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Sample records for corn field balancing

  1. Carbon Balance in an Irrigated Corn Field after Inorganic Fertilizer or Manure Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R. D.; Lehrsch, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC and IC (POC, PIC) concentrations in irrigation inflow, runoff, and percolation waters (6-7 irrigations/y); C inputs from soil amendments and crop biomass; harvested C; and gaseous C emissions from field plots cropped to silage corn (Zea mays L.) in southern Idaho. Annual treatments included: (M) 13 (y 1) and 34 Mg/ha (y 2) stockpiled dairy manure; (F) 78 (yr 1) and 195 kg N/ha (y 2) inorganic N fertilizer; or (NA) no amendment--control. The mean annual total C input into M plots averaged 16.1 Mg/ha, 1.4-times greater than that for NA (11.5 Mg/ha) or F (11.1 Mg/ha), while total C outputs for the three treatments were similar, averaging 11.8 Mg/ha. Thus, the manure plots ended each growing season with an average net gain of 3.8 Mg C/ha (a positive net C flux), while the control (-0.5 Mg C/ha) and fertilizer (-0.4 Mg C/ha) treatments finished the season with a net C loss. Atmospheric CO2 incorporated into the crop biomass contributed 96% of the mean annual C input to NA and F plots but only 68% to M plots. We conclude that nutrient amendments substantially influence the short-term carbon balance of our furrow-irrigated system. Amendments had both direct and indirect influences on individual C components, such as the losses of DIC and POC in runoff and DOC in percolation water, producing temporally complex outcomes which may depend on environmental conditions external to the field.

  2. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  3. Impact of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Field Corn (Poales: Poaceae) Yield and Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Jenny L; Cook, Donald; Catchot, Angus; Musser, Fred; Stewart, Scott D; Leonard, Billy Rogers; Buntin, G David; Kerns, David; Allen, Tom W; Gore, Jeffrey

    2018-05-28

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), commonly infests field corn, Zea mays (L.). The combination of corn plant biology, corn earworm behavior in corn ecosystems, and field corn value renders corn earworm management with foliar insecticides noneconomical. Corn technologies containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were introduced that exhibit substantial efficacy against corn earworm and may reduce mycotoxin contamination in grain. The first generation Bt traits in field corn demonstrated limited activity on corn earworm feeding on grain. The pyramided corn technologies have greater cumulative protein concentrations and higher expression throughout the plant, so these corn traits should provide effective management of this pest. Additionally, reduced kernel injury may affect physical grain quality. Experiments were conducted during 2011-2012 to investigate corn earworm impact on field corn yield and grain quality. Treatments included field corn hybrids expressing the Herculex, YieldGard, and Genuity VT Triple Pro technologies. Supplemental insecticide treatments were applied every 1-2 d from silk emergence until silk senescence to create a range of injured kernels for each technology. No significant relationship between the number of corn earworm damaged kernels and yield was observed for any technology/hybrid. In these studies, corn earworm larvae did not cause enough damage to impact yield. Additionally, no consistent relationship between corn earworm damage and aflatoxin contamination was observed. Based on these data, the economic value of pyramided Bt corn traits to corn producers, in the southern United States, appears to be from management of other lepidopteran insect pests including European and southwestern corn borer.

  4. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  5. Energy balance concept in the evaluation of water table management effects on corn growth: experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, P.K.; Kanwar, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of water table management practices (WTMP) on corn growth in 1989 and 1990 at two field sites, Ames and Ankeny, Iowa, were evaluated by calculating crop water stress index (CWSI) and monitoring plant physiological parameters during the growing seasons. Experiments were conducted on field lysimeters at the Ames site by maintaining water tables at 0.3-, 0.6-, and 0.9-m depths and in a subirrigation field at the Ankeny site with 0.2-, 0.3-, 0.6-, 0.9-, and 1.1-m water table depths, and periodically measuring leaf and air temperature, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using leaf chamber techniques. Net radiation of canopy was estimated using the leaf energy balance equation and leaf chamber measurements and then correlated with PAR. Analysis of data revealed that net radiation, leaf air temperature differential, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and CWSI were strongly related to WTMP during vegetative and flowering stages of corn growth. Excess water in the root zone with a water table depth of 0.2 m caused the maximum crop water stress and ceased crop growth. Both water and oxygen could be adequately maintained for favorable crop growth by adopting the best WTMP. Results indicate that plant physiological parameters and CWSI could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of WTMP and develop the best WTMP for corn growth in the humid region

  6. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  7. Identification of corn fields using multidate radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugan, K.S.; Ulaby, F.T.; Narayanan, V.; Dobson, C.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne C- and L-band radar data acquired over a test site in western Kansas were analyzed to determine corn-field identification accuracies obtainable using single-channel, multichannel, and multidate radar data. An automated pattern-recognition procedure was used to classify 144 fields into three categories: corn, pasture land, and bare soil (including wheat stubble and fallow). Corn fields were identified with accuracies ranging from 85% for single channel, single-date data to 100% for single-channel, multidate data. The effects of radar parameters such as frequency, polarization, and look angle as well as the effects of soil moisture on the classification accuracy are also presented

  8. quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Ahlem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural parameters and microstructure were carried out to assess the impact of experimental factors. Results showed that hydrothermal treatment of corn flour affected in different extent on pasta properties, improving cooking and textural characteristics of pasta. The optimum formulation of corn-field bean contained 7.41 g of treated corn flour and 77.26 mL of water was selected on the base of desirability function approach with value of 0.825 which showed the best pasta properties. Obtained results showed also that addition of treated flour induced significant differences (p < 0.05 in all parameters in comparison with control pasta.

  9. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapouri, Hosein [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Duffield, James A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate.

  10. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. Methodology/Major Findings We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996–2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010–2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab—event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2—event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. Conclusions/Significance After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt

  11. Effect of hydrothermal treated corn flour addition on the quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    OpenAIRE

    Dib Ahlem; Wójtowicz Agnieszka; Benatallah Leila; Bouasla Abdallah; Zidoune Mohammed Nasreddine

    2018-01-01

    Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w) were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural param...

  12. Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Hawks, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    We have so much corn right now it's coming out of our ears (great pun, right?). And it's SO incredibly cheap! This is probably because the US produces 42% of the world's corn! Most of it is used for animal feed, but other uses include exporting to other countries, human food, seed, and industrial uses such as ethanol production. Because there is so much corn available here in the U.S. You can find it in a lot more foods than you think. It's in peanut butter, snack foods, soft drinks, multivit...

  13. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Dively, Galen P

    2017-06-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop-pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996-2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes.

  14. Field evidence for the exposure of ground beetles to Cry1Ab from transgenic corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Claudia; Andow, David A

    2005-01-01

    Non-target organisms associated with the soil might be adversely affected by exposure to the CrylAb protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in transgenic corn (Zea mays L.). To check for such exposure, we used ELISA to test for Cry1Ab in ground beetles collected live from fields with Bt corn residues and Bt corn (Bt/Bt), Bt corn residues and non-Bt crops (Bt/non-Bt), or non-Bt corn residues and non-Bt crops (non-Bt/non-Bt). In fields with Bt corn residues (Bt/Bt and Bt/non-Bt), Cry1Ab was present in all seven species of ground beetles examined (Agonum placidum, Bembidion rupicola, Clivina impressefrons, Cyclotrachelus iowensis, Harpalus pensylvanicus, Poecilus chalcites, and Poecilus lucublandus). For the two most abundant species, P. chalcites and P. lucublandus, the proportion of beetles with Cry1Ab was significantly higher in Bt/Bt fields (0.50-1.0) and Bt/non-Bt fields (0.41-0.50) than in non-Bt/non-Bt fields (0.0). This is the first field evidence that some ground beetle species are exposed to Cry1Ab. The implications of exposure on the performance of these non-target organisms are unclear.

  15. Analysis of the profile characteristics of corn and soybeans using field reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    The typical patterns of spectral development (profiles) for corn and soybeans are presented, based on field-collected reflectance data transformed to correspond to LANDSAT-MSS Tasseled Cap coordinates. Reasonable variations in field conditions and cultural practices are shown to significantly influence profile features. The separability of the two crops is determined to be primarily related to the maximum value of the reflectance equivalent of Greenness, and to the plateau effect seen in corn Greenness profiles. The impact of changes in conditions on separability is described. In addition, association is made between profile features and stages of development for corn and soybeans. Corn is shown to peak at a stage well before tasseling or maximum LAI, while the characteristics of the soybean profile are shown to be unrelated to any particular stage of development.

  16. Field measurements, simulation modeling and development of analysis for moisture stressed corn and soybeans, 1982 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, B. L.; Norman, J. M.; Gardner, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental design, data acquisition and analysis procedures for agronomic and reflectance data acquired over corn and soybeans at the Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory of the University of Nebraska are described. The following conclusions were reached: (1) predictive leaf area estimation models can be defined which appear valid over a wide range of soils; (2) relative grain yield estimates over moisture stressed corn were improved by combining reflectance and thermal data; (3) corn phenology estimates using the model of Badhwar and Henderson (1981) exhibited systematic bias but were reasonably accurate; (4) canopy reflectance can be modelled to within approximately 10% of measured values; and (5) soybean pubescence significantly affects canopy reflectance, energy balance and water use relationships.

  17. Spray particle drift mitigation using field corn (Zea mays L.) as a drift barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bruno C; Butts, Thomas R; Rodrigues, Andre O; Golus, Jeffrey A; Schroeder, Kasey; Kruger, Greg R

    2018-04-24

    Herbicide particle drift reduces application efficacy and can cause severe impacts on nearby vegetation depending on the herbicide mode-of-action, exposure level, and tolerance to the herbicide. A particle drift mitigation effort placing windbreaks or barriers on the field boundaries to reduce off-target movement of spray particles has been utilized in the past. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of field corn (Zea mays L.) at different heights as a particle drift barrier. Applications with a non-air inclusion flat fan nozzle (ER11004) resulted in greater particle drift when compared to an air inclusion nozzle (TTI11004). Eight rows of corn were used as barriers (0.91, 1.22, and 1.98 m height) which reduced the particle drift for both nozzles, especially at shorter downwind distances. Applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers had 1% of the applied rate (D 99 ) predicted to deposit at 14.8 m downwind, whereas this distance was reduced (up to 7-fold) when applications were performed with corn barriers. The combination of corn drift barriers and nozzle selection (TTI11004) provided satisfactory particle drift reduction when the D 99 estimates were compared to applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers (up to 10-fold difference). The corn drift barriers were effective in reducing particle drift from applications with the ER11004 and the TTI11004 nozzles (Fine and Ultra Coarse spray classifications, respectively). The corn drift barrier had appropriate porosity and width as the airborne spray was captured within its canopy instead of deflecting up and over it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Meta-analysis of yield response of hybrid field corn to foliar fungicides in the U.S. Corn Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P A; Madden, L V; Bradley, C A; Robertson, A E; Munkvold, G P; Shaner, G; Wise, K A; Malvick, D K; Allen, T W; Grybauskas, A; Vincelli, P; Esker, P

    2011-09-01

    The use of foliar fungicides on field corn has increased greatly over the past 5 years in the United States in an attempt to increase yields, despite limited evidence that use of the fungicides is consistently profitable. To assess the value of using fungicides in grain corn production, random-effects meta-analyses were performed on results from foliar fungicide experiments conducted during 2002 to 2009 in 14 states across the United States to determine the mean yield response to the fungicides azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, and propiconazole + azoxystrobin. For all fungicides, the yield difference between treated and nontreated plots was highly variable among studies. All four fungicides resulted in a significant mean yield increase relative to the nontreated plots (P pyraclostrobin (256 kg/ha), and lowest for azoxystrobin (230 kg/ha). Baseline yield (mean yield in the nontreated plots) had a significant effect on yield for propiconazole + azoxystrobin (P pyraclostrobin, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, and propiconazole + azoxystrobin but not to azoxystrobin. Mean yield difference was generally higher in the lowest yield and higher disease severity categories than in the highest yield and lower disease categories. The probability of failing to recover the fungicide application cost (p(loss)) also was estimated for a range of grain corn prices and application costs. At the 10-year average corn grain price of $0.12/kg ($2.97/bushel) and application costs of $40 to 95/ha, p(loss) for disease severity pyraclostrobin, 0.62 to 0.93 for propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, 0.58 to 0.89 for propiconazole + azoxystrobin, and 0.91 to 0.99 for azoxystrobin. When disease severity was >5%, the corresponding probabilities were 0.36 to 95, 0.25 to 0.69, 0.25 to 0.64, and 0.37 to 0.98 for the four fungicides. In conclusion, the high p(loss) values found in most scenarios suggest that the use of these foliar fungicides is unlikely to be profitable when

  19. Efficacy of Maister OD (Foramsulfuron + Idosulfuron a New Herbicide in Controlling Weeds of Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of a new herbicide Foramsulfuron +Idosulfuron (Maister OD against other herbicides in corn fields, this experiment was fulfielld in 2010 at Mahidasht, Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Kermanshah, Iran. It was concucted in randomized complete block design with four replications and 11 treatments. In this experiment, three doses of herbicides (38.75, 46.5 and 54.25 g/ha including foramsulfuron + idosulfuron along with Nicusulfuron, ForamSulfuron, Rimsulfuron, Foramsulfuron + Rimsulfuron , Bromicid + hand weeding narrow leaf weeds, Bromicid + Nicusulfuron and U46 + hand weeding of narrow leaf weeds and a complete weeding as the control treatments were investigated. Weeds present in the field were Xanthium stromarium,Chenopedium album, Portulaca oleracea, Sorgum halepense and Setaria virdis. The results of this study showed that doses 38.75 and 46.5 g/ha of herbicide foramsulfuron + idosulfuron after treatments of Bromicid + Nicusulfuron and, Bromicid + narrow leaf weed, hand weeding respectively could control 90 and 86 % of weeds in corn field and increase its yields significantly. Because there are presently few registered herbicide available in Iran, necessity of finding proper herbicides to control weeds in corn field and based on the results oblained from this experiment it seems using 46.5 and 38-75 grams per hectare respectively of foramsulfuron + idosulfuron could be a better option than other herbicides to control weeds in corn fields and increase its seed yield.

  20. Within-field Corn Nitrogen Response Related to Aerial Photograph Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture management of nitrogen (N) using aerial imagery of corn [Zea mays L.] canopy color has been a proposed strategy to understand crop N health and base within-season N fertilizer application rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate at field scale the relationship between...

  1. Phosphorus export from artificially drained fields across the Eastern corn belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field observations that quantify agricultural phosphorus (P) losses are critical for the development of P reduction strategies across the Eastern Corn Belt region of North America. Within this region, surface water bodies including Lake Erie are sensitive to non-point P loadings. It is therefore imp...

  2. Distributional patterns of fall armyworm parasitoids in a corn field and pasture field in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of parasitoids and their selective patterns among Spodoptera frugiperda corn and rice host strains was performed from August 2008-August 2010 in a corn crop and a grass pasture in northern Florida under different seasonal conditions (spring and fall). Sentinel larvae from our laborator...

  3. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from corn silk by pulsed electric field and response surface quadratic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhu; Yu, Zhipeng; Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Yiding; Yin, Yongguang; Lin, Songyi; Chen, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Corn silk is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been widely used for treatment of some diseases. In this study the effects of pulsed electric field on the extraction of polysaccharides from corn silk were investigated. Polysaccharides in corn silk were extracted by pulsed electric field and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Three independent variables, including electric field intensity (kV cm(-1) ), ratio of liquid to raw material and pulse duration (µs), were investigated. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation and also profiled into the corresponding 3-D contour plots. Optimal extraction conditions were as follows: electric field intensity 30 kV cm(-1) , ratio of liquid to raw material 50, and pulse duration 6 µs. Under these condition, the experimental yield of extracted polysaccharides was 7.31% ± 0.15%, matching well with the predicted value. The results showed that a pulsed electric field could be applied to extract value-added products from foods and/or agricultural matrix. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Aaron J.; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L.; Keweshan, Ryan S.; Dunbar, Mike W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are planted on millions of hectares annually, reducing the use of conventional insecticides and suppressing pests. However, the evolution of resistance could cut short these benefits. A primary pest targeted by Bt maize in the United States is the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Methodology/Principal Findings We report that fields identified by farmers as having severe rootworm feeding injury to Bt maize contained populations of western corn rootworm that displayed significantly higher survival on Cry3Bb1 maize in laboratory bioassays than did western corn rootworm from fields not associated with such feeding injury. In all cases, fields experiencing severe rootworm feeding contained Cry3Bb1 maize. Interviews with farmers indicated that Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in those fields for at least three consecutive years. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of years Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in a field and the survival of rootworm populations on Cry3Bb1 maize in bioassays. However, there was no significant correlation among populations for survival on Cry34/35Ab1 maize and Cry3Bb1 maize, suggesting a lack of cross resistance between these Bt toxins. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of field-evolved resistance to a Bt toxin by the western corn rootworm and by any species of Coleoptera. Insufficient planting of refuges and non-recessive inheritance of resistance may have contributed to resistance. These results suggest that improvements in resistance management and a more integrated approach to the use of Bt crops may be necessary. PMID:21829470

  5. Defining the Insect Pollinator Community Found in Iowa Corn and Soybean Fields: Implications for Pollinator Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, M J; Rey, K P; O'Neal, M E

    2016-10-01

    Although corn (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max L.) do not require pollination, they offer floral resources used by insect pollinators. We asked if a similar community of insect pollinators visits these crops in central Iowa, a landscape dominated by corn and soybean production. We used modified pan traps (i.e., bee bowls) in both corn and soybean fields during anthesis and used nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) to compare the communities found in the two crops. Summed across both crops, 6,704 individual insects were captured representing at least 60 species, morphospecies, or higher-level taxa. Thirty-four species were collected in both crops, 19 collected only in corn and seven were collected only in soybean. The most abundant taxa were Lasioglossum [Dialictus] spp., Agapostemon virescens Cresson, Melissodes bimaculata (Lepeletier), and Toxomerus marginatus (Say), which accounted for 65% of the insect pollinators collected from both crops. Although social bees (Apis mellifera L. and Bombus spp.) were found in both crops, they accounted for only 0.5% of all insects captured. The NMS analysis revealed a shared community of pollinators composed of mostly solitary, ground nesting bees. Many of these species have been found in other crop fields throughout North America. Although corn and soybean are grown in landscapes that are often highly disturbed, these data suggest that a community of pollinators can persist within them. We suggest approaches to conserving this community based on partnering with activities that aim to lessen the environmental impact of annual crop production. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Coffey, Peter L; Dively, Galen P; Lamp, William O

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  7. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dilip Venugopal

    Full Text Available The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855, contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  8. Development and field evaluation of an intercropping machine for corn and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mondani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maximum efficiency of natural resources, reduced risk of production, improved fertility of soil, and increased production per area enjoyment have made intercropping a preferential practice compared with cropping. One of the fundamental problems in this kind of cropping is non-existence of suitable machines. In this research, a new intercropping machine has been designed and built for intercropping of corn and bean with precise ratios and different planting patterns. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted at the Badjgah Research Station, Shiraz University, located in NW Shiraz, Iran. The soil texture was clay loam (16% sand, 48% silt, and 35% clay. The plot size was 9 m wide and 12 m long. The total number of the plots were 9. The basic components of intercropping machine were an adjustable frame to adjust row spacing for each unit planter about 550 mm horizontally independently (the row spacing between corn and bean planting lines was considered 375 mm, a hinged frame for adjustment of seeding depth and possible poor emergence of plants due to very deep or shallow planting, metering case frames for installing the vacuum metering disk units around which the seed drums have a row of 36 holes of 4.5 and 5.5 mm diameter for corn and bean, respectively, seed delivery tubes, a suction fan, shovel openers used for bedder planting for corn and lister planting for bean, a knife covering attachment, seed-firming wheels, interchangeable gears which are mechanical chain drives for 43 varying seeding rates driven by carrying wheel drives, two metal seed hoppers whose lower side walls’ slope can be adjust at a maximum level of 45 . A front wheel assist, Massey Ferguson tractor (MF-399 (ITM, Tabriz, Iran with a maximum engine power of 81 kW was used for field test of intercropping machine. Moldboard plow was used for primary tillage and the depth of plowing was 25 cm. Next, by an offset disk harrow, the field was disked twice for

  9. Decomposition of corn and soybean residues under field conditions and their role as inoculum source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrotrophic parasites of above-ground plant parts survive saprophytically, between growing seasons in host crop residues. In an experiment conducted under field conditions, the time required in months for corn and soybean residues to be completely decomposed was quantified. Residues were laid on the soil surface to simulate no-till farming. Crop debris of the two plant species collected on the harvesting day cut into pieces of 5.0cm-long and a 200g mass was added to nylon mesh bags. At monthly intervals, bags were taken to the laboratory for weighing. Corn residues were decomposed within 37.0 months and those of soybean, within 34.5 months. Hw main necrotrophic fungi diagnosed in the corn residues were Colletotrichum gramicola, Diplodia spp. and Gibberella zeae, and those in soybeans residues were Cercospora kikuchii, Colletotrichum spp, Glomerella sp. and Phomopsis spp. Thus, those periods shoulb be observed in crop rotation aimed at to eliminating contaminated residues and, consequently, the inoculum from the cultivated area.

  10. Hielke is a Bayesian, balancing field robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Lamaker, E.J.J.; Polder, G.; Jong, de A.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Groendijk, E.J.K.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Zalm, van der A.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Driven by the success of the previous events in Wageningen in 2003, 2004 and 2005 and the Field Robot Event hosted by Hohenheim University in Stuttgart, Germany in 2006, Wageningen University organized the 5th Field Robot Event on June 14-16, 2007. This event was accompanied by a workshop and a fair

  11. Development, survival and fitness performance of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in MON810 Bt field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T A; Dively, G P; Herbert, D A

    2003-06-01

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) development, survival, and feeding injury in MON810 transgenic ears of field corn (Zea mays L.) expressing Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki (Bt) Cry1Ab endotoxins were compared with non-Bt ears at four geographic locations over two growing seasons. Expression of Cry1Ab endotoxin resulted in overall reductions in the percentage of damaged ears by 33% and in the amount of kernels consumed by 60%. Bt-induced effects varied significantly among locations, partly because of the overall level and timing of H. zea infestations, condition of silk tissue at the time of egg hatch, and the possible effects of plant stress. Larvae feeding on Bt ears produced scattered, discontinuous patches of partially consumed kernels, which were arranged more linearly than the compact feeding patterns in non-Bt ears. The feeding patterns suggest that larvae in Bt ears are moving about sampling kernels more frequently than larvae in non-Bt ears. Because not all kernels express the same level of endotoxin, the spatial heterogeneity of toxin distribution within Bt ears may provide an opportunity for development of behavioral responses in H. zea to avoid toxin. MON810 corn suppressed the establishment and development of H. zea to late instars by at least 75%. This level of control is considered a moderate dose, which may increase the risk of resistance development in areas where MON810 corn is widely adopted and H. zea overwinters successfully. Sublethal effects of MON810 corn resulted in prolonged larval and prepupal development, smaller pupae, and reduced fecundity of H. zea. The moderate dose effects and the spatial heterogeneity of toxin distribution among kernels could increase the additive genetic variance for both physiological and behavioral resistance in H. zea populations. Implications of localized population suppression are discussed.

  12. Advances in Fluorescence Sensing Systems for the Remote Assessment of Nitrogen Supply in Field Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, L. A.; Chappelle, E. W.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Kim, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    The studies described herein were conducted to better define changes in fluorescence properties of leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) as they relate to varying levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. This research was directed toward: 1) providing a remote non-destructive sensing technique to aid in the determination of optimal rates of N fertilization in corn crops and, 2) defining parameters for further development of fluorescence instrumentation to be operated remotely at field canopy levels. Fluorescence imaging bands centered in the blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), red (680 nm), and far-red (740 nm) and ratios of these bands were compared with the following plant parameters: rates of photosynthesis, N:C ratio, pigment concentrations, and grain yields. Both the fluorescence and physiological measures exhibited similar curvilinear responses to N fertilization level while significant linear correlations were obtained among fluorescence bands and band ratios to certain physiological measures of plant productivity. The red / blue, red / green, far-red / blue, far-red /green fluorescence ratios are well suited for remote observation and provided high correlations to grain yield, LAI, N:C, and chlorophyll contents. The results from this investigation indicate that fluorescence technology could aid in the determination of N fertilization requirements for corn. This discussion will also address design concepts and preliminary field trials of a mobile field-based Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging System (LIFIS) capable of simultaneously acquiring images of four fluorescence emission bands from areas of plant canopies equaling 1 sq m and greater without interference of ambient solar radiation.

  13. Cultural and environmental effects on the spectral development patterns of corn and soybeans: Field data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, E. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overall approach to crop spectral understanding is presented which serves to maintain a strong link between actual plant responses and characteristics and spectral observations from ground based and spaceborne sensors. A specific technique for evaluating field reflectance data, as a part of the overall approach, is also described. Results of the application of this technique to corn and soybeans reflectance data collected by and at Purdue/LARS indicate that a number of common cultural and environmental factors can significantly affect the temporal spectral development patterns of these crops in tasseled cap greenness (a transformed variable of LANDSAT MSS signals).

  14. The Association of Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Regina A.; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Nguyen, Angeline M.; Friedman, David S.; Gitlin, Laura N.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To relate balance measures to visual field (VF) damage from glaucoma. Methods The OPAL kinematic system measured balance, as root mean square (RMS) sway, on 236 patients with suspect/diagnosed glaucoma. Balance was measured with feet shoulder width apart while standing on a firm/foam surface with eyes opened/closed (Instrumental Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance [ICTSIB] conditions), and eyes open on a firm surface under feet together, semi-tandem, or tandem positions (standing balance conditions). Integrated VF (IVF) sensitivities were calculated by merging right and left eye 24-2 VF data. Results Mean age was 71 years (range, 57–93) and mean IVF sensitivity was 27.1 dB (normal = 31 dB). Lower IVF sensitivity was associated with greater RMS sway during eyes-open foam-surface testing (β = 0.23 z-score units/5 dB IVF sensitivity decrement, P = 0.001), but not during other ICTSIB conditions. Lower IVF sensitivity also was associated with greater RMS sway during feet together standing balance testing (0.10 z-score units/5 dB IVF sensitivity decrement, P = 0.049), but not during other standing balance conditions. Visual dependence of balance was lower in patients with worse IVF sensitivity (β = −21%/5 dB IVF sensitivity decrement, P falls and patients with VF loss from glaucoma may be at higher risk of falls because of poor balance. PMID:28553562

  15. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) with 25% and 45% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism, and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing beef steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed ...

  16. Distribution and Biocontrol Potential of phlD(+) Pseudomonads in Corn and Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden Gardener, Brian B; Gutierrez, Laura J; Joshi, Raghavendra; Edema, Richard; Lutton, Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    ABSTRACT The abundance and diversity of phlD(+) Pseudomonas spp. colonizing the rhizospheres of young, field-grown corn and soybean plants were assayed over a 3-year period. Populations of these bacteria were detected on the large majority of plants sampled in the state of Ohio, but colonization was greater on corn. Although significant variation in the incidence of rhizosphere colonization was observed from site to site and year to year on both crops, the magnitude of the variation was greatest for soybean. The D genotype was detected on plants collected from all 15 counties examined, and it represented the most abundant subpopulation on both crops. Additionally, six other genotypes (A, C, F, I, R, and S) were found to predominate in the rhizosphere of some plants. The most frequently observed of these were the A genotype and a newly discovered S genotype, both of which were found on corn and soybean roots obtained from multiple locations. Multiple isolates of the most abundant genotypes were recovered and characterized. The S genotype was found to be phylogenetically and phenotypically similar to the D genotype. In addition, the novel R genotype was found to be most similar to the A genotype. All of the isolates displayed significant capacities to inhibit the growth of an oomycete pathogen in vitro, but such phenotypes were highly dependent on media used. When tested against multiple oomycete pathogens isolated from soybean, the A genotype was significantly more inhibitory than the D genotype when incubated on 1/10x tryptic soy agar and 1/5x corn meal agar. Seed inoculation with different isolates of the A, D, and S genotypes indicated that significant root colonization, generally in excess of log 5 cells per gram of root, could be attained on both crops. Field trials of the A genotype isolate Wayne1R indicated the capacity of inoculant populations to supplement the activities of native populations so as to increase soybean stands and yields. The relevance of

  17. Nitrogen balance and dynamics in corn under different soil fertility levels using “1“5N isotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rallos, R.V.; Rivera, F.G.; Samar, E.D.; Rojales, J.S.; Anida, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) Fertilizer plays a vital role on the growth and development of any crop. The inefficient N fertilizer utilization contributes to poor crop productivity and environment pollution. This study used the 15N isotope tracer technique to understand the nitrogen balance and dynamics in corn grown during the wet and dry season for low, medium and high N soils in Northern Luzon. The experiments were laid out following the randomized complete block design (RCBD) potassium requirements were applied at optimum level on solid chemical analysis and fertilizer recommendation. The study was able to separate the source of N from applied fertilizer and from the soils, traced using 15N during the 30 days after planting (DAP), 60 DAP and at harvest. Result show that, more than half of N in the plant came directly from added fertilizer during the early stage, which decreased towards harvest period. Fertilizer N yield use efficiency showed negative relationship with the rate of N application and soil fertility levels. Of N fertilization in different soil fertility levels were also established using isotope tracer technique. (author)

  18. Comparison of dynamic balance in collegiate field hockey and football players using star excursion balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rashi; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2013-09-01

    The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test. A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instructed to maintain a stable single leg stance with the test leg with shoes off and to reach for maximal distance with the other leg in each of the 8 directions. A pencil was used to point and read the distance to which each subject's foot reached. The normalized leg reach distances in each direction were summed for both limbs and the total sum of the mean of summed normalized distances of both limbs were calculated. There was no significant difference in all the directions of star excursion balance test scores in both the groups. Additionally, composite reach distances of both groups also found non-significant (P=0.5). However, the posterior (P=0.05) and lateral (P=0.03) normalized reach distances were significantly more in field hockey players. Field hockey players and football players did not differ in terms of dynamic balance.

  19. Field-scale water balance closure in seasonally frozen conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological water balance closure is a simple concept, yet in practice it is uncommon to measure every significant term independently in the field. Here we demonstrate the degree to which the field-scale water balance can be closed using only routine field observations in a seasonally frozen prairie pasture field site in Saskatchewan, Canada. Arrays of snow and soil moisture measurements were combined with a precipitation gauge and flux tower evapotranspiration estimates. We consider three hydrologically distinct periods: the snow accumulation period over the winter, the snowmelt period in spring, and the summer growing season. In each period, we attempt to quantify the residual between net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and the change in field-scale storage (snow and soil moisture, while accounting for measurement uncertainties. When the residual is negligible, a simple 1-D water balance with no net drainage is adequate. When the residual is non-negligible, we must find additional processes to explain the result. We identify the hydrological fluxes which confound the 1-D water balance assumptions during different periods of the year, notably blowing snow and frozen soil moisture redistribution during the snow accumulation period, and snowmelt runoff and soil drainage during the melt period. Challenges associated with quantifying these processes, as well as uncertainties in the measurable quantities, caution against the common use of water balance residuals to estimate fluxes and constrain models in such a complex environment.

  20. Will algorithms modified with soil and weather information improve in-field reflectance-sensing corn nitrogen applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) needs to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable within fields. Canopy reflectance sensing for assessing crop N health has been implemented on many farmers’ fields to side-dress or top-dress variable-rate N application, but at times farmers report the performance of...

  1. Effects of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and silk clipping in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Sandy; Stewart, S D; Tindall, K V

    2013-10-01

    Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) is an emerging silk-feeding insect found in fields in the lower Corn Belt and Midsouthern United States. Studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate how silk clipping in corn affects pollination and yield parameters. Manually clipping silks once daily had modest effects on yield parameters. Sustained clipping by either manually clipping silks three times per day or by caging Japanese beetles onto ears affected total kernel weight if it occurred during early silking (R1 growth stage). Manually clipping silks three times per day for the first 5 d of silking affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Caged beetles fed on silks and, depending on the number of beetles caged per ear, reduced the number of kernels per ear. Caging eight beetles per ear significantly reduced total kernel weight compared with noninfested ears. Drought stress before anthesis appeared to magnify the impact of silk clipping by Japanese beetles. There was evidence of some compensation for reduced pollination by increasing the size of pollinated kernels within the ear. Our results showed that it requires sustained silk clipping during the first week of silking to have substantial impacts on pollination and yield parameters, at least under good growing conditions. Some states recommend treating for Japanese beetle when three Japanese beetles per ear are found, silks are clipped to < 13 mm, and pollination is < 50% complete, and that recommendation appears to be adequate.

  2. FATE OF ATRAZINE IN THE AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF CORN FIELDS IN FARS PROVINCE OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nasseri ، M. Dehghani ، S. Amin ، K. Naddafi ، Z. Zamanian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected as pesticide in water resources. In this research, four agricultural fields with a long history of atrazine application in Shiraz and its vicinity in Fars province of Iran, have been studied to determine the fate of atrazine through the passage of time. These four farms were cultivated under a crop rotation (corn-wheat during the past 10 years. Samples were collected from four soil profiles of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm soil depth at different times. The time intervals for soil sampling started before atrazine application and continued until no atrazine was detected. According to the general linear model, there was no significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the soil moisture and depth (p≥0.05. But, significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the sampling regions was observed (p<0.001. Based on the data, atrazine leaching and dissipation rate in different soil profiles in the four sampling regions were high and significant. Therefore, there is a high risk of atrazine pollution in groundwater resources of the region.

  3. Evaluation of multi-species weed competition and weeds population dynamic in corn Zea mays L. field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mijani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the multi-species weed competition in corn field an experiment as an interval mapping was carried out at the Agricultural Research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season 2009-2010. At 3-4 leafy stages of corn, 20 non-destructive quadrates determine and the density of weeds was counted separately. At the same time, 20 destructive quadrates determine and in addition of counting number of plants, leaf area index and dry weight of each species were recorded separately. By using data from previous section, hyperbolic functions were fitted. In these functions number of species serve as the independent variable, weight or leaf area was considered as the dependent variable. With the help of these functions and leaf dry weight of each species was determined for non-destructive quadrates at this stage. Relative leaf area at early season as independent variables and natural logarithm of individual plant weight at later season as dependent variable in a multiple linear regression was fitted to obtain the interspecies competition coefficients. Based on ln of weight of single plant equation the weed interference effects on the corn yield can be divided into two groups: inhibition (negative sign and stimulation (positive sign. Among all weeds, night shade (Solanum nigrum L., redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. and lambsquarter (Chenopodium album L. had positive effects on corn yield, respectively. In fact, these weeds had competition and negative impacts on other weeds and reduced their competition power with corn and caused facilitation role on corn yield. At the end of growing season of corn, population of lambsquarter and Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. decreased while population of barnyard grass(Echinochloa crus-galli L., redroot pigweed and night shade increased.

  4. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lynn M; Murphy, J Austin; Smith, William A; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W; Ray, Allison E; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N; Nguyen, Quang A

    2018-01-01

    Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.

  5. Field screening of experimental corn hybrids and inbred lines for multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Brown, Steve L; Lee, R Dewey; Coy, Anton E

    2007-10-01

    Identifying and using native insect resistance genes is the core of integrated pest management. In this study, 10 experimental corn, Zea mays L., hybrids and 10 inbred lines were screened for resistance to major ear-feeding insects in the southeastern Coastal Plain region of the United States during 2004 and 2005. Ear-feeding insect damage was assessed at harvest by visual damage rating for the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and by the percentage of kernels damaged by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and stink bugs [combination of Euschistus servus (Say) and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)]. Among the eight inbred lines and two control populations examined, C3S1B73-5b was resistant to corn earworm, maize weevil, and stink bugs. In contrast, C3S1B73-4 was resistant to corn earworm and stink bugs, but not to maize weevil. In a similar manner, the corn hybrid S1W*CML343 was resistant to all three ear-feeding insects, whereas hybrid C3S1B73-3*Tx205 was resistant to corn earworm and maize weevil in both growing seasons, but susceptible to stink bugs in 2005. The silk-feeding bioassay showed that corn earworm developed better on corn silk than did fall armyworm. Among all phenotypic traits examined (i.e., corn ear size, husk extension, and husk tightness), only corn ear size was negatively correlated to corn earworm damage in the inbred lines examined, whereas only husk extension (i.e., coverage) was negatively correlated to both corn earworm and maize weevil damage on the experimental hybrids examined. Such information could be used to establish a baseline for developing agronomically elite corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

  6. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  7. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Wendt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in <6% total solid dry matter loss (DML, about five times less than the aerobic storage process and slightly less than half that of the anaerobic modified-Ritter pile method. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the anaerobic storage, a field demonstration was completed with 272 dry tonnes of corn stover; DML averaged <5% after 6 months. Assessment of sugar release as a result of dilute acid or dilute alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis suggested that when anaerobic conditions were maintained in storage, sugar release was either similar to or greater than as-harvested material depending on the pretreatment chemistry used. This study demonstrates that wet logistics systems offer practical benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.

  8. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Austin; Smith, William A.; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W.; Ray, Allison E.; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N.; Nguyen, Quang A.

    2018-01-01

    Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in <6% total solid dry matter loss (DML), about five times less than the aerobic storage process and slightly less than half that of the anaerobic modified-Ritter pile method. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the anaerobic storage, a field demonstration was completed with 272 dry tonnes of corn stover; DML averaged <5% after 6 months. Assessment of sugar release as a result of dilute acid or dilute alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis suggested that when anaerobic conditions were maintained in storage, sugar release was either similar to or greater than as-harvested material depending on the pretreatment chemistry used. This study demonstrates that wet logistics systems offer practical benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery. PMID:29632861

  9. ASSESSING INTRA- AND INTER-FIELD VARIABILITY OF CORN NITROGEN FERTILIZER NEED USING GROUND-BASED REFLECTANCE SENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil types within and between corn (Zea mays L.) fields can be highly variable, the amount of nitrogen (N) provided by those different soil types to support production can also be highly variable. Ideally, the amount of N fertilizer added during a given growing season should be both climate-se...

  10. SHIFTING WEED COMPOSITIONS AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN SWEET CORN FIELD TREATED WITH ORGANIC COMPOSTS AND CHEMICAL WEED CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulak Simarmata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study the shift of weed compositions in sweet corn field treated with organic compost and chemical weed controls and to compare the effect of treatment combinations on weed growth, weed biomass and sweet corn biomass. The research was conducted in Bengkulu, Indonesia, from April to July 2014. Results showed that the number of weed species decreased after the trials from 14 to 13. There was a shift in weed compositions because 5 species of weeds did not emerge after the trials, but 4 new species were found. Chemical weed control used a herbiside mixture of atrazine and mesotrione applied during postemergence was the most effective method to control weeds, which was observed on decreased weed emergence and weed biomass down to 22.33 and 25.00 percent of control, respectively. Subsequently, biomass production of sweet corn increased up to 195.64 percent at the same trials. Biomass of weeds and sweet corn were also affected by the organic composts. Weed biomass was inhibited by treatment of composted empty fruith bunches of oil palm, whereas significantly increased of sweet corn biomass were observed in the plots of organic manure.

  11. Effects of ruminally degradable starch levels on performance, nitrogen balance, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobin Luo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This trial was performed to examine the effects of ruminally degradable starch (RDS levels in total mixed ration (TMR with low corn-based starch on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Methods Eight multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW]: 717±63 kg; days in milk [DIM]: 169±29 were assigned to a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 62.3% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, low RDS or 72.1% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, high RDS. Changes to the ruminally degradable levels were conducted by using either finely ground corn or steam-flaked corn as the starch component. Results The results showed that dry matter intake, milk yield and composition in dairy cows were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was lower for cows fed high RDS TMR than low RDS TMR. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein decreased, and that of starch increased for cows fed high RDS TMR over those fed low RDS TMR, with no dietary effect on the whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. The proportion of urinary N excretion in N intake was lower and that of fecal N excretion in N intake was higher for cows fed high RDS TMR than those fed low RDS TMR. The N secretion in milk and the retention of N were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Total purine derivative was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Conclusion Results of this study show that ruminally degradable starch levels can influence whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets, with no influence on performance.

  12. Pulsed electromagnetic field: an organic compatible method to promote plant growth and yield in two corn types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalis, Dimitrios J; Katsenios, Nikolaos; Efthimiadou, Aspasia; Karkanis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Pre-sowing treatment of pulsed electromagnetic fields was used in corn seeds, in both indoor and outdoor conditions, in order to investigate the effect on plant growth and yield. The results of this research showed that pulsed electromagnetic fields can enhance plant characteristics, both under controlled environmental conditions and uncontrolled field conditions. The two varieties responded differently in the duration of magnetic field. Seeds were treated for 0, 15, 30, and 45 min with pulsed electromagnetic field (MF-0, MF-15, MF-30, and MF-45). Common corn variety performed better results in MF-30 treatment, while sweet corn variety performed better in MF-45 treatment. Magnetic field improved germination percentage, vigor, chlorophyll content, leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight, and finally yields. In the very interesting measurement of yield, seeds that have been exposed to magnetic field for 30 and 45 min have been found to perform the best results with no statistical differences among them. Another interesting finding was in root dry weight measurements, where magnetic field has a negative impact in MF-30 treatment in both hybrids, however without affecting other measurements. Enhancements on plant characteristics with economic impact on producer's income could be the future of a modern, organic, and sustainable agriculture.

  13. Distribution of 15N-labeled urea injected into field-grown corn plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Madrmootoo, C.A.; Mackenzie, A.F.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) assimilate supply to developing corn (Zea mays L.) ears plays a critical role in grain dry weight accumulation. The use of stem-perfused/injected 15N labeled compounds to determine the effects of an artificial N source on the subsequent distribution of injected N and grain weight of field-grown corn plants has not been reported previously. Our objective was to assess the distribution of N added via an artificial source. Three soil N fertilizer levels (0, 180, and 270 kg N ha-1) and three N solutions (distilled water control and 15N enriched urea at 15 and 30 mM N) were arranged in a split-plot design. Three N concentrations were injected using a pressurized stem injection technique. The injection started fifteen days after silking and continued until immediately prior to plant physiological maturity. The average uptake volume was 256 mL over the 30-day injection period. The N supplied via injection represented 1.5 to 3% of the total plant N. Neither soil applied N fertilizer nor injected N altered dry matter distribution among plant tissues. As the concentration of N in the injected solutions increased, N concentrations increased in the grain and upper stalks, and % 15N atom excess in ear+1 leaves and leaves increased. The relative degree of 15N enrichment for each of the tissues measured was injected internode grain upper stalks leaves lower stalks cob husk ear + 1 leaf ear leaf. This study indicated that the exogenous N supplied via stem-injection, was incorporated into all the measured plant parts, although not uniformly. The distribution of the injected 15N was affected both by the proximity of sinks to the point of injection and the strength of the various sinks

  14. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.

  15. A Field Experiment on Enhancement of Crop Yield by Rice Straw and Corn Stalk-Derived Biochar in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a green way to deal with burning and burying biomass, has attracted more attention in recent years. To fill the gap of the effects of different biochar on crop yield in Northern China, the first field experiment was conducted in farmland located in Hebei Province. Biochars derived from two kinds of feedstocks (rice straw and corn stalk were added into an Inceptisols area with different dosages (1 ton/ha, 2 ton/ha or 4 ton/ha in April 2014. The crop yields were collected for corn, peanut, and sweet potato during one crop season from spring to autumn 2014, and the wheat from winter 2014 to summer 2015, respectively. The results showed biochar amendment could enhance yields, and biochar from rice straw showed a more positive effect on the yield of corn, peanut, and winter wheat than corn stalk biochar. The dosage of biochar of 2 ton/ha or 1 ton/ha could enhance the yield by 5%–15% and biochar of 4 ton/ha could increase the yield by about 20%. The properties of N/P/K, CEC, and pH of soils amended with biochar were not changed, while biochar effects could be related to improvement of soil water content.

  16. Spectral Indices to Monitor Nitrogen-Driven Carbon Uptake in Field Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Peya E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Russ, Andrew; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is heavily impacted by changing vegetation cover and productivity with large scale monitoring of vegetation only possible with remote sensing techniques. The goal of this effort was to evaluate existing reflectance (R) spectroscopic methods for determining vegetation parameters related to photosynthetic function and carbon (C) dynamics in plants. Since nitrogen (N) is a key constituent of photosynthetic pigments and C fixing enzymes, biological C sequestration is regulated in part by N availability. Spectral R information was obtained from field corn grown at four N application rates (0, 70, 140, 280 kg N/ha). A hierarchy of spectral observations were obtained: leaf and canopy with a spectral radiometer; aircraft with the AISA sensor; and satellite with EO-1 Hyperion. A number of spectral R indices were calculated from these hyperspectral observations and compared to geo-located biophysical measures of plant growth and physiological condition. Top performing indices included the R derivative index D730/D705 and the normalized difference of R750 vs. R705 (ND705), both of which differentiated three of the four N fertilization rates at multiple observation levels and yielded high correlations to these carbon parameters: light use efficiency (LUE); C:N ratio; and crop grain yield. These results advocate the use of hyperspectral sensors for remotely monitoring carbon cycle dynamics in managed terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Replacement of corn with babassu mesocarp flour in balanced rations for broilers in the period from 1 to 21 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Luzia Rodrigues Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of partial replacement of corn with babassu mesocarp flour in diets for broilers from one to 21 days of age. Two hundred male day-old chicks, from the Cobb 500® line, were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% replacement of maize flour with the babassu mesocarp and five replicates were used comprising ten birds. Were evaluated performance (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water intake, organ biometrics, metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MCDM, crude protein (MCCP and gross energy (MCGE and cost of feeding diets containing babassu mesocarp flour (BMF. It was observed that the substitution of corn with BMF negatively influenced (P 0.05 the relative weights of the carcass, bursa, spleen, heart, gizzard or liver, nor the relative weight or length of the small intestine. The lower cost of feed per kg of weight gain was obtained with the diet containing 10% corn replacement with BMF, which resulted in a higher gross margin in relation to food. The replacement of corn with BMF in diets for broilers from one to 21 days of age proved to be technically feasible in 10%.

  18. Dominant inheritance of field-evolved resistance to Bt corn in Busseolafusca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Campagne

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a substantial reduction of insecticide use, the sustainable control of these pest populations is threatened by the evolution of resistance. The implementation of the "high dose/refuge" strategy for managing insect resistance in transgenic crops aims at delaying the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in pest populations by promoting survival of susceptible insects. However, a crucial condition for the "high dose/refuge" strategy to be efficient is that the inheritance of resistance should be functionally recessive. Busseolafusca developed high levels of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry 1Ab expressed in Bt corn in South Africa. To test whether the inheritance of B. fusca resistance to the Bt toxin could be considered recessive we performed controlled crosses with this pest and evaluated its survival on Bt and non-Bt corn. Results show that resistance of B. fusca to Bt corn is dominant, which refutes the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Survival on Bt corn was not lower than on non-Bt corn for both resistant larvae and the F1 progeny from resistant × susceptible parents. Hence, resistance management strategies of B. fusca to Bt corn must address non-recessive resistance.

  19. Field Balancing in the Real World: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracher, R.K.; Surrett, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a follow-up to an earlier paper, Field Balancing in the Real World, which was presented at CSI Reliability Week 1997 in Nashville. Case studies of excessive vibrations on fans at ORNL will be discussed. Except for a few small sections from the earlier paper, this paper is entirely new. The case studies are new. As in the first paper, all fans are rigid-rotor type fans. Normal operation, therefore, is at less than the shaft's first critical speed. The presentation of case studies with root cause problems other than unbalance is a major departure from the first paper. We believe they belong here, since unbalance is suspected most of the time when a fan is vibrating excessively, even when it is not the root cause. In reality, unbalance is the underlying cause of the excess vibration on fans we have fixed at ORNL only about half the time. Furthermore, the analyst's credibility could be called into question upon an unsuccessful attempt at field balancing when underlying causes are later discovered and fixed. A demonstration will follow the case study presentation. The additional tests described in this paper to confirm centrifugal force (probable unbalance) will be performed

  20. Nutrient Concentrations and Stable Isotopes of Runoff from a Midwest Tile-Drained Corn Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, B. P.; Woo, D.; Li, J.; Michalski, G. M.; Kumar, P.; Conroy, J. L.; Keefer, D. A.; Keefer, L. L.; Hodson, T. O.

    2017-12-01

    Tile drains are a common crop drainage device used in Midwest agroecosystems. While efficient at drainage, the tiles provide a quick path for nutrient runoff, reducing the time available for microbes to use nutrients (e.g., NO3- and PO43-) and reduce export to riverine systems. Thus, understanding the effects of tile drains on nutrient runoff is critical to achieve nutrient reduction goals. Here we present isotopic and concentration data collected from tile drain runoff of a corn field located near Monticello, IL. Tile flow samples were measured for anion concentrations and stable isotopes of H2O and NO3-, while precipitation was measured for dual isotopes of H2O. Results demonstrate early tile flow from rain events have a low Cl- concentration (60% contribution) in the beginning of the hydrograph. As flow continues H2O isotopic values reflect pre-event water (ground and soil water), and Cl- concentrations increase representing a greater influence by matrix flow (60-90% contribution). Nitrate concentrations change dramatically, especially during the growing season, and do not follow a similar trend as the conservative Cl-, often decreasing days before, which represents missing nitrate in the upper surface portion of the soil. Nitrate isotopic data shows significant changes in 15N (4‰) and 18O (4‰) during individual hydrological events, representing that in addition to plant uptake and leaching, considerate NO3- is lost through denitrification. It is notable, that throughout the season d15N and d18O of nitrate change significantly representing that seasonally, substantial denitrification occurs.

  1. Remote sensing techniques to monitor nitrogen-driven carbon dynamics in field corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    2009-08-01

    Patterns of change in vegetation growth and condition are one of the primary indicators of the present and future ecological status of the globe. Nitrogen (N) is involved in photochemical processes and is one of the primary resources regulating plant growth. As a result, biological carbon (C) sequestration is driven by N availability. Large scale monitoring of photosynthetic processes are currently possible only with remote sensing systems that rely heavily on passive reflectance (R) information. Unlike R, fluorescence (F) emitted from chlorophyll is directly related to photochemical reactions and has been extensively used for the elucidation of the photosynthetic pathways. Recent advances in passive fluorescence instrumentation have made the remote acquisition of solar-induced fluorescence possible. The goal of this effort is to evaluate existing reflectance and emerging fluorescence methodologies for determining vegetation parameters related to photosynthetic function and carbon sequestration dynamics in plants. Field corn N treatment levels of 280, 140, 70, and 0 kg N / ha were sampled from an intensive test site for a multi-disciplinary project, Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE). Aircraft, near-ground, and leaf-level measurements were used to compare and contrast treatment effects within this experiment site assessed with both reflectance and fluorescence approaches. A number of spectral indices including the R derivative index D730/D705, the normalized difference of R750 vs. R705, and simple ratio R800/R750 differentiated three of the four N fertilization rates and yielded high correlations to three important carbon parameters: C:N, light use efficiency, and grain yield. These results advocate the application of hyperspectral sensors for remotely monitoring carbon cycle dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Evaluation of spatial and temporal patterns of insect damage and aflatoxin level in the pre-harvest corn fields to improve management tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Toews, Michael D; Buntin, G David; Lee, R Dewey; Li, Xin; Lei, Zhongren; He, Kanglai; Xu, Wenwei; Li, Xianchun; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of insect damage in relation to aflatoxin contamination in a corn field with plants of uniform genetic background are not well understood. After previous examination of spatial patterns of insect damage and aflatoxin in pre-harvest corn fields, we further examined both spatial and temporal patterns of cob- and kernel-feeding insect damage, and aflatoxin level with two samplings at pre-harvest in 2008 and 2009. The feeding damage by each of the ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs) and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. Sampling data showed a field edge effect in both insect damage and aflatoxin contamination in both years. Maize weevils tended toward an aggregated distribution more frequently than either corn earworm or stink bug damage in both years. The frequency of detecting aggregated distribution for aflatoxin level was less than any of the insect damage assessments. Stink bug damage and maize weevil number were more closely associated with aflatoxin level than was corn earworm damage. In addition, the indices of spatial-temporal association (χ) demonstrated that the number of maize weevils was associated between the first (4 weeks pre-harvest) and second (1 week pre-harvest) samplings in both years on all fields. In contrast, corn earworm damage between the first and second samplings from the field on the Belflower Farm, and aflatoxin level and corn earworm damage from the field on the Lang Farm were dissociated in 2009. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Yield and Water Quality Impacts of Field-Scale Integration of Willow into a Continuous Corn Rotation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumpf, Colleen; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina; Campbell, Patty; Cacho, Julian

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural landscape design has gained recognition by the international environmental and development community as a strategy to address multiple goals in land, water, and ecosystem service management; however, field research is needed to quantify impacts on specific local environments. The production of bioenergy crops in specific landscape positions within a grain-crop field can serve the dual purpose of producing cellulosic biomass (nutrient recovery) while also providing regulating ecosystem services to improve water quality (nutrient reduction). The effectiveness of such a landscape design was evaluated by the strategic placement of a 0.8-ha short-rotation shrub willow ( Seemen) bioenergy buffer along marginal soils in a 6.5-ha corn ( L.) field in a 6-yr field study in central Illinois. The impact of willow integration on water quality (soil water, shallow groundwater leaching, and crop nutrient uptake) and quantity (soil moisture and transpiration) was monitored in comparison with corn in the willow's first cycle of growth. Willows significantly reduced nitrate leachate in shallow subsurface water by 88% while maintaining adequate nutrient and water usage. Results suggest that willows offer an efficient nutrient-reduction strategy and may provide additional ecosystem services and benefits, including enhanced soil health. However, low values for calculated willow biomass will need to be readdressed in the future as harvest data become available to understand contributing factors that affected productivity beyond nutrient availability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L.) to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Drissi; Abdelhadi Aït Houssa; Ahmed Bamouh; Mohamed Benbella

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn) fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions. Six rates of Zn supply (0 or control; 1.5; 3; 5; 10 and 50 mg kg−1) were tested. They were split at three different times during the growing season: (i) 50% immediately after sowing, (ii) 25% at 4–5 leaf stage and (iii) 25% at 8–9 leaf stage. These Zn rates were applied to the soil surface as a so...

  6. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Effect of fertilizer nitrogen management on N2O emissions in commercial corn fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebarth, B.J.; Rochette, P.; Burton, D.L.; Price, M.

    2008-01-01

    Corn crops receive higher fertilizer nitrogen (N) application rates than many other crops. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate tests (PSNT) are used to determine how much fertilizer N is applied at the sidedress of corn crops, and can provide an opportunity to reduce fertilizer N application rates and delay the timing of fertilizer N applications which contribute to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions into the atmosphere. This study examined how the rate and time of fertilizer N application influence N 2 O emissions in corn crops grown in alluvial soils in Atlantic Canada. Starter fertilizer was applied at 45 and 59 kg N per hectare (ha) in 2004 and 2005. Treatments included the application of 75 or 150 kg N per ha banded at a sidedress, and 150 kg N per ha broadcast at the emergence of the crops. Soil mineral N content was measured using a soil core method. Cumulative N 2 O emissions were calculated using a linear interpolation method between sampling dates. Results showed that delays in fertilizer application to the sidedress, and reductions in fertilizer N application reduced nitrate (NO 3 ) intensity but had no impact on cumulative N 2 O emissions. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand controls on denitrification and N 2 O emissions. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. [Effects of Tillage on Soil Respiration and Root Respiration Under Rain-Fed Summer Corn Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xing-li; Liao, Yun-cheng

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage systems on soil respiration and root respiration under rain-fed condition. Based on a short-term experiment, this paper investigated soil respiration in summer corn growth season under four tillage treatments including subsoiling tillage (ST), no tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT). The contribution of root respiration using root exclusion method was also discussed. The results showed that soil respiration rate presented a single peak trend under four tillage methods during the summer corn growing season, and the maximum value was recorded at the heading stage. The trends of soil respiration were as follows: heading stage > flowering stage > grain filling stage > maturity stage > jointing stage > seedling stage. The trends of soil respiration under different tillage systems were as follows: CT > ST > RT > NT. There was a significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperatures (P soil respiration using exponential function equation. However, there was no significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil moisture. Root respiration accounted for 45.13%-56.86% of the proportion of soil respiratio n with the mean value 51.72% during the summer corn growing season under different tillage systems. Therefore, root exclusion method could be used to study the contribution of crop growth to carbon emission, to compare effects of different tillage systems on the contribution of root respiration provides the bases for selecting the measures to slow down the decomposition of soil carbon.

  9. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  10. Balanced Ambipolar Organic Field-Effect Transistors by Polymer Preaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janasz, Lukasz; Luczak, Adam; Marszalek, Tomasz; Dupont, Bertrand G R; Jung, Jaroslaw; Ulanski, Jacek; Pisula, Wojciech

    2017-06-21

    Ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on heterojunction active films still suffer from an imbalance in the transport of electrons and holes. This problem is related to an uncontrolled phase separation between the donor and acceptor organic semiconductors in the thin films. In this work, we have developed a concept to improve the phase separation in heterojunction transistors to enhance their ambipolar performance. This concept is based on preaggregation of the donor polymer, in this case poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), before solution mixing with the small-molecular-weight acceptor, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The resulting heterojunction transistor morphology consists of self-assembled P3HT fibers embedded in a PCBM matrix, ensuring balanced mobilities reaching 0.01 cm 2 /V s for both holes and electrons. These are the highest mobility values reported so far for ambipolar OFETs based on P3HT/PCBM blends. Preaggregation of the conjugated polymer before fabricating binary blends can be regarded as a general concept for a wider range of semiconducting systems applicable in organic electronic devices.

  11. The effect of Bt-corn on soil invertebrates, soil microbial community and decomposition rates of corn post-harvest residues under field and laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Elhottová, Dana; Helingerová, M.; Kocourek, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2008), s. 645-655 ISSN 1044-0046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Bt corn * soil biology * decomposition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2008

  12. Distinguishing nitrogen fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with actively induced fluorescence and passive reflectance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Meisinger, J.J.; Corp, L.A

    1994-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is an active sensing technique capable of capturing immediate and specific indications of changes in plant physiology and metabolism as they relate to the concentration and photosynthetic activity of the plant pigments. Reflectance is a passive sensing technique that can capture differences in the concentration of the primary plant pigments. Fluorescence and reflectance were compared for their ability to measure levels of plant stress that are of agronomic importance in corn (Zea mays L.) crops. Laboratory LIF and reflectance spectra were made on excised leaves from field grown corn. Changes in the visible region of the spectrum were compared between groups of plants fertilized with seven different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting photons at a wavelength of 337 nm was used as a fluorescence excitation source. Differences in maximum intensity of fluorescence occurred at 440 nm, 525 nm, 685 nm, and 740 nm. Significant separations were found between levels of N fertilization at several LIF wavelength ratios. Several reflectance algorithms also produced significant separations between certain levels of N fertilization

  13. [Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Huan-Chao; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Cong-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i. e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  14. Effect of nitrate addition on the efficient use of ammonium sulfate fertilizer on corn under saline conditions . II. field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Zidan, A

    2003-01-01

    two field experiments during two consecutive seasons, were conducted on corn (Zea mays L. var. Ghota-82), grown on a saline soil under flood irrigation system at ACSAD research station located at the Euphrates valley, Deir-Ez-zor district, east of Syria. The objective was to study the effect of applying different ratios of mixed NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N fertilizers on the biomass yield of corn. Five rates of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N/ha) were applied either in a single or in combination of two forms of 15 N labelled nitrogen fertilizers ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and Ca( 15 NO 3 ) 2 . Total N, 15 N, nitrogen use efficiency (N recovery) and dry matter yield were the parameters investigated. The results showed that: (1) The high concentrations of NH 4 -N reduced dry matter yield; (2) NO 3 -N was more effective in increasing total N content of plant tissues than the same concentration of NH 4 -N; (3) Combination treatments always induced both higher yields and N content of plant tissues than single treatments of NH 4 -N; (4) NH 4 -N form increased the NO 3 -N uptake, and the NO 3 -N form had an effect on the absorption of NH 4 -N; (5) the recovery of NO 3 -N form was much higher than NH 4 -N form under saline soil conditions. (author)

  15. Nitrogen doses and water balance components at phenological stages of corn Doses de nitrogênio e componentes do balanço hídrico em fases fenológicas do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Martins da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Determining the intensity of the water balance components in the control volume of a soil, and consequently defining the most likely periods of occurrence of a water deficit in a crop, is an exercise that requires knowledge about soil, climate and plant factors. This research aimed to evaluate soil water balance components at phenological stages of corn (Zea mays L. under no-till system, when fertilized with 60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. The field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on a Typic Hapludox. Evaluations were made in the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 corn cropping seasons, divided over three stages according to the plant's phenology. Runoff was not taken into account. Measurements were made for precipitation (P, internal drainage (D (or capillary rise at a 0.8 m depth, and water storage variation (Δh in the soil layer from 0.0-0.80 m; actual evapotranspiration (ET was considered the unknown quantity of the equation. Corn grain yield was evaluated as well. In general, the soil water balance components were modified by N doses, because the soil had been relatively smaller Δh in treatments involving N application than in the treatment without N, resulting in smaller D values in those treatments, which resulted in greater absorption by the plants and greater ET. As expected, the plant developmental stage II had a higher ET value.Determinar a intensidade dos componentes do balanço de água no solo num certo volume de controle de solo e, por conseguinte, a definição dos períodos mais prováveis de déficit hídrico para a cultura, está relacionada ao conhecimento de fatores do solo, do clima e da planta. Avaliaram-se componentes da equação do balanço de água no solo para fases fenológicas do milho (Zea mays L., sob sistema de plantio direto, adubado com 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido em Piracicaba, SP, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. A avaliação foi feita

  16. On the parallel momentum balance in low pressure plasmas with an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyakov, A.I.; Garbet, X.; Bourdelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the parallel momentum balance in low pressure plasmas with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The parallel momentum balance equation is derived from magnetohydrodynamic equations by an expansion in the inverse magnetic field 1/B as a small parameter. Contributions of the gyroviscosity and inertia terms are clarified. It is shown that magnetic field curvature leads to important coupling of parallel flow with fluctuations of the electric field and plasma pressure.

  17. The microwave propagation and backscattering characteristics of vegetation. [wheat, sorghum, soybeans and corn fields in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    A semi-empirical model for microwave backscatter from vegetation was developed and a complete set of canope attenuation measurements as a function of frequency, incidence angle and polarization was acquired. The semi-empirical model was tested on corn and sorghum data over the 8 to 35 GHz range. The model generally provided an excellent fit to the data as measured by the correlation and rms error between observed and predicted data. The model also predicted reasonable values of canopy attenuation. The attenuation data was acquired over the 1.6 to 10.2 GHz range for the linear polarizations at approximately 20 deg and 50 deg incidence angles for wheat and soybeans. An attenuation model is proposed which provides reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  18. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  19. Effect of different input management on weed composition, diversity and density of corn field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surur Khoramdel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of input intensity on species diversity, composition and density of weeds in corn (Zea mays L., an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during the year 2009. Treatments included low input, medium input and high input systems. Low input received 30 tonha-1or 30 tonha-1 compost, zero tillage and hand weeding (twice. Medium input was based on 15 tonha-1 manure, 150 kgha-1 urea as chemical fertilizer, twice tillage operations and 2, 4-D (1.5 Lha-1, at five leaves emergence as an herbicide and hand weeding (once. High input received 300 kgha-1 urea, four tillage operations and Paraquat (2 Lha-1, after planting and 2, 4-D (1.5 Lha-1, at five leaves emergence. Manure and compost were applied in the planting time. Weed samplings were done in three stages (early, mid and late growing season. Results indicated that the highest and the lowest weed species diversity and density were observed in low input based on manure and high input systems, respectively. The highest range of weed relative density was obtained for black nightshade (Solanum nigrum with 9.09-75.00%. The highest number of species was observed in low input based on manure. Also, management practices affected weed dry matter and diversity indices. The highest and the lowest amounts of weed dry matter were observed in low input based on manure and high input systems, respectively. In the first, second and the third stages of sampling, the maximum and the minimum amounts of Margalef index were observed in low input based on manure (with 5.3, 5.4 and 3.3, respectively and high input systems (with 0.8, 2.3 and 2.6, respectively. In the first, second and the third stages of sampling, the highest and the lowest values of Shannon index were observed in low input based on manure (with 0.6, 0.7 and 0.5 respectively and high input (with 0

  20. Balancing the Interactions of Ions, Water, and DNA in the Drude Polarizable Force Field

    OpenAIRE

    Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we presented a first-generation all-atom Drude polarizable force field for DNA based on the classical Drude oscillator model, focusing on optimization of key dihedral angles followed by extensive validation of the force field parameters. Presently, we describe the procedure for balancing the electrostatic interactions between ions, water, and DNA as required for development of the Drude force field for DNA. The proper balance of these interactions is shown to impact DNA stability and...

  1. Spectral Bio-indicator Simulations for Tracking Photosynthetic Activities in a Corn Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen-Ben; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Corp, Lawrence; Campbell, Petya; Kustas, William

    2011-01-01

    Accurate assessment of vegetation canopy optical properties plays a critical role in monitoring natural and managed ecosystems under environmental changes. In this context, radiative transfer (RT) models simulating vegetation canopy reflectance have been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for understanding and estimating spectral bio-indicators. In this study, two narrow band spectroradiometers were utilized to acquire observations over corn canopies for two summers. These in situ spectral data were then used to validate a two-layer Markov chain-based canopy reflectance model for simulating the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), which has been widely used in recent vegetation photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) studies. The in situ PRI derived from narrow band hyperspectral reflectance exhibited clear responses to: 1) viewing geometry which affects the asset of light environment; and 2) seasonal variation corresponding to the growth stage. The RT model (ACRM) successfully simulated the responses to the variable viewing geometry. The best simulations were obtained when the model was set to run in the two layer mode using the sunlit leaves as the upper layer and shaded leaves as the lower layer. Simulated PRI values yielded much better correlations to in situ observations when the cornfield was dominated by green foliage during the early growth, vegetative and reproductive stages (r = 0.78 to 0.86) than in the later senescent stage (r = 0.65). Further sensitivity analyses were conducted to show the important influences of leaf area index (LAI) and the sunlit/shaded ratio on PRI observations.

  2. Heat pulse probe measurements of soil water evaporation in a corn field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latent heat fluxes from cropped fields consist of soil water evaporation and plant transpiration. It is difficult to accurately separate evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration. Heat pulse probes have been used to measure bare field subsurface soil water evaporation, however, the appl...

  3. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L. to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Drissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions. Six rates of Zn supply (0 or control; 1.5; 3; 5; 10 and 50 mg kg−1 were tested. They were split at three different times during the growing season: (i 50% immediately after sowing, (ii 25% at 4–5 leaf stage and (iii 25% at 8–9 leaf stage. These Zn rates were applied to the soil surface as a solution of Zn sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O. Zn deficiency symptoms appeared at an earlier stage (4–5 leaf stage as white stripes between the midrib and the margin of leaves for a Zn rate below or equal to 5 mg kg−1. Severity of these symptoms manifested more in container than in field. For both experiments, Zn supply induced a significant increase in stem height and leaf area. Furthermore, in both experiments, control plants showed a notable delay in achieving anthesis, silking, pollination and kernels maturity. The maximum shoot dry weight at harvest was recorded with Zn supply of 5 mg kg−1 in field experiment and 10 mg kg−1 in containers experiment. The shoot dry weight was especially linked to kernels dry weight. This latter was mainly enhanced through two compounds: 1000 kernels dry weight and pollination rate. On the other hand, outdoor container results can be used to help predict field plant responses to Zn except for control treatment.

  4. Artificial intelligence analysis of hyperspectral remote sensing data for management of water, weed, and nitrogen stresses in corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Tahir

    This study investigated the possibility of using ground-based remotely sensed hyperspectral observations with a special emphasis on detection of water, weed and nitrogen stresses contributing towards in-season decision support for precision crop management (PCM). A three factor split-split-plot experiment, with four randomized blocks as replicates, was established during the growing seasons of 2003 and 2004. Corn (Zea mays L.) hybrid DKC42-22 was grown because this hybrid is a good performer on light soils in Quebec. There were twelve 12 x 12m plots in a block (one replication per treatment per block) and the total number of plots was 48. Water stress was the main factor in the experiment. A drip irrigation system was laid out and each block was split into irrigated and non-irrigated halves. The second main factor of the experiment was weeds with two levels i.e. full weed control and no weed control. Weed treatments were assigned randomly by further splitting the irrigated and non-irrigated sub-blocks into two halves. Each of the weed treatments was furthermore split into three equal sub-sub-plots for nitrogen treatments (third factor of the experiment). Nitrogen was applied at three levels i.e. 50, 150 and 250 kg N ha-1 (Quebec norm is between 120-160 kg N ha-1). The hyperspectral data were recorded (spectral resolution = 1 nm) mid-day (between 1000 and 1400 hours) with a FieldSpec FR spectroradiometer over a spectral range of 400-2500 run at three growth stages namely: early growth, tasseling and full maturity, in each of the growing season. There are two major original contributions in this thesis: First is the development of a hyperspectral data analysis procedure for separating visible (400-700 nm), near-infrared (700-1300 nm) and mid-infrared (1300-2500 nm) regions of the spectrum for use in discriminant analysis procedure. In addition, of all the spectral band-widths analyzed, seven waveband-aggregates were identified using STEPDISC procedure, which were the

  5. Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Ziegler, Sianna A; Montoya, Amanda K; Jiang, Lily

    2017-01-01

    Women obtain more than half of U.S. undergraduate degrees in biology, chemistry, and mathematics, yet they earn less than 20% of computer science, engineering, and physics undergraduate degrees (National Science Foundation, 2014a). Gender differences in interest in computer science, engineering, and physics appear even before college. Why are women represented in some science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields more than others? We conduct a critical review of the most commonly cited factors explaining gender disparities in STEM participation and investigate whether these factors explain differential gender participation across STEM fields. Math performance and discrimination influence who enters STEM, but there is little evidence to date that these factors explain why women's underrepresentation is relatively worse in some STEM fields. We introduce a model with three overarching factors to explain the larger gender gaps in participation in computer science, engineering, and physics than in biology, chemistry, and mathematics: (a) masculine cultures that signal a lower sense of belonging to women than men, (b) a lack of sufficient early experience with computer science, engineering, and physics, and (c) gender gaps in self-efficacy. Efforts to increase women's participation in computer science, engineering, and physics may benefit from changing masculine cultures and providing students with early experiences that signal equally to both girls and boys that they belong and can succeed in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sex Pheromone Dosages and Release Point Densities for Mating Disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in NE China Corn Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Jow, Chung-Kuang; Klein, Michael G; Jia, Yu-di; Zhang, Da-Yu; Li, Lan-Bing

    2017-08-01

    Mating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014-2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5-5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2-6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of disruption treatments. Finally, 6.0 (F30) and 0.2 mg (Fs) dosages were used in fields at 20-640 and 200-6,400 release points/ha. We found that ≧6.0 mg of the binary pheromone mixture, or ca. 5.0 mg of either of the two single components, completely disrupted mating behaviors, and F30 of the binary mixture provided a 200-m2 disruption area, with at least 50% capture reductions. At a density of 60-640 and 600-6,400 points/ha in a corn field, F30 and Fs dosages provided >90% mating disruption, leaf protection, and ear protection. The dispenser densities and inverse male catches in traps tended to follow a noncompetitive mechanism of mating disruption. Since 85% disruption of mating with 200-400 0.02 mg release points/ha was obtained, that level is recommended as the choice in future NE China O. furnacalis IPM programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm is a devastating pest controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein. However, fall armyworm populations ...

  8. Balancing the playing field: collaborative gaming for physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Michael; Kinany, Nawal; Rinne, Paul; Rayner, Anthony; Bentley, Paul; Burdet, Etienne

    2017-11-20

    Multiplayer video games promoting exercise-based rehabilitation may facilitate motor learning, by increasing motivation through social interaction. However, a major design challenge is to enable meaningful inter-subject interaction, whilst allowing for significant skill differences between players. We present a novel motor-training paradigm that allows real-time collaboration and performance enhancement, across a wide range of inter-subject skill mismatches, including disabled vs. able-bodied partnerships. A virtual task consisting of a dynamic ball on a beam, is controlled at each end using independent digital force-sensing handgrips. Interaction is mediated through simulated physical coupling and locally-redundant control. Game performance was measured in 16 healthy-healthy and 16 patient-expert dyads, where patients were hemiparetic stroke survivors using their impaired arm. Dual-player was compared to single-player performance, in terms of score, target tracking, stability, effort and smoothness; and questionnaires probing user-experience and engagement. Performance of less-able subjects (as ranked from single-player ability) was enhanced by dual-player mode, by an amount proportionate to the partnership's mismatch. The more abled partners' performances decreased by a similar amount. Such zero-sum interactions were observed for both healthy-healthy and patient-expert interactions. Dual-player was preferred by the majority of players independent of baseline ability and subject group; healthy subjects also felt more challenged, and patients more skilled. This is the first demonstration of implicit skill balancing in a truly collaborative virtual training task leading to heightened engagement, across both healthy subjects and stroke patients.

  9. Mean field theory for a balanced hypercolumn model of orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Sterner, G.; Hertz, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a complete mean field theory for a balanced state of a simple model of an orientation hypercolumn, with a numerical procedure for solving the mean-field equations quantitatively. With our treatment, one can determine self-consistently both the firing rates and the firing correlations...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.295 - PM inertial balance for field-testing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... net PM on a sample medium for field testing. (b) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM inertial balance for field-testing analysis. 1065.295 Section 1065.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  11. Coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations for high-field electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, X. L.

    2008-01-01

    It is pointed out that in the framework of balance-equation approach, the coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations can be used as a complete set of equations to determine the high-field transport of semiconductors in both strong and weak electron-electron interaction limits. We call to attention that the occupation rate equation conserves the total particle number and maintains the energy balance of the relative electron system, and there is no need to introduce any other term in it. The addition of an energy-drift term in the particle-occupation rate equation [Phys. Rev. B 71, 195205 (2005)] is physically inadequate for the violation of the total particle-number conservation and the energy balance. It may lead to a substantial unphysical increase of the total particle number by the application of a dc electric field

  12. Evapotranspiration of a corn crop (Zea mays, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcache, M.; Engel, G.

    1984-01-01

    The real and potential evapotranspiration of corn crop is calculated in a field experiment. The potential evapotranspiration (PET) is estimated using the Penman Method with a Type 'A' evaporation tank. The real evapotranspiration (RET) is measured using the Mass Balance Method based on periodic calculations of the volumetric moisture of the soil using a neutron probe and the matrix potential using tensiometers. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. The overwhelming role of soil N2O emissions in net greenhouse gas balance of the U.S. Corn Belt: Modeling estimate of nitrogen fertilizer impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yu, Z.; Cao, P.; Tian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Corn Belt of the Midwestern U.S. is one of the most productive systems in the world during the growing season, with gross primary production exceeding even that of the Amazon forests. Fueled by increased commodity prices in the late 2000s, the area in corn and soybean in the U.S. has reached record highs with most of the newly added cropland converted from grasslands, wetland, and Conservation Reserve Program land. Intensive management practices, such as fertilizer use, irrigation, tillage, residue removal etc., have been implemented following cropland expansion to maximize crop yield from converted marginal land or from more monoculture production. The Corn Belt has been recognized as one of the major contributors to carbon sinks in the U.S., partially because crop harvest and residue removal reduced soil respiration. In the meanwhile, 75% of the total N2O emission in the U.S. comes from agriculture, among which the Corn Belt is the major source due to nitrogen management, and has large potential of climate mitigation. However, it remains far from certain how intensive cropland expansion and management practices in this region have affected soil carbon accumulation and non-CO2 GHG emissions. In this study, by using a process-based land ecosystem model, Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), we investigated the impacts of nitrogen fertilizer use on soil carbon accumulation and direct N2O emissions across the U.S. Corn Belt. Surprisingly, we found N fertilizer-induced SOC storage continued shrinking after the 1980s while N2O emissions remains relatively constant. The N fertilizer use led to a net greenhouse gas release since 2000 in both the western and eastern Corn Belt, contributing to climate warming. This study implies an increasing importance of nitrogen management for both agricultural production and climate mitigation.

  14. Neonicotinoid insecticide residues in surface water and soil associated with commercial maize (corn fields in southwestern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Schaafsma

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under scrutiny for their potential unintended effects on non-target organisms, particularly pollinators in agro-ecosystems. As part of a larger study of neonicotinoid residues associated with maize (corn production, 76 water samples within or around the perimeter of 18 commercial maize fields and neighbouring apiaries were collected in 5 maize-producing counties of southwestern Ontario. Residues of clothianidin (mean = 2.28, max. = 43.60 ng/mL and thiamethoxam (mean = 1.12, max. = 16.50 ng/mL were detected in 100 and 98.7% of the water samples tested, respectively. The concentration of total neonicotinoid residues in water within maize fields increased six-fold during the first five weeks after planting, and returned to pre-plant levels seven weeks after planting. However, concentrations in water sampled from outside the fields were similar throughout the sampling period. Soil samples from the top 5 cm of the soil profile were also collected in these fields before and immediately following planting. The mean total neonicotinoid residue was 4.02 (range 0.07 to 20.30 ng/g, for samples taken before planting, and 9.94 (range 0.53 to 38.98 ng/g, for those taken immediately after planting. Two soil samples collected from within an conservation area contained detectable (0.03 and 0.11 ng/g concentrations of clothianidin. Of three drifted snow samples taken, the drift stratum containing the most wind-scoured soil had 0.16 and 0.20 ng/mL mainly clothianidin in the melted snow. The concentration was at the limit of detection (0.02 ng/mL taken across the entire vertical profile. With the exception of one sample, water samples tested had concentrations below those reported to have acute, chronic or sublethal effects to honey bees. Our results suggest that neonicotinoids may move off-target by wind erosion of contaminated soil. These results are informative to risk assessment models for other non-target species in maize

  15. Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues in Surface Water and Soil Associated with Commercial Maize (Corn) Fields in Southwestern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Arthur; Limay-Rios, Victor; Baute, Tracey; Smith, Jocelyn; Xue, Yingen

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under scrutiny for their potential unintended effects on non-target organisms, particularly pollinators in agro-ecosystems. As part of a larger study of neonicotinoid residues associated with maize (corn) production, 76 water samples within or around the perimeter of 18 commercial maize fields and neighbouring apiaries were collected in 5 maize-producing counties of southwestern Ontario. Residues of clothianidin (mean = 2.28, max. = 43.60 ng/mL) and thiamethoxam (mean = 1.12, max. = 16.50 ng/mL) were detected in 100 and 98.7% of the water samples tested, respectively. The concentration of total neonicotinoid residues in water within maize fields increased six-fold during the first five weeks after planting, and returned to pre-plant levels seven weeks after planting. However, concentrations in water sampled from outside the fields were similar throughout the sampling period. Soil samples from the top 5 cm of the soil profile were also collected in these fields before and immediately following planting. The mean total neonicotinoid residue was 4.02 (range 0.07 to 20.30) ng/g, for samples taken before planting, and 9.94 (range 0.53 to 38.98) ng/g, for those taken immediately after planting. Two soil samples collected from within an conservation area contained detectable (0.03 and 0.11 ng/g) concentrations of clothianidin. Of three drifted snow samples taken, the drift stratum containing the most wind-scoured soil had 0.16 and 0.20 ng/mL mainly clothianidin in the melted snow. The concentration was at the limit of detection (0.02 ng/mL) taken across the entire vertical profile. With the exception of one sample, water samples tested had concentrations below those reported to have acute, chronic or sublethal effects to honey bees. Our results suggest that neonicotinoids may move off-target by wind erosion of contaminated soil. These results are informative to risk assessment models for other non-target species in maize agro

  16. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bifenthrin in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) Populations in Western Nebraska and Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriano E; Wang, Haichuan; Zukoff, Sarah N; Meinke, Lance J; French, B Wade; Siegfried, Blair D

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control larvae or adults of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, a key pest of field corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to establish a baseline of susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, using susceptible laboratory populations and to compare this baseline with susceptibility of field populations. Concentration-response bioassays were performed to estimate the baseline susceptibility. From the baseline data, a diagnostic concentration (LC99) was determined and used to test adults of both laboratory and field populations. Larval susceptibility was also tested using both laboratory and field populations. Significant differences were recorded in adult and larval susceptibility among WCR field and laboratory populations. The highest LC50 for WCR adults was observed in populations from Keith 2 and Chase Counties, NE, with LC50s of 2.2 and 1.38 μg/vial, respectively, and Finney County 1, KS, with 1.43 μg/vial, as compared to a laboratory non-diapause population (0.24 μg/vial). For larvae, significant differences between WCR field and laboratory populations were also recorded. Significant differences in mortalities at the diagnostic bifenthrin concentration (LC99) were observed among WCR adult populations with western Corn Belt populations exhibiting lower susceptibility to bifenthrin, especially in southwestern Nebraska and southwestern Kansas. This study provides evidence that resistance to bifenthrin is evolving in field populations that have been exposed for multiple years to pyrethroid insecticides. Implications to sustainable rootworm management are discussed.

  17. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bifenthrin in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte Populations in Western Nebraska and Kansas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano E Pereira

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control larvae or adults of the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, a key pest of field corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to establish a baseline of susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, using susceptible laboratory populations and to compare this baseline with susceptibility of field populations. Concentration-response bioassays were performed to estimate the baseline susceptibility. From the baseline data, a diagnostic concentration (LC99 was determined and used to test adults of both laboratory and field populations. Larval susceptibility was also tested using both laboratory and field populations. Significant differences were recorded in adult and larval susceptibility among WCR field and laboratory populations. The highest LC50 for WCR adults was observed in populations from Keith 2 and Chase Counties, NE, with LC50s of 2.2 and 1.38 μg/vial, respectively, and Finney County 1, KS, with 1.43 μg/vial, as compared to a laboratory non-diapause population (0.24 μg/vial. For larvae, significant differences between WCR field and laboratory populations were also recorded. Significant differences in mortalities at the diagnostic bifenthrin concentration (LC99 were observed among WCR adult populations with western Corn Belt populations exhibiting lower susceptibility to bifenthrin, especially in southwestern Nebraska and southwestern Kansas. This study provides evidence that resistance to bifenthrin is evolving in field populations that have been exposed for multiple years to pyrethroid insecticides. Implications to sustainable rootworm management are discussed.

  18. Assessment of Inheritance and Fitness Costs Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Maize by Western Corn Rootworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Aubrey R; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2017-05-11

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.

  19. Assessment of Inheritance and Fitness Costs Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Maize by Western Corn Rootworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey R. Paolino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.

  20. Scaling up high throughput field phenotyping of corn and soy research plots using ground rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshlov, Boyan; Nakarmi, Akash; Baldwin, Steven; Essner, Scott; French, Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Crop improvement programs require large and meticulous selection processes that effectively and accurately collect and analyze data to generate quality plant products as efficiently as possible, develop superior cropping and/or crop improvement methods. Typically, data collection for such testing is performed by field teams using hand-held instruments or manually-controlled devices. Although steps are taken to reduce error, the data collected in such manner can be unreliable due to human error and fatigue, which reduces the ability to make accurate selection decisions. Monsanto engineering teams have developed a high-clearance mobile platform (Rover) as a step towards high throughput and high accuracy phenotyping at an industrial scale. The rovers are equipped with GPS navigation, multiple cameras and sensors and on-board computers to acquire data and compute plant vigor metrics per plot. The supporting IT systems enable automatic path planning, plot identification, image and point cloud data QA/QC and near real-time analysis where results are streamed to enterprise databases for additional statistical analysis and product advancement decisions. Since the rover program was launched in North America in 2013, the number of research plots we can analyze in a growing season has expanded dramatically. This work describes some of the successes and challenges in scaling up of the rover platform for automated phenotyping to enable science at scale.

  1. Physical Limitations of Empirical Field Models: Force Balance and Plasma Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin Zaharia; Cheng, C.Z.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study whether the magnetic field of the T96 empirical model can be in force balance with an isotropic plasma pressure distribution. Using the field of T96, we obtain values for the pressure P by solving a Poisson-type equation (gradient) 2 P = (gradient) · (J x B) in the equatorial plane, and 1-D profiles on the Sun-Earth axis by integrating (gradient)P = J x B. We work in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials. Our results lead to the conclusion that the T96 model field cannot be in equilibrium with an isotropic pressure. We also analyze in detail the computation of Birkeland currents using the Vasyliunas relation and the T96 field, which yields unphysical results, again indicating the lack of force balance in the empirical model. The underlying reason for the force imbalance is likely the fact that the derivatives of the least-square fitted model B are not accurate predictions of the actual magnetospheric field derivatives. Finally, we discuss a possible solution to the problem of lack of force balance in empirical field models

  2. What do farmers' weed control decisions imply about glyphosate resistance? Evidence from surveys of US corn fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Seth J; McFadden, Jonathan R; Smith, David J

    2018-05-01

    The first case of glyphosate-resistant weeds in the United States was documented in 1998, 2 years after the commercialization of genetically engineered herbicide-resistant (HR) corn and soybeans. Currently, over 15 glyphosate-resistant weed species affect US crop production areas. These weeds have the potential to reduce yields, increase costs, and lower farm profitability. The objective of our study is to develop a behavioral model of farmers' weed management decisions and use it to analyze weed resistance to glyphosate in US corn farms. On average, we find that weed control increased US corn yields by 3700 kg ha -1 (worth approximately $US 255 ha -1 ) in 2005 and 3500 kg ha -1 (worth approximately $US 575 ha -1 ) in 2010. If glyphosate resistant weeds were absent, glyphosate killed approximately 99% of weeds, on average, when applied at the label rate in HR production systems. Average control was dramatically lower in states where glyphosate resistance was widespread. We find that glyphosate resistance had a significant impact on weed control costs and corn yields of US farmers in 2005 and 2010. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Detailed balance principle and finite-difference stochastic equation in a field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhamkulov, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    A finite-difference equation, which is a generalization of the Langevin equation in field theory, has been obtained basing upon the principle of detailed balance for the Markov chain. Advantages of the present approach as compared with the conventional Parisi-Wu method are shown for examples of an exactly solvable problem of zero-dimensional quantum theory and a simple numerical simulation

  4. Adaptation of multi-joint balance coordination to whole body force fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhart, Denise; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Pasma, Jantsje; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Pasma, J.; Meskers, Carel; Maier, Andrea; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: The ankles and the hips play an important role in standing balance. Multi-joint coordination adapts with task, the magnitude and type of disturbance [1]. Arm studies show that postural responses are highly dependent on externally applied force fields [2]. Our aim is to study how

  5. Principle of detailed balance and the finite-difference stochastic equation in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhamkulov, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principle of detailed balance for the Markov chain is used to obtain a finite-difference equation which generalizes the Langevin equation in field theory. The advantages of using this approach compared to the conventional Parisi-Wu method are demonstrated for the examples of an exactly solvable problem in zero-dimensional quantum theory and a simple numerical simulation

  6. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  7. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  8. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  9. Measuring and modeling the temporal dynamics of nitrogen balance in an experimental-scale paddy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C.; Lin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen balance involves many mechanisms and plays an important role to maintain the function of nature. Fertilizer application in agriculture activity is usually seen as a common and significant nitrogen input to environment. Improper fertilizer application on paddy field can result in great amount of various types of nitrogen losses. Hence, it is essential to understand and quantify the nitrogen dynamics in paddy field for fertilizer management and pollution control. In this study, we develop a model which considers major transformation processes of nitrogen (e.g. volatilization, nitrification, denitrification and plant uptake). In addition, we measured different types of nitrogen in plants, soil and water at plant growth stages in an experimental-scale paddy field in Taiwan. The measurement includes total nitrogen in plants and soil, and ammonium-N (NH4+-N), nitrate-N (NO3--N) and organic nitrogen in water. The measured data were used to calibrate the model parameters and validate the model for nitrogen balance simulation. The results showed that the model can accurately estimate the temporal dynamics of nitrogen balance in paddy field during the whole growth stage. This model might be helpful and useful for future fertilizer management and pollution control in paddy field.

  10. Soil nitrogen balance under wastewater management: Field measurements and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vocasek, F.; Ma, Liwang; KC, A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation of crops could result in high nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in the vadose zone and ground water. The goal of this 2-yr field-monitoring study in the deep silty clay loam soils south of Dodge City, Kansas, was to assess how and under what circumstances N from the secondary-treated, wastewater-irrigated corn reached the deep (20-45 m) water table of the underlying High Plains aquifer and what could be done to minimize this problem. We collected 15.2-m-deep soil cores for characterization of physical and chemical properties; installed neutron probe access tubes to measure soil-water content and suction lysimeters to sample soil water periodically; sampled monitoring, irrigation, and domestic wells in the area; and obtained climatic, crop, irrigation, and N application rate records for two wastewater-irrigated study sites. These data and additional information were used to run the Root Zone Water Quality Model to identify key parameters and processes that influence N losses in the study area. We demonstrated that NO3-N transport processes result in significant accumulations of N in the vadose zone and that NO3-N in the underlying ground water is increasing with time. Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations for two wastewater-irrigated study sites indicated that reducing levels of corn N fertilization by more than half to 170 kg ha-1 substantially increases N-use efficiency and achieves near-maximum crop yield. Combining such measures with a crop rotation that includes alfalfa should further reduce the accumulation and downward movement of NO3-N in the soil profile. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Blue-green fluorescence and visible-infrared reflectance of corn (Zea mays L.) grain for in situ field detection of nitrogen supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Corp, L.A.; Daughtry, C.S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The sensing of spectral attributes of corn (Zea mays L.) grain from site specific areas of the field during the harvest process may be useful in managing agronomic inputs and production practices on those areas of the field in subsequent growing seasons. Eight levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn at Beltsville, Maryland. These N treatments produced a range of chlorophyll levels, biomass and physiological condition in the live plant canopies. After harvest, spectra were obtained in the laboratory on whole grain samples. Fluorescence emissions were acquired from 400 to 600 nm and percent reflectance were measured in the visible (VIS) near infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) regions from 400 nm to 2400 nm. A ultraviolet (UV) excitation band centered at 385 nm was the most effective in producing fluorescence emission differences in the blue-green region of the fluorescence spectrum with maxima centered from 430-470nm in the blue and with an intense shoulder centered at around 530-560 nm in the green region. Reflectance showed the most spectral differences in the NIR and MIR (970-2330 nm) regions

  12. Balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model for knowledge growth

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2016-11-18

    In this paper we study balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model proposed by Lucas and Moll [15] to model knowledge growth in an economy. Agents can either increase their knowledge level by exchanging ideas in learning events or by producing goods with the knowledge they already have. The existence of balanced growth path solutions implies exponential growth of the overall production in time. We prove existence of balanced growth path solutions if the initial distribution of individuals with respect to their knowledge level satisfies a Pareto-tail condition. Furthermore we give first insights into the existence of such solutions if in addition to production and knowledge exchange the knowledge level evolves by geometric Brownian motion.

  13. Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2013-06-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations.

  14. Existing of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal on The Corn Field Subjected by Long-term Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was determined in continuously cropping systems which had applied by organic and/or inorganic fertilizers for a long term (4 years application of corn and upland rice rotation. The experiment was established at Taman Bogo, Probolinggo sub-district, East Lampung district. The experiment were: control (without fertilizer, 20 Mg ha-1 chicken manure (CK, 20 Mg ha-1 green manure Glyricidium sp. (GM, 100 % inorganic fertilizers (IF (urea 300 kg ha-1, SP 36 200 kg ha-1, and KCl 100 kg ha-1, 50% CK + 50% IF, 50% GM + 50% IF, 75% CK + 25% IF, and 75% GM + 25% IF. Soil samples were taken at the first corn growing season (2001 and the eight corn growing season (2004. VAM fungi spores were examined by wet sieving methods. The results showed that application of chicken manure or its combination with inorganic fertilizers had higher VAM fungi spore. The dominant species of VAM fungi at all treatment was Glomus constrictum.

  15. The impact of previous knee injury on force plate and field-based measures of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jackie; Von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Nigg, Benno M; Emery, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic osteoarthritis demonstrate increased sway during quiet stance. The prospective association between balance and disease onset is unknown. Improved understanding of balance in the period between joint injury and disease onset could inform secondary prevention strategies to prevent or delay the disease. This study examines the association between youth sport-related knee injury and balance, 3-10years post-injury. Participants included 50 individuals (ages 15-26years) with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10years previously and 50 uninjured age-, sex- and sport-matched controls. Force-plate measures during single-limb stance (center-of-pressure 95% ellipse-area, path length, excursion, entropic half-life) and field-based balance scores (triple single-leg hop, star-excursion, unipedal dynamic balance) were collected. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% confidence intervals) were used to compare groups. Linear regression (adjusted for injury history) was used to assess the relationship between ellipse-area and field-based scores. Injured participants on average demonstrated greater medio-lateral excursion [mean within-pair difference (95% confidence interval); 2.8mm (1.0, 4.5)], more regular medio-lateral position [10ms (2, 18)], and shorter triple single-leg hop distances [-30.9% (-8.1, -53.7)] than controls, while no between group differences existed for the remaining outcomes. After taking into consideration injury history, triple single leg hop scores demonstrated a linear association with ellipse area (β=0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.01, 1.01). On average the injured participants adjusted their position less frequently and demonstrated a larger magnitude of movement during single-limb stance compared to controls. These findings support the evaluation of balance outcomes in the period between knee injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Detailed balance condition and ultraviolet stability of scalar field in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzou, Ahmad; Lin, Kai; Wang, Anzhong

    2011-01-01

    Detailed balance and projectability conditions are two main assumptions when Horava recently formulated his theory of quantum gravity - the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory. While the latter represents an important ingredient, the former often believed needs to be abandoned, in order to obtain an ultraviolet stable scalar field, among other things. In this paper, because of several attractive features of this condition, we revisit it, and show that the scalar field can be stabilized, if the detailed balance condition is allowed to be softly broken. Although this is done explicitly in the non-relativistic general covariant setup of Horava-Melby-Thompson with an arbitrary coupling constant λ, generalized lately by da Silva, it is also true in other versions of the HL theory. With the detailed balance condition softly breaking, the number of independent coupling constants can be still significantly reduced. It is remarkable to note that, unlike other setups, in this da Silva generalization, there exists a master equation for the linear perturbations of the scalar field in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background

  17. Corn Yield and Soil Nitrous Oxide Emission under Different Fertilizer and Soil Management: A Three-Year Field Experiment in Middle Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Junming; Iwuozo, Stephen; Yu, Chih-Li; Jima, Tigist; Smart, David; Reddy, Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A three-year field experiment was conducted to examine the responses of corn yield and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emission to various management practices in middle Tennessee. The management practices include no-tillage + regular applications of urea ammonium nitrate (NT-URAN); no-tillage + regular applications of URAN + denitrification inhibitor (NT-inhibitor); no-tillage + regular applications of URAN + biochar (NT-biochar); no-tillage + 20% applications of URAN + chicken litter (NT-litter), no-tillage + split applications of URAN (NT-split); and conventional tillage + regular applications of URAN as a control (CT-URAN). Fertilizer equivalent to 217 kg N ha(-1) was applied to each of the experimental plots. Results showed that no-tillage (NT-URAN) significantly increased corn yield by 28% over the conventional tillage (CT-URAN) due to soil water conservation. The management practices significantly altered soil N2O emission, with the highest in the CT-URAN (0.48 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)) and the lowest in the NT-inhibitor (0.20 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)) and NT-biochar (0.16 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)) treatments. Significant exponential relationships between soil N2O emission and water filled pore space were revealed in all treatments. However, variations in soil N2O emission among the treatments were positively correlated with the moisture sensitivity of soil N2O emission that likely reflects an interactive effect between soil properties and WFPS. Our results indicated that improved fertilizer and soil management have the potential to maintain highly productive corn yield while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Active tower damping and pitch balancing – design, simulation and field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Daniel; Shan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The tower is one of the major components in wind turbines with a contribution to the cost of energy of 8 to 12% [1]. In this overview the load situation of the tower will be described in terms of sources of loads, load components and fatigue contribution. Then two load reduction control schemes are described along with simulation and field test results. Pitch Balancing is described as a method to reduce aerodynamic asymmetry and the resulting fatigue loads. Active Tower Damping is reducing the tower oscillations by applying appropiate pitch angle changes. A field test was conducted on an Areva M5000 wind turbine

  19. Active tower damping and pitch balancing - design, simulation and field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckwitz, Daniel; Shan, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The tower is one of the major components in wind turbines with a contribution to the cost of energy of 8 to 12% [1]. In this overview the load situation of the tower will be described in terms of sources of loads, load components and fatigue contribution. Then two load reduction control schemes are described along with simulation and field test results. Pitch Balancing is described as a method to reduce aerodynamic asymmetry and the resulting fatigue loads. Active Tower Damping is reducing the tower oscillations by applying appropiate pitch angle changes. A field test was conducted on an Areva M5000 wind turbine.

  20. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%, food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2. Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (21.6 days than S. frugiperda (18.4 days and lower viability (56.4% and 80.2% for S. eridania and S. frugiperda , respectively. A higher amount of corn grains was consumed by S. eridania (5.4g than by S. frugiperda (3.9g. In summary, this study demonstrated that the toxins Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 expressed in fresh corn cobs contributed to protect ears of corn against S. frugiperda and the non-target pest S. eridania . However, itis important to monitor non-Bt cornfields because of the potential of both species to cause damage to ear sof corn.

  1. Aquatic Exposure Predictions of Insecticide Field Concentrations Using a Multimedia Mass-Balance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knäbel, Anja; Scheringer, Martin; Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Highly complex process-driven mechanistic fate and transport models and multimedia mass balance models can be used for the exposure prediction of pesticides in different environmental compartments. Generally, both types of models differ in spatial and temporal resolution. Process-driven mechanistic fate models are very complex, and calculations are time-intensive. This type of model is currently used within the European regulatory pesticide registration (FOCUS). Multimedia mass-balance models require fewer input parameters to calculate concentration ranges and the partitioning between different environmental media. In this study, we used the fugacity-based small-region model (SRM) to calculate predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for 466 cases of insecticide field concentrations measured in European surface waters. We were able to show that the PECs of the multimedia model are more protective in comparison to FOCUS. In addition, our results show that the multimedia model results have a higher predictive power to simulate varying field concentrations at a higher level of field relevance. The adaptation of the model scenario to actual field conditions suggests that the performance of the SRM increases when worst-case conditions are replaced by real field data. Therefore, this study shows that a less complex modeling approach than that used in the regulatory risk assessment exhibits a higher level of protectiveness and predictiveness and that there is a need to develop and evaluate new ecologically relevant scenarios in the context of pesticide exposure modeling.

  2. Balancing anisotropic curvature with gauge fields in a class of shear-free cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsrud, Mikjel

    2018-05-01

    We present a complete list of general relativistic shear-free solutions in a class of anisotropic, spatially homogeneous and orthogonal cosmological models containing a collection of n independent p-form gauge fields, where p\\in\\{0, 1, 2, 3\\} , in addition to standard ΛCDM matter fields modelled as perfect fluids. Here a (collection of) gauge field(s) balances anisotropic spatial curvature on the right-hand side of the shear propagation equation. The result is a class of solutions dynamically equivalent to standard FLRW cosmologies, with an effective curvature constant Keff that depends both on spatial curvature and the energy density of the gauge field(s). In the case of a single gauge field (n  =  1) we show that the only spacetimes that admit such solutions are the LRS Bianchi type III, Bianchi type VI0 and Kantowski–Sachs metric, which are dynamically equivalent to open (Keff0 ) FLRW models, respectively. With a collection of gauge fields (n  >  1) also Bianchi type II admits a shear-free solution (Keff>0 ). We identify the LRS Bianchi type III solution to be the unique shear-free solution with a gauge field Hamiltonian bounded from below in the entire class of models.

  3. Optimization of field homogeneity of Helmholtz-like coils for measuring the balance of planar gradiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordahn, M.A.; Holst, T.; Shen, Y.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the balance of planar SQUID gradiometers using a relatively small Helmholtz-like coil system requires a careful design of the coils in order to have a high degree of field uniformity along the radial direction. The level to which planar gradiometers can be balanced will be affected by any misalignment of the gradiometer relative to the ideal central position. Therefore, the maximum degree of balancing possible is calculated numerically for the Helmholtz geometry under various perturbations, including misalignment of the gradiometer along the cylindrical and the radial axis, and angular tilting relative to the normal plane. Furthermore, if the ratio between the coil separation and coil radius is chosen to be less than unity, calculations show that the expected radial uniformity of the field can be improved considerably compared to the traditional Helmholtz geometry. The optimized coil geometry is compared to the Helmholtz geometry and is found to yield up to an order of magnitude improvement of the worst case error signal within a volume spanned by the uncertainty in the alignment. (author)

  4. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5) on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22%) among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76%) compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (12%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil. PMID:23533452

  5. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5 on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22% among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76% compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5% as compared to uninoculated control soils (12% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil.

  6. Solution-Processable Balanced Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors Based on Carbonyl-Regulated Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengdong; Fang, Renren; Yang, Xiongfa; Chen, Ru; Gao, Jianhua; Fan, Hanghong; Li, Hongxiang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-04-04

    It is very important to develop ambipolar field effect transistors to construct complementary circuits. To obtain balanced hole- and electron-transport properties, one of the key issues is to regulate the energy levels of the frontier orbitals of the semiconductor materials by structural tailoring, so that they match well with the electrode Fermi levels. Five conjugated copolymers were synthesized and exhibited low LUMO energy levels and narrow bandgaps on account of the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the carbonyl groups. Polymer thin film transistors were prepared by using a solution method and exhibited high and balanced hole and electron mobility of up to 0.46 cm 2  V -1  s -1 , which suggested that these copolymers are promising ambipolar semiconductor materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of crop rotation on soil nutrient balance and weediness in soddy podzolic organic farming fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarina, Livija; Zarina, Liga

    2017-04-01

    The nutrient balance in different crop rotations under organic cropping system has been investigated in Latvia at the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics since 2006. Latvia is located in a humid and moderate climatic region where the rainfall exceeds evaporation (soil moisture coefficient > 1) and the soil moisture regime is characteristic with percolation. The average annual precipitation is 670-850 mm. The average temperature varies from -6.7° C in January to 16.5 °C in July. The growing season is 175 - 185 days. The most widespread are podzolic soils and mainly they are present in agricultural fields in all regions of Latvia. In a wider sense the goal of the soil management in organic farming is a creation of the biologically active flora and fauna in the soil by maintaining a high level of soil organic matter which is good for crops nutrient balance. Crop rotation is a central component of organic farming systems and has many benefits, including growth of soil microbial activity, which may increase nutrient availability. The aim of the present study was to calculate nutrient balance for each crop in the rotations and average in each rotation. Taking into account that crop rotations can limit build-up of weeds, additionally within the ERA-net CORE Organic Plus transnational programs supported project PRODIVA the information required for a better utilization of crop diversification for weed management in North European organic arable cropping systems was summarized. It was found that the nutrient balance was influenced by nutrients uptake by biomass of growing crops in crop rotation. The number of weeds in the organic farming fields with crop rotation is dependent on the cultivated crops and the succession of crops in the crop rotation.

  8. Mean field theory for a balanced hypercolumn model of orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Lerchner, A; Hertz, J; Ahmadi, M

    2004-01-01

    We present a complete mean field theory for a balanced state of a simple model of an orientation hypercolumn. The theory is complemented by a description of a numerical procedure for solving the mean-field equations quantitatively. With our treatment, we can determine self-consistently both the firing rates and the firing correlations, without being restricted to specific neuron models. Here, we solve the analytically derived mean-field equations numerically for integrate-and-fire neurons. Several known key properties of orientation selective cortical neurons emerge naturally from the description: Irregular firing with statistics close to -- but not restricted to -- Poisson statistics; an almost linear gain function (firing frequency as a function of stimulus contrast) of the neurons within the network; and a contrast-invariant tuning width of the neuronal firing. We find that the irregularity in firing depends sensitively on synaptic strengths. If Fano factors are bigger than 1, then they are so for all stim...

  9. Corn Earworm

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane G.; Olsen, Shawn; Barnhill, James

    2011-01-01

    In Utah, there are typically three generations of corn earworm (CEW) each year. The first generation of adults either come from overwintering pupae (southern and central Utah), or migrate into northern Utah. The adult moth is tannish brown with a 1 1/2 inch wingspan. The front wings are marked with a distinct dark spot in the center and darker bands near the outer margins. The hind wings are lighter tan, with a dark band along the outer margins. The male moths have green eyes. Moth flight occ...

  10. Methane mitigation with corn oil and calcium sulfate, responses on whole animal energy and nitrogen balance in dairy cattle consuming reduced-fat distillers grains plus solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of fat and calcium sulfate to diets fed to ruminants has been shown to reduce methane production, but these factors have not shown effects on energy balance. A study using 16 multiparous (8 Holstein and 8 Jersey) (78 ± 15 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating dairy cows was conducted to determine how ...

  11. Morphometric Controls on Glacier Mass Balance of the Puruogangri Ice Field, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the impacts of climatic changes and morphometric features on glacier mass balance is crucial to providing insight into glacier changes and their effects on regional water resources and ecosystems. Here, we presented an evaluation of morphometric effects on the glacier mass balances of the Puruogangri ice field (PIF on the Tibetan Plateau. A clear spatial variability of glacier mass balances, ranging from −0.035 to +0.019 m·w.e.·year−1, was estimated by comparing the TanDEM-X DEM (2012 with the SRTM-X DEM (2000. In general, the observed glacier mass changes were consistent with our fieldwork investigations. Furthermore, by applying the method of linear regression analysis, we found that the mass changes of individual glaciers on the PIF were mainly dominated by the mean altitude (R = 0.84, p < 0.001, however, they were statistically independent of glacier size, aspect, and surface velocity. At a local scale (grid size of 10 × 10 pixels, apart from the factor of altitude, surface velocity was correlated with glacier mass change.

  12. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotto,Orcial Ceolin; Bueno,Adeney de Freitas; Queiroz,Ana Paula de; Silva,Gabriela Vieira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%), food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2). Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (...

  13. Balancing ballistic protection against physiological strain: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Burdon, Catriona A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Fogarty, Alison L; Notley, Sean R; Hunt, Andrew P; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Silk, Aaron J; Patterson, Mark J; Peoples, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0.25-0.52 m(2)). Physiological trials were conducted on volunteers (N = 8) in a laboratory, under hot-dry conditions simulating an urban patrol: walking at 4 km·h(-1) (90 min) and 6 km·h(-1) (30 min or to fatigue). Field-based trials were used to evaluate tactical battlefield movements (mobility) of soldiers (N = 31) under tropical conditions, and across functional tests of power, speed, agility, endurance, and balance. Finally, trials were conducted at a jungle training centre, with soldiers (N = 32) patrolling under tropical conditions (averaging 5 h). In the laboratory, work tolerance was reduced as protection increased, with deep-body temperature climbing relentlessly. However, the protective ensembles could be grouped into two equally stressful categories, each providing a different level of ballistic protection. This outcome was supported during the mobility trials, with the greatest performance decrement evident during fire and movement simulations, as the ensemble mass was increased (-2.12%·kg(-1)). The jungle patrol trials similarly supported this outcome. Therefore, although ballistic protection does increase physiological strain, this research has provided a basis on which to determine how that strain can be balanced against the mission-specific level of required personal protection.

  14. Macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration: Equilibrium, power balance and fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Erik Harold

    The plasma parameters and characteristics of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration (IFRC) are summarized in this thesis. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of the different diagnostics used to make measurements in the experiment, as well as the measurements themselves. Whenever possible, actual measurements are used in lieu of theoretical or analytical fits to data. Analysis of magnetic probes (B-dots) comprises the bulk of what is known about the IFRC. From these B-dot probes, the magnetic field structure in a two dimensional plane at constant toroidal position has been determined, and has been found to be consistent with a field-reversed configuration. Peak reversed fields of approximately 250 Gauss have been observed. Further analyses have been developed to extract information from the magnetic field structure, including components of the electric field, the current density, and plasma pressure in the same two dimensional plane. Electric field magnitudes reach 600 V/m, concurrent with current densities greater than 105 Amps/m2 and thermal pressures over 200 Pa. Spectroscopic analysis of hydrogen lines has been done to make estimates of the electron temperature, while spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler broadening of the Halpha line31 have allowed an estimate of the ion temperature. Particle losses out one axial end plane measured by an array of Faraday cups quantify the how well the configuration traps particles. Spectral information derived from B-dot probes indicates that there is substantial power present at frequencies lying between the hydrogen cyclotron and mean gyrofrequency. These various measurements are used to find the following parameters that characterize the Irvine FRC: (1) Electromagnetic and thermal stored energies as functions of time. (2) Power balance, including input power from the field coils, resistive heating, power lost by particle transport and radiation, and particle and energy confinement times. (3) Strong

  15. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-07-08

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues.

  16. Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield. We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years ...

  17. Wnt signaling balances specification of the cardiac and pharyngeal muscle fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amrita; Holowiecki, Andrew; Song, Yuntao Charlie; Waxman, Joshua S.

    2017-01-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin (Wnt) signaling plays multiple conserved roles during fate specification of cardiac progenitors in developing vertebrate embryos. Although lineage analysis in ascidians and mice has indicated there is a close relationship between the cardiac second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscle (PM) progenitors, the signals underlying directional fate decisions of the cells within the cardio-pharyngeal muscle field in vertebrates are not yet understood. Here, we examined the temporal requirements of Wnt signaling in cardiac and PM development. In contrast to a previous report in chicken embryos that suggested Wnt inhibits PM development during somitogenesis, we find that in zebrafish embryos Wnt signaling is sufficient to repress PM development during anterior-posterior patterning. Importantly, the temporal sensitivity of dorso-anterior PMs to increased Wnt signaling largely overlaps with when Wnt signaling promotes specification of the adjacent cardiac progenitors. Furthermore, we find that excess early Wnt signaling can cell autonomously promote expansion of the first heart field (FHF) progenitors at the expense of PM and SHF within the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM). Our study provides insight into an antagonistic developmental mechanism that balances the sizes of the adjacent cardiac and PM progenitor fields in early vertebrate embryos. PMID:28087459

  18. Influence of continuous cropping on corn and soybean pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzi, Camila; Camera, Juliane Nicolodi; Deuner, Carolina Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two tillage programs (conventional and no-tillage) and different rotations with soybeans and corn on the occurrence of Fusarium species. The work was conducted in the experimental field and Seed Laboratory at Iowa State University. The treatments were: tillage (no-tillage and conventional tillage), crop (corn and soybeans) and three different cropping sequences for corn and soybeans, respectively. Treatment with corn: (1) t...

  19. Research on the effect of the external magnetic field in the joule balance at NIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxin; You, Qiang; Li, Zhengkun; Bai, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; He, Qing

    2018-06-01

    The first determination of the Planck constant with the second generation of the joule balance, NIM-2, was completed in 2017 with an uncertainty of 2.4  ×  10‑7. Due to the movement of the magnet during the measurement process, the effect of the external field is a critical problem in NIM-2. At present, the electromagnet system is used in NIM-2. By taking the average of the results with positive and negative exciting currents, the uncertainty from the external field is reduced to 1.7  ×  10‑7, which is still the largest source in the uncertainty budget as all the other items are less than 1  ×  10‑7. In the near future, a permanent magnet system will be applied in NIM-2 and the main field cannot be reversed. Although the coupling of the external magnetic field in the permanent magnet system is about 40 times less than that in the electromagnet system, further reduction of this effect is still required in the permanent magnet system. In this paper, the effect of the external field is analyzed in both an electromagnet system and a permanent magnet system based on simulations and experiments. Then, the methods of magnetic shielding and compensation coils are proposed and simulated in the permanent magnet system. The results show that it may be possible to reduce the uncertainty of the external field to less than 2  ×  10‑8 in the permanent magnet system by employing the two methods.

  20. [Effects of reduced nitrogen application and soybean intercropping on nitrogen balance of sugarcane field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Wen-ting; Li, Zhi-xian; Guan, Ao-mei

    2015-03-01

    A four-year (2010-2013) field experiment was carried out to explore the effects of three planting patterns (sugarcane, soybean monoculture and sugarcane-soybean 1:2 intercropping) with two nitrogen input levels (300 and 525 kg . hm-2) on soybean nitrogen fixation, sugarcane and soybean nitrogen accumulation, and ammonia volatilization and nitrogen leaching in sugarcane field. The results showed that the soybean nitrogen fixation efficiency (NFE) of sugarcane-soybean inter-cropping was lower than that of soybean monoculture. There was no significant difference in NFE among the treatments with the two nitrogen application rates. The nitrogen application rate and inter-cropping did not remarkably affect nitrogen accumulation of sugarcane and soybean. The ammonia volatilization of the reduced nitrogen input treatment was significantly lower than that of the conventional nitrogen input treatment. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in nitrogen leaching at different nitrogen input levels and among different planting patterns. The sugarcane field nitrogen balance analysis indicated that the nitrogen application rate dominated the nitrogen budget of sugarcane field. During the four-year experiment, all treatments leaved a nitrogen surplus (from 73.10 to 400.03 kg . hm-2) , except a nitrogen deficit of 66.22 kg . hm-2 in 2011 in the treatment of sugarcane monoculture with the reduced nitrogen application. The excessive nitrogen surplus might increase the risk of nitrogen pollution in the field. In conclusion, sugarcane-soybean intercropping with reduced nitrogen application is feasible to practice in consideration of enriching the soil fertility, reducing nitrogen pollution and saving production cost in sugarcane field.

  1. Balancing Near-Field Enhancement, Absorption, and Scattering for Effective Antenna-Reactor Plasmonic Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Kale, Matthew J; Halas, Naomi J; Nordlander, Peter; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-06-14

    Efficient photocatalysis requires multifunctional materials that absorb photons and generate energetic charge carriers at catalytic active sites to facilitate a desired chemical reaction. Antenna-reactor complexes are an emerging multifunctional photocatalytic structure where the strong, localized near field of the plasmonic metal nanoparticle (e.g., Ag) is coupled to the catalytic properties of the nonplasmonic metal nanoparticle (e.g., Pt) to enable chemical transformations. With an eye toward sustainable solar driven photocatalysis, we investigate how the structure of antenna-reactor complexes governs their photocatalytic activity in the light-limited regime, where all photons need to be effectively utilized. By synthesizing core@shell/satellite (Ag@SiO 2 /Pt) antenna-reactor complexes with varying Ag nanoparticle diameters and performing photocatalytic CO oxidation, we observed plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis only for antenna-reactor complexes with antenna components of intermediate sizes (25 and 50 nm). Optimal photocatalytic performance was shown to be determined by a balance between maximized local field enhancements at the catalytically active Pt surface, minimized collective scattering of photons out of the catalyst bed by the complexes, and minimal light absorption in the Ag nanoparticle antenna. These results elucidate the critical aspects of local field enhancement, light scattering, and absorption in plasmonic photocatalyst design, especially under light-limited illumination conditions.

  2. Organic matter decomposition and microarthropod community structure in corn fields under low input and intensive management in Guaíra (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S Rodrigues

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of organic matter decomposition and the structure of the communities of microarthropods were compared between two corn fields receiving contrasting agricultural management practices (low input and intensive farming. The rate of decomposition tended to be higher in the intensively managed field in the beginning of the growing season, but decreased to a level significantly lower than the observed in the low input field by the end of the growing season. This suggested that the biological community associated with the decomposition process could be negatively influenced in the intensively managed field. Analyses of the structure of microarthropod communities indicated differences between the two areas. The microarthropod populations present in the intensively managed field suffered abrupt decrease in numbers as the season progressed.A taxa de decomposição da matéria orgânica e a estrutura da comunidade de microartrópodes foram comparadas entre dois campos cultivados com milho mas recebendo manejos distintos, sendo um campo manejado intensivamente e outro com baixo uso de insumos. A taxa de decomposição foi mais alta no campo intensivamente manejado no início da cultura, mas decresceu para um nível significativamente inferior àquela observada no campo com baixo uso de insumos ao final da estação. Tal tendência sugeriu que a estrutura da comunidade dos organismos associados ao processo de decomposição poderia estar sendo negativamente influenciada no campo intensivamente manejado. Análises da estrutura das comunidades de microartrópodes indicaram que diferentes comunidades estavam presentes nos dois campos. As populações de microartrópodes presentes no campo sob manejo intensivo sofreram queda abrupta em números, sendo praticamente eliminadas já no segundo mês de desenvolvimento da cultura.

  3. Field assessment of balance in 10 to 14 year old children, reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Junge, Tina

    2014-01-01

    and adults. When assessing static balance, it is essential to use objective, sensitive tools, and these types of measurement have previously been performed in laboratory settings. However, the emergence of technologies like the Nintendo Wii Board (NWB) might allow balance assessment in field settings....... As the NWB has only been validated and tested for reproducibility in adults, the purpose of this study was to examine reproducibility and validity of the NWB in a field setting, in a population of children. METHODS: Fifty-four 10-14 year-olds from the CHAMPS-Study DK performed four different balance tests...... of the reproducibility study. CONCLUSION: Both NWB and AMTI have satisfactory reproducibility for testing static balance in a population of children. Concurrent validity of NWB compared with AMTI was satisfactory. Furthermore, the results from the concurrent validity study were comparable to the reproducibility results...

  4. White-light full-field OCT resolution improvement by image sensor colour balance adjustment: numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Ryabukho, V P; Smirnov, I V

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of improving white-light full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) resolution by image sensor colour balance tuning is shown numerically. We calculated the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of a coherence pulse registered by a silicon colour image sensor under various colour balance settings. The calculations were made for both a halogen lamp and white LED sources. The results show that the interference pulse width can be reduced by the proper choice of colour balance coefficients. The reduction is up to 18%, as compared with a colour image sensor with regular settings, and up to 20%, as compared with a monochrome sensor. (paper)

  5. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  6. Baby corn, green corn, and dry corn yield of corn cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Castro,Renato S; Silva,Paulo Sérgio L; Cardoso,Milton J

    2013-01-01

    In corn, when the first female inflorescence is removed, the plant often produces new female inflorescences. This allows the first ear to be harvested as baby corn (BC) and the second as green corn (GC) or dry corn (DC), that is, mature corn. The flexibility provided by a variety of harvested products allows the grower to compete with better conditions in the markets. We evaluated BC, GC, and DC yields in corn cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, and BRS 2020, after the first ear was harvested as BC. ...

  7. Balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model for knowledge growth

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Lorz, Alexander; Wolfram, Marie Therese

    2016-01-01

    events or by producing goods with the knowledge they already have. The existence of balanced growth path solutions implies exponential growth of the overall production in time. We prove existence of balanced growth path solutions if the initial

  8. Assessing corn water stress using spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Brenna S.

    Multiple remote sensing techniques have been developed to identify crop water stress, but some methods may be difficult for farmers to apply. Unlike most techniques, shortwave vegetation indices can be calculated using satellite, aerial, or ground imagery from the green (525-600 nm), red (625-700 nm), and near infrared (750-900 nm) spectral bands. If vegetation indices can be used to monitor crop water stress, growers could use this information as a quick low-cost guideline for irrigation management, thus helping save water by preventing over irrigating. This study occurred in the 2013 growing season near Greeley, CO, where pressurized drip irrigation was used to irrigate twelve corn ( Zea mays L.) treatments of varying water deficit. Multispectral data was collected and four different vegetation indices were evaluated: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI). The four vegetation indices were compared to corn water stress as indicated by the stress coefficient (Ks) and water deficit in the root zone, calculated by using a water balance that monitors crop evapotranspiration (ET), irrigation events, precipitation events, and deep percolation. ET for the water balance was calculated using two different methods for comparison purposes: (1) calculation of the stress coefficient (Ks) using FAO-56 standard procedures; (2) use of canopy temperature ratio (Tc ratio) of a stressed crop to a non-stressed crop to calculate Ks. It was found that obtaining Ks from Tc ratio is a viable option, and requires less data to obtain than Ks from FAO-56. In order to compare the indices to Ks, vegetation ratios were developed in the process of normalization. Vegetation ratios are defined as the non-stressed vegetation index divided by the stressed vegetation index. Results showed that vegetation ratios were sensitive to water

  9. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  10. Comparison of SVM RBF-NN and DT for crop and weed identification based on spectral measurement over corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to find an appropriate pattern-recognition method for in-field plant identification based on spectral measurement in order to classify the crop and weeds accurately. In this study, the method of Support Vector Machine (SVM) was evaluated and compared with two other methods, Decision ...

  11. Strategies to evaluate goodness of reference strips for in-season, field scale, irrigated corn nitrogen sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen (N) sufficiency approach to assess plant N status for in-season N management requires a non-N-limiting reference to make N recommendations. Use of reference strips in fields with spatially variable soils and the impact this variability has within N enriched reference strips are not we...

  12. A self-consistent model of a thermally balanced quiescent prominence in magnetostatic equilibrium in a uniform gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Low, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model of quiescent prominences in the form of an infinite vertical sheet is presented. Self-consistent solutions are obtained by integrating simultaneously the set of nonlinear equations of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance. The basic features of the models are: (1) The prominence matter is confined to a sheet and supported against gravity by a bowed magnetic field. (2) The thermal flux is channelled along magnetic field lines. (3) The thermal flux is everywhere balanced by Low's (1975) hypothetical heat sink which is proportional to the local density. (4) A constant component of the magnetic field along the length of the prominence shields the cool plasma from the hot surrounding. It is assumed that the prominence plasma emits more radiation than it absorbes from the radiation fields of the photosphere, chromosphere and corona, and the above hypothetical heat sink is interpreted to represent the amount of radiative loss that must be balanced by a nonradiative energy input. Using a central density and temperature of 10 11 particles cm -3 and 5000 K respectively, a magnetic field strength between 2 to 10 gauss and a thermal conductivity that varies linearly with temperature, the physical properties implied by the model are discussed. The analytic treatment can also be carried out for a class of more complex thermal conductivities. These models provide a useful starting point for investigating the combined requirements of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance in the quiescent prominence. (Auth.)

  13. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urography using a balanced turbo field echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifci, Egemen; Coban, Goekcen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Goenuelalan, Umut [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, Konya (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the inter-observer variability and the accuracy of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using a thin sectional balanced-turbo field echo (B-TFE) sequence for detecting ureteral calculi and to determine the effect of additional factors (size, density and location of the calculus) on the sensitivity and specificity of the MRU. MRU and CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists according to presence, density and localization of calculi. The degrees of inter-rater agreement for categorical items were evaluated by the Kappa coefficient. According to the 1st and 2nd observers, the sensitivity of MRU was 65.9 %, 71.8 % and the specificity of MRU was 95.9 %, 100 %, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was 84.6 % for stone detection. The larger size had a better effect on detectability (p < 0.05). Also, the higher density had a better impact on detectability (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that B-TFE MRU was useful to detect ureteral calculi. However, B-TFE MRU has low sensitivity and high specificity in comparison with CT images. MRU is a reasonable alternative imaging technique for follow-up periods of selective groups like patients with large urinary stones, children or pregnant patients when ionizing radiation is undesirable. (orig.)

  14. N2O fluxes over a corn field from an open-path, laser-based eddy covariance system and static chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L.; Pan, D.; Gelfand, I.; Abraha, M.; Moyer, R.; Poe, A.; Sun, K.; Robertson, P.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is important greenhouse and ozone-depleting gase. Although many efforts have been paid to N2O emissions, the spatial and temporal variability of N2O emissions still subject to large uncertainty. Application of the eddy covariance method for N2O emissions research would allow continuous ecosystem level flux measurements. The caveat, however, is need for high precision and high frequency measurements in field. In this study, an open-path, quantum cascade-laser-based eddy covariance N2O sensor has been deployed nearly continuously since May 2015 over a corn field at the W.K. Kellogg Biological Station site in SW Michigan. The field precision of the N2O sensor was assessed to be 0.1 ppbv at 10 Hz, and the total consumption was ~ 40 W, allowing the system to be powered solely by solar panels. The stability of the sensor under different temperature and humidity was tested within an environmental chamber. Spectroscopic experiments and cospectra analyses were carried out to study specific corrections associated with the sensor for eddy covariance techniques, including the line broadening effect due to water vapor and high frequency flux attenuation owning to sample path averaging. Ogive analyses indicated that the high-frequency N2O flux loss due to various damping effects was comparable to those of the CO2 flux. The detection limit of flux was estimated to be 0.3 ng N s-1 m-2 with a flux averaging interval of 30 minutes. The results from the EC system were also compared with ground measurements by standard static chambers (SC). Overall, more than 150 individual chamber measurements were taken within the footprint of the EC system. We found good correlation between the EC and SC methods given the spatiotemporal differences between the two techniques (R2 = 0.75). Both methods detected increased emissions during afternoon as compared to morning and night hours. Differences between EC and SC were also studied by investigating spatial variability with a

  15. Landscape-scale water balance monitoring with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntner, Andreas; Reich, Marvin; Mikolaj, Michal; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Schroeder, Stephan; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-06-01

    In spite of the fundamental role of the landscape water balance for the Earth's water and energy cycles, monitoring the water balance and its components beyond the point scale is notoriously difficult due to the multitude of flow and storage processes and their spatial heterogeneity. Here, we present the first field deployment of an iGrav superconducting gravimeter (SG) in a minimized enclosure for long-term integrative monitoring of water storage changes. Results of the field SG on a grassland site under wet-temperate climate conditions were compared to data provided by a nearby SG located in the controlled environment of an observatory building. The field system proves to provide gravity time series that are similarly precise as those of the observatory SG. At the same time, the field SG is more sensitive to hydrological variations than the observatory SG. We demonstrate that the gravity variations observed by the field setup are almost independent of the depth below the terrain surface where water storage changes occur (contrary to SGs in buildings), and thus the field SG system directly observes the total water storage change, i.e., the water balance, in its surroundings in an integrative way. We provide a framework to single out the water balance components actual evapotranspiration and lateral subsurface discharge from the gravity time series on annual to daily timescales. With about 99 and 85 % of the gravity signal due to local water storage changes originating within a radius of 4000 and 200 m around the instrument, respectively, this setup paves the road towards gravimetry as a continuous hydrological field-monitoring technique at the landscape scale.

  16. Landscape-scale water balance monitoring with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Güntner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fundamental role of the landscape water balance for the Earth's water and energy cycles, monitoring the water balance and its components beyond the point scale is notoriously difficult due to the multitude of flow and storage processes and their spatial heterogeneity. Here, we present the first field deployment of an iGrav superconducting gravimeter (SG in a minimized enclosure for long-term integrative monitoring of water storage changes. Results of the field SG on a grassland site under wet–temperate climate conditions were compared to data provided by a nearby SG located in the controlled environment of an observatory building. The field system proves to provide gravity time series that are similarly precise as those of the observatory SG. At the same time, the field SG is more sensitive to hydrological variations than the observatory SG. We demonstrate that the gravity variations observed by the field setup are almost independent of the depth below the terrain surface where water storage changes occur (contrary to SGs in buildings, and thus the field SG system directly observes the total water storage change, i.e., the water balance, in its surroundings in an integrative way. We provide a framework to single out the water balance components actual evapotranspiration and lateral subsurface discharge from the gravity time series on annual to daily timescales. With about 99 and 85 % of the gravity signal due to local water storage changes originating within a radius of 4000 and 200 m around the instrument, respectively, this setup paves the road towards gravimetry as a continuous hydrological field-monitoring technique at the landscape scale.

  17. The optimization of balanced turbo field echo sequence for depicting pelvic venous plexuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Koyama, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the relation between the developing range and the extent of invasion of a malignant tumor around the pelvic venous plexus is an important index for making strategic therapeutic decisions. In this study, we tried to depict a venous plexus in the pelvis using Balanced Turbo Field Echo (B-TFE). At first, we used an original phantom (derived from one layer of lard and another of agar (0.1%gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), 0.9%NaCl), each 500 ml, and we changed the Start Up Echo (SUE); 0-30, spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) inversion delay time (delay time); 0-200 ms, shot interval (SI); 1150, 1500 ms and evaluated the degree of fat suppression in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (the air signal method). The fat suppression-effect was found to be high in delay time; 120 ms in SUE; 0, SI; 1150 ms and 160 ms in SUE; 0, SI; 1500 ms was different SUE>0 each delay time. As for the images of healthy volunteers (5 men and 5 women), after fixing optimum conditions, we evaluated the images visually, as assessed by two radiologists and two radiographers, comparing between SUE; 0-30 and SI; 1150 and 1500 ms. According to the visual evaluation, the fat suppression-effect was worse, more than with the delay time; 20. We judged the best image of the venous plexus in the pelvis as being at SUE; 10, SI; 1500 ms. We think that using the B-TFE can help distinguish pelvic venous plexuses, by setting an optimum sequence. (author)

  18. Balancing the dual responsibilities of business unit controllers: field and survey evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, V.S.; Matejka, M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine how business unit (BU) controllers balance their dual roles of providing information for both local decision-making (local responsibility) and corporate control (functional responsibility). The existing literature suggests that organizations can improve the quality of financial reporting

  19. Computation of the velocity field and mass balance in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    Darcian velocity has been conventionally calculated in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow by taking the derivatives of the computed pressure field. This results in discontinuities in the velocity field at nodal points and element boundaries. Discontinuities become enormous when the computed pressure field is far from a linear distribution. It is proposed in this paper that the finite element procedure that is used to simulate the pressure field or the moisture content field also be applied to Darcy's law with the derivatives of the computed pressure field as the load function. The problem of discontinuity is then eliminated, and the error of mass balance over the region of interest is much reduced. The reduction is from 23.8 to 2.2% by one numerical scheme and from 29.7 to -3.6% by another for a transient problem

  20. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  1. Altered Balance of Receptive Field Excitation and Suppression in Visual Cortex of Amblyopic Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallum, Luke E; Shooner, Christopher; Kumbhani, Romesh D; Kelly, Jenna G; García-Marín, Virginia; Majaj, Najib J; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2017-08-23

    In amblyopia, a visual disorder caused by abnormal visual experience during development, the amblyopic eye (AE) loses visual sensitivity whereas the fellow eye (FE) is largely unaffected. Binocular vision in amblyopes is often disrupted by interocular suppression. We used 96-electrode arrays to record neurons and neuronal groups in areas V1 and V2 of six female macaque monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ) made amblyopic by artificial strabismus or anisometropia in early life, as well as two visually normal female controls. To measure suppressive binocular interactions directly, we recorded neuronal responses to dichoptic stimulation. We stimulated both eyes simultaneously with large sinusoidal gratings, controlling their contrast independently with raised-cosine modulators of different orientations and spatial frequencies. We modeled each eye's receptive field at each cortical site using a difference of Gaussian envelopes and derived estimates of the strength of central excitation and surround suppression. We used these estimates to calculate ocular dominance separately for excitation and suppression. Excitatory drive from the FE dominated amblyopic visual cortex, especially in more severe amblyopes, but suppression from both the FE and AEs was prevalent in all animals. This imbalance created strong interocular suppression in deep amblyopes: increasing contrast in the AE decreased responses at binocular cortical sites. These response patterns reveal mechanisms that likely contribute to the interocular suppression that disrupts vision in amblyopes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder that alters both monocular vision and binocular interaction. Using microelectrode arrays, we examined binocular interaction in primary visual cortex and V2 of six amblyopic macaque monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ) and two visually normal controls. By stimulating the eyes dichoptically, we showed that, in amblyopic cortex, the binocular combination of signals is

  2. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  3. Eddy Covariance Measurements Over a Maize Field: The Contribution of Minor Flux Terms to the Energy Balance Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, J.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of energy balance closure is a long-standing problem in eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The energy balance equation is defined as Rn - G = H + λE, where Rn is net radiation, G is the ground heat flux, H is the sensible heat flux and λE is the latent heat flux. In most cases of energy imbalance, either Rn is overestimated or the ground heat and turbulent fluxes are underestimated. Multiple studies have shown that calculations, incorrect instrument installation/calibration and measurement errors alone do not entirely account for this imbalance. Rather, research is now focused on previously neglected sources of heat storage in the soil, biomass and air beneath the EC station. This project examined the potential of five "minor flux terms" - soil heat storage, biomass heat storage, energy consumption by photosynthesis, air heat storage and atmospheric moisture change, to further close the energy balance gap. Eddy covariance measurements were conducted at a maize (Zea mays) field in southwest Germany during summer 2014. Soil heat storage was measured for six weeks at 11 sites around the field footprint. Biomass and air heat storage were measured for six subsequent weeks at seven sites around the field footprint. Energy consumption by photosynthesis was calculated using the CO2 flux data. Evapotranspiration was calculated using the water balance method and then compared to the flux data processed with three post-closure methods: the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux and the Bowen ratio post-closure methods. An energy balance closure of 66% was achieved by the EC station measurements over the entire investigation period. During the soil heat flux campaign, EC station closure was 74.1%, and the field footprint soil heat storage contributed 3.3% additional closure. During the second minor flux term measurement period, closure with the EC station data was 91%. Biomass heat storage resulted in 1.1% additional closure, the photosynthesis flux closed the gap

  4. Field test and sensitivity analysis of a sensible heat balance method to determine ice contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content impacts winter vadose zone hydrology. It may be possible to estimate changes in soil ice content with a sensible heat balance (SHB) method, using measurements from heat pulse (HP) sensors. Feasibility of the SHB method is unknown because of difficulties in measuring soil thermal pro...

  5. Asian corn borer (ACB) and non-ACB pests in GM corn (Zea mays L.) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afidchao, Miladis M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2013-07-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging pest in corn in south-east Asia. Corn farmers in the Philippines have incurred great yield losses in the past decades because of ACB infestation. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bt herbicide-tolerant (BtHT) corns have been developed to reduce borer attacks worldwide. This study assessed the extent of ACB and non-ACB pest infestations in both GM and non-GM corn in Isabela Province, the Philippines. Specific aims were to reinvestigate the efficacy of Bt corn in controlling ACB, to evaluate what parts of Bt corn plants are susceptible to ACB, to monitor the potential development of ACB resistance and to evaluate whether secondary pests dominate in an ACB-free Bt corn environment. The study involved preparatory interviews with farmers, site selection, field scouting and visual inspection of 200 plants along 200 m transect lines through 198 cornfields. Bt corn can efficiently reduce the ACB pest problem and reduce borer damage by 44%, to damage levels in Bt and BtHT corn of 6.8 and 7% respectively. The leaves of Bt corn were more susceptible, while cobs of Bt corn were less affected by ACB. Non-ACB pests were common in Bt toxin-free cornfields and reduced in non-GM cornfields where ACB was abundant. No secondary pest outbreaks were found in ACB-free Bt cornfields. Bt and BtHT corn hybrids containing the Cry1Ab protein performed well in Isabela Province. Reduced cob damage by ACB on Bt fields could mean smaller economic losses even with ACB infestation. The occurrence of ACB in Bt and BtHT cornfields, although at a moderate and insignificant level, could imply the potential development of resistance to Bt toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, Siva R. K.; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J.; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:26637593

  7. Converting Paddy Rice Field to Urban Use Dramatically Altered the Water and Energy Balances in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Qin, M.; Huang, X.; Fang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice wetlands are the main land use type across southern China, which impact the regional environments by affecting evapotranspiration (ET) and other water and energy related processes. Our study focuses on the effects of land-cover change on water and energy processes in the Qinhuai River Basin, a typical subtropical humid region that is under rapid ecological and economical transformations. This study integrates multiple methods and techniques including remote sensing, water and energy balance model (i.e., Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land, SEBAL), ecohydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT), and ground observation (Eddy Covariance measurement, etc.). We found that conversion of paddy rice field to urban use led to rise in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and reduction in ET, and thus resulted in changes in local and regional water and heat balance. The effects of the land-use change on ET and VPD overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. We conclude that the ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions in humid southern China and East Asia will likely exacerbate environmental consequences (e.g., elevated storm-flow volume, aggravated flood risks, and intensified urban heat island and urban dry island effects). The potential role of vegetated land cover in moderating water and energy balances and maintaining a stable climate should be considered in massive urban planning and global change impact assessment in southern China.

  8. A coupled remote sensing and simplified surface energy balance approach to estimate actual evapotranspiration from irrigated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Budde, Michael; Verdin, J.P.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate crop performance monitoring and production estimation are critical for timely assessment of the food balance of several countries in the world. Since 2001, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has been monitoring crop performance and relative production using satellite-derived data and simulation models in Africa, Central America, and Afghanistan where ground-based monitoring is limited because of a scarcity of weather stations. The commonly used crop monitoring models are based on a crop water-balance algorithm with inputs from satellite-derived rainfall estimates. These models are useful to monitor rainfed agriculture, but they are ineffective for irrigated areas. This study focused on Afghanistan, where over 80 percent of agricultural production comes from irrigated lands. We developed and implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to monitor and assess the performance of irrigated agriculture in Afghanistan using a combination of 1-km thermal data and 250m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, both from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. We estimated seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) over a period of six years (2000-2005) for two major irrigated river basins in Afghanistan, the Kabul and the Helmand, by analyzing up to 19 cloud-free thermal and NDVI images from each year. These seasonal ETa estimates were used as relative indicators of year-to-year production magnitude differences. The temporal water-use pattern of the two irrigated basins was indicative of the cropping patterns specific to each region. Our results were comparable to field reports and to estimates based on watershed-wide crop water-balance model results. For example, both methods found that the 2003 seasonal ETa was the highest of all six years. The method also captured water management scenarios where a unique year-to-year variability was identified in addition to water-use differences between

  9. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... An experiment was carried out at the Bornova experimental fields of Field Crops Department of Agriculture. Faculty., Ege Univ. .... design with three replicates. ... Corn plant height increased in the mixture with legumes and the ...

  10. Method and apparatus for balancing the magnetic field detecting loops of a cryogenic gradiometer using trimming coils and superconducting disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutes, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus for and a method of measuring the difference in intensity between two coplanar magnetic field vector components at two different points in space. The device is comprised of two interconnected, relatively large, loop patterns of opposite, flux cancelling, winding sense. One or both loops include a trimming element that is itself formed of two interconnected, relatively small, loop patterns of opposite, flux cancelling, winding sense. The device is analyzed for imbalance between the two large loops and is then balanced by placing a balancing superconducting disk of the proper characteristic in or near one of the two small loops of the trimming element. The so-trimmed apparatus forms a gradiometer of substantially improved mensuration

  11. Harmonic balancing approach to nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of charged ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Fernandez, E.; Rodes, J.J.; Fuentes, R.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    The harmonic balance method is used to construct approximate frequency-amplitude relations and periodic solutions to an oscillating charge in the electric field of a ring. By combining linearization of the governing equation with the harmonic balance method, we construct analytical approximations to the oscillation frequencies and periodic solutions for the oscillator. To solve the nonlinear differential equation, firstly we make a change of variable and secondly the differential equation is rewritten in a form that does not contain the square-root expression. The approximate frequencies obtained are valid for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones are demonstrated and discussed

  12. Coupled energy-drift and force-balance equations for high-field hot-carrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Danhong; Alsing, P.M.; Apostolova, T.; Cardimona, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Coupled energy-drift and force-balance equations that contain a frictional force for the center-of-mass motion of electrons are derived for hot-electron transport under a strong dc electric field. The frictional force is found to be related to the net rate of phonon emission, which takes away the momentum of a phonon from an electron during each phonon-emission event. The net rate of phonon emission is determined by the Boltzmann scattering equation, which depends on the distribution of electrons interacting with phonons. The work done by the frictional force is included into the energy-drift equation for the electron-relative scattering motion and is found to increase the thermal energy of the electrons. The importance of the hot-electron effect in the energy-drift term under a strong dc field is demonstrated in reducing the field-dependent drift velocity and mobility. The Doppler shift in the energy conservation of scattering electrons interacting with impurities and phonons is found to lead to an anisotropic distribution of electrons in the momentum space along the field direction. The importance of this anisotropic distribution is demonstrated through a comparison with the isotropic energy-balance equation, from which we find that defining a state-independent electron temperature becomes impossible. To the leading order, the energy-drift equation is linearized with a distribution function by expanding it into a Fokker-Planck-type equation, along with the expansions of both the force-balance equation and the Boltzmann scattering equation for hot phonons

  13. Eficiência do nicosulfuron no controle de capim-massambara na cultura do milho Nicosulfuron efficacy on johnsongrass control in field corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Fahl

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em Rio Claro, SP, em 1991/92 para estudar a eficiência do nicosulfuron no controle do capimmass ambará (Sorghum halepense, como infestante da cultura do milho. O nicosulfuron foi aplicado em pós-emergência inicial, quando o capim-massambará estava com 3 a 5 folhas, nas doses de 40, 50, 60, e 80g/ ha, e em pós-emergência tardia (capim-massambará com 4 a 6 folhas, nas doses de 50, 60 e 80g/ha. Foram acrescentados tratamentos com atrazine + simazine (1500 + 1500g/ha, com e sem a adição de óleo mineral, nas mesmas épocas de aplicação do nicosulfuron. Verificou-se que o nicosulfuron apresentou excelente controle do capim massambará, atingindo 100% de controle aos 50 dias após a aplicação, independente das doses e épocas de aplicação. As aplicações de atrazine + simazine não mostraram controle satisfatório do capim massambará em pós-emergência, principalmente quando efetuadas tardias e com adição de óleo mineral. O controle do capimmassambará com nicosulfuron em pós-emergência inicial e tardia aumentou a produção de milho, respectivamente em 44 e 34%, em relação à testemunha não capinada. Não foi observado qualquer sinal de fitotoxicidade nas plantas de milho, em todos os tratamentos efetuados.A field experiment was conducted at Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, during 1991/92 to evaluate the efficacy of nicosulfur on for post emergence control of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense in field com grown under conventional conditions. Nicosulfuron was applied on early postemergence, on johnsongrass with 2 to 5 leaves, at rates of 40, 50, 60 e 80g/ha, and late post emergence (4 to 6 leaves at rates of 50 , 60 an d 80 g/ ha . Two additional treatments of atrazine + simazine (1500 + 1500g/ha, with and without mineral oil, were applied at the same time of nicosulfuron. Treatments of nicosulfuron showed an exellent control of Johnsongrass, irrespectively of rate and timing appli catio n, reaching

  14. On a role of the Bsub(z) component of interplanetary magnetic field in a force balance in the day time magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, T.V.

    1980-01-01

    The role of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the force balance in the day time magnetopause is discussed. The effect of the circular DR-current on the balance of pressures in the magnetopause is taken into account in the calculations. It is shown that IMF plays a significant role in the balance of forces in the day time magnetopause. The ratio of magnetic pressure to the thermal pressure of solar wind in subsolar point is k=0.5. The field observed in magnetosphere near the neutral line is lower by the value of transition region field. All the conclusions are obtained for Bsub(z) [ru

  15. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoff, Sarah N; Zukoff, Anthony L

    2017-01-01

    Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the stack of both Bt and RNAi, or the isoline of these. The behavior of the rootworm larvae indicated a significant host preference response to all corn hybrids (with or without insecticidal traits) compared to the filter paper and oat roots. A weaker host response to the RNAi corn roots was observed in the susceptible larvae when compared to the resistant larvae, but not for the Bt + RNAi vector stack. Additionally, the resistant larvae demonstrated a weaker host response to the isoline corn roots when compared to the susceptible larvae. Although weaker, these host responses were significantly different from those observed in the negative controls, indicating that all hybrids tested do contain the contact cues necessary to elicit a host preference response by both Cry3Bb1-resistant and Cry3Bb1-susceptible larvae that would work to hinder resistance development in refuge in a bag fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Composition of forage and grain from second-generation insect-protected corn MON 89034 is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Suzanne M; Reynolds, Tracey L; Ridley, William P; Bogdanova, Natalia; Riordan, Susan; Nemeth, Margaret A; Sorbet, Roy; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L

    2008-06-25

    Insect-protected corn hybrids containing Cry insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis have protection from target pests and provide effective management of insect resistance. MON 89034 hybrids have been developed that produce both the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins, which provide two independent modes of insecticidal action against the European corn borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis ) and other lepidopteran insect pests of corn. The composition of MON 89034 corn was compared to conventional corn by measuring proximates, fiber, and minerals in forage and by measuring proximates, fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients, and secondary metabolites in grain collected from 10 replicated field sites across the United States and Argentina during the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Analyses established that the forage and grain from MON 89034 are compositionally comparable to the control corn hybrid and conventional corn reference hybrids. These findings support the conclusion that MON 89034 is compositionally equivalent to conventional corn hybrids.

  17. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  18. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  19. Integration of biological control and transgenic insect protection for mitigation of mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is known to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination of corn and some transgenic corn hybrids incur greatly reduced damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). We conducted seven field trials over two years to test the hypothesis that transgenic insect protection and biol...

  20. Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, G.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest ChinaGuanghui Ming1, Fuqiang Tian1*, Hongchang Hu11State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Abstracts: Agricultural ecosystems have the potential to offset rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere but the potential is often altered by agricultural management. Plastic film mulching and drip irrigation (PMDI) have been widespread for saving water and improving crop yield worldwide. To comprehensively assess the carbon balance and to detect the controlling factors of the carbon flux in a PMDI cotton field, experiments combining eddy covariance (EC) system, chamber method and crop sampling were implemented in an arid oasis of Xinjiang from the year 2012 to 2016. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was -250.18 ± 80.41 g C m-2 in the five years, which indicated that the filed was a much stronger carbon sink. After removal of the harvest of cotton as seed oil (Ch) of 108.81±7.57 g C m-2, the field was still a moderate carbon sink with net biome productivity (NBP) of 141.37±73.7 g C m-2. Soil temperature can explain 82% of seasonal variation of nighttime NEE while PAR can explain 36-81% of daytime NEE varying with crop development and photosynthetic activity. NEE was separated into total ecosystem respiration (Reco, 1214.20±144.42 g C m-2) and gross primary productivity (GPP, 1464.38±122.78 g C m-2). Interannual Reco changed more drastically than GPP and respiration may be the main determinant of carbon balance in the PMDI field. Seasonal NPP measured by cop sampling method (NPPCS) agreed well with NPP calculated with EC (NPPEC), with the annual NPP of 708.86 ± 52.26 g C m-2, which indicated that our carbon flux measurements and separating methods reasonable. The PMDI cotton field induced more GPP and Reco than other croplands with larger light use efficiency (LUE) but relatively

  1. Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM): Energy Balance and Thermal Status During a 10-Day Cold Weather U.S. Marine Corps Infantry Officer Course Field Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoyt, Reed

    2001-01-01

    ...) during a 10-day field exercise (FEX) at Quantico, VA. Question: Does intense physical activity, limited sleep, and restricted rations, combined with cold/damp weather, result in excessively negative energy balance and hypothermia? Methods...

  2. Susceptibility of field populations of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Florida and Puerto Rico to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue containing single and pyramided Bt genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval survival of Cry1F-susceptible (FL), -resistant (PR and Cry1F-RR), and -heterozygous (FL x PR and Cry1F-RS) populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue of seven Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids and five non-Bt corn...

  3. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  4. Field assessment of balance in 10 to 14 year old children, reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Junge, Tina; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-06-10

    Because body proportions in childhood are different to those in adulthood, children have a relatively higher centre of mass location. This biomechanical difference and the fact that children's movements have not yet fully matured result in different sway performances in children and adults. When assessing static balance, it is essential to use objective, sensitive tools, and these types of measurement have previously been performed in laboratory settings. However, the emergence of technologies like the Nintendo Wii Board (NWB) might allow balance assessment in field settings. As the NWB has only been validated and tested for reproducibility in adults, the purpose of this study was to examine reproducibility and validity of the NWB in a field setting, in a population of children. Fifty-four 10-14 year-olds from the CHAMPS-Study DK performed four different balance tests: bilateral stance with eyes open (1), unilateral stance on dominant (2) and non-dominant leg (3) with eyes open, and bilateral stance with eyes closed (4). Three rounds of the four tests were completed with the NWB and with a force platform (AMTI). To assess reproducibility, an intra-day test-retest design was applied with a two-hour break between sessions. Bland-Altman plots supplemented by Minimum Detectable Change (MDC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) demonstrated satisfactory reproducibility for the NWB and the AMTI (MDC: 26.3-28.2%, CCC: 0.76-0.86) using Centre Of Pressure path Length as measurement parameter. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated satisfactory concurrent validity between the NWB and the AMTI, supplemented by satisfactory CCC in all tests (CCC: 0.74-0.87). The ranges of the limits of agreement in the validity study were comparable to the limits of agreement of the reproducibility study. Both NWB and AMTI have satisfactory reproducibility for testing static balance in a population of children. Concurrent validity of NWB compared with AMTI was satisfactory. Furthermore, the

  5. Accurate and balanced anisotropic Gaussian type orbital basis sets for atoms in strong magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S B

    2017-12-28

    In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li + , Be + , and B + , in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B

  6. Accurate and balanced anisotropic Gaussian type orbital basis sets for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li+, Be+, and B+, in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B field.

  7. Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Heath A; Schou, Mads F; Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance in field-caught Drosophila subobscura is high in early spring and lower during summer and whether this transition is associated with seasonal changes in the capacity of flies to preserve water and ion balance during cold stress. Indeed, flies caught during summer were less cold tolerant, and exposure of these flies to sub-zero temperatures caused a loss of haemolymph water and increased the concentration of K(+) in the haemolymph (as in laboratory-reared insects). This pattern of ion and water balance disruption was not observed in more cold-tolerant flies caught in early spring. Thus, we here provide a field verification of hypotheses based on laboratory studies and conclude that the ability to maintain ion homeostasis is important for the ability of free-ranging insects to cope with chilling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Assessment of MODIS-EVI, MODIS-NDVI and VEGETATION-NDVI composite data using agricultural measurements: an example at corn fields in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Tiscareño-López, Mario; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2006-08-01

    Although several types of satellite data provide temporal information of the land use at no cost, digital satellite data applications for agricultural studies are limited compared to applications for forest management. This study assessed the suitability of vegetation indices derived from the TERRA-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) sensor for identifying corn growth in western Mexico. Overall, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites from the VGT sensor based on bi-directional compositing method produced vegetation information most closely resembling actual crop conditions. The NDVI composites from the MODIS sensor exhibited saturated signals starting 30 days after planting, but corresponded to green leaf senescence in April. The temporal NDVI composites from the VGT sensor based on the maximum value method had a maximum plateau for 80 days, which masked the important crop transformation from vegetative stage to reproductive stage. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites from the MODIS sensor reached a maximum plateau 40 days earlier than the occurrence of maximum leaf area index (LAI) and maximum intercepted fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR) derived from in-situ measurements. The results of this study showed that the 250-m resolution MODIS data did not provide more accurate vegetation information for corn growth description than the 500-m and 1000-m resolution MODIS data.

  9. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvel, G.E.; Vogel, K.P.; Mitchell, R.B. [USDA-ARS, 344 Keim Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, P.O. Box 830937, Lincoln, NE 68583-0937 (United States); Follett, R.F. [USDA-ARS, Room S-100, 2150 Centre Avenue Building D, Ft. Collins, CO 80526-8119 (United States); Kimble, J.M. [USDA-NRCS, National Soil Survey Center, 100 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508-3866 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Crop residues such as corn (Zea mays L.) stover are viewed as an abundant and inexpensive source of biomass that can be removed from fields to produce bioenergy. Assumptions include that with minimum or no-tillage farming methods, there will be no deleterious production or environmental effects. A long-term field study was established in eastern Nebraska, USA, to compare the switchgrass managed as a biomass energy crop versus no-till corn on a non-irrigated site, marginal for row-crop production, in the western Corn Belt. Our objective in this paper is to report on corn stover removal effects on corn grain yields and potential ethanol production in both cropping systems. Corn, under no-till management, and switchgrass were grown at three N fertilizer levels. In the first 5 years (2001-2005), removal of half the available stover significantly reduced corn yields. During that same time period, the potential ethanol yield for switchgrass was equal to or greater than the potential total ethanol yield of corn grain and harvested stover fertilized at the same optimum N rate. The effect of crop residue removal on crop productivity needs to be investigated in other agro-ecosystems and the potential use of dedicated perennial biomass energy crops should remain a viable renewable energy option on non-irrigated marginal croplands. (author)

  10. A Two-Mode Mean-Field Optimal Switching Problem for the Full Balance Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Djehiche

    2014-01-01

    a two-mode optimal switching problem of mean-field type, which can be described by a system of Snell envelopes where the obstacles are interconnected and nonlinear. The main result of the paper is a proof of a continuous minimal solution to the system of Snell envelopes, as well as the full characterization of the optimal switching strategy.

  11. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Hao; G. Sun; Y. Liu; J. Wan; M. Qin; H. Qian; C. Liu; R. John; P. Fan; J. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study...

  12. Research work on the water and heat balance of a paddy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oue, A.; Kamii, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Daily water consumption and seepage of a rice paddy field with acreage of 3086 m 2 in Noichi Town was investigated from April 10, 2001 to August 6, 2001. The soil of the paddy field is highly permeable, and 'Shirokaki' (paddling) was performed elaborately before 'Taue' (rice seedlings transplanting). The result is as follows. 1) Since the soil is highly permeable, a lot of seepage into the ground was observed after the development of crack by 'Nakaboshi' (intermittent full drainage of paddy field water) performed from the end of May to the first one third of June. 2) It is found that water temperatures of the paddy field near water inlet are lower and temperature far from the inlet is higher. 3) At the earlier stage of rice cultivation, the water temperature of the paddy field was higher than the air temperature, but at the last stage, both temperatures approached closer. 4) The seepage given by seepage meter varies much, but the seepage values calculated from daily water consumption (mm/d) minus estimated evapotranspiration by Penman's method gave rather stable seepage values. 5) The interrelationships between large scale pan evaporation (class A pan), small scale pan evaporation (with 20 cm diameter) and Penman's potential evapotranspiration were investigated by simple regressional analysis. The results were not so remarkable and not so highly interrelated. 6) After 'Nakaboshi' it was hard to calculate effective rain, because if all the water percolated into the soil should be counted as effective rainfall, we have enormous effective rainfall after Nakaboshi because of improved permeability

  13. Balanced and optimal bianisotropic particles: maximizing power extracted from electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra'di, Younes; Tretyakov, Sergei A

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce the concept of ‘optimal particles’ for strong interactions with electromagnetic fields. We assume that a particle occupies a given electrically small volume in space and study the required optimal relations between the particle polarizabilities. In these optimal particles, the inclusion shape and material are chosen so that the particles extract the maximum possible power from given incident fields. It appears that for different excitation scenarios the optimal particles are bianisotropic chiral, omega, moving and Tellegen particles. The optimal dimensions of resonant canonical chiral and omega particles are found analytically. Such optimal particles have extreme properties in scattering (e.g., zero backscattering or invisibility). Planar arrays of optimal particles possess extreme properties in reflection and transmission (e.g. total absorption or magnetic-wall response), and volumetric composites of optimal particles realize, for example, such extreme materials as the chiral nihility medium. (paper)

  14. On the balance of a linear plasma column confined in a transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1978-08-01

    The equilibrium features are investigated of a straight plasma column being confined in a purely transverse magnetic field, part of which is being generated by external conductors. Provided that stability can be secured at high beta values, the reduced transport of particles and heat in the axial direction should allow for large axial temperature gradients. It is then expected that temperatures even leading to ignition can be achieved in a pure plasma, at technically realistic column lengths. (author)

  15. Balancing Control and Complexity in Field Studies of Neonicotinoids and Honey Bee Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Sainath

    2013-01-01

    Amidst ongoing declines in honey bee health, the contributory role of the newer systemic insecticides continues to be intensely debated. Scores of toxicological field experiments, which bee scientists and regulators in the United States have looked to for definitive causal evidence, indicate a lack of support. This paper analyzes the methodological norms that shape the design and interpretation of field toxicological studies. I argue that contemporary field studies of honey bees and pesticides are underpinned by a “control-oriented” approach, which precludes a serious investigation of the indirect and multifactorial ways in which pesticides could drive declines in honey bee health. I trace the historical rise to prominence of this approach in honey bee toxicology to the development of entomology as a science of insecticide development in the United States. Drawing on “complexity-oriented” knowledge practices in ecology, epidemiology, beekeeping and sociology, I suggest an alternative socio-ecological systems approach, which would entail in situ studies that are less concerned with isolating individual factors and more attentive to the interactive and place-based mix of factors affecting honey bee health. PMID:26466800

  16. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions and energy balance closure before, during, and after biomass burning in mid-South rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, B.; Adviento-Borbe, A.; Reba, M. L.; Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning or field burning is a crop management practice that removes rice straw, reduces tillage, controls pests and releases nutrients for the next cropping season. Current field burning emissions are not included in agricultural field annual emissions largely because of the lack of studies, especially on the field scale. Field burning measurements are important for greenhouse gas emission inventories and quantifying the annual carbon footprint of rice. Paired eddy covariance systems were used to measure energy balance, CO2 fluxes, and H2O fluxes in mid-South US rice fields (total area of 25 ha) before, during and after biomass burning for 20 days after harvest. During the biomass burning, air temperatures increased 29°C, while ambient CO2 concentration increased from 402 to 16,567 ppm and H2O concentrations increased from 18.73 to 25.62 ppt. For the burning period, 67-86 kg CO2 ha-1 period-1 was emitted calculated by integrating fluxes over the biomass burning event. However, the estimated emission using aboveground biomass and combustion factors was calculated as 11,733 kg CO2 ha-1 period-1. Part of the difference could be attributed to sensor sensitivity decreasing 80% during burning for two minutes due to smoke. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) increased by a factor of two, 1.14 before burning to 2.44 μmol m-2 s-1 possibly due to greater reduction of plant material and photosynthesis following burning. This study highlights the contribution of rice straw burning to total CO2 emissions from rice production.

  18. Field performance of a pneumatic row crop planter equipped with active toothed coulter for direct planting of corn in wheat residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nejadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research effects of active toothed coulter on planter penetration in semi-dried soils covered with previous wheat (triticum aestivum residue was studied. Therefore, effects of three levels of speed ratio (coulter peripheral speed/tractor forward speed; 1.22, 2, 3 at two previous residue levels (baled and non-baled and two modes of planter attachment (with and without row cleaner on the corn (zea mays planting depth and its uniformity, amount of surface residue, emergence rate index and seed spacings indices were investigated. Results showed that planting depth and its uniformity increased significantly with increasing speed ratio, so that desired planting depth was obtained at speed ratio of 2. The emergence rate index decreased with increase in speed ratio mainly due to increase in seeding depth at higher speed ratios. Miss and precision indices decreased in a significant manner with increase in the speed ratio. Other results showed that planting with row cleaner attachment into baled-out residue plots at speed ratio of 2 resulted in 31% decrease in miss and 30% decrease in precision indices as compared to control (inactive coulter. Quality of feed index at same conditions was 72%, the increase was up to 11% as compared to control. No significant difference was found between speed ratios of 2 and 3 for all the parameters studied. The results suggests that the row crop planter equipped with active toothed coulter and row cleaner attachment can be satisfactorily used for direct corn planting in hard soils covered with previous crop residues.

  19. Evaluation of MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using a balanced fast-field-echo sequence: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Chinatsu; Hachiya, Junichi [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, 181-8611, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of MR cisternography by the balanced fast-field-echo (bFFE) sequence, comparing with that by a turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence, for cerebellopontine angle lesions on a 1.5-T imager (Gyroscan Intera, Philips, Best, The Netherlands). The bFFE MR cisternograms depicted target cranial nerves with less cerebrospinal fluid pulsation artifacts than TSE cisternograms and visualized an acoustic schwannoma in 6 of 44 patients with suspicion and a causative vessel of hemifacial spasm in all of 3 patients in a short scanning time (1 min 53 s). The bFFE sequence can be promising for MR cisternography in the diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle lesions. (orig.)

  20. Considerations on 'Harmonic balancing approach to nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of charged ring'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Fernandez, E.; Rodes, J.J.; Fuentes, R.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous short communication [A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, J.J. Rodes, R. Fuentes, I. Pascual, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 735] the nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of a charged ring were analyzed. Approximate frequency-amplitude relations and periodic solutions were obtained using the harmonic balance method. Now we clarify an important aspect about of this oscillation charge. Taking into account Earnshaw's theorem, this punctual charge cannot be a free charge and so it must be confined, for example, on a finite conducting wire placed along the axis of the ring. Then, the oscillatory system may consist of a punctual charge on a conducting wire placed along the axis of the uniformly charged ring.

  1. Aquatic degradation of Cry1Ab protein and decomposition dynamics of transgenic corn leaves under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Rita; Schaller, Jörg; Lintow, Sven; Gert Dudel, E

    2015-03-01

    The increasing cultivation of genetically modified corn plants (Zea mays) during the last decades is suggested as a potential risk to the environment. One of these genetically modified variety expressed the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein originating from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), resulting in resistance against Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer. Transgenic litter material is extensively studied regarding the decomposition in soils. However, only a few field studies analyzed the fate of the Cry1Ab protein and the impact of green and senescent leaf litter from corn on the decomposition rate and related ecosystem functions in aquatic environments. Consequently, a microbial litter decomposition experiment was conducted under controlled semi-natural conditions in batch culture using two maize varieties: one variety with Cry1Ab and another one with the appertaining Iso-line as control treatment. The results showed no significant differences between the treatment with Cry1Ab and the Iso-line regarding loss of total mass in dry weight of 43% for Iso-line and 45% for Bt-corn litter, lignin content increased to 137.5% (Iso-line) and 115.7% (Bt-corn), and phenol loss decreased by 53.6% (Iso-line), 62.2% (Bt-corn) during three weeks of the experiment. At the end of the experiment Cry1Ab protein was still detected with 6% of the initial concentration. A slightly but significant lower cellulose content was found for the Cry1Ab treatment compared to the Iso-line litter at the end of the experiment. The significant higher total protein (25%) and nitrogen (25%) content in Bt corn, most likely due to the additionally expression of the transgenic protein, may increase the microbial cellulose degradation and decrease microbial lignin degradation. In conclusion a relevant year by year input of protein and therefore nitrogen rich Bt corn litter into aquatic environments may affect the balanced nutrient turnover in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  3. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  4. Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during a dry season in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, S.; Oue, H.; Rampisela, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during the 2nd dry season were analyzed in this study. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated by Bowen Ratio Energy Budget (BREB) method, potential evaporation (EP) was calculated by Penman method, and irrigation volume of water was measured manually. Meteorological instruments were installed in the experimental field during hot pepper cultivation. Leaf area index increased during the growing stages where the highest LAI of 1.65 in the generative stage. The daily average of ET was 1.94 and EP was 6.71 mm resulting in low Kc. The Kc values were significantly different between stage to stage under T-test analysis (α = 0.05). Moreover, Kc in every stage could be related to soil water content (SWC) in logarithmic function. Totally, ET during hot pepper cultivation was 179.19 mm, while rainfall was 180.0 mm and irrigation water was 27.42 mm. However, there was a water shortages during vegetative and generative stages. This study suggested that consumptive water of hot pepper was complimented by soil and groundwater under the condition of water shortages in the vegetative and generative stages during the 2nd dry season.

  5. Observing Carbon Dioxide Fluxes on a Corn Field and a Native Savanna in the Colombian Orinoco River Region Using Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Rodríguez, N.

    2016-12-01

    The Orinoco River basin is expected to become Colombia's largest farming belt in the near future. Agriculture and land use change are the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) source in Colombia and one of the most important globally. At the same time, agriculture is one of the few economic sectors that is also able to act as a sink, e.g. through soil carbon storage. Emissions are largely determined by agricultural practices, thus practice identification and C flux monitoring are of paramount importance for mitigation alternative identification. During second semester of 2015, we measured CO2 fluxes over a commercial corn filed the Colombian Orinoco River Region using enclosed-path eddy covariance. The plot behaved as a CO2 sink during crop development. We found that inter-crop activities played a key role in defining whether the area acted as a net source or sink. Quantifying C fluxes at under local soil and meteorological conditions provides new high quality scientific information, which could be incorporated into a wider evaluation of agroindustry process, e.g. through the C footprint. We will also present ongoing carbon flux measurements in a native savanna and will discuss on the possibility of extrapolating our result to wider areas using process based models.

  6. Dynamic Balanced Scorecard for companies in the business field of power supply; Dynamic Balanced Scorecard fuer Unternehmen im Geschaeftsfeld der dezentralen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, M.; Roy, I. [Paderborn Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Nachhaltige Energiekonzepte

    2006-06-19

    Due to deregulation and liberalisation of the power market and due to the opting out of the nuclear energy, the decentralized power supply increasingly gains in importance in comparison to the classical power supply. Thus, the entrepreneur who wants to engage in the decentralized power supply needs a management tool for conversion and supervision his strategy. A pertinent means for this already is the Dynamic Balanced Scorecard. By means of an evaluation of a simple balanced scorecard, the entrepreneur realizes his vision and strategy in order to determine the success-critical factors. These success-critical factors are related together in a causal chain. By this, the entrepreneur can recognize, what has to be done in order to act successfully on the market, and in order to secure the success on a long-term basis. The modelling of the Dynamic balanced Scorecard enables the examination of the corporate strategy, before it is implemented in the enterprise. Thus, the entrepreneur saves time and minimizes the corporate risk.

  7. Aflatoxin contamination in corn sold for wildlife feed in texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Peper, Steven T; Downing, Carson D; Kendall, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Supplemental feeding with corn to attract and manage deer is a common practice throughout Texas. Other species, including northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), are commonly seen feeding around supplemental deer feeders. In many cases, supplemental feeding continues year-round so feed supply stores always have supplemental corn in stock. Fluctuating weather and improper storage of corn can lead to and/or amplify aflatoxin contamination. Due to the recent decline of bobwhites throughout the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, there has been interest in finding factors such as toxins that could be linked to their decline. In this study, we purchased and sampled supplemental corn from 19 locations throughout this ecoregion to determine if aflatoxin contamination was present in individual bags prior to being dispersed to wildlife. Of the 57 bags sampled, 33 bags (approximately 58%) contained aflatoxin with a bag range between 0.0-19.91 parts per billion (ppb). Additionally, three metal and three polypropylene supplemental feeders were each filled with 45.4 kg of triple cleaned corn and placed in an open field to study long-term aflatoxin buildup. Feeders were sampled every 3 months from November 2013-November 2014. Average concentration of aflatoxin over the year was 4.08 ± 2.53 ppb (±SE) in metal feeders, and 1.43 ± 0.89 ppb (±SE) in polypropylene feeders. The concentration of aflatoxins is not affected by the type of feeder (metal vs polypropylene), the season corn was sampled, and the location in the feeder (top, middle, bottom) where corn is sampled. It is unlikely that corn used in supplemental feeders is contributing to the bobwhite decline due to the low levels of aflatoxin found in purchased corn and long-term storage of corn used in supplemental feeders.

  8. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  9. High-field transport of electrons and radiative effects using coupled force-balance and Fokker-Planck equations beyond the relaxation-time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Danhong; Apostolova, T.; Alsing, P.M.; Cardimona, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of a many-electron system under both dc and infrared fields is separated into a center-of-mass and a relative motion. The first-order force-balance equation is employed for the slow center-of-mass motion of electrons, and the Fokker-Planck equation is used for the ultrafast relative scattering motion of degenerate electrons. This approach allows us to include the anisotropic energy-relaxation process which has been neglected in the energy-balance equation in the past. It also leads us to include the anisotropic coupling to the incident infrared field with different polarizations. Based on this model, the transport of electrons is explored under strong dc and infrared fields by going beyond the relaxation-time approximation. The anisotropic dependence of the electron distribution function on the parallel and perpendicular kinetic energies of electrons is displayed with respect to the dc field direction, and the effect of anisotropic coupling to an incident infrared field with polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the applied dc electric field is shown. The heating of electrons is more accurately described beyond the energy-balance equation with the inclusion of an anisotropic coupling to the infrared field. The drift velocity of electrons is found to increase with the amplitude of the infrared field due to a suppressed momentum-relaxation process (or frictional force) under parallel polarization but decreases with the amplitude due to an enhanced momentum-relaxation process under perpendicular polarization

  10. Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabpai, S.; Charerntanyarak, L.; Siri, B.; Moore, M.R.; Noller, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

  11. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in sweet and field corn genotypes Fases larval e pupal de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em genótipos de milho doce e comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns, and BR PAMPA (field corn. In laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; photophase 12 hours, 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm² sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width, to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA.Spodoptera frugiperda, a lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho, é uma praga polífaga de grande importância agrícola pelos danos e dificuldade de controle. A ausência de informações sobre seu impacto em milho doce motivou a comparação de sua biologia, no que tange as fases larval e pupal, entre os genótipos de milho ELISA, BR 400 (milhos doces e BR PAMPA (milho comum. Em condições de laboratório (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% UR; fotofase 12 horas, 35 lagartas foram individualizadas e alimentadas, diariamente, com seções de folhas de 3,14 cm² dos referidos genótipos, provenientes

  12. Variação espacial da resposta do milho à adubação nitrogenada de cobertura em lavoura no cerrado Spatial variation of corn response to nitrogen topdressing in a Cerrado crop field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Manuel Carmelino Hurtado

    2009-03-01

    yield sensor and a Global Positioning System (GPS device coupled to the combine. The data obtained were analyzed using classical and spatial statistics. The corn with no N topdressing reached an average of 77% of the maximum grain yield (9.21 Mg ha-1 obtained with the usage of topdressing. The high correlation coefficients among the average data of chlorophyll meter readings, leaf N content, and grain yield were not confirmed when the spatial variability of these variables were considered. The map interpretation of the chlorophyll meter readings and corn yield allowed the identification of areas with different soil N supply capacity, indicating field zones for site-specific management.

  13. The Wandering of Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Salov, Valerii

    2017-01-01

    Time and Sales of corn futures traded electronically on the CME Group Globex are studied. Theories of continuous prices turn upside down reality of intra-day trading. Prices and their increments are discrete and obey lattice probability distributions. A function for systematic evolution of futures trading volume is proposed. Dependence between sample skewness and kurtosis of waiting times does not support hypothesis of Weibull distribution. Kumaraswamy distribution is more suitable for waitin...

  14. High Performance Ambipolar Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Copolymer Field-Effect Transistors with Balanced Hole and Electron Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhuoying; Lee, Mi Jung; Ashraf, Raja Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Ambipolar OFETs with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities both exceeding 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 are achieved based on a single-solution-processed conjugated polymer, DPPT-TT, upon careful optimization of the device architecture, charge injection, and polymer processing. Such high-performance...

  15. Densification characteristics of corn cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Corn cobs are potential feedstocks for producing heat, power, fuels, and chemicals. Densification of corn cobs into briquettes/pellets would improve their bulk handling, transportation, and storage properties. In this study, densification characteristics of corn cobs were studied using a uniaxial piston-cylinder densification apparatus. With a maximum compression pressure of 150 MPa, effects of particle size (0.85 and 2.81 mm), moisture content (10 and 20% w.b.), and preheating temperature (25 and 85 C) on the density and durability of the corn cob briquettes (with diameter of about 19.0 mm) were studied. It was found that the durability (measured using ASABE tumbling can method) of corn cob briquettes made at 25 C was 0%. At both particle sizes, preheating of corn cob grinds with about 10% (w.b.) moisture content to 85 C produced briquettes with a unit density of > 1100 kg m{sup -3} and durability of about 90%. (author)

  16. Fusing corn nitrogen recommendation tools for an improved canopy reflectance sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help producers maximize corn grain yield production. Many of these tools provide recommendations at field scales but often fail when corn N requirements are variable across the field. Canopy reflectance sensors are capable of capturing within-fi...

  17. The Weeds Response to the Winter Vetch (Vicia villosa and Chicklingpea (Lathyrus sativus Cover Crops under Different Tillage Methods in Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using cover crops in conservation tillage systems offers many advantages, one of which is weed control through physical and chemical interferences. Most of the benefits of cover crops are well known. They prevent form wind and water erosions, conserve soil moisture by reducing evaporation and increasing infiltration, increase the content of organic matter, increase fertility by recycling nutrients, add nitrogen if they are legumes, and improve soil structure. Proper cover crops can also suppress weed growth by allelopathic activities and light interference. They impact on environmental quality through the protection of surface water and groundwater, as well as eliminating the need for using preemergence herbicides. Either increase or decreases have been reported for crop yields when the crop residues remain on soil surface. No-till system has been reported to increase the presence of certain difficult to control weeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage systems and cover crops on weed control and corn yield. Materials and Methods: Experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Bu-Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Tillage with moldboard, tillage with chisel (minimum tillage, and no tillage were considered as main plots and two cover crops, winter vetch and chicklingpea, chemical weed control and weed-infest treatment (control were considered as sub-plots. Cover crops were cultivated in late March 2011. In early June 2011, cover crops were harvested and were spread over the soil surface. The Plot size was 22.50 m-2. Five rows were in each plot with 75 cm intervals among rows and 18 cm among seedlings. 2 square were picked in the three central rows of each plot in order to determine the yield and yield components. From each plot three quadrants (1×1 mrandomly were picked and weeds and cover crops was separated. All

  18. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  19. The causes and unintended consequences of a paradigm shift in corn production practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fausti, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biotechnology adoption and the U.S. corn production system are causally linked. • U.S. agriculture and energy policy choices merged to incentivize U.S. corn production. • U.S. biofuel energy policy contributed to the adoption of Bt corn seed technology. • Policy alternatives to modify the corn-based ethanol production system are provided. - Abstract: Independent but simultaneously occurring changes in U.S. agricultural and energy policies in conjunction with advances in biotechnology converged to create an economic and regulatory environment that incentivized corn acreage expansion. Advancements in Bt seed and ethanol production technologies contributed to scale efficiency gains in corn and biofuel production. These advancements were accompanied by changes in market forces that altered the balance between corn and other agricultural crop production. The causal linkages among Bt adoption, ethanol production, and corn production are explored along with a discussion of how this shift toward corn production generated unexpected economic and environmental consequences. Alternative policy solutions to mitigate the negative consequences and enhance the resiliency of U.S. agriculture are discussed

  20. Simulation of corn yields and parameters uncertainties analysis in Hebei and Sichuang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, A.; Xue, Y.; Hartman, M. D.; Chandran, A.; Qiu, B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Corn is one of most important agricultural production in China. Research on the impacts of climate change and human activities on corn yields is important in understanding and mitigating the negative effects of environmental factors on corn yields and maintaining the stable corn production. Using climatic data, including daily temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation from 1948 to 2010, soil properties, observed corn yields, and farmland management information, corn yields in Sichuang and Hebei Provinces of China in the past 63 years were simulated using the Daycent model, and the results was evaluated using Root mean square errors, bias, simulation efficiency, and standard deviation. The primary climatic factors influencing corn yields were examined, the uncertainties of climatic factors was analyzed, and the uncertainties of human activity parameters were also studied by changing fertilization levels and cultivated ways. The results showed that: (1) Daycent model is capable to simulate corn yields in Sichuang and Hebei provinces of China. Observed and simulated corn yields have the similar increasing trend with time. (2) The minimum daily temperature is the primary factor influencing corn yields in Sichuang. In Hebei Province, daily temperature, precipitation and wind speed significantly affect corn yields.(3) When the global warming trend of original data was removed, simulated corn yields were lower than before, decreased by about 687 kg/hm2 from 1992 to 2010; When the fertilization levels, cultivated ways were increased and decreased by 50% and 75%, respectively in the Schedule file in Daycent model, the simulated corn yields increased by 1206 kg/hm2 and 776 kg/hm2, respectively, with the enhancement of fertilization level and the improvement of cultivated way. This study provides a scientific base for selecting a suitable fertilization level and cultivated way in corn fields in China.

  1. Simulation of nitrogen balance of maize field under different drainage strategies using the DRAINMOD-N model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sadek, A.; Feyen, J.; Ragab, R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Denitrification is the process by which nitrate-nitrogen is converted to nitrogen gas by soil microorganisms when soil oxygen is low or absent. The process of denitrification is important in preventing high agriculture-source nitrate loads from entering and polluting rivers. The aim of the research was to examine if the NO3-N concentration in drain water of agricultural fields can be kept below the EU limit of 11.3 mg l -1 by controlling the denitrification process through management of the water table level. As such the research focused on the determination of the exact denitrification amount to achieve both, limitation of the NO3-N leaching and optimisation of the nitrogen-nitrate uptake by the crop. The method used in this study is based on the nitrogen version of DRAINMOD model. This model was used to simulate the performance of the drainage system using two drainage strategies (conventional and controlled) at the Hooibeekhoeve experiment, situated in the sandy region of the Kempen (Belgium), and this for a 14-year (1985-1998) period. In the analysis a continuous cropping with maize was assumed. Daily NO3-N losses were predicted for a range of drain spacings. The study illustrated that the denitrification process has a very strong impact on the amount of nitrate that can be leached to ground and surface waters. The results have also shown that if the water table elevation is properly controlled, one should be able to strike the delicate balance between our need for maximum yield production and a minimum hazard to our environment. (author)

  2. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rita H; Goldsmith, Peter D; Rausch, Kent D; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles

  3. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    Full Text Available A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  4. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Tiantao; Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  5. Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were collected from sweet corn plants (Zea mays L.) in fields located in three south Florida counties. Fields were sampled from 2010 – 2015 during the fall and spring seasons. Larvae were brought back to the laboratory to complete developme...

  6. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  7. Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J. Richard; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Perlack, Robert; Turhollow, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, this study of a large, square-bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional-bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting and collection and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes

  8. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

  9. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy-covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mauder, M.; Oncley, S.P.; Vogt, R.; Weidinger, T.; Ribeiro, L.; Bernhofer, C.; Foken, T.; Kohsiek, W.; Bruin, de, H.A.R.; Liu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The eddy-covariance method is the primary way of measuring turbulent fluxes directly. Many investigators have found that these flux measurements often do not satisfy a fundamental criterion¿closure of the surface energy balance. This study investigates to what extent the eddy-covariance measurement technology can be made responsible for this deficiency, in particular the effects of instrumentation or of the post-field data processing. Therefore, current eddy-covariance sensors and several pos...

  10. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  11. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  12. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Integrated Management Weed Control on Corn Field by Using Reduced Dose of Foramsulfuron and Nicosulfuron Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matinfar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of integrated weed management on weed control by using reduced herbicide dose, a field experiment was conducted in 2010 in Qazvin. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with 24 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were: different planting patterns at three levels (single row, square double rows and zigzag double row  plantings and doses of  Nicosulfuron and Foramsulfuron application at four levels (1, 1/5, 2 and 2/5 liters per hectare, The results showed that among the different planting patterns, zigzag planting reduced weed populations and their dry weights significantly. Foramsulfuron herbicide could control weeds better than Nicosulfuron. Among the herbicide dosages, 2/5 litter dose per hectare highly reduced weed density its dry weight as compared to one litter dose.

  14. Water and Land Use Efficiency in Current and Potential Future US Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Newmark, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    average sugarcane ethanol system producing ethanol and electricity can save about 13 Mg CO2eq/ha of land compared to 12 in the early 2000s, while a recent average corn ethanol system saves about 6.2 Mg CO2eq/ha compared to near zero GHG savings in the early 2000s. The net energy balance (i.e., energy produced minus energy consumed) per ha for a recent average sugarcane ethanol system producing both ethanol and electricity is about 160 GJ/ha compared to 140 GJ/ha in early 2000s, while the recent average corn ethanol system achieves a net energy production of about 90 GJ/ha compares to only 30 GJ/ha in the early 2000s. The land use efficiency of corn and sugarcane ethanol systems, especially future systems, can vary depending on factors such as the assumed technologies, the suite of co-products produced, field practices, and technological learning. For example, projected future (2020) advanced sugarcane ethanol systems could save 22 Mg CO2eq/ha while an advanced corn ethanol system using integrated gasification of corn stover for electricity production could save 9.3Mg CO2eq/ha. Future advanced sugarcane ethanol systems could produce 210 GJ of net energy/ha while an advanced corn ethanol system using integrated gasification of corn stover for electricity production could achieve 110 GJ/ha.

  15. Projected outcomes of a public-industry partnership for enhancing corn nitrogen research and datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is needed over a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios to evaluate methods and tools for corn N fertilizer applications. The objectives of this research were to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies to evaluate the performance of multiple public-domain N deci...

  16. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF CANNED SWEET CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairat Usubharatana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA and ecological footprint (EF. This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn (340 g was selected for the case study. All inputs and outputs associated with the product system boundary were collected through field surveys. The acquired inventory was then analysed and evaluated using both LCA and EF methodology. The results were converted into an area of biologically productive land and presented as global hectares (gha. The ecological footprint of one can of sweet corn was calculated as 6.51E-04 gha. The three factors with the highest impact on ecological footprint value were the corn kernels used in the process, the packaging and steam, equivalent to 2.93E-04 gha, 1.19E-04 gha and 1.17E-04 gha respectively. To promote the sustainable development, the company should develop new technology or utilize better management techniques to reduce the ecological footprint of canned food production.

  17. Balancing gas supply and demand with a sustainable gas supply chain : a study based on field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, A. A.; van Gemert, Wim; Hengeveld, Evert Jan

    The possibilities of balancing gas supply and demand with a green gas supply chain were analyzed. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of cow manure and maize, the produced biogas is upgraded to (Dutch) natural gas standards. The applicability of modeling yearly gas demand data in a

  18. Balancing gas supply and demand with a sustainable gas supply chain : A study based on field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, J.; Broekhuis, A. A.; van Gemert, W. J. T.; Hengeveld, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    The possibilities of balancing gas supply and demand with a green gas supply chain were analyzed. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of cow manure and maize, the produced biogas is upgraded to (Dutch) natural gas standards. The applicability of modeling yearly gas demand data in a

  19. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  20. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, S.; Sokhansanj, S.; Tagore, S.; Turhollow, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam 3 ). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and...

  2. Protein determination in single corns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr, J.; Schiekel, M.; Franke, W.; Focke, F.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of protein content in food materials is usually done by analyzing the nitrogen amount by wet chemical Kjeldahl method. An improved accuracy accompanied by smaller analyzing intervals can be achieved using nondestructive neutron activation. Analyses have been performed using 14 MeV neutrons to determine the content of N and P in single wheat corns. Irradiation parameters have been optimized to prevent serious radiation damage in grains. About 200 single corns have been investigated with total net weights ranging from 30 to 70 mg. The tested arrangement allows determination of nitrogen amount in a single corn down to 0.3 mg with an accuracy of better than 4 %. Mean nitrogen concentrations in the range from 9 to 19% per corn have been detected. (author) 5 refs.; 6 figs

  3. Force balance near an X line along which E x J is less than 0. [plasma transfer from closed to open field lines in geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Pridmore-Brown, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Conditions for which particle motion within the current sheet in the vicinity of an X line can give a current in the direction appropriate for E x J is less than 0. The way in which the balance between gyroviscosity and the electric force along an X line is maintained for any E x J is shown. It is concluded that observational evidence for the occasional existence of E x J is less than 0 along an X line provides support for the suggestion that collisionless graviscosity, rather than resistivity, balances the electric force along an X line. It is found that there is a maximum electric field magnitude for particles to be able to carry a significant current. For parameters typical of the distant magnetotail, the critical electric field magnitude was found to be about 0.15 mV/m, which is of the order of, though somewhat less than, the potential electric field magnitudes expected in the magnetotail. This maximum allowable field magnitude is about the same for protons as it is for electrons in the magnetotail.

  4. Effect of manual therapy versus proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in dynamic balance, mobility and flexibility in field hockey players. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; López-Martínez, Susana; Inglés, Marta; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Marta

    2018-04-22

    To compare the effectiveness of a specific Manual Therapy (MT) protocol applied to field hockey players (FHP), versus a Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) protocol, in the improvement of dynamic balance, active range of movement and lumbar flexibility one-week and four-weeks after the treatment. Randomized controlled trial. Participants were assigned to 2 groups: MT and PNF. 30 min' sessions were performed once a week for three weeks. Three evaluations were performed: basal, one-week and four-weeks post-treatment. University of Valencia (Spain). 22 in MT group and 20 in PNF group. Dynamic Balance, measured with Star Excursion Balance Test; Active Range of Motion (ROM), using a manual goniometer and Lumbar Flexibility, assessed with Fingertip-to-floor test. Both groups significantly improved in lateral and medial dynamic balance one-week post-treatment (p < 0.05); but the improvement in the MT group lasted until the fourth-week after treatment in both reaches (lateral and medial) (p < 0.05). MT group also obtained significant improvements in dorsal flexion of the ankle in the fourth-week post-treatment (p < 0.05) and in lumbar flexibility one-week post-treatment (p < 0.05). MT and PNF improve dynamic balance one-week post-treatment; however, the improvement obtained through MT is maintained four-weeks later. Only MT improves dorsal flexion of the ankle four-weeks post-treatment and lumbar flexibility one-week post-treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On-plant movement and feeding of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) early instars on corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Moraes, S V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2012-12-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith), has undergone a recent eastward expansion from the western U.S. Corn Belt to Pennsylvania and parts of Canada. Little is known about its ecology and behavior, particularly during the early instars, on corn (Zea mays L.). There is a narrow treatment window for larvae, and early detection of the pest in the field is essential. An understanding of western bean cutworm larval feeding and early-instar dispersal is essential to understand larval survival and establishment in corn. Studies were conducted in 2009 through 2011 in Nebraska to determine the feeding and dispersal of early-instar western bean cutworm on corn. The treatment design was a factorial with three corn stages (pretassel, tassel, and posttassel) and five corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, primary ear, secondary ear, and below ear) in a randomized complete block design. The effects of different corn tissues on larval survival and development were investigated in laboratory studies in a randomized complete block design during 2009 and 2011. Treatments were different corn tissues (leaf alone, leaf with developing tassel, pollen, pollen plus silk, and silk alone). Results demonstrated that neonate larvae move to the upper part of the plant, independent of corn stage. Larval growth was optimal when fed on tassel tissue. Overall results indicated a selective benefit for movement of the early instar to upper part of the plant.

  6. Effect of different fertilization measures on soil CO2 emissions of spring corn in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shicai; Qiao, Shaoqing

    2018-04-01

    To research the sustainability of efficient utilization approaches and modes of nitrogen in spring corns. Taking different fertilization measures to research the influence on soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen; the experiment takes the spring corns and black soil of Harbin in Northeast China as research objects. It researches the influence of 4 different fertilization measures by using field long-term located experiment on soil respiration of the spring corns and analyzes the yield. The four measures are as follows: farmer's fertilization practice FP; Tl mode of decreasing 20% of nitrogenous fertilizer on the basis of FP; T2 mode of 20% of Tl nitrogenous fertilizer replaced by organic fertilizer and other 20% replaced by slow-release nitrogen fertilizer; T3 mode of adding 2t/hm2 of corn stalk carbon on the basis of T2. There are significant differences of CO2 emission flux in spring corn soil with four fertilization measures (PTl>T2>FP and the yield rank of spring corns is: T3>T2>Tl>FP. (1) The rational nitrogen-decrease fertilization measure has no obvious influence on spring corn yield and the replacement of organic fertilizer and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer and the addition of active carbon can improve the spring corn yield. (2) Utilization of organic fertilizer can accelerate the emission of CO2 from the soil. (3) Addition of biological carbon can promote the emission of CO2 from soil during the growing period of spring corns.

  7. CONTROL OF WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte IN CORN PRODUCTION OF EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Džoić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A new insect pest - the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte was identified in Croatia in 1995. The first objective of this research was to determine the population density of all stages, except eggs in commercial cor fields. The second objective was to investigate the efficacy of three organophosphate insecticides on larvae. The experiment was conducted in Gunja, Croatia in 1999 and 2000. Treatments were commercial corn hybrids (OSSK 444, OSSK 552, Florencia, and three soil insecticides (terbuphos, chlorpyriphos-ethyl, chlormephos applied at planting. Results showed the highest number of larvae per plant (0.70 in the untreated plot of OSSK 552. In 1999, significant differences in larval numbers occurred among hybrids, but not among the insecticides. In 2000, larval numbers only differed statistically between the insecticide treatments. The highest beetles population counted per plant was 0.55 in 2000. This population level is very close to economic threshold of 0.70 beetles per plant. Significant differences in beetle numbers per plant between hybrids were only detected in 2000. Pheromone traps containing the lure, Csal♀m♂N, caught significantly more beetles than the Multigard yellow sticky-trap. Terbufos was the only soil insecticide providing a significant yield advantage to the hybrids. Based on the current value of corn and cost of insecticide, terbufos is the only soil insecticide cost-effective for growers. These studies should be conducted with other insecticides, and growers should avoid planting corn after corn in their fields.

  8. Comprehensive nitrogen budgets for controlled tile drainage fields in eastern ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, M D; Craiovan, E; Topp, E; Gottschall, N; Drury, C F; Lapen, D R

    2014-03-01

    Excessive N loading from subsurface tile drainage has been linked to water quality degradation. Controlled tile drainage (CTD) has the potential to reduce N losses via tile drainage and boost crop yields. While CTD can reduce N loss from tile drainage, it may increase losses through other pathways. A multiple-year field-scale accounting of major N inputs and outputs during the cropping season was conducted on freely drained and controlled tile drained agricultural fields under corn ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] production systems in eastern Ontario, Canada. Greater predicted gaseous N emissions for corn and soybean and greater observed lateral seepage N losses were observed for corn and soybean fields under CTD relative to free-draining fields. However, observed N losses from tile were significantly lower for CTD fields, in relation to freely drained fields. Changes in residual soil N were essentially equivalent between drainage treatments, while mass balance residual terms were systematically negative (slightly more so for CTD). Increases in plant N uptake associated with CTD were observed, probably resulting in higher grain yields for corn and soybean. This study illustrates the benefits of CTD in decreasing subsurface tile drainage N losses and boosting crop yields, while demonstrating the potential for CTD to increase N losses via other pathways related to gaseous emissions and groundwater seepage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  10. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N

    2004-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  11. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  12. THE NONLINEAR OHM'S LAW: PLASMA HEATING BY STRONG ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE IONIZATION BALANCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-10

    The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.

  13. Multiple insect resistance in 59 commmerical corn hybrids - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial corn hybrids were screened for ear- and kernel-feeding insect resistance under field conditions at Tifton, GA. Nine hybrids were rated Very Good (VG), the highest rating for multiple insect resistance in 2017 (see following table). Thirteen were Good (G), 19 were Fair (F), and 13 were Poo...

  14. WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BT CORN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Rice, Marlin E.

    2001-01-01

    A common perception is that the value of Bt corn arises from two components-Bt corn increases expected profit and reduces profit variability. This perception encourages farmers and the policy makers to add a risk benefit to estimates of the value of Bt corn to account for the variability reduction. However, a conceptual model generates a useful decomposition of the value of Bt corn and a condition determining the impact of Bt corn on profit variability. An empirical model finds that Bt corn i...

  15. Intraguild competition and enhanced survival of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on transgenic Cry1Ab (MON810) Bacillus thuringiensis corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorhout, David L; Rice, Marlin E

    2010-02-01

    The effect of genetically modified corn (event MON810, YieldGard Corn Borer) expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis sp. kurstaki (Berliner) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry1Ab, on the survival of western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith), larvae was examined during intraguild competition studies with either European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), or corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), larvae. Competition scenarios were constructed by using either a laboratory or field competition arena containing one of five different diets and one of 13 different larval size-by-species scenarios. The survival of western bean cutworms competing with corn earworms in the laboratory arenas on either a meridic diet or isoline corn silk diet was significantly lower (P corn earworm on a Cry1Ab-MON810 corn silk diet was significant higher (P corn borers generally did not alter the outcomes observed in the western bean cutworm and corn earworm only two-way competitions. These data suggest that Cry1Ab-MON810 corn may confer a competitive advantage to western bean cutworm larvae during intraguild competition, particularly from corn earworms, and that western bean cutworms become equal competitors only when they are of equal or larger size and the diet is Cry1Ab-MON810 corn.

  16. Application of Near-Surface Remote Sensing and computer algorithms in evaluating impacts of agroecosystem management on Zea mays (corn) phenological development in the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Suyker, A.; LeBauer, D.; Newcomb, M.; Ward, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is a USDA-ARS effort that focuses on conducting research that addresses current and emerging issues in agriculture related to sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems in the face of climate change and population growth. There are 18 sites across the USA covering key agricultural production regions. In Nebraska, a partnership between the University of Nebraska - Lincoln and ARD/USDA resulted in the establishment of the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer LTAR site in 2014. The site conducts research to sustain multiple ecosystem services focusing specifically on Nebraska's main agronomic production agroecosystems that comprise of abundant corn, soybeans, managed grasslands and beef production. As part of the national LTAR network, PR-HPA participates and contributes near-surface remotely sensed imagery of corn, soybean and grassland canopy phenology to the PhenoCam Network through high-resolution digital cameras. This poster highlights the application, advantages and usefulness of near-surface remotely sensed imagery in agroecosystem studies and management. It demonstrates how both Infrared and Red-Green-Blue imagery may be applied to monitor phenological events as well as crop abiotic stresses. Computer-based algorithms and analytic techniques proved very instrumental in revealing crop phenological changes such as green-up and tasseling in corn. This poster also reports the suitability and applicability of corn-derived computer based algorithms for evaluating phenological development of sorghum since both crops have similarities in their phenology; with sorghum panicles being similar to corn tassels. This later assessment was carried out using a sorghum dataset obtained from the Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture Phenotyping Reference Platform project, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Arizona.

  17. Clinical pharmacy academic career transitions: Viewpoints from the field Part 2: Understanding and balancing the distribution of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angela; Blackmer, Allison; Jeffres, Meghan; Glode, Ashley; Mahyari, Nila; Thompson, Megan

    2018-02-01

    The six authors of this commentary series, who have recently transitioned into or within an academic career, discuss challenging aspects of an academic career change. The authors represent faculty members teaching within a large, state-funded, research-intensive School of Pharmacy located within a large academic health center. The authors have various backgrounds and represent individuals making transitions at various points in their careers (from residency into academia, from a non-academic environment into academia, and from one academic environment to another). This is Part 2 of a three-part commentary series that focuses on understanding and balancing the distribution of effort. Parts 1 and 3 of this commentary series explore feedback, evaluation and advancement; and learning when and how to say yes, respectively. While the entire series is intended to be read in continuity, faculty, or those interested in pursuing a career in pharmacy academia, can refer to Part 2 as a reference to aid in understanding and balancing the different components and the distribution of effort associated with a position in academic pharmacy, specifically. Schools of Pharmacy may utilize this as a tool for new faculty members during orientation in order to help ensure faculty success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  19. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  20. Statistical analysis of corn yields responding to climate variability at various spatio-temporal resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Lin, T.

    2017-12-01

    Rain-fed corn production systems are subject to sub-seasonal variations of precipitation and temperature during the growing season. As each growth phase has varied inherent physiological process, plants necessitate different optimal environmental conditions during each phase. However, this temporal heterogeneity towards climate variability alongside the lifecycle of crops is often simplified and fixed as constant responses in large scale statistical modeling analysis. To capture the time-variant growing requirements in large scale statistical analysis, we develop and compare statistical models at various spatial and temporal resolutions to quantify the relationship between corn yield and weather factors for 12 corn belt states from 1981 to 2016. The study compares three spatial resolutions (county, agricultural district, and state scale) and three temporal resolutions (crop growth phase, monthly, and growing season) to characterize the effects of spatial and temporal variability. Our results show that the agricultural district model together with growth phase resolution can explain 52% variations of corn yield caused by temperature and precipitation variability. It provides a practical model structure balancing the overfitting problem in county specific model and weak explanation power in state specific model. In US corn belt, precipitation has positive impact on corn yield in growing season except for vegetative stage while extreme heat attains highest sensitivity from silking to dough phase. The results show the northern counties in corn belt area are less interfered by extreme heat but are more vulnerable to water deficiency.

  1. Maintaining balance when looking at a virtual reality three dimensional display of a field of moving dots or at a virtual reality scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eChiarovano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental objective. To provide a safe, simple, relatively inexpensive, fast, accurate way of quantifying balance performance either in isolation, or in the face of challenges provided by 3D high definition moving visual stimuli as well as by the proprioceptive challenge from standing on a foam pad. This method uses the new technology of the Wii balance board to measure postural stability during powerful, realistic visual challenges from immersive virtual reality. Limitations of current techniques. Present computerized methods for measuring postural stability are large, complex, slow and expensive, and do not allow for testing the response to realistic visual challenges.Protocol. Subjects stand on a 6cm thick, firm, foam pad on a Wii balance board. They wear a fast, high resolution, low persistence, virtual reality head set (Oculus Rift DK2. This allows displays of varying speed, direction, depth and complexity to be delivered. The subject experiences a visual illusion of real objects fixed relative to the world, and any of these displays can be perturbed in an unpredictable fashion. A special app (Balance Rite used the same procedures for analysing postural analysis as used by the Equitest.Power of the technique. Four simple proof of concept experiments demonstrate that this technique matches the gold standard Equitest in terms of the measurement of postural stability but goes beyond the Equitest by measuring stability in the face of visual challenges, which are so powerful that even healthy subjects fall. The response to these challenges presents an opportunity for predicting falls and for rehabilitation of seniors and patients with poor postural stability.Significance for the field. This new method provides a simpler, quicker, cheaper method of measurement than the Equitest. It may provide a new mode of training to prevent falls, by maintaining postural stability in the face of visual and proprioceptive challenges similar to those

  2. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...

  3. Field assessment of balance in 10 to 14 year old children, reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Because body proportions in childhood are different to those in adulthood, children have a relatively higher centre of mass location. This biomechanical difference and the fact that children’s movements have not yet fully matured result in different sway performances in children and adults. When assessing static balance, it is essential to use objective, sensitive tools, and these types of measurement have previously been performed in laboratory settings. However, the emergence of technologies like the Nintendo Wii Board (NWB) might allow balance assessment in field settings. As the NWB has only been validated and tested for reproducibility in adults, the purpose of this study was to examine reproducibility and validity of the NWB in a field setting, in a population of children. Methods Fifty-four 10–14 year-olds from the CHAMPS-Study DK performed four different balance tests: bilateral stance with eyes open (1), unilateral stance on dominant (2) and non-dominant leg (3) with eyes open, and bilateral stance with eyes closed (4). Three rounds of the four tests were completed with the NWB and with a force platform (AMTI). To assess reproducibility, an intra-day test-retest design was applied with a two-hour break between sessions. Results Bland-Altman plots supplemented by Minimum Detectable Change (MDC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) demonstrated satisfactory reproducibility for the NWB and the AMTI (MDC: 26.3-28.2%, CCC: 0.76-0.86) using Centre Of Pressure path Length as measurement parameter. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated satisfactory concurrent validity between the NWB and the AMTI, supplemented by satisfactory CCC in all tests (CCC: 0.74-0.87). The ranges of the limits of agreement in the validity study were comparable to the limits of agreement of the reproducibility study. Conclusion Both NWB and AMTI have satisfactory reproducibility for testing static balance in a population of children. Concurrent validity of NWB compared

  4. Digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio de rações com diferentes teores de proteína degradável no rúmen e milho moído como fonte de amido em ovinos Digestibility and nitrogen balance of sheep diets containing different levels of ruminal degradable protein and ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a digestibilidade aparente de rações com diferentes teores de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e fonte de amido de baixa degradabilidade ruminal (milho moído em ovinos. Utilizaram-se quatro ovinos castrados, sem raça definida (SRD, com peso vivo médio de 38,5 kg, em um delineamento experimental quadrado latino 4 x 4. As quatro rações experimentais utilizadas foram compostas de 75% de volumoso (feno de aveia e 25% de concentrado à base de milho moído (MM, farelo de soja (FS, farelo de algodão (FA, farinha de peixe (FP, uréia e sal mineral, compostas com quatro teores de PDR (46, 50, 54 e 58% de PDR nas rações. Determinaram-se a digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes e o balanço de nitrogênio nos animais alimentados com as rações experimentais. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, amido, FDN e FDA não diferiram entre as rações testadas. Da mesma forma, o nitrogênio ingerido (NI, o N excretado nas fezes e na urina, em g/dia, o balanço de nitrogênio (%NI e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO, PB, FDN e FDA não diferiram entre as rações experimentais, sendo estimados valores médios de 31,68; 6,34; 11,31 g/dia e 44,27% NI, respectivamente, e de 71,90; 73,00; 79,70; 61,10; e 52,00%, respectivamente. Independentemente dos teores de PDR em rações contendo milho como fonte de amido de baixa degradabilidade ruminal, não houve efeitos sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e o balanço de nitrogênio em ovinos.Four castrated sheep averaging 38.5 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (NB on diets containing different levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP: 46, 50, 54, and 58% and ground corn. The four experimental diets were composed by 75% of forage (oat hay and 25% of concentrate containing ground corn (GC, soybean meal (SM, cottonseed meal (CM, fish meal (FM, urea, and

  5. Implementation factors of soft EU legislation in the field of gender equality. An example of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Topolinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines various implementation factors of the European Union’s soft policy in the field of gender equality in Slovenia. We focus on implementation of the principle of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes in the fields of politics, science and the economy, where the proportion of women in top positions remains low. Based on an analysis of EU and Slovenian legislation and interviews with relevant governmental and non-governmental actors at the EU and national levels, it was found that because of the adopted soft law in this area it is the national government, which can select public policy instruments and adapt them to its own aspirations, that is the most important player when it comes to implementation. Pressure from the EU was stronger in the accession negotiations when Slovenia was joining the EU and also when interest groups work together.

  6. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture.

  7. Reduction of fumonisin B₁ in corn grits by twin-screw extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren S; Jablonski, Joseph; Bullerman, Lloyd B; Bianchini, Andreia; Hanna, Milford A; Voss, Kenneth A; Hollub, April D; Ryu, Dojin

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the fate of fumonisins in flaking corn grits during twin-screw extrusion by measuring fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) and its analogs with a mass balance approach. Food grade corn grits and 2 batches of grits contaminated with FB₁ at 10 and 50 μg/g by Fusarium verticillioides M-2552 were processed with or without glucose supplementation (10%, w/w) with a twin-screw extruder. Extrusion reduced FB₁ in contaminated grits by 64% to 72% without glucose and 89% to 94% with added glucose. In addition, extrusion alone resulted in 26% to 73% reduction in the levels of fumonisin B₂ and fumonisin B₃, while levels of both mycotoxins were reduced by >89% in extruded corn grits containing 10% glucose. Mass balance analysis showed that 38% to 46% of the FB₁ species detected in corn extruded with glucose was N-(deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-FB₁, while 23% to 37% of FB₁ species detected in extruded corn grits with and without added glucose was bound to the matrix. It was also found that the hydrolyzed form of FB₁ was a minor species in extruded corn grits with or without added glucose, representing fumonisin analogues measured in this study. Research is needed to identify the reaction products resulting from extrusion processing of fumonisin-contaminated corn products. Twin-screw extrusion is widely used in food industry for its versatility. This technology may reduce the level of fumonisins in corn particularly with added glucose. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes...

  10. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, SIFR; Stringhini, JH; Ribeiro, AML; Pontalti, G; MacManus, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. ...

  11. THE CORN-EGG PRICE TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Babula, Ronald A.; Bessler, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A vector autoregression (VAR) model of corn, farm egg, and retail egg prices is estimated and shocked with a corn price increase. Impulse responses in egg prices, t-statistics for the impulse responses, and decompositions of forecast error variance are presented. Analyses of results provide insights on the corn/egg price transmission mechanism and on how corn price shocks pulsate through the egg-related economy.

  12. Corned Beef: an Enigmatic Irish Dish

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    Corned beef and cabbage, which is consumed in America in large quantities each Saint Patrick’s Day (17th March), is considered by most Americans to be the ultimate Irish dish. However, corned beef and cabbage is seldom eaten in modern day Ireland. It is widely reported that Irish immigrants replaced their beloved bacon and cabbage with corned beef and cabbage when they arrived in America, drawing on the corned beef supplied by their neighbouring Jewish butchers, but not all commentators beli...

  13. A regional field-based assessment of organic C sequestration and GHG balances in irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean semi-arid land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virto, Inigo; Antón, Rodrigo; Arias, Nerea; Orcaray, Luis; Enrique, Alberto; Bescansa, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    In a context of global change and increasing food demand, agriculture faces the challenge of ensuring food security making a sustainable use of resources, especially arable land and water. This implies in many areas a transition towards agricultural systems with increased and stable productivity and a more efficient use of inputs. The introduction of irrigation is, within this framework, a widespread strategy. However, the C cycle and the net GHG emissions can be significantly affected by irrigation. The net effect of this change needs to be quantified at a regional scale. In the region of Navarra (NE Spain) more than 22,300 ha of rainfed agricultural land have been converted to irrigation in the last years, adding to the previous existing irrigated area of 70,000 ha. In this framework the project Life+ Regadiox (LIFE12 ENV/ES/000426, http://life-regadiox.es/) has the objective of evaluating the net GHG balances and atmospheric CO2 fixation rates of different management strategies in irrigated agriculture in the region. The project involved the identification of areas representative of the different pedocllimatic conditions in the region. This required soil and climate characterizations, and the design of a network of agricultural fields representative of the most common dryland and irrigation managements in these areas. This was done from available public datasets on climate and soil, and from soil pits especially sampled for this study. Two areas were then delimited, mostly based on their degree of aridity. Within each of those areas, fields were selected to allow for comparisons at three levels: (i) dryland vs irrigation, (ii) soil and crop management systems for non-permanent crops, and (iii) soil management strategies for permanent crops (namely olive orchards and vineyards). In a second step, the objective of this work was to quantify net SOC variations and GHG balances corresponding to the different managements identified in the previous step. These

  14. Field Trial Performance of Herculex XTRA (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 + Cry3Bb1) Hybrids and Soil Insecticides Against Western and Northern Corn Rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K D; Campbell, L A; Lepping, M D; Rule, D M

    2017-06-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are important insect pests in corn, Zea mays L. For more than a decade, growers have been using transgenic plants expressing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to protect corn roots from feeding. In 2011, western corn rootworm populations were reported to have developed resistance to Bt hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 and later found to be cross-resistant to hybrids expressing mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab. The identification of resistance to Cry3 (Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and eCry3.1Ab) hybrids led to concerns about durability and efficacy of products with single traits and of products containing a pyramid of a Cry3 protein and the binary Bt proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1. From 2012 to 2014, 43 field trials were conducted across the central United States to estimate root protection provided by plants expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 alone (Herculex RW) or pyramided with Cry3Bb1 (SmartStax). These technologies were evaluated with and without soil-applied insecticides to determine if additional management measures provided benefit where Cry3 performance was reduced. Trials were categorized for analysis based on rootworm damage levels on Cry3-expressing hybrids and rootworm feeding pressure within each trial. Across scenarios, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 hybrids provided excellent root protection. Pyramided traits provided greater root and yield protection than non-Bt plus a soil-applied insecticide, and only in trials where larval feeding pressure exceeded two nodes of damage did Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 single-trait hybrids and pyramided hybrids show greater root protection from the addition of soil-applied insecticides. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Lima, Isabel M.; Laird, David A.; Hicks, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ∼20 MJ kg -1 , and densities >1.0 Mg m -3 ) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, ∼20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed 'farm scale' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields.

  16. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Hicks, Kevin B. [Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lima, Isabel M. [Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Laird, David A. [National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2110 University Blvd., Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are {proportional_to}20 MJ kg{sup -1}, and densities >1.0 Mg m{sup -3}) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, {proportional_to}20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed ''farm scale'' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields. (author)

  17. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  18. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  19. Nitrogen Soil Testing for Corn in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Evanylo, Gregory K.; Alley, Marcus M., 1947-

    2009-01-01

    An adequate supply of plant-available nitrogen (N) is crucial for efficient corn production, and corn N requirements are greater than any other nutrient. This publication reviews the link between nitrogen and corn production, nitrogen behavior, soil testing, test procedures and recommendations.

  20. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  1. The Interplay of Energy Balance and Daily Timing of Activity in a Subterranean Rodent: A Laboratory and Field Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Valentinuzzi, Verónica S; Oda, Gisele A; Buck, C Loren

    The tuco-tuco (Ctenomys aff. knighti) is among the rodent species known to be nocturnal under standard laboratory conditions and diurnal under natural conditions. The circadian thermoenergetics (CTE) hypothesis postulates that switches in activity timing are a response to energetic challenges; daytime activity reduces thermoregulatory costs by consolidating activity to the warmest part of the day. Studying wild animals under both captive and natural conditions can increase understanding of how temporal activity patterns are shaped by the environment and could serve as a test of the CTE hypothesis. We estimated the effects of activity timing on energy expenditure for the tuco-tuco by combining laboratory measurements of metabolic rate with environmental temperature records in both winter and summer. We showed that, in winter, there would be considerable energy savings if activity is allocated at least partially during daylight, lending support to the CTE hypothesis. In summer, the impact of activity timing on energy expenditure is small, suggesting that during this season other factors, such as predation risk, water balance, and social interaction, may have more important roles than energetics in the determination of activity time.

  2. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  3. Corn rootworm area-wide management across the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Laurence D.; Coppedge, James R.; Richard Edwards, C.; Tollefson, Jon J.; Wilde, Gerald E.

    2000-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence, and Mexican corn rootworm, D. virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith are among the most economically and environmentally important pests of United States maize (Zea mays L.) production systems (Metcalf 1986). Annually, 8 to 10 million hectares of maize are treated with soil applied insecticides to protect the crop from larval feeding damage. Crop rotation, however, is also widely used to minimise the need for soil insecticide applications. Insecticides for adult rootworm management are also frequently used. Numerous problems are currently associated with corn rootworm management approaches. Soil insecticides are normally used to protect maize roots from larval feeding damage. However, they are ineffective in controlling the management of corn rootworm populations (Gray et al. 1992, Sutter et al. 1991). It is not uncommon for large numbers of rootworms to develop within treated fields. Thus, when maize is grown in the same field year after year (continuous cropping), soil insecticide applications must be used to protect the plant. These applications are generally made without knowledge (prophylactic) of the rootworm population levels within the field due to the difficulty of sampling for immature life stages. Western corn rootworm resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides has been extensively documented (Ball and Weekman 1962). Recently, two distinct populations of western corn rootworms in Nebraska were found to be resistant to carbaryl and methyl parathion which are commonly used for adult control (Meinke et al. 1998). Although the occurrence of resistance has not spread outside of these areas, the potential for increased tolerance of western corn rootworm populations to carbamate and organophosphate insecticides across the region does exist. In response to many of the management problems discussed above, scientists with the USDA Agricultural

  4. Desempenho, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Performance, digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane based diets with two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2010-04-01

    the daily weight gain and food conversion. Simultaneously, it was carried out digestibility and metabolism trials to determine the nutrient intake and digestibility and nitrogen balance of the experiment diets. The weight gain (294.6 g/day was higher for the lambs fed corn silage, and regarding to roughage:concentrate 40:60 it was 314.3 g/day. The ratio roughage:concentrate only influenced the consume of digestible fiber in neutral detergent (NDF and fiber in acid detergent (FAD in which the highest values, 125.26 and 48.97 g/day obtained with the ratio roughage:concentrate 60:40. The lambs fed corn silage showed a higher intake of all digestible nutrients, except for crude protein (162.00 g/day and non fibrous carbohydrates (471.42 g/day. The highest digestibility of organic matter (80.34% and total carbohydrates (80.71% were obtained with the 40:60 ratio and those of dry matter (78.91%, crude protein (81.30% and gross energy (78.77% were obtained for the lambs fed sugar cane. The highest values for ingested, absorbed and retained nitrogen, 32.6, 20.5 and 13.7 g/day, respectively, were observed in diets with 40% of roughage. The type of roughage influences more the nutrient digestibility than its proportion in the diet.

  5. The effect of nitrogen rate on transgenic corn Cry3Bb1 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Paul T; Krupke, Christian H; Camberato, James J; Johnson, William G

    2014-05-01

    Combining herbicide-resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits in corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids may affect insect resistance management owing to volunteer corn. Some Bt toxins may be expressed at lower levels by nitrogen-deficient corn roots. Corn plants with sublethal levels of Bt expression could accelerate the evolution of Bt resistance in target insects. The present objective was to quantify the concentration of Bt (Cry3Bb1) in corn root tissue with varying tissue nitrogen concentrations. Expression of Cry3Bb1 toxin in root tissue was highly variable, but there were no differences in the overall concentration of Cry3Bb1 expressed between roots taken from Cry3Bb1-positive volunteer and hybrid corn plants. The nitrogen rate did affect Cry3Bb1 expression in the greenhouse, less nitrogen resulted in decreased Cry3Bb1 expression, yet this result was not documented in the field. A positive linear relationship of plant nitrogen status on Cry3Bb1 toxin expression was documented. Also, high variability in Cry3Bb1 expression is potentially problematic from an insect resistance management perspective. This variability could create a mosaic of toxin doses in the field, which does not fit into the high-dose refuge strategy and could alter predictions about the speed of evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 in western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Crop and Soil Responses to Using Corn Stover as a Bioenergy Feedstock: Observations from the Northern US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. F. Johnson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. stover is a potential bioenergy feedstock, but little is known about the impacts of reducing stover return on yield and soil quality in the Northern US Corn Belt. Our study objectives were to measure the impact of three stover return rates (Full (~7.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1, Moderate (~3.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or Low (~1.5 Mg ha yr−1 Return on corn and soybean (Glycine max. L [Merr.] yields and on soil dynamic properties on a chisel-tilled (Chisel field, and well- (NT1995 or newly- (NT2005 established no-till managed fields. Stover return rate did not affect corn and soybean yields except under NT1995 where Low Return (2.88 Mg ha−1 reduced yields compared with Full and Moderate Return (3.13 Mg ha−1. In NT1995 at 0–5 cm depth, particulate organic matter in Full Return and Moderate Return (14.3 g kg−1 exceeded Low Return (11.3 g kg−1. In NT2005, acid phosphatase activity was reduced about 20% in Low Return compared to Full Return. Also the Low Return had an increase in erodible-sized dry aggregates at the soil surface compared to Full Return. Three or fewer cycles of stover treatments revealed little evidence for short-term impacts on crop yield, but detected subtle soil changes that indicate repeated harvests may have negative consequences if stover removed.

  7. Production, carbon and nitrogen in stover fractions of corn (Zea mays L.) in response to cultivar development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of genetic selection of corn to quantity and quality of stover is still poor-known. The aim of the study was to evaluate production, C and N in fractions of corn stover in response to the cultivar development. Two field experiments were conducted in the city of Rolândia (Paraná - Br...

  8. Management of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR was registered for the first time in Europe near the Surčininternational airport in Serbia in 1992. The spread of WCR on the territory of Serbia and itspopulation density increased fast. The Serbian territory was entirely populated in the followingfew years, while major damages occurred on corn grown for two or more years inthe same field. Data on damages caused to over 140,000 ha under corn until 1999 were collectedby organized monitoring. After 2000 and 2003, population abundance of D.v. virgifera,as well as the number of damaged corn fields, significantly decreased due to droughtand application of crop rotation. Corn rootworm has one generation per year. It overwintersin the egg stage. Under the climatic conditions of Serbia larvae hatching starts aroundMay 15th. The highest number of larvae on root is observed around June 20th when feedingis most intensive and plants become lodged as they lose roots. First adults emerge bythe end of June. Their abundance increases during July and reaches maximum by the endof the month. From the second decade of August the abundance decreases. Adults arepresent in the field until the first frosts. Larvae are much more harmful and significant thanadults. Larvae feed on roots or into roots by boring. Roots can be entirely destroyed underheavy attack and the host plants lodged already at the end of June. Under our climatic andagrotechnical conditions, adults are sporadic pests. Adults are a threat only when sowing isdone after the optimal sowing date or in case of stubble corn sowing.Crop rotation is an efficient and most widespread means of WCR control. No damageon corn grown in crop rotation has been registered in Serbia for now. In the first year of productioncorn does not require protection from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte larvae.Several insecticides have performed high efficacy by application at sowing and havebeen registered for commercial use. On the other hand, soil

  9. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  10. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-01-01

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol's life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement credits

  11. Cost Efficiency In U.S. Corn, Soybean, Wheat, and Cotton Production

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Stephen C.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1983, intertemporal cost efficiency for u.s. field crops increased about 1.4 to 1.2% percent for corn, soybeans, and wheat and .2% per year for cotton. competitive advantage in 1983 was held by central Illinois and north central Iowa in corn, central Illinois in soybeans, the Washington Palouse and central North Dakota in wheat, and southern California in cotton relative to the other selected regions in the study. Scale economies exist in corn, soybean and wheat but not in co...

  12. Soil water retention, air flow and pore structure characteristics after corn cob biochar application to a tropical sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Frimpong, Kwame Agyei; Okae-Anti, D

    2017-01-01

    Soil structure is a key soil physical property that affects soil water balance, gas transport, plant growth and development, and ultimately plant yield. Biochar has received global recognition as a soil amendment with the potential to ameliorate the structure of degraded soils. We investigated how...... corn cob biochar contributed to changes in soil water retention, air flow by convection and diffusion, and derived soil structure indices in a tropical sandy loam. Intact soil cores were taken from a field experiment that had plots without biochar (CT), and plots each with 10 t ha− 1 (BC-10), 20 t ha...... to significant increase in soil water retention compared to the CT and BC-10 as a result of increased microporosity (pores biochar had minimal impact. No significant influence of biochar was observed for ka and Dp/D0 for the BC treatments compared to the CT despite...

  13. Precision analysis of 15N-labelled samples with the emission spectrometer NOI-5 for nitrogen balance in field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.

    1984-01-01

    A technique was adapted for the preparation of samples with 15 N to be analyzed with the emission spectrometer NOI-5. This technique is based on methods of analyzing 15 N labelled gas samples in denitrification experiments. Nitrogen released from ammonium compounds by using hypobromite is injected into a repeatedly usable gaseous discharge tube where it is freed from water traces by means of the molecular sieve 5A. The described procedure of activating the molecular sieve allows to record spectra of reproducible quality thus promising an accuracy of analysis of +- 0.003 at% in the range of natural isotope frequency and the possibility of soil nitrogen analysis in field trials with fertilizers of low nitrogen content (3 to 6.5 at%; corresponding with 0.055 to 0.14% N/sub t/ of soils) without being dependent on mass spectrometers. (author)

  14. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  15. Efficacy of pyramided Bt proteins Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and cry2Ab2 expressed in Smartstax corn hybrids against lepidopteran insect pests in the northern United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rule, D.M.; Nolting, S.P.; Prasfika, P.L.; Storer, N.P.; Hopkins, B.W.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Siebert, M.W.; Hendrix, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial field corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids transformed to express some or all of the lepidopteran insect-resistant traits present in SmartStax corn hybrids were evaluated for insecticidal efficacy against a wide range of lepidopteran corn pests common to the northern United States, during 2008 to

  16. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping.

  17. Corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy with the addition of exogenous enzymes for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRB Dourado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolism assays were carried out to determine corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy when enzymes were added. In the first trial, 35 cockerels per studied feedstuff (corn and soybean meal were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments of seven replicates of one bird each. The evaluated treatments were: ingredient (corn and soybean meal with no enzyme addition, with the addition of an enzyme complex (xylanase, amylase, protease - XAP, xylanase, or phytase. Precise feeding method was used to determine true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (TMEn. The use of enzymes did not result in any differences (p>0.05 in soybean meal TMEn, but phytase improved corn TMEn in 2.3% (p=0.004. In the second trial, 280 seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of corn with no enzyme addition or with the addition of amylase, xylanase, phytase, XAP complex, XAP+phytase combination, or xylanase/ pectinase/β-glucanase complex (XPBG. Corn was supplemented with macro and trace minerals. Total excreta collection was used to determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn. Differences were observed (p=0.08 in AMEn and dry matter metabolizability coefficient (p=0.03. The combination of the XAP complex with phytase promoted a 2.11% increase in corn AMEn values, and the remaining enzymes allowed increased between 0.86% and 1.66%.

  18. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  19. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinga, W.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.J.; Hicks, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by using the experience curve approach, scrutinizing costs of dry grind ethanol production over the timeframe 1980-2005. Cost reductions are differentiated between feedstock (corn) production and industrial (ethanol) processing. Corn production costs in the US have declined by 62% over 30 years, down to 100$ 2005 /tonne in 2005, while corn production volumes almost doubled since 1975. A progress ratio (PR) of 0.55 is calculated indicating a 45% cost decline over each doubling in cumulative production. Higher corn yields and increasing farm sizes are the most important drivers behind this cost decline. Industrial processing costs of ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983, to below 130$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005 (excluding costs for corn and capital), equivalent to a PR of 0.87. Total ethanol production costs (including capital and net corn costs) have declined approximately 60% from 800$ 2005 /m 3 in the early 1980s, to 300$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005. Higher ethanol yields, lower energy use and the replacement of beverage alcohol-based production technologies have mostly contributed to this substantial cost decline. In addition, the average size of dry grind ethanol plants increased by 235% since 1990. For the future it is estimated that solely due to technological learning, production costs of ethanol may decline 28-44%, though this excludes effects of the current rising corn and fossil fuel costs. It is also concluded that experience curves are a valuable tool to describe both past and potential future cost reductions in US corn-based ethanol production

  20. Geographical and Temporal Dynamics of Chaetocnema Pulicaria and Their Role in Stewart's Disease of Corn in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esker, Paul David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigated the biology and importance of the corn flea beetle vector and its role in the Stewart's disease of corn pathosystem. This was accomplished by determining the number of corn flea beetle generations that occur in Iowa and by quantifying the proportions of those populations found to be infested with the causal agent of Stewart's disease, pantoea stewartii. In addition, a preliminary study was conducted to determine how soil temperature was influenced by air temperature and how this may be applied to forecasting for Stewart's disease of corn. Research using yellow sticky cards and sweep netting demonstrated that there are overwintering, first, and second field generations of the corn flea beetle in Iowa. It was also observed that there was a period during June of both 1999 and 2000 when corn flea beetles were not found, which is important new management information. This research has also demonstrated that the incidence of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles can be monitored by ELISA testing and that the incidence fluctuates greatly throughout the corn growing season. The initial level of inoculum (P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles in the adult overwintering generation) does not remain static during the spring as was previously hypothesized. This signals that additional research is needed concerning the mechanisms of fluctuation in the proportion of beetles infested with P. stewartii.

  1. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  2. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  3. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  4. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  5. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound......This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...

  6. Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of productive characteristics and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta; Bonari, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Arundo donax L. (giant reed) are two perennial crops which have been received particular attention during the last decade as bioenergy crops. The main aim of the present study was to compare the above-ground biomass production and the energy balance of these perennial rhizomatous grasses in a long-term field experiment. The crops were cultivated from 1992 to 2003 in the temperate climate of Central Italy with 20,000 plants ha -1 , 100-100-100 kg N, P 2 O 5 , K 2 O per hectare, and without irrigation supply. For each year of trial, biomass was harvested in autumn to estimate biometric characteristics and productive parameters. Besides, energy analysis of biomass production was carried out determining energy output, energy input, energy efficiency (output/input) and net energy yield (output-input). Results showed high above-ground biomass yields over a period of 10 years for both species, with better productive performances in giant reed than in miscanthus (37.7 t DM ha -1 year -1 vs 28.7 t DM ha -1 year -1 averaged from 2 to 12 years of growth). Such high yields resulted positively correlated to number of stalks (miscanthus), plant height and stalk diameter (giant reed). Moreover, these perennial species are characterised by a favourable energy balance with a net energy yield of 467 and 637 GJ ha -1 (1-12 year mean) for miscanthus and giant reed respectively. With such characteristics, both grasses could be proposed as biomass energy crops in Southern Europe with a significant and environmentally compatible contribution to energy needs

  7. Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of productive characteristics and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agroecosistema, Via S. Michele degli Scalzi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Bonari, Enrico [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Piazza Martiri della Liberta, 33, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Arundo donax L. (giant reed) are two perennial crops which have been received particular attention during the last decade as bioenergy crops. The main aim of the present study was to compare the above-ground biomass production and the energy balance of these perennial rhizomatous grasses in a long-term field experiment. The crops were cultivated from 1992 to 2003 in the temperate climate of Central Italy with 20,000 plants ha{sup -1}, 100-100-100 kg N, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O per hectare, and without irrigation supply. For each year of trial, biomass was harvested in autumn to estimate biometric characteristics and productive parameters. Besides, energy analysis of biomass production was carried out determining energy output, energy input, energy efficiency (output/input) and net energy yield (output-input). Results showed high above-ground biomass yields over a period of 10 years for both species, with better productive performances in giant reed than in miscanthus (37.7 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}vs 28.7 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} averaged from 2 to 12 years of growth). Such high yields resulted positively correlated to number of stalks (miscanthus), plant height and stalk diameter (giant reed). Moreover, these perennial species are characterised by a favourable energy balance with a net energy yield of 467 and 637 GJ ha{sup -1} (1-12 year mean) for miscanthus and giant reed respectively. With such characteristics, both grasses could be proposed as biomass energy crops in Southern Europe with a significant and environmentally compatible contribution to energy needs. (author)

  8. PREDICTING THE EMERGENCE OF CORN ROOTWORM (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte IN ESTERN SLAVONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Đoić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is one of the most important field crops in Croatia, country as well as in the world. It is subjected to many pests, among which is corn rootworm. Corn rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte are economically significant pests of corn, especially at successive growing of corn or single culture growing. In our corn fields, corn rootworm was a pest since its first appearance in 1995, and more significant damages were detected in 2002. The monitoring of the corn rootworm population enables the development of more efficient models for predicting adult corn rootworm emergence and the control of these pests. The objective of this thesis is to determine the influence of row spacing to corn rootworm population, larval root damages and grain yield. Then, to develop models to predict adult corn rootworm emergence in Eastern Slavonia, based on accumulated degree-days for air temperature, and to determine optimum time for monitoring and for possible control of adult cron rootworms based on ovarian development of the gravid females. The researches were conducted in 2004 and in 2005 in Gunja and Soljani, with two sowing models, row spacing of 50 cm and 70 cm. Hybrid corn OSSK 552 was sown in four repetitions at both sites. Cages and pheromone traps were placed in order to estimate the first day of corn rootworm emergence (the biofix and to monitor the total population number. Predicting of the adult corn rootworm emergence was based on degree–days for air temperature from the biofix. In mid–July, evaluation of the larval damage was made according to the scale from 0–3. Ovarian development was determined by dissection of the gravid females, whereas the complete female gravidity and optimum time for scouting were determined based on degree–days accumulated from the biofix. The larval population was not significantly increased at the reduced row spacing. The number of the larvae per a plant was 24% higher on the average at 50

  9. Effect of irradiation on sweet corn preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie

    2002-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray was used to irradiate newly-harvested sweet corn and the results showed that the effects of irradiation on soluble solids, sucrose, starch and total sugar were not significant. The viscosity of starch decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The preservation duration of irradiated sweet corn was 7 days longer than that of CK, and the sweet, smell, taste of sweet corn had no abnormal change

  10. On-Plant Larval Movement and Feeding Behavior of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Reproductive Corn Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, L E R; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V

    2016-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (fall armyworm) is considered one of the most destructive pests of corn throughout the Americas. Although this pest has been extensively studied, little is known about its larval movement and feeding behavior on reproductive compared to vegetative corn stages. Thus, we conducted studies with two corn stages (R1 and R3) and four corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, ear zone, and below ear) in the field at Concord, NE (USA), and in the field and greenhouse at Botucatu, SP (Brazil), to investigate on-plant larval movement. The effects of different corn tissues (opened tassel, closed tassel, silk, kernel, and leaf), two feeding sequence scenarios (closed tassel-leaf-silk-kernel and leaf-silk-kernel), and artificial diet (positive control) on larval survival and development were also evaluated in the laboratory. Ear zone has a strong effect on feeding choice and survival of fall armyworm larvae regardless of reproductive corn stage. Feeding site choice is made by first-instar. Corn leaves of reproductive plants were not suitable for early instar development, but silk and kernel tissues had a positive effect on survival and development of fall armyworm larvae on reproductive stage corn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.

    2016-09-01

    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  12. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  13. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  14. Tile Drainage Nitrate Losses and Corn Yield Response to Fall and Spring Nitrogen Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Clover, Matthew W; Hoeft, Robert G; Nafziger, Emerson D; Warren, Jeffery J; Gonzini, Lisa C; Greer, Kristin D

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) management strategies that maintain high crop productivity with reduced water quality impacts are needed for tile-drained landscapes of the US Midwest. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of N application rate, timing, and fall nitrapyrin addition on tile drainage nitrate losses, corn ( L.) yield, N recovery efficiency, and postharvest soil nitrate content over 3 yr in a corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation. In addition to an unfertilized control, the following eight N treatments were applied as anhydrous ammonia in a replicated, field-scale experiment with both corn and soybean phases present each year in Illinois: fall and spring applications of 78, 156, and 234 kg N ha, fall application of 156 kg N ha + nitrapyrin, and sidedress (V5-V6) application of 156 kg N ha. Across the 3-yr study period, increases in flow-weighted NO concentrations were found with increasing N rate for fall and spring N applications, whereas N load results were variable. At the same N rate, spring vs. fall N applications reduced flow-weighted NO concentrations only in the corn-soybean-corn rotation. Fall nitrapyrin and sidedress N treatments did not decrease flo8w-weighted NO concentrations in either rotation compared with fall and spring N applications, respectively, or increase corn yield, crop N uptake, or N recovery efficiency in any year. This study indicates that compared with fall N application, spring and sidedress N applications (for corn-soybean-corn) and sidedress N applications (for soybean-corn-soybean) reduced 3-yr mean flow-weighted NO concentrations while maintaining yields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Balancing cross-sections combining field work and remote sensing data using LithoTect software in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, N Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros fold-and-thrust belt has formed in detached Phanerozoic sedimentary cover rocks above a shortened crystalline Precambrian basement and evolved through the Late Cretaceous to Miocene collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, during which the Neotethys oceanic basin was closed. Deformation is partitioned in SW directed folding and thrusting of the sediments and NW-SE to N-S trending dextral strike slip faults. The sub-cylindrical doubly-plunging fold trains with wavelengths of 5 - 10 km host more than half of the world's hydrocarbon reserves in mostly anticlinal traps. Generally the Zagros is divided into three NW-SE striking tectonic units: the Zagros Imbricate Zone, the Zagros Simply Folded Belt and the Zagros Foredeep. This work presents a balanced cross-section through the Simply Folded Belt, NE of the city of Erbil (Kurdistan, Iraq). The regional stratigraphy comprises mainly Cretaceous to Cenozoic folded sediments consisting of massive, carbonate rocks (limestones, dolomites), reacting as competent layers during folding compared to the incompetent behavior of interlayered siltstones, claystones and marls. Although the overall security situation in Kurdistan is much better than in the rest of Iraq, structural field mapping was restricted to asphalt streets, mainly because of the contamination of the area with landmines and unexploded ordnance. In order to extend the structural measurements statistically over the investigated area, we used a newly developed software tool (www.terramath.com) for interactive structural mapping of spatial orientations (i.e. dip direction and dip angles) of the sedimentary beddings from digital elevation models. Structural field data and computed measurements where integrated and projected in NE-SW striking balanced cross-sections perpendicular to the regional trend of the fold axes. We used the software LithoTect (www.geologicsystems.com) for the restoration of the cross-sections. Depending on the interpretation

  16. Partitioning carbon fluxes from a Midwestern corn and soybean rotation system using footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, C.; Hatfield, J.; Prueger, J. H.; Wacha, K.

    2017-12-01

    Midwestern US agriculture is dominated by corn and soybean production. Corn has typically higher Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) than soybean due to increased carboxylation efficiency and different crop management. The conjoined NEE may be measured with eddy covariance (EC) stations covering both crops, however, it is often unclear what the contribution of each crop is, as the CO2 source area remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of CO2 fluxes from each crop for a conventional corn-soybean rotation system from 2007 - 2015. Therefore, the combined CO2 flux of three adjacent fields with annual corn-soybean rotation was measured with a 9.1 m EC tower (Flux 30). In the center of two of these fields, additional EC towers (Flux 10 and Flux 11) were positioned above the corn and soybean canopy to validate Flux 30 NEE. For each EC system the annual 90% NEE footprint area was calculated, footprints were partitioned among fields, and NEE separated accordingly. The average annual 90% footprint area of Flux 30, and Flux 10/11 corn and soybean was estimated to 206, 11 and 7 ha, respectively. The annual average (±SE) NEE of Flux 30 was -693 ± 47 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, of which 83% out of 90% originated from the three adjacent fields. Corn and soybean NEE measured at Flux 10 and 11 was -1124 ± 95 and 173 ± 73 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, respectively, and 89% and 90% originated from these fields. That demonstrates, that Flux 30 represents the combined NEE of a corn-soybean rotation, and Flux 10 and 11 measured NEE from a single crop. However, the share of Flux 30 NEE originating from corn and soybean grown on the Flux 10/11 fields was -192 ± 16 and -205 ± 18 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, indicating a substantial difference to single crop NEE. While it was possible to measure the NEE of a corn-soybean rotation with a tall EC tower, footprint partitioning could not retrieve NEE for each crop, probably due to differences in measurement height and footprint source area.

  17. Multi-state trials of Bt sweet corn varieties for control of the corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A M; Olmstead, D L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Dively, G; Welty, C; Sparks, A N

    2013-10-01

    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh market and processing standards. For fresh market and processing, least squares regression showed significant effects of protein expression, state, and insecticide frequency. There was a significant effect of year for fresh market but not for processing. The model also showed significant effects of H. zea per ear by protein expression. Sweet corn containing two genes (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) and a single gene (Cry1Ab) provided high marketability, and both Bt varieties significantly outperformed the traditional non-Bt isolines in nearly all cases regardless of insecticide application frequency. For pest suppression of H. zea, plants expressing Bt proteins consistently performed better than non-Bt isoline plants, even those sprayed at conventional insecticide frequencies. Where comparisons in the same state were made between Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants for fresh market, the product expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 provided better protection and resulted in less variability in control. Overall, these results indicate Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants are suitable for fresh market and processing corn production across a diversity of growing regions and years. Our results demonstrate that Bt sweet corn has the potential to significantly reduce the use of conventional insecticides against lepidopteran pests and, in turn, reduce occupational and environmental risks that arise from intensive insecticide use.

  18. Quantification and persistence of recombinant DNA of Roundup Ready corn and soybean in rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerat, Sylvain; Gulden, Robert H; Hart, Miranda M; Powell, Jeff R; England, Laura S; Pauls, K Peter; Swanton, Clarence J; Klironomos, John N; Trevors, Jack T

    2007-12-12

    The presence of the recombinant cp4 epsps gene from Roundup Ready (RR) corn and RR soybean was quantified using real-time PCR in soil samples from a field experiment growing RR and conventional corn and soybean in rotation. RR corn and RR soybean cp4 epsps persisted in soil for up to 1 year after seeding. The concentration of recombinant DNA in soil peaked in July and August in RR corn and RR soybean plots, respectively. A small fraction of soil samples from plots seeded with conventional crops contained recombinant DNA, suggesting transgene dispersal by means of natural process or agricultural practices. This research will aid in the understanding of the persistence of recombinant DNA in agricultural cropping systems.

  19. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duennas Graciela; Munniz, Olegario; Sanchez, Tamara; Gomez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  20. A Remote Sensing-Derived Corn Yield Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ranjay Man

    be further associated with the actual yield. Utilizing satellite remote sensing products, such as daily NDVI derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 250 m pixel size, the crop yield estimation can be performed at a very fine spatial resolution. Therefore, this study examined the potential of these daily NDVI products within agricultural studies and crop yield assessments. In this study, a regression-based approach was proposed to estimate the annual corn yield through changes in MODIS daily NDVI time series. The relationship between daily NDVI and corn yield was well defined and established, and as changes in corn phenology and yield were directly reflected by the changes in NDVI within the growing season, these two entities were combined to develop a relational model. The model was trained using 15 years (2000-2014) of historical NDVI and county-level corn yield data for four major corn producing states: Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Indiana, representing four climatic regions as South, West North Central, East North Central, and Central, respectively, within the U.S. Corn Belt area. The model's goodness of fit was well defined with a high coefficient of determination (R2>0.81). Similarly, using 2015 yield data for validation, 92% of average accuracy signified the performance of the model in estimating corn yield at county level. Besides providing the county-level corn yield estimations, the derived model was also accurate enough to estimate the yield at finer spatial resolution (field level). The model's assessment accuracy was evaluated using the randomly selected field level corn yield within the study area for 2014, 2015, and 2016. A total of over 120 plot level corn yield were used for validation, and the overall average accuracy was 87%, which statistically justified the model's capability to estimate plot-level corn yield. Additionally, the proposed model was applied to the impact estimation by examining the changes in corn yield

  1. MR Imaging of the Internal Auditory Canal and Inner Ear at 3T: Comparison between 3D Driven Equilibrium and 3D Balanced Fast Field Echo Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yim, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Ji Won [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T). Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22 71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals. Although both techniques provided images of relatively good quality, the 3D DRIVE sequence was somewhat superior to the 3D bFFE sequence. The discrepancies were more prominent for the basal turn of the cochlea, vestibule, and all semicircular canals, and were thought to be attributed to the presence of greater magnetic susceptibility artifacts inherent to gradient-echo techniques such as bFFE. Because of higher image quality and less susceptibility artifacts, we highly recommend the employment of 3D DRIVE imaging as the MR imaging choice for the IAC and inner ear

  2. Tropical forest carbon balance: effects of field- and satellite-based mortality regimes on the dynamics and the spatial structure of Central Amazon forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Higuchi, Niro; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.

    2014-03-01

    Debate continues over the adequacy of existing field plots to sufficiently capture Amazon forest dynamics to estimate regional forest carbon balance. Tree mortality dynamics are particularly uncertain due to the difficulty of observing large, infrequent disturbances. A recent paper (Chambers et al 2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110 3949-54) reported that Central Amazon plots missed 9-17% of tree mortality, and here we address ‘why’ by elucidating two distinct mortality components: (1) variation in annual landscape-scale average mortality and (2) the frequency distribution of the size of clustered mortality events. Using a stochastic-empirical tree growth model we show that a power law distribution of event size (based on merged plot and satellite data) is required to generate spatial clustering of mortality that is consistent with forest gap observations. We conclude that existing plots do not sufficiently capture losses because their placement, size, and longevity assume spatially random mortality, while mortality is actually distributed among differently sized events (clusters of dead trees) that determine the spatial structure of forest canopies.

  3. Tropical forest carbon balance: effects of field- and satellite-based mortality regimes on the dynamics and the spatial structure of Central Amazon forest biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan V; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Debate continues over the adequacy of existing field plots to sufficiently capture Amazon forest dynamics to estimate regional forest carbon balance. Tree mortality dynamics are particularly uncertain due to the difficulty of observing large, infrequent disturbances. A recent paper (Chambers et al 2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110 3949–54) reported that Central Amazon plots missed 9–17% of tree mortality, and here we address ‘why’ by elucidating two distinct mortality components: (1) variation in annual landscape-scale average mortality and (2) the frequency distribution of the size of clustered mortality events. Using a stochastic-empirical tree growth model we show that a power law distribution of event size (based on merged plot and satellite data) is required to generate spatial clustering of mortality that is consistent with forest gap observations. We conclude that existing plots do not sufficiently capture losses because their placement, size, and longevity assume spatially random mortality, while mortality is actually distributed among differently sized events (clusters of dead trees) that determine the spatial structure of forest canopies. (paper)

  4. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  5. Applying an energy balance model of a debris covered glacier through the Himalayan seasons - insights from the field and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Buri, Pascal; Brock, Ben

    2016-04-01

    Although some recent studies have attempted to model melt below debris cover in the Himalaya as well as the European Alps, field measurements remain rare and uncertainties of a number of parameters are difficult to constrain. The difficulty of accurately measuring sub-debris melt at one location over a longer period of time with stakes adds to the challenge of calibrating models adequately, as moving debris tends to tilt stakes. Based on measurements of sub-debris melt with stakes as well as air and surface temperature at the same location during three years from 2012 to 2014 at Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya, we investigate results with the help of an earlier developed energy balance model. We compare stake readings to cumulative melt as well as observed to modelled surface temperatures. With timeseries stretching through the pre-Monsoon, Monsoon and post-Monsoon of different years we can show the difference of sensitive parameters during these seasons. Using radiation measurements from the AWS we can use a temporarily variable time series of albedo. A thorough analysis of thermistor data showing the stratigraphy of the temperature through the debris layer allows a detailed discussion of the variability as well as the uncertainty range of thermal conductivity. Distributed wind data as well as results from a distributed surface roughness assessment allows to constrain variability of turbulent fluxes between the different locations of the stakes. We show that model results are especially sensitive to thermal conductivity, a value that changes substantially between the seasons. Values obtained from the field are compared to earlier studies, which shows large differences within locations in the Himalaya. We also show that wind varies with more than a factor two between depressions and on debris mounds which has a significant influence on turbulent fluxes. Albedo decreases from the dry to the wet season and likely has some spatial variability that is

  6. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy-covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauder, Matthias; Oncley, Steven P.; Vogt, Roland; Weidinger, Tamas; Ribeiro, Luis; Bernhofer, Christian; Foken, Thomas; Kohsiek, Wim; de Bruin, Henk A. R.; Liu, Heping

    2007-04-01

    The eddy-covariance method is the primary way of measuring turbulent fluxes directly. Many investigators have found that these flux measurements often do not satisfy a fundamental criterion—closure of the surface energy balance. This study investigates to what extent the eddy-covariance measurement technology can be made responsible for this deficiency, in particular the effects of instrumentation or of the post-field data processing. Therefore, current eddy-covariance sensors and several post-field data processing methods were compared. The differences in methodology resulted in deviations of 10% for the sensible heat flux and of 15% for the latent heat flux for an averaging time of 30 min. These disparities were mostly due to different sensor separation corrections and a linear detrending of the data. The impact of different instrumentation on the resulting heat flux estimates was significantly higher. Large deviations from the reference system of up to 50% were found for some sensor combinations. However, very good measurement quality was found for a CSAT3 sonic together with a KH20 krypton hygrometer and also for a UW sonic together with a KH20. If these systems are well calibrated and maintained, an accuracy of better than 5% can be achieved for 30-min values of sensible and latent heat flux measurements. The results from the sonic anemometers Gill Solent-HS, ATI-K, Metek USA-1, and R.M. Young 81000 showed more or less larger deviations from the reference system. The LI-COR LI-7500 open-path H2O/CO2 gas analyser in the test was one of the first serial numbers of this sensor type and had technical problems regarding direct solar radiation sensitivity and signal delay. These problems are known by the manufacturer and improvements of the sensor have since been made.

  7. Assesment of PM2.5 emission from corn stover burning determining in chamber combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidawati; Lestari, P.; Sofyan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Chamber measurement were conducted to determine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) emission from open burning of corn straw at Garut District, West Java. The of this study is to estimate the concentration of PM2.5 for two types of corn (corncobs and cornstover) for five varieties (Bisma, P29, NK, Bisma, NW). Corn residues were collected and then burned in the chamber combustion. The chamber was designed to simulate the burning in the field, which was observed in the field experiment that meteorological condition was calm wind. The samples were collected using a minivol air sampler. The assessment results of PM2.5 concentrations (mg/m3) from open burning experiment in the chamber for five varieties of corn cobs (Bisma, P29, NK, Bisi, NW) was 9.187; 2.843; 7.409; 3.781; 1.895 respectively. Concentration for corn stover burn was 2.060; 5.283; 4.048; 5.306 and 5.697 respectively. Fluctuations in the value of concentration among these varieties reflect variations in combustion conditions (combustion efficiency) and other parameters including water content, biomass conditions and the meteorological conditions. The combustion efficiency (MCE) of the combustion chamber simulation of corncobs ia lower than the MCE of corn stover, that the concentration PM2.5 more emitted from the burning of corn stover. The results of this study presented provide useful information for the development of local emission factors for PM2.5 from open burning of corn stover in Indonesia.

  8. Cornelis den Hartog: an outstanding aquatic ecologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.; Brock, T.C.M.; Kempers, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    A survey is given of the work and life of Cornelis den Hartog up to the date in 1996 on which he retired from his position as a professor at the University of Nijmegen. Cornelis (Kees) den Hartog made important contributions to aquatic ecology in the widest sense, e.G. On brackish water typology,

  9. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  10. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  11. Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon

    2012-04-03

    Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.

  12. Analysis of xanthophylls in corn by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moros, E E; Darnoko, D; Cheryan, M; Perkins, E G; Jerrell, J

    2002-10-09

    An HPLC method was developed using the C-30 carotenoid column to separate and identify the major xanthophylls in corn (lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin). A photodiode array detector and a mobile phase consisting of methyl tert-butyl ether/methanol/water was used. All three xanthophylls eluted in less than 25 min. Yellow dent corn had a total xanthophyll content of 21.97 microg/g with lutein content of 15.7 microg/g, zeaxanthin content of 5.7 microg/g, and beta-cryptoxanthin of 0.57 microg/g. Commercial corn gluten meal had a 7 times higher concentration of xanthophylls (145 microg/g), and deoiled corn contained 18 microg/g, indicating that the xanthophylls are probably bound to the zein fraction of corn proteins.

  13. Compositional variability of nutrients and phytochemicals in corn after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, P S; Naveena, N; Vishnuvardhana Rao, M; Bhaskarachary, K

    2017-04-01

    The result of various process strategies on the nutrient and phytochemical composition of corn samples were studied. Fresh and cooked baby corn, sweet corn, dent corn and industrially processed and cooked popcorn, corn grits, corn flour and corn flakes were analysed for the determination of proximate, minerals, xanthophylls and phenolic acids content. This study revealed that the proximate composition of popcorn is high compared to the other corn products analyzed while the mineral composition of these maize products showed higher concentration of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and low concentration of calcium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper, and sodium. Popcorn was high in iron, zinc, copper, manganese, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus. The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin were predominant in the dent corn and the total polyphenolic content was highest in dent corn while the phenolic acids distribution was variable in different corn products. This study showed preparation and processing brought significant reduction of xanthophylls and polyphenols.

  14. Effects of irradiation on fungi and fumonisin B(1) in corn, and of microwave-popping on fumonisins in popcorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, K L; Trucksess, M W; Devries, J W; Bean, G

    2007-07-01

    Fumonisins are metabolites produced in corn primarily by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme) and are toxic to humans and animals. Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is the primary fumonisin produced and is found frequently in corn kernels, some of which may be used as food or food ingredients. A three-part study was conducted to determine the effects of gamma- and electron beam irradiation on the levels of fumonisins in naturally contaminated field corn, and the effects of microwave-popping on fumonisins in selected, naturally contaminated popcorn. To date, no effective means have been found to reduce consistently mycotoxin levels once foods are contaminated. Aqueous solutions of FB(1) at various concentrations, samples of whole corn, and samples of ground corn containing known levels of FB(1) were irradiated with various levels of cobalt and electron beam irradiation. Popcorn samples, taken from the reject streams of popcorn processing, were popped using normal microwave-popping conditions. FB(1) in aqueous solutions was reduced by 99.7% using a minimal level of irradiation (0.5 kGray). Gamma- and electron beam irradiation did not significantly reduce levels of FB(1) in whole and ground corn. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. fungi were totally eliminated at 30 kGray in ground corn and at 100 kGray in whole corn. The normal commercial cleaning processes for microwave popcorn before packaging reduced fumonisins to fumonisins resulted in significant reduction of the mould toxin.

  15. Sublethal effects of Cry 1F Bt corn and clothianidin on black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Sears, Mark K; Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2011-04-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an occasional pest of maize (corn), Zea mays L., that may cause severe stand losses and injury to corn seedlings. The efficacy of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin at two commercially available rates and their interaction with a transgenic corn hybrid (Bt corn), trait expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis variety aizawai insecticidal toxin Cry 1Fa2, against black cutworm larvae was investigated. Clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) on Bt corn increased larval mortality and reduced larval weight gains additively. In contrast, weights of larvae fed non-Bt corn seedlings treated with clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) increased significantly, suggesting either compensatory overconsumption, hormesis, or hormoligosis. Both Bt corn alone and clothianidin at a rate of 125 mg kernel(-1) applied to non-Bt corn seedlings caused increased mortality and reduced larval weight gains. In two field trials, plots planted with Bt corn hybrids consistently had the highest plant populations and yields, regardless of whether they were treated with clothianidin at the lower commercial rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) The use of Bt corn alone or in combination with the low rate of clothianidin (25 mg kernel(-1)) seems suitable as a means of suppressing black cutworm in no-tillage cornfields, although rescue treatments may still be necessary under severe infestations. Clothianidin alone at the low rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) is not recommended for black cutworm control until further studies of its effects on larval physiology and field performance have been completed.

  16. Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in rats fed extruded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in adult rats in raw and extruded African breadfruit (Treculia africana) based diets were carried out using response surface methodology in a central composite design. Process variables were feed composition (40 - 100 % African breadfruit, 0 - 5 % corn and 0 - 55 % soybean, ...

  17. Evaluating of Physiological Indices of Weed Species at Different Density on Corn (Zea mays L. Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mahmodi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop density is one of the usage tools in sustainable agriculture to carry out integrated weed management. Weed species response varied according to diversity and density of species in agricultural ecosystems. This study was conducted in research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Four levels of corn densities (5, 6, 7 and 9 plant m-2 and four levels of species diversity were used including complete control, broad leaved control (corn and narrow leaves, grass control (corn and broad leaves and without control (corn, broadleaves and grass weeds by weeding. All species sampling were done at five stages from 42 days after planting up to the end of growth period. Crop growth rate, total dry matter of weed (TDMw and total dry matter of corn (TDMc were measured. Results showed that TDMc was minimum at 9 and 5 plant m-2 in the early growth period, while it was highest at 9 plant m-2 by the end of the growth period. Also, TDMc increased with increasing density in the weed free control, but (TDMc decreased about 46% in compare with complete control. The same trends were observed for CGR. It was found that broad leaves weeds were more effective than narrow leaves (causing 60 and 34% lower CGR reduction, respectively on corn growth.

  18. Corn-based ethanol production compromises goal of reducing nitrogen export by the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D; Kucharik, Christopher J

    2008-03-18

    Corn cultivation in the United States is expected to increase to meet demand for ethanol. Nitrogen leaching from fertilized corn fields to the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system is a primary cause of the bottom-water hypoxia that develops on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico each summer. In this study, we combine agricultural land use scenarios with physically based models of terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen to examine the effect of present and future expansion of corn-based ethanol production on nitrogen export by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers to the Gulf of Mexico. The results show that the increase in corn cultivation required to meet the goal of 15-36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by the year 2022 suggested by a recent U.S. Senate energy policy would increase the annual average flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers by 10-34%. Generating 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by the year 2022 will increase the odds that annual DIN export exceeds the target set for reducing hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico to >95%. Examination of extreme mitigation options shows that expanding corn-based ethanol production would make the already difficult challenges of reducing nitrogen export to the Gulf of Mexico and the extent of hypoxia practically impossible without large shifts in food production and agricultural management.

  19. Improving hybrid seed production in corn with glyphosate-mediated male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Paul C C; Qi, Youlin; Chiu, Tommy; Stoecker, Martin A; Schuster, Christopher L; Johnson, Scott C; Fonseca, Augustine E; Huang, Jintai

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid corn varieties exhibit benefits associated with heterosis and account for most of the corn acreage in the USA. Hybrid seed corn is produced by crossing a female parent which is male-sterile and therefore incapable of self-pollination with a male parent as the pollen donor. The majority of hybrid seed corn is produced by mechanical detasseling which involves physically removing the tassel, a process that is laborious and costly. Glyphosate-resistant corn was developed via expression of a glyphosate insensitive 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme (CP4-EPSPS). Experimentation with molecular expression elements resulted in selective reduction of CP4-EPSPS expression in male reproductive tissues. The resulting plant demonstrated sterile tassel following glyphosate application with little to no injury to the rest of the plant. Using (14)C-glyphosate as a marker, we also examined the translocation of glyphosate to the tassel via spray application in a track sprayer to simulate field application. The results allowed optimization of spray parameters such as dose, spray timing and target to maximize tassel delivery of glyphosate for efficient sterilization. The Roundup hybridization system (RHS) is a novel process for hybrid seed production based on glyphosate-mediated male sterility. RHS replaces mechanical detasseling with glyphosate spray and greatly simplifies the process of hybrid seed corn production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Planting of neonicotinoid-coated corn raises honey bee mortality and sets back colony development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Samson-Robert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i.e. corn-dominated areas and corn-free environments, during the corn planting season. Data was collected in 2012 and 2013 from 26 bee yards. Dead honey bees from five hives in each apiary were counted and collected, and samples were analyzed using a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method. Long-term effects on colony development were simulated based on a honey bee population dynamic model. Mortality survey showed that colonies located in a corn-dominated area had daily mortality counts 3.51 times those of colonies from corn crop-free sites. Chemical analyses revealed that honey bees were exposed to various agricultural pesticides during the corn planting season, but were primarily subjected to neonicotinoid compounds (54% of analysed samples contained clothianidin, and 31% contained both clothianidin and thiamethoxam. Performance development simulations performed on hive populations’ show that increased mortality during the corn planting season sets back colony development and bears contributions to collapse risk but, most of all, reduces the effectiveness and value of colonies for pollination services. Our results also have implications for the numerous large-scale and worldwide-cultivated crops that currently rely on pre-emptive use of neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  1. Dynamic-energetic balance of agricultural tractors: active systems for the measurement of the power requirements in static tests and under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern tractors are characterized by the introduction of devices designed to increase the operative performances of the machines, such as systems for monitoring and controlling various functions (through a massive use of electronics and hydraulics, or deputed to improve the comfort of the driver (paying more attention to ergonomics, air-conditioning, noise and vibration. Such devices need energy to be operated, affecting the energetic balance of the tractor. In this context, the availability of suitable methodologies and instrumental systems could be useful to provide objective, accurate and reliable measurements of the performances of the tractors under different conditions, also considering the power requirements from ancillary services and/or simulating the coupling with operating machines. The tests on the performances of tractors are now made using different methods, including the trial codes issued by the OECD Codes. Beyond their undoubted validity, they fix standard test conditions that often do not adequately represent the operative reality, so that, much remains to investigate on the actual performances provided by the tractors. From this point of view and with reference to fixed point tests, a test bench was developed for the measurement of the power required by various devices, such as transmission and air conditioning. It was used in experimental tests on a tracked tractor and on a wheeled tractor, aimed at validating the test device, measuring the power absorption related to the rotational speed of the organs of propulsion and to the characteristics curves, in order to quantify the power drawn by the transmission and by the air conditioning and assess the residual power for other tractor functions. As to field conditions, a study is being conducted at CRA-ING, within the project PTO (Mi.P.A.A.F., to develop a mobile test bench aimed at evaluating the power required by different operations, such as self displacement, traction, use of

  2. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  3. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  4. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  5. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  6. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  7. Aflatoxin contamination of developing corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M A

    2005-01-01

    Preharvest of corn and its contamination with aflatoxin is a serious problem. Some environmental and cultural factors responsible for infection and subsequent aflatoxin production were investigated in this study. Stage of growth and location of kernels on corn ears were found to be one of the important factors in the process of kernel infection with A. flavus & A. parasiticus. The results showed positive correlation between the stage of growth and kernel infection. Treatment of corn with aflatoxin reduced germination, protein and total nitrogen contents. Total and reducing soluble sugar was increase in corn kernels as response to infection. Sucrose and protein content were reduced in case of both pathogens. Shoot system length, seeding fresh weigh and seedling dry weigh was also affected. Both pathogens induced reduction of starch content. Healthy corn seedlings treated with aflatoxin solution were badly affected. Their leaves became yellow then, turned brown with further incubation. Moreover, their total chlorophyll and protein contents showed pronounced decrease. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds were increased. Histopathological studies indicated that A. flavus & A. parasiticus could colonize corn silks and invade developing kernels. Germination of A. flavus spores was occurred and hyphae spread rapidly across the silk, producing extensive growth and lateral branching. Conidiophores and conidia had formed in and on the corn silk. Temperature and relative humidity greatly influenced the growth of A. flavus & A. parasiticus and aflatoxin production.

  8. Hyperspectral estimation of corn fraction of photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fei; Zhang Bai; Song Kaishan

    2008-01-01

    Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) is one of the important variables in many productivity and biomass estimation models, this analyzed the effect of FPAR estimation with hyperspectral information, which could provide the scientific support on the improvement of FPAR estimation, remote sensing data validation, and the other ecological models. Based on the field experiment of corn, this paper analyzed the correlations between FPAR and spectral reflectance or the differential coefficient, and discussed the mechanism of FPAR estimation, studied corn FPAR estimation with reflectance, first differential coefficient, NDVI and RVI. The reflectance of visible bands showed much better correlations with FPAR than near-infrared bands. The correlation curve between FPAR and differential coefficient varied more frequently and greatly than the curve of FPAR and reflectance. Reflectance and differential coefficient both had good regressions with FPAR of the typical single band, with the maximum R2 of 0.791 and 0.882. In a word, differential coefficient and vegetation index were much effective than reflectance for corn FPAR estimating, and the stepwised regression of multibands differential coefficient showed the best regression with R2 of 0.944. 375 nm purpled band and 950 nm near-infraed band absorbed by water showed prodigious potential for FPAR estimating precision. On the whole, vegetation index and differential coefficient have good relationships with FPAR, and could be used for FAPR estimation. It would be effective of choosing right bands and excavating the hyperspectral data to improve FPAR estimating precision

  9. A GIS methodology to identify potential corn stover collection locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Monica A. [Department of Community and Regional Planning, 583 College of Design, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3095 (United States); Anderson, Paul F. [Department of Landscape Architecture, 481 College of Design, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Agronomy, 481 College of Design, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    In this study, we use geographic information systems technology to identify potential locations in a Midwestern region for collection and storage of corn stover for use as biomass feedstock. Spatial location models are developed to identify potential collection sites along an existing railroad. Site suitability analysis is developed based on two main models: agronomic productivity potential and environmental costs. The analysis includes the following steps: (1) elaboration of site selection criteria; (2) identification of the study region and service area based on transportation network analysis; (3) reclassification of input spatial layers based on common scales; (4) overlaying the reclassified spatial layers with equal weights to generate the two main models; and (5) overlaying the main models using different weights. A pluralistic approach is adopted, presenting three different scenarios as alternatives for the potential locations. Our results suggest that there is a significant subset of potential sites that meet site selection criteria. Additional studies are needed to evaluate potential sites through field visits, assess economic and social costs, and estimate the proportion of corn producers willing to sell and transport corn stover to collection facilities. (author)

  10. My geoscience research and how it matters to you: Corn, climate, and classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    In a corn field far north of New Orleans, I study how carbon moves between soils, water, and the atmosphere. More specifically, I look at how different farming practices affect carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the soil to the atmosphere and carbon storage in the soil and water. This is important because soils store about twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, so we need to understand how human activities, such as agriculture, disrupt or enhance carbon movement and, ultimately, contribute to or mitigate climate change. Carefully accounting for an ecosystem's greenhouse gas balance (emissions vs. storage) helps climate scientists project how future climate change will affect all of us. My research demonstrates that, in some cases, croplands are storing carbon—this finding will improve the accuracy of existing calculations of carbon gains and losses on farms. This could help farmers get credit for storing carbon in a future scenario with a price on carbon, and this could help policy makers design policy that incentivizes best management practices. Furthermore, through this work I have mentored undergraduate students and collaborated with a local high school science teacher and her classroom. This work was conducted at the only NSF-funded Long Term Ecological Research site focused on cropland agriculture, the Kellogg Biological Station LTER at Michigan State University.

  11. Evolution of Corn Transpiration and Leaf Water Potential During Sprinkler Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Fernández-Navajas, Julián; Durán, Víctor; Cavero Campo, José

    2009-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) transpiration during daytime solid-set sprinkler irrigation was analyzed on two neighbouring subplots to determine the effect of the transpiration reduction on water application efficiency. During each irrigation event, one subplot was irrigated (moist treatment) while the other was not (dry treatment). Transpiration rates were determined at each subplot by the heat balance method (Dynamax Flow4 System) before, during and after the irrigations. During irri...

  12. Deposition of insecticides on corn silks applied at high and low spray rates for control of corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. ...

  13. Energy yield for the production of ethanol from corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, X.; Frangi, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the primary energy balance for making ethanol out of corn in the USA, calculated from the farm to the fuel station, following a methodology described in Chavanne and Frangi (C. R. Geoscience 339 (2007) 519-535). Raw data (direct energy and material consumption as well as their heat value and external costs) come from published papers related to this topic, technical textbooks, as well as reports from the US Departments of Agriculture and Energy. For the 2001 harvest, over the area producing more than 90% of ethanol and for the 2005 network of working refineries, 100 J of ethanol and recovery of by-products (the energy saved by the replacement of animal feed by these by-products is around 12% of the ethanol heat value) needed 86 ± 3 J of energy spending, of which more than 50 J is natural gas and 62 J is used in refineries. A third of the area of Nebraska corn must be irrigated with water pumped from underground, at an added cost of 26 ± 3 J. In 1996, the extra drying required, because of heavy rains, added 6 J. By comparison, 100 J of gasoline cost less than 25 J to be produced out of crude oil. Complementary studies of resource availability are not performed here. The largest possible reduction in energy costs can be achieved at the refinery stage, by fermenting by-products, gas residues, (from 62 J to around 12 J). The article gives also an expression for the expenditure to enable comparison between different energy systems, including everything from biomass to transport. For the ethanol case, the average cost is 130 J for 100 J of corn grain heat. (authors)

  14. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vertigo. If you have additional problems with motor control, such as weakness, slowness, tremor, or rigidity, you can lose your ability to recover properly from imbalance. This raises the risk of falling and injury. What are some types of balance disorders? There are more than a dozen different ...

  15. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  16. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  17. Application of a hybrid method for downscaling of the global climate model fields for evaluation of future surface mass balance of mountain glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Polina; Rybak, Oleg; Kaminskaia, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    Mountain glaciers in the Caucasus have been degrading during the last century. During this time period they lost approximately one-third in area and half of their volume. Prediction of their evolution in changing climate is crucial for the local economy because hydrological regime in the territory north to the Main Caucasus Chain is mainly driven by glacier run-off. For future projections of glaciers' surface mass balance (SMB) we apply a hybrid method of downscaling of GCM-generated meteorological fields from the global scale to the characteristic spatial resolution normally used for modeling of a single mountain glacier SMB. A method consists of two stages. On the first, dynamical stage, we use the results of calculations of regional climate model (RCM) HadRM3P for the Black Sea-Caspian region with a spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. Initial and boundary conditions for HadRM3P are provided by an AO GCM INMCM developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (Moscow, Russia). Calculations were carried out for two time slices: the present (reference) climate (1971-2000 years) and climate in the late 21st century (2071-2100 years) according to scenario of greenhouse gas emissions RCP 8.5. On the second stage of downscaling, further regionalization is achieved by projecting of RCM-generated data to the high-resolution (25 m) digital elevation models in a domain enclosing target glaciers (Marukh in the Western Caucasus and Djankuat in the Central Caucasus, both being typical valley glaciers). Elevation gradient of surface air temperature and precipitation were derived from the model data. Further, results were corrected using data of observations. The incoming shortwave radiation is calculated separately, taking into account slopes, aspects and shade effect. In the end of the current century expected air temperature growth in the Central and Western Caucasus is about 5-6 °C (summer), and 2-3 °C (winter). Reduction in annual precipitation is not

  18. Comparison of the forage and grain composition from insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant MON 88017 corn to conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Trujillo, William A; Riordan, Susan G; Sorbet, Roy; Bogdanova, Natalia N; Sidhu, Ravinder S

    2007-05-16

    The next generation of biotechnology-derived products with the combined benefit of herbicide tolerance and insect protection (MON 88017) was developed to withstand feeding damage caused by the coleopteran pest corn rootworm and over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicides. As a part of a larger safety and characterization assessment, MON 88017 was grown under field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States and Argentina during the 2002 and 2003-2004 field seasons, respectively, along with a near-isogenic control and other conventional corn hybrids for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replication blocks at each site. Corn forage samples were harvested at the late dough/early dent stage, ground, and analyzed for the concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, and minerals. Samples of mature grain were harvested, ground, and analyzed for the concentration of proximate constituents, fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, antinutrients, and secondary metabolites. The results showed that the forage and grain from MON 88017 are compositionally equivalent to forage and grain from control and conventional corn hybrids.

  19. Chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of corn pollen collected from Apis mellifera hives compared to floral corn pollen at Nan, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantarudee Atip

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee pollen is composed of floral pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretion that is collected by foraging honey (Apis sp. and stingless bees. It is rich in nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids, and has been ascribed antiproliferative, anti-allergenic, anti-angiogenic and free radical scavenging activities. This research aimed at a preliminary investigation of the chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity in A. mellifera bee pollen. Methods Bee pollen was directly collected from A. mellifera colonies in Nan province, Thailand, in June, 2010, whilst floral corn (Zea mays L. pollen was collected from the nearby corn fields. The pollen was then sequentially extracted with methanol, dichloromethane (DCM and hexane, and each crude extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay, evaluating the percentage scavenging activity and the effective concentration at 50% (EC50. The most active crude fraction from the bee pollen was then further enriched for bioactive components by silica gel 60 quick and adsorption or Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. The purity of all fractions in each step was observed by thin layer chromatography and the bioactivity assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemical structures of the most active fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The crude DCM extract of both the bee corn pollen and floral corn pollen provided the highest active free radical scavenging activity of the three solvent extracts, but it was significantly (over 28-fold higher in the bee corn pollen (EC50 = 7.42 ± 0.12 μg/ml, than the floral corn pollen (EC50 = 212 ± 13.6% μg/ml. After fractionation to homogeneity, the phenolic hydroquinone and the flavone 7-O-R-apigenin were found as the minor and major bioactive compounds, respectively. Bee corn pollen contained a reasonably diverse array of nutritional components, including

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... in a complex and ridig cell wall structure. This thesis contains a thorough examination of the monosaccharide and structural composition of corn bran, which is used to assess and apply the relevant mono component enzyme preparations. In this way, the aim is to obtain the most effective minimal enzymatic......, especially with respect to xylose and glucose release, but vast amounts of the valuable monosaccharides are lost during this pretreatment and this is especially evident for arabinose. From a scientific point of view acid catalysed pretreatment renders the substrate in a state of disruption where assessment...

  1. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  2. Increased Risk of Insect Injury to Corn Following Rye Cover Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; O'Neal, Matthew E; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-08-01

    Decreased pest pressure is sometimes associated with more diverse agroecosystems, including the addition of a rye cover crop (Secale cereale L.). However, not all pests respond similarly to greater vegetational diversity. Polyphagous pests, such as true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta Haworth), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel), and common stalk borer (Papaipema nebris Guenee), whose host range includes rye have the potential to cause injury to crops following a rye cover crop. The objectives of this study were to compare the abundance of early-season insect pests and injury to corn (Zea mays L.) from fields with and without a rye cover crop on commercial farms. Fields were sampled weekly to quantify adult and larval pests and feeding injury to corn plants from mid-April until corn reached V8 stage, during 2014 and 2015. Measurements within fields were collected along transects that extended perpendicularly from field edges into the interior of cornfields. Adult true armyworm and adult black cutworm were captured around all cornfields, but most lepidopteran larvae captured within cornfields were true armyworm and common stalk borer. Cornfields with a rye cover crop had significantly greater abundance of true armyworm and greater proportion of injured corn. Both true armyworm abundance and feeding injury were significantly greater in the interior of cornfields with rye. Common stalk borer abundance did not differ between cornfields with or without rye cover. Farmers planting corn following a rye cover crop should be aware of the potential for increased presence of true armyworm and for greater injury to corn. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. High-fructose corn syrup, energy intake, and appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James M

    2008-12-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been implicated in excess weight gain through mechanisms seen in some acute feeding studies and by virtue of its abundance in the food supply during years of increasing obesity. Compared with pure glucose, fructose is thought to be associated with insufficient secretion of insulin and leptin and suppression of ghrelin. However, when HFCS is compared with sucrose, the more commonly consumed sweetener, such differences are not apparent, and appetite and energy intake do not differ in the short-term. Longer-term studies on connections between HFCS, potential mechanisms, and body weight have not been conducted. The main objective of this review was to examine collective data on associations between consumption of HFCS and energy balance, with particular focus on energy intake and its regulation.

  4. Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM): Energy Balance and Thermal Status During a 10-Day Cold Weather U.S. Marine Corps Infantry Officer Course Field Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoyt, Reed

    2001-01-01

    Energy balance and thermal status was assessed in 14 male U.S. Marine Corps volunteers (age = 25 +/- 3 y MEAN +/- SD; ht = 178 +/- 5 Cm; wt = 81.0 +/- 4.1 kg; %body fat = 15 +/- 3; load = 42.6 +/- 3.2 kg...

  5. Exploring diversity of crop and soil management within smallholder African farms: A dynamic model for simulation of N balances and use efficiencies at field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Adding a dynamic, temporal dimension to the calculation of nitrogen balances is proposed as an alternative approach to assessing the impact of crop and soil management decisions on the establishment of farmer-induced soil fertility gradients within smallholder African farms. A simulation model that

  6. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy-covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauder, M.; Oncley, S.P.; Vogt, R.; Weidinger, T.; Ribeiro, L.; Bernhofer, C.; Foken, T.; Kohsiek, W.; Bruin, de H.A.R.; Liu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The eddy-covariance method is the primary way of measuring turbulent fluxes directly. Many investigators have found that these flux measurements often do not satisfy a fundamental criterion¿closure of the surface energy balance. This study investigates to what extent the eddy-covariance measurement

  7. Production Systems and Potential Development of Corn in West Pasaman Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulmar Jastra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second national food crop after rice and its role is increasing in line increase of population, livestock operations, and development of raw material corn processing industry. This research is a descriptive qualitative and quantitative as well as done in stages, namely: pre -study in order neighbor information gathering and general condition of farmers in the districts of West Pasaman, intensive desk study on the extent of data and the development of hybrid corn and all information obtained from pre -study activities; observation, field survey. This study aims to: identify systems of maize production in West Pasaman, identify potential areas of development and analysis of maize farming, Prepare Corn Development Action Programme in West Pasaman. Age maize farmers in West Pasaman between 40-60 years old, with old school for 9 years and the number of family members of farmers 5. The highest maize production in West Pasaman district occurred in 2009 amounted to 364 287 tonnes with 44 793 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.99 tonnes/ha, in 2010, a decline in production to 220 761 tonnes with a productivity of 6.3 tons /ha due to a decline in harvested area into 33 757 ha. And in 2011 the production of corn production back to normal by 286 078 tons / year with 44 360 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.50 tonnes/ha. Potential land that can be used to achieve the 142 850 ha of maize farming dominated peat and mineral soil of each area of 7,550 ha and 16,550 ha. Of corn farming can provide a gain of Rp 8,860,000,-/ha . When the period of 4 months of the corn crop corn farmer income per month is Rp 2.215.000,-

  8. Exploring economically and environmentally viable northeastern US dairy farm strategies for coping with rising corn grain prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, L T; Veith, T L; Cerosaletti, P E; Dewing, D E; Rotz, C A

    2009-08-01

    In 2008, corn grain prices rose $115/t of DM above the 2005 average. Such an increase creates tight marginal profits for small (profit losses by growing more corn silage and reducing corn grain purchases. This study applies the Integrated Farm Systems Model to 1 small and 1 medium-sized New York State dairy farm to predict 1) sediment and P loss impacts from expanding corn fields, 2) benefits of no-till or cover cropping on corn fields, and 3) alternatives to the economic challenge of the current farming system as the price ratio of milk to corn grain continues to decline. Based on the simulation results, expanding corn silage production by 3% of the cultivated farm area increased sediment and sediment-bound P losses by 41 and 18%, respectively. Implementing no-till controlled about 84% of the erosion and about 75% of the sediment-bound P that would have occurred from the conventionally tilled, expanded corn production scenario. Implementing a conventionally tilled cover crop with the conventionally tilled, expanded corn production scenario controlled both erosion and sediment-bound P, but to a lesser extent than no-till corn with no cover crop. However, annual farm net return using cover crops was slightly less than when using no-till. Increasing on-farm grass productivity while feeding cows a high-quality, high-forage diet and precise dietary P levels offered dual benefits: 1) improved farm profitability from reduced purchases of dietary protein and P supplements, and 2) decreased runoff P losses from reduced P-levels in applied manure. Moreover, alternatives such as growing additional small grains on marginal lands and increasing milk production levels demonstrated great potential in increasing farm profitability. Overall, it is crucial that conservation measures such as no-till and cover cropping be implemented on new or existing corn lands as these areas often pose the highest threat for P losses through runoff. Although alternatives that would likely provide

  9. Insecticidal Management and Movement of the Brown Stink Bug, Euschistus servus, in Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D.

    2011-01-01

    In eastern North Carolina, some brown stink bugs, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are suspected to pass the F1 generation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Poales: Poaceae) before moving into corn (Zea mays L.) (Poales: Poaceae). These pests can injure corn ears as they develop. To test their effectiveness as a management tactic, pyrethroids were aerially applied to field corn in two experiments, one with 0.77 ha plots and another with 85 ha plots. Euschistus servus population abundance was monitored over time in both experiments and yield was assessed in the larger of the two experiments. In the smaller experiment, the populations were spatially monitored in a 6.3 ha area of corn adjacent to a recently harvested wheat field (352 sampling points of 6.1 row-meters in all but the first sampling event). Overall E. servus abundance decreased throughout the monitoring period in the sampling area of the smaller experiment, but remained unchanged over time in the large-scale experiment. During all sampling periods in both experiments, abundance was the same between treatments. Yield was unaffected by treatment where it was measured in the larger experiment. In the smaller experiment, E. servus were initially aggregated at the field edge of the corn (two, six and 13 days following the wheat harvest). Sixteen days following the wheat harvest they were randomly distributed in the corn. Although it was not directly measured, stink bugs are suspected to move the cornfield edge as a result of the adjacent wheat harvest. More study of the biology of E. servus is needed, specifically in the area of host preference, phenology and movement to explain these phenomena and to produce better management strategies for these pests. PMID:22950984

  10. Glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium runoff from a corn-growing area in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Screpanti , Claudio; Accinelli , Cesare; Vicari , Alberto; Catizone , Pietro

    2005-01-01

    International audience; The main objective of this experiment was to estimate field-scale runoff losses of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium under natural rainfall conditions. Investigations were carried out at the Runoff Monitoring Station of the University of Bologna (Italy). Glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium were applied as pre-emergence herbicides on 350-m2 field plots characterized by a uniform slope of 15%. Field plots were cultivated with corn. The persistence and sorption isotherm...

  11. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama -- Year 2. Annual report, March 1997--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and has produced oil from fractured chalk of the Cretaceous Selma Group and glauconitic sandstone of the Eutaw Formation. Nearly all of Gilbertown Field is still in primary recovery, although waterflooding has been attempted locally. The objective of this project is to analyze the geologic structure and burial history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas in order to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. Indeed, the decline of oil production to marginally economic levels in recent years has made this type of analysis timely and practical. Key technical advancements being sought include understanding the relationship of requisite strain to production in Gilbertown reservoirs, incorporation of synsedimentary growth factors into models of area balance, quantification of the relationship between requisite strain and bed curvature, determination of the timing of hydrocarbon generation, and identification of the avenues and mechanisms of fluid transport.

  12. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  13. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY PASTA INCORPORATED WITH MICRONIZED CORN PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO RENATO DE JESUS JUNQUEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastas are generally accepted all over the world, mainly because they are versatile, cheap and easy - to - prepare. They are not nutritionally balanced, since they provide mainly carbohydrates. As a result of this, it is important to use ingredients which could improve the nutritional deficiencies, without affecting the technological and sensorial characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of using wheat semolina and micronized corn pericarp (MCP, on the proximate composition, cooking quality and color of spaghetti type pasta. Spaghetti pasta was produced using wheat semolina with the incorporation of micronized corn pericarp, at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the formulated samples with regards to the contents of moisture and lipid, cooking time, weight gain and volume increase. As observed, supplementation with micronized corn pericarp presented significant difference on the contents of proteins, minerals, dietary fiber and solid soluble loss of the spaghetti pasta (p < 0.05. With increase in micronized corn pericarp concentration, the color difference became accentuated. The use of MCP appears to be viable, providing a nutritionally enriched product without further impairment on pasta quality.

  14. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    time of the weighing and at the centre of gravity of the mass. The paper by Liard and his co-authors at NRC describes how they have made this essential measurement. The accuracy of the watt balance may also depend on the alignment of the apparatus. Two papers deal with this important issue. The first, by Sanchez and his co-authors at NRC, shows that their balance is insensitive to a range of alignments and concentrates on the essential alignments that contribute directly to the overall uncertainty of the apparatus. Thomas and his co-authors at LNE describe their technique for reducing uncertainties in their watt balance by aligning its coil in the field of the magnet to minimize both horizontal forces and torques about horizontal axes. The search for discrepancies between the results from watt balances has encouraged researchers to consider possible error mechanisms arising from the secondary electrical interactions between the coil of a watt balance and other parts of the apparatus. Researchers from INRIM have two such papers: one considering magnetic interactions and the other considering electrostatic interactions. It is essential that such investigations are carried out: both to prove that the problems are understood and for the guidance of those building the next generation of watt and joule balances. The next four papers describe aspects of the construction of watt balances. The BIPM watt balance group describe the principles behind their simultaneous measurement scheme for a watt balance. The balance that they are constructing can also be used in the conventional two-phase mode and their paper describes the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two modes of operation. In a watt balance there are some advantages to precise vertical movement of the coil. The METAS group describe the two mechanisms that they have tested to achieve such motion and give the reasons for the choice of mechanism for use in the balance that they are constructing. The KRISS watt

  15. MAPPING AND SCOUTING CORN PEST INFESTATIONS IN A PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT USING REMOTE SENSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imagery was acquired three times during the 2006 agricultural growing season (late July to mid-September) over 35 corn fields in east central Illinois. The imagery was processed with an emphasis on rapid image product development (turnabround time of less than 24 ho...

  16. Is a Nitrogen-rich Reference Needed for Canopy Sensor-based Corn Nitrogen Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of the soil available to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable both among and within fields. In recent years, canopy reflectance sensing has been investigated for in-season assessment of crop N health and fertilization. Typically, the proced...

  17. Improved Canopy Sensor-based Corn Nitrogen Recommendations Using Auxiliary Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of the soil available to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable both among and within fields. Thus, the amount of N fertilizer applied should be site-specific and also climate-sensitive. In recent years, canopy reflectance sensing has been in...

  18. Leaf transpiration efficiency in corn varieties grown at elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) without lower photosynthesis has been identified in some varieties of corn in field tests, and could be a useful trait to improve yield under dry conditions without sacrificing yield under favorable conditions. However, because the carbon dioxide concentrat...

  19. Leaf transpiration efficiency of sweet corn varieties from three eras of breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    When measured under midday field conditions, modern varieties of corn often have sub-stomatal concentrations of carbon dioxide in excess of those required to saturate photosynthesis. This results in lower leaf transpiration efficiency, the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration, than potentially ...

  20. An analysis of cropland mask choice and ancillary data for annual corn yield forecasting using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Campbell, James B.; Taff, Gregory N.; Zheng, Baojuan

    2015-06-01

    The Midwestern United States is one of the world's most important corn-producing regions. Monitoring and forecasting of corn yields in this intensive agricultural region are important activities to support food security, commodity markets, bioenergy industries, and formation of national policies. This study aims to develop forecasting models that have the capability to provide mid-season prediction of county-level corn yields for the entire Midwestern United States. We used multi-temporal MODIS NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) 16-day composite data as the primary input, with digital elevation model (DEM) and parameter-elevation relationships on independent slopes model (PRISM) climate data as additional inputs. The DEM and PRISM data, along with three types of cropland masks were tested and compared to evaluate their impacts on model predictive accuracy. Our results suggested that the use of general cropland masks (e.g., summer crop or cultivated crops) generated similar results compared with use of an annual corn-specific mask. Leave-one-year-out cross-validation resulted in an average R2 of 0.75 and RMSE value of 1.10 t/ha. Using a DEM as an additional model input slightly improved performance, while inclusion of PRISM climate data appeared not to be important for our regional corn-yield model. Furthermore, our model has potential for real-time/early prediction. Our corn yield esitmates are available as early as late July, which is an improvement upon previous corn-yield prediction models. In addition to annual corn yield forecasting, we examined model uncertainties through spatial and temporal analysis of the model's predictive error distribution. The magnitude of predictive error (by county) appears to be associated with the spatial patterns of corn fields in the study area.

  1. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  2. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, S.; Huang, B.; Bembenek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation sin...

  3. PATH-ANALYSIS ON SEVERAL CHARACTERS IN POTENTIAL OF CORN PRODUCTION AND RESISTANCE TO DOWNY MILDEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hary Pudjiwati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating both direct and indirect impacts, and heritability values of characters regarding the potential of corn production and resistance to downy mildew. The result of this investigation is required to determine some criteria taken into account for selection process of downy mildew-resistant corn breeding with high yield. The field experiment was conducted at Research Centre of Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University from January to April 2012. Five varieties of hybrid crown and five inbreeding lines were employed, and Randomised Block Design was applied with two replications. As observed, the characters held heritability ranging from average to high, except for heritability of length and width of stomata on the lower surface of the leaves which was categorised as low. Moreover, the stomata density found on lower surface of the leaves was directly and positively correlated to the intensity of attack by downy mildew, which, then, was used as criteria selection in downy mildew-resistance. The intensity of disease and the density of the stomata on lower surface of the leaves accounted for direct and negative correlation to corn production, while the length and diameter of corncob was responsible for direct and positive correlation to corn production. The betterment of corn production can be coped by improving the plant resistance to downy mildew and characters of corncob diameter.

  4. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  5. The Corn Smut ('Huitlacoche' as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Juárez-Montiel

    Full Text Available The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or 'huitlacoche'has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB, a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein. Mice orally immunized with 'huitlacoche'-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed.

  6. The Corn Smut (‘Huitlacoche’) as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Korban, Schuyler S.; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or ‘huitlacoche’has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB), a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein). Mice orally immunized with ‘huitlacoche’-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed. PMID:26207365

  7. Maintaining Balance when Looking at a Virtual Reality Three-Dimensional Display of a Field of Moving Dots or at a Virtual Reality Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; MacDougall, Hamish G; Rogers, Stephen J; Burgess, Ann M; Curthoys, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    To provide a safe, simple, relatively inexpensive, fast, accurate way of quantifying balance performance either in isolation, or in the face of challenges provided by 3D high definition moving visual stimuli as well as by the proprioceptive challenge from standing on a foam pad. This method uses the new technology of the Wii balance board to measure postural stability during powerful, realistic visual challenges from immersive virtual reality. Present computerized methods for measuring postural stability are large, complex, slow, and expensive, and do not allow for testing the response to realistic visual challenges. Subjects stand on a 6 cm thick, firm, foam pad on a Wii balance board. They wear a fast, high resolution, low persistence, virtual reality head set (Oculus Rift DK2). This allows displays of varying speed, direction, depth, and complexity to be delivered. The subject experiences a visual illusion of real objects fixed relative to the world, and any of these displays can be perturbed in an unpredictable fashion. A special app (BalanceRite) used the same procedures for analyzing postural analysis as used by the Equitest. Four simple "proof of concept" experiments demonstrate that this technique matches the gold standard Equitest in terms of the measurement of postural stability but goes beyond the Equitest by measuring stability in the face of visual challenges, which are so powerful that even healthy subjects fall. The response to these challenges presents an opportunity for predicting falls and for rehabilitation of seniors and patients with poor postural stability. This new method provides a simpler, quicker, cheaper method of measurement than the Equitest. It may provide a new mode of training to prevent falls, by maintaining postural stability in the face of visual and proprioceptive challenges similar to those encountered in life.

  8. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelen Kurt D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS and matured whole corn plants (WCP as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan. Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading CS hydrolyzate (resulting

  9. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  10. 基于LabVIEW的现场动平衡测试系统的开发%Development of field dynamic balance testing system based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粱召华; 李智

    2014-01-01

    In order to adapt to the needs of the rotor field dynamic balance and improve the testing accuracy,the field dy-namic balance testing system based on virtual instrument technology was developed,which uses correlation method to extract the amplitude and phase of the vibration signal accurately , and adopts single-side dynamic balance and double-side dynamic balance method based on influence coefficient method to do the dynamic balance experiment. Many rotor dynamic balance experi-ments on the multi-function rotor testing bench show that the unbalance vibration has been effectively suppressed and the vibra-tion amplitude has been reduced obviously after adding appropriate testing weight on the rotor. This has important significance for reducing machine noise and the bearing wear,and improving the performance and life of the machine. It is also helpful to im-prove the machine's work efficiency and to ensure the safety of machining operators.%为了适应转子现场动平衡的需要,提高测试精度,开发了基于虚拟仪器技术的现场动平衡测试系统,它利用相关法准确提取出振动信号的幅值和相位,采用基于影响系数法的单面动平衡和双面动平衡的方法进行动平衡实验。通过在多功能转子试验台上做了多次转子动平衡试验,实验结果表明:转子在加适当的试重后不平衡振动得到了有效的抑制,振动幅度明显减小。这对于减小机器噪声和轴承磨损,提高机器的性能和寿命有着重要意义,同时也有助于提高机器的工作效率和保障机械加工操作者的安全。

  11. Water stress and nitrogen limitation effects on corn (Zea mays L.) competition with a C3 and a C4 weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, E; Soufizadeh, S; Eskandari, A

    2006-01-01

    To examine how drought and nitrogen limitation might affect crop competitive ability with C3 or C4 weeds, a two year experiment was conducted at the research field of Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute, Karaj, in 2002 and 2003. Irrigation interval (every 7d and 14d (moderate drought stress)), nitrogen rate (recommended and 1/4 recommended), and crop-weed competition (corn, corn-common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), corn-redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and corn-common lambsquarters-redroot pigweed) were studied in a split-factorial design with 4 replications, with irrigation interval as the main plot, and factorial combination of the other two factors as the sub-plot. Grain yield, harvest index (HI), water and nitrogen use efficiencies (WUE and NUE, respectively) were measured at harvest. Drought and nitrogen deficiency reduced corn grain yield and HI (except for corn-redroot pigweed and corn-common lambsquarters treatments under drought stress). Redroot pigweed was found inhibitorier to corn compared to common lambsquarters in all irrigation and nitrogen levels. Corn WUE reduced under drought condition and competition, but drought caused less reduction in corn WUE when it competed with common lambsquarters compared to redroot pigweed. This shows that drought has more negative effect on C3 weeds (probably due to higher reduction in stomatal conductance and increment in photo-respiration under these conditions compared to a C4 plant). The same result was obtained for corn NUE under nitrogen limitation and competition. In other words, nitrogen deficiency had more inhibitory effect on common lambsquarters competitive ability compared with redroot pigweed. Totally, it was concluded that drought stress and nitrogen deficiency, as the two results of climate change, had more negative effect on C3 weeds compared with C4.

  12. ELASTICITY OF CORN PRICE TRANSMISION AND ITS IMPLICATION TO FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Corn has important roles to Indonesian economy both for staple foods and for price transmission to other products. The high domestic demand for corn compared to its domestic production has made corn imports continue to grow. This research is aimed to know the elasticity of price transmission and its implication to corn’s farmers. The results of analysis show that corn price transmission is inelastic. The coefficient shows that corn market is oligopsony under the imperfect competition market. To help the corn farmers, the government has to provide fertilizer subsidy and farm credit with low interest rates, as well as impose import tariff on corn. Keywords: Corn, Elasticity of price transmission, oligopsony, imperfect competition marketJEL classification numbers: Q00, Q12, Q18

  13. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress induced by ... The present study aims at exploring the effects of flavonoids from corn silk (FCS) on oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise in mice. ... from 32 Countries:.

  14. Is the lack of water the reason for declining corn yield in Eastern Colorado since 1990?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    According to the World Agriculture Report published in 2012, a growth in cereal yield of 1.6% per year is necessary to cover the predicted global demand by 2050. Because corn is heavily subsidized in the United States, it is being planted in large quantities in the Midwest. Its need for large amounts of water means that it is unsuited for this dry region. Since the early 1950s the average yield per acre has increased linearly at 1.5% per year due to improvements in the seed production and protection until the early 1990s. Since 1993 however, there has still been an increase albeit at a much lower 0.3%. For this study the corn yield data made available by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for the regions of the South and North Platte River, as well as the Upper Mississippi are divided into two sets: those for irrigated areas and those for non-irrigated areas. We compare the annual yield trend since 2003 to local precipitation and the variation in water aquifer levels measured using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity data to analyze the importance of water. Our results indicate that, up until 1990, both areas show an annual growth, whereby the growth of non-irrigated corn yield is half that of irrigated corn. After 1993 the non-irrigated corn shows a negative annual yield trend, whereas the irrigated corn yield still increases. Furthermore the non-irrigated corn yield is highly correlated to the negative trend of the GRACE mass measurements for the region. We therefore conclude, that water is the most important variable for the successful harvest of corn and irrigation is therefore essential for dry regions. As the aquifer water level is clearly declining in the region as indicated by GRACE as well as field well measurements, yield for irrigated corn will be affected once the water drops below a certain level. Serious consideration should therefore be given to planting a different, more suitable crop in those

  15. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  16. Comparação entre testes de equilíbrio de campo e plataforma de força Comparison between field balance tests and force platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alyne Czajka Sabchuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários testes de equilíbrio têm sido utilizados para identificar o controle postural e o risco de quedas em idosos. Entretanto, não se sabe quais testes refletem mais efetivamente a capacidade em manter o equilíbrio. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar um conjunto de testes de campo de equilíbrio (TC com os testes de posturografia em plataforma de força (PF e verificar se esses testes são capazes de discriminar diferenças no equilíbrio entre jovens e idosos. Participaram do estudo 21 jovens (21,7 ± 2,0 anos e 18 idosos (69,3 ± 7,0 anos de ambos os gêneros. Os TC foram: escala de equilíbrio de Berg (BBS, escala de equilíbrio orientado pelo desempenho, (POMA, alcance funcional (AF e levantar e caminhar cronometrado (TUGT. As variáveis analisadas na PF foram: amplitude de deslocamento nas direções anteroposterior (AMP-AP e médio-lateral (AMP-ML e trajetória do centro de pressão (TRAJ-CP. Os sujeitos foram avaliados em cinco condições durante 60s cada. Uma ANOVA one-way foi aplicada para determinar diferenças nos testes de equilíbrio entre grupos (jovens x idosos. Além disso, o teste de correlação de Spearman foi aplicado para identificar a associação entre os TC e PF. Os TC foram capazes de diferenciar jovens de idosos (p Several balance tests have been used to identify postural control and the risk of falls in the elderly. However, it is not known which tests better reflect effectively the ability to maintain balance. The objective of this study was to compare a number of field tests (FT designed to determine balance with stabilometric tests using force platforms (FP to determine whether these tests are able to discriminate differences in balance between young and older adults. Twenty-one young (21.7±2.0 years and 18 older adults (69.3±7.0 years of both genders volunteered to participate in the study. The field tests were: Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA, Functional Reach (FR

  17. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than 1.2...

  18. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  19. Quantitative analysis of allantoin in Iranian corn silk

    OpenAIRE

    E. Khanpour*; M. Modarresi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Zea mays is cultivated in different parts of Iran and corn silk is used in traditional medicine. Allantoin is one of the major compounds in corn silk. The purpose of this research was the quantitatve analysis of allantoin in corn silks belonging to several regions of Iran. Methods: The samples of corn silk were prepared from three provinces of Iran (Kermanshah, Fars and Razavi Khorasan). The dried plant materials were infused in boiling distilled water with a temper...

  20. Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon & Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly Law; David Turner; Warren Cohen; Mathias Goeckede

    2008-05-22

    The goal is to quantify and explain the carbon (C) budget for Oregon and N. California. The research compares "bottom -up" and "top-down" methods, and develops prototype analytical systems for regional analysis of the carbon balance that are potentially applicable to other continental regions, and that can be used to explore climate, disturbance and land-use effects on the carbon cycle. Objectives are: 1) Improve, test and apply a bottom up approach that synthesizes a spatially nested hierarchy of observations (multispectral remote sensing, inventories, flux and extensive sites), and the Biome-BGC model to quantify the C balance across the region; 2) Improve, test and apply a top down approach for regional and global C flux modeling that uses a model-data fusion scheme (MODIS products, AmeriFlux, atmospheric CO2 concentration network), and a boundary layer model to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP) across the region and partition it among GPP, R(a) and R(h). 3) Provide critical understanding of the controls on regional C balance (how NEP and carbon stocks are influenced by disturbance from fire and management, land use, and interannual climate variation). The key science questions are, "What are the magnitudes and distributions of C sources and sinks on seasonal to decadal time scales, and what processes are controlling their dynamics? What are regional spatial and temporal variations of C sources and sinks? What are the errors and uncertainties in the data products and results (i.e., in situ observations, remote sensing, models)?

  1. The Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt of Eastern Sardinia: Evidences from the integration of field data with numerically balanced geological cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arragoni, S.; Maggi, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2016-06-01

    Newly collected structural data in Eastern Sardinia (Italy) integrated with numerical techniques led to the reconstruction of a 2-D admissible and balanced model revealing the presence of a widespread Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt. The model was achieved with the FORC software, obtaining a 3-D (2-D + time) numerical reconstruction of the continuous evolution of the structure through time. The Mesozoic carbonate units of Eastern Sardinia and their basement present a fold-and-thrust tectonic setting, with a westward direction of tectonic transport (referred to the present-day coordinates). The tectonic style of the upper levels is thin skinned, with flat sectors prevailing over ramps and younger-on-older thrusts. Three regional tectonic units are present, bounded by two regional thrusts. Strike-slip faults overprint the fold-and-thrust belt and developed during the Sardinia-Corsica Block rotation along the strike of the preexisting fault ramps, not affecting the numerical section balancing. This fold-and-thrust belt represents the southward prosecution of the Alpine Corsica collisional chain and the missing link between the Alpine Chain and the Calabria-Peloritani Block. Relative ages relate its evolution to the meso-Alpine event (Eocene-Oligocene times), prior to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tortonian). Results fill a gap of information about the geodynamic evolution of the European margin in Central Mediterranean, between Corsica and the Calabria-Peloritani Block, and imply the presence of remnants of this double-verging belt, missing in the Southern Tyrrhenian basin, within the Southern Apennine chain. The used methodology proved effective for constraining balanced cross sections also for areas lacking exposures of the large-scale structures, as the case of Eastern Sardinia.

  2. Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Jair Sebastião S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

  3. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  4. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70 percent...

  5. Corn Clubs: Building the Foundation for Agricultural and Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uricchio, Cassandra; Moore, Gary; Coley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Corn clubs played an important role in improving agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Corn clubs were local organizations consisting of boys who cultivated corn on one acre of land under the supervision of a local club leader. The purpose of this historical research study was to document the organization, operation, and outcomes of corn…

  6. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  7. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  8. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of spiced soy-corn milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy-corn milk type was produced from a blend of soybean milk and corn milk extract at a ratio of 3:1. The soy-corn milk type was spiced with ginger and garlic extract respectively to improve the taste. Total dissolved solid (TDS), total titrable acidity (TTA) specific gravity (SG), apparent colloidal stability, pH and sensory ...

  9. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  10. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  11. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols...

  12. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Hand weeding by hoe was done once when the corn was app. 20 cm in height. Plots were harvested at the doughy stage of corn, cutting mid-rows of plots in order to avoid border effects, by removing at 4-5 cm height on 9 Sept.,. 2004 and 12 Sept., 2005, respectively. Corn was harvested from the middle 5.

  13. Winter rye cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops have been grown successfully in Iowa, but sometimes a cereal rye cover crop preceding corn can reduce corn yields. Our research examines the effect of a rye cover crop on infections of the succeeding corn crop by soil fungal pathogens. Plant measurements included: growth stage, height, r...

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Thermal Pretreatment, Steam Explosion and Ultrasonic Disintegration on Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Dallos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand of the corn-based bioethanol production could be reduced using the agricultural byproducts as bioenergy feedstock for biogas digesters. The release of lignocellulosic material and therefore the acceleration of degradation processes can be achieved using thermal and mechanical pretreatments, which assist to hydrolyze the cell walls and speed the solubilization of biopolymers in biogas feedstock. This study is focused on liquid hot water, steam explosion and ultrasonic pretreatments of corn stover. The scientific contribution of this paper is a comprehensive comparison of the performance of the pretreatments by fast analytical, biochemical, anaerobic digestibility and biomethane potential tests, extended by energy consumptions and energy balance calculations.The effectiveness of pretreatments was evaluated by means of soluble chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and by the biogas and methane productivities. The results have shown that the thermal pretreatment, steam explosion and ultrasonic irradiation of biogas feedstock disintegrated the lignocellulosic structure, increased and accelerated the methane production and increased the cumulative biogas and methane productivity of corn stover in reference to the control during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.The energy balance demonstrated that there is an economical basis of the application of the liquid hot-compressed water pretreatments in a biogas plant. However, the steam explosion and ultrasonication are energetically not profitable for corn stover pretreatment.

  15. Implications of Using Corn Stalks as a Biofuel Source: A Joint ARS and DOE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, W. W.; Cushman, J.

    2003-12-01

    Corn stover is a readily source of biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and may provide additional income for growers. Published research shows that residue removal changes the rate of soil physical, chemical, and biological processes, and in turn, crop growth. Building a sustainable cellulosic ethanol industry based on corn residue requires residue management practices that do not reduce long-term productivity. To develop such systems, impacts of stover removal on the soil and subsequent crops must be quantified. The ARS/DOE Biofuel Project is the cooperative endeavor among scientists from six western Corn Belt US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) locations and US Dept. of Energy. The objectives of the project are to determine the influence of stover removal on crop productivity, soil aggregation, quality, carbon content, and seasonal energy balance, and carbon sequestration. When residue is removed soil temperatures fluctuate more and soil water evaporation is greater. Residue removal reduces the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC), but the degree of reduction is highly dependent on degree of tillage, quantity of stover removed, and frequency of stover removal. Of the three cultural factors (stover removal, tillage, and N fertilization) tillage had the greatest effect on amount of corn-derived SOC. No tillage tends to increase the fraction of aggregates in the 2.00 to 0.25 mm size range at all removal rates. Stover harvest reduces corn-derived SOC by 35% compared to retaining stover on the soil averaged over all tillage systems. Corn stover yield has not differed across stover removal treatments in these studies. In the irrigated study, grain yield increased with stover removal. In the rain-fed studies, grain yield has not differed among residue management treatments. Incorporating the biomass ethanol fermentation by-product into a soil with low SOC showed a positive relationship between the amount of lignin added and the subsequent

  16. [Sowing date of corn in semiarid region of Jilin Province, Northeast China in adapting to climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying-Hua; Zhou, Dao-Wei; Qin, Li-Jie

    2012-10-01

    Under the background of global climate change, the climate in semiarid region of west Jilin Province changed greatly, producing a profound impact on the corn production in this region. In this study, the corn seeds were under three treatments (accelerating germination at 10 and 25 degrees C, and dry seeds), and a field experiment with early sowing and traditional sowing was conducted in 2008 to investigate the effects of early sowing these seeds on the seedling emergence, growth, and yield, and compare the effects of early sowing and traditional sowing dates on the corn production and yield. In 1961-2010, the first day of the growth season of corn in semiarid region of west Jilin Province was advanced, the air temperature increased significantly, and the precipitation displayed a decreasing trend. At present, the corn sowing date in this region could be advanced to 11th, April. Accelerating germination at 10 degrees C, directly sowing dry seeds, and bed-irrigation sowing all benefited the seedling emergence and cold resistance of early-sown seeds, and the corn plant height and leaf area under early sowing were significantly higher, with the yield increased by 35% - 48%, compared with those under traditional sowing.

  17. MULTIFUNCTION MICROBIAL FERTILIZER AS A SUBSTITUTE INORGANIC FERTILIZER ON SOYBEAN-CORN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Rudianto W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine ability of Microbial Fertilizer Multipurpose (PMMG as substitution use of inorganic fertilizers, corn cropping system intercropped with soybeans in order to procure seeds of soybean varieties Mulyo Willis. Research conducted at experimental field of Faculty of Agriculture in village Karangwangkal, Purwokerto, from March to September 2015. This study is a field, which was compiled using split plot design 2 x 3. Data obtained were analyzed using F test If test results showed no significant differences between treatment then continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at the level of accuracy of 95 percent. Results showed: PMMG applications provide better growth of soybean and corn, on soybean growth 29.4 percent and yield 20.8 percent equivalent to 3.36 ku seeds per ha, while in corn promote growth 37.1 percent and yield 16.2 percent equivalent to 1.4 tons seed per ha. While ½ dose treatment with addition NPK recommendations PMMG not reduce growth and yield of corn and soybeans. PMMG application can substitute ½ dose NPK fertilizer recommendations, with land equivalent ratio 1.61. LER is no different from fertilization treatment according to recommendations, which 1.78.

  18. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Huffaker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs, and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also

  19. Spatial patterns of aflatoxin levels in relation to ear-feeding insect damage in pre-harvest corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Buntin, G David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Lee, R Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E; Scully, Brian T; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-07-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed.

  20. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P.; Buntin, G. David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D.; Lee, R. Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E.; Scully, Brian T.; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed. PMID

  1. Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from monoculture and rotational cropping of corn, soybean and winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.F.; Yang, X.M.; Reynolds, W.D.; McLaughlin, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from agricultural soils are influenced by different types of crops, the amounts and types of nitrogen fertilizers used, and the soil and climatic conditions under which the crops are grown. Crop rotation also has an impact on N 2 O emissions, as the crop residues used to supply soluble carbon to soil biota often differ from the crops being grown. This study compared the influence of crops and residues from preceding crops on N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from monoculture crops of soybeans, corn, and winter wheat at a site in Ontario. The phases of different rotations were compared with 2- and 3-year crop rotations. Results of the study showed that N 2 O emissions were approximately 3.1 to 5.1 times higher in monoculture corn than levels observed in winter wheat or soybean crops. When corn followed corn, average N 2 O emissions twice as high as when corn followed soybeans, and 65 per cent higher than when corn followed winter wheat. The higher levels of both N 2 O and CO 2 were attributed to higher inorganic nitrogen (N) application rates in corn crops. In the corn phase, CO 2 levels were higher when the preceding crop was winter wheat. It was concluded that N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from agricultural fields are influenced by both current and preceding crops, a fact which should be considered and accounted for in estimates and forecasts of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  2. Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from monoculture and rotational cropping of corn, soybean and winter wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, C.F.; Yang, X.M.; Reynolds, W.D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Harrow, ON (Canada); McLaughlin, N.B. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre

    2008-04-15

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from agricultural soils are influenced by different types of crops, the amounts and types of nitrogen fertilizers used, and the soil and climatic conditions under which the crops are grown. Crop rotation also has an impact on N{sub 2}O emissions, as the crop residues used to supply soluble carbon to soil biota often differ from the crops being grown. This study compared the influence of crops and residues from preceding crops on N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} emissions from monoculture crops of soybeans, corn, and winter wheat at a site in Ontario. The phases of different rotations were compared with 2- and 3-year crop rotations. Results of the study showed that N{sub 2}O emissions were approximately 3.1 to 5.1 times higher in monoculture corn than levels observed in winter wheat or soybean crops. When corn followed corn, average N{sub 2}O emissions twice as high as when corn followed soybeans, and 65 per cent higher than when corn followed winter wheat. The higher levels of both N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} were attributed to higher inorganic nitrogen (N) application rates in corn crops. In the corn phase, CO{sub 2} levels were higher when the preceding crop was winter wheat. It was concluded that N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural fields are influenced by both current and preceding crops, a fact which should be considered and accounted for in estimates and forecasts of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Henry Agard Wallace, the Iowa Corn Yield Tests, and the Adoption of Hybrid Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Richard C. Sutch

    2008-01-01

    This research report makes the following claims: 1] There was not an unambiguous economic advantage of hybrid corn over the open-pollinated varieties in 1936. 2] The early adoption of hybrid corn before 1937 can be better explained by a sustained propaganda campaign conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture at the direction of the Secretary of Agriculture, Henry Agard Wallace. The Department's campaign echoed that of the commercial seed companies. The most prominent hybrid seed company,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) 1 Functional use Baked... chapter 10 Do. Soft candy, § 170.3(n)(38) of this chapter 20 Do. All other food categories 4 Do. 1 Parts... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section...

  5. Ingestive Behavior and Nitrogen Balance of Confined Santa Ines Lambs Fed Diets Containing Soybean Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Patrícia Viana Bastos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of substituting corn with soybean hulls on the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance of Santa Ines lambs. A total of 25 lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg at approximately six months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 m×1.0 m, considering an entirely casual experimental delineation. Soybean hulls were substituted for corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter (DM. The time spent feeding, ruminating, masticating, and resting was not affected by the substitution of corn with soybean hulls. In fact, the feeding efficiency in g DM/h and the rumination efficiency in g DM/bolus increased linearly with soybean hull substitution in the feed. Although the nitrogen balance was not altered by the use of soybean hulls as a substitute for corn in the diets of Santa Ines lambs, the N ingested and N digested expressed in g/d, N retained as a percentage of that ingested, and N retained as a percentage of that digested displayed quadratic behavior. In conclusion, corn can be substituted with soybean hulls up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the concentrate, without changing the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance.

  6. Ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance of confined santa ines lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Milena Patrícia Viana; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Filho, Antônio Eustáquio; Dos Santos, Edileusa de Jesus; Chagas, Daiane Maria Trindade; Barroso, Daniele Soares; Filho, George Abreu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of substituting corn with soybean hulls on the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance of Santa Ines lambs. A total of 25 lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg at approximately six months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 m×1.0 m), considering an entirely casual experimental delineation. Soybean hulls were substituted for corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter (DM). The time spent feeding, ruminating, masticating, and resting was not affected by the substitution of corn with soybean hulls. In fact, the feeding efficiency in g DM/h and the rumination efficiency in g DM/bolus increased linearly with soybean hull substitution in the feed. Although the nitrogen balance was not altered by the use of soybean hulls as a substitute for corn in the diets of Santa Ines lambs, the N ingested and N digested expressed in g/d, N retained as a percentage of that ingested, and N retained as a percentage of that digested displayed quadratic behavior. In conclusion, corn can be substituted with soybean hulls up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the concentrate, without changing the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance.

  7. Low-field MR imaging of the spine. A comparative study of a traditional and a new, completely balanced gradient-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drejer, J.; Thomsen, H.S.; Tanttu, J.

    1995-01-01

    49 patients underwent 53 examinations with both a traditional T1-weighted gradient-echo (PS) sequence and a new completely balanced steady-state 3-D (CBASS3D) sequence; 20 examinations included the cervical spine, 8 the thoracic spine and 25 the lumbar spine. All 106 examinations were reviewed twice regarding visibility of selected structures in the spinal region and diagnostic usefulness. The CBASS3D sequence delineated the medulla, nerve roots, CSF, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament significantly better than the PS sequence. Disc hernia was also better visualised (p<0.01). There were significantly more artefacts on images obtained with the CBASS3D sequence, but they were usually outside the region of interest and occurred less frequently over time due to increased experience of the staff. Both reviewers found the diagnostic usefulness of CBASS3D to be superior compared to that of PS and excellent for diagnostic purposes. (orig./MG)

  8. Low-field MR imaging of the spine. A comparative study of a traditional and a new, completely balanced gradient-echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drejer, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark); Thomsen, H.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark); Tanttu, J. [Picker Nordstar, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    49 patients underwent 53 examinations with both a traditional T1-weighted gradient-echo (PS) sequence and a new completely balanced steady-state 3-D (CBASS3D) sequence; 20 examinations included the cervical spine, 8 the thoracic spine and 25 the lumbar spine. All 106 examinations were reviewed twice regarding visibility of selected structures in the spinal region and diagnostic usefulness. The CBASS3D sequence delineated the medulla, nerve roots, CSF, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament significantly better than the PS sequence. Disc hernia was also better visualised (p<0.01). There were significantly more artefacts on images obtained with the CBASS3D sequence, but they were usually outside the region of interest and occurred less frequently over time due to increased experience of the staff. Both reviewers found the diagnostic usefulness of CBASS3D to be superior compared to that of PS and excellent for diagnostic purposes. (orig./MG).

  9. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    sufficient to represent the viscoelastic behavior of the corn cob. The effect of moisture content and rates of loading on the mechanical model determined were investigated. 1. ..... F = applied force or residual force σ. = contact stress .... J. Agric. Engineering. Res. 7(4):. 300-315. Journal of the British Society for. Research in ...

  10. Analysis of heavy metals in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, B.; Dirdal, B.; Paus, P.E.

    1979-03-01

    Methods for the analysis of metals in Norwegian corn types have been tested. The main emphasis is on atomic absorption spectroscopy, with both wet and dry ashing, but the results are compared with emission spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis. In the latter only instrumental analysis has been carried out, restricting the number of metals which could be analysed. (JIW)

  11. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  12. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  13. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweet corn packed with a suitable liquid packing medium which may include water and the creamy component... as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (ii) The words “vacuum pack” or “vacuum packed... found, less the weight of the sieve, as the drained weight. Dry and weigh the empty container and...

  14. Water balance of field-excavated aestivating Australian desert frogs, the cocoon-forming Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning Notaden nichollsi (Amphibia: Myobatrachidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; McMaster, Kellie A; Thompson, Graham G; Bradshaw, S Don

    2006-09-01

    Burrowed aestivating frogs of the cocoon-forming species Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning species Notaden nichollsi were excavated in the Gibson Desert of central Australia. Their hydration state (osmotic pressure of the plasma and urine) was compared to the moisture content and water potential of the surrounding soil. The non-cocooning N. nichollsi was consistently found in sand dunes. While this sand had favourable water potential properties for buried frogs, the considerable spatial and temporal variation in sand moisture meant that frogs were not always in positive water balance with respect to the surrounding soil. The cocoon-forming N. aquilonius was excavated from two distinct habitat types, a claypan in which frogs had a well-formed cocoon and a dune swale where frogs did not have a cocoon. Cocoons of excavated frogs ranged in thickness from 19.4 microm to 55.61 microm and consisted of 81-229 layers. Cocooned claypan N. aquilonius were nearing exhaustion of their bladder water reserves and had a urine osmolality approaching that of the plasma. By contrast, non-cocooned N. aquilonius from the dune swale were fully hydrated, although soil moisture levels were not as high as calculated to be necessary to maintain water balance. Both species had similar plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentrations ranging from 9.4 to 164 pg ml(-1), except for one cocooned N. aquilonius with a higher concentration of 394 pg ml(-1). For both species, AVT showed no relationship with plasma osmolality over the lower range of plasma osmolalities but was appreciably increased at the highest osmolality recorded. This study provides the first evidence that cocoon formation following burrowing is not obligatory in species that are capable of doing so, but that cocoon formation occurs when soil water conditions are more desiccating than for non-cocooned frogs.

  15. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites

  16. Inducing salt tolerance in sweet corn by magnetic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seed germination and growth of sweet corn under NaCl stress (0, 50, and 100 mM, after exposing the seeds to weak (15 mT or strong (150 mT magnetic fields (MF for different durations (0, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Salinity reduced seed germination and plant growth. MF treatments enhanced rate and percentage of germination and improved plant growth, regardless of salinity. Higher germination rate was obtained by the stronger MF, however, the seedling were more vigorous after priming with 15 mT MF. Proline accumulation was observed in parallel with the loss of plant water content under 100 mM NaCl stress. MF prevented proline accumulation by improving water absorption. Positive correlation between H2O2 accumulation and membrane thermostability (MTI was found after MF treatments, which revealed that MF primed the plant for salinity by H2O2 signaling. However, over-accumulation of H2O2 after prolonged MF exposure adversely affected MTI under severe salt stress. In conclusion, magnetic priming for 6 hours was suggested for enhancing germination and growth of sweet corn under salt stress.

  17. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  18. Nitrogen fertilization (15NH4NO3 of palisadegrass and residual effect on subsequent no-tillage corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Borghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is required in large amounts by plants and their dinamics in corn and perennial forages intercropped is little known. This study analyzed the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization (15NH4NO3 applied after corn grain harvest to palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in intercrops sown at two times, as well as the N residual effect on the subsequent corn crop. The field experiment was performed in Botucatu, São Paulo State, in southeastern Brazil, on a structured Alfisol under no-tillage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in a split plot scheme with four replications. The main plots consisted of two intercropping systems (corn and palisadegrass sown together and palisadegrass sown later, at corn top-dressing fertilization. The subplots consisted of four N rates (0, 30, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N. The subplots contained microplots, in which enriched ammonium nitrate (15NH4NO3 was applied at the same rates. The time of intercrop sowing affected forage dry matter production, the amount of fertilizer-derived N in and the N use efficiency by the forage plants. Nitrogen applied in autumn to palisadegrass intercropped with corn, planted either at corn sowing or at N top-dressing fertilization, increased the forage yield up to a rate of 60 kg ha-1. The amount of fertilizer-derived N by the forage plants and the fertilizer use efficiency by palisadegrass were highest 160 days after fertilization for both intercrop sowing times, regardless of N rates. Residual N did not affect the N nutrition of corn plants grown in succession to palisadegrass, but increased grain yield at rates of 60 and 120 kg ha-1 N, when corn was grown on palisadegrass straw from the intercrop installed at corn fertilization (top-dressing. Our results indicated that the earlier intercropping allowed higher forage dry matter production. On the other hand, the later intercrop allowed a higher corn grain yield in succession to N-fertilized palisadegrass.

  19. Integrating livestock manure with a corn-soybean bioenergy cropping system improves short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, K.D.; Fronning, B.E.; Kravchenko, A.; Min, D.H.; Robertson, G.P. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Carbon cycling and the global warming potential (GWP) of bioenergy cropping systems with complete biomass removal are of agronomic and environmental concern. Corn growers who plan to remove corn stover as a feedstock for the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry will benefit from carbon amendments such as manure and compost, to replace carbon removed with the corn stover. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of beef cattle feedlot manure and composted dairy manure on short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential (GWP) in a corn-soybean rotation with complete corn-stover removal. Field experiments consisting of a corn-soybean rotation with whole-plant corn harvest, were conducted near East Lansing, MI over a three-year period beginning in 2002. Compost and manure amendments raised soil carbon (C) at a level sufficient to overcome the C debt associated with manure production, manure collection and storage, land application, and post-application field emissions. The net GWP in carbon dioxide equivalents for the manure and compost amended cropping systems was -934 and -784 g m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively, compared to 52 g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} for the non-manure amended synthetic fertilizer check. This work further substantiates the environmental benefits associated with renewable fuels and demonstrates that with proper management, the integration of livestock manures in biofuel cropping systems can enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation. (author)

  20. Integrating livestock manure with a corn-soybean bioenergy cropping system improves short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelen, K.D.; Fronning, B.E.; Kravchenko, A.; Min, D.H.; Robertson, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon cycling and the global warming potential (GWP) of bioenergy cropping systems with complete biomass removal are of agronomic and environmental concern. Corn growers who plan to remove corn stover as a feedstock for the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry will benefit from carbon amendments such as manure and compost, to replace carbon removed with the corn stover. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of beef cattle feedlot manure and composted dairy manure on short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential (GWP) in a corn-soybean rotation with complete corn-stover removal. Field experiments consisting of a corn-soybean rotation with whole-plant corn harvest, were conducted near East Lansing, MI over a three-year period beginning in 2002. Compost and manure amendments raised soil carbon (C) at a level sufficient to overcome the C debt associated with manure production, manure collection and storage, land application, and post-application field emissions. The net GWP in carbon dioxide equivalents for the manure and compost amended cropping systems was -934 and -784 g m -2 y -1 , respectively, compared to 52 g m -2 y -1 for the non-manure amended synthetic fertilizer check. This work further substantiates the environmental benefits associated with renewable fuels and demonstrates that with proper management, the integration of livestock manures in biofuel cropping systems can enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation.

  1. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G.; McConnell, Laura L.; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large?scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee?relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed?treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin?treated seeds was 7.0?ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of ...

  2. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S

    2015-01-07

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Flagel et al.

  3. Measurement of surface redistribution of rainfall and modelling its effect on water balance calculations for a millet field on sandy soil in Niger.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaze, S.R.; Simmonds, L.P.; Brouwer, J.; Bouma, J.

    1997-01-01

    During rain there can be substantial redistribution of water at the surface of sandy soils in the Sudano-Sahelian zone, because of localised runoff and runon. This results in variable infiltration over a field. Measurements of spatial variability in infiltration and crop growth were made in a millet

  4. An Investigation of the Mass Balance of Oil and Gas Produced Versus Estimated Reserves Remaining within the A.W.P. Field, McMullen County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott Murphy

    The A.W.P. Field is located in McMullen County, approximately 4 to 6 miles southeast of the town of Tilden in the Rio Grande Embayment. The study area was believed to be near depletion of all hydrocarbons; however, a recent well drilled (fall 2014) just to the west of the study area has produced significant hydrocarbons. This prompted Milagro Exploration to launch an effort to reevaluate the potential within the field in order to investigate whether the field is, in fact, entirely depleted. My approach to solving this problem began with researching the area to develop an understanding of the geological setting, depositional systems, and productive intervals, then acquiring the proper data, as this data was the foundation of the project. I completed a detailed correlation framework of key formations with the acquired well logs. I interpreted an extensive 3D seismic data set to map my areas of interest and faults. With all relevant information, I completed structure maps, isopach maps, production maps, and calculated volumetrics, concluding with my recommendation, and determined whether the field is ultimately depleted or not. I concluded that there are two relevant intervals within the study area. First, the Wilcox-Wales Formation (Wales; Early Tertiary) was a random stratigraphic accumulation that had sporadic hydrocarbon production, and would be essentially high risk to drill. Second, the Olmos Formation (Olmos; Late Cretaceous) had significant potential for 2 horizontal wells on the western side of the lease area.

  5. Renewable energy from corn residues by thermochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei

    Declining fossil oil reserve, skyrocket price, unsecured supplies, and environment pollution are among the many energy problems we are facing today. It is our conviction that renewable energy is a solution to these problems. The long term goal of the proposed research is to develop commercially practical technologies to produce energy from renewable resources. The overall objective of my research is to study and develop thermochemical processes for converting bulky and low-energy-density biomass materials into bio-fuels and value-added bio-products. The rationale for the proposed research is that, once such processes are developed, processing facility can be set up on or near biomass product sites, reducing the costs associated with transport of bulky biomass which is a key technical barrier to biomass conversion. In my preliminary research, several conversion technologies including atmospheric pressure liquefaction, high pressure liquefaction, and microwave pyrolysis have been evaluated. Our data indicated that microwave pyrolysis had the potential to become a simple and economically viable biomass conversion technology. Microwave pyrolysis is an innovative process that provides efficient and uniform heating, and are robust to type, size and uniformity of feedstock and therefore suitable for almost any waste materials without needing to reduce the particle size. The proposed thesis focused on in-depth investigations of microwave pyrolysis of corn residues. My first specific aim was to examine the effects of processing parameters on product yields. The second specific research aim was to characterize the products (gases, bio-oils, and solid residues), which was critical to process optimization and product developments. Other research tasks included conducting kinetic modeling and preliminary mass and energy balance. This study demonstrated that microwave pyrolysis could be optimized to produce high value syngas, liquid fuels and pyrolytic carbons, and had a great

  6. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  7. Banding urea and lignosulfonate in corn (Zea mays L.) production and 15N recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkanani, T.; MacKenzie, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The use of urea in corn (Zea mays L.) production is common. Under current N fertilizer recommendations for corn, urea may have adverse effects on corn growth when applied in a band. The effects of ammonium lignosulfonate (LS) on corn growth and on N uptake from the banded application of urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) mixtures were investigated on two soils from eastern Quebec. Field experiments were initiated in the first week of May 1991 on an Ormstown silty clay and a Ste. Rosalie clay soils (fine, mixed, nonacid, mesic Typic Humaquepts). Treatments were two rates of urea (30 and 90 kg urea-N ha -1 ) in a combination with DAP (14kg N ha 1 ), with or without banded fertilizer solutions of LS (8 kg N ha -1 ) applied at planting 5 cm to the side and 3 cm below the seed. A no treatment control was included. The low rate of urea compared with the unfertilized plots. When compared with the unfertilized treatment, the high rate of urea and DAP (no LS added) caused 10% increase in grain yield. However, addition of LS to the high rate of urea and DAP increase grain yield by band 20%. In general, LS significantly increased corn N uptake from urea on both soils. Separate 15 N field experiments were initiated in June 1991. Mean recovery of 15 N ranged from 17.8% to 30.9% of the applied labelled urea. The rate of urea-N banded had no significant effect on immobilization, but LS resulted in significantly less 15 N immobilized. These observations suggest that LS can reduce the biological immobilization of urea-N and increase the efficiency of urea fertilizer by reducing the negative effects of banding high levels of urea, while attaining benefits of band placement. (author). 29 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  9. Study of the absorbed dose in small fields with absence of lateral electronic balance in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy with modulated intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas V, M. X.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we develop and experimental and theoretical study, using semi analytical techniques of the physical dosimetry for small and nonstandard fields for stereotactic radiosurgery (Srs) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with high energy photon beams from a BrainLAB system with cones at Instituto del Cancer SOLCA (Ecuador) and a Tomo Therapy Hi-Art system at Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua (Mexico). (Author)

  10. Influence of the corn resistance gene Mv on the fitness of Peregrinus maidis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) and on the transmission of maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, C H V; Brewbaker, J L; Bressan, A

    2013-08-01

    Crops that are resistant to pests and pathogens are cost-effective for the management of pests and diseases. A corn (Zea mays L.) breeding program conducted in Hawaii has identified a source of heritable resistance to maize mosaic virus (MMV) (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus). This resistance is controlled by the gene Mv, which has been shown to have a codominant action. To date, no studies have examined whether the resistance associated with this gene affects only MMV or whether it also affects the insect vector, the corn planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Here, we examined the life history of the corn planthopper and its ability to transmit MMV on near isogenic lines that were homozygous dominant (Mv/Mv), homozygous recessive (mv/mv), or heterozygous (Mv/mv) for the gene. A field trial was also conducted to study the colonization of the corn plants with different genotypes by the planthopper. Although field observations revealed slightly lower densities ofplanthoppers on corn with the genotype Mv/Mv than on the inbreds with the genotype mv/mv and their hybrids with the genotype Mv/mv, laboratory assays showed no effects of the gene on planthopper development, longevity, or fecundity. In the field, the corn lines Mv/Mv had a lower incidence of MMV-infected plants. However, in the greenhouse, the transmission of MMV to corn seedlings did not differ across the near isogenic lines, although the corn lines Mv/Mv showed a delayed onset of symptoms compared with the corn lines mv/mv and Mv/mv. The acquisition of MMV by corn planthoppers on the corn genotypes Mv/Mv and Mv/mv averaged 0.2, whereas the acquisition on the corn genotypes mv/mv averaged > 0.3. Our results show that the Mv gene does not influence the fitness of the planthopper vector, suggesting that it may confer resistance by other means, possibly by limiting virus replication or movement within the host plant.

  11. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  12. Fate of tagged nitrogen fertilizer applied to irrigated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 years with ammonium sulfate tagged with 5.93 at. % 15 N to determine the fate of N fertilizer applied to sprinkler-irrigated corn (Zea mays L.). All areas of triplicate, 356-cm square plots were treated with 50 or 150 kg tagged N/ha. N fertilizer used by the crop and that remaining in the top 240 cm of soil were measured. NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N in the 0- to 10-cm layers after the second harvest also were determined. Grain yields in 1976 did not differ significantly. In 1977 response to N was significant, but responses to two N rates did not differ significantly

  13. Phenology and biomass production of adapted and non-adapted tropical corn populations in Central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel production in the Midwestern United States has largely focused on corn (Zea mays L.) grain for ethanol production and more recently, corn stover for lignocellulosic ethanol. As an alternative to conventional corn, tropical corn populations have been evaluated. Tropical corn is the term used ...

  14. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Irish Corned Beef: A Culinary History

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes that a better knowledge of culinary history enriches all culinary stakeholders. The article will discuss the origins and history of corned beef in Irish cuisine and culture. It outlines how cattle have been central to the ancient Irish way of life for centuries, but were cherished more for their milk than their meat. In the early modern period, with the decline in the power of the Gaelic lords, cattle became and economic commodity that was exported to England. The Cattle...

  16. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  17. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  18. Vigor tests to evaluate the physiological quality of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira dos Anjos Sena

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The vigor tests are intended to monitor the quality of seeds as it allows reliably distinguish lots of low and high vigor, providing additional information to the germination test. So in this study the objective was to identify the most efficient vigor tests on stratification of lots of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo'. The experiment was conducted at Laboratory of Seed Analysis at the Center of agricultural Science of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, using samples from 20 seed lots in a completely randomized design. For characterization of the lots it was evaluated water content, germination and vigor (cold test, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging, seedling emergence in field and germination at low temperatures. The accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and field emergence of seedlings tests are the most efficient for classification of lots of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo' in levels of vigor, been the seeds of lot 1 the most vigorous.

  19. Atrazine in a corn cultivated area and its relation with the landscape position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regimeire Freitas Aquino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine is still being used in no-till corn production in Brazil. This herbicide can be moved by overland flow and leached in the soil profile. In both ways, it can pollute water, either by reaching the groundwater or lakes and streams close to the crop field. This study evaluated the presence of atrazine in a dystrophic Yellow-Red Argisol and a dystrophic Melanic Gleisol in a corn field, where atrazine has been applied for 11 years. Overland flow was the main process of atrazine transport on hillslope and leaching was the most important process in the floodplain. Frequency and location of atrazine application in the landscape define this herbicide contamination process.

  20. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The improvement of corn starch isolation process by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.; Kwon, J.H.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to non-glutinous and glutinous corns for improving starch isolation process. No significant changes in proximate composition of corn grains were observed by gamma irradiation. Irradiation at 1 and 5 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of non-glutinous and glutinous corns, respectively. The moisture-uptake rate constants were increased in proportional to the steeping temperature and applied irradiation dose level. The irradiation efficacy on water absorption properties was also recognized in the corns stored for six months at room temperature. The combined use of gamma irradiation with sulfur dioxide solution was very effective for reducing steeping time. The starch yield gradually increased as irradiation dose levels increased. At 2 kGy, the sarch yield of non-glutinous and glutinous corns increased by 38% and 27%, respectively. No significant difference in Hunter's color value was observed between the starches isolated from nonirradiated and irradiated corn grains

  2. Heat recovery investigation from dryer–thermal oxidizer system in corn-ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, annual corn ethanol production in the U.S. has exceeded 13,298,000,000 gallons. However, net energy balance for this sector became a subject of controversy in many discussions. The aim of the presented research is an investigation of thermal improvement opportunities in a corn ethanol plant. For this purpose, a complex mathematical model was developed for a dryer–thermal oxidizer system. Three variants were subjected thermodynamic analyses: one state of the art system and two proposed system modifications. The properties of humid gas, a mixture of combustion products and moisture evaporated from distiller's grain, were updated based on the steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. All calculations were performed by uniquely-developed C++ code. The results indicate major potential for improvement in the following areas: (i) water recovery from humid gas; (ii) heat recovery from moisture condensation – max. 44% of total primary energy usage (TPEU); and (iii) fuel savings by reduction of humid gas flow through a thermal oxidizer – max. 1.4% of TPEU. Also the presented analysis can be a starting point for further modifications in real corn ethanol manufacturing applications, leading towards pilot system implementation. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for dryer–oxidizer system in a corn ethanol plant was proposed. • Three configurations were discussed: with intercooler, regenerator, and recuperator. • Recovery rate of water condensed at various conditions and locations was quantified. • Heat recovery possibilities at various temperatures and locations have been assessed. • Energy savings in thermal oxidizer due to preliminary condensation were calculated

  3. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applied at corn sowing in contrasting growing seasons in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to select soil management practices that increase the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE in agro-ecosystems, the different indices of agronomic fertilizer efficiency must be evaluated under varied weather conditions. This study assessed the NUE indices in no-till corn in southern Paraguay. Nitrogen fertilizer rates from 0 to 180 kg ha-1 were applied in a single application at corn sowing and the crop response investigated in two growing seasons (2010 and 2011. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replications. Based on the data of grain yield, dry matter, and N uptake, the following fertilizer indices were assessed: agronomic N-use efficiency (ANE, apparent N recovery efficiency (NRE, N physiological efficiency (NPE, partial factor productivity (PFP, and partial nutrient balance (PNB. The weather conditions varied largely during the experimental period; the rainfall distribution was favorable for crop growth in the first season and unfavorable in the second. The PFP and ANE indices, as expected, decreased with increasing N fertilizer rates. A general analysis of the N fertilizer indices in the first season showed that the maximum rate (180 kg ha-1 obtained the highest corn yield and also optimized the efficiency of NPE, NRE and ANE. In the second season, under water stress, the most efficient N fertilizer rate (60 kg ha-1 was three times lower than in the first season, indicating a strong influence of weather conditions on NUE. Considering that weather instability is typical for southern Paraguay, anticipated full N fertilization at corn sowing is not recommended due the temporal variability of the optimum N fertilizer rate needed to achieve high ANE.

  4. The use of corn (ZEA MAYS) biomass in drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The most important agricultural crop in the world, besides wheat and rice is corn. In the last 10 years, Republic of Croatia has produced about 2000000 tons of corn. Most of that is used for food and feed and for seed production and it is 1000000 tons in quantity. This quantity demands between 35000 to 40000 tons of oil. For the reason, this paper describes the possibilities of the substitution of oil with corn biomass after harvesting. (author)

  5. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Han Linna; Liu Tongjun; Guo Jianyou; Liu Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk ...

  6. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis process of corn straw

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Shengqiang Shen; Shuhua Yang; Xinguang Shi

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was performed to analyze the pyrolysis process of corn straw. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis, the component of pyrolysis gas of corn straw was tested using the gas chromatograph analyzer. Experimental results showed that, as the reaction temperature increases, the component of H 2 and CH 4 increases, whereas the component of CO and CO 2 decreases. Finally, the mechanism of pyrolysis process of corn straw was revealed from the point of view of the molecular structure...

  7. Handling Indian corn on the cob (for the alcohol industry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podurazhnyi, Y K

    1962-01-01

    The corn grains are mechanically prepared from the cob shortly before malting, the wort is boiled at 142 to 144/sup 0/, and is made up of corn 34, beets 40, and molasses 26%, providing an alcohol liquor which contains on the average 7.34% (individual values as high as 8.6) ethanol. This application of corn on the cob incurs (on the base of prices in the Soviet Union) a saving of about 20% in ethanol manufacture.

  8. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  9. Uptake, distribution, and velocity of organically complexed plutonium in corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shannon W; Molz, Fred J; Fjeld, Robert A; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2012-10-01

    Lysimeter experiments and associated simulations suggested that Pu moved into and through plants that invaded field lysimeters during an 11-year study at the Savannah River Site. However, probable plant uptake and transport mechanisms were not well defined, so more detailed study is needed. Therefore, experiments were performed to examine movement, distribution, and velocity of soluble, complexed Pu in corn. Corn was grown and exposed to Pu using a "long root" system in which the primary root extended through a soil pot and into a hydroponic container. To maintain solubility, Pu was complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB (Desferrioxamine B) or the chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). Corn plants were exposed to nutrient solutions containing Pu for periods of 10 min to 10 d. Analysis of root and shoot tissues permitted concentration measurement and calculation of uptake velocity and Pu retardation in corn. Results showed that depending on exposure time, 98.3-95.9% of Pu entering the plant was retained in the roots external to the xylem, and that 1.7-4.1% of Pu entered the shoots (shoot fraction increased with exposure time). Corn Pu uptake was 2-4 times greater as Pu(DFOB) than as Pu(2)(DTPA)(3). Pu(DFOB) solution entered the root xylem and moved 1.74 m h(-1) or greater upward, which is more than a million times faster than Pu(III/IV) downward movement through soil during the lysimeter study. The Pu(DFOB) xylem retardation factor was estimated to be 3.7-11, allowing for rapid upward Pu transport and potential environmental release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.: Fresh ear yield in dependance of genotype and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is used as food in the milky stage of endosperm, when its kernel is tender, succulent and sweet. It is consumed in form of fresh ears, or it is industrially processed. Breeding of sweet corn has several equally important aims that are directed by the market demands and different modes of consumption. The ear yield, in sweet corn is the most important but not the only main goal of breeding. In the two year study (2013, 2014 we observed the effect of the genotype, year and their interactions on the yields of 8 sweet corn hybrids. Two of the hybrids were commercial and six were experimental hybrids. The field experiment was arranged according to the RCBD with four replications. Hybrids were harvested 23 days after pollination, i.e. silking. Average yield in 2013 was significantly higher (12.19 t ha-1 than in 2014 (11.49 t ha- 1. In 2013 it ranged from 10.21 t ha-1 for the experimental hybrid ZP 489/1su, up to 13.52 t ha-1 for the commercial hybrid ZP 355su. In 2014 the lowest yielding hybrid was ZP 485/1su (10.14 t ha-1 while the highest yielding was ZP 486/1su (13.41 t ha-1. On average those two were also the highest (13.19 t ha-1 and the lowest yielding (10.66 t ha-1 hybrids. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of genotype and the year, as well as their interactions had significant impact on the yield performances of sweet corn hybrids.

  11. Effects of application of corn straw on soil microbial community structure during the maize growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Lin, Yin-Hua; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Yan-Peng; Tan, Fei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Wang, Miao; Xu, De-Rong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of corn straw application on soil microbial communities and the relationship between such communities and soil properties in black soil. The crop used in this study was maize (Zea mays L.). The five treatments consisted of applying a gradient (50, 100, 150, and 200%) of shattered corn straw residue to the soil. Soil samples were taken from May through September during the 2012 maize growing season. The microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the application of corn straw influenced the soil properties and increased the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Applying corn straw to fields also influenced the variation in soil microbial biomass and community composition, which is consistent with the variations found in soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil respiration (SR). However, the soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio had no effect on soil microbial communities. The abundance of PLFAs, TN, and SR was higher in C1.5 than those in other treatments, suggesting that the soil properties and soil microbial community composition were affected positively by the application of corn straw to black soil. A Principal Component Analysis indicated that soil microbial communities were different in the straw decomposition processes. Moreover, the soil microbial communities from C1.5 were significantly different from those of CK (p soil and significant variations in the ratio of monounsaturated-to-branched fatty acids with different straw treatments that correlated with SR (p soil properties and soil microbial communities and that these properties affect these communities. The individual PLFA signatures were sensitive indicators that reflected the changes in the soil environment condition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mycoflora and fumonisin contamination in Brazilian corn from sowing to harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana P; Fonseca, Homero; Fancelli, Antônio Luiz; Direito, Glória Maria; Ortega, Edwin M; Corrêa, Benedito

    2002-06-19

    The present study aimed to analyze the mycoflora and potential mycotoxin contamination of soil and corn samples collected at different plant maturity stages in Capão Bonito and Ribeirão Preto, two regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In addition, the data obtained were correlated with the occurrence of wind-dispersed fungi and the predominant climatic conditions of the two regions studied. Corn mycoflora profiles showed that Fusarium verticillioides prevailed in 35% of the samples from Capão Bonito and in 49% of the samples from Ribeirão Preto. Examination of wind-dispersed fungi also revealed a high incidence of F. verticillioides. Soil mycoflora analyses showed that Penicilliumwas the most prevalent genus, although F. verticillioides was present in 55.5% of Capão Bonito's samples and in 26.7% of Ribeirão Preto's samples. With respect to water activity, the corn kernels most contaminated with F. verticillioides had water activity levels of 0.70-0.80. HPLC analysis of fumonisins revealed that 88.5% of Capão Bonito's kernels were contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) (0.09-10.87 microg/g) and 53.8% with fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) (0.05-0.52 microg/g); Ribeirão Preto's kernels presented contamination levels of 93.5% for FB(1) (0.11-17.69 microg/g) and 61.3% for FB(2) (0.05-5.24 microg/g). No aflatoxins were detected by thin-layer chromatography in corn grains of either region. The concomitant occurrence of F. verticillioides and fumonisins in most of the field corn assayed demonstrates the importance of an effective control of cultivation throughout the plant maturity stages.

  13. Possibilities of utilization of co-products from corn grain ethanol and starch production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the expansion of alternative fuels production from crops traditionally used for food and animal feed has led to significant changes in the field of energy production, agriculture and food industry. Starch and sugar feedstocks for ethanol production (corn, wheat, sugar beet, sugar cane, etc. require increasing arable land to meet market demands for the biofuel production. Although intensive studies are being carried out in order to identify improved and more cost-effective methods for the utilization of lignocellulosic and communal waste in the production of alcohol fuel, the possibility of using dry distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS, by-product of bioethanol production from corn and wheat as well as alcoholic beverages industry, is now in focus. Application of DDGS in livestock and poultry diets in concentrations greater than traditional could positively affect the economic viability of this biofuel production, but also stabilize the current imbalance in the food and animal feed market. However, DDGS feedstuff should not be treated as a perfect substitute for corn because the complexity of ration formulation determined at the farm or feedlot level is driven by energy and protein and other nutrient requirements, as well as their relative costs in the ration. Nevertheless, processing of corn by wet milling provides a multitude of co-products suitable for feedstuffs, food industry, pharmaceuticals, chemistry etc. Some of the most important wet milling co-products that have their use in feedstuffs are corn gluten feed and corn gluten meal. The use of DDGS as a substitute for traditional feed could prevent indirect land-use changes associated with biofuel production, and therefore preserve the environmental destruction by saving the forests and permanent pastures. The use of distiller’s grains can be beneficial to biofuel growth as this is an additional, the second largest, source of income accounting of 10-20% total

  14. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  15. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  16. Impact of broadcasting a cereal rye or oat cover crop before corn and soybean harvest on nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn and soybean rotation in Iowa has no living plants taking up water and nutrients from crop maturity until planting, a period of over six months in most years. In many fields, this results in losses of nitrate in effluent from artificial drainage systems during this time. In a long-term fiel...

  17. Impact of glyphosate resistant corn, glyphosate applications, and tillage on soil nutrient ratios, exoenzyme activities, and nutrient acquisition ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report results of the last two years of a 7-year (2008-2014) field experiment designed to test the null hypothesis that applications of glyphosate on glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) as a routine weed control practice under both conventional and reduced tillage practices would have no effe...

  18. Nutrient content of wheat and corn in response to the application of urea and the urease inhibitor NPBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the addition of two different urease inhibitors on the volatilization of ammonia from top dressed ammonia sources on winter wheat and dent corn. Two commercial urease inhibitors (NY and AG) were tested. Treatments included compost, compost+NY, u...

  19. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to address the aflatoxin problem in grain, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from two different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to n...

  20. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  1. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic properties. Th...

  2. Computer-Simulation of Balance Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massen, C.H.; Swüste, C.H.W.; Robens, E.; Poulis, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Several decades ago, when working in the field of magnetism, we had to use a balance the sensitivity of which was limited only by Brownian motion. This balance was a very slow one and to calculate the moment of force measured by it we used its equation of motion, T=Ja+ka+Ca, where we measured the

  3. Effects of sediment dredging on nitrogen cycling in Lake Taihu, China: Insight from mass balance based on a 2-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juhua; Fan, Chengxin; Zhong, Jicheng; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Changhui; Yao, Xiaolong

    2016-02-01

    Sediment dredging can permanently remove pollutants from an aquatic ecosystem, which is considered an effective approach to aquatic ecosystem restoration. In this work, a 2-year field simulation test was carried out to investigate the effect of dredging on nitrogen cycling across the sediment-water interface (SWI) in Lake Taihu, China. The results showed that simulated dredging applied to an area rich in total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) slightly reduced the NH4(+)-N release from sediments while temporarily enhanced the NH4(+)-N release in an area with lower TOC and/or TN (in the first 180 days), although the application had a limited effect on the fluxes of NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N in both areas. Further analysis indicated that dredging induced decreases in nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in sediments, notably by 76.9, 49.0, and 89.9%, respectively, in the TOC and/or TN-rich area. Therefore, dredging slowed down nitrogen cycling rates in sediments but did not increase N loading to overlying water. The main reason for the above phenomenon could be attributed to the removal of the surface sediments enriched with more TOC and/or TN (compared with the bottom sediments). Overall, to minimize internal N pollution, dredging may be more applicable to nutrient-rich sediments.

  4. The effect of using irradiated sludge as an organic fertilizer on the soil characteristics and productivity of yellow corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Khalifa, K.

    2003-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Deir- El-Hajar research station near Damascus, to study the effect of using irradiated sludge (5 KGy) and unirradiated sludge (0 KGy) as an organic fertilizer on productivity of corn and some soil characteristics. The results showed that increment of grain yield of corn by 20% when applying 1kg/m 2 from unirradiated sludge and 37% when applying irradiated sludge. Also it was found increment in productivity of the other parts of corn (cobs, stems and leaves) compared with control plots. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Co, Cu, Pb, Cr) in corn were low and less than critical limits for all treatment. The accumulation for these metals in corn plants was not clear at end of the experiment. The highest accumulation for Cu was in grain, Cr and Zn in cobs, and Fe was in stems and leaves. Addition of sludge at different rates had no negative effect on the accumulation of the studied heavy metals in the soil. (author)

  5. Soil application of an encapsulated CO2 source and its potential for management of western corn rootworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, M; Patel, A; Vidal, S

    2014-02-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae use carbon dioxide (CO2) to locate the roots of their hosts. This study investigated whether an encapsulated CO2 source (CO2-emitting capsules) is able to outcompete CO2 gradients established by corn root respiration in the soil. Furthermore, the following two management options with the capsules were tested in semifield experiments (0.5- to 1-m2 greenhouse plots): the disruption of host location and an "attract-and-kill" strategy in which larvae were lured to a soil insecticide (Tefluthrin) between the corn rows. The attract-and-kill strategy was compared with an application of Tefluthrin in the corn rows (conventional treatment) at 33 and 18% of the standard field application rate. Application of the CO2-emitting capsules 30 cm from the plant base increased CO2 levels near the application point for up to 20 d with a peak at day 10. Both the disruption of host location and an attract-and-kill strategy caused a slight but nonsignificant reduction in larval densities. The disruption of host location caused a 17% reduction in larval densities, whereas an attract-and-kill strategy with Tefluthrin added at 33 and 18% of the standard application rate caused a 24 and 27% reduction in larval densities, respectively. As presently formulated, the CO2-emitting capsules, either with or without insecticide, do not provide adequate control of western corn rootworm.

  6. The effect of phosphorus application and liming in corn and soybean intercrop on the plant yield and symbiotic N fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, W.H.; Abdullah, N.; Rasyid, Havid; Soeminto, Bagyo

    1986-01-01

    A field experiment consisting of seven treatments and six replications was arranged in a randomized block design. The objectives of experiment were to study the effect of phosphorus placement and liming in corn and soybean intercrop on the plant yield and the amount of N fixed symbiotically by soybean. Results obtained shows the grain yield of soybean was influenced significantly by phosphorus placement, but corn was not. Fertilizer which was banded in the plant rows bellow seeds shows the higher grain yield of soybean that those broad-casted and incorporated with the soil or banded near the plant rows. Liming increased grain yield of soybean or corn as much as 31 percent higher than without lime. Lime also increased the amount of soybean N obtained from symbiotic N fixation. The partitioning of plant N requirement from soil, fixation, and fertilizer were subsequently 58, 36 and 6 percent. (author). 14 refs

  7. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable.

  8. Assessment of Corn Densities on Ecological Indices of Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mahmoodi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity, dominance, and stability of weeds are the most important ecological properties in agricultural systems, which influenced by management factors such as crop density, abundantly. This experiment was conducted in 2009 at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Research Field. The experimental design was interval mapping with four levels of corn densities (5, 6, 7 and 9 plant.m-2 and four levels of weed control (full-control, without control, broad-leaves control and grasses control. Weed sampling was done at 3 stages included beginning and end of critical period weed control and harvesting time. The results showed that the effect of plant density on species diversity was significant; some how the amount of Shanon and Simpson Indices were lowest in the 9 plant.m-2 (0.39 and 0.45, respectively and greatest in 5 plant.m-2 (0.84. The results also showed that the maximum amount of dominance index was observed in 9 plant.m-2, that was seen in Echinochloa crus- galli and Convulvulus arvensis at the beginning of growing season, then in Solanum nigrum and Amaranthus retroflexus in the end of growing season. The amount of community dominance index in 9 plant.m-2 was higher than other densities, and it decreased with decline of densities. based on the results of present experiment the linear relationship between plant species and area was found. The calculated amount of Alpha and Beta diversities. in a θ and β scales based on coefficients of this relationship were 0.534 (four species per unit area and 0.29 (two species per unit area, respectively. In conclusion the result of this experiment pointed that the weeds diversity decreased with increasing of corn density, weed diversity decreased and therefore, having appropriate plant density is very efficient for sustainable weed management.

  9. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lakesh K; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W

    2015-11-02

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in "saturation" of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms.

  10. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lakesh K.; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in “saturation” of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms. PMID:26540057

  11. Effect of Soybean and Wheat as Cover Crops on Corn Yield and Weed Control using Different Fertilizer Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the importance of corn in supplying the human food directly and indirectly, it is one of the most important plants among crops. One of the major problems in corn production systems, is competition with weeds that reduce corn yield significantly. Weeds not only reduce crop yields but also decrease the commercial quality and the feeding palatability of main crops. They enhance the soil seed bank of weeds, which may cause continuous weed infestation of field crops as well. Herbicide application is a reliable and highly effective method for weed control. However, demand for safe food products that have been produced with a minimum application of chemical inputs is increasing. Therefore, farmers interested in weed management have to rely on other control approaches. An alternative weed control method is the use of cover crops, which can suppress the growth of weeds by preventing them from light and by producing allelopathic compounds. Cover crops successfully have been integrated into conservational agriculture systems in many areas of the world. Legumes are used as cover crop because of their rapid growth, in addition their potential to provide further nitrogen,along with high ability to compete with weeds. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of cover crops (soybean and wheat and different fertilizers sources on yield of corn and weed control, a filed experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012. Treatments included two cover crop (wheat and soybean and three fertilizer (no fertilizer, chemical fertilizer and compost..Fertilizer treatments was used according to soil analysis and requirement of corn (as a main plant. Weed-infestation and weed-free plots were used as controls. Study cultivars of corn, wheat and soybean were NS-640, Milan and Sari, respectively. Planting of corn was in June and cover crop was planted with corn simultaneously and between corn rows

  12. Study on improving anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and corn straw by fruit and vegetable waste: Methane production and microbial community in CSTR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Li, Zifu; Bai, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Cheng, Sikun; Gao, Ruiling; Sun, Jiachen

    2018-02-01

    Based on continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure with available carbon slowly released corn straw, the effect of adding available carbon quickly released fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was explored, meanwhile microbial community variation was studied in this study. When the FVW added was 5% and 1%, the methane production of the cow manure and corn straw was improved, and the start-up process was shortened. With higher proportion of FVW to 5%, the performance was superior with a mean methane yield increase of 22.4%, and a greater variation of bacterial communities was observed. FVW enhanced the variation of the bacterial communities. The microbial community structure changed during fermentation and showed a trend toward a diverse and balance system. Therefore, the available carbon quickly released FVW was helpful to improve the anaerobic co-digestion of the cow manure and available carbon slowly released corn straw. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Tongjun; Han, Linna; Liu, Yongmei

    2009-11-23

    Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic beta-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p corn silk extract 15 days later. Also, the body weight of the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice was increased gradually. However, ascension of blood glucose induced by adrenalin and gluconeogenesis induced by L-alanine were not inhibited by corn silk extract treatment (p > 0.05). Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05). Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured beta-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  14. Balancing Family and Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  15. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  16. Rapid corn and soybean mapping in US Corn Belt and neighboring areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Yu, Le; Li, Xuecao; Hu, Lina; Gong, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to promptly map the extent of corn and soybeans early in the growing season. A classification experiment was conducted for the US Corn Belt and neighboring states, which is the most important production area of corn and soybeans in the world. To improve the timeliness of the classification algorithm, training was completely based on reference data and images from other years, circumventing the need to finish reference data collection in the current season. To account for interannual variability in crop development in the cross-year classification scenario, several innovative strategies were used. A random forest classifier was used in all tests, and MODIS surface reflectance products from the years 2008-2014 were used for training and cross-year validation. It is concluded that the fuzzy classification approach is necessary to achieve satisfactory results with R-squared ~0.9 (compared with the USDA Cropland Data Layer). The year of training data is an important factor, and it is recommended to select a year with similar crop phenology as the mapping year. With this phenology-based and cross-year-training method, in 2015 we mapped the cropping proportion of corn and soybeans around mid-August, when the two crops just reached peak growth.

  17. Detoxification of corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors by ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiyami, Mohammad A; Pometto, Anthony L; Brown, Robert C

    2005-04-20

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) shake flask culture with 3 mM veratryl alcohol addition on day 3 was able to grow and detoxify different concentrations of diluted corn stover (Dcs) and diluted corn starch (Dst) pyrolysis liquors [10, 25, and 50% (v/v)] in defined media. GC-MS analysis of reaction products showed a decrease and change in some compounds. In addition, the total phenolic assay with Dcs samples demonstrated a decrease in the phenolic compounds. A bioassay employing Lactobacillus casei growth and lactic acid production was developed to confirm the removal of toxic compounds from 10 and 25% (v/v) Dcs and Dst by the lignolytic enzymes, but not from 50% (v/v) Dcs and Dst. The removal did not occur when sodium azide or cycloheximide was added to Ph. chrysosporium culture media, confirming the participation of lignolytic enzymes in the detoxification process. A concentrated enzyme preparation decreased the phenolic compounds in 10% (v/v) corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors to the same extent as the fungal cultures.

  18. Lost P1 allele in sh2 sweet corn: quantitative effects of p1 and a1 genes on concentrations of maysin, apimaysin, methoxymaysin, and chlorogenic acid in maize silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B Z; Zhang, Z J; Butrón, A; Widstrom, N W; Snook, M E; Lynch, R E; Plaisted, D

    2004-12-01

    In the United States, insecticide is used extensively in the production of sweet corn due to consumer demand for zero damage to ears and to a sweet corn genetic base with little or no resistance to ear-feeding insects. Growers in the southern United States depend on scheduled pesticide applications to control ear-feeding insects. In a study of quantitative genetic control over silk maysin, AM-maysin (apimaysin and methoxymaysin), and chlorogenic acid contents in an F2 population derived from GE37 (dent corn, P1A1) and 565 (sh2 sweet corn, p1a1), we demonstrate that the P1 allele from field corn, which was selected against in the development of sweet corn, has a strong epistatic interaction with the a1 allele in sh2 sweet corn. We detected that the p1 gene has significant effects (P silk maysin concentrations but also on AM-maysin, and chlorogenic acid concentrations. The a1 gene also has significant (P silk antibiotic chemicals. Successful selection from the fourth and fifth selfed backcrosses for high-maysin individuals of sweet corn homozygous for the recessive a1 allele (tightly linked to sh2) and the dominant P1 allele has been demonstrated. These selected lines have much higher (2 to 3 times) concentrations of silk maysin and other chemicals (AM-maysin and chlorogenic acid) than the donor parent GE37 and could enhance sweet corn resistance to corn earworm and reduce the number of applications of insecticide required to produce sweet corn.

  19. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.