparable corpus. The investigation into translation features in the Afrikaans comparable newspaper article corpus was done with the use of WordSmith Tools 4. (henceforth "WST"). 4.1 Type-token ratio. "Types" refer to the ...

  5. Corpus callosotomy in children and the disconnection syndromes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jea, Andrew; Vachhrajani, Shobhan; Widjaja, Elysa; Nilsson, Daniel; Raybaud, Charles; Shroff, Manohar; Rutka, James T

    2008-06-01

    Disconnection syndromes following corpus callosotomy represent complex and variably expressed groupings of signs and symptoms affecting motor control, spatial orientation, vision, hearing, and language. Little is known, however, about the functional topography of callosal fiber pathways. In addition, most published case reports and case series of corpus callosotomy seldom report neurological deficits. We sought to categorize these deficits based on surgical anatomy. We comprehensively reviewed the literature and described, compiled, and tabulated the most common disconnection syndromes complicating corpus callosotomy. We depict the topography of the cerebral cortex and associated commissural fibers of the corpus callosum through illustrations and diffusion tensor imaging tractography. Anatomical classification of disconnection syndromes will provide great value to neurosurgeons embarking on callosotomy, whether partial or complete. Such information will apply to procedures performed for epilepsy and to procedures where the corpus callosum is sectioned for access to lesions within the ventricular system.

  6. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root 'sublux.' It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as 'subluxation:' i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation.

  8. Two directions of change in one corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2015-01-01

    Cheshire et al. (2005) argue that different levels of language do not necessarily follow the same patterns of change over time. In an attempt to test this prediction, this article reports on a comparison between two quantitative corpus studies of Tyneside English which are partly based on the same...... shows support for Cheshire et al. (2005). This difference in the direction of change is explained by socio-psychological processes linking linguistic forms, the local Tyneside area and speaker identity. More specifically, it is argued that speakers imbue local vernacular variants with social meaning...... (Podesva 2006). This means that speakers create a social index (Silverstein 2003) which links linguistic forms and additional non-denotational meanings through processes of enregisterment (Agha 2003). This allows speakers to express an affiliation with their local area and all that it represents to them...

  9. Creating a Spontaneous Conversational Speech Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Husin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech recognition and language analysis of spontaneous speech arising in naturally spoken conversations are becoming the subject of much research. However, there is a shortage of spontaneous speech corpora that are freely available for academics. We therefore undertook the building of a natural conversation speech database, recording over 200 hours of conversations in English by over 600 local university students. With few exceptions, the students used their own cell phones from their own rooms or homes to speak to one another, and they were permitted to speak on any topic they chose. Although they knew that they were being recorded and that they would receive a small payment, their conversations in the corpus are probably very close to being natural and spontaneous. This paper describes a detailed case study of the problems we faced and the methods we used to make the recordings and control the collection of these social science data on a limited budget.

  10. Ultrastructure of the corpus cardiacum and corpus allatum of the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J T; Edwards, J S

    1979-05-18

    The ultrastructure of the corpus cardiacum (CC) and corpus allatum (CA) of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, is described. Axon profiles within the CC contain neurosecretory granules 160-350 nm in diameter which are indistinguishable from those found in type I neurosecretory cells of the pars intercerebralis and in the nervus corporis cardiaci I. The CC itself contains two cell types: intrinsic neurosecretory cells and glial cells. Intrinsic NSC cytoplasm contains Golgi bodies and electron dense neurosecretory granules 160-350 nm in diameter. Synaptoid configurations with 20-50 nm diameter electron lucent vesicles were observed within axon profiles of the CC. The structure of the CA is relatively uniform with one cell type predominating. Typical CA cells possess large nucleoli, active Golgi complexes, numerous mitochondria, and occassional microtubules. Groups of dark staining cells scattered throughout the CA of some animals were interpreted as evidence of cellular death.

  11. Insights from a Learner Corpus as Opposed to a Native Corpus about Cohesive Devices in an Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…

  12. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  13. Holistic corpus-based dialectology Dialetologia holística baseada em corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Szmrecsanyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with sketching future directions for corpus-based dialectology. We advocate a holistic approach to the study of geographically conditioned linguistic variability, and we present a suitable methodology, 'corpusbased dialectometry', in exactly this spirit. Specifically, we argue that in order to live up to the potential of the corpus-based method, practitioners need to (i abandon their exclusive focus on individual linguistic features in favor of the study of feature aggregates, (ii draw on computationally advanced multivariate analysis techniques (such as multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, and (iii aid interpretation of empirical results by marshalling state-of-the-art data visualization techniques. To exemplify this line of analysis, we present a case study which explores joint frequency variability of 57 morphosyntax features in 34 dialects all over Great Britain.Este artigo debruça-se sobre o esboço propositivo de futuras direções para a dialetologia baseada em corpus. Defendemos uma abordagem holística para o estudo da variabilidade linguística geograficamente condicionada, e apresentamos uma metodologia adequada para tal - a dialetometria baseada em corpus. Mais especificamente, defendemos que para que se obtenham todos os resultados esperados da metodologia de corpus, pesquisadores devem: (i abandonar seu foco exclusivo em traços linguísticos individuais em favor do estudo dos agregados de traços, (ii amparar-se em métodos computacionais avançados de técnicas de análise multivariada (tais como escalagem multidimensional, análise de clusters, e análise de componente principal, e (iii auxiliar a interpretação de resultados empíricos através da utilização do estado da arte em técnicas de visualização. A fim de exemplificarmos essa linha de análise, apresentamos um estudo de caso que explora a variabilidade da frequência agregada de 57 tra

  14. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with

  15. [NeuroBehcet disease with corpus callosum involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarouf, A; Hadj-Henni, L; Caucheteux, N; Renkes, C; Serre, I; Bakchine, S; Tourbah, A

    2011-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multi-system vascular-inflammatory disease with possible involvement of the central nervous system. Lesions of the corpus callosum on MRI have been rarely reported in this disease. A 47-year-old woman was admitted for a sudden right hemiplegia and confusion revealing a Behcet's disease. MRI showed a pedonculo-thalamic lesion and a white matter hypersignals, which was suggestive of the disease. Besides, involvement of the corpus callosum was observed. This case demonstrates that Behcet's disease should be considered among diseases with corpus callosum involvement. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Acquired lesions of the corpus callosum: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Takase, Y.; Nomiyama, K.; Egashira, R.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    In this pictorial review, we illustrate acquired diseases or conditions of the corpus callosum that may be found by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain, including infarction, bleeding, diffuse axonal injury, multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Marchiafava-Bignami disease, glioblastoma, gliomatosis cerebri, lymphoma, metastasis, germinoma, infections, metabolic diseases, transient splenial lesion, dilated Virchow-Robin spaces, wallerian degeneration after hemispheric damage and focal splenial gliosis. MR imaging is useful for the detection and differential diagnosis of corpus callosal lesions. Due to the anatomical shape and location of the corpus callosum, both coronal and sagittal fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images are most useful for visualizing lesions of this structure. (orig.)

  17. Cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum presenting with acute psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Giacomo; Causin, Francesco; Feletti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients' behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  18. Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pavesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients’ behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  19. Color-Doppler signals of blood flow in the corpus luteum and vascular perfusion index for ovarian and uterine arteries during expansion of the allantochorion in Bos taurus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaffi, F L V; Araujo, E R; Silva, L A; Ginther, O J

    2017-10-15

    Hemodynamics of the CL and each main uterine artery during expansion of the allantochorion from the ipsilateral side (CL side) to the contralateral side were studied in heifers (n = 8 nonbred, 9 pregnant). Progesterone concentration, vascular perfusion index for each uterine artery (by spectral ultrasonography), extent of blood flow in the CL (percentage of CL tissue with color-Doppler signals of blood flow), and intrauterine location of the expanding allantochorion (by gray-scale ultrasonic imaging) were determined daily from Days 14-60 (Day 0 = ovulation). In the pregnant group, but not in the nonbred group, the percentage of CL tissue with blood-flow signals increased (P flow signals. Functional increases in the CL during early pregnancy were attributed to the greater uterine arterial blood flow on the ipsilateral or CL side and the reported prominent anastomosis from a branch of the uterine artery to the ovarian artery that supplies the CL ovary. After an initial significant decrease in vascular perfusion index in each uterine artery in the pregnant group, the index began to increase on Day 17 in the ipsilateral artery and on Day 18 in the contralateral artery. The perfusion continued in the ipsilateral artery but discontinued in the contralateral artery on Day 21. Perfusion and diameter of the uterine artery were greater for the ipsilateral side until the vesicle entered the contralateral horn on Day 33 and increased for the contralateral horn between vesicle entry and filling of the horn on Day 44. During Days 35-60, the perfusion index (P flow in the ipsilateral uterine artery and (2) blood flow in each of the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine arteries increases as the allantochorion expands in each uterine horn. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Topographic distribution of the different cell types, connective tissue and vascular tissue/lumina within a functional bovine corpus luteum and its association with breed, type of fixation protocol and stage during the cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; De Vliegher, S; Piepers, S; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we analysed the effect of fixative, breed, luteal stage and location on the nuclear density, volume density of connective tissue and vascular tissue/lumina within a bovine luteal gland in view of the development of an in vivo sampling technique to longitudinally monitor luteal histophysiology. The inner zone defined as the zone geometrically closest to the centre of the gland shows a significantly lower nuclear density (for all cell types) and a higher volume density of collagen fibres and vessels when compared with the outer zone (p < 0.001). The nuclear density in luteal glands from Holstein-Friesian cows is not significantly different from that in Belgian Blue cows, nor is it in stage II vs stage III glands. The collagen fibre content was significantly lower in glands of Belgian Blue cows (p = 0.01) and in younger glands (p = 0.003). Hence, it seems that the lower nuclear density in the inner zone was compensated by a higher amount of collagen fibres. As the type of fixative applied has a significant effect on the nuclear density of the different cell types, the present study warrants future research to further optimize the fixation protocol. As a conclusion, we can state that the topographic difference in nuclear distribution for the different cell types in a bovine luteal gland is only significant when comparing the inner vs the outer zone. This implies that if a sample representative for the whole gland has to be taken, for example, when taking an in vivo sample, it is necessary that the biopsy goes through the inner zone and contains the total diameter of the gland. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Rescue of corpus luteum function with peri-ovulatory HCG supplementation in IVF/ICSI GnRH antagonist cycles in which ovulation was triggered with a GnRH agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, P; Bungum, L; Bungum, M

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies found a poor clinical outcome when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) was used to trigger ovulation in GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI cycles. This study aimed to determine the clinical and endocrine effects as well the optimal timing of HCG supplementation. Forty-five normogonadotrophic IVF/ICSI p...

  2. Microstructural damage of the posterior corpus callosum contributes to the clinical severity of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzali, Marco; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Cercignani, Mara; Giulietti, Giovanni; Bonnì, Sonia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    One theory to account for neglect symptoms in patients with right focal damage invokes a release of inhibition of the right parietal cortex over the left parieto-frontal circuits, by disconnection mechanism. This theory is supported by transcranial magnetic stimulation studies showing the existence of asymmetric inhibitory interactions between the left and right posterior parietal cortex, with a right hemispheric advantage. These inhibitory mechanisms are mediated by direct transcallosal projections located in the posterior portions of the corpus callosum. The current study, using diffusion imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), aims at assessing, in a data-driven fashion, the contribution of structural disconnection between hemispheres in determining the presence and severity of neglect. Eleven patients with right acute stroke and 11 healthy matched controls underwent MRI at 3T, including diffusion imaging, and T1-weighted volumes. TBSS was modified to account for the presence of the lesion and used to assess the presence and extension of changes in diffusion indices of microscopic white matter integrity in the left hemisphere of patients compared to controls, and to investigate, by correlation analysis, whether this damage might account for the presence and severity of patients' neglect, as assessed by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT). None of the patients had any macroscopic abnormality in the left hemisphere; however, 3 cases were discarded due to image artefacts in the MRI data. Conversely, TBSS analysis revealed widespread changes in diffusion indices in most of their left hemisphere tracts, with a predominant involvement of the corpus callosum and its projections on the parietal white matter. A region of association between patients' scores at BIT and brain FA values was found in the posterior part of the corpus callosum. This study strongly supports the hypothesis of a major role of structural disconnection between the right and left

  3. Microstructural damage of the posterior corpus callosum contributes to the clinical severity of neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bozzali

    Full Text Available One theory to account for neglect symptoms in patients with right focal damage invokes a release of inhibition of the right parietal cortex over the left parieto-frontal circuits, by disconnection mechanism. This theory is supported by transcranial magnetic stimulation studies showing the existence of asymmetric inhibitory interactions between the left and right posterior parietal cortex, with a right hemispheric advantage. These inhibitory mechanisms are mediated by direct transcallosal projections located in the posterior portions of the corpus callosum. The current study, using diffusion imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS, aims at assessing, in a data-driven fashion, the contribution of structural disconnection between hemispheres in determining the presence and severity of neglect. Eleven patients with right acute stroke and 11 healthy matched controls underwent MRI at 3T, including diffusion imaging, and T1-weighted volumes. TBSS was modified to account for the presence of the lesion and used to assess the presence and extension of changes in diffusion indices of microscopic white matter integrity in the left hemisphere of patients compared to controls, and to investigate, by correlation analysis, whether this damage might account for the presence and severity of patients' neglect, as assessed by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT. None of the patients had any macroscopic abnormality in the left hemisphere; however, 3 cases were discarded due to image artefacts in the MRI data. Conversely, TBSS analysis revealed widespread changes in diffusion indices in most of their left hemisphere tracts, with a predominant involvement of the corpus callosum and its projections on the parietal white matter. A region of association between patients' scores at BIT and brain FA values was found in the posterior part of the corpus callosum. This study strongly supports the hypothesis of a major role of structural disconnection between the

  4. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  5. Interleukin-6, age, and corpus callosum integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne M Bettcher

    Full Text Available The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6 and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine, as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories.

  6. Architecture of the Corpus Spongiosum : An Anatomical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenhof, Sarah R; de Graaf, Petra; Soeterik, Timo F W; Neeter, Lidewij M F H; Zilverschoon, Marijn; Spinder, Matty; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Heck-de Kort, Laetitia

    PURPOSE: Urethral reconstruction is performed for urethral stricture or hypospadias correction. Research on urethral tissue engineering is increasing. Because the corpus spongiosum is important to support the urethra, urethral tissue engineering should ideally be combined with reconstruction of a

  7. Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    childhood behavioural disorders, bipolar disorders,. Asperger's syndrome, personality disorder and conversion symptoms.1 Suspected causes of corpus callosum agenesis include chromosomal defects, prenatal infections, toxins and metabolic disorders.1 Callosal agenesis has been associated with interhemispheric cysts ...

  8. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the acoustic realisation of tone in short continuous utterances in Yoruba. Fundamental frequency contours are extracted for automatically aligned syllables from a speech corpus of 33 speakers collected for speech recognition...

  9. A corpus-linguistic investigation of dental English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D M

    2000-04-01

    This article begins by presenting corpus linguistics and explaining how the corpus approach to language analysis can be used to investigate the language of dentistry. It then reports findings from an analysis that was carried out with readily available software and a corpus of 1,400 dental research abstracts. Included is information about word frequency in dental abstracts and also about how certain words tend to co-occur in sentences and form regular patterns. The article concludes with a discussion of ways that corpus-based findings can be applied to the teaching of English to non-native speakers of the language, many of whom will need English skills for their future careers in dentistry.

  10. Fibrosis of corpus cavernosum in animals following cavernous nerve ablation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Wan-Li; Hu, Li-Quan; Song, Jian; Li, Shi-Wen; Zheng, Xin-Min; Cheng, Bei; Tian, Bing-Chun

    2004-01-01

    To investigate alterations of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum following cavernous neurectomy and its relation to the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1...

  11. Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Thomas, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    .... The report summarizes pending legislation and provides an analysis of relevant constitutional issues, including whether the DTA provisions amount to a suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus within...

  12. Terminological Analysis of the Corpus of Ancient Greek Medical Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čengić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Selected writings of Corpus Hippocraticum, the oldest extant body of medical texts which were written in the period between the 5th and the 4th century BC, were subject of linguistic research based on discourse analysis. From this aspect, Hippocratic texts are treated as representatives of one of the first professional jargons of western civilization. The emphasis is placed on the formal levels of linguistic description in order to establish formal peculiarities of the Hippocratic discourse. Approach to formal characteristics of Hippocratic discourse stresses some wider contextual elements like interactions between philosophy and medicine, elements of orally established society, spread of literacy, creation of domain of public communication and influence of its rules to different aspects of communication in ancient Greece. The formal linguistic features of the   Hippocratic discourse are classified into groups of dialect features, terminological differentiation, rhetoric techniques and strategies, structural characteristics, presence of author and audience, syntactical peculiarities and elements of the context. Terminological differentiation in Hippocratic discourse is a very important level of formal description because it is considered to be one of the hallmarks of a professional discourse. It refers to the existence of a specific subset in the linguistic system which includes specially created technical terms. Hippocratic discourse shows different degrees of technical differentiation. The formalisation of the presence of author and audience is considered to be an essential element of a technical discourse as well. It is considered to be a later element which entered the technical discourse under the influence of sophistic rhetoric and rules of public communication (doctrine of persuasive communication. Approach to the  dimension of  context includes analysis of all the utterances which  relate to various aspects of wider social context

  13. Compiling a corpus-based dictionary grammar: an example for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article it is shown how a corpus-based dictionary grammar may be compiled — that is, a mini-grammar fully based on corpus data and specifically written for use in and inte-grated with a dictionary. Such an effort is, to the best of our knowledge, a world's first. We exem-plify our approach for a Northern Sotho ...

  14. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury.

  15. A massively parallel corpus: the Bible in 100 languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodouloupoulos, Christos; Steedman, Mark

    We describe the creation of a massively parallel corpus based on 100 translations of the Bible. We discuss some of the difficulties in acquiring and processing the raw material as well as the potential of the Bible as a corpus for natural language processing. Finally we present a statistical analysis of the corpora collected and a detailed comparison between the English translation and other English corpora.

  16. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  17. Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Pavesi; Francesco Causin; Alberto Feletti

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients’ behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of t...

  18. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

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    Kolat Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago.

  19. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sivaraman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India); Raghavendra, Seetharam; Singh, Atampreet; Nair, Muraleedharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-05-15

    We report a 15-year-old boy with autosomal recessive complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC). The involvement of the corpus callosum was characteristic with the genu and body predominantly affected with relative sparing of the splenium. HSP-TCC is being increasingly recognized over a wider geographical area than earlier believed. We now report a case of HSP-TCC from the Indian subcontinent. (orig.)

  20. Experimental model of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel P. Regadas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Thus, 2 cm fragments of cavernous artery and corpus cavernosum were obtained. Strips measuring 3 x 3 x 8 mm3 were then mounted vertically in an isolated organ bath device. Contractions were measured isometrically with a Narco-Biosystems force displacement transducer (model F-60, Narco-Biosystems, Houston, TX, USA and recorded on a 4-channel Narco-Biosystems desk model polygraph. RESULTS: Phenylephrine (1µM was used to induce tonic contractions in the corpus cavernosum (3 - 5 g tension and cavernous artery (0.5 - 1g tension until reaching a plateau. After precontraction, smooth muscle relaxants were used to produce relaxation-response curves (10-12M to 10-4 M. Sodium nitroprusside was used as a relaxation control. CONCLUSION: The harvesting technique and the smooth muscle contraction-relaxation model described in this study were shown to be useful instruments in the search for new drugs for the treatment of human erectile dysfunction.

  1. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L; Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis.

  2. A corpus and a concordancer of academic journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwary, Deny A

    2018-02-01

    This data article presents a corpus (i.e. a selection of a big number of words in an electronic form) and a concordancer (i.e. a tool to show the word in its context of use) of academic journal articles. As the title suggests, the data were collected from research articles published in academic journals. The corpus contains 5,686,428 words selected from 895 journal articles published by Elsevier in 2011-2015. The corpus is classified into four subject areas: Health sciences, Life sciences, Physical Sciences, and Social Sciences, following the classifications of Scopus, which is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed scientific journals, books and conference proceedings. To ease the access and utilization of the corpus, a program to produce the key word in context (KWIC) and word frequency was created and placed on the website: corpus.kwary.net. The corpus is a valuable resource for researchers, teachers, and translators working on academic English.

  3. Experimental model of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas, Rommel P; Moraes, Maria E A; Mesquita, Francisco J C; Cerqueira, Joao B G; Gonzaga-Silva, Lucio F

    2010-01-01

    To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra) was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Thus, 2 cm fragments of cavernous artery and corpus cavernosum were obtained. Strips measuring 3 x 3 x 8 mm(3) were then mounted vertically in an isolated organ bath device. Contractions were measured isometrically with a Narco-Biosystems force displacement transducer (model F-60, Narco-Biosystems, Houston, TX, USA) and recorded on a 4-channel Narco-Biosystems desk model polygraph. Phenylephrine (1 microM) was used to induce tonic contractions in the corpus cavernosum (3-5 g tension) and cavernous artery (0.5-1 g tension) until reaching a plateau. After precontraction, smooth muscle relaxants were used to produce relaxation-response curves (10(-12) M to 10(-4) M). Sodium nitroprusside was used as a relaxation control. The harvesting technique and the smooth muscle contraction-relaxation model described in this study were shown to be useful instruments in the search for new drugs for the treatment of human erectile dysfunction.

  4. Resilience and corpus callosum microstructure in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinowski, A; Miranda, R; Lemaitre, H; Paillère Martinot, M-L; Artiges, E; Vulser, H; Goodman, R; Penttilä, J; Struve, M; Barbot, A; Fadai, T; Poustka, L; Conrod, P; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A; Bromberg, U; Büchel, C; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Kappel, V; Lawrence, C; Loth, E; Mann, K; Nees, F; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Poline, J-B; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M; Schumann, G; Martinot, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Resilience is the capacity of individuals to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its neural underpinnings. The putative variation of white-matter microstructure with resilience in adolescence, a critical period for brain maturation and onset of high-prevalence mental disorders, has not been assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) though, has been reported in the corpus callosum (CC), the brain's largest white-matter structure, in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents. Three groups of adolescents recruited from the community were compared: resilient with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress (n = 55), at-risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress (n = 68), and controls (n = 123). Personality was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using tract-based spatial statistics. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography. Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared to both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Seed regional changes in anterior CC projected onto anterior cingulate and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other NEO-FFI factor scores differentiated non-resilient participants from the other two groups. High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be related to white-matter microstructure.

  5. Contrast radiographic study of venous drainage of the corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum of the cat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ali Akbar; Gilanpour, Hassan; Veshkini, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drainage routes of the corpus cvernosum penis and the corpus spongiosum penis in the cat using contrast cavernosography. Five male cats, 1.5-2.5 years old, weighing between 4.5 and 5.5 kg were investigated. The cats were anesthetized and the root and the proximal part of the penis were exposed by an incision on the perineum reaching the scrotum. Each cat was radiographed in lateral and dorsal recumbency before and during injection of contrast medium into the erectile bodies. The corpus spongiosum penis was injected at the bulb of the penis and the corpus cavernosum penis at the root. Injection of contrast media into the cavernous bodies showed that both the external and internal iliac veins drain the erectile bodies into the caudal vena cava. Drainage from the corpus spongiosum penis was from the bulb for the proximal part and from the glans for the distal part. The corpus cavernosum penis was drained only proximally, from the crura. There was a network of veins above the pelvic symphysis and the drainage of erectile bodies where through various routes into the internal and external iliac veins.

  6. Classification of acquired lesions of the corpus callosum with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, S.A.; Bitzer, M.; Voigt, K.; Kueker, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Freudenstein, D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    MRI has facilitated diagnostic assessment of the corpus callosum. Diagnostic classification of solitary or multiple lesions of the corpus callosum has not attracted much attention, although signal abnormalities are not uncommon. Our aim was to identify characteristic imaging features of lesions frequently encountered in practice. We reviewed the case histories of 59 patients with lesions shown on MRI. The nature of the lesions was based on clinical features and/or long term follow-up (ischaemic 20, Virchow-Robin spaces 3, diffuse axonal injury 7, multiple sclerosis 11, hydrocephalus 5, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 5, Marchiafava-Bignami disease 4, lymphoma 2, glioblastoma hamartoma each 1). The location in the sagittal plane, the relationship to the borders of the corpus callosum and midline and the size were documented. The 20 ischaemic lesions were asymmetrical but adjacent to the midline; the latter was involved in new or large lesions. Diffuse axonal injury commonly resulted in large lesions, which tended to be asymmetrical; the midline and borders of the corpus callosum were always involved. Lesions in MS were small, at the lower border of the corpus callosum next to the septum pellucidum, and crossed the midline asymmetrically. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and the other perivenous inflammatory diseases caused relatively large, asymmetrical lesions. Hydrocephalus resulted in lesions of the upper part of the corpus callosum, and mostly in its posterior two thirds; they were found in the midline. Lesions in Marchiafava-Bignami disease were large, often symmetrically in the midline in the splenium and did not reach the edge of the corpus callosum. (orig.)

  7. Dietary carotenoids in normal and pathological tissues of corpus uteri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Wołczyński

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids and retinyl esters are the source of vitamin A in the human body and its natural derivatives takes part in the regulation of cell replication and differentiation in the human endometrium, may induce the leiomyoma growth and has a role in differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the presence of carotenoids in tissues from the normal uterus and from various tumors of the uterine corpus, as well as to compare the total content, major carotenoids and % of carotenoids belonging to the provitamin A group between the tissues examined. Using three independent methods of chromatography (CC, TLC, HPLC we analysed 140 human samples. We identified 13 carotenoids belonging to the eg. provitamin A group and epoxy carotenoids. In all the samples beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin were isolated. In normal tissues, the mean carotenoid content was the highest in the follicular phase endometrium (9.9 microg/g, while the highest percentage of carotenoids belonging to provitamin A group was found in the luteal phase (18.2%. In the pathological group, the highest mean values were demonstrated for epithelial lesions (8.0 microg/g, and within this group - in endometrioid adenocarcinoma (10.8 microg/g. In both groups, violaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein epoxide and mutatoxanthin were the predominant carotenoids. We have demonstrated that all uterine tissues show a concentration of beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, being the source of vitamin A. The highest total values of carotenoids obtained in the group of endometrioid adenocarcinoma seem to confirm certain enzymatic defects in carotenoid metabolism in the course of the neoplastic process or some metabolic modifications. The finding of astaxanthin - the major antioxidant among carotenoids - in 63% of tissues examined is also significant.

  8. Neurological Soft Signs and Corpus Callosum morphology in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, G; Quartini, A; Paolemili, M; Clemente, R; Iannitelli, A; Di Biasi, C; Gualdi, G

    2011-07-25

    Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) have been found to be more prevalent in schizophrenic patients. A breakdown in intracortical functional connectivity, including interhemispheric communication, has been suggested in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Indeed, problems with interhemispheric information transfer via the Corpus Callosum (CC) have been documented in schizophrenics. Our study goal was to relate NSS to CC morphology. CC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements were collected from 29 right-handed male schizophrenia inpatients. NSS were evaluated employing the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES). We examined the scores obtained from the NES total and the three NES subscales: Integrative Sensory Function, Motor Coordination, and Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts. We compared CC morphology of patients with "high" NSS with that of patients with "low" NSS. Correlation analyses were performed to further clarify the relationship between CC size, NSS, and total lifetime antipsychotic consumption. Patients with "high" scores at the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale showed a smaller CC rostral body, whereas patients with "high" scores at the Integrative Sensory Function subscale showed a smaller CC splenium. For both the NES total and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale, "high" scores were accompanied by an increase of the CC genu. Correlation analyses revealed a significant inverse correlation between the CC rostral body size and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale score. In addition, a significant positive correlation was shown between the CC genu size and both the NES total and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale scores. The presence of NSS and the accompanying CC structural abnormalities were independent on antipsychotic treatment. Our data provide evidence for an association between NSS and CC morphology and further support the hypothesis of a disturbed interhemispheric functional connectivity in schizophrenia. Copyright

  9. Corpus callosum in aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen

    2013-10-01

    The overarching objective of the thesis was to investigate the morphological changes in the corpus callosum (CC) in aging and dementia in relation to its role in cognitive and motor decline. The CC is the largest white matter tract in the brain, containing upwards of 200 million axons, and is believed important for communication and interaction between the two cerebral hemispheres. Historically, the role of white matter, including the CC, in relation to cognitive function has often been eclipsed by the predominance of the cortex, and led to a "corticocentric" view of the brain and cognitive function. However, from the 1960s and onwards, the role of lesions in the white matter in the appearence of cognitive deficits and diseases such as dementia has become increasingly evident. Many studies have indicated that AD is associated with CC atrophy, but the precise pattern of subregional CC atrophy in different disease stages remains undetermined. In study I, we establish that atrophy is present primarily in the posterior CC early in AD, and that atrophy of the CC is associated with faster disease progression. This finding supports a model where posterior atrophy is the earliest changes in the CC in AD patients, with atrophy of anterior CC being a later pathological event. To further elucidate the role of CC atrophy in dementia, we examined a population of 329 elderly subjects, and found that a higher rate of tissue loss in posterior CC is associated with an increased risk of dementia. This study represents the first to examine CC in elderly subjects longitudinally. In the same cohort, we investigated whether impairment in specific cognitive domains was associated with CC tissue loss. Previous studies had shown that processing speed and executive functions may be particularly reliant on the CC. Our findings indicated that CC tissue loss leads to selective impairment of processing speed but not memory or executive function deficits. Finally, CC tissue loss was also

  10. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and complex terms. These works will encourage the

  11. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36nesp1p177 As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and

  12. Corpus Linguistics: Influencing and contributing to the EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Robinson

    2010-01-01

    本論文は英語教育の中でCorpus Linguisticsが、どのように教育学に貢献し、また影響を及ぼしているのかについて考察した。初めに、Corpus Linguisticsについての大まかな理論と、Corpus Linguisticsが新しい一つの手段として今までの規則を変化させる方法について述べている。次に、英語の教育や学習にCorpus Linguisticsが様々な方法で利益をもたらしてるいこと、また教育者にとって役立つことについて述べている。最後に、Corpus Linguisticsを用いて、語彙学習時にどのようにしてEFL学生を援助できるかについて述べている。...

  13. MR imaging of spastic diplegia. The importance of corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K. [Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Kanda, T. [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatric Neurology; Hashimoto, K. [Ukyo Hospital, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics; Okuno, Y. [Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yamori, Y. [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatric Neurology; Yuge, M. [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatric Neurology; Ando, R. [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatric Neurology; Ozaki, N. [Ukyo Hospital, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics; Tamamoto, A. [Ukyo Hospital, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1996-09-01

    Purpose: The MR findings in patients with spastic diplegia were investigated and the role of MR imaging in assessing the extent of brain injury was evaluated. Material and Methods: 39 male and 24 female patients (preterm/term 43/20) were imaged using a 0.5 T MR system. Results: The MR findings in term patients were quite different from those in preterm patients; 55% of the term patients showed normal and minimal changes on MR, whereas 90.7% of the 43 preterm children had periventricular leucomalacia. The deep cerebral white matter was the most frequently involved site. Objective measurements revealed significant reductions of the entire sagittal area of corpus callosum in diplegic patients in comparison with normal controls. The motor plasy severity correlated well with the extent of corpus callosum involvement. Conclusion: The corpus callosum appears to be a sensitive marker site for the assessment of the extent of white matter injury. (orig.).

  14. Trilingual aligned corpus – current state and new applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trilingual aligned corpus – current state and new applications This article describes current state of a trilingual parallel corpus consisted of texts in two Slavic (Bulgarian and Polish and one Baltic language (Lithuanian. The corpus contains original literary texts (fiction, novels, and short stories in one of the three languages with translations to the other two, and texts in other languages translated into Bulgarian, Polish, and Lithuanian. A part of the texts are aligned at the sentence level. The authors propose a semantic annotation of verbs appearing in these aligned texts that will facilitate contrastive studies of natural languages. A theoretical background for the proposed semantic annotation is briefly also discussed.

  15. Diffusion tensor analysis of corpus callosum in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Shirai, Wakako; Hattori, Takamichi [Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease featuring parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and frontal lobe dysfunction. The corpus callosum which consists of many commissure fibers probably reflects cerebral cortical function. Several previous reports showed atrophy or diffusion abnormalities of anterior corpus callosum in PSP patients, but partitioning method used in these studies was based on data obtained in nonhuman primates. In this study, we performed a diffusion tensor analysis using a new partitioning method for the human corpus callosum. Seven consecutive patients with PSP were compared with 29 age-matched patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and the corpus callosum was partitioned into five areas on the mid-sagittal plane according to a recently established topography of human corpus callosum (CC1-prefrontal area, CC2-premotor and supplementary motor area, CC3-motor area, CC4-sensory area, CC5-parietal, temporal, and occipital area). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each area and differences between groups were analyzed. In the PSP group, FA values were significantly decreased in CC1 and CC2, and ADC values were significantly increased in CC1 and CC2. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed excellent reliability of FA and ADC analyses of CC1 for differentiating PSP from PD. The anterior corpus callosum corresponding to the prefrontal, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices is affected in PSP patients. This analysis can be an additional test for further confirmation of the diagnosis of PSP.

  16. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  17. Effect of angiotensin II and its receptor antagonists on human corpus cavernous contractility and oxidative stress: modulation of nitric oxide mediated relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertemi, Hani; Mumtaz, Faiz H; Howie, Alexander J; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Thompson, Cecil S

    2011-06-01

    To our knowledge the interaction between angiotensin II and nitric oxide in the control of human corpus cavernous function has not been assessed previously. We determined the presence and role of angiotensin II and its receptors in human penile function. Corpus cavernous tissue was obtained from 35 patients undergoing gender reassignment surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis was done to determine angiotensin II peptide tissue distribution. Organ bath studies were done to determine the angiotensin II/nitric oxide interaction on corpus cavernous smooth muscle function. The role of oxidative stress in the angiotensin II response was also examined using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Angiotensin II was distributed in arteriolar endothelium, endothelium lining sinusoids and smooth muscle cells, and caused dose dependent contraction of human corpus cavernous smooth muscle strips that was inhibited by the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. Relaxation of corpus cavernous smooth muscle induced by the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or electrical field stimulation was potentiated by losartan. Apocynin decreased angiotensin II induced corpus cavernous contraction. Angiotensin II and nitric oxide interact to modulate human cavernous function since losartan potentiated sodium nitroprusside and electrical field stimulation mediated corpus cavernous smooth muscle relaxation. The angiotensin II response involves the production of superoxide and the development of oxidative stress. These findings support the role of angiotensin II in the regulation of human penile smooth muscle tone and suggest that angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibition may be a therapeutic approach to erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Making Vocabulary Corporeal: Arabic Learners, Vocabulary Development, & arabiCorpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen increasing integration of language corpora into second language instruction. Arabic’s rich polysemy and multiglossic spectrum can complicate vocabulary development for learners. Corpora thus offer great potential as complementary tools for Arabic learners. This study examines two variants of a corpusbased exercise used with fourth-semester adult Arabic learners. Learners analyzed data for select Arabic vocabulary items in the online arabiCorpus. Students in both variant groups proved themselves adept at using the corpus, interpreting data, and articulating metalinguistic hypotheses about nuances of meaning.

  19. The Shona Corpus and the Problem of Tagging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this paper the writer examines problems the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project (at present the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI? encountered while tagging the Shona corpus. The problems to be highlighted include general problems which apply to more than one language as well as problems peculiar to Shona. The paper was inspired by the challenges the writer encountered when he took part in building the Shona corpus. An analysis of the problems that most corpus builders face shows that more problems are likely to be encountered when dealing with spoken corpora than with written corpora. The paper demonstrates that tagging is an important component of corpus building as it makes it easier for a researcher to extract relevant data. To utilise the benefits of a tagged corpus, the tagging should be thorough and accurate. Wellinformed decisions form an integral part of the tagging process since the utility of a tagged corpus depends largely on the input of the tagging process. This paper shows the need to take the tagging process seriously.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, COMPUTER, CORPUS, ENCODING, FOREIGN WORD, LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOGRAPHY, MONITOR CORPUS, PART OF SPEECH, SCANNING, SHONA, SLANG, TAGGING, TRANSCRIPTION, WORD

    Opsomming: Die Shonakorpus en die probleem van etikettering, In hierdieartikel ondersoek die outeur probleme wat die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project (tansdie African Languages Research Institute (ALRI» teegekom het terwyl die Shonakorpus geetiketteeris. Die probleme wat bespreek word, sluit algemene probleme in wat van toepassing is opmeer as een taa, sowel as spesifieke probleme wat eie aan Shona is. Die artikel het sy ontstaan indie uitdagings wat die outeur teegekom het terwyl hy deel gehad het aan die opbou van die Shonakorpus.'n Ontieding van die probleme waarvoor die meeste korpusbouers te staan kom, toon datdaar waarskynlik meer probleme teegekom word wanneer daar met gesproke

  20. Discourse and identity in a corpus of lesbian erotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrish, Liz; Sauntson, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article uses corpus linguistic methodologies to explore representations of lesbian desires and identities in a corpus of lesbian erotica from the 1980s and 1990s. We provide a critical examination of the ways in which "lesbian gender," power, and desire are represented, (re-)produced, and enacted, often in ways that challenge hegemonic discourses of gender and sexuality. By examining word frequencies and collocations, we critically analyze some of the themes, processes, and patterns of representation in the texts. Although rooted in linguistics, we hope this article provides an accessible, interdisciplinary, and timely contribution toward developing understandings of discursive practices surrounding gender and sexuality.

  1. Bulgarian-Polish parallel digital corpus and quantification of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian-Polish parallel digital corpus and quantification of time The paper presents the current state of the first Bulgarian-Polish parallel and aligned corpus, prepared in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, coordinated by L. Dimitrova and V. Koseska-Toszewa. In particular, problems related to tense quantification are also discussed

  2. CORPUS STUDIES OF SPEECH OF INDIVIDUALS WHO COMMITTED SUICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinova, T.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech is known to be a source of information about the individual as well as their mental state and thus a valuable diagnostic tool. One of the crucial tasks facing the modern psychodiagnostics is predicting suicidal tendencies. One of the promising fields is analyzing speech of individuals who committed suicides. However, designing such text corpora is a daunting scientific task. The article describes the text corpora employed in studies of the features of speech of individuals who committed suicides (mostly in English and introduces the first Russian corpus RusSuiCorpus and outlines the perspectives for further studies.

  3. Corpus Juris ja Eesti : [bakalaureusetöö] / Artur Kink ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Eerik Kergandberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kink, Artur

    1999-01-01

    Corpus Jurise taust ja areng - finantshuvide kaitse areng, Corpus Jurise ajalugu; Corpus Jurise õiguslik baas (Amsterdami leping), ülesehitus ja struktuur (üleeuroopalise territoriaalsuse printsiip, kohtuliku kontrolli printsiip, "vastuväitelise" protsessi printsiip, kohaliku õiguse subsidiaarsuse printsiip)

  4. Levels of heat shock protein transcripts in normal follicles and ovarian follicular cysts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Velázquez, Melisa M.L; Alfaro, Natalia S; Salvetti, Natalia R; Stangaferro, Matías L; Rey, Florencia; Panzani, Carolina G; Ortega, Hugo H

    2011-01-01

    ... in follicular development, and they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cystic ovarian disease (COD; [ 5, 10 ]). COD is a common affliction that is characterized by the presence of big ovarian follicular structures (diameter >20 mm), in absence of corpus luteum and ovarian cyclicity. This disease causes financial losses for cattle farmers by d...

  5. Designing a Lexical Database for a Combined Use of Corpus Annotation and Dictionary Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas; Langer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In a combined corpus-dictionary project, you would need one lexical database that could serve as a shared “backbone” for both corpus annotation and dictionary editing, but it is not that easy to define a database structure that applies satisfactorily to both these purposes. In this paper, we...... will exemplify the problem and present ideas on how to model structures in a lexical database that facilitate corpus annotation as well as dictionary editing. The paper is a joint work between the DGS Corpus Project and the DTS Dictionary Project. The two projects come from opposite sides of the spectrum (one...... adjusting a lexical database grown from dictionary making for corpus annotating, one building a lexical database in parallel with corpus annotation and editing a corpus-based dictionary), and we will consider requirements and feasible structures for a database that can serve both corpus and dictionary....

  6. Categorizing expressive speech acts in the pragmatically annotated SPICE Ireland corpus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia Ronan

    2015-01-01

    ...: broadcast discussion, classroom discussion and face-to-face interaction. The data are extracted from the pragmatically tagged SPICE-Ireland corpus, a member of the International Corpus of English-family of corpora...

  7. Väärtused Theognise luulekogumikus Corpus Theognideum / Martin Suuroja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suuroja, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Bibl. lk. 1413-1414. Kokkuvõte "Values in Theognis' collection of poems Corpus Theognideum", lk. 1537-1538. Theognise (552-549) luulekogumiku põhjal analüüsitakse Kreeka ühiskonnas domineerinud väärtusi

  8. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  9. Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On examination they noted a normal general and neurological examination apart from some frontal lobe signs on mental status examination. He also had features of psychosis and labile mood. On CT brain scan he had agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC) with associated interhemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria.

  10. Reproducibility of corpus cavernosum electromyography in healthy young man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.; Frantzen, J.; Holsheimer, J.; Meuleman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Research on reproducibility of corpus cavernosum electromyography (CC-EMG) is relevant because reproducible signals indicate a biological phenomenon and not an artefact. Reproducible signals are also required to use CC-EMG as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to

  11. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon | Lan | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They help broaden the role of the dictionary from standardizing the vocabulary to recording a language. The trilingual corpus generated by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University gives a record of business languages used in Hong Kong. It differs from other corpora in that (1) it includes English, Chinese and Japanese; (2) it ...

  12. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain, such as ...

  13. A 38 Million Words Dutch Text Corpus and its Users

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the field of lexicography but also in computational linguistics and language technology. Conse- quently ... present paper reports on the characteristics of this corpus (design, text classification, linguistic annotation) and on its use, ..... the basis of the title of the book or information in the front or back matter (cf. Dutilh and Kruyt ...

  14. Rapid quantitative assessment of gastric corpus atrophy in tissue sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grieken, N. C.; Weiss, M. M.; Meijer, G. A.; Bloemena, E.; Lindeman, J.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Meuwissen, S. G.; Baak, J. P.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Grading of Helicobacter pylori induced atrophic gastritis using the updated Sydney system is severely limited by high interobserver variability. The aim of this study was to set up a quantitative test of gastric corpus mucosal atrophy in tissue sections and test its reproducibility and correlation

  15. Using the Corpus of Spoken Afrikaans to generate an Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents two chatbot systems, ALICE and. Elizabeth, illustrating the dialogue knowledge representation and pattern matching techniques of each. We discuss the problems which arise when using the. Corpus of Spoken Afrikaans (Korpus Gesproke Afrikaans) to retrain the ALICE chatbot system with human ...

  16. Interjections in Dutch: a corpus-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelfhout, C.R.M.; Coppen, P.A.J.M.; Oostdijk, N.H.J.; Slik, F. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the distribution of interjections over the clause is studied within the context of a topological framework. For this study authentic data have been extracted from a corpus comprising 1 million words of written material and 174,000 words of spoken material. In order to explain this

  17. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  18. Semantic Associations in Business English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the semantic associations of words found in the business lexical environment by using a one-million word corpus of both spoken and written Business English. The key method of analysis is that of semantic prosody or semantic association; the notion that words associate with collocates that are themselves related, often either…

  19. A new English–Arabic parallel text corpus for lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chosen source texts deal with a variety of topics such as the environment, globalization, psychology, history, politics, drama, etc. Their Arabic translations were taken from The World of Knowledge series published by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL) in Kuwait. Keywords: parallel corpus ...

  20. Data modelling in corpus linguistics : How low may we go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Marjolein H.; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P.

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors'

  1. The SEMAINE corpus of emotionally coloured character interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKeown, Gary; Valstar, Michel F.; Cowie, Roderick; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    We have recorded a new corpus of emotionally coloured conversations. Users were recorded while holding conversations with an operator who adopts in sequence four roles designed to evoke emotional reactions. The operator and the user are seated in separate rooms; they see each other through

  2. A Danish phonetically annotated spontaneous speech corpus (DanPASS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnum, Nina

    2009-01-01

    A corpus is described consisting of non-scripted monologues and dialogues, recorded by 27 speakers, comprising a total of 73,227 running words, corresponding to 9 h and 46 min of speech. The monologues were recorded as one-way communication with an unseen partner where the speaker performed three...

  3. Integrating Corpus Linguistics into Online Language Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Alice; Faghih, Esmail

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on a qualitative study which explored 32 pre-service teachers' evaluations of two online seven-week introductory courses in corpus linguistics (CL). Data were gathered through questionnaires, participants' written journals, post-course semi-structured email interviews, and discussion forum entries. The qualitative analysis of…

  4. Towards a Corpus of Black South African English | de Klerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in creating additional corpora of other "indigenous" varieties of Black English, following the guidelines provided here, so that ultimately all such corpora will be compatible and can be combined to form a large and comprehensive corpus of BSAE. (S/ern Af Linguistics & Applied Language Studies: 2002 20(1&2): 25-35) ...

  5. Creating an Information Retrieval test corpus for Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Leeuwen, D.A.; Theune, M.; Theune, Mariet; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.; Hondorp, G.H.W.; Hondorp, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the first large-scale evaluation of information retrieval systems using Dutch documents and queries. We describe in detail the characteristics of the Dutch test data, which is part of the official CLEF multilingual test corpus, and give an overview of the experimental results of

  6. Corpus-based language teaching: An African language perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of teaching Northern Sotho to first-time learners. It is indicated that information gleaned from a corpus provides the language teacher with guidance on both micro and macro level with regard to selection and sequencing of learning content. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2012, 30(3): 377–393 ...

  7. Corpus Use in Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Alex; Cobb, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This study applied systematic meta-analytic procedures to summarize findings from experimental and quasi-experimental investigations into the effectiveness of using the tools and techniques of corpus linguistics for second language learning or use, here referred to as data-driven learning (DDL). Analysis of 64 separate studies representing 88…

  8. Euphemism vs explicitness: A corpus-based analysis of translated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphemism vs explicitness: A corpus-based analysis of translated taboo words from English to Zimbabwean Ndebele. ... This finding endorses the argument that selected strategies have the capacity to influence the linguistic and cultural acceptability and/or non-acceptability of translated texts. Most Ndebele translators ...

  9. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-Occurrence Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Keith; Botella, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV) was created. This article…

  10. The Danish NOMCO Corpus Multimodal Interaction in First Acquaintance Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paggio, Patrizia; Navarretta, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    , specifically head movements, facial expressions, and body posture. The corpus has served as the empirical basis for a number of studies of communication phenomena related to turn management, feedback exchange, information packaging and the expression of emotional attitudes. We describe the annotation scheme...

  11. The Effects of Strict Corpus-based Dictionary Compilation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and time consuming to enlarge the corpus with spoken data compared to data available in ... big enough, well balanced and representative so that valid conclusions for lexi- cographic purposes can be ..... Gouws, R.H. and D.J. Prinsloo. 2005.

  12. Accelerated corpus callosum development in prematurity predicts improved outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Deanne K.; Lee, Katherine J.; van Bijnen, Loeka; Leemans, Alexander; Pascoe, Leona; Scratch, Shannon E.; Cheong, Jeanie; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine: (1) whether corpus callosum (CC) size and microstructure at 7 years of age or their change from infancy to 7 years differed between very preterm (VP) and full-term (FT) children; (2) perinatal predictors of CC size and microstructure at 7 years; and (3) associations between

  13. Audio description and corpus analysis of popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Balen, J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    In the field of sound and music computing, only a handful of studies are concerned with the pursuit of new musical knowledge. There is a substantial body of corpus analysis research focused on new musical insight, but almost all of it deals with symbolic data: scores, chords or manual annotations.

  14. ASR corpus design for resource-scarce languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the number of speakers and the amount of data that is required for the development of useable speaker-independent speech-recognition systems in resource-scarce languages. Their experiments employ the Lwazi corpus, which...

  15. Combining text clustering and retrieval for corpus adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2007-01-01

    The application-relevant text data are very useful in various natural language applications. Using them can achieve significantly better performance for vocabulary selection, language modeling, which are widely employed in automatic speech recognition, intelligent input method etc. In some situations, however, the relevant data is hard to collect. Thus, the scarcity of application-relevant training text brings difficulty upon these natural language processing. In this paper, only using a small set of application specific text, by combining unsupervised text clustering and text retrieval techniques, the proposed approach can find the relevant text from unorganized large scale corpus, thereby, adapt training corpus towards the application area of interest. We use the performance of n-gram statistical language model, which is trained from the text retrieved and test on the application-specific text, to evaluate the relevance of the text acquired, accordingly, to validate the effectiveness of our corpus adaptation approach. The language models trained from the ranked text bundles present well discriminated perplexities on the application-specific text. The preliminary experiments on short message text and unorganized large corpus demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

  16. The AMI Meeting Corpus: A Pre-Announcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carletta, J.; Ashby, S.; Bourban, S.; Flynn, M.; Guillemot, M.; Hain, T.; Kadlec, J.; Karaiskos, V.; Kraaij, W.; Kronenthal, M.; Lathoud, G.; Lincoln, M.; Lisowska, A.; McCowan, L.; Post, W.; Reidsma, D.; Wellner, P.; Corporatie AMI Project Consortium; ISBN 9783540325499; ISSN 03029743; Reeks; =

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. The AMI Meeting Corpus is a multi-modal data set consisting of 100 hours of meeting recordings. It is being created in the context of a project that is developing meeting browsing technology and will eventually be released publicly. Some of the meetings it contains are naturally occurring,

  17. The AMI Meeting Corpus: A Pre-announcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carletta, Jean; Ashby, Simone; Bourban, Sebastien; Flynn, Mike; Guillemot, Mael; Hain, Thomas; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Karaiskos, Vasilis; Kraaij, Wessel; Kronenthal, Melissa; Lathoud, Guillaume; Lincoln, Mike; Lisowska, Agnes; McCowan, Iain; Post, Wilfried; Reidsma, Dennis; Wellner, Pierre; Renals, S.; Bengio, S.

    2006-01-01

    The AMI Meeting Corpus is a multi-modal data set consisting of 100 hours of meeting recordings. It is being created in the context of a project that is developing meeting browsing technology and will eventually be released publicly. Some of the meetings it contains are naturally occurring, and some

  18. The NCHLT speech corpus of the South African languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The NCHLT speech corpus contains wide-band speech from approximately 200 speakers per language, in each of the eleven of cial languages of South Africa. We describe the design and development processes that were undertaken in order to develop...

  19. The corpus of the Danish dictionary | Norling-Christensen | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specialized software has been developed for flexible interactive concordancing and analysis. The corpus is currently only accessible at the site of DSL; nevertheless, several scholars and students have been using it in their research. The experience gained by the staff of DSL is being reused in co-operative language ...

  20. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  1. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and…

  2. Considering bilingual dictionaries against a corpus. Do English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the extent to which four representatives of the latest generation of English-French / French-English dictionaries present "real English", i.e. actually used meanings of actually used English word patterns. The findings of a corpus study of the verb CONSIDER are confronted with the entries for this verb ...

  3. A classification scheme for annotating speech acts in a business email corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Felice, R.; Darby, J; Fisher, A; Peplow, D

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the process of manual annotation of speech acts in a corpus of business emails, in the context of the PROBE project (PRagmatics of Business English). The project aims to bring together corpus, computational, and theoretical linguistics by drawing on the insights made available by the annotated corpus. The corpus data sheds light on the linguistic and discourse structures of speech act use in business email communication. This enhanced linguistic descrip...

  4. Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result…

  5. Has Corpus-Based Instruction Reached a Tipping Point? Practical Applications and Pointers for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an easy introduction into corpus-based instruction by explaining what the approach entails. It also presents key terms and discusses key theoretical concepts drawn from the literature; from these, practical applications and pointers are offered for those practitioners wishing to use corpus data or implement corpus-based…

  6. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  7. Motivating College Students' Learning English for Specific Purposes Courses through Corpus Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how to motivate technical college students to learn English for specific purposes (ESP) courses through corpus building and enhance their language proficiency during the coursework for their majors. This study explores corpus building skills, how to simplify ESP courses by corpus building for English as second…

  8. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Corpus_Striatum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. Corpus cavernosum electromyography during morning naps in healthy volunteers: further evidence that corpus cavernosum potentials reflect sympathetically mediated activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Wijkstra, H.; Wagner, G.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the practicability of corpus cavernosum (CC) electromyography (EMG) in volunteers during morning naps in the laboratory and further validated this method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 11 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 23.8 years (range 19 to 31) were included. CC-EMG

  11. Corpus cavernosum electromyography during morning naps in healthy volunteers: further evidence that corpus cavernosum potentials reflect sympathetically mediated activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Xiaogang; Meuleman, Eric J. H.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Wagner, Gorm

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the practicability of corpus cavernosum (CC) electromyography (EMG) in volunteers during morning naps in the laboratory and further validated this method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 11 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 23.8 years (range 19 to 31) were included. CC-EMG

  12. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  13. Pharmacological profile of a nitric oxide donor spermine NONOate in the mouse corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğ, Fatma Peyman; Singirik, Erğin; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem; Göçmen, Cemil; Seçilmiş, Mehmet Ata

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of spermine NONOate in the cavernous tissue obtained from mice treated or untreated with sildenafil. We studied the effects of spermine NONOate on the tone and nitrergic relaxation responses of isolated mouse corpus cavernosum and compared them with sodium nitroprusside in the absence or presence of L-nitroarginine, hydroxocobalamin, pyrogallol, diethyldithiocarbamate (DETCA), or 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). The neurogenic contractions and relaxations of the tissues were induced by electrical field stimulation. Some mice received a single oral dose of sildenafil and after 1 h the effects of spermine NONOate were evaluated by in vitro studies. Spermine NONOate relaxed mouse corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner. Spermine-NONOate-induced relaxation was relatively slow to develop and it was reversible and reproducible. These relaxations were significantly suppressed by hydroxocobalamin, diethyldithiocarbamate, or ODQ, but not by L-nitroarginine or pyrogallol. Spermine NONOate potentiated the nitrergic relaxations to electrical field stimulation (EFS), whereas it significantly reduced EFS-induced contractions. Sildenafil treatment can enhance the relaxant responses to spermine NONOate and EFS. These findings suggest that spermine NONOate has a potent relaxant action in cavernous tissue and this effect can be potentiated by oral sildenafil treatments. Spermine NONOate may be considered an attractive treatment for erectile dysfunction in pathologic disorders with a lack of endogenous NO production.

  14. Identificación de Lenguaje Metafórico en textos argumentativos en inglés como lengua extranjera: un estudio de corpus Metaphor Identification in EFL Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-driven Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Chapetón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reporta un estudio de instancias de lenguaje metafórico en datos contextualizados enmarcados en la lingüística del corpus. Dado que el problema de la identificación del lenguaje metafórico se ha constituido como causa de debate entre estudiosos de la lingüística cognitiva y la lingüística aplicada, este artículo se enfoca principalmente en los procesos de identificación de este tipo de lenguaje en datos auténticos de corpus, y propone un procedimiento combinado aplicable a este tipo de análisis. Los resultados informan acerca de la presencia del lenguaje metafórico y su clasificación gramatical en textos argumentativos escritos por estudiantes universitarios de inglés como lengua extranjera. El artículo discute las implicaciones de este estudio y propone posibles direcciones para futuras investigaciones.This article reports research investigating instances of linguistic metaphor in contextualized corpus data. Since the issue of metaphor identification in naturally-occurring data has been reason of current debate among cognitive and applied linguists, this paper focuses particularly on the process of identification of this type of language in corpus data and proposes a combined procedure for metaphor identification. The findings inform about the presence and word class of metaphorical language in the argumentative writing of EFL university students. Implications and directions for future research are highlighted.

  15. [Ulcerative colitis and eosinophilic corpus gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ferenc; Molnár, Tamás; F Kiss, Zsuzsanna; Tiszlavicz, László; Lonovics, János

    2004-10-31

    Ulcerative colitis seldom associated with nutritive and/or salicylate allergy. Authors present a case of both allergic events at the course of the disease. In 1996 a 19-year-old girl was referred with a history of blood in stool as well as diarrhoea, suggesting ulcerative proctitis. Biopsy revealed ulcerative colitis of the rectum mucosa with eosinophilic infiltration and 20% peripheral eosinophilia was found. Allergic origin and worm infection were ruled out, and after tinidazol treatment, four year elapsed without any signs or symptoms. In December 2000 blood in stools and upper abdominal complaints developed without peripheral eosinophilia. Gastroscopy and biopsy showed a mild chronic gastritis. Olsalazine, budesonide enema and famotidin treatment were started, but then later changed to mesalazine and pantoprazol, because of the constant stomach complaints. The next five months passed without any symptoms. The patient had to break off her seashore journey in July 2000 because of stomach complaints, vomiting and exsiccosis. Peripheral eosinophilia (27.3%) was evident. Gastroscopy revealed erosive ulcers and the biopsy showed eosinophilic gastritis. Biopsies from the jejunum, duodenum and antrum as well as enteroscopy and biopsies from the rectum showed mild eosinophilic infiltration. An allergy test proved the presence of IgE against salicylate, egg protein, seafood protein and the lymphocyte transformation test was also positive against salicylate. Oral food challenges proved to be negative and the amino-salicylate treatment was stopped. After a temporary symptom free period, bloody stools reappeared in May 2003; the peripheral eosinophilia still existed, but had decreased (22.2%). Esomeprazol, and methyl-prednisolone containing enema (40 mg/day/2 weeks) followed by budesonide enema twice a week resulted in a symptom free period and peripheral eosinophilia became almost normalised (6.2%). The authors report a case having ulcerative proctitis first, than

  16. Cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum. II. Acetylcholine synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, R.; De Tejada, S.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A. (Boston Univ. Medical Center, MA (USA))

    1988-03-01

    Physiological and histochemical evidence indicates that cholinergic nerves may participate in mediating penile erection. Acetylcholine synthesis and release was studied in isolated human corporal tissue. Human corpus cavernosum incubated with ({sup 3}H)choline accumulated ({sup 3}H)choline and synthesized ({sup 3}H)acethylcholine in an concentration-dependent manner. ({sup 3}H)Acetylcholine accumulation by the tissue was inhibited by hemicholinium-3, a specific antagonist of the high-affinity choline transport in cholinergic nerves. Transmural electrical field stimulation caused release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine which was significantly diminished by inhibiting neurotransmission with calcium-free physiological salt solution or tetrodotoxin. These observations provide biochemical and physiological evidence for the existence of cholinergic innervation in human corpus cavernosum.

  17. Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, J J; Jiang, Jay J.; Conrath, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is a combined approach that inherits the edge-based approach of the edge counting scheme, which is then enhanced by the node-based approach of the information content calculation. When tested on a common data set of word pair similarity ratings, the proposed approach outperforms other computational models. It gives the highest correlation value (r = 0.828) with a benchmark based on human similarity judgements, whereas an upper bound (r = 0.885) is observed when human subjects replicate the same task.

  18. Techniques and Rules of Ineffability in the Dionysian Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knepper Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the Dionysian God, or an experience of the Dionysian God, absolutely ineffable? Does the Dionysian corpus assert or perform such ineffability? This paper will argue that the answer to each of these questions is no. The Dionysian God is known hyper-nous as the hyper-ousia cause of all. And the Dionysian corpus unambiguously refers to, asserts of, and metaphorizes about this God just so. In arguing these points, this paper will call upon both the speech act theory of John Searle and the metaphor theory of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. More particularly, it will look to Searle’s rules of reference and predication and conditions of illocutionary acts, as well as Lakoff and Johnson’s schematization of metaphor gestalt and entailment to show how Dionysian expressions of inexpressibility are rule-governed and the Dionysian God is thereby (relatively effable.

  19. Implicit causality bias in English: a corpus of 300 verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Evelyn C; Garnham, Alan; Manouilidou, Christina

    2011-03-01

    This study provides implicit verb causality norms for a corpus of 305 English verbs. A web-based sentence completion study was conducted, with 96 respondents completing fragments such as "John liked Mary because..." The resulting bias scores are provided as supplementary material in the Psychonomic Society Archive, where we also present lexical and semantic verb features, such as the frequency, semantic class and emotional valence. Our results replicate those of previous studies with much smaller numbers of verbs and respondents. Novel effects of gender and its interaction with verb valence illustrate the type of issues that can be investigated using stable norms for a large number of verbs. The corpus will facilitate future studies in a range of areas, including psycholinguistics and social psychology.

  20. Translating children’s literature: some insights from corpus stylistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Čermáková

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the potential of a corpus stylistic approach to the study of literary translation. The study focuses on translation of children’s literature with its specific constrains, and illustrates with two corpus linguistic techniques: keyword and cluster analysis — specific cases of repetition. So in a broader sense the paper discusses the phenomenon of repetition in different literary (stylistic traditions. These are illustrated by examples from two children’s classics aimed at two different age groups: the Harry Potter and the Winnie the Pooh books — and their translations into Czech. Various shifts in translation, especially in the translation of children’s literature, are often explained by the operation of so-called ‘translation universals’. Though ‘repetition’ as such does not belong to the commonly discussed set of translation universals, the stylistic norms opposing repetition seem to be a strong explanation for the translation shifts identified.

  1. Corpus callosum agenesis: Role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA was evaluated by ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with many studies. Ultrasonography was able to suspect CCA by indirect signs but a definitive diagnosis of CCA was achieved in rare cases. MRI was able to diagnose complete CCA in majority of cases. Additional neurological abnormalities including heterotopia, gyration anomaly, asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres, and Dandy-Walker variant were documented, as well as an ocular anomaly which was described, by MRI examination. Prenatal counseling for fetal agenesis of the corpus callosum is difficult as the prognosis is uncertain. The association with other cerebral abnormalities increases the likelihood of a poor outcome and ultrasonographic assessment of the fetal brain is limited. We found MRI to be a safe and useful additional procedure to complement ultrasonographic diagnosis or suspicion of CCA.

  2. Capture of Public Servant. Requirements and Substantial habeas corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The capture of the public servant in a criminal investigation is subject to special rules and different to those for the capture of individuals, since the imprisonment of an official can affect continuity, speed and efficiency of the civil service, an equally important constitutional value. Therefore, as a rule capturing the public servant must be preceded by a request for suspensión by the prosecution, and to proceed without suspension, the prosecutor in his providence should motivate the reasons and arguments why not affects the normal functioning of public administration. The lack of motivation for this essential aspect, affords a fact that becomes appropriate procedural habeas corpus as an effective mechanism guarantees of personal freedom. Similarly appropriate habeas corpus when catching public server ordered by a prosecutor without functional competence to advance research, by setting a path made by organic defect.

  3. A nitric oxide-like factor mediates nonadrenergic-noncholinergic neurogenic relaxation of penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N; Azadzoi, K M; Goldstein, I; Saenz de Tejada, I

    1991-01-01

    This study was initiated to characterize nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurotransmission in penile corpus cavernosum. Using organ baths, isometric tension measurements were made in strips of human and rabbit corpus cavernosum. In examining endothelium-mediated responses, cumulative additions of exogenous acetylcholine elicited dose-dependent relaxations which were significantly reduced or completely inhibited in tissues treated with NG-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMMA; an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis), oxyhemoglobin (a nitric oxide scavenger), or methylene blue (a guanylate cyclase blocker). Tissues exposed to hypoxic conditions (PO2 = 5-10 mmHg) also did not respond to exogenous acetylcholine. Mechanical removal of the endothelium in human corporal strips or in situ treatment of rabbit corpora with detergent blocked the relaxation to acetylcholine. Transmural electrical stimulation of corporal tissue strips denuded of functional endothelium, in the presence of adrenergic blockade with bretylium and muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine, caused frequency-dependent relaxation. This neurogenic relaxation was reduced or prevented by L-NMMA, oxyhemoglobin, methylene blue, and hypoxia. The effects of L-NMMA were reversed by L-arginine and the effects of hypoxia were readily reversed by normoxic conditions. Authentic, exogenous nitric oxide relaxed corporal strips which were contracted with adrenergic agonists and this effect was significantly inhibited by oxyhemoglobin. It is concluded that (a) endothelium-mediated responses of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle are mediated by a diffusible nitric oxide-like substance; (b) NANC neurogenic inhibitory responses do not require functional endothelium, and (c) nitric oxide, or a closely related substance, may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Images PMID:1647413

  4. Corpus-predominant gastritis as a risk factor for false-negative 13C-urea breath test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, G; Carnuccio, A; Lahner, E; Panzuto, F; Baccini, F; Delle Fave, G; Annibale, B

    2006-11-15

    Urea breath test sensitivity seems affected by increased intragastric acidity during therapy with antisecretory drugs. Intragastric pH is increased in patients with corpus gastritis with/without atrophy. To test the hypothesis that urea breath test results may also be affected by this gastritis phenotype. 123 untreated patients underwent gastroscopy plus biopsies and intragastric pH measurement. The study included 82 endoscopically proven Helicobacter pylori-positive patients who were offered urea breath test with an acidic meal. Histological findings, urea breath test results and intragastric pH were compared in 66 of the subjects. 21 of 66 (31.8%) patients had a false-negative urea breath test. In these patients corpus-predominant gastritis (85.7% vs. 37.7%; P = 0.0004) and fundic atrophy (66.6% vs. 17.7%; P = 0.0001) were more frequent than in patients with true-positive urea breath test. Intragastric pH was higher in false-negative patients (mean 6.3 vs. 4.4; P = 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, the only risk factor for a false-negative urea breath test was the presence of corpus-predominant gastritis (OR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.1-27). There was a negative correlation between the intragastric pH and the delta over baseline values (r = -0.378; P = 0.0023). Our results support the hypothesis that the pattern of gastritis can affect the sensitivity of urea breath test, and suggest that patients with corpus-predominant gastritis have a high risk of false-negative urea breath test results.

  5. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Stuart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, UPV was created. The article presents the practical analysis (frequency, keyword, collocation and cluster analysis that was carried out in the initial phases of the study aimed at establishing the theoretical and practical background and framework for our matrix and network analysis of the scientific discourse of the UPV. In the methodology section, the processes that have allowed us to extract from the corpus the linguistic elements needed to develop co-occurrence matrices, as well as the computer tools used in the research, are described. From these co-occurrence matrices, semantic networks of subject and discipline knowledge were generated. Finally, based on the results obtained, we suggest that it may be viable to extract and to represent the intellectual capital of an academic institution using corpus linguistics methods in combination with the formulations of network theory.En este artículo describimos la investigación que se ha desarrollado en el diseño de una metodología para la representación reticular del conocimiento que se genera en el seno de una institución a partir de un corpus representativo de la producción científica de los integrantes de dicha comunidad discursiva, la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.. Para ello, presentamos las acciones que se realizaron en las fases iniciales del estudio encaminadas a establecer el marco teórico y práctico en el que se inscribe nuestro análisis. En la sección de metodología se describen las herramientas informáticas utilizadas, así como los procesos que nos permitieron disponer de aquellos elementos presentes en el corpus, que nos llevarían al desarrollo de

  6. Machine Translation Experiments on PADIC: A Parallel Arabic DIalect Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Meftouh, Karima; Harrat , Salima; Jamoussi, Salma; Abbas, Mourad; Smaili, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present in this paper PADIC, a Parallel Arabic DIalect Corpus we built from scratch, then we conducted experiments on cross-dialect Arabic machine translation. PADIC is composed of dialects from both the Maghreb and the Middle-East. Each dialect has been aligned with Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Three dialects from Maghreb are concerned by this study: two from Algeria, one from Tunisia, and two dialects from the Middle-East (Syria and Palestine). PADIC has been bui...

  7. Creating Parallel Arabic Dialect Corpus: Pitfalls to Avoid

    OpenAIRE

    Harrat, Salima; Meftouh, Karima; Smaïli, Kamel

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Creating parallel corpora is a difficult issue that many researches try to deal with. In the context of under-resourced languages like Arabic dialects this issue is more complicated due to the nature of these spoken languages. In this paper, we share our experiment of creating a Parallel Corpus which contain several dialects and Modern Standard Arabic(MSA). We attempt to highlight the most important choices that we did and how good were these choices.

  8. HUMOR: A Crowd-Annotated Spanish Corpus for Humor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Santiago; Cubero, Matías; Garat, Diego; Moncecchi, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Computational Humor, as the name implies, studies humor from a computational perspective, and it fosters several tasks, such as humor recognition, humor generation and humor scoring. The area has been little explored, making it attractive to tackle by novel Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning techniques. However, human-curated data is necessary. In this work we present a corpus of almost 40,000 tweets written in Spanish and crowd-annotated by their humor and funniness value with ...

  9. Renforcement du corpus de connaissances pour des politiques de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renforcement du corpus de connaissances pour des politiques de propriété intellectuelle qui sont dans l'intérêt public. Des normes de propriété intellectuelle strictes et leur application plus musclée poussent les fournisseurs de produits médiatiques et les fabricants de médicaments à fixer des prix hors de la portée de ...

  10. Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    way ratchet .”). 259 Cf. Felker, 518 U.S. 663 (Holding that restrictions on successive petitions for habeas corpus by prisoners convicted in state...Evangelical Lutheran Church of Glendale v. Los Angeles County, 482 U.S. 304 (1987)(holding that the Constitution mandates effective remedies for...Constitution’s due process protections did not extend to non-citizen detainees held at Guantanamo. 304 In October 2009, the Supreme Court granted certiorari to

  11. Collection, Description, and Visualization of the German Reddit Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Barbaresi, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Reddit is a major social bookmarking and microblogging platform. An extensive dataset of Reddit comments has recently been made publicly available. I use a two-tiered filter to single out comments in German in order to build a linguistic corpus which is then tokenized and annotated. This article offers first insights of both nature and quality of data at the lexical level. Additionally, a visualization makes it possible to grasp the possible geographical distribution o...

  12. Detecting student copying in a corpus of science laboratory reports

    OpenAIRE

    Atwell, ES; Gent, JP; Medori, JDM; Souter, DC

    2003-01-01

    This case study is an evaluation of generic, general-purpose plagiarism detection systems applied to a specific domain and task: detecting intra-class student copying in a corpus of Biomedical Science laboratory reports. From the outset, our project had the practical, pragmatic aim to find a workable solution to a specific problem. Biomedical Science undergraduates learn experimental methods by working through a series of laboratory experiments and reporting on their results. These laboratory...

  13. Tracking anglicisms in domains by the corpus-linguistic method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe

    2015-01-01

    Lay investors and semi-professionals lean on professional stock bloggers and stock analysts for advice on stock investments; semi-professionals and professionals write about investments globally, and stock information has to be available in many local markets. Using the correct terminology for pr......’s critical sense is not enough to make the right choices. Our corpus-linguistic tool can be a help in this specialized field....

  14. Anaphoric relations in the clinical narrative: corpus creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savova, Guergana K; Chapman, Wendy W; Zheng, Jiaping; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2011-01-01

    The long-term goal of this work is the automated discovery of anaphoric relations from the clinical narrative. The creation of a gold standard set from a cross-institutional corpus of clinical notes and high-level characteristics of that gold standard are described. A standard methodology for annotation guideline development, gold standard annotations, and inter-annotator agreement (IAA) was used. The gold standard annotations resulted in 7214 markables, 5992 pairs, and 1304 chains. Each report averaged 40 anaphoric markables, 33 pairs, and seven chains. The overall IAA is high on the Mayo dataset (0.6607), and moderate on the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) dataset (0.4072). The IAA between each annotator and the gold standard is high (Mayo: 0.7669, 0.7697, and 0.9021; UPMC: 0.6753 and 0.7138). These results imply a quality corpus feasible for system development. They also suggest the complementary nature of the annotations performed by the experts and the importance of an annotator team with diverse knowledge backgrounds. Only one of the annotators had the linguistic background necessary for annotation of the linguistic attributes. The overall generalizability of the guidelines will be further strengthened by annotations of data from additional sites. This will increase the overall corpus size and the representation of each relation type. The first step toward the development of an anaphoric relation resolver as part of a comprehensive natural language processing system geared specifically for the clinical narrative in the electronic medical record is described. The deidentified annotated corpus will be available to researchers.

  15. Axon position within the corpus callosum determines contralateral cortical projection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jing; Wen, Yunqing; She, Liang; Sui, Ya-nan; Liu, Lu; Richards, Linda J.; Poo, Mu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Two hemispheres of the neocortex are connected via a large axon bundle, the corpus callosum (CC). Axons from one side of the cortex project primarily to the equivalent cortical area on the contralateral side. How this homotopic axon projection is achieved during development remains unclear. Quantitative analysis of the cortical axons' positions within CC and their projection pattern after crossing the midline showed that axon position within CC is critical for homotopic projection. Further ge...

  16. Twitter as a Comparable Corpus to build Multilingual Affective Lexicons

    OpenAIRE

    Fraisse, Amel; Paroubek, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The main issue of any lexicon-based sentiment analysis system is the lack of affective lexicons. Such lexicons contain lists of words annotated with their affective classes. There exist some number of such resources but only for few languages and often for a small number of affective classes, generally restricted to two classes (positive and negative). In this paper we propose to use Twitter as a comparable corpus to generate a fine-grained and multilingual affective l...

  17. Corpus annotation for mining biomedical events from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsujii Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced Text Mining (TM such as semantic enrichment of papers, event or relation extraction, and intelligent Question Answering have increasingly attracted attention in the bio-medical domain. For such attempts to succeed, text annotation from the biological point of view is indispensable. However, due to the complexity of the task, semantic annotation has never been tried on a large scale, apart from relatively simple term annotation. Results We have completed a new type of semantic annotation, event annotation, which is an addition to the existing annotations in the GENIA corpus. The corpus has already been annotated with POS (Parts of Speech, syntactic trees, terms, etc. The new annotation was made on half of the GENIA corpus, consisting of 1,000 Medline abstracts. It contains 9,372 sentences in which 36,114 events are identified. The major challenges during event annotation were (1 to design a scheme of annotation which meets specific requirements of text annotation, (2 to achieve biology-oriented annotation which reflect biologists' interpretation of text, and (3 to ensure the homogeneity of annotation quality across annotators. To meet these challenges, we introduced new concepts such as Single-facet Annotation and Semantic Typing, which have collectively contributed to successful completion of a large scale annotation. Conclusion The resulting event-annotated corpus is the largest and one of the best in quality among similar annotation efforts. We expect it to become a valuable resource for NLP (Natural Language Processing-based TM in the bio-medical domain.

  18. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A Akhondi

    Full Text Available Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  19. The Short Infinitive in Slovene: A Corpus-based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Može

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an in-depth, corpus-based study on the use of the short and long infinitive in Slovene. After a few introductory remarks followed by a brief theoretical overview of the topic, a categorised list of problematic infinitive structures based upon a previously performed analysis of Šolar, a corpus of student texts, is provided. Šolar’s data gave insight into the whole range of linguistic problems associated with the use of two forms and allowed for the subject of the study, i.e. ‘full verb + infinitival complement’ structures, to be precisely defined. The following section describes the method used to compile a shortlist of high-frequency full verbs co-occurring with infinitival complements from the half-million-word, morphosyntactically and syntactically annotated training corpus that was created within the Communication in Slovene project. Finally, the co-relation between genre, mode and the use of the two forms is examined in detail; based on a quantitative analysis of data extracted from corpora of written (FidaPLUS and spoken language (GOS for each full verb on the shortlist, new findings on the actual use of the short and long infinitive in both written and spoken texts are presented.

  20. Fibrosis of corpus cavernosum in animals following cavernous nerve ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wan-Li; Hu, Li-Quan; Song, Jian; Li, Shi-Wen; Zheng, Xin-Min; Cheng, Bei; Tian, Bing-Chun

    2004-06-01

    To investigate alterations of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum following cavernous neurectomy and its relation to the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). Ten adult male SD rats (neurectomy group) were subject to a bilateral cavernous nerve (CN) resection aseptically under an operating microscope, with 6 sham-operated rats as the control. Fifteen weeks after the operation, the penile specimens were collected and prepared for quantitative-analyzing of ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum with confocal microscopy, and for detecting the expression of TGF-beta1 by RT-PCR and western-blot. Smooth muscle cells that show red color after fluorescent-labeling with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-phalloidin and collagen fibers that produce green autofluorescence after paraformaldehyde fixation were clearly identified under the confocal microscope. Quantification of fluorescent intensity showed that the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum in neurectomy group was 0.265 +/- 0.125, which was significantly lower than that in sham-operated group (0.760 +/- 0.196, Pcorpus cavernosum, which may be related to an increased expression of TGF-beta1 induced by hypoxia in cavernous tissue after denervation.

  1. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT: ORAL TRADITION, TRANSLATION STUDIES AND CORPUS LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ZEMKE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the world’s verbal arts offers an opportunity to consider ways that computational analysis and modeling of narratives may lead to new understandings of how they are constructed, their dynamics and relationships. Similarly, as corpus linguistics operations must define metrics, it offers an occasion to review basic interpretive concepts such as “units of analysis, context, and genre." My essay begins with an admittedly cursory overview from a novice perspective of what capabilities corpus linguistics currently possesses for the analysis and modeling of narratives. Consideration is given to the epistemological issue in the social sciences with the positivistic prescription or empiricist description of units of analysis and the potential pitfalls or advantages corpus linguistics encounters in searching for adequate equivalent terms. This review leads naturally to reflection on the crucial determinative action of context on meaning and the extent to which current computational interfaces are able to account for and integrate into global analysis of linguistic and performance dimensions such as performer, intonation, gesture, diction, idioms and figurative language, setting, audience, time, and occasion. As a tentative conclusion from this review, it can be stated that artificial intelligence for modeling narratives or devising narrative algorithms must develop capacities to account for performance dimensions in order to fulfill their analytical potential.

  2. An Integration of Corpus-Based and Genre-Based Approaches to Text Analysis in Eap/esp: Countering Criticisms against Corpus-Based Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, several corpus-based studies have been carried out which either explicitly in some cases, but more subtly in others, draw on aspects of genre theory for their analyses. The purpose of this paper is to review those corpus studies which specifically draw on either the English for Specific Purposes (following the Swales…

  3. The Effects of Utilizing Corpus Resources to Correct Collocation Errors in L2 Writing--Students' Performance, Corpus Use and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-ju

    2016-01-01

    Data-Driven Learning (DDL), in which learners "confront [themselves] directly with the corpus data" (Johns, 2002, p. 108), has shown to be effective in collocation learning in L2 writing. Nevertheless, there have been only few research studies of this type examining the relationship between English proficiency and corpus consultation.…

  4. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific…

  5. Trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality in member states of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Antoine, Jerome; Bray, Freddie I; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Arbyn, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The burden of corpus uteri cancer varies in the European Union (EU). We analysed trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality in 26 EU member states from 1970 onward. Population numbers and number of uterine cancer deaths were extracted from the World Health Organisation mortality database. Corpus uteri cancer mortality rates were corrected for certification problems using different reallocation rules for deaths registered as uterine cancer not otherwise specified, or using mixed disease codes. Join point regression was used to study the annual percentage change of age-standardised corpus uteri cancer mortality rates. Changes in corpus uteri cancer mortality rates by calendar period and standardised cohort mortality ratios were also estimated. In 2008, 12,903 women died from corpus uteri cancer in the EU. Corrected age-standardised corpus uteri cancer mortality rates have decreased significantly over the past decades in most member states, with exception of Malta and Bulgaria, where rates increased; Greece, where rates remained low but stable; and Sweden, where rates have been stable since 1970. Original member states showed a steeper decrease than newer member states. The standardised cohort mortality ratios indicated that corpus uteri cancer mortality does not decrease further, nor does it increase, among women born after 1940, although these birth cohorts may still be too young for corpus uteri cancer incidence to be fully evaluated. Our corrected corpus uteri cancer mortality rates showed a decrease in most EU member states among women born before 1940. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipoma of corpus callosum associated with dysraphic lesions and trisomy 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, H.; Bowen, R.; Radcliffe, M. [Univ. of Cape Town Medical School (South Africa)

    1995-05-22

    We report on a further case of corpus callosal lipoma and frontal cranial defects. Most cases in the literature of corpus callosal lipoma in association with {open_quotes}dysraphic{close_quotes} lesions have been frontal in location. Malformation of the corpus callosum is said to be associated with 50% of these lipomas. Trisomy 13 was confirmed by the 13q14 cosmid probe on paraffin-embedded liver tissue. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  7. The e-text corpus RusNeuroPsych: composition, structure and applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinova Tatiana Aleksandrovna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the text corpus RusNeuroPsych developed in the Russian language. It contains the meta-marking as information about the authors (gender, age, education, results of neuropsychological survey and psychological testing. We consider the details of data collection and procession in formation of the corpus, its composition and structure, and also analyse possibilities of application of the RusNeuroPsych corpus in general knowledge.

  8. Demonstrated rapid growth of a corpus callosum cavernous angioma within a short period of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, E; Yücesoy, K; Kalemci, O

    2005-12-01

    Cavernous angiomas are uncommon central nervous system vascular malformations. They occur in the corpus callosum very rarely. In this study we report a case of corpus callosum cavernous angioma which demonstrated rapid growth within a short period of time. Corpus callosum cavernous angiomas have distinct features regarding growth and should be treated more carefully by giving more importance to surgical removal rather than a conservative approach.

  9. Brevitalea aridisoli, B. deliciosa and Arenimicrobium luteum, three novel species of Acidobacteria subdivision 4 (class Blastocatellia) isolated from savanna soil and description of the novel family Pyrinomonadaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K; Foesel, Bärbel U; Geppert, Alicia; Huber, Katharina J; Luckner, Manja; Wanner, Gerhard; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Three novel strains of the phylum Acidobacteria (Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T) were isolated from Namibian semiarid savanna soils by a high-throughput cultivation approach using low-nutrient growth media. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed all three strains in the order Blastocatellales of the class Blastocatellia (Acidobacteria subdivision 4). However, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to their closest relative Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes K22T were ≤90 %. Cells of strains Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T were Gram-staining-negative and non-motile and divided by binary fission. Ac_11_E3T and Ac_16_C4T formed white colonies, while those of Ac_12_G8T were orange-yellowish. All three strains were aerobic chemoorganoheterotrophic mesophiles with a broad pH range for growth. All strains used a very limited spectrum of carbon and energy sources for growth, with a preference for complex proteinaceous substrates. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major shared fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C contents of strains Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T were 55.9 mol%, 66.9 mol% and 54.7 mol%, respectively. Based on these characteristics, the two novel genera Brevitaleagen. nov. and Arenimicrobiumgen. nov. are proposed, harboring the novel species Brevitaleaaridisoli sp. nov. (Ac_11_E3T=DSM 27934T=LMG 28618T), Brevitalea deliciosa sp. nov. (Ac_16_C4T=DSM 29892T=LMG 28995T) and Arenimicrobium luteum sp. nov. (Ac_12_G8T=DSM 26556T=LMG 29166T), respectively. Since these novel genera are only distantly related to established families, we propose the novel family Pyrinomonadaceaefam. nov. that accommodates the proposed genera and the genus Pyrinomonas(Crowe et al., 2014).

  10. Exploring Twitter as a Source of an Arabic Dialect Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Alshutayri, AOO; Atwell, E

    2017-01-01

    Given the lack of Arabic dialect text corpora in comparison with what is available for dialects of English and other languages, there is a need to create dialect text corpora for use in Arabic natural language processing. What is more, there is an increasing use of Arabic dialects in social media, so this text is now considered quite appropriate as a source of a corpus. We collected 210,915K tweets from five groups of Arabic dialects Gulf, Iraqi, Egyptian, Levantine, and North African. This p...

  11. Alien hand syndrome without a corpus callosum lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M G; Goldman, S; Hildebrand, J

    1995-01-01

    A 58 year old right handed woman developed a left alien hand syndrome after a right capsulothalamic haemorrhage with mesencephalic extension. No lesion was detected in the corpus callosum. Positron emission tomography suggested that right cortical dysfunction might account for the absence of recognition of the left hand whereas involuntary motor activity was attributed to the lesion itself. This case shows that the alien hand syndrome is not always the expression of a disconnection syndrome and may occur after a large, strategically located, posterior lesion. Images PMID:7608678

  12. Inner change in the Corpus Paulinum: pointers for pastoral counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Campbell-Lane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to establish what perspectives exist on inner change within the “Corpus Paulinum” and how it should be applied in pastoral counselling. The Scriptural guidelines of change that will be examined for the purposes of this article, are found in the following references: Ephesians 4:22-24, Colos- sians 3:8-10, and Romans 12:1-2. The work of the Holy Spirit as “Agent of change” will also be discussed and finally some pointers on inner change and the implications for pastoral counselling will be proposed.

  13. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Corpus Callosum Aplasia: A 3-Year Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Palm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT is a powerful treatment option in severe or chronic catatonic states and has been reported to be useful in oligophrenic patients. We report the followup medical history of a patient with corpus callosum aplasia (or agenesis who was continuously treated with ECT over three years. First, he improved considerably after a series of ECT, but relapses of catatonia made a continuous, weekly ECT necessary. Due to the severity of the brain malformation, an add-on medication with benzodiazepines and second generation antipsychotics was necessary to treat catatonic symptoms. This case emphasises the benefits of long-term ECT in oligophrenic patients.

  14. Unsupervised Chunking Based on Graph Propagation from Bilingual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score.

  15. Exploring the Potential of Corpus Use in Translation Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Pellón, Ismael Arinas

    2014-01-01

    The chapter describes the corpus analysis strategies used with the translation master’s students at the Department of Business Communication at the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences (formerly Aarhus School of Business or ASB). The short time available for the training of specialized transla...... translators only allows for teaching the students methods that they can apply systematically to several professional tasks. The chapter illustrates how the traditional translation training strategies can be combined with the use of concordancing software to cope with translations....

  16. Ethical Aspects of the Hippocratic Corpus text De arte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Meropi K

    2016-12-01

    The practice of medicine is a complex situation from an ethical point of view in the modern Western societies. But some very simple principles could help the immediate and effective response, at least to a percentage of the problems encountered. Such assistance can be derived from the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, not only from the so-called ethical or theoretical texts. In this direction, the book titled De arte contains remarks about the right way of practicing medicine and the skills needed by the doctor.

  17. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  18. Unsupervised chunking based on graph propagation from bilingual corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score.

  19. A New Method for Ontology Matching by Using Textual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besat Kassaie

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose a new method in which a text corpus is used as the source of knowledge in conjunction with a machine learning method to find matching between two ontologies .The main objective in this new method is to find similarity of two concepts based on similarity of their instances. We show how contextual knowledge hidden in domain specific documents can help us to boost the machine learning methods by providing enough features. Also we show how taking benefit from this knowledge transcends the current approaches merely detect lexical similarity by either recognizing semantic similarity of concepts.

  20. Building a 70 billion word corpus of English from ClueWeb

    OpenAIRE

    Pomikálek Jan; Rychlý Pavel; Jakubíček Miloš

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the process of creation of a 70 billion word text corpus of English. We used an existing language resource, namely the ClueWeb09 dataset, as source for the corpus data. Processing such a vast amount of data presented several challenges, mainly associated with pre-processing (boilerplate cleaning, text de-duplication) and post-processing (indexing for efficient corpus querying using the CQL – Corpus Query Language) steps. In this paper we explain how we tackled them: we des...

  1. Penile erection requires association of soluble guanylyl cyclase with endothelial caveolin-1 in rat corpus cavernosum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Elizabeth Linder; Romulo Leite; Kimberly Lauria; Thomas M. Mills; R. Clinton Webb

    ... (NO). NO released from nerve endings and corpus cavernosum endothelial cells plays a crucial role in initiating and maintaining increased intracavernous pressure, penile vasodilatation, and penile erection...

  2. The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Belz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.

  3. Web text corpus extraction system for linguistic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Fabio Cadavid Rengifo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet content, used as text corpus for natural language learning, offers important characteristics for such task, like its huge vo- lume, being permanently up-to-date with linguistic variants and having low time and resource costs regarding the traditional way that text is built for natural language machine learning tasks. This paper describes a system for the automatic extraction of large bodies of text from the Internet as a valuable tool for such learning tasks. A concurrent programming-based, hardware-use opti- misation strategy significantly improving extraction performance is also presented. The strategies incorporated into the system for maximising hardware resource exploitation, thereby reducing extraction time are presented, as are extendibility (supporting digi- tal-content formats and adaptability (regarding how the system cleanses content for obtaining pure natural language samples. The experimental results obtained after processing one of the biggest Spanish domains on the internet, are presented (i.e. es.wikipedia.org. Such results are used for presenting initial conclusions about the validity and applicability of corpus directly ex- tracted from Internet as morphological or syntactical learning input.

  4. Revisiting corpus creation and analysis tools for translation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fantinuoli

    2016-04-01

    Many translation scholars have proposed the use of corpora to allow professional translators to produce high quality texts which read like originals. Yet, the diffusion of this methodology has been modest, one reason being the fact that software for corpora analyses have been developed with the linguist in mind, which means that they are generally complex and cumbersome, offering many advanced features, but lacking the level of usability and the specific features that meet translators’ needs. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed TranslatorBank, a free corpus creation and analysis tool designed for translation tasks. TranslatorBank supports the creation of specialized monolingual corpora from the web; it includes a concordancer with a query system similar to a search engine; it uses basic statistical measures to indicate the reliability of results; it accesses the original documents directly for more contextual information; it includes a statistical and linguistic terminology extraction utility to extract the relevant terminology of the domain and the typical collocations of a given term. Designed to be easy and intuitive to use, the tool may help translation students as well as professionals to increase their translation quality by adhering to the specific linguistic variety of the target text corpus.

  5. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A human language corpus for interstellar message construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2011-02-01

    The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

  7. A computerized approach for morphological analysis of the corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davatzikos, C.; Vaillant, M.; Letovsky, S.; Bryan, R.N.; Prince, J.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Resnick, S.M. [National Inst. of Aging, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A new technique for analyzing the morphology of the corpus callosum is presented, and it is applied to a group of elderly subjects. The proposed approach normalizes subject data into the Talairach space using an elastic deformation transformation. The properties of this transformation are used as a quantitative description of the callosal shape with respect to the Talairach atlas, which is treated as a standard. In particular, a deformation function measures the enlargement/shrinkage associated with this elastic deformation. Intersubject comparisons are made by comparing deformation functions. This technique was applied to eight male and eight female subjects. Based on the average deformation functions of each group, the posterior region of the female corpus callosum was found to be larger than its corresponding region in the males. The average callosal shape of each group was also found, demonstrating visually the callosal shape differences between the two groups in this sample. The proposed methodology utilizes the full resolution of the data, rather than relying on global descriptions such as area measurements. The application of this methodology to an elderly group indicated sex-related differences in the callosal shape and size. 29 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Corpus callosum volumes in bipolar disorders and suicidal vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifuni, Anthony J; Olié, Emilie; Ding, Yang; Cyprien, Fabienne; le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafé, Alain; Courtet, Philippe; Jollant, Fabrice

    2017-04-30

    Reduced size of the corpus callosum (CC) has been associated with bipolar disorders and suicidality. Here, we aimed at investigating the relative independence of these associations in a large sample of patients. Two samples of males and females totaling 209 euthymic participants were recruited, including 72 patients with a major depressive disorder, 64 with bipolar disorders and 73 healthy controls. Among patients, 61 had a lifetime history of suicide attempt and 75 had none. Structural scans were acquired with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging. Surface-based morphometry (Freesurfer) analysis was used to compute the volumes of the CC. In the whole sample, there was a significant reduction in the volume of mid-anterior, central, and mid-posterior (all pbipolar patients independently from suicidality, with medium effect sizes between unipolar and bipolar patients (Cohen's d between 0.46 and 0.62). In contrast, suicide attempters did not differ from non-attempters. This significant association between CC volumes and bipolar disorders was mainly found in the male sample, while a trend was found in the female sample. Within each patient group, medication had no major effect. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence linking corpus callosum alterations and bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Corpus Use and Learning to Translate, almost 20 years on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez-Inés

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36nesp1p9 It is almost 20 years since a series of conferences known as CULT (Corpus Use and Learning to Translate started. The first and second took place in Bertinoro, Italy, back in 1997 and 2000, respectively. The third was held in 2004 in Barcelona, and the fourth in 2015 in Alicante. Each was organized by a few enthusiastic lecturers and scholars who also happened to be corpus lovers. Guy Aston, Silvia Bernardini, Dominic Stewart and Federico Zanettin, from the Universitá di Bologna; Allison Beeby, Patricia Rodríguez-Inés and Pilar Sánchez-Gijón, from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; and Daniel Gallego-Hernández, from the Universidad de Alicante, organized CULT conferences in the belief that spreading the word about the usefulness of corpora for teaching and professional translation purposes would have positive results.

  10. Emotional Intelligence in Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Luke B; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2017-05-01

    People with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) with normal general intelligence have deficits in complex cognitive processing, as well as in social cognition. It is uncertain the extent to which impoverished processing of emotions may contribute to social processing deficiencies. We used the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to clarify the nature of emotional intelligence in 16 adults with AgCC. As hypothesized, persons with AgCC exhibited greater disparities from norms on tests involving more socially complex aspects of emotions. The AgCC group did not differ from norms on the Experiential subscale, but they were significantly below norms on the Strategic subscale. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum is not essential for experiencing and thinking about basic emotions in a "normal" way, but is necessary for more complex processes involving emotions in the context of social interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Revisiting corpus creation and analysis tools for translation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fantinuoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many translation scholars have proposed the use of corpora to allow professional translators to produce high quality texts which read like originals. Yet, the diffusion of this methodology has been modest, one reason being the fact that software for corpora analyses have been developed with the linguist in mind, which means that they are generally complex and cumbersome, offering many advanced features, but lacking the level of usability and the specific features that meet translators’ needs. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed TranslatorBank, a free corpus creation and analysis tool designed for translation tasks. TranslatorBank supports the creation of specialized monolingual corpora from the web; it includes a concordancer with a query system similar to a search engine; it uses basic statistical measures to indicate the reliability of results; it accesses the original documents directly for more contextual information; it includes a statistical and linguistic terminology extraction utility to extract the relevant terminology of the domain and the typical collocations of a given term. Designed to be easy and intuitive to use, the tool may help translation students as well as professionals to increase their translation quality by adhering to the specific linguistic variety of the target text corpus.

  12. LESSICO VALUTATIVO E SCRITTURA ACCADEMICA: UN APPROCCIO CORPUS-BASED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Maria Cava

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Il lessico valutativo è stato analizzato nei diversi studi di genere, in pragmatica e nell a discourse analysis come per esempio in Aijmer (2005, Mauranen (2004, Stubbs (2001, ed in Swales (2004. Il presente studio è focalizzato sul linguaggio valutativo, in modo particolare sulla Research-Oriented Evaluation come definita da Thetela (1997. La methodologia utilizzata si avvale di un approccio corpus-based. I dati raccolti, appartengono ad un corpus di 1.035 abstract scientifici (circa 200.000 parole di due discipline scientifiche: matematica e primatologia. Questa ricerca è basata sull’analisi dei collocates linguistici di alcune parole specifiche definite come research process words, e supporta l’ipotesi che il linguaggio valutativo è strettamente correlato al genere, mostrando una chiara interazione tra autori e lettori, indipendentemente dalla disciplina di riferimento. A tal proposito, precise scelte lessicali appaiono più frequenti di altre nel testo. Tuttavia, l’analisi testuale e l’identificazione del linguaggio valutativo pongono seri problemi e limiti dal punto di vista metodologico, specie quando le tecniche computer-assisted vengono utilizzate nell’ambito del genere accademico.

  13. [Correlation between growth rate of corpus callosum and neuromotor development in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Ke; Sun, Jie; Hu, Li-Yan; Liu, Fang

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the growth rate of corpus callosum by cranial ultrasound in very low birth weight preterm infants and to provide a reference for early evaluation and improvement of brain development. A total of 120 preterm infants under 33 weeks' gestation were recruited and divided into 26-29(+6) weeks group (n=64) and 30-32(+6) weeks group (n=56) according to the gestational age. The growth rate of corpus callosum was compared between the two groups. The correlation between the corpus callosum length and the cerebellar vermis length and the relationship of the growth rate of corpus callosum with clinical factors and the neuromotor development were analyzed. The growth rate of corpus callosum in preterm infants declined since 2 weeks after birth. Compared with the 30-32(+6) weeks group, the 26-29(+6) weeks group had a significantly lower growth rate of corpus callosum at 3-4 weeks after birth, at 5-6 weeks after birth, and from 7 weeks after birth to 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. There was a positive linear correlation between the corpus callosum length and the cerebellar vermis length. Small-for-gestational age infants had a low growth rate of corpus callosum at 2 weeks after birth. The 12 preterm infants with severe abnormal intellectual development had a lower growth rate of corpus callosum compared with the 108 preterm infants with non-severe abnormal intellectual development at 3-6 weeks after birth. The 5 preterm infants with severe abnormal motor development had a significantly lower growth rate of corpus callosum compared with the 115 preterm infants with non-severe abnormal motor development at 3-6 weeks after birth. The decline of growth rate of corpus callosum in preterm infants at 2-6 weeks after birth can increase the risk of severe abnormal neuromotor development.

  14. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Tebogo Hlabangana, Linda [University of the Witwatersrand, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa); Du Plessis, Vicci [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban (South Africa); Prabhu, Sanjay P. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. (orig.)

  15. Expression of guanylyl cyclase B in the human corpus cavernosum penis and the possible involvement of its ligand C-type natriuretic polypeptide in the induction of penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küthe, Andrea; Reinecke, Manfred; Uckert, Stefan; Becker, Armin; David, Ivana; Heitland, Aleksandra; Stief, Christian G; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Mägert, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-05-01

    The induction of penile erection depends on the depletion of free intracellular Ca2+ from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of smooth muscle cells of the corpus cavernosum. This process is regulated by a complex system of signal transduction pathways. In this context guanylyl and adenylyl cyclases as well as cyclic nucleotide monophosphate degrading phosphodiesterases have essential roles and represent important target molecules for the development of drugs for erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil, which is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5, is frequently used for this application but, unfortunately, it has undesirable side effects. Therefore, we investigated the suitability of membrane bound guanylyl cyclases as alternative target proteins. We determined mRNA transcripts specific for guanylyl cyclase B, a receptor of the peptide hormone C-type natriuretic polypeptide, in human corpus cavernosum. We performed immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of guanylyl cyclase B in corpus cavernosum and helical artery smooth muscle cells. We further investigated whether C-type natriuretic polypeptide increases intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate and performed organ bath studies using corpus cavernosum muscle strips and C-type natriuretic polypeptide at concentrations of 1 to 1 microM. mRNA transcripts were detected encoding for guanylyl cyclase-B, a receptor of the peptide hormone C-type natriuretic polypeptide, in human corpus cavernosum. This finding was verified at the protein level by immunohistochemistry that demonstrated guanylyl cyclase B in corpus cavernosum and helical artery smooth muscle cells. We further noted that C-type natriuretic polypeptide increased intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate. In organ bath studies with corpus cavernosum muscle strips C-type natriuretic polypeptide at concentrations of 1 to 1 microM. led to smooth muscle relaxation from 5% to 40%. The results indicate a role for C-type natriuretic polypeptide and

  16. As metáforas do presidente lula na perspectiva da linguística de corpus: o caso do desenvolvimento President Lula's metaphors in a corpus linguistic perspective: The case of 'development'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos grandes fenômenos linguísticos da vida política brasileira recente é o que a mídia vem chamando de 'metáforas do presidente Lula'. O ponto de partida deste trabalho é o fato de que deve haver muitas metáforas que passam despercebidas no discurso do presidente e que podem ser descobertas por meio de pesquisa com corpora eletrônicos. Investigamos a presença de metáforas conceptuais relacionadas a 'desenvolvimento' em um corpus composto por pronunciamentos emitidos ao longo de três anos pelo presidente Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. Os resultados indicam que há uso sistemático de três conceitos metafóricos que definem a noção de desenvolvimento do chefe de Estado: VIAGEM, CONSTRUÇÃO e ORGANISMO. Esses três conceitos, em geral, equacionam desenvolvimento com um processo longo, construído, planejado e gerado pelo governo.One of the main linguistic phenomena in recent Brazilian politics is what the media has called 'President Lula's metaphors'. The starting point for the present investigation is that there must be lots of metaphors that go unnoticed in the president's discourse and that these may be uncovered by corpus-based research. We looked at the presence of conceptual metaphors related to 'development' in a corpus of three years of official presidential speeches. The results indicated the systematic use of three metaphorical concepts that together define the notion of development for the head of State: JOURNEY, BUILDING and ORGANISM. These three concepts together equate development with a long process that is generated, planned and carried out by the government.

  17. Corpus callosum involvement: a useful clue for differentiating Fabry disease from multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Olivo, Gaia; Pontillo, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Dario; Imbriaco, Massimo; Brunetti, Arturo; Tedeschi, Enrico [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Riccio, Eleonora; Migliaccio, Silvia; Pisani, Antonio [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Public Health, Nephrology Unit, Naples (Italy); Russo, Camilla [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Feriozzi, Sandro [Belcolle Hospital, Nephrology and Dialysis Department, Viterbo (Italy); Veroux, Massimiliano [University Hospital of Catania, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies, Catania (Italy); Battaglia, Yuri [St. Anna Hospital-University, Department of Specialized Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Ferrara (Italy); Concolino, Daniela [University Magna Graecia, Department of Pediatrics, Catanzaro (Italy); Pieruzzi, Federico [University of Milano-Bicocca, Nephrology Unit, Milan (Italy); Tuttolomondo, Antonino [University of Palermo, Internal Medicine, DiBiMIS, Palermo (Italy); Caronia, Aurelio [Triolo Zancia Care Home, Palermo (Italy); Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Neurosciences and Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed as a possible differential diagnosis for Fabry disease (FD). The aim of this work was to evaluate the involvement of corpus callosum (CC) on MR images and its possible role as a radiological sign to differentiate between FD and MS. In this multicentric study, we retrospectively evaluated the presence of white matter lesions (WMLs) on the FLAIR images of 104 patients with FD and 117 patients with MS. The incidence of CC-WML was assessed in the two groups and also in a subgroup of 37 FD patients showing neurological symptoms. WMLs were detected in 50 of 104 FD patients (48.1%) and in all MS patients. However, a lesion in the CC was detected in only 3 FD patients (2.9%) and in 106 MS patients (90.6%). In the FD subgroup with neurological symptoms, WMLs were present in 26 of 37 patients (70.3%), with two subjects (5.4%) showing a definite callosal lesion. FD patients have a very low incidence of CC involvement on conventional MR images compared to MS, independently from the clinical presentation and the overall degree of WM involvement. Evaluating the presence of CC lesions on brain MR scans can be used as a radiological sign for a differential diagnosis between MS and FD, rapidly addressing the physician toward a correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment options. (orig.)

  18. 0TH-CENTURY POETRY IN THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS: HOW TO CREATE A REPRESENTATIVE POETICAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Korchagin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper regards the principles of selection of poems for Russian National Corpus’ poetical subcorpus. The developers of the corpus try to create an instrument that both simplifies studies in the field of metrics and analysis of poetical language and serves as a representative source of 20th-century poems. The structure of 20th-century Russian poetry is very complicated: the poetry was split between several areas that were almost independent of each other. Developing poetical subcorpus had to be representative for each of these areas (such as “official” poetry and “unofficial” one, emigre poetry, soviet poetry etc.. Poetical subcorpus has to be useful for two groups of scholars, for metricists and researchers of Russian poetry, and therefore corpus’s developers have decided to reject a hierarchy of poets and poems that characterizes most of 20thcentury poetry studies and concentrate on the reconstruction  of 20thcentury poetical context. Thereby we have included in the poetical subcorpus not only the most prominent or famous poems and poets, but also poetae minores that were crucial for their own epoch’s poetical context nevertheless. Poetical subcorpus includes poetae minores, but doesn’t include mass versification and/or poésie naïve that can still be interesting for metricists, but can reduce representativeness of the corpus in the same time.

  19. TOEFL11: A Corpus of Non-Native English. Research Report. ETS RR-13-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Daniel; Tetreault, Joel; Higgins, Derrick; Cahill, Aoife; Chodorow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This report presents work on the development of a new corpus of non-native English writing. It will be useful for the task of native language identification, as well as grammatical error detection and correction, and automatic essay scoring. In this report, the corpus is described in detail.

  20. The Effectiveness of Using Corpus-Based Materials in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Turan; Özcan, Yeliz Ergül

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed at finding out the effectiveness of corpus-based vocabulary teaching activities as well as students' attitudes towards concordance-based materials when corpus-based tasks in English vocabulary learning are used. The study was conducted in a preparatory school in a private university. The participants were 28 intermediate level…

  1. An Individual Subjectivist Critique of the Use of Corpus Linguistics to Inform Pedagogical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kendall; Pilcher, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Corpus linguistics, or the gathering together of language into a body for analysis and development of materials, is claimed to be an assured, established method (or field) that valuably informs pedagogical materials and knowledge of language (e.g. Ädel 2010; Gardner & Nesi, 2013). The fundamental validity of corpus linguistics is rarely, if…

  2. Microstructural changes in thickened corpus callosum in children: contribution of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition. (orig.)

  3. Use of Corpus in the Business English Classroom: From Lesser to More Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro Curado; Rokowski, Patricia Edwards

    The integration of a corpus-based approach in the English for Specific Purposes (ESP) syllabus is one possible course design step in university settings. This paper describes a situation in which Business English is taught by incorporating corpus-driven knowledge and communicative task feedback. Two main goals are pursued in this reciprocal…

  4. A corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of the linguistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents findings of a corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of the linguistic encoding of HIV and AIDS discourse by the Kwayedza newspaper in Zimbabwe. The study examined the linguistic environment of keywords from a corpus of 8 205 word types and 20 996 tokens. The results reveal that ...

  5. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  6. Corpus gastritis in patients with endoscopic diagnosis of reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Boer, W.A. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high level of gastric acid secretion is considered to be a risk factor for reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus. Corpus gastritis may have a protective effect on the oesophagus, because of decreased gastric acid output. AIM: To determine if corpus gastritis is associated with

  7. Interface Conditions on Postverbal Subjects: A Corpus Study of L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Cristobal; Mendikoetxea, Amaya

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how syntactic knowledge interfaces with other cognitive systems by analysing the production of postverbal subjects, V(erb)-S(ubject) order, in an L1 Spanish-L2 English corpus and a comparable English native corpus. VS order in both native and L2 English is shown to be constrained by properties operating at three interfaces:…

  8. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  9. US News Media Portrayal of Islam and Muslims: A Corpus-Assisted Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaie, Mahmoud; Malmir, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    This article exploits the synergy of critical discourse studies and Corpus Linguistics to study the pervasive representation of Islam and Muslims in an approximate 670,000-word corpus of US news media stories published between 2001 and 2015. Following collocation and concordance analysis of the most frequent topics or categories which revolve…

  10. Analysing Culture and Interculture in Saudi EFL Textbooks: A Corpus Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almujaiwel, Sultan

    2018-01-01

    This paper combines corpus processing tools to investigate the cultural elements of Saudi education of English as a foreign language (EFL). The latest Saudi EFL textbooks (2016 onwards) are available in researchable PDF formats. This helps process them through corpus search software tools. The method adopted is based on analysing 20 cultural…

  11. Effects of Corpus-Based Instruction on Phraseology in Learner English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerley, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of data-driven learning (DDL) on the phraseology used by 223 English students at an Italian university. The students studied the genre of opinion survey reports through paper-based and hands-on exploration of a reference corpus. They then wrote their own report and a learner corpus of these texts was compiled. A…

  12. A corpus-driven account of the noun classes and genders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A corpus-driven account of the noun classes and genders in Northern Sotho. ... Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... whether the existing descriptions of the noun class system in Northern Sotho are corroborated by information provided by the analysis of a large electronic corpus for this language, ...

  13. Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Daehyeon

    2010-01-01

    Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

  14. Towards a corpus of South African english: corralling the sub-varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the last twenty years, the use of a corpus for language research has become the sine qua non in many areas of linguistic enquiry. This trend is particularly evident in lexicogra-phy, a discipline which has become increasingly and overtly 'corpus-driven'. This article draws on research from a Master's project which ...

  15. Exploring Learner Language through Corpora: Comparing and Interpreting Corpus Frequency Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gablasova, Dana; Brezina, Vaclav; McEnery, Tony

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the appropriate use of corpus data in language learning research. It focuses on frequencies of linguistic features in language use and their comparison across corpora. The majority of corpus-based second language acquisition studies employ a comparative design in which either one or more second language…

  16. The Zulu locative prefix ku- revisited: a corpus-based approach | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article re-examines the distribution of the class 17 locative prefix ku- and its variants kwi- and ko- in the locativisation of nouns in Zulu. To this end an electronic corpus of 5 million running Zulu words the University of Pretoria Zulu Corpus (PZC) is queried. We indicate how PZC can be used to highlight previously ...

  17. Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

  18. Incidence and lifetime risk of uterine corpus cancer in Taiwanese women from 1991 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the observed changes in incidence rate, the burden of uterine corpus cancer in the general female population is expected to increase in the near future. From a public-health perspective, care providers should develop strategies for the prevention, early detection, and intervention to reduce the rapidly increasing incidence of uterine corpus cancer in Taiwan.

  19. HIV/AIDS Messaging in Germany and Nigeria: A Corpus Linguistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of a corpus of HIV messages from Germany and Nigeria carried out from the standpoint of predictions of a behavioural theory suggests that only two German messages and one Nigerian message (out of the eleven messages in each national corpus) had the mix of features (high threat, high efficacy) predicted ...

  20. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  1. How Many Words Do Children Know? A Corpus-Based Estimation of Children's Total Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbers, Jutta; Schroeder, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present a new method for estimating children's total vocabulary size based on a language corpus in German. We drew a virtual sample of different lexicon sizes from a corpus and let the virtual sample "take" a vocabulary test by comparing whether the items were included in the virtual lexicons or not. This enabled us to…

  2. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  3. Designing a Lexical Database for a Combined Use of Corpus Annotation and Dictionary Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas; Langer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In a combined corpus-dictionary project, you would need one lexical database that could serve as a shared “backbone” for both corpus annotation and dictionary editing, but it is not that easy to define a database structure that applies satisfactorily to both these purposes. In this paper, we will...

  4. The first Malay language storytelling text-to-speech (TTS) corpus for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the process undertaken and criteria considered in acquiring a storytelling speech corpus of Malay language towards the development of humanoid storyteller. The speech corpus contains 464 speech sentences, 4,656 words and 9,584 syllables. Three children's short stories were recorded by 3 female ...

  5. Language with Character: A Stratified Corpus Comparison of Individual Differences in E-Mail Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Jon; Gill, Alastair J.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysis techniques that have been used before, we examine a corpus of e-mail messages elicited from individuals of known personality, as measured by the Eysenck…

  6. The Effect of Corpus Assisted Language Teaching on the Learners' Proper Use of Punctuation Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Serkan; Elkatmis, Metin

    2013-01-01

    One of the critical contributions of the emerging technologies in computer sciences is the capability of corpus compilation and processing. Corpus resources and approaches are regarded as a potentially valuable areas both in developing instructional methods and designing pedagogical materials. This study aimed to explore the effect of exposing…

  7. An Empirical Study on Corpus-Driven English Vocabulary Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkai, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the autonomous English vocabulary learning in corpus-based contexts. Language teaching practice is becoming more learner-centered in the field of language teaching, learner autonomy has been an ongoing concern of foreign language educators in china. As an assistant tool in language learning, corpus makes an easy and quick…

  8. A critical re-examination of sexual dimorphism in the corpus callosum microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhausen, René; Kompus, Kristiina; Dramsdahl, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    Recent diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest sexual dimorphism in the micro-structural architecture of the corpus callosum. However, the corpus callosum is also found to be larger in males than in females, a fact that might introduce a systematic bias to the analysis of DTI parameters...

  9. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  10. Linking Adverbials in First-Year Korean University EFL Learners' Writing: A Corpus-Informed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Myung-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the frequency and usage patterns of linking adverbials in Korean students' essay writing in comparison with native English writing. The learner corpus used in the present study is composed of 105 essays that were produced by first-year university students in Korea. The control corpus was taken from the American LOCNESS…

  11. Imaging of lipoma of the corpus callosum and intracranial dermoids in the Goldenhar syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltinger, C.; Saule, H.

    1988-01-01

    With increased frequency lipoma of the corpus callosum and intracranial dermoids have been recognized to be associated with oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). We report an additional case of lipoma of the corpus callosum in a newborn with Goldenhar syndrome. Sonographic, roentgenographic and computertomographic features of these intracranial lesions are discussed and the literature is reviewed.

  12. Copy Number Variations Found in Patients with a Corpus Callosum Abnormality and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Solveig; Keren, Boris; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Depienne, Christel; Nava, Caroline; Mignot, Cyril; Jacquette, Aurélia; Fonteneau, Eric; Lejeune, Elodie; Mach, Corinne; Marey, Isabelle; Whalen, Sandra; Lacombe, Didier; Naudion, Sophie; Rooryck, Caroline; Toutain, Annick; Caignec, Cédric Le; Haye, Damien; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Lesne, Fabien; Faudet, Anne; Ville, Dorothée; des Portes, Vincent; Sanlaville, Damien; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Héron, Delphine

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the role that chromosomal micro-rearrangements play in patients with both corpus callosum abnormality and intellectual disability, we analyzed copy number variations (CNVs) in patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability STUDY DESIGN: We screened 149 patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability using Illumina SNP arrays. In 20 patients (13%), we have identified at least 1 CNV that likely contributes to corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability phenotype. We confirmed that the most common rearrangement in corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability is inverted duplication with terminal deletion of the 8p chromosome (3.2%). In addition to the identification of known recurrent CNVs, such as deletions 6qter, 18q21 (including TCF4), 1q43q44, 17p13.3, 14q12, 3q13, 3p26, and 3q26 (including SOX2), our analysis allowed us to refine the 2 known critical regions associated with 8q21.1 deletion and 19p13.1 duplication relevant for corpus callosum abnormality; report a novel 10p12 deletion including ZEB1 recently implicated in corpus callosum abnormality with corneal dystrophy; and) report a novel pathogenic 7q36 duplication encompassing SHH. In addition, 66 variants of unknown significance were identified in 57 patients encompassed candidate genes. Our results confirm the relevance of using microarray analysis as first line test in patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Using a Reference Corpus as a User Model for Focused Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.; Jijkoun, V.; van Zwol, R.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a method for ranking short information nuggets extracted from a text corpus, using another, reliable reference corpus as a user model. We argue that the availability and usage of such additional corpora is common in a number of IR tasks, and apply the method to answering a form of

  14. Using a Reference Corpus as a User Model for Focused Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.; Jijkoun, V.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a method for ranking short information nuggets extracted from a text corpus, using another, reliable reference corpus as a user model. We argue that the availability and usage of such additional corpora is common in a number of IR, tasks, and apply the method to answering a form of

  15. Assessment of NER solutions against the first and second CALBC Silver Standard Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rebholz-Schuhmann (Dietrich); A. Jimeno-Yepes (Antonio); C. Li (Chen); S. Kafkas (Senay); I. Lewin (Ian); N. Kang (Ning); M.A. Corbett (Mark); D. Milward (David); E. Buyko (Ekaterina); E. Beisswanger (Elena); K. Hornbostel (Kerstin); A. Kouznetsov (Alexandre); R. Witte (René); J.B. Laurila (Jonas B); C.J.O. Baker (Christopher); C.-J. Kuo (Cheng-Ju); S. Clematide (Simone); F. Rinaldi (Fabio); R. Farkas (Richárd); G. Móra (György); K. Hara (Kazuo); L.I. Furlong (Laura); M. Rautschka (Michael); M.L. Neves (Mariana Lara); A. Pascual-Montano (Alberto); Q. Wei (Qi); N. Collier (Nigel); M.F.M. Chowdhury (Md Faisal Mahbub); A. Lavelli (Alberto); R. Berlanga (Rafael); R. Morante (Roser); V. Van Asch (Vincent); W. Daelemans (Walter); J.L. Marina (José Luís); E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); J.A. Kors (Jan); U. Hahn (Udo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Competitions in text mining have been used to measure the performance of automatic text processing solutions against a manually annotated gold standard corpus (GSC). The preparation of the GSC is time-consuming and costly and the final corpus consists at the most of a few

  16. Presenting GECO: An eyetracking corpus of monolingual and bilingual sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cop, Uschi; Dirix, Nicolas; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter

    2017-04-01

    This article introduces GECO, the Ghent Eye-Tracking Corpus, a monolingual and bilingual corpus of the eyetracking data of participants reading a complete novel. English monolinguals and Dutch-English bilinguals read an entire novel, which was presented in paragraphs on the screen. The bilinguals read half of the novel in their first language, and the other half in their second language. In this article, we describe the distributions and descriptive statistics of the most important reading time measures for the two groups of participants. This large eyetracking corpus is perfectly suited for both exploratory purposes and more directed hypothesis testing, and it can guide the formulation of ideas and theories about naturalistic reading processes in a meaningful context. Most importantly, this corpus has the potential to evaluate the generalizability of monolingual and bilingual language theories and models to the reading of long texts and narratives. The corpus is freely available at http://expsy.ugent.be/downloads/geco .

  17. Effects of ethanol treatment on the neurogenic and endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in the mouse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aydinoglu, Fatma; Yilmaz, Sakir N; Coskun, Banu; Daglioglu, Nebile; Ogulener, Nuran

    2008-01-01

    .... The neurogenic- and endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and the degenerative effect of subacute ethanol treatment on the endothelial cells of corpus cavernosum was investigated in mice...

  18. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 regulate epithelial cell proliferation in mouse and human gastric corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitrack, Elise S; Gifford, Gail B; Keeley, Theresa M; Horita, Nobukatsu; Todisco, Andrea; Turgeon, D Kim; Siebel, Christian W; Samuelson, Linda C

    2017-02-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate stem cells and epithelial cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues; however, Notch function in the corpus region of the stomach is poorly understood. In this study we examined the consequences of Notch inhibition and activation on cellular proliferation and differentiation and defined the specific Notch receptors functioning in the mouse and human corpus. Notch pathway activity was observed in the mouse corpus epithelium, and gene expression analysis revealed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 to be the predominant Notch receptors in both mouse and human. Global Notch inhibition for 5 days reduced progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse corpus, as well as in organoids derived from mouse and human corpus tissue. Proliferation effects were mediated through both NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors, as demonstrated by targeting each receptor alone or in combination with Notch receptor inhibitory antibodies. Analysis of differentiation by marker expression showed no change to the major cell lineages; however, there was a modest increase in the number of transitional cells coexpressing markers of mucous neck and chief cells. In contrast to reduced proliferation after pathway inhibition, Notch activation in the adult stomach resulted in increased proliferation coupled with reduced differentiation. These findings suggest that NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 signaling promotes progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse and human gastric corpus, which is consistent with previously defined roles for Notch in promoting stem and progenitor cell proliferation in the intestine and antral stomach. Here we demonstrate that the Notch signaling pathway is essential for proliferation of stem cells in the mouse and human gastric corpus. We identify NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 as the predominant Notch receptors expressed in both mouse and human corpus and show that both receptors are required for corpus stem cell proliferation. We show that chronic Notch activation in corpus stem

  19. Embedding epistemic modals in English: A corpus-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Hacquard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether epistemic modals contribute to the truth conditions of the sentences they appear in is a matter of active debate in the literature. Fueling this debate is the lack of consensus about the extent to which epistemics can appear in the scope of other operators. This corpus study investigates the distribution of epistemics in naturalistic data. Our results indicate that they do embed, supporting the view that they contribute semantic content. However, their distribution is limited, compared to that of other modals. This limited distribution seems to call for a nuanced account: while epistemics are semantically contentful, they may require special licensing conditions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.4 BibTeX info

  20. Reversible transient lesion of the corpus callosum secondary to meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old male, presented with right-sided weakness, ataxia, expressive dysphasia and was treated for cerebrovascular accident (CVA. However, he became increasingly confused, disorientated and reported worsening headache along with fevers, photophobia and neck stiffness. On further history, the patient’s family reported the patient as being more confused and incoherent rather than having true ataxia and expressive dysphasia. CSF results were consistent with viral meningoencephalitis and MRI revealed a crescent shaped splenial lesion. He was treated empirically with ceftriaxone and acyclovir. On follow up, he remained symptom free and MRI showed regression of the splenial lesion. Reversible transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum secondary to viral meningoencephalitis are rarely encountered. This case highlights the importance of exploring different aetiologies of splenial lesions to avoid misdiagnoses with more commonly seen conditions such as CVA.

  1. Accurate automated detection of autism related corpus callosum abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Casanova, Manuel F; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Switala, Andrew E; Jordan, Desha; Rainey, Sabrina

    2011-10-01

    The importance of accurate early diagnostics of autism that severely affects personal behavior and communication skills cannot be overstated. Neuropathological studies have revealed an abnormal anatomy of the Corpus Callosum (CC) in autistic brains. We propose a new approach to quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain that ensures a more accurate quantification of anatomical differences between the CC of autistic and normal subjects. It consists of three main processing steps: (i) segmenting the CC from a given 3D MRI using the learned CC shape and visual appearance; (ii) extracting a centerline of the CC; and (iii) cylindrical mapping of the CC surface for its comparative analysis. Our experiments revealed significant differences (at the 95% confidence level) between 17 normal and 17 autistic subjects in four anatomical divisions, i.e. splenium, rostrum, genu and body of their CCs.

  2. The Brazilian Theory of Habeas Corpus for Great Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heron José de Santana Gordilho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a comparison between human evolution and legal developments, trying to demonstrate how darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection has caused changes in the legal world, the bridge of today some lawyers using the recent discoveries about how similar genetic between man and great primates to claim extension of human rights for chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangs. It also that many activists for animal`s rights have considered the dispute an important strategy, whether to set new means for legal institutes such as the Habeas Corpus, hitherto used only to ensure human freedom, whether to increase the movement and increase the conscietization of the general population about the importance of the recognition of animals as holders of basic rights.

  3. Presence of Social Presence during Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman

    2017-01-01

    analyze the whole dataset of 1.65 million tweets. The results showed that the majority of the immediacy tweets are conveying the needs and urgencies of affected people requesting for help. We argue that during disasters, the online social presence creates a sense of responsibility and common identity...

  4. Novel image analysis of corpus cavernous tissue in impotent men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J S; Lin, Y M; Chow, N H; Wang, S T; Sun, Y N

    2000-02-01

    To objectively evaluate the contents of corpus cavernous tissue in impotent men using an automated novel image analysis system. Thirty-three impotent men and 2 normal potent men (controls) underwent corpus cavernous biopsies. The procedures were performed using a Biopty gun under local anesthesia. The obtained specimens were stained with Masson's trichome technique, and the collagen fiber contents were evaluated by a computerized morphometric analysis method. In addition, we estimated the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of this automated image analysis system. No major complication was noted during or after the biopsies. Of the 33 impotent patients, 3 were diagnosed as having psychogenic, 11 as having arteriogenic, 13 as having venogenic, 1 as having neurogenic, and 5 as having idiopathic impotence. The collagen fiber percentages in the 35 men were as follows: normal potent: 48.2% +/- 1.4%, psychogenic 55.2% +/- 11.6%, arteriogenic 73.2% +/- 4.4%, venogenic 66.5% +/- 4.2%, neurogenic 76.9%, and idiopathic 77.4% +/- 4.2%. Significant differences were found between the normal potent and arteriogenic groups (P image analysis system. This method significantly reduced the amount of variation introduced by the intra-rater reliability of a technician compared with the manual method. The present automated image analysis system is believed to be a reliable, accurate quantitative measurement tool for studies of penile tissue. Cavernous biopsy is a rapid, safe, and representative modality to study penile disease. An increase in cavernous collagen fibers (or corporal fibrosis) is considered an important factor in impaired erectile function.

  5. Disciplinary values in legal discourse: a corpus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Breeze

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The last 20 years have seen increasing interest in the way in which meaning is made in different professional and academic disciplines. Central to this issue is the notion of disciplinary values, that is, qualities which define what is prized or stigmatised by different professional communities. In the present paper, the notion of disciplinary values is used to examine the way legal writers communicate meaning in different genres. To this end, six adjective/adverb sets which have a prominent place in legal discourse (“clear/ly”, “important/ly”, “reasonable/ly”, “appropriate/ly”, “correct/ly” and “proper/ly” are identified. Their collocates and semantic preferences are studied in four 500,000-word corpora consisting of texts from the area of commercial law: academic journal articles, case law, legislation, and legal documents. Although the frequency and use of “clear/ly” and “important/ly” appear not to differ greatly from those found in other corpora of written and academic written texts such as the British National Corpus (BNC and the British Academic Written English corpus (BAWE, “reasonable/ly”, “appropriate/ly”, “correct/ly” and “proper/ly” were found to be salient in some or all of the subcorpora. The reasons for this are then analysed within the framework of disciplinary values. These words appear to convey attributes that have particular importance in the legal profession, reflecting disciplinary values that cross the boundaries between various written genres.

  6. WHAT ENGLISH COLLOCATIONS TO TEACH FIRST TO INDONESIAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN? A MINI-CORPUS BASED RESEARCH OF INDONESIAN CHILDREN'S STORYBOOKS

    OpenAIRE

    Maryani Maryani

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Frequent content words in a mini-corpus of 131 Indonesian children’s storybooks, which resulted in a corpus of 134, 320 words, were investigated. The result was used to identify what English collocations to teach first to Indonesian preschool children. The data were run through a collocation menu in MonoConc Pro, a corpus program. To identify the frequent collocations in the corpus, the preceding and following words from each frequent lemma were analyzed. All the data were calculate...

  7. The Emergence of Texture: An Analysis of the Functions of the Nominal Demonstratives in English Interlanguage Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Uses the concept of "emergent texture" to analyze the corpus behavior of the four nominal demonstratives--"this,""that,""these," an "those"--in an interlanguage corpus created at Yonsei University in Korea in 1999. Investigates a corpus of 109 single paragraphs. The concept of markedness is…

  8. An Analysis of the Application of Wikipedia Corpus on the Lexical Learning in the Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed linguistic research but has a slightly moderate impact on the ESL teaching and learning. The Wikipedia Corpus, designed by Mark Davis is introduced in this essay. The corpus allows teachers to search Wikipedia in a powerful way: they can search by word, phrase, part of speech, and synonyms. Teachers can also find…

  9. Potential mechanism of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with GERD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hagiwara, Tadashi; Nakayama, Takahisa; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-14

    The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbates corpus atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. To identify a potential mechanism for this change, we discuss interactions between pH, bile acids, and H. pylori. Duodenogastric reflux, which includes bile, occurs in healthy individuals, and bile reflux is increased in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diluted human plasma and bile acids have been found to be significant chemoattractants and chemorepellents, respectively, for the bacillus H. pylori. Although only taurine conjugates, with a pKa of 1.8-1.9, are soluble in an acidic environment, glycine conjugates, with a pKa of 4.3-5.2, as well as taurine-conjugated bile acids are soluble in the presence of PPI therapy. Thus, the soluble bile acid concentrations in the gastric contents of patients with GERD after continuous PPI therapy are considerably higher than that in those with intact acid production. In the distal stomach, the high concentration of soluble bile acids is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori. In contrast, the mucous layer in the proximal stomach has an optimal bile concentration that forms chemotactic gradients with plasma components required to direct H. pylori to the epithelial surface. H. pylori may then colonize in the stomach body rather than in the pyloric antrum, which may explain the occurrence of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in H. pylori-positive patients with GERD.

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE LONGITUDINAL STRIPS AND THE HUMAN CORPUS CALLOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Boiagina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is established that there is an anatomical relationship between the corpus callosum and longitudinal strips. These formations must correlate to the common commissural system of the corpus callosum conductors. At present this issue in such a formulation is not considered in literature on Neuromorphology. Objective. The study was aimed to determine the commutations between the longitudinal strips and commissural conductors of the corpus callosum. Methods. The corpus callosum of people aged from 36 to 60 was studied. Some slices of the corpus callosum stem were used for impregnation and then inserted in paraffin blocks. Another part of these slices was subjected to plastination in epoxy resin. Results. Lateral longitudinal strips contain significantly greater mass of nerve conductors. Most of them compactly pass along limbic ring, while the other part is combined to nerve fibres of the corpus callosum commissural cords. The longitudinal strips are coated with an outer limiting glial membrane (grey coating. Conclusions. By means of the corpus callosum the connections between conscious and subconscious brain areas are structurally fixed. It can be assumed that longitudinal strips have relation to hippocampal area, related to the ancient formation of the pallium. This does not exclude the fact that the nerve fibres, found within longitudinal strips may have projections on the cortical cells of vaulted gyrus, which is considered to be paleopallium sphere. So, this interaction between the ancient and the old cortex should presumably be carried out by means of lateral longitudinal strips.

  11. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivaros, Stavros M. [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Radon, Mark R. [The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A. [University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cowell, Patricia E. [University of Sheffield, Department of Human Communication Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  12. A method for determining the number of documents needed for a gold standard corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, David

    2012-06-01

    The unstructured narratives in medicine have been increasingly targeted for content extraction using the techniques of natural language processing (NLP). In most cases, these efforts are facilitated by creating a manually annotated set of narratives containing the ground truth; commonly referred to as a gold standard corpus. This corpus is used for modeling, fine-tuning, and testing NLP software as well as providing the basis for training in machine learning. Determining the number of annotated documents (size) for this corpus is important, but rarely described; rather, the factors of cost and time appear to dominate decision-making about corpus size. In this report, a method is outlined to determine gold standard size based on the capture probabilities for the unique words within a target corpus. To demonstrate this method, a corpus of dictation letters from the Michigan Pain Consultant (MPC) clinics for pain management are described and analyzed. A well-formed working corpus of 10,000 dictations was first constructed to provide a representative subset of the total, with no more than one dictation letter per patient. Each dictation was divided into words and common words were removed. The Poisson function was used to determine probabilities of word capture within samples taken from the working corpus, and then integrated over word length to give a single capture probability as a function of sample size. For these MPC dictations, a sample size of 500 documents is predicted to give a capture probability of approximately 0.95. Continuing the demonstration of sample selection, a provisional gold standard corpus of 500 documents was selected and examined for its similarity to the MPC structured coding and demographic data available for each patient. It is shown that a representative sample, of justifiable size, can be selected for use as a gold standard. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Distinct Sectors in Media Sampling and Full Media Analysis to Detect Presence of Documents from a Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Forensic ,” 2011, last accessed Dec. 3, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.guidancesoftware.com/forensic.htm [2] B. Carrier, “The Sleuth Kit and Autopsy ...the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Forensics examiners frequently search for known content by comparing each file from a target media...relative performance of several conventional SQL and NoSQL databases with a set of one billion file block hashes. Digital Forensics , Sector Hashing, Full

  14. Influence of pregnancy and labor on the occurrence of nerve fibers expressing the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in human corpus and cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irestedt Lars

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical ripening is a prerequisite for a normal obstetrical outcome. This process, including labor, is a painful event that shares features with inflammatory reactions where peripheral nociceptive pathways are involved. The capsaicin and heat receptor TRPV1 is a key molecule in sensory nerves involved in peripheral nociception, but little is known regarding its role in the pregnant uterus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate human corpus and cervix uteri during pregnancy and labor and non-pregnant controls for the presence of TRPV1. Methods We have investigated human uterine corpus and cervix biopsies at term pregnancy and parturition. Biopsies were taken from the upper edge of the hysterotomy during caesarean section at term (n = 8, in labor (n = 8 and from the corresponding area in the non-pregnant uterus after hysterectomy (n = 8. Cervical biopsies were obtained transvaginally from the anterior cervical lip. Serial frozen sections were examined immunohistochemically using specific antibodies to TRPV1 and nerve markers (neurofilaments/peripherin. Results In cervix uteri, TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were scattered throughout the stroma and around blood vessels, and appeared more frequent in the sub-epithelium. Counts of TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibers were not significantly different between the three groups. In contrast, few TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were found in nerve fascicles in the non-pregnant corpus, and none in the pregnant corpus. Conclusion In this study, TRPV1 innervation in human uterus during pregnancy and labor is shown for the first time. During pregnancy and labor there was an almost complete disappearance of TRPV1 positive nerve fibers in the corpus. However, cervical innervation remained throughout pregnancy and labor. The difference in TRPV1 innervation between the corpus and the cervix is thus very marked. Our data suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in pain mechanisms associated with

  15. In vivo determination of muscle-derived stem cells in the rat corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Xue, Boxin; Shan, Yuxi; Chen, Dong; Gao, Jie; Yang, Dongrong; Sun, Chuanyang; Cui, Yong

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present in vivo study was to determine the presence of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) in the corpus cavernosum of rats. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to detect the expression of the stem cell markers stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1), Oct4 and Desmin in Sprague-Dawley rats aged 2, 5 and 20 months. Sca-1 was mainly expressed in the blood vessels and cavernous sinus and staining revealed that Sca-1 was predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm. Desmin was primarily expressed in muscular tissues and staining demonstrated that it was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm, however, Desmin was also partially expressed in the nuclei. A small number of double positive cells, expressing Sca-1 and Desmin, were also detected near the cavernous sinus. It was found that the expression of the markers was negatively correlated with the age of the rats (Pcorpus cavernosum. MDSCs may be a potential therapeutic treatment for organic erectile dysfunction.

  16. Phonological and syntactic competition effects in spoken word recognition: evidence from corpus-based statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Devereux, Barry J

    2017-02-07

    As spoken language unfolds over time the speech input transiently activates multiple candidates at different levels of the system - phonological, lexical, and syntactic - which in turn leads to short-lived between-candidate competition. In an fMRI study, we investigated how different kinds of linguistic competition may be modulated by the presence or absence of a prior context (Tyler 1984; Tyler et al. 2008). We found significant effects of lexico-phonological competition for isolated words, but not for words in short phrases, with high competition yielding greater activation in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal regions. This suggests that phrasal contexts reduce lexico-phonological competition by eliminating form-class inconsistent cohort candidates. A corpus-derived measure of lexico-syntactic competition was associated with greater activation in LIFG for verbs in phrases, but not for isolated verbs, indicating that lexico-syntactic information is boosted by the phrasal context. Together, these findings indicate that LIFG plays a general role in resolving different kinds of linguistic competition.

  17. JANES v0.4: Corpus of Slovene User-Generated Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Fišer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current version of the Slovene corpus of netspeak Janes which contains tweets, forum posts, news comments, blogs and blog comments, and user and talk pages from Wikipedia. First, we describe the harvesting procedure for each data source and provide a quantitative analysis of the corpus. Next, we present automatic and manual procedures for enriching the corpus with metadata, such as user type, gender and region, and text sentiment and standardness level. Finally, we give a detailed account of the linguistic annotation workflow which includes tokenization, sentence segmentation, rediacritisation, normalization, morphosyntactic tagging and lemmatization.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, and selected neuropsychological testing in staged corpus callosotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, J R; Mireles, R; Maxwell, R; Sharbrough, F; Forbes, G

    1986-11-01

    A 21-year-old man with medically intractable secondarily generalized atonic seizures underwent a corpus callosotomy on Nov 5, 1981. Though improved, the falling seizures persisted. In January 1984, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) documented that the anterior quarter of the corpus callosum remained intact. In March, the patient underwent a completion of the callosotomy, at which time the MRI findings were corroborated. Since the second surgery, a further improvement in seizure control has been observed. Use of MRI can document both noninvasively and in vivo the extent of corpus callosotomy. The implications of selected neurophysiologic and neuropsychological findings are also discussed.

  19. Extraction and Presentation of Bilingual Correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel Corpus

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    Radovan Garabík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and Presentation of Bilingual Correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel Corpus In this paper the results of the automatic extraction and presentation of bilingual correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel corpus are described. The equivalent phrases are extracted from sentence and word level automatically aligned corpus, filtered, indexed and presented in a dictionary-like interface. The bilingual dictionary database contains 80 thousand phrase pairs consisting of approximately 350 thousand words (per each language. Counting unique word forms, the size is 31 thousand in the Slovak part of the dictionary, 26 thousand in the Bulgarian part.

  20. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

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    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPANs, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair or tension (ganglionic stretch. We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/ 2.2 Hz, 5.1 (2.2/7.7 Hz and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5 Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. 55% of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  1. Data modelling in corpus linguistics: how low may we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Marjolein H; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P

    2014-06-01

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' linguistic decline, linking this decline to pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, in line with the nature of the (literary) work that was analysed, numbers alone do not suffice to 'tell the story'. The one and only objective of using statistical methods for the analysis of research data is to tell a story--what happened, when, and how. In the present study we describe a computerised but individualised approach to linguistic analysis--we propose a unifying approach, with firm grounds in Information Theory, that, independently from the specific parameter being investigated, guarantees to produce a robust model of the temporal dynamics of an author's linguistic richness over his or her lifetime. We applied this methodology to six renowned authors with an active writing life of four decades or more: Iris Murdoch, Gerard Reve, Hugo Claus, Agatha Christie, P.D. James, and Harry Mulisch. The first three were diagnosed with probable Alzheimer Disease, confirmed post-mortem for Iris Murdoch; this same condition was hypothesized for Agatha Christie. Our analysis reveals different evolutive patterns of lexical richness, in turn plausibly correlated with the authors' different conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute infarction of corpus callosum due to transient obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakamzade, Bahar; Eker, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the corpus callosum (CC) is not a well-known feature in patients with acute hydrocephalus. Herein, we describe a case with acute CC infarction due to another rare entity; transient obstructive hydrocephalus. A 66-year-old male was admitted with sudden onset right-sided hemiparesia. CT demonstrated a hematoma on the left basal ganglia with extension to all ventricles. The following day, the patient's neurological status progressed to coma and developed bilateral pyramidal signs. MRI demonstrated obstructive hydrocephalus and acute diffuse infarction accompanied by elevation of the CC. On the same day there was improvement in his neurological status with significant decrease in ventricular size and complete resolution of the clot in the third ventricle. The mechanism of signal abnormalities is probably related with the neural compression of the CC against the falx. Presumably, the clot causing obstruction in the third ventricle dissolved or decayed by the help of fibrinolytic activity of CSF, which was raised after IVH and caused spontaneous improvement of hydrocephalus. Bilateral neurological symptoms suggest diffuse axonal damage and normalization of the intracranial pressure should be performed on the early onset of clinical detorioration in order to prevent axonal injury. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Division of Labor in Vocabulary Structure: Insights From Corpus Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic

    2016-07-01

    Psychologists have used experimental methods to study language for more than a century. However, only with the recent availability of large-scale linguistic databases has a more complete picture begun to emerge of how language is actually used, and what information is available as input to language acquisition. Analyses of such "big data" have resulted in reappraisals of key assumptions about the nature of language. As an example, we focus on corpus-based research that has shed new light on the arbitrariness of the sign: the longstanding assumption that the relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning is arbitrary. The results reveal a systematic relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning, which is stronger for early acquired words. Moreover, the analyses further uncover a systematic relationship between words and their lexical categories-nouns and verbs sound differently from each other-affecting how we learn new words and use them in sentences. Together, these results point to a division of labor between arbitrariness and systematicity in sound-meaning mappings. We conclude by arguing in favor of including "big data" analyses into the language scientist's methodological toolbox. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. LINGUISTIC TEMPORALITY IN THE DIACHRONIC PERSPECTIVE: CORPUS ASPECT

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    Konnova Mariya Nikolaevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of complex cognitive and linguoculturological approach, aiming at investigating the triple unity of language, mind and culture, the author analyzes cognitive mechanisms of change in the meaning of New Testament saying "Dovleet dnevi zloba yego" (Mf. 6: 34 / "Sufficient for the day is the evil thereof" (St. Matthew 6: 34. This approach provides deeper insight into the essence of mental schemes underlying the process of lexicalisation of biblical micro-texts both as fixed phrases (quotations and idioms. The semantic shifts of microdiachronic character, which touched upon the semantic structure of biblical idiomatic expressions in 19-20th centuries and led to substantial restructuring of axiological and temporal components of meaning, are analyzed on the data of Russian National Corpus. The author proves that the use of biblical quotations outside their original context leads to their complete semantic transformation. The loss of original meaning is connected with the loss of key axiological and temporal characteristics typical for New Testament texts.

  5. Micro-corpus codification in the Hebrew Revival

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    Moshe Nahir

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses the lexical codification work carried out in the Modern Hebrew Revival period. The development of Modern Hebrew may be viewed as consisting of three periods, in each of which at least one language planning "goal" has been sought. The first of these periods is that of "Language Revival" (1890-1914 in which the revival of that language in Palestine took place. At the beginning of its revival the Hebrew lexicon was so gravely inadequate for modern life—lacking words for concepts such as "tomato", "serious", and "newspaper"—that some leaders questioned the capacity of the language to be restored. Therefore, much corpus planning had to be done to fill that vast lexical gap. This aspect of the Revival was achieved through the cumulative efforts of educators, writers, translators, etc., as well as countless language-conscious individuals. This was carried out in various ways, retrieving old words and roots, creating new words from old words and roots, combining existing words, filling in pattern with root "fillers", borrowing words and roots, etc. All this arduous, seemingly endless campaign eventually paid off, and Hebrew is now a modern language, standardized and "normalized" in every respect.

  6. Social cognition in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Scott H; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa F; Ono, Makoto; Brown, Warren S

    2010-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) have deficits in interhemispheric transfer, complex novel problem-solving, and the comprehension of paralinguistic aspects of language. Case studies and family reports also suggest problems in social cognition. The performance of 11 individuals with complete ACC and with normal intelligence was compared to that of 13 IQ- and age-matched controls on three measures of social cognition. Individuals with ACC were indistinguishable from controls on the Happe Theory of Mind Stories and the Adult Faux Pas Test, but performed significantly worse on various portions of the Thames Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) involving interpretations of videotaped social vignettes. Further analysis of the TASIT indicated that individuals with ACC showed deficiency in the recognition of emotion, weakness in understanding paradoxical sarcasm, and particular difficulty interpreting textual versus visual social cues. These results suggest that the tendency for deficient social cognition in individuals with ACC stems from a combination of difficulty integrating information from multiple sources, using paralinguistic cues for emotion, and understanding nonliteral speech. Together, these deficits would contribute to a less robust theory of mind.

  7. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C; Clark, Kristi A; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.

  8. Automated measurement of the human corpus callosum using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Herron

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum includes the majority of fibers that connect the two cortical hemispheres. Studies of cross-sectional callosal morphometry and area have revealed developmental, gender, and hemispheric differences in healthy populations and callosal deficits associated with neurodegenerative disease and brain injury. However, accurate quantification of the callosum using magnetic resonance imaging is complicated by intersubject variability in callosal size, shape, and location and often requires manual outlining of the callosum in order to achieve adequate performance. Here we describe an objective, fully automated protocol that utilizes voxel-based image to quantify the area and thickness both of the entire callosum and of different callosal compartments. We verify the method’s accuracy, reliability, robustness and multisite consistency and make comparisons with manual measurements using public brain-image databases. An analysis of age-related changes in the callosum showed increases in length and reductions in thickness and area with age. A comparison of older subjects with and without mild dementia revealed that reductions in anterior callosal area independently predicted poorer cognitive performance after factoring out Mini-Mental Status Examination scores and normalized whole brain volume. Open-source software implementing the algorithm is available at www.nitrc.org/projects/c8c8.

  9. [The parapharyngeal adipose corpus: Surgical anatomy and imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, V; Gavid, M; Timochenko, A; Prades, J M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to define the parapharyngeal adiposis corpus (PAC) and its anatomical relationships originally described by P. Sebileau in 1892 to assess the potential clinical implications. Seven frozen fresh cadavers were used, 3 of which after injection of latex neoprene colored in cervicocephalic arterial network. A MRI was performed in 10 patients without cervical pathology. The analysis was done on the frontal and transverse T1-weighted sections. The PAC, which is a yellowish fat formation, fills the paratonsillar space. It measures an average of 4.8cm (4.5 to 5.2cm) in length and 1.2cm (1.1 to 1.5cm) for subjects of varying size and sex. Its arterial supply is mainly provided by the ascending palatine artery, an early branch of the facial artery. A left-right symmetry was found on MRI analyses regardless of sex or age. It is found in all the medial and ventral cases on the pharyngeal extension of the parotid gland in homogeneous hyperintense T1. The PAC is a constant fat structure. Its vascularization depends mainly on the ascending palatine artery. Through its association with fatty peripharyngeal space, it could be a functionally sliding space. In imaging, it may be helpful in the interpretation of images of the pharyngeal extension of the parotid gland tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C.; Clark, Kristi A.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273

  11. Effect of avanafil on rat and human corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, S; Sikka, S C; Pankey, E A; Lasker, G F; Chandra, S; Kadowitz, P J; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-10-01

    We compared the activity of a new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) avanafil with sildenafil and tadalafil in human and rat corpus cavernosum (CC) tissues. The effect of avanafil with several inhibitors and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was evaluated on CC after pre-contraction with phenylephrine. With the PDE5i, sildenafil and tadalafil, concentration-response curves were obtained and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were measured in tissues. Avanafil induced relaxation with maximum response of 74 ± 5% in human CC. This response was attenuated by NOS inhibitor and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. Avanafil potentiated relaxation responses to acetylcholine and EFS in human CC and enhanced SNP-induced relaxation and showed 3-fold increase in cGMP levels. When compared with sildenafil, avanafil and tadalafil were effective at lower concentrations in human CC. In addition, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent in vivo intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Avanafil increased ICP/MAP that was enhanced by SNP and cavernous nerve (CN) stimulation in rat CC tissues. Also avanafil showed maximum relaxation response of 83 ± 7% in rat CC with 3-fold increase in cGMP concentration. Taken together, these results of our in vivo and in vitro studies in human and rat suggest that avanafil promotes the CC relaxation and penile erection via NO-cGMP pathway. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Ontogeny of material stiffness heterogeneity in the macaque mandibular corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daegling, David J; Granatosky, Michael C; McGraw, W Scott

    2014-02-01

    Evidence is accumulating that bone material stiffness increases during ontogeny, and the role of elastic modulus in conditioning attributes of strength and toughness is therefore a focus of ongoing investigation. Developmental changes in structural properties of the primate mandible have been documented, but comparatively little is known about changes in material heterogeneity and their impact on biomechanical behavior. We examine a cross-sectional sample of Macaca fascicularis (N = 14) to investigate a series of hypotheses that collectively evaluate whether the patterning of material stiffness (elastic modulus) heterogeneity in the mandible differs among juvenile, subadult and adult individuals. Because differences in age-related activity patterns are known to influence bone stiffness and strength, these data are potentially useful for understanding the relationship between feeding behavior on the one hand and material and structural properties of the mandible on the other. Elastic modulus is shown to be spatially dependent regardless of age, with this dependence being explicable primarily by differences in alveolar versus basal cortical bone. Elastic modulus does not differ consistently between buccal and lingual cortical plates, despite likely differences in the biomechanical milieu of these regions. Since we found only weak support for the hypothesis that the spatial patterning of heterogeneity becomes more predictable with age, accumulated load history may not account for regional differences in bone material properties in mature individuals with respect to the mandibular corpus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison of Neurogenic Contraction and Relaxation in Canine Corpus Cavernosum and Penile Artery and Vein

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayashida, Hideshi; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuhide; Tomoyoshi, Tadao; Okamura, Tomio; Toda, Noboru

    1996-01-01

    Functional roles of autonomic efferent nerves were compared in the isolated canine corpus cavernosum, penile artery and penile vein that participate in the penile erection by changing blood distribution...

  14. Contaminants assessment of the Corpus Christi Bay Complex, Texas, 1988-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service-Ecological Services, Corpus Christi Field Office conducted baseline contaminants assessments of sediments and biota from the...

  15. Tashkeela: Novel corpus of Arabic vocalized texts, data for auto-diacritization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrouki, Taha; Balla, Amar

    2017-04-01

    Arabic diacritics are often missed in Arabic scripts. This feature is a handicap for new learner to read َArabic, text to speech conversion systems, reading and semantic analysis of Arabic texts. The automatic diacritization systems are the best solution to handle this issue. But such automation needs resources as diactritized texts to train and evaluate such systems. In this paper, we describe our corpus of Arabic diacritized texts. This corpus is called Tashkeela. It can be used as a linguistic resource tool for natural language processing such as automatic diacritics systems, dis-ambiguity mechanism, features and data extraction. The corpus is freely available, it contains 75 million of fully vocalized words mainly 97 books from classical and modern Arabic language. The corpus is collected from manually vocalized texts using web crawling process.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN ONLINE MALAY LANGUAGE CORPUS-BASED LEXICAL DATABASE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lay Wah Lee; Hui Min Low

    2014-01-01

      The Online Malay Language Corpus-based Lexical Database for Primary Schools discussed in this paper is a long-term research project by the School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia...

  17. Exploring mega-corpora: Google Ngram Viewer and the Corpus of Historical American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Friginal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation of internet-based mega-corpora such as the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA, the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA (Davies, 2011a and the Google Ngram Viewer (Cohen, 2010 signals a new phase in corpus-based research that provides both novice and expert researchers immediate access to a variety of online texts and time-coded data. This paper explores the applications of these corpora in the analysis of academic word lists, in particular, Coxhead’s (2000 Academic Word List (AWL. Coxhead (2011 has called for further research on the AWL with larger corpora, noting that learners’ use of academic vocabulary needs to address for the AWL to be useful in various contexts. Results show that words on the AWL are declining in overall frequency from 1990 to the present. Implications about the AWL and future directions in corpus-based research utilizing mega-corpora are discussed.

  18. Elimination of medically intractable epileptic drop attacks following endoscopic total corpus callosotomy in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi; Kumar, Ajay; Luat, Aimee F

    2017-11-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, characterized by developmental delay, hand stereotypies, abnormal gait, and acquired microcephaly. Epilepsy is very common in Rett syndrome and can be medically intractable. It remains uncertain if a patient with epileptic drop attacks associated with this genetic disease can benefit from corpus callosotomy. We report an 8-year-old girl with Rett syndrome and medically intractable epileptic drop attacks who underwent endoscopic total corpus callosotomy without any complications that led to the successful elimination of her seizures. Total corpus callosotomy is a feasible treatment option for medically intractable epileptic drop attacks in Rett syndrome and should not be considered as a contraindication in this condition. This is the first reported case of corpus callosotomy in Rett syndrome.

  19. Non sex-related subtotal rupture of the corpus cavernosum without urethral injury: A case report and literature review

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    Zeki Bayraktar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although penile fracture is a rare case, it is a well-described urologic emergency. It results from the rupture of the tunica albuginea of corpora cavernosa by blunt strain that commonly mandates immediate surgical exploration. Urethral injury may also accompany penile fracture. An ideal anamnesis and a special physical examination were determinant to achieve a correct diagnosis. It is usually diagnosed based on clinical examination, but ultrasonography can be very helpful in diagnosis. The treatment is based on the presence of associated urethral injury. Early surgery is preferable to conservative management, because it is associated with better outcomes and fewer long-term complications. The surgical repair of cavernous body can produce good results, with a favorable prognosis and minimal rate of complications. We present a penile fracture case of 34-year-old with subtotal rupture of the right corpus cavernosum without urethral injury who treated by early surgery and good results.

  20. Translations of “donc” in a literary corpus Les traductions de "donc" dans un corpus littéraire

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    Gemma Delgar Farrés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the analysis of the different translations in Spanish of “donc” considering the semantic-pragmatic and textual properties of this connective in a literary corpus and, more particularly, in two different genres: theatre and novel. It is obvious, therefore, that the choice of literary discourse, and of these two genres, will condition completely our analysis and this fact justifies our choice. The following words by Dominique Maingueneau (1986: 135 illustrate the coherence of the dichotomy theatre/novel: “A la différence de la littérature narrative, le théâtre offre le spectacle de scènes d’interlocution véritable, où les énonciateurs s’affrontent. Certes, il n’en va pas autrement dans les autres genres de discours, mais dans la littérature dramatique les stratégies argumentatives se développent avec une netteté particulière”.L’objectif de cette étude est l’analyse des traductions en espagnol de « donc » à partir des propriétés sémantico-pragmatiques et textuelles de ce connecteur dans un corpus littéraire et, en particulier, dans deux textes de genres différents : le théâtre et le roman. Il est évident, en conséquence, que le choix du discours littéraire, et de ces deux genres, va conditionner cette analyse dès le début et ce fait même justifie notre choix. Ces mots de Dominique Maingueneau (1986 : 135 viennent soutenir la cohérence de la dichotomie théâtre/roman : « A la différence de la littérature narrative, le théâtre offre le spectacle de scènes d’interlocution véritable, où les énonciateurs s’affrontent. Certes, il n’en va pas autrement dans les autres genres de discours, mais dans la littérature dramatique les stratégies argumentatives se développent avec une netteté particulière ».

  1. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Петрович Костиленко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the preparations were extracted from the non-polymerized epoxy and placed on the polyethylene film that was covered with the other film of the same size. Further this stratified block was placed amid the two glasses of the equal size that shrunk together by placing the small load on it. After the complete polymerization the received epoxy plates with the corpus callosum tissue contained in it underwent the gentle grinding and the accurate polish and as the result was obtained the surface denudation of its tissue structures that were colored with the 1 % solution of blue methylene for 1% borax solution.Results of research: at the study of the corpus callosum plastinated cuts in saggital plane was revealed that the transverse platen-form elevations of its higher surface are the cord-form tenias standing out from within and going through the corpus callosum. At its studying in the transverse cut was established that in adults can be separated two types of corpus callosum by its density: the dense one and disperse one.At the large increases of the binocular loupe (microscope MBS-9 can be seen the gaps between the adjacent commissural cords. Within it can be detected the blood vessels. On the transverse cut of commissural cords in its depth are revealed the thinnest streaks which totality consists of the two alternate dark and light lines that form the layered striation. Among the series of the light lines are visible the interlayer that separate the whole depth of

  2. COLOR-SOUND METAPHORS IN RUSSIAN (DATA OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Анастасия Игоревна Бардовская

    2013-01-01

    The article regards peculiarities of collecting the data about the synaesthetic metaphor from the Russian National Corpus. Possibilities which this corpus gives to the researcher of this language phenomenon are shown and discussed. Peculiarities of color-sound metaphors in the Russian texts belonging to different styles and genres are shown, typical synaesthetic patterns and color and sound terms representing them are defined, contexts in which color-sound metaphors function in the texts of t...

  3. An investigation into spoken audio topic identification using the Fisher Corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available with the development and evaluation of the spoken audio topic identification system, the available Fisher corpus data was divided into speaker independent training, development and evaluation sets. The splitting process created two gender-dependent sub.... The gender split audio and text data were used to train gender-dependent acoustic models, however, when training TABLE I. TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION SET PARTITIONS OF THE ENGLISH FISHER CORPUS. Data Set Male Female # Call Sides # Utterances # Call...

  4. Character-level Convolutional Network for Text Classification Applied to Chinese Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Weijie; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interesting exploration of character-level convolutional neural network solving Chinese corpus text classification problem. We constructed a large-scale Chinese language dataset, and the result shows that character-level convolutional neural network works better on Chinese corpus than its corresponding pinyin format dataset. This is the first time that character-level convolutional neural network applied to text classification problem.

  5. MRI and MR spectroscopy findings of a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis affecting the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Sığırcı, Ahmet; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2015-07-10

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive, fatal, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that is seen mostly in children and young adolescents, and primarily affects the parieto-occipital lobes. The corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal ganglia are less frequently involved. MR spectroscopy (MRS) may illustrate the pathophysiological features of SSPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of MRS findings of corpus callosum involvement in a stage 3 SSPE case. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. An odd couple – Corpus frequency and look-up frequency: what relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Trap-Jensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the relationship between log file records and corpus frequency. The study was motivated by practical considerations of how best to keep an already existing corpus-based dictionary updated. Should the next word in the dictionary be the one that follows next on a list of declining corpus frequency? Or the one that users most frequently look up but don’t find? In order to establish manageable criteria, we analysed log files for The Danish Dictionary from 2009 to 2012 and compared the list of most popular words looked up by the users with the frequency of the same words in the corpus underlying The Danish Dictionary. The users’ actual search behaviour was analysed in order to find answers to questions such as these: Are there words which are never looked up? If so, can we say something meaningful about their corpus frequency patterns – do they belong to particular parts of speech, are they particularly frequent or infrequent, could it even be that the pattern is cumulative, in such a way that a particular threshold can be identified? Ultimately, the question is whether it makes sense to use corpus frequency as a criterion for lemma selection.

  7. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Llantada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia’s (2002 multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify grammar items through statistical frequencies, collocational patterns, context-sensitive meanings and discoursal uses of words. From a genre perspective, corpus observation provides students with exposure to recurrent lexico-grammatical patterns across different academic text types (genres. From a social perspective, corpus models can be used to raise learners’ awareness of how speakers’ different discourse roles, discourse privileges and power statuses are enacted in their grammar choices. The paper describes corpus-based instructional procedures, gives samples of learners’ linguistic output, and provides comments on the students’ response to this method of instruction. Data resulting from the assessment process and student production suggest that corpus-informed instruction grounded in Bhatia’s multi-perspective model can constitute a pedagogical approach in order to i obtain positive student responses from input and authentic samples of grammar use, ii help students identify and understand the textual, genre and social aspects of grammar in real contexts of use, and therefore iii help develop students’ ability to use grammar accurately and appropriately.

  8. PARALLEL TEXTS WITHIN THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS: NEW DIRECTIONS AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sitchinava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current states of the parallel corpora within the RNC and the updates of the last six years. The parallel corpora with the RNC include the following  bilingual Russian—X   corpora: Armenian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, English, Estonian, French, German, Italian, Latvian, Polish, Spanish, and Ukrainian. Virtually for all these language we have language pairs in both directions of translation. The RNC now includes a multilingual  corpus that consists of nine texts and involve  more than 20 languages, mostly Slavic.  The Russian-French corpus has been developed, since 2012, as a polyvariant corpus with multiple translations of the same text into the same language. Polyvariant  texts are also included also in the multilingual  corpus. Parallel  corpora now include texts of different genres, not only fiction, but also news, technical, scientific, religious and legal texts, viz. all the main subdivisions represented in the main RNC. The discrepancies between the original  text and the translation are now specially marked (arbitrary omission, adding, or change by the translator. Most languages represented in the corpus also have a morphological  tagset and annotation. Some  examples of corpus-based studies of lexicon and grammar are examined in more detail.

  9. The role of chloride channels in rat corpus cavernosum: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Hsieh, Ju-Ton

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have identified the existence of outward, depolarizing chloride currents in isolated rat, rabbit, and human corpus cavernosum muscle cells. However, few articles have demonstrated the functional role of chloride channels in vivo in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Aim. To investigate the role of calcium-dependent chloride channels in erectile function of rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Adult male Wistar rats were used to perform an in vivo study in a rat model of erection. Both crura of the rats were isolated to in order to record intracavernosal pressure (ICP) during basal conditions and electrical stimulation of erection, with and without intracorporeal injection of norepinephrine, chloride transport inhibitors, and chloride channel blockers. ICP. ICP increased as the amplitude of electrical stimulation increased, and decreased in a dose-dependent manner (during electrical stimulation) as norepinephrine injection strength increased. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel blockers, niflumic acid, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene-disulfonic acid increased ICP. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, and HCO(3)-free 4-(2-hydroxyethyl )-1-1- piperazine ethanesulphonic acid buffer, and also increase the ICP. The effects of both Cl(-) channel blockers and Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors on ICP were concentration-dependent. Our findings suggest that chloride channels play an important role in the regulation of corpus cavernous smooth muscle tone in vivo.

  10. The presence and role of progesterone receptor in the ovaries of postmenopausal women who have not applied hormone replacement therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Piasecka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, not much is known about progesterone receptor (PR expression and localization in postmenopausal women ovaries. In the ovaries of reproductive age women, PR is localized in internal theca and granulosa cells, corpus luteum, ovary surface epithelium (OSE and in stroma. PR expression depends on the serum concentration of progesterone, estrogen, gonadotropin and androgen. The goal of the conducted studies was to examine PR localization and expression in the ovaries of postmenopausal women who have not applied hormone replacement therapy so far. Also, the correlation was examined between PR expression and localization in the ovaries, steroid and gonadotropin hormone serum concentrations, and influence of the time from the last menstruation. The material came from 50 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed due to non-neoplastic diseases. The women were divided into 3 groups (A, B, C depending on the time from the last menstruation. The follitropin (FSH, luteotropin (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, androstendione (A and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS concentrations in blood plasma were measured. Monoclonal mouse anti-human PR antibody was used for immunohistochemical detection (examination involved 50 postmenopausal ovaries. Between particular groups, E2 serum concentrations did not differ, but FSH, LH, T, A, DHEAS serum concentrations were significantly different. Immunohistochemical nuclear localization of PR in postmenopausal women ovaries was observed. PR expression was similar in all three groups (A, B, C. PR expression was observed in OSE nuclei and invaginations cysts deriving from the isolation of invaginated epithelium and metaplastic columnar epithelium and in stroma. In the ovaries of postmenopausal women who have not applied hormone replacement therapy so far, PR was detected in all three groups. Its expression did not depend on the time from menopause and was similar in all examined groups. FSH, LH, T, A

  11. Corpus-based Transitivity Biases in Individuals with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle DeDe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spontaneous speech samples in individuals with aphasia (IWA have been analyzed to examine many different psycholinguistic features. The present study focused on how IWA use verbs in spontaneous speech. Some verbs can occur in more than one argument structure, but are biased to occur more frequently in one frame than another. For example, "watch" appears in transitive and intransitive structures, but is usually used transitively. This is known as a transitivity bias. It is unknown whether IWA show the same transitivity biases in production as those reported in previous corpus studies with unimpaired individuals. Studies of sentence comprehension have shown that IWA are sensitive to verb biases (e.g., DeDe, 2013. In addition, IWA have shown an overall preference for transitive structures, which are the most frequent structures in English (Roland, Dick, & Elman, 2007. The present study investigated whether IWA show the same pattern of transitive and intransitive biases in spontaneous speech as unimpaired individuals. Method Participants: 278 interviews with IWA were taken from AphasiaBank. The IWA represented a range of aphasia types. Participants were omitted if they spoke English as a second language. Materials: 54 verbs were coded. We chose verbs with the goal of representing different bias types (e.g., transitive, intransitive, sentential complement. Of these, data from 11 transitively biased and 11 intransitively biased verbs (matched for frequency of use and number of syllables are presented here. Coding: All productions of the 54 verbs were coded. The coding protocol was based on Gahl, Jurafsky, and Roland (2004. We implemented an additional level of coding to indicate erroneous verb productions, such as ungrammatical structures and verb agreement errors. Results The (intransitivity biases for IWA were compared to biases from a previously published corpus study (Gahl et al., 2004. The IWA used transitively biased verbs in

  12. Developing Academic Vocabulary with AWL Gapmaker and Corpus Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for the development of at least some academic vocabulary in students of EFL (studying English for teaching and non-teaching purposes, if one of the main aims of EFL study is to produce competent users of English. Students are expected to read and understand advanced professional texts, not simply to successfully complete their degrees but to become a part of educated society, and to be able to meet the demands placed upon their knowledge in a prefessional environment. The reading and understanding of professional texts can be a highly demanding activity because of the number of academic and professional terms such texts include. This paper exemplifies the usefulness of a gap-fill exercise, as one among a range of options for developing and testing academic vocabulary in a professional context. The exercise was compiled with AWL gapmaker based on a professional review text, which includes academic items of vocabulary. The gap-fill exercise was used with two groups of EFL students in the same year of study and installed at two difficulty levels for two reasons: to test students’ existing knowledge of academic vocabulary, and to enrich it through the analysis of words in context/co-text relation using a concordancing program. The paper compares the answers of both groups to determine the most problematic entries (incorrect answers, and to provide the possible reasons for them. Further, contextual clues are taken into consideration as a helpful source for determining correct entries, and tested with the concordancing program. Besides the emphasis on the usefulness of such gap-fill exercises combined with corpus for the development and enrichment of academic vocabulary, the paper also emphasizes the importance of guiding students in how to search for different grammatical and other contextual clues to make correct inferences, and how to use concordances to support or reject the claims.

  13. Chiropractic and Spinal Manipulation Therapy on Twitter: Case Study Examining the Presence of Critiques and Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Klostermann, Philip; Caulfield, Timothy

    2016-09-16

    Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is a popular though controversial practice. The debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT are only partially evident in popular discourse. This study aims to investigate the presence of critiques and debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT on the social media platform Twitter. The study examines whether there is presence of debate and whether critical information is being widely disseminated. An initial corpus of 31,339 tweets was compiled through Twitter's Search Application Programming Interface using the query terms "chiropractic," "chiropractor," and "spinal manipulation therapy." Tweets were collected for the month of December 2015. Post removal of tweets made by bots and spam, the corpus totaled 20,695 tweets, of which a sample (n=1267) was analyzed for skeptical or critical tweets. Additional criteria were also assessed. There were 34 tweets explicitly containing skepticism or critique of SMT, representing 2.68% of the sample (n=1267). As such, there is a presence of 2.68% of tweets in the total corpus, 95% CI 0-6.58% displaying explicitly skeptical or critical perspectives of SMT. In addition, there are numerous tweets highlighting the health benefits of SMT for health issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), immune system, and blood pressure that receive scant critical attention. The presence of tweets in the corpus highlighting the risks of "stroke" and "vertebral artery dissection" is also minute (0.1%). In the abundance of tweets substantiating and promoting chiropractic and SMT as sound health practices and valuable business endeavors, the debates surrounding the efficacy and risks of SMT on Twitter are almost completely absent. Although there are some critical voices of SMT proving to be influential, issues persist regarding how widely this information is being disseminated.

  14. [Feasibility study of transplantation of penile corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion in renal subserous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y D; Guan, R L; Wu, Y Y; Lei, H E; Yang, B C; Li, H X; Wang, L; Guo, Y L; Xin, Z C

    2016-08-18

    To study the feasibility of transplantation of normal rat penile corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) into the renal subserous region of a Nu/Nu mouse based on allograft technology. Penile corpus cavernosum and MPG, harvested from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under sterile condition, were transplanted underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice through the microsurgery instruments and surgery microscope. The histopathologic changes and cellular proliferation in the transplanted penile corpus cavernosum and MPG were then analyzed at the end of 1week and 4 weeks after transplantation. Histological staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the main outcome measures. After 1 week, the tissue morphology of the transplanted corpus cavernosum underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice was consistent with normal penile corpus cavernosum, and blood could be observed in the penis cavernous sinus of the graft; after 4 weeks, the mophorlogy of the tranplanted corpus cavernosum near the kidney was consistent with normal penile corpus cavernosum, while fibrosis was noteworthy in the graft away from the kidney, but blood could still be seen in the penis cavernous sinus. After 1 week, the tissue morphology of the transplanted MPG was consistent with normal MPG, multiple islet-like cell clusters could be seen in the transplanted MPG in the renal subserous region, and angiogenesis could be observed near the kidney; after 4 weeks, a network of blood vessels was clearly visible away from the kidney, and islet-like cell clusters were still clearly observed in the transplanted MPG. In addition, ki67 positive cells were observed in the transplanted penile corpus cavernosum and MPG after 4 weeks of transplantation, which indicated that there was still cell proliferation activity in the grafts. The transplanted corpus cavernosum and MPG underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice could survive at least 4 weeks. Moreover, the inner structure of the

  15. The Effectiveness of Corpus-Based Approach to Language Description in Creating Corpus-Based Exercises to Teach Writing Personal Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Norah Dhawi

    2016-01-01

    Using corpora in language teaching has revolutionized language research with its "authentic" appeal. Corpus tools have enabled linguistic researchers and teachers to investigate actual usages and the characteristics of certain genres in order to improve syllabus design and infer more effective classroom exercises. From this perspective,…

  16. Introduction: beyond presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M P

    1999-01-01

    Presence is a concept arising from the use of sophisticated remote control devices and virtual reality equipment. It refers to the user's sense of being at a remote or virtual environment. This introduction briefly describes some of how the research on this concept developed, as well as some of the issues of how it is defined and measured. It also suggests that earlier research has been biased towards analyzing how attributes of technology or the environment impacts the individual rather than examining how individual psychological, cognitive, and attentional variables affect our virtual interactions. Current research is exploring new models and issues in the presence arena, as illustrated by this set of articles in this issue of CyberPsychology and Behavior. The development of these directions will hopefully expand our thinking about "virtual presence" to that of "virtual experience."

  17. Presence While Watching Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Troscianko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Presence” is the illusion of being in a mediated experience rather than simply being an observer. It is a concept often applied to the question of realism of virtual environments. However, it is equally applicable to the act of watching a movie. A movie provides a markedly different visual environment to that given by the natural world—particularly because of frequent edits. And yet, the audience in a movie achieves high levels of presence. We investigate the relationship between presence and the optical and temporal parameters of movies. We find effects of mean shot length, colour/b&w, and 3D/2D. We find that short shots, while being unnatural, are associated with high levels of presence. We consider why such artificial stimuli should appear so real and immersive.

  18. Presence Service in IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Petras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the presence service, which is located in the IP multimedia subsystem. This service allows making many applications for different groups of people. The paper describes differences between a network without the service and with the service. The biggest change is an increased number of transmitted messages. The presence uses some part of the IP multimedia subsystem control layer, which is shown in communication between the user and the server. The paper deals with the number of generated messages depending on the behaviour of the users. This is described by a mathematical model using discrete Markov chains.

  19. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the “true” popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800–2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  20. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Adam Pechenick

    Full Text Available It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the "true" popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900 s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800-2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution.

  1. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the "true" popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900 s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800-2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution.

  2. Corpus callosotomy for childhood-onset drug-resistant epilepsy unresponsive to vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Ravindra; Greiner, Hansel M; Horn, Paul S; Turner, Michele; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T

    2014-12-01

    Corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation are common palliative options for people with drug-resistant epilepsy when resective epilepsy surgery is not feasible. Because most of the published corpus callosotomy experience comes from a period before vagus nerve stimulation was approved and widely used, there is a paucity of data about efficacy of corpus callosotomy in patients with inadequate response to vagus nerve stimulation. We report seven patients who had complete corpus callosotomy after an inadequate response to vagus nerve stimulation. At the time of surgery, these patients had failed a median of six antiseizure medications, three patients also had failed a trial of ketogenic diet, and all the patients had a vagus nerve stimulation implanted for a mean duration of 2.5 years with maximal tolerated settings. There was a decrease in total daily seizure frequency of 34.7% (± 94.7; median, 71.4%; interquartile range, 55.3) after corpus callosotomy at a mean follow-up of 2.6 years (± 1.4). One patient achieved complete seizure freedom and five patients had ≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency. Six patients continued to have partial-onset seizures though the frequency was decreased. Drop attacks and tonic seizures stopped in all the patients. Seizure outcomes after corpus callosotomy in our series are most likely a result of complex dynamic interaction between the natural history of epilepsy, the effect of the surgery, ongoing vagus nerve stimulation modulation, and modification in antiseizure drugs. Our study supports the clinical decision to try corpus callosotomy in patients having nonlateralizing drug-resistant epilepsy with inadequate response to vagus nerve stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. WHAT ENGLISH COLLOCATIONS TO TEACH FIRST TO INDONESIAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN? A MINI-CORPUS BASED RESEARCH OF INDONESIAN CHILDREN'S STORYBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryani Maryani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Frequent content words in a mini-corpus of 131 Indonesian children’s storybooks, which resulted in a corpus of 134, 320 words, were investigated. The result was used to identify what English collocations to teach first to Indonesian preschool children. The data were run through a collocation menu in MonoConc Pro, a corpus program. To identify the frequent collocations in the corpus, the preceding and following words from each frequent lemma were analyzed. All the data were calculated in terms of the whole corpus and normalized per 100,000 occurrences. The result showed that the children were already exposed to various collocations; however, it turned out that several English and Indonesian collocations were not similar in terms of syntax and morphology. Teachers cannot literally introduce those collocations to children. Key words: corpus, frequent collocation, content words

  4. Connected media and presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, J.; Nefs, H.T.; Gullström, C.; Greef, T.J. de; Parnes, P.

    2013-01-01

    Effective design of shared mediated spaces, information and connectedness requires theory and practice from a range of disciplines such as found in European projects like Together Anywhere, Together Anytime (TA2) and the EIT ICT Labs Mediating Presence activity. Building on this work we continue to

  5. The presence of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses high quality register-data to study the spillover effects on firstborns from having a younger sibling suffering from ADHD. Using OLS and cousin fixed effects analyses it is found that the educational outcomes of healthy firstborn children are significantly reduced by the presence...

  6. PresenceRemote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Svensson, Marcus Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    how these technologies can accommodate the specific challenges related to the everyday life of elderly people. In particular, using an example concept – the PresenceRemote – we will discuss how the stigma associated with being lonely, an inherent part of senior living, can be addressed by leaving room...

  7. Modulation of intrinsic cavernous tone and nitric oxide production by arginase in rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hitoshi; Yano, Masataka; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Kihara, Kazunori; Yamauchi, Yukinaao; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Arginase shares the common substrate L-arginine with nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We investigated the roles of NOS and arginase for modulating intrinsic and vasoconstrictor tone in rabbit corpus cavernosum (RCC). Isolated RCC tissues were used for isometric tension experiments, and NOS and arginase activities. The endothelium lining RCC lacunar spaces was disrupted and/or removed by saponin treatment. Following stretch of approximately 1gm NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as a NOS inhibitor caused endothelium dependent contraction, while the potent and specific arginase inhibitor N omega-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) caused endothelium dependent relaxation. Relaxation with nor-NOHA was reversed by L-NAME. In the presence of 10 mM L-arginine 0.1 mM nor-NOHA was ineffective. Pretreatment with 0.1 mM L-NAME and 0.1 mM nor-NOHA did not significantly affect the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine. The magnitude of contraction with 0.1 mM L-NAME and relaxation with 0.1 mM nor-NOHA during contraction induced by phenylephrine were not significantly different from changes with L-NAME and nor-NOHA under intrinsic basal tone. In the enzymatic study NOS and arginase were detectable in cavernous homogenates. Nor-NOHA inhibited arginase but not NOS activity. Results indicate that basal nitric oxide production from the endothelium regulates intrinsic cavernous tone and endogenous arginase activity in the endothelium modulates tone by inhibiting nitric oxide production, presumably through competition with constitutive NOS for the common substrate L-arginine.

  8. Enriching a biomedical event corpus with meta-knowledge annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomedical papers contain rich information about entities, facts and events of biological relevance. To discover these automatically, we use text mining techniques, which rely on annotated corpora for training. In order to extract protein-protein interactions, genotype-phenotype/gene-disease associations, etc., we rely on event corpora that are annotated with classified, structured representations of important facts and findings contained within text. These provide an important resource for the training of domain-specific information extraction (IE) systems, to facilitate semantic-based searching of documents. Correct interpretation of these events is not possible without additional information, e.g., does an event describe a fact, a hypothesis, an experimental result or an analysis of results? How confident is the author about the validity of her analyses? These and other types of information, which we collectively term meta-knowledge, can be derived from the context of the event. Results We have designed an annotation scheme for meta-knowledge enrichment of biomedical event corpora. The scheme is multi-dimensional, in that each event is annotated for 5 different aspects of meta-knowledge that can be derived from the textual context of the event. Textual clues used to determine the values are also annotated. The scheme is intended to be general enough to allow integration with different types of bio-event annotation, whilst being detailed enough to capture important subtleties in the nature of the meta-knowledge expressed in the text. We report here on both the main features of the annotation scheme, as well as its application to the GENIA event corpus (1000 abstracts with 36,858 events). High levels of inter-annotator agreement have been achieved, falling in the range of 0.84-0.93 Kappa. Conclusion By augmenting event annotations with meta-knowledge, more sophisticated IE systems can be trained, which allow interpretative information to be specified as

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv 7 channels in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum of healthy and metabolic syndrome rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, T A; Olesen, S P; Greenwood, I A

    2016-01-01

    and corpus cavernosum strips isolated from normal and SHHF rats. KEY RESULTS: Transcripts for KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were detected in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. KCNQ1 was only found in corpus cavernosum. Immunofluorescence signals to Kv 7.4 and Kv 7.5 were found in penile arteries, penile veins....... KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were down-regulated, and KCNQ1 was up-regulated in corpus cavernosum from SHHF rats. KCNQ1-5 transcripts remained unchanged in penile arteries from SHHF rats. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that Kv 7 channels play a role in erectile function and contribute...

  10. [Tumour of the corpus callosum: the association between interhemispheric disconnection and an anterograde amnesia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J; Lopera, F

    Sperry, or interhemispheric disconnection, syndrome was reported in patients who had undergone surgical section of the corpus callosum carried out in an attempt to control medication-resistant epilepsy. It has occasionally been linked to tumours of the corpus callosum and, although even more rarely, it has also been associated to an amnesic syndrome. In this paper we report the anatomical and neuropsychological findings in a patient with interhemispheric disconnection syndrome associated to a hippocampal-type amnesic syndrome, caused by a tumour in the splenius of the corpus callosum that extended into the fornix. A 52-year-old white male who visited because of loss of memory; on admission to hospital the physical examination revealed a certain degree of asomatognosia with regard to the left-hand side of the body. An axial tomography brain scan showed a dense central lesion in the brain that extended laterally and occluded the body of both lateral ventricles. A biopsy study revealed an undifferentiated astrocytoma that affected the corpus callosum and the fornix. Sperry, or interhemispheric disconnection, syndrome produced by a tumour in the splenius of the corpus callosum is very likely to course with an amnesic syndrome due to disconnection caused by destruction of the fornix. This association, which characterised our patient's clinical picture, has only previously been described in three cases.

  11. Translating the representation of the tourist landscape: A corpus-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandin Stefania

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present a corpus-based study on the translated language of tourism, focusing in particular on the stylistics of tourist landscapes. Through a comparative analysis of a specifically designed corpus of travel articles originally written in English (namely the TourEC-Tourism English Corpus and a corpus of tourist texts translated from a variety of languages into English (namely the T-TourEC – Translational Tourism English Corpus, the study will investigate a selection of collocates, concordances and keywords related to the description and representation of tourist settings in both corpora. The aim will be that of identifying differences, aspects or practices to be potentially improved that characterize the translated language of tourism with respect to tourist texts originally written in English. Results will show that the discursive patterns of translated texts differ from the stylistic strategies typically employed in native English for the linguistic representation of landscape and settings due to phenomena of translation universals, and that these differences may affect the relating communicative functions, properties and persuasive effects of tourist promotional discourse.

  12. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-06-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  13. A corpus-based lexical analysis of subject-specific university textbooks for English majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konul Hajiyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a corpus-based lexical analysis of subject-specific university textbooks which purports to explore lexical text coverage and frequency distribution of words from the Academic Word List and the British National Corpus frequency-based word families. For this study a 508,802-word corpus was created, the findings of which reflect that the Academic Word List word families constitute only a small coverage (6.5% of the words in the entire corpus, whereas the first two thousand high-frequency word families give the coverage of 88.92%. In terms of the text coverage, the results reveal that if 98% coverage of a text is needed for unassisted comprehension, then a vocabulary size of 9000 word families is required. The results also substantiate the claims that the Academic Word List is not as general an academic vocabulary as it was initially intended to be and, more importantly, supports the assumption that students need a more restricted core academic vocabulary. It is therefore argued that 127 academic word families which are relatively frequent in the overall university textbook corpus can be used as a part of the university word list for second-year English majors who have to read and comprehend university textbooks.

  14. Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on Relaxation in Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Son, Su Bin; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Aims of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (ESB) relaxes penile corpus cavernosum muscle in organ bath experiments. Materials and methods. Changes in tension of cavernous smooth muscle strips were determined by penile strip chamber model and in penile perfusion model. Isolated endothelium-intact rabbit corpus cavernosum was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) and then treated with ESB. Results. ESB relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, and this was inhibited by pre-treatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, and 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. ESB-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA), a nonselective K(+) channel blocker, and charybdotoxin, a selective Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel inhibitor. ESB increased the cGMP levels of rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in cAMP levels. In a perfusion model of penile tissue, ESB also relaxed penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB relaxed rabbit cavernous smooth muscle via the NO/cGMP system and Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels in the corpus cavernosum.

  15. Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on Relaxation in Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (ESB relaxes penile corpus cavernosum muscle in organ bath experiments. Materials and methods. Changes in tension of cavernous smooth muscle strips were determined by penile strip chamber model and in penile perfusion model. Isolated endothelium-intact rabbit corpus cavernosum was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE and then treated with ESB. Results. ESB relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, and this was inhibited by pre-treatment with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor, and 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC inhibitor. ESB-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA, a nonselective K+ channel blocker, and charybdotoxin, a selective Ca2+-dependent K+ channel inhibitor. ESB increased the cGMP levels of rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in cAMP levels. In a perfusion model of penile tissue, ESB also relaxed penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB relaxed rabbit cavernous smooth muscle via the NO/cGMP system and Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in the corpus cavernosum.

  16. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  17. Angular analysis of corpus callosum in 18 patients with frontonasal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giffoni Silvyo David Araújo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the rarity of the frontonasal dysplasia (FD and the few reports about it in a large casuistry using magnetic resonance image (MRI, we describe the results of the angular analysis of the corpus callosum of 18 individuals with FD (7 male, 11 female, using an easily-reproductive method. Group I had 12 individuals with isolated form and Group II had 6 individuals with FD syndromic with unknown etiology. The results are presented in set. Comparing with the control group, patients with FD presented alpha angle increase and beta and gamma angles reduction (p<0.05. Alpha and gamma angles express the relationship between the anterior portion of corpus callosum and the floor of 4th ventricle. Considering the embryonary development, these findings would occur secondarily to failure during the development of nasal capsula. Thus, angular anomaly in corpus callosum would be a usual finding, and not fortuitous in patients with FD.

  18. The Nationwide Speech Project: A new corpus of American English dialects☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual and acoustic research on dialect variation in the United States requires an appropriate corpus of spoken language materials. Existing speech corpora that include dialect variation are limited by poor recording quality, small numbers of talkers, and/or small samples of speech from each talker. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to contain a large amount of speech produced by male and female talkers representing the primary regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading words, sentences, passages, and in interviews with an experimenter, using high quality digital recording equipment in a sound-attenuated booth. The resulting corpus contains nearly an hour of speech from each of the 60 talkers that can be used in future research on the perception and production of dialect variation. PMID:21423815

  19. Shallow syntactic annotation in the corpus of Wrocław University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Radziszewski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shallow syntactic annotation in the corpus of Wrocław University of Technology In this paper we present shallow syntactic annotation of The Wrocław University of Technology Corpus. We discuss some theoretical and practical considerations related to shallow parsing of Polish, then we present our annotation guidelines. The proposed annotation scheme includes chunking – four chunk types are defined with reference to the notion of accommodation and syntactic connotation, as well as annotation of four inter-chunk predicate-argument relations. Until now almost 18k chunk and 4k relation instances have been annotated. We believe that both the corpus and the annotation guideliness will prove their applicability in construction of automatic shallow parsers.

  20. High-protein diet suppresses corpus atrophic gastritis in Helicobacter pylori infected Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Keiko; Kamada, Tomoari; Sugiu, Kuniaki; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Manabe, Noriaki; Shiotani, Akiko; Hata, Jiro; Teramoto, Fusako; Haruma, Ken

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a high-protein diet on corpus atrophic gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils, H. pylori was administered orally to 5-wk-old Mongolian gerbils; and the animals were then fed a control diet (Group C); a high-fat diet (Group F: 40% fat); a high-protein diet (Group P: 32% protein); or a high-fat, high-protein diet (Group FP: 40% fat, 32% protein) for 50 wk beginning at 7 wk of age. In uninfected animals, the mucosal thickness of the corpus was significantly greater in Group P and Group FP than in Group C (P diet suppresses corpus atrophic gastritis in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

  1. A Case of Radial Nerve Palsy Treated with Additional Scolopendrae Corpus Herbal-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Jung-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to report the patient with radial nerve palsy, who improved by Scolopendrae Corpus Herbal-Acupuncture and other Oriental medical treatments. Methods : The patient was managed by Scolopendrae Corpus Herbal-Acupuncture, body acupunture, physical theraphy and herbal medicine. We took picture of the patient's wrist and checked the power of muscles. Results : After 4 week treatment, the movement and power of wrist was restored to nearly normal range. Conclusion : The results suggest that combination of Scolopendrae Corpus Herbal-Acupuncture and other Oriental medical treatments is good method for treatment of radial nerve palsy. But further studies are required to concretely prove the effectiveness of this methods.

  2. Nonlinguistic vocalizations from online amateur videos for emotion research: A validated corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, Andrey; Persson, Tomas

    2017-04-01

    This study introduces a corpus of 260 naturalistic human nonlinguistic vocalizations representing nine emotions: amusement, anger, disgust, effort, fear, joy, pain, pleasure, and sadness. The recognition accuracy in a rating task varied greatly per emotion, from 70% for amusement, pleasure, fear, and sadness. In contrast, the raters' linguistic-cultural group had no effect on recognition accuracy: The predominantly English-language corpus was classified with similar accuracies by participants from Brazil, Russia, Sweden, and the UK/USA. Supervised random forest models classified the sounds as accurately as the human raters. The best acoustic predictors of emotion were pitch, harmonicity, and the spacing and regularity of syllables. This corpus of ecologically valid emotional vocalizations can be filtered to include only sounds with high recognition rates, in order to study reactions to emotional stimuli of known perceptual types (reception side), or can be used in its entirety to study the association between affective states and vocal expressions (production side).

  3. [Phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernous smooth musle cells and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Lü, Bo-dong; Huang, Xiao-jun

    2010-03-01

    Corpus cavernous smooth muscle cells are the main functional component of the corpus cavernosum penis, whose phenotypic modulation is the key initial step in the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells. Therefore, an insight into the mechanism of the phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells and its influencing factors is important for the prevention and management of penis erectile dysfunction. Smooth muscle cells are generally divided into contracting (differentiated) and composing (undifferentiated, proliferated or dedifferentiated) types. It is found that TGF-beta, transcription factor E2F1, BTEB2 and insulin may affect the phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells. This paper presents an overview of the progress in the researches on the phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernous smooth muscle cells and its influencing factors.

  4. Determination of mirodenafil and sildenafil in the plasma and corpus cavernous of SD male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Kim, Yoon; Kim, Tae Kon; Im, Guang-Jin; Lee, Bong-Yong; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Changbae; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2009-02-20

    The purpose of the present study was to determine sildenafil and a novel PDE-5 inhibitor, mirodenafil in the plasma and corpus cavernosum tissue of rats to compare their pharmacokinetic properties. The concentrations of mirodenafil and sildenafil in the rat plasma and corpus cavernosum tissue samples were analyzed using LC-MS/MS after a single oral administration at a dose of 40mg/kg to rats. Although the T(max), Tlambda(1/2) and MRT were not different between mirodenafil and sildenafil, the C(max) and AUC of mirodenafil were significantly higher than those of sildenafil in the plasma and corpus cavernosum tissue. Consequently mirodenafil remained longer than sildenafil in the plasma and tissue. This may provide pharmacokinetic evidence for assessment of the in vivo efficacy of mirodenafil and sildenafil.

  5. The Accuracy of Transrectal Ultrasonography Diagnostic for Examination of Ovarian Structures in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabowo Purwono Putro

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of dominant follicle diameter and corpus luteum size manifested the real size of the two ovarian structures. Transrectal ultrasonography diagnostic on ovaries proved to be having high accuracy and reliability for identification, measurement of ovarian structure diameters, follicle and corpus luteum in cattle.

  6. Reaction Time Is Negatively Associated with Corpus Callosum Area in the Early Stages of CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, S; De Guio, F; Reyes, S; Jabouley, A; Chabriat, H; Jouvent, E

    2017-11-01

    Reaction time was recently recognized as a marker of subtle cognitive and behavioral alterations in the early clinical stages of CADASIL, a monogenic cerebral small-vessel disease. In unselected patients with CADASIL, brain atrophy and lacunes are the main imaging correlates of disease severity, but MR imaging correlates of reaction time in mildly affected patients are unknown. We hypothesized that reaction time is independently associated with the corpus callosum area in the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Twenty-six patients with CADASIL without dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score > 24 and no cognitive symptoms) and without disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 1) were compared with 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Corpus callosum area was determined on 3D-T1 MR imaging sequences with validated methodology. Between-group comparisons were performed with t tests or χ2 tests when appropriate. Relationships between reaction time and corpus callosum area were tested using linear regression modeling. Reaction time was significantly related to corpus callosum area in patients (estimate = -7.4 × 103, standard error = 3.3 × 103, P = .03) even after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, and scores of depression and apathy (estimate = -12.2 × 103, standard error = 3.8 × 103, P = .005). No significant relationship was observed in controls. Corpus callosum area, a simple and robust imaging parameter, appears to be an independent correlate of reaction time at the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Further studies will determine whether corpus callosum area can be used as an outcome in future clinical trials in CADASIL or in more prevalent small-vessel diseases. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Capturing Online Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bakker, Frank; Hellsten, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The rise of Internet-mediated communication poses possibilities and challenges for organisation studies, also in the area of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and business and society interactions. Although social media are attracting more and more attention in this domain, websites also remain...... an important channel for CSR debate. In this paper, we present an explorative study of activist groups’ online presence via their websites and propose a combination of methods to study both the structural positioning of websites (hyperlink network analysis) and the meanings in these websites (semantic co...

  8. The Mare Model to Study the Effects of Ovarian Dynamics on Preantral Follicle Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Kele A.; Alves, Benner G.; Gastal, Gustavo D. A.; de Tarso, Saulo G. S.; Gastal, Melba O.; Figueiredo, José R.; Gambarini, Maria L.; Gastal, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian tissue collected by biopsy procedures allows the performance of many studies with clinical applications in the field of female fertility preservation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive phase (anestrous vs. diestrous) and ovarian structures (antral follicles and corpus luteum) on the quality, class distribution, number, and density of preantral follicles, and stromal cell density. Ovarian fragments were harvested by biopsy pick-up procedures from mares and submitted to histological analysis. The mean preantral follicle and ovarian stromal cell densities were greater in the diestrous phase and a positive correlation of stromal cell density with the number and density of preantral follicles was observed. The mean area (mm2) of ovarian structures increased in the diestrous phase and had positive correlations with number of preantral follicles, follicle density, and stromal cell density. Biopsy fragments collected from ovaries containing an active corpus luteum had a higher follicle density, stromal cell density, and proportion of normal preantral follicles. In conclusion, our results showed: (1) the diestrous phase influenced positively the preantral follicle quality, class distribution, and follicle and stromal cell densities; (2) the area of ovarian structures was positively correlated with the follicle and stromal cell densities; and (3) the presence of an active corpus luteum had a positive effect on the quality of preantral follicles, and follicle and stromal densities. Therefore, herein we demonstrate that the presence of key ovarian structures favors the harvest of ovarian fragments containing an appropriate number of healthy preantral follicles. PMID:26900687

  9. COLOR-SOUND METAPHORS IN RUSSIAN (DATA OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardovskaya Anastasia Igorevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article regards peculiarities of collecting the data about the synaesthetic metaphor from the Russian National Corpus. Possibilities which this corpus gives to the researcher of this language phenomenon are shown and discussed. Peculiarities of color-sound metaphors in the Russian texts belonging to different styles and genres are shown, typical synaesthetic patterns and color and sound terms representing them are defined, contexts in which color-sound metaphors function in the texts of the past decade are analyzed. Possibilities of the further research aimed at studying linguocultural specificity of the synaesthetic metaphor are marked.

  10. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. Methods To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Results Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. Conclusions PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our

  11. Injuries of the spine and of the spinal cord in the Hippocratic Corpus of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korres, Demetrios; Markatos, Konstantinos; Chytas, Demetrios; Andreakos, Anastasios; Mavrogenis, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review article is to summarize the views presented in the Hippocratic Corpus of Medicine regarding injuries of the spine, their effect on the spinal cord and the optimal treatment modulus. It is shown that the treatment dilemmas of ancient times in these injuries remain modern since Hippocrates suggested that conservative treatment and letting nature take its course is preferable over a devastating surgical treatment if the spinal cord structural integrity is not compromised. There is also a detailed account of the conservative treatment suggested in the Hippocratic Corpus concerning devices and method of closed spinal relocations.

  12. Etiquetador semiautomático fonético de un corpus de voces

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Murillo, Cristian Remington

    2016-01-01

    Se desarrolló un sistema para la segmentación y etiquetado semiautomático a nivel de fonemas para corpus de palabras implementado en Matlab. El sistema está basado en el algoritmo de alineación forzada, el cual utiliza modelos ocultos de Markov discretos, por lo cual se necesita comenzar con una fracción de archivos etiquetados y segmentados manualmente de manera previa. Dichos archivos deben incluir todos los fonemas presentes en el corpus para poder entrenar los modelos de Markov. También s...

  13. KorAP: the new corpus analysis platform at IDS Mannheim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banski, Piotr; Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The KorAP project (“Korpusanalyseplattform der nächste Generation”, “Corpus-analysis platform of the next generation”), carried out at the Institut für Deutsche Sprache (IDS) in Mannheim, Germany, has as its goal the development of a modern, state-of-the-art corpus-analysis platform, capable...... of handling very large corpora and opening the perspectives for innovative linguistic research. The platform will facilitate new linguistic findings by making it possible to manage and analyse extremely large amounts of primary data and annotations, while at the same time allowing an undistorted view...

  14. Le corpus multilingue InterCorp : nouveaux paradigmes de recherche en linguistique contrastive et en traductologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nádvorníková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic corpora have changed the research paradigm in many linguistic disciplines, allowing researchers to exploit large data based on real occurrences in authentic contexts. Using a large multilingual corpus (InterCorp, available online, this paper aims to present the changes of research paradigms brought on by corpora in two domains: contrastive linguistics and translation studies. On the basis of research results obtained by using this corpus, we demonstrate new research possibilities offered by parallel corpora, in particular bi-directional (multidirectional analysis and the study of the specific features of the language of translation (translation universals.

  15. Anotación morfosintáctica do Corpus Técnico do Galego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Gómez Guinovart

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste traballo preséntanse a metodoloxía e os criterios empregados na anotación lingüística (etiquetaxe categorial e lematización do Corpus Técnico do Galego, un corpus elaborado na Universidade de Vigo con textos monolingües especializados do galego contemporáneo nos eidos do dereito, da informática, da economía, das ciencias ambientais, da socioloxía e da medicina.

  16. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our annotation is currently limited to a single

  17. Cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum mimicking an astrocytic tumor--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, S; Niimi, M; Murakami, K; Nakamura, T

    2001-07-01

    A 49-year-old female presented with a mass at the genu of corpus callosum manifesting as vertiginous sensation persisting for a couple of months. The preoperative diagnosis based on neuroimaging was astrocytic tumor, probably an oligodendroglioma. The mass was totally excised through a left interhemispheric approach without postoperative neurological deficits. Histological examination of the mass revealed only vascular components with tiny hemorrhage, compatible with cavernous angioma. Cavernous angioma at the genu of corpus callosum is very rare, and definitive diagnosis can be achieved only through surgery. Surgical intervention should be considered before starting radiotherapy without histological confirmation.

  18. Marchiafava-Bignami disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings in corpus callosum and subcortical white matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarabuki, Kentaro E-mail: bukky@h2.dion.ne.jp; Sakakibara, Takehiko; Hirai, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Yamaki, Tarumi

    2003-11-01

    A case of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is presented using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A patient with a long history of alcoholism developed a gait disturbance with involuntary movements at the lower extremities. MRI scans taken at the onset showed no particular abnormalities. He progressed to a coma 10 days later. MRI scans taken 20 days after the onset showed a focal lesion at the genu of the corpus callosum and he was diagnosed as having MBD. In addition, multiple lesions were observed in bilateral frontoparietal subcortical white matter. These lesions demonstrated similar intense MRI signals as the corpus callosum.

  19. NCBI disease corpus: a resource for disease name recognition and concept normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-01

    Information encoded in natural language in biomedical literature publications is only useful if efficient and reliable ways of accessing and analyzing that information are available. Natural language processing and text mining tools are therefore essential for extracting valuable information, however, the development of powerful, highly effective tools to automatically detect central biomedical concepts such as diseases is conditional on the availability of annotated corpora. This paper presents the disease name and concept annotations of the NCBI disease corpus, a collection of 793 PubMed abstracts fully annotated at the mention and concept level to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural language processing community. Each PubMed abstract was manually annotated by two annotators with disease mentions and their corresponding concepts in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®). Manual curation was performed using PubTator, which allowed the use of pre-annotations as a pre-step to manual annotations. Fourteen annotators were randomly paired and differing annotations were discussed for reaching a consensus in two annotation phases. In this setting, a high inter-annotator agreement was observed. Finally, all results were checked against annotations of the rest of the corpus to assure corpus-wide consistency. The public release of the NCBI disease corpus contains 6892 disease mentions, which are mapped to 790 unique disease concepts. Of these, 88% link to a MeSH identifier, while the rest contain an OMIM identifier. We were able to link 91% of the mentions to a single disease concept, while the rest are described as a combination of concepts. In order to help researchers use the corpus to design and test disease identification methods, we have prepared the corpus as training, testing and development sets. To demonstrate its utility, we conducted a benchmarking experiment where we compared three different

  20. Comorbidity is an independent prognostic factor in women with uterine corpus cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette C; Sperling, Cecilie; Christensen, Ib J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether comorbidity independently affects overall survival in women with uterine corpus cancer. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: A total of 4244 patients registered in the Danish Gynecologic Cancer database with uterine corpus cancer from 1 January....... RESULTS: Univariate survival analysis showed a significant (p independent prognostic factor with hazard ratios...... ranging from 1.27 to 1.42 in mild, 1.69 to 1.74 in moderate, and 1.72 to 2.48 in severe comorbidity. Performance status was independently associated to overall survival and was found to slightly reduce the prognostic impact of comorbidity. CONCLUSION: Comorbidity is an independent prognostic factor...