WorldWideScience

Sample records for corn ethanol production

  1. Energy yield for the production of ethanol from corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, X.; Frangi, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the primary energy balance for making ethanol out of corn in the USA, calculated from the farm to the fuel station, following a methodology described in Chavanne and Frangi (C. R. Geoscience 339 (2007) 519-535). Raw data (direct energy and material consumption as well as their heat value and external costs) come from published papers related to this topic, technical textbooks, as well as reports from the US Departments of Agriculture and Energy. For the 2001 harvest, over the area producing more than 90% of ethanol and for the 2005 network of working refineries, 100 J of ethanol and recovery of by-products (the energy saved by the replacement of animal feed by these by-products is around 12% of the ethanol heat value) needed 86 ± 3 J of energy spending, of which more than 50 J is natural gas and 62 J is used in refineries. A third of the area of Nebraska corn must be irrigated with water pumped from underground, at an added cost of 26 ± 3 J. In 1996, the extra drying required, because of heavy rains, added 6 J. By comparison, 100 J of gasoline cost less than 25 J to be produced out of crude oil. Complementary studies of resource availability are not performed here. The largest possible reduction in energy costs can be achieved at the refinery stage, by fermenting by-products, gas residues, (from 62 J to around 12 J). The article gives also an expression for the expenditure to enable comparison between different energy systems, including everything from biomass to transport. For the ethanol case, the average cost is 130 J for 100 J of corn grain heat. (authors)

  2. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rita H; Goldsmith, Peter D; Rausch, Kent D; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles

  3. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  4. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinga, W.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.J.; Hicks, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by using the experience curve approach, scrutinizing costs of dry grind ethanol production over the timeframe 1980-2005. Cost reductions are differentiated between feedstock (corn) production and industrial (ethanol) processing. Corn production costs in the US have declined by 62% over 30 years, down to 100$ 2005 /tonne in 2005, while corn production volumes almost doubled since 1975. A progress ratio (PR) of 0.55 is calculated indicating a 45% cost decline over each doubling in cumulative production. Higher corn yields and increasing farm sizes are the most important drivers behind this cost decline. Industrial processing costs of ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983, to below 130$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005 (excluding costs for corn and capital), equivalent to a PR of 0.87. Total ethanol production costs (including capital and net corn costs) have declined approximately 60% from 800$ 2005 /m 3 in the early 1980s, to 300$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005. Higher ethanol yields, lower energy use and the replacement of beverage alcohol-based production technologies have mostly contributed to this substantial cost decline. In addition, the average size of dry grind ethanol plants increased by 235% since 1990. For the future it is estimated that solely due to technological learning, production costs of ethanol may decline 28-44%, though this excludes effects of the current rising corn and fossil fuel costs. It is also concluded that experience curves are a valuable tool to describe both past and potential future cost reductions in US corn-based ethanol production

  5. Feasibility study for co-locating and integrating ethanol production plants from corn starch and lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McAloon, Andrew [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Yee, Winnie [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation.

  6. Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.; Ibsen, K.; McAloon, A.; Yee, W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation. Although none of the scenarios identified could produce ethanol at lower cost than a straight grain ethanol plant, several were lower cost than a straight cellulosic ethanol plant.

  7. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  8. CO2 emissions from the production and combustion of fuel ethanol from corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the carbon dioxide fluxes associated with the use of one biomass fuel, ethanol derived from corn. In a sustainable agricultural system, there is no net CO 2 flux to the atmosphere from the corn itself but there is a net CO 2 flux due to the fossil-fuel supplements currently used to produce and process corn. A comparison between ethanol from corn and gasoline from crude oil becomes very complex because of the variability of corn yield, the lack of available data on corn processing, and the complexity of treating the multiple products from corn processing. When the comparison is made on an energy content basis only, with no consideration of how the products are to be used, and at the margin of the current U.S. energy system, it appears that there is a net CO 2 saving associated with ethanol from corn. This net saving in CO 2 emissions may be as large as 40% or as small as 20%, depending on how one chooses to evaluate the by-product credits. This analysis also demonstrates that the frequently posed question, whether the energy inputs to ethanol exceed the energy outputs, would not be an over-riding consideration even if it were true, because most of the inputs are as coal and natural gas, whereas the output is as a high-quality liquid fuel. (author)

  9. Corn-based ethanol production compromises goal of reducing nitrogen export by the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D; Kucharik, Christopher J

    2008-03-18

    Corn cultivation in the United States is expected to increase to meet demand for ethanol. Nitrogen leaching from fertilized corn fields to the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system is a primary cause of the bottom-water hypoxia that develops on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico each summer. In this study, we combine agricultural land use scenarios with physically based models of terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen to examine the effect of present and future expansion of corn-based ethanol production on nitrogen export by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers to the Gulf of Mexico. The results show that the increase in corn cultivation required to meet the goal of 15-36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by the year 2022 suggested by a recent U.S. Senate energy policy would increase the annual average flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers by 10-34%. Generating 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by the year 2022 will increase the odds that annual DIN export exceeds the target set for reducing hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico to >95%. Examination of extreme mitigation options shows that expanding corn-based ethanol production would make the already difficult challenges of reducing nitrogen export to the Gulf of Mexico and the extent of hypoxia practically impossible without large shifts in food production and agricultural management.

  10. Possibilities of utilization of co-products from corn grain ethanol and starch production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the expansion of alternative fuels production from crops traditionally used for food and animal feed has led to significant changes in the field of energy production, agriculture and food industry. Starch and sugar feedstocks for ethanol production (corn, wheat, sugar beet, sugar cane, etc. require increasing arable land to meet market demands for the biofuel production. Although intensive studies are being carried out in order to identify improved and more cost-effective methods for the utilization of lignocellulosic and communal waste in the production of alcohol fuel, the possibility of using dry distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS, by-product of bioethanol production from corn and wheat as well as alcoholic beverages industry, is now in focus. Application of DDGS in livestock and poultry diets in concentrations greater than traditional could positively affect the economic viability of this biofuel production, but also stabilize the current imbalance in the food and animal feed market. However, DDGS feedstuff should not be treated as a perfect substitute for corn because the complexity of ration formulation determined at the farm or feedlot level is driven by energy and protein and other nutrient requirements, as well as their relative costs in the ration. Nevertheless, processing of corn by wet milling provides a multitude of co-products suitable for feedstuffs, food industry, pharmaceuticals, chemistry etc. Some of the most important wet milling co-products that have their use in feedstuffs are corn gluten feed and corn gluten meal. The use of DDGS as a substitute for traditional feed could prevent indirect land-use changes associated with biofuel production, and therefore preserve the environmental destruction by saving the forests and permanent pastures. The use of distiller’s grains can be beneficial to biofuel growth as this is an additional, the second largest, source of income accounting of 10-20% total

  11. Fuel ethanol production from sugarcane and corn: Comparative analysis for a Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, J.A.; Montoya, M.I.; Sanchez, O.J.; Giraldo, O.H.; Cardona, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Colombian government has defined the use of bioethanol as a gasoline enhancer to reduce greenhouse gases, gasoline imports, and to boost the rural economy. To meet the projected fuel ethanol demand needed to oxygenate the gasoline in the whole country, the construction of about five additional ethanol production plants is required. For this, a comparative analysis of the technological options using different feedstocks should be performed. In this work, a comparison of the economical and environmental performance of the ethanol production process from sugarcane and corn under Colombian conditions has been carried out. Net present value and total output rate of potential environmental impact were used as the economical and environmental indicators, respectively. Through the integration of these indicators into one index by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach, sugarcane ethanol process was determined as the best choice for Colombian ethanol production facilities. AHP scores obtained in this study for sugarcane and corn ethanol were 0.571 and 0.429, respectively. However, starchy crops like corn, cassava or potatoes used as feedstock for ethanol production could potentially cause a higher impact on the rural communities and boost their economies if social matters are considered

  12. How does increased corn-ethanol production affect US natural gas prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whistance, Jarrett; Thompson, Wyatt

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a push to increase biofuel production in the United States. The biofuel of choice, so far, has been ethanol produced from corn. The effects of increased corn-ethanol production on the consumer prices of food and energy continue to be studied and debated. This study examines, in particular, the effects of increased corn-ethanol production on US natural gas prices. A structural model of the natural gas market is developed and estimated using two stage least squares. A baseline projection for the period 2007-2018 is determined, and two scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, current biofuel policies including EISA mandates, tariffs, and tax credits are removed. In the second scenario, we hold ethanol production to the level required only for largely obligatory additive use. The results indicate that the increased level of corn-ethanol production occurring as a result of the current US biofuel policies may lead to natural gas prices that are as much as 0.25% higher, on average, than if no biofuel policies were in place. A similar comparison between the baseline and second scenario indicates natural gas prices could be as much as 0.5% higher, on average, for the same period.

  13. High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...

  14. A CORN STEM AS BIOMATERIAL FOR SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE CELLS IMMOBILIZATION FOR THE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučurović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a preliminary contribution to the development of a bioprocess for the production of ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto a corn stem. For this purpose, the yeast cells were submitted to the batch tests in situ adsorption onto 0.5 cm long corn stem. Cells immobilization was analyzed by optical microscopy. The number of the yeast cells, fermentation kinetics, the ethanol yield in the presence or the absence of the support in the fermentation medium was investigated. It was determined that the addition of the corn stem led to the abrupt increase of the yeast cells number in substrate, ethanol yield, pH value, a total dissolved salts content and substrate conductivity. The addition of 5 and 10g of the corn stem pith per liter of the medium decreased the amount of residual sugar. The results indicate that a corn stem might be a good carrier for the yeast cell immobilization, and also a cheap alternative recourse of mineral components with the possibility of application for improving ethanol productivities.

  15. Ethanol production from concentrated food waste hydrolysates with yeast cells immobilized on corn stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shoubao [Huainan Normal Univ., Anhui (China). School of Life Science; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Ion Beam Bio-engineering of Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2012-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine ethanol production from concentrated food waste hydrolysates using whole cells of S. cerevisiae immobilized on corn stalks. In order to improve cell immobilization efficiency, biological modification of the carrier was carried out by cellulase hydrolysis. The results show that proper modification of the carrier with cellulase hydrolysis was suitable for cell immobilization. The mechanism proposed, cellulase hydrolysis, not only increased the immobilized cell concentration, but also disrupted the sleek surface to become rough and porous, which enhanced ethanol production. In batch fermentation with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 202.64 {+-} 1.86 g/l, an optimal ethanol concentration of 87.91 {+-} 1.98 g/l was obtained using a modified corn stalk-immobilized cell system. The ethanol concentration produced by the immobilized cells was 6.9% higher than that produced by the free cells. Ethanol production in the 14th cycle repeated batch fermentation demonstrated the enhanced stability of the immobilized yeast cells. Under continuous fermentation in an immobilized cell reactor, the maximum ethanol concentration of 84.85 g/l, and the highest ethanol yield of 0.43 g/g (of reducing sugar) were achieved at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.10 h, whereas the maximum volumetric ethanol productivity of 43.54 g/l/h was observed at a HRT of 1.55 h. (orig.)

  16. Kinetic modeling of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Wojciech; Czerniak, Adrian; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) of native starch from corn flour, has been performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme. The quantitative effects of mash concentration, enzyme dose and pH were investigated with the use of a Box-Wilson central composite design protocol. Proceeding from results obtained in optimal fermentation conditions, a kinetics model relating the utilization rates of starch and glucose as well as the production rates of ethanol and biomass was tested. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate corn starch granule surface after the SFF process. A maximum ethanol concentration of 110.36 g/l was obtained for native corn starch using a mash concentration of 25%, which resulted in ethanol yield of 85.71%. The optimal conditions for the above yield were found with an enzyme dose of 2.05 ml/kg and pH of 5.0. These results indicate that by using a central composite design, it is possible to determine optimal values of the fermentation parameters for maximum ethanol production. The investigated kinetics model can be used to describe SSF process conducted with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes. The SEM micrographs reveal randomly distributed holes on the surface of granules.

  17. Ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilised on corn stem ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučurović Vesna M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell immobilisation in alcoholic fermentation has been extensively studied during the past few decades because of its technical and economical advantages over those of free cell systems. A biocatalyst was prepared by immobilising a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (baker yeast on corn stem ground tissue for use in alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the yeast cells were submitted to the batch tests 'in situ' adsorption onto pieces of the corn stem ground tissue. Cells immobilisation was analysed by optical microscopy. It was determined that the addition of the corn stem ground tissue led to an increase of the pH value, total dissolved salts content, and sugar content in fermentation medium. The addition of 5 and 10g of the corn stem ground tissue per liter of medium, increased ethanol yield, decreased amount of residual sugar and the cells immobilisation was effective. Corn stem is one of the abundant, available, inexpensive, stable, reusable, nontoxic celulosic biomaterial with high porosity, which facilitates the transmission of substrates and products between carrier and medium. The prepared immobilised biocatalyst showed higher fermentation activity than free cells. The results indicate that corn stem might be an interesting support for yeast cell immobilisation, and also a cheap alternative recourse of mineral components with possibility of application for improving ethanol productivities.

  18. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel; van Rossum, Guus; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when compared to dried distillers grains (DDG), the main by-product of corn ethanol. Fast pyrolysis is an alternative thermal conversion technology for processing biomass. It has recently been optimized to produce a stream rich in levoglucosan, a fermentable glucose precursor for biofuel production. Additional product streams might be of value to the petrochemical industry. However, biomass heterogeneity is known to impact the composition of pyrolytic product streams, as a complex mixture of aromatic compounds is recovered with the sugars, interfering with subsequent fermentation. The present study investigates the feasibility of fast pyrolysis to produce fermentable pyrolytic glucose from two abundant lignocellulosic biomass sources in Ontario, switchgrass (potential energy crop) and corn cobs (by-product of corn industry). Demineralization of biomass removes catalytic centers and increases the levoglucosan yield during pyrolysis. The ash content of biomass was significantly decreased by 82-90% in corn cobs when demineralized with acetic or nitric acid, respectively. In switchgrass, a reduction of only 50% for both acids could be achieved. Conversely, levoglucosan production increased 9- and 14-fold in corn cobs when rinsed with acetic and nitric acid, respectively, and increased 11-fold in switchgrass regardless of the acid used. After pyrolysis, different configurations for upgrading the pyrolytic sugars were assessed and the presence of potentially inhibitory compounds was approximated at each step as double integral of the UV spectrum signal of an HPLC assay. The results showed that water extraction followed by acid hydrolysis and solvent extraction was the best upgrading strategy

  19. Sequential saccharification of corn fiber and ethanol production by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Shrestha, P; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-05-01

    Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars through a purely biological process is a key to sustainable biofuel production. Hydrolysis of the corn wet-milling co-product-corn fiber-to simple sugars by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was studied in suspended-culture and solid-state fermentations. Suspended-culture experiments were not effective in producing harvestable sugars from the corn fiber. The fungus consumed sugars released by fungal extracellular enzymes. Solid-state fermentation demonstrated up to 40% fiber degradation within 9days. Enzyme activity assays on solid-state fermentation filtrates confirmed the involvement of starch- and cellulose-degrading enzymes. To reduce fungal consumption of sugars and to accelerate enzyme activity, 2- and 3-d solid-state fermentation biomasses (fiber and fungus) were submerged in buffer and incubated at 37 degrees C without shaking. This anaerobic incubation converted up to almost 11% of the corn fiber into harvestable reducing sugars. Sugars released by G. trabeum were fermented to a maximum yield of 3.3g ethanol/100g fiber. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of G. trabeum fermenting sugar to ethanol. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a co-culture led to more rapid fermentation to a maximum yield of 4.0g ethanol/100g fiber. The findings demonstrate the potential for this simple fungal process, requiring no pretreatment of the corn fiber, to produce more ethanol by hydrolyzing and fermenting carbohydrates in this lignocellulosic co-product. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  1. Utilizing protein-lean coproducts from corn containing recombinant pharmaceutical proteins for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Moeller, Lorena; Scott, M Paul; Wang, Kan; Glatz, Charles E; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2010-10-13

    Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were evaluated as a potential feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. The levels of residual r-proteins in the coproduct, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein (r-GFP) and a recombinant subunit vaccine of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (r-LTB), primarily expressed in endosperm, and another two corn lines containing recombinant human collagen (r-CIα1) and r-GFP, primarily expressed in germ, were used as model systems. The kernels were either ground and used for fermentation or dry fractionated to recover germ-rich fractions prior to grinding for fermentation. The finished beers of whole ground kernels and r-protein-spent endosperm solids contained 127-139 and 138-155 g/L ethanol concentrations, respectively. The ethanol levels did not differ among transgenic and normal corn feedstocks, indicating the residual r-proteins did not negatively affect ethanol production. r-Protein extraction and germ removal also did not negatively affect fermentation of the remaining mass. Most r-proteins were inactivated during the mashing process used to prepare corn for fermentation. No functionally active r-GFP or r-LTB proteins were found after fermentation of the r-protein-spent solids; however, a small quantity of residual r-CIα1 was detected in DDGS, indicating that the safety of DDGS produced from transgenic grain for r-protein production needs to be evaluated for each event. Protease treatment during fermentation completely hydrolyzed the residual r-CIα1, and no residual r-proteins were detectable in DDGS.

  2. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    . Germ removed from corn grain before ethanol production provides an alternative source of fat for energy in lactating dairy cows when fed at 7 and 14% of diet DM. Our results suggest that fat from corn germ may be relatively protected with no adverse effect on DM intake, milk production, and milk composition when fed up to 14% of diet DM.

  3. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  4. A new magnesium bisulfite pretreatment (MBSP) development for bio-ethanol production from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heng; Ren, Jiwei; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Zhu, Junjun; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    This study established a new more neutral magnesium bisulfate pretreatment (MBSP) using magnesium bisulfate as sulfonating agent for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover. Using the MBSP with 5.21% magnesium bisulfate, 170°C and pH 5.2 for 60 min, about 90% of lignin and 80% of hemicellulose were removed from biomass and more than 90% cellulose conversion of substrate was achieved after 48 h hydrolysis. About 6.19 kg raw corn stover could produce 1 kg ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Meanwhile, MBSP also could protect sugars from excessive degradation, prevent fermentation inhibition formation and directly convert the hemicelluloses into xylooligosaccharides as higher-value products. These results suggested that the MBSP method offers an alternative approach to the efficient conversion of nonwoody lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and had broad space for development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol Production by Soy Fiber Treatment and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation in an Integrated Corn-Soy Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasreen K. Sekhon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble fiber (IF recovered from the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP of soybeans is a fraction rich in carbohydrates and proteins. It can be used to enhance ethanol production in an integrated corn-soy biorefinery, which combines EAEP with traditional corn-based ethanol processing. The present study evaluated IF as a substrate for ethanol production. The effects of treatment of IF (soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, liquid hot water (LHW, and enzymatic hydrolysis, primarily simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, as well as scaling up (250 mL to 60 L on ethanol production from IF alone or a corn and IF slurry were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis (pectinase, cellulase, and xylanase, each added at 5% soy solids during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation/SSCF was the best treatment to maximize ethanol production from IF. Ethanol yield almost doubled when SSCF of IF was performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli KO11. Addition of IF in dry-grind corn fermentation increased the ethanol production rate (~31%, but low ethanol tolerance of E. coli KO11 was a limiting factor for employing SSCF in combination corn and IF fermentation. Nonlinear Monod modeling accurately predicted the effect of ethanol concentration on E. coli KO11 growth kinetics by Hanes-Woolf linearization. Collectively, the results from this study suggest a potential of IF as a substrate, alone or in dry-grind corn fermentation, where it enhances the ethanol production rate. IF can be incorporated in the current bioethanol industry with no added capital investment, except enzymes.

  6. Establishment and assessment of a novel cleaner production process of corn grain fuel ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhang, Guiying; Yang, Xizhao; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2013-11-01

    An integrated corn ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to solve the problem of stillage handling, where thin stillage was treated by anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the following ethanol fermentation. This system was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage ran steadily with total chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98% at laboratory scale and 97% at pilot scale. Ethanol production was not influenced by recycling anaerobic digestion effluent at laboratory and pilot scale. Compared with dried distillers' grains with solubles produced in conventional process, dried distillers' grains in the proposed system exhibited higher quality because of increased protein concentration and decreased salts concentration. Energetic assessment indicated that application of this novel process enhanced the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 (conventional process) to 1.76. In conclusion, the proposed system possessed technical advantage over the conventional process for corn fuel ethanol production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasonic pretreatment for enhanced saccharification and fermentation of ethanol production from corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbo-Lomboy, Melissa T.

    sonicated samples in terms of ethanol conversion based on theoretical yield. Furthermore, statistical analysis confirmed that there was no significant difference (pcost of installing ultrasonics was higher compared to jet cooker equipment. However, due to the energy needs of jet cooking, a typical 189 million liters (50 million gallon) per year ethanol plant ethanol plant would save about 16% in pretreatment cost by using ultrasonics. Based on these results, ultrasonication is a promising pretreatment method in corn ethanol production, as an alternative to jet cooking.

  8. A whole cell biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production from dilute acid-pretreated corn stover hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seunghyun; Karim, Muhammad Nazmul [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-08-15

    In this research, a recombinant whole cell biocatalyst was developed by expressing three cellulases from Clostridium cellulolyticum - endoglucanase (Cel5A), exoglucanase (Cel9E), and {beta}-glucosidase - on the surface of the Escherichia coli LY01. The modified strain is identified as LY01/pRE1H-AEB. The cellulases were displayed on the surface of the cell by fusing with an anchor protein, PgsA. The developed whole cell biocatalyst was used for single-step ethanol fermentation using the phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) and the dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Ethanol production was 3.59 {+-} 0.15 g/L using 10 g/L of PASC, which corresponds to a theoretical yield of 95.4 {+-} 0.15%. Ethanol production was 0.30 {+-} 0.02 g/L when 1 g/L equivalent of glucose in the cellulosic fraction of the dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) was fermented for 84 h. A total of 0.71 {+-} 0.12 g/L ethanol was produced in 48 h when the PCS was fermented in the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation mode using the hemicellulosic (1 g/L of total soluble sugar) and as well as the cellulosic (1 g/L of glucose equivalent) parts of PCS. In a control experiment, 0.48 g/L ethanol was obtained from 1 g/L of hemicellulosic PCS. It was concluded that the whole cell biocatalyst could convert both cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates into ethanol in a single reactor. The developed C. cellulolyticum-E. coli whole cell biocatalyst also overcame the incompatible temperature problem of the frequently reported fungal-yeast systems. (orig.)

  9. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  10. Agronomic impacts of production scale harvesting of corn stover for cellulosic ethanol production in Central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Dustin

    This thesis investigates the impacts of corn stover harvest in Central Iowa with regards to nutrient removal, grain yield impacts and soil tilth. Focusing on phosphorus and potassium removal due to production of large, square bales of corn stover, 3.7 lb P2O5 and 18.7 lb K 2O per ton of corn stover were removed in 2011. P2O 5 removal remained statistically the same in 2012, but K2O decreased to 15.1 lb per ton of corn stover. Grain cart data showed no statistical difference in grain yield between harvest treatments, but yield monitor data showed a 3 - 17 bu/ac increase in 2012 and hand samples showed a 4 - 21 bu/ac increase in 2013. Corn stover residue levels decreased below 30% coverage when corn stover was harvested the previous fall and conventional tillage methods were used, but incorporating reduced tillage practices following corn stover harvest increased residue levels back up to 30% coverage. Corn emergence rates increased by at least 2,470 more plants per acre within the first three days of spiking, but final populations between harvest and nonharvest corn stover treatments were the same. Inorganic soil nitrogen in the form of ammonium and nitrate were not directly impacted by corn stover harvest, but it is hypothesized that weather patterns had a greater impact on nitrogen availability. Lastly, soil organic matter did not statistically change from 2011 to 2013 due to corn stover removal, even when analyzed within single soil types.

  11. Ethanol production in a membrane bioreactor: pilot-scale trials in a corn wet mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, J M; Rane, K D; Cheryan, M

    2001-01-01

    Pilot plant trials were conducted in a corn wet mill with a 7000-L membrane recycle bioreactor (MRB) that integrated ceramic microfiltration membranes in a semi-closed loop configuration with a stirred-tank reactor. Residence times of 7.5-10 h with ethanol outputs of 10-11.5% (v/v) were obtained when the cell concentration was 60-100 g/L dry wt of yeast, equivalent to about 10(9)-10(10) cells/mL. The performance of the membrane was dependent on the startup mode and pressure management techniques. A steady flux of 70 L/(m2 x h) could be maintained for several days before cleaning was necessary. The benefits of the MRB include better productivity; a clear product stream containing no particulates or yeast cells, which should improve subsequent stripping and distillation operations; and substantially reduced stillage handling. The capital cost of the MRB is $21-$34/(m3 x yr) ($0.08-$0.13/[gal x yr]) of ethanol capacity. Operating cost, including depreciation, energy, membrane replacement, maintenance, labor, and cleaning, is $4.5-9/m3 ($0.017-$0.034/gal) of ethanol.

  12. The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevin, R. J.; Mueller, S.

    2008-04-01

    To explore the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates financial and emissions accounting for dry-mill corn ethanol plants. Three policy options are modeled: (1) a charge per unit of life cycle CO2 emissions, (2) a charge per unit of direct biorefinery emissions only, and (3) a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). A CO2 charge on life cycle emissions increases production costs by between 0.005 and 0.008 l-1 per 10 Mg-1 CO2 price increment, across all modeled plant energy systems, with increases under direct emissions somewhat lower in all cases. In contrast, a LCFS increases the cost of production for selected plant energy systems only: a LCFS requiring reductions in average fuel global warming intensity (GWI) with a target of 10% below the 2005 baseline increases the production costs for coal-fired plants only. For all other plant types, the LCFS operates as a subsidy. The findings depend strongly on the magnitude of a land use change adder. Some land use change adders currently discussed in the literature will push the GWI of all modeled production systems above the LCFS target, flipping the CO2 price from a subsidy to a tax.

  13. Ethanol production from hydrothermal pretreated corn stover with a loop reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda [National Lab for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Department, Risoe-DTU, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    Hydrothermal pretreatment on raw corn stover (RCS) with a loop reactor was investigated at 195 C for different times varying between 10 min and 30 min. After pretreatment, the slurry was separated into water-insoluble solid (WIS) and liquid phase. Glucan and xylan were found in the both phases. The pretreatment condition showed a significant impact on xylan recovery. As the pretreatment time prolonged from 10 min to 30 min, the xylan recovery from liquid phase changed between 39.5% and 45.6% and the total xylan recoveries decreased from 84.7% to 61.6%. While the glucan recovery seemed not sensitive to the different pretreatment times. The glucan recovered from liquid was from 4.9% to 5.6% and the total glucan recoveries from all the pretreatments were higher than 98%. Besides HMF and furfural, acetic, lactic, formic and glycolic acids were also found in the liquid phase. All the concentrations of these potential inhibitors were lower enough not to affect the activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). Compared with the ethanol production of 32.4% from the RCS with S. cerevisiae, all the WISs gave higher ethanol productions ranging between 61.2% and 71.2%. When the xylan was taken into consideration, the best pretreatment condition would be 195 C, 15 min and the estimated total ethanol production was 201 g kg{sup -1} RCS by assuming the fermentation of both C-6 and C-5 with the ethanol yield of 0.51 g g{sup -1} and 0.47 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  14. Ethanol production from hydrothermal pretreated corn stover with a loop reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment on raw corn stover (RCS) with a loop reactor was investigated at 195 o C for different times varying between 10 min and 30 min. After pretreatment, the slurry was separated into water-insoluble solid (WIS) and liquid phase. Glucan and xylan were found in the both phases. The pretreatment condition showed a significant impact on xylan recovery. As the pretreatment time prolonged from 10 min to 30 min, the xylan recovery from liquid phase changed between 39.5% and 45.6% and the total xylan recoveries decreased from 84.7% to 61.6%. While the glucan recovery seemed not sensitive to the different pretreatment times. The glucan recovered from liquid was from 4.9% to 5.6% and the total glucan recoveries from all the pretreatments were higher than 98%. Besides HMF and furfural, acetic, lactic, formic and glycolic acids were also found in the liquid phase. All the concentrations of these potential inhibitors were lower enough not to affect the activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). Compared with the ethanol production of 32.4% from the RCS with S. cerevisiae, all the WISs gave higher ethanol productions ranging between 61.2% and 71.2%. When the xylan was taken into consideration, the best pretreatment condition would be 195 o C, 15 min and the estimated total ethanol production was 201 g kg -1 RCS by assuming the fermentation of both C-6 and C-5 with the ethanol yield of 0.51 g g -1 and 0.47 g g -1 , respectively.

  15. Development of corn silk as a biocarrier for Zymomonas mobilis biofilms in ethanol production from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhanakasem, Tatsaporn; Tiwari, Rashmi; Thanonkeo, Pornthap

    2016-01-01

    Z. mobilis cell immobilization has been proposed as an effective means of improving ethanol production. In this work, polystyrene and corn silk were used as biofilm developmental matrices for Z. mobilis ethanol production with rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate. Rice straw was hydrolyzed by dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis. The final hydrolysate contained furfural (271.95 ± 76.30 ppm), 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (0.07 ± 0.00 ppm), vanillin (1.81 ± 0.00 ppm), syringaldehyde (5.07 ± 0.83 ppm), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HB) (2.39 ± 1.20 ppm) and acetic acid (0.26 ± 0.08%). Bacterial attachment or biofilm formation of Z. mobilis strain TISTR 551 on polystyrene and delignified corn silk carrier provided significant ethanol yields. Results showed up to 0.40 ± 0.15 g ethanol produced/g glucose consumed when Z. mobilis was immobilized on a polystyrene carrier and 0.51 ± 0.13 g ethanol produced/g glucose consumed when immobilized on delignified corn silk carrier under batch fermentation by Z. mobilis TISTR 551 biofilm. The higher ethanol yield from immobilized, rather than free living, Z. mobilis could possibly be explained by a higher cell density, better control of anaerobic conditions and higher toxic tolerance of Z. mobilis biofilms over free cells.

  16. Optimization of a corn steep medium for production of ethanol from synthesis gas fermentation by Clostridium ragsdalei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Jyotisna; Tanner, Ralph S

    2012-04-01

    Fermentation of biomass derived synthesis gas to ethanol is a sustainable approach that can provide more usable energy and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. The effects of various medium components on ethanol production by Clostridium ragsdalei utilizing syngas components (CO:CO(2)) were investigated, and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used as an inexpensive nutrient source for ethanol production by C. ragsdalei. Elimination of Mg(2+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) decreased ethanol production from 38 to 3.7, 23 and 5.93 mM, respectively. Eliminating Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) or increasing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) concentrations had no effect on ethanol production. However, increased Na(+) concentration (171 mM) inhibited growth and ethanol production. Yeast extract (0.5 g l(-1)) and trace metals were necessary for growth of C. ragsdalei. CSL alone did not support growth and ethanol production. Nutrients limiting in CSL were trace metals, NH(4) (+) and reducing agent (Cys: cysteine sulfide). Supplementation of trace metals, NH(4) (+) and CyS to CSL (20 g l(-1), wet weight basis) yielded better growth and similar ethanol production as compared to control medium. Using 10 g l(-1), the nutritional limitation led to reduced ethanol production. Higher concentrations of CSL (50 and 100 g l(-1)) were inhibitory for cell growth and ethanol production. The CSL could replace yeast extract, vitamins and minerals (excluding NH(4) (+)). The optimized CSL medium produced 120 and 50 mM of ethanol and acetate, respectively. The CSL could provide as an inexpensive source of most of the nutrients required for the syngas fermentation, and thus could improve the economics of ethanol production from biomass derived synthesis gas by C. ragsdalei.

  17. Ethanol production from corn cobs by co-culture of Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger were used in a co-culture for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of 1% and 10% (w/v) dry pre-treated corn cobs to ethanol. Positive controls of glucose of same concentrations in a synthetic medium were also fermented. At 1% substrate concentration, ...

  18. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...

  19. Furfural and ethanol production from corn stover by dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant carbohydrate source in the world and has potential for economical production of biofuels, especially ethanol. However, its composition is an obstacle for the production of ethanol by the conventional ethanol producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as it...

  20. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  1. Process analysis and optimization of simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of ethylenediamine-pretreated corn stover for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Zhao, Xiong; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Liu, Li; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Improving ethanol concentration and reducing enzyme dosage are main challenges in bioethanol refinery from lignocellulosic biomass. Ethylenediamine (EDA) pretreatment is a novel method to improve enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulose. In this study, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process using EDA-pretreated corn stover was analyzed and optimized to verify the constraint factors on ethanol production. Highest ethanol concentration was achieved with the following optimized SSCF conditions at 6% glucan loading: 12-h pre-hydrolysis, 34 °C, pH 5.4, and inoculum size of 5 g dry cell/L. As glucan loading increased from 6 to 9%, ethanol concentration increased from 33.8 to 48.0 g/L, while ethanol yield reduced by 7%. Mass balance of SSCF showed that the reduction of ethanol yield with the increasing solid loading was mainly due to the decrease of glucan enzymatic conversion and xylose metabolism of the strain. Tween 20 and BSA increased ethanol concentration through enhancing enzymatic efficiency. The solid-recycled SSCF process reduced enzyme dosage by 40% (from 20 to 12 mg protein/g glucan) to achieve the similar ethanol concentration (~ 40 g/L) comparing to conventional SSCF. Here, we established an efficient SSCF procedure using EDA-pretreated biomass. Glucose enzymatic yield and yeast viability were regarded as the key factors affecting ethanol production at high solid loading. The extensive analysis of SSCF would be constructive to overcome the bottlenecks and improve ethanol production in cellulosic ethanol refinery.

  2. Ethanol and biogas production after steam pretreatment of corn stover with or without the addition of sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondesson Pia-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulosic biomass, such as corn stover, is a potential raw material for ethanol production. One step in the process of producing ethanol from lignocellulose is enzymatic hydrolysis, which produces fermentable sugars from carbohydrates present in the corn stover in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose. A pretreatment step is crucial to achieve efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to soluble sugars, and later ethanol. This study has investigated steam pretreatment of corn stover, with and without sulphuric acid as catalyst, and examined the effect of residence time (5–10 min and temperature (190–210°C on glucose and xylose recovery. The pretreatment conditions with and without dilute acid that gave the highest glucose yield were then used in subsequent experiments. Materials pretreated at the optimal conditions were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF to produce ethanol, and remaining organic compounds were used to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD. Results The highest glucose yield achieved was 86%, obtained after pretreatment at 210°C for 10 minutes in the absence of catalyst, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest yield using sulphuric acid, 78%, was achieved using pretreatment at 200°C for 10 minutes. These two pretreatment conditions were investigated using two different process configurations. The highest ethanol and methane yields were obtained from the material pretreated in the presence of sulphuric acid. The slurry in this case was split into a solid fraction and a liquid fraction, where the solid fraction was used to produce ethanol and the liquid fraction to produce biogas. The total energy recovery in this case was 86% of the enthalpy of combustion energy in corn stover. Conclusions The highest yield, comprising ethanol, methane and solids, was achieved using pretreatment in the presence of sulphuric acid followed by a process configuration in

  3. Presence and biological activity of antibiotics used in fuel ethanol and corn co-product production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compart, D M Paulus; Carlson, A M; Crawford, G I; Fink, R C; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Dicostanzo, A; Shurson, G C

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in ethanol production to control bacteria from competing with yeast for nutrients during starch fermentation. However, there is no published scientific information on whether antibiotic residues are present in distillers grains (DG), co-products from ethanol production, or whether they retain their biological activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of various antibiotic residues in DG and determine whether residues were biologically active. Twenty distillers wet grains and 20 distillers dried grains samples were collected quarterly from 9 states and 43 ethanol plants in the United States. Samples were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, crude fat, S, P, and pH to describe the nutritional characteristics of the samples evaluated. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin M1, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, virginiamycin residues were determined, using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved bioassay method. Samples were extracted and further analyzed for biological activity by exposing the sample extracts to 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/mL concentrations of sentinel bacterial strains Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Extracts that inhibited bacterial growth were considered to have biological activity. Physiochemical characteristics varied among samples but were consistent with previous findings. Thirteen percent of all samples contained low (≤1.12 mg/kg) antibiotic concentrations. Only 1 sample extract inhibited growth of Escherichia coli at 10(4) CFU/mL, but this sample contained no detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues. No extracts inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth. These data indicate that the likelihood of detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues in DG is low; and if detected, they are found in very low concentrations. The inhibition in only 1 DG

  4. Development of rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology for ethanol production from extractive ammonia pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingjie; Liu, Yanping; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    High enzyme loading and low productivity are two major issues impeding low cost ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This work applied rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology (RaBIT) and extractive ammonia (EA) pretreatment for conversion of corn stover (CS) to ethanol at high solids loading. Enzymes were recycled via recycling unhydrolyzed solids. Enzymatic hydrolysis with recycled enzymes and fermentation with recycled yeast cells were studied. Both enzymatic hydrolysis time and fermentation time were shortened to 24 h. Ethanol productivity was enhanced by two times and enzyme loading was reduced by 30%. Glucan and xylan conversions reached as high as 98% with an enzyme loading of as low as 8.4 mg protein per g glucan. The overall ethanol yield was 227 g ethanol/kg EA-CS (191 g ethanol/kg untreated CS). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1713-1720. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modeling energy production of solar thermal systems and wind turbines for installation at corn ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Elizabeth

    Nearly every aspect of human existence relies on energy in some way. Most of this energy is currently derived from fossil fuel resources. Increasing energy demands coupled with environmental and national security concerns have facilitated the move towards renewable energy sources. Biofuels like corn ethanol are one of the ways the U.S. has significantly reduced petroleum consumption. However, the large energy requirement of corn ethanol limits the net benefit of the fuel. Using renewable energy sources to produce ethanol can greatly improve its economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this study was to model the useful energy received from a solar thermal array and a wind turbine at various locations to determine the feasibility of applying these technologies at ethanol plants around the country. The model calculates thermal energy received from a solar collector array and electricity generated by a wind turbine utilizing various input data to characterize the equipment. Project cost and energy rate inputs are used to evaluate the profitability of the solar array or wind turbine. The current state of the wind and solar markets were examined to give an accurate representation of the economics of each industry. Eighteen ethanol plant locations were evaluated for the viability of a solar thermal array and/or wind turbine. All ethanol plant locations have long payback periods for solar thermal arrays, but high natural gas prices significantly reduce this timeframe. Government incentives will be necessary for the economic feasibility of solar thermal arrays. Wind turbines can be very profitable for ethanol plants in the Midwest due to large wind resources. The profitability of wind power is sensitive to regional energy prices. However, government incentives for wind power do not significantly change the economic feasibility of a wind turbine. This model can be used by current or future ethanol facilities to investigate or begin the planning process for a

  6. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, W.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.; Hicks, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by

  7. Improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from corn stalk by alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ling-Yan; Ma, Yu-Long; Ma, Xiao-Xia; Lv, Jun-Min

    2016-07-01

    A combinative technology of alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used to pretreat corn stalk (CS) for improving the efficiencies of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The results showed that this strategy could not only remove hemicellulose and lignin but also decrease the crystallinity of cellulose. About 98.0% of enzymatic hydrolysis yield was obtained from the pretreated CS as compared with 46.9% from the untreated sample. The yield for corresponding ethanol yield was 64.6% while untreated CS was only 18.8%. Besides, xylose yield obtained from the untreated CS was only 11.1%, while this value was 93.8% for alkali with NMMO pretreated sample. These results suggest that a combination of alkali with 50% (wt/wt) NMMO solution may be a promising alternative for pretreatment of lignocellulose, which can increase the productions of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  9. Possible effects of the Worldwide production of ethanol in two of the main countries that imports corn. South Korea and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Martínez González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is the second largest importer of corn and Mexico is the third. Although the corn has its origin in this country, since 1994 Mexico has become one of the major importers in the world. This essay examines the possible economic implications for Mexico and Korea for the increased production of ethanol from corn. The analysis parts of the close relationship of three interconnected problems, which are at the root of the current energy crisis: global warming, oil crisis and biofuel production. This is causing a global food crisis. The production of ethanol from corn is emerging as an alternative that may address global warming and attacking the alleged shortage of oil, which has resulted in rising prices. The point in discussion is what are the possible effects of policies to induce the production of biofuels (ethanol on the main importers of corn. That’s why the current status of the ethanol industry is analyzed, whose main protagonists on the world stage are the United States and Brazil. Then we made a brief analysis of the market of corn. Finally, based on the foregoing, we reflect on the possible implications it might have on the development of food production of etanol.

  10. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  11. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when

  12. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  13. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

  14. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-01-01

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol's life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement credits

  15. Potassium sorbate reduces production of ethanol and 2 esters in corn silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Sasha; Franco, Roberta B; Kung, Limin

    2014-01-01

    concentrations within silage were measured after ensiling and sample storage using a headspace gas chromatography method. The high dose of potassium sorbate was the only treatment that inhibited the production of multiple VOC. Compared with the control response, it reduced ethanol by 58%, ethyl acetate by 46...

  16. Fuel ethanol production from wet oxidised corn stover by S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiang, zhang; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2012-01-01

    of 74.6% were obtained after pretreatment. 86.5% of cellulose was remained in the solid cake. After 24h hydrolysis at 50°C using cellulase (Cellubrix L), the achieved conversion of cellulose to glucose was 64.8%. Ethanol production was evaluated from dried solid cake and the hydrolysate was employed...

  17. Composition of corn dry-grind ethanol by-products: DDGS, wet cake, and thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Hendrickson, Rick; Ezeji, Thaddeus; Blaschek, Hans; Dien, Bruce; Cotta, Michael; Dale, Bruce; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    DDGS and wet distillers' grains are the major co-products of the dry grind ethanol facilities. As they are mainly used as animal feed, a typical compositional analysis of the DDGS and wet distillers' grains mainly focuses on defining the feedstock's nutritional characteristics. With an increasing demand for fuel ethanol, the DDGS and wet distillers' grains are viewed as a potential bridge feedstock for ethanol production from other cellulosic biomass. The introduction of DDGS or wet distillers' grains as an additional feed to the existing dry grind plants for increased ethanol yield requires a different approach to the compositional analysis of the material. Rather than focusing on its nutritional value, this new approach aims at determining more detailed chemical composition, especially on polymeric sugars such as cellulose, starch and xylan, which release fermentable sugars upon enzymatic hydrolysis. In this paper we present a detailed and complete compositional analysis procedure suggested for DDGS and wet distillers' grains, as well as the resulting compositions completed by three different research groups. Polymeric sugars, crude protein, crude oil and ash contents of DDGS and wet distillers' grains were accurately and reproducibly determined by the compositional analysis procedure described in this paper.

  18. Effects of potassium sorbate and Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1 on production of ethanol and other volatile organic compounds in corn silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Windle, Michelle; Merrill, Caitlyn

    2015-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect of additives on production of nine silage VOC in corn silage, including compounds thought to contribute to poor air quality or affect feed intake (alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol; esters: methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate; and aldehydes: acetaldehyde, valeraldehyde....... These results provide additional evidence that potassium sorbate is an effective additive for reducing production of ethanol and ethyl esters in corn silage. Combining potassium sorbate with L. plantarum may provide additional benefits, although the persistence of this effect for silages with higher VOC...

  19. Analysis of supply chain, scale factor, and optimum plant capacity for the production of ethanol from corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboreiro, Jose; Hilaly, Ahmad K.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed model is used to perform a thorough analysis on ethanol production from corn stover via the dilute acid process. The biomass supply chain cost model accounts for all steps needed to source corn stover including collection, transportation, and storage. The manufacturing cost model is based on work done at NREL; attainable conversions of key process parameters are used to calculate production cost. The choice of capital investment scaling function and scaling parameter has a significant impact on the optimum plant capacity. For the widely used exponential function, the scaling factors are functions of plant capacity. The pre-exponential factor decreases with increasing plant capacity while the exponential factor increases as the plant capacity increases. The use of scaling parameters calculated for small plant capacities leads to falsely large optimum plants; data from a wide range of plant capacities is required to produce accurate results. A mathematical expression to scale capital investment for fermentation-based biorefineries is proposed which accounts for the linear scaling behavior of bio-reactors (such as saccharification vessels and fermentors) as well as the exponential nature of all other plant equipment. Ignoring the linear scaling behavior of bio-reactors leads to artificially large optimum plant capacities. The minimum production cost is found to be in the range of 789–830 $ m −3 which is significantly higher than previously reported. Optimum plant capacities are in the range of 5750–9850 Mg d −1 . The optimum plant capacity and production cost are highly sensitive to farmer participation in biomass harvest for low participation rates. -- Highlights: •A detailed model is used to perform a technoeconomic analysis for the production of ethanol from corn stover. •The capital investment scaling factors were found to be a function of plant capacity. •Bio-reactors (such as saccharification vessels and fermentors) in large size

  20. Improving the corn-ethanol industry: studying protein separation techniques to obtain higher value added product options for distillers grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Bals, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Dale, B.

    2008-01-01

    Currently in America the biofuel ethanol is primarily being produced by the dry grind technique to obtain the starch contained in the corn grains and subsequently subjected to fermentation. This so-called 1st generation technology has two setbacks; first the lingering debate whether its life cycle

  1. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.M.; Rosentrater, K.A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory

    2007-09-15

    The microbiology of post-production distillers wet grains (DWG) was investigated over a period of 9 days at an industrial ethanol plant. Samples of the DWG were physically and chemically characterized. Compositional analyses were conducted for protein, fiber, and fat. Fixed suspensions of DWG were dispersed and disrupted by sonication. Bacterial cells were enumerated under epifluorescent illumination. Solid media and standard dilution were used to enumerate total colony-forming units (CFU) of lactic-acid producing bacteria (LAB), and aerobic heterotrophic organisms. The DWG had a pH of approximately 4.4, a moisture content of 53.5 per cent, and 4 x 10{sup 5} total yeast cells. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were identified during the study, 10 of which were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera. Two of the yeasts were of the lactic-acid Pediococcus pentosaceus strain, and 1 of the yeasts was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Results showed that the matrix of the DWG produced severe technical difficulties for several of the culture-independent community-level analyses. It was concluded that numbers of potentially beneficial bacteria appeared to increase over the time period relative to potential spoilage agents. Molds capable of producing mycotoxins colonized the DWG and grew to high densities over the 9 day period. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Ethanol production from wet oxidized corn straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q.; Yin, Y.; Thygesen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    remained in the solid fraction and recovery of cellulose was 95.87% after pretreatment. After 24 h hydrolysis at 50°C using cellulase, the achieved conversion of cellulose to glucose was about 67.6%. After 142 h of SSF with substrate concentration of 8%, ethanol yield of 79.0% of the theoretical...

  3. Periodic peristalsis increasing acetone-butanol-ethanol productivity during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-exploded corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2016-11-01

    The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of lignocellulose at high solids content has recently attracted extensive attention. However, the productivity of high solids ABE fermentation of lignocellulose is typically low in traditional processes due to the lack of efficient intensifying methods. In the present study, periodic peristalsis, a novel intensifying method, was applied to improve ABE production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-exploded corn straw using Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. The ABE concentration and the ABE productivity of SSF at a solids content of 17.5% (w/w) with periodic peristalsis were 17.1 g/L and 0.20 g/(L h), respectively, which were higher than those obtained under static conditions (15.2 g/L and 0.14 g/(L h)). The initial sugar conversion rate over the first 12 h with periodic peristalsis was 4.67 g/(L h) at 10 FPU/g cellulase dosage and 15% (w/w) solids content, an increase of 49.7% compared with the static conditions. With periodic peristalsis, the period of batch fermentation was shortened from 108 h to 84 h. The optimal operating regime was a low frequency (6 h -1 ) of periodic peristalsis in the acid-production phase (0-48 h) of SSF. Therefore, periodic peristalsis should be an effective intensifying method to increase the productivity of ABE fermentation at high solids content. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant

  5. Analysis of fractionation in corn-to-ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Camille

    As the dry grind ethanol industry has grown, the research and technology surrounding ethanol production and co-product value has increased. Including use of back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation. Front-end fractionation is pre-fermentation separation of the corn kernel into 3 fractions: endosperm, bran, and germ. The endosperm fraction enters the existing ethanol plant, and a high protein DDGS product remains after fermentation. High value oil is extracted out of the germ fraction. This leaves corn germ meal and bran as co-products from the other two streams. These 3 co-products have a very different composition than traditional corn DDGS. Installing this technology allows ethanol plants to increase profitability by tapping into more diverse markets, and ultimately could allow for an increase in profitability. An ethanol plant model was developed to evaluate both back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation technology and predict the change in co-products based on technology installed. The model runs in Microsoft Excel and requires inputs of whole corn composition (proximate analysis), amino acid content, and weight to predict the co-product quantity and quality. User inputs include saccharification and fermentation efficiencies, plant capacity, and plant process specifications including front-end fractionation and backend oil extraction, if applicable. This model provides plants a way to assess and monitor variability in co-product composition due to the variation in whole corn composition. Additionally the co-products predicted in this model are entered into the US Pork Center of Excellence, National Swine Nutrition Guide feed formulation software. This allows the plant user and animal nutritionists to evaluate the value of new co-products in existing animal diets.

  6. Maximizing cellulosic ethanol potentials by minimizing wastewater generation and energy consumption: Competing with corn ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Energy consumption and wastewater generation in cellulosic ethanol production are among the determinant factors on overall cost and technology penetration into fuel ethanol industry. This study analyzed the energy consumption and wastewater generation by the new biorefining process technology, dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification (DryPB), as well as by the current mainstream technologies. DryPB minimizes the steam consumption to 8.63GJ and wastewater generation to 7.71tons in the core steps of biorefining process for production of one metric ton of ethanol, close to 7.83GJ and 8.33tons in corn ethanol production, respectively. The relatively higher electricity consumption is compensated by large electricity surplus from lignin residue combustion. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by DryPB is below $2/gal and falls into the range of corn ethanol production cost. The work indicates that the technical and economical gap between cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol has been almost filled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  8. Phenology and biomass production of adapted and non-adapted tropical corn populations in Central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel production in the Midwestern United States has largely focused on corn (Zea mays L.) grain for ethanol production and more recently, corn stover for lignocellulosic ethanol. As an alternative to conventional corn, tropical corn populations have been evaluated. Tropical corn is the term used ...

  9. Production of ethanol from cellulose (sawdust)

    OpenAIRE

    Otulugbu, Kingsley

    2012-01-01

    The production of ethanol from food such as corn, cassava etc. is the most predominate way of producing ethanol. This has led to a shortage in food, inbalance in food chain, increased food price and indirect land use. This thesis thus explores using another feed for the production of ethanol- hence ethanol from cellulose. Sawdust was used to carry out the experiment from the production of ethanol and two methods were considered: SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) and SSF (Simultaneous...

  10. Greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol from Iowa corn: Life cycle assessment versus system wide approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Hongli; Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, the need for the appropriate use of LCA in policy contexts is highlighted by recent findings that corn-based ethanol may actually increase GHG emissions. This is in contrary to most existing LCA results. LCA estimates can vary across studies due to heterogeneities in inputs and production technology. Whether marginal or average impacts are considered can matter as well. Most important of all, LCA is product-centered. The determination of the impact of biofuels expansion requires a system wide approach (SWA) that accounts for impacts on all affected products and processes. This paper presents both LCA and SWA for ethanol based on Iowa corn. LCA was conducted in several different ways. Growing corn in rotation with soybean generates 35% less GHG emissions than growing corn after corn. Based on average corn production, ethanol's GHG benefits were lower in 2007 than in 2006 because of an increase in continuous corn in 2007. When only additional corn was considered, ethanol emitted about 22% less GHGs than gasoline. SWA was applied to two simple cases. Using 2006 as a baseline and 2007 as a scenario, corn ethanol's benefits were about 20% of the emissions of gasoline. If geographical limits are expanded beyond Iowa, then corn ethanol could generate more GHG emissions than gasoline. These results highlight the importance of boundary definition for both LCA and SWA.

  11. Greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol from Iowa corn: Life cycle assessment versus system wide approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hongli [Department of Economics, 377 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Rubin, Ofir D. [Department of Economics, 573 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Babcock, Bruce A. [Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Department of Economics, 578F Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, the need for the appropriate use of LCA in policy contexts is highlighted by recent findings that corn-based ethanol may actually increase GHG emissions. This is in contrary to most existing LCA results. LCA estimates can vary across studies due to heterogeneities in inputs and production technology. Whether marginal or average impacts are considered can matter as well. Most important of all, LCA is product-centered. The determination of the impact of biofuels expansion requires a system wide approach (SWA) that accounts for impacts on all affected products and processes. This paper presents both LCA and SWA for ethanol based on Iowa corn. LCA was conducted in several different ways. Growing corn in rotation with soybean generates 35% less GHG emissions than growing corn after corn. Based on average corn production, ethanol's GHG benefits were lower in 2007 than in 2006 because of an increase in continuous corn in 2007. When only additional corn was considered, ethanol emitted about 22% less GHGs than gasoline. SWA was applied to two simple cases. Using 2006 as a baseline and 2007 as a scenario, corn ethanol's benefits were about 20% of the emissions of gasoline. If geographical limits are expanded beyond Iowa, then corn ethanol could generate more GHG emissions than gasoline. These results highlight the importance of boundary definition for both LCA and SWA. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the Potential for the Production of Lignocellulosic Based Ethanol at Existing Corn Ethanol Facilities: Final Subcontract Report, 2 March 2000 - 30 March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Subcontract report on opportunities to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. The goals of this study were: (1) To provide the opportunity to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. (2) To take advantage of the grain-processing infrastructure by investigating the co-location of additional biomass conversion facilities at an existing plant site.

  13. Fuel ethanol production from granular corn starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a long term repeated SSF process with full stillage recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Wojciech; Szymanowska, Daria; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-05-01

    A major problem with fermentative ethanol production is the formation of large amounts of numerous organic pollutants. In an industrial distillery, stillage, fermenter and condenser cooling water are the main sources of wastewater. However, the selection of a proper technology makes it possible to almost completely avoid emissions of such kind of wastewater to the environment. This study examines the effect of stillage recirculation on fuel ethanol production. It is based on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using a native starch obtained from corn flour. It was shown that the yield of the ethanol production was not influenced by the recycled stillage, a mean yield being 83.38% of the theoretical value. No significant trend for change in the ethanol concentration or in the residual starch was observed during any particular run, even after the 75% of fresh water was replaced with stillage. Thus, by applying this new clean technology it is possible to significantly reduce the rate of water consumption and in this way the production of by-products such as stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael; Wu, May; Hong Huo

    2007-01-01

    Since the United States began a programme to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types-categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly-from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path

  15. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  16. The effect of ethanol listing on corn prices: Evidence from spot and futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirer, Rıza; Kutan, Ali M.; Shen, Fanglin

    2012-01-01

    The use of corn for ethanol has been the topic of heated discussions in the media and among policy makers. As part of this debate, some observers have argued that the use of corn in the production of ethanol has had adverse effects on corn prices. This paper contributes to this reviving debate by examining the impact of the listing of ethanol futures in the Chicago Board of Trade on the spot and futures prices for corn. We find a significant listing effect, indicating that the listing of ethanol has had a positive contribution to both price and volatility in the corn market, especially in the spot and the shorter maturity futures contracts, and mostly through its interaction with trading volume in the corn market. We discuss the policy implications of the findings for investors and its relevance for the ongoing debate on US energy policy. We conclude with some suggestions for future research.

  17. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Monika; Diffenbaugh, Noah; Hertel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%. (letter)

  18. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Monika; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%.

  19. Growing ethanol sector drives corn supply chain shift for the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Schmitt, J.; Brauman, K. A.; Smith, T. M.; Suh, K.

    2017-12-01

    The US is the largest producer in the world, 89% of corn production uses in domestic demands in 2012. Carbon emission and irrigated water usage in the corn farming stage are hot-spot in the meat production sectors, comprise 37% of all US corn demand. The annual capacity of the ethanol sector increases from 6.5 billion gallons to 15.3 billion gallons for the last decade. The growth of corn demand in ethanol sector makes corn supply chain shift. Most of the ethanol plants located in the Mid-west where is the top 12 corn producing states. Therefore animal feeds take more supply from the other states. The purpose of this study is to estimate environmental impacts and water scarcity associated embedded corn by the temporal and spatial corn supply chain model based on a cost minimization. We use publicly available county-level data on corn production, feed demands, aggregative carbon emission and irrigated water usage in farming state, and a water depletion index as a metric for determining water scarcity. The water stressed counties produce 23.3% of US total corn production in 2012, and the irrigated corn is 14.2%. We simulated the corn supply chain using linear programming and developed the web-based visualization tools called FoodS3 (Food Systems Supply-chain Sustainability tool, http://foods3.org).

  20. An energy analysis of ethanol from cellulosic feedstock. Corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The shift from fossil resources to renewables for energy and materials production has been the driving force for research on energy analysis and environmental impact assessment of bio-based production. This study presents a detailed energy analysis of corn stover based ethanol production using advanced cellulosic technologies. The method used differs from that in LCA and from major studies on the subject as published in Science in two respects. First, it accounts for all the co-products together and so mainly avoids the allocation problems which plague all LCA studies explicitly and other studies implicitly. Second, the system boundaries only involve the content of the energy products used in the system but not the production processes of these energy products, like refining and electricity production. We normalized the six Science studies to this unified method. The resulting values of the total energy product use in both agricultural production and biomass conversion to ethanol are lower than these literature values. LCA-type of values including energy conversion would systematically be higher, in our case study around 45%. The net energy value of cellulosic ethanol production is substantially higher than the ones of the corn-based technologies, and it is similar to incineration and gasification for electricity production. The detailed analysis of energy inputs indicates opportunities to optimize the system. This form of energy analysis helps establishing models for the analysis of more complex systems such as biorefineries. (author)

  1. A generalized disjunctive programming framework for the optimal synthesis and analysis of processes for ethanol production from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Felipe; Aroca, Germán; Caballero, José Antonio; Conejeros, Raúl

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the techno-economic performance of process configurations for ethanol production involving solid-liquid separators and reactors in the saccharification and fermentation stage, a family of process configurations where few alternatives have been proposed. Since including these process alternatives creates a large number of possible process configurations, a framework for process synthesis and optimization is proposed. This approach is supported on kinetic models fed with experimental data and a plant-wide techno-economic model. Among 150 process configurations, 40 show an improved MESP compared to a well-documented base case (BC), almost all include solid separators and some show energy retrieved in products 32% higher compared to the BC. Moreover, 16 of them also show a lower capital investment per unit of ethanol produced per year. Several of the process configurations found in this work have not been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  3. Fate of Fumonisin B1 in Naturally Contaminated Corn during Ethanol Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothast, R. J.; Bennett, G. A.; Vancauwenberge, J. E.; Richard, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two lots of corn naturally contaminated with fumonisin B1 (15 and 36 ppm) and a control lot (no fumonisin B1 detected) were used as substrates for ethanol production in replicate 8.5-liter yeast fermentations. Ethanol yields were 8.8% for both the control and low-fumonisin corn, while the high-fumonisin corn contained less starch and produced 7.2% ethanol. Little degradation of fumonisin occurred during fermentation, and most was recovered in the distillers' grains, thin stillage, and distillers' solubles fractions. No toxin was detected in the distilled alcohol or centrifuge solids. Ethanol fermentation of fumonisin-contaminated corn coupled with effective detoxification of distillers' grains and aqueous stillage is suggested as a practical process strategy for salvaging contaminated corn. PMID:16348623

  4. Fate of Fumonisin B1 in Naturally Contaminated Corn during Ethanol Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bothast, R. J.; Bennett, G. A.; Vancauwenberge, J. E.; Richard, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two lots of corn naturally contaminated with fumonisin B1 (15 and 36 ppm) and a control lot (no fumonisin B1 detected) were used as substrates for ethanol production in replicate 8.5-liter yeast fermentations. Ethanol yields were 8.8% for both the control and low-fumonisin corn, while the high-fumonisin corn contained less starch and produced 7.2% ethanol. Little degradation of fumonisin occurred during fermentation, and most was recovered in the distillers' grains, thin stillage, and distill...

  5. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  6. Explaining the reductions in US corn ethanol processing costs: Testing competing hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    The processing costs of US corn ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983 as production volumes have increased seventeen-fold. We investigate the role of various factors that could explain this, including economies of scale, cumulative experience, induced innovation in response to rising input prices, an autonomous technological change, and trade induced competition from imported ethanol. Using data on dry-mill ethanol processing costs over the 1983–2005 period, we find evidence to show that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale, that learning by doing played an important role in reducing these processing costs with a learning rate of 0.25, and that sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. Other factors such as the rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant. The inclusion of these competing explanations for the reduction in processing costs of US corn ethanol lead to a significantly higher learning rate than otherwise, and this learning rate is found to be robust across specifications. - Highlights: ► We investigate the role of various factors that could explain the reduction in US corn ethanol processing costs over the period 1983–2005. ► We find that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale. ► Learning by doing played an important role in reducing these costs with a learning rate of 0.25. ► Sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. ► Rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant.

  7. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saricks, Christoper [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-12-19

    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  8. Environmental efficiency among corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesmero, Juan P.; Perrin, Richard K.; Fulginiti, Lilyan E.

    2012-01-01

    Economic viability of the US corn ethanol industry depends on prices, technical and economic efficiency of plants and the extent of policy support. Public policy support is tied to the environmental efficiency of plants measured as their impact on emissions of greenhouse gases. This study evaluates the environmental efficiency of seven recently constructed ethanol plants in the North Central region of the US, using nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA). The minimum feasible level of GHG emissions per unit of ethanol is calculated for each plant and this level is decomposed into its technical and allocative sources. Results show that, on average, plants in our sample may be able to reduce GHG emissions by a maximum of 6% or by 2.94 Gg per quarter. Input and output allocations that maximize returns over operating costs (ROOC) are also found based on observed prices. The environmentally efficient allocation, the ROOC-maximizing allocation, and the observed allocation for each plant are combined to calculate economic (shadow) cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These shadow costs gauge the extent to which there is a trade off or a complementarity between environmental and economic targets. Results reveal that, at current activity levels, plants may have room for simultaneous improvement of environmental efficiency and economic profitability. -- Highlights: ► Environmental efficiency of ethanol plants in the North Central US is evaluated. ► Economic (shadow) cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is calculated. ► Feasible changes in the mix of inputs and byproducts can reduce GHG emissions. ► On average plants may be able to reduce GHG emissions by 2.94 Gg per quarter. ► GHG reductions may be achieved at a moderate or zero operating cost.

  9. Greenhouse-gas Consequences of US Corn-based Ethanol in a Flat World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Coe, M. T.; Nepstad, D. C.; Donner, S. D.; Bustamante, M. M.; Neill, C.

    2008-12-01

    Competition for arable land is now occurring among food, fiber, and fuel production sectors. In the USA, increased corn production for ethanol has come primarily at the expense of reduced soybean production. Only a few countries, mainly Brazil, have appropriate soils, climate, and infrastructure needed for large absolute increases in cropped area in the next decade that could make up the lost US soybean production. Our objective is to improve estimates of the potential net greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences, both domestically and in Brazil, of meeting the new goals established by the US Congress for expansion of corn- based ethanol in the USA. To meet this goal of 57 billion liters per year of corn-based ethanol production, an additional 1-7 million hectares will need to be planted in corn, depending upon assumptions regarding future increases in corn yield. Net GHG emissions saved in the USA by substituting ethanol for gasoline are estimated at 14 Tg CO2-equivalents once the production goal of 57 million L/yr is reached. If reduced US soybean production caused by this increase in US corn planting results in a compensatory increase in Brazilian production of soybeans in the Cerrado and Amazon regions, we estimate a potential net release of 1800 to 9100 Tg CO2-equivalents of GHG emissions due to land-use change. Many opportunities exist for agricultural intensification that would minimize new land clearing and its environmental impacts, but if Brazilian deforestation is held to only 15% of the area estimated here to compensate lost US soybean production, the GHG mitigation of US corn-based ethanol production during the next 15 years would be more than offset by emissions from Brazilian land-use change. Other motivations for advancing corn-based ethanol production in the USA, such as reduced reliance on foreign oil and increased prosperity for farming communities, must be considered separately, but the greenhouse-gas-mitigation rationale is clearly unsupportable.

  10. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. High ethanol yields using Aspergillus oryzae koji and corn media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziffer, J.; Iosif, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    High ethanol and stillage solids were achieved using whole corn mashes. Ethanol yields of 14% (98.5% of theory) and stillage levels of approximately 23% were obtained in 74-90 hours using mild acid pretreatment with A. oryzae wheat bran koji saccharification. High ethanol yields were also obtained with bacterial amylase, instead of the acid treatment, when the sterilization step was omitted. The implications of ethanol fermentation process modifications are explored.

  12. Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Hawks, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    We have so much corn right now it's coming out of our ears (great pun, right?). And it's SO incredibly cheap! This is probably because the US produces 42% of the world's corn! Most of it is used for animal feed, but other uses include exporting to other countries, human food, seed, and industrial uses such as ethanol production. Because there is so much corn available here in the U.S. You can find it in a lot more foods than you think. It's in peanut butter, snack foods, soft drinks, multivit...

  13. Using a spark-spread valuation to investigate the impact of corn-gasoline correlation on ethanol plant valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Natasha; Davison, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol plants have been criticized for a number of reasons in recent years. This paper provides another ground for criticizing these plants. Historical corn and gasoline prices are uncorrelated, but widespread adoption of corn ethanol production might reasonably lead to future correlation between these prices. We present a real options - like valuation of an ethanol plant as a spark spread between the corn price and the gasoline price. This analysis shows that the value of an ethanol plant monotonically decreases with increasing correlation and the optimal production schedule greatly depends on the correlation. Even relatively small new correlations can result in a significant proportional value decrease; a 50% correlation between corn and gasoline causes ethanol plants to lose 10% of their value. The limiting case of full correlation would lead to a 30% value loss. (author)

  14. Utilization of corn residues for production of the polysaccharide schizophyllan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundant corn residues include fiber from wet milling operations and distillers' dried grains from dry grind ethanol plants. Biorefineries of the future will utilize such residues for the production of valuable bioproducts, particularly those traditionally produced from fossil fuels. Schizophyllan...

  15. Evaluation of continuous ethanol fermentation of dilute-acid corn stover hydrolysate using thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover is potential feedstock of industrial interest for second generation fuel ethanol production. However, the toxicity of corn stover hydrolysate (PCS) has been a challenge for fermentation by recombinant xylose fermenting organisms. In this work...

  16. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael Q.; Han, Jeongwoo; Haq, Zia; Tyner, Wallace E.; Wu, May; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2011-01-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam 3 in 1980 to over 40.1 hm 3 in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  17. Bioconversion of corn stover hydrolysate to ethanol by a recombinant yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Xia, Liming

    2010-12-15

    Three corn stover hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysates prepared from acid and alkaline pretreatments separately and hemicellulosic hydrolysate prepared from acid pretreatment, were evaluated in composition and fermentability. For enzymatic hydrolysate from alkaline pretreatment, ethanol yield on fermentable sugars and fermentation efficiency reached highest among the three hydrolysates; meanwhile, ethanol yield on dry corn stover reached 0.175 g/g, higher than the sum of those of two hydrolysates from acid pretreatment. Fermentation process of the enzymatic hydrolysate from alkaline pretreatment was further investigated using free and immobilized cells of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-10. Concentrated hydrolysate containing 66.9 g/L glucose and 32.1 g/L xylose was utilized. In the fermentation with free cells, 41.2 g/L ethanol was obtained within 72 h with an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.416 g/g. Immobilized cells greatly enhanced the ethanol productivity, while the ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.411 g/g could still be reached. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized cells was further attempted up to six batches. The ethanol yield on fermentable sugars maintained above 0.403 g/g with all glucose and more than 92.83% xylose utilized in each batch. These results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of ethanol production from corn stover hydrolysates. (author)

  18. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Huixiao; Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm 3 y −1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  19. Potential feedstock sources for ethanol production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Mohammad [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hodges, Alan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study presents information on the potential feedstock sources that may be used for ethanol production in Florida. Several potential feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in Florida are discussed, such as, sugarcane, corn, citrus byproducts and sweet sorghum. Other probable impacts need to be analyzed for sugarcane to ethanol production as alternative uses of sugarcane may affect the quantity of sugar production in Florida. While citrus molasses is converted to ethanol as an established process, the cost of ethanol is higher, and the total amount of citrus molasses per year is insignificant. Sorghum cultivars have the potential for ethanol production. However, the agricultural practices for growing sweet sorghum for ethanol have not been established, and the conversion process must be tested and developed at a more expanded level. So far, only corn shipped from other states to Florida has been considered for ethanol production on a commercial scale. The economic feasibility of each of these crops requires further data and technical analysis.

  20. Determining the Cost of Producing Ethanol from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAloon, A.; Taylor, F.; Yee, W.; Ibsen, K.; Wooley, R.

    2000-10-25

    The mature corn-to-ethanol industry has many similarities to the emerging lignocellulose-to-ethanol industry. It is certainly possible that some of the early practitioners of this new technology will be the current corn ethanol producers. In order to begin to explore synergies between the two industries, a joint project between two agencies responsible for aiding these technologies in the Federal government was established. This joint project of the USDA-ARS and DOE/NREL looked at the two processes on a similar process design and engineering basis, and will eventually explore ways to combine them. This report describes the comparison of the processes, each producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol. This paper attempts to compare the two processes as mature technologies, which requires assuming that the technology improvements needed to make the lignocellulosic process commercializable are achieved, and enough plants have been built to make the design well-understood. Ass umptions about yield and design improvements possible from continued research were made for the emerging lignocellulose process. In order to compare the lignocellulose-to-ethanol process costs with the commercial corn-to-ethanol costs, it was assumed that the lignocellulose plant was an Nth generation plant, built after the industry had been sufficiently established to eliminate first-of-a-kind costs. This places the lignocellulose plant costs on a similar level with the current, established corn ethanol industry, whose costs are well known. The resulting costs of producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol from each process were determined. The figure below shows the production cost breakdown for each process. The largest cost contributor in the corn starch process is the feedstock; for the lignocellulosic process it is the capital cost, which is represented by depreciation cost on an annual basis.

  1. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    no improvement in ethanol yields. We showed that saccharification of lignocellulosic material with a wood-rot fungal process is quite feasible. Corn fiber from wet milling was best degraded to sugars using aerobic solid state fermentation with the soft-rot fungus T. reesei. However, it was shown that both the white-rot fungus P. chrysosporium and brown-rot fungus G. trabeum had the ability to produce additional consortia of hemi/cellulose degrading enzymes. It is likely that a consortium of enzymes from these fungi would be the best approach in saccharification of lignocellulose. In all cases, a subsequent anaerobic yeast process under submerged conditions is required to ferment the released sugars to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time report on production of cellulolytic enzymes from wet-milled corn fiber using white- and brown-rot fungi for sequential fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzate to ethanol. Keywords: lignocellulose, ethanol, biofuel, bioeconomy, biomass, renewable resources, corn fiber, pretreatment, solid-substrate fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), white-rot fungus, brown-rot fungus, soft-rot fungus, fermentable sugars, enzyme activities, cellulytic enzymes Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloleophyllum trabeum, Trichoderma reesei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  2. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  3. Industrial symbiosis: corn ethanol fermentation, hydrothermal carbonization, and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brandon M; Jader, Lindsey R; Schendel, Frederick J; Hahn, Nicholas J; Valentas, Kenneth J; McNamara, Patrick J; Novak, Paige M; Heilmann, Steven M

    2013-10-01

    The production of dry-grind corn ethanol results in the generation of intermediate products, thin and whole stillage, which require energy-intensive downstream processing for conversion into commercial animal feed products. Hydrothermal carbonization of thin and whole stillage coupled with anaerobic digestion was investigated as alternative processing methods that could benefit the industry. By substantially eliminating evaporation of water, reductions in downstream energy consumption from 65% to 73% were achieved while generating hydrochar, fatty acids, treated process water, and biogas co-products providing new opportunities for the industry. Processing whole stillage in this manner produced the four co-products, eliminated centrifugation and evaporation, and substantially reduced drying. With thin stillage, all four co-products were again produced, as well as a high quality animal feed. Anaerobic digestion of the aqueous product stream from the hydrothermal carbonization of thin stillage reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by more than 90% and converted 83% of the initial COD to methane. Internal use of this biogas could entirely fuel the HTC process and reduce overall natural gas usage. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapouri, Hosein [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Duffield, James A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate.

  5. Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a midsize passenger car. The environmental burdens in multi-output biorefinery processes (e.g., corn dry milling and wet milling) are allocated to the ethanol product and its various coproducts by the system expansion allocation approach. The nonrenewable energy requirement for producing 1 kg of ethanol is approximately 13.4-21.5 MJ (based on lower heating value), depending on corn milling technologies employed. Thus, the net energy value of ethanol is positive; the energy consumed in ethanol production is less than the energy content of the ethanol (26.8 MJ kg -1 ). In the GHG emissions analysis, nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from soil and soil organic carbon levels under corn cultivation in each county are estimated by the DAYCENT model. Carbon sequestration rates range from 377 to 681 kg C ha -1 year -1 and N 2 O emissions from soil are 0.5-2.8 kg N ha -1 year -1 under no-till conditions. The GHG emissions assigned to 1 kg of ethanol are 260-922 g CO 2 eq. under no-tillage. Using ethanol (E85) fuel in a midsize passenger vehicle can reduce GHG emissions by 41-61% km -1 driven, compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles. Using ethanol as a vehicle fuel, therefore, has the potential to reduce nonrenewable energy consumption and GHG emissions

  6. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  7. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, S.; Sokhansanj, S.; Tagore, S.; Turhollow, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam 3 ). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  8. Water and Land Use Efficiency in Current and Potential Future US Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Newmark, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Biofuels represent an opportunity for domestic fuel production from renewable energy sources with potential environmental and social benefits such as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) and promoting rural development. However, as demand for biofuel continues to increase worldwide, concerns about land competition between food and fuel, excessive water usage and other unintended environmental consequences have grown. Through a comparative study between US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol, we examine the energy, land, water and GHG performance of the two largest industrial fuel ethanol production systems in the world. Our comparisons include current and potential future systems with improved agronomic practices, crop yields, ethanol conversion processes, and utilization of agricultural residues. Our results suggest that the average water footprints of US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol are fairly close (108 and 110 m3/GJ of ethanol, respectively) while the variations can range from 50 to 250 m3/GJ for sugarcane ethanol and 50 to380 m3/GJ for corn ethanol. Results emphasize the need to examine the water footprint within the context of local and regional climatic variability, water availability, competing uses (e.g. agricultural, industrial, and municipal water needs) and other ecosystem constraints. Research is under way (at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and other institutions) to develop models to analyze water supply and demand at the watershed-scale for current and future biomass production, and to understand the tradeoffs among water supply, demand and quality due to more intensive agricultural practices and expansion of biofuels. Land use efficiency metrics, with regards to life cycle GHG emissions (without land use change) savings through gasoline displacement with ethanol, illustrate the progression of the biofuel industry and the importance of maximizing bioenergy production by utilizing both the crops and the residues. A recent

  9. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  10. Continuous high-solids corn liquefaction and fermentation with stripping of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Marquez, Marco A; Johnston, David B; Goldberg, Neil M; Hicks, Kevin B

    2010-06-01

    Removal of ethanol from the fermentor during fermentation can increase productivity and reduce the costs for dewatering the product and coproduct. One approach is to recycle the fermentor contents through a stripping column, where a non-condensable gas removes ethanol to a condenser. Previous research showed that this approach is feasible. Savings of $0.03 per gallon were predicted at 34% corn dry solids. Greater savings were predicted at higher concentration. Now the feasibility has been demonstrated at over 40% corn dry solids, using a continuous corn liquefaction system. A pilot plant, that continuously fed corn meal at more than one bushel (25 kg) per day, was operated for 60 consecutive days, continuously converting 95% of starch and producing 88% of the maximum theoretical yield of ethanol. A computer simulation was used to analyze the results. The fermentation and stripping systems were not significantly affected when the CO(2) stripping gas was partially replaced by nitrogen or air, potentially lowering costs associated with the gas recycle loop. It was concluded that previous estimates of potential cost savings are still valid. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethanol and agriculture: Effect of increased production on crop and livestock sectors. Agricultural economic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.; Peters, M.; Baumes, H.; Disney, W.T.

    1993-05-01

    Expanded ethanol production could increase US farm income by as much as $1 billion (1.4 percent) by 2000. Because corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol, growers in the Corn Belt would benefit most from improved ethanol technology and heightened demand. Coproducts from the conversion process (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and others) compete with soybean meal, soybean growers in the South may see revenues decline. The US balance of trade would improve with increased ethanol production as oil import needs decline

  12. Volatility spillovers in China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haixia, Wu; Shiping, Li

    2013-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers among China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets are analyzed based on weekly price data from September 5, 2003 to August 31, 2012, employing the univariate EGARCH model and the BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008. In the overall sample period, the results simultaneously provide strong evidence that there exist unidirectional spillover effects from the crude oil market to the corn and fuel ethanol markets, and double-directional spillovers between the corn market and the fuel ethanol market. However, the spillover effects from the corn and fuel ethanol markets to the crude oil market are not significant. -- Highlights: •Employing univariate EGARCH model and BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. Unidirectional spillover effects from crude oil market to corn and fuel ethanol markets. •Double-directional spillovers between corn market and fuel ethanol market. •The spillover effects from corn and fuel ethanol markets to crude oil market are not significant. •The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008

  13. Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon

    2012-04-03

    Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.

  14. Fermentation of Acid-pretreated Corn Stover to Ethanol Without Detoxification Using Pichia stipitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbogbo, Frank K.; Haagensen, Frank D.; Milam, David; Wenger, Kevin S.

    In this work, the effect of adaptation on P. stipitis fermentation using acidpretreated corn stover hydrolyzates without detoxification was examined. Two different types of adaptation were employed, liquid hydrolyzate and solid state agar adaptation. Fermentation of 12.5% total solids undetoxified acid-pretreated corn stover was performed in shake flasks at different rotation speeds. At low rotation speed (100 rpm), both liquid hydrolyzate and solid agar adaptation highly improved the sugar consumption rate as well as ethanol production rate compared to the wild-type strains. The fermentation rate was higher for solid agar-adapted strains compared to liquid hydrolyzate-adapted strains. At a higher rotation speed (150 rpm), there was a faster sugar consumption and ethanol production for both the liquid-adapted and the wild-type strains. However, improvements in the fermentation rate between the liquid-adapted and wild strains were less pronounced at the high rotation speed.

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production and corn kernels using different nutrient media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Carrasco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the supply of starch grain and sugar cane, currently the main feedstocks for bioethanol production, become limited, lignocelluloses will be sought as alternative materials for bioethanol production. Production of cellulosic ethanol is still cost-inefficient because of the low final ethanol concentration and the addition of nutrients. We report the use of simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production (furfural residue, FR and corn kernels to compare different nutritional media. The final ethanol concentration, yield, number of live yeast cells, and yeast-cell death ratio were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of integrating cellulosic and starch ethanol. Results Both the ethanol yield and number of live yeast cells increased with increasing corn-kernel concentration, whereas the yeast-cell death ratio decreased in SSCF of FR and corn kernels. An ethanol concentration of 73.1 g/L at 120 h, which corresponded to a 101.1% ethanol yield based on FR cellulose and corn starch, was obtained in SSCF of 7.5% FR and 14.5% corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. SSCF could simultaneously convert cellulose into ethanol from both corn kernels and FR, and SSCF ethanol yield was similar between the organic and mineral-salt media. Conclusions Starch ethanol promotes cellulosic ethanol by providing important nutrients for fermentative organisms, and in turn cellulosic ethanol promotes starch ethanol by providing cellulosic enzymes that convert the cellulosic polysaccharides in starch materials into additional ethanol. It is feasible to produce ethanol in SSCF of FR and corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. It would be cost-efficient to produce ethanol in SSCF of high concentrations of water-insoluble solids of lignocellulosic materials and corn kernels. Compared with prehydrolysis and fed-batch strategy using lignocellulosic materials, addition of starch

  16. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficiency in Midwest US corn ethanol plants: A plant survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Richard K.; Fretes, Nickolas F.; Sesmero, Juan Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Continuation of policy support for the US corn ethanol industry is being debated due to doubts about the greenhouse gas effects of the industry and the effects of the industry on food prices. Yet there is no publicly available data on the economic and technical performance of the current generation of plants, which constitute the overwhelming majority of the industry. This study helps to fill that gap. Seven recently constructed ethanol plants in seven Midwest US states provided details on input requirements and operating costs during 2006 and 2007. Results show that technical performance is substantially better than current estimates available in the literature. Average net operating returns exceeded capital costs during the survey period, but price changes by mid-2008 reduced these margins to near zero. While the economic performance of the industry is currently viable, this study demonstrates that it can be threatened by current price trends, and certainly would be in the absence of current subsidies

  18. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  19. Heat recovery investigation from dryer–thermal oxidizer system in corn-ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, annual corn ethanol production in the U.S. has exceeded 13,298,000,000 gallons. However, net energy balance for this sector became a subject of controversy in many discussions. The aim of the presented research is an investigation of thermal improvement opportunities in a corn ethanol plant. For this purpose, a complex mathematical model was developed for a dryer–thermal oxidizer system. Three variants were subjected thermodynamic analyses: one state of the art system and two proposed system modifications. The properties of humid gas, a mixture of combustion products and moisture evaporated from distiller's grain, were updated based on the steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. All calculations were performed by uniquely-developed C++ code. The results indicate major potential for improvement in the following areas: (i) water recovery from humid gas; (ii) heat recovery from moisture condensation – max. 44% of total primary energy usage (TPEU); and (iii) fuel savings by reduction of humid gas flow through a thermal oxidizer – max. 1.4% of TPEU. Also the presented analysis can be a starting point for further modifications in real corn ethanol manufacturing applications, leading towards pilot system implementation. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for dryer–oxidizer system in a corn ethanol plant was proposed. • Three configurations were discussed: with intercooler, regenerator, and recuperator. • Recovery rate of water condensed at various conditions and locations was quantified. • Heat recovery possibilities at various temperatures and locations have been assessed. • Energy savings in thermal oxidizer due to preliminary condensation were calculated

  20. Optimization of fermentation conditions for ethanol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, F J; Izaguirre, M F; Michelena, V; Moreno, B

    1982-01-01

    Optimal conditions for ethanol production in 7% whey solutions by the yeast Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 included an initial pH of 4.57 and 30 degrees. Complete fermentation of the available lactose took place without supplementary nutrients; additions of N and P salts, yeast extract, or corn steep liquor resulted in increased yeast production and lower ethanol yields. A possible correlation was observed between increases in yeast inocula and lactose utilization and ethanol production rates; 8.35 g ethanol/L was obtained within 22 hours by using a yeast inoculum of 13.9 g/L. No differences in fermentation rates or ethanol yields were observed when whole or deproteinized whey solutions were used. Concentrated whey permeates, obtained after removal of the valuable proteins from whey, can be effectively fermented for ethanol production.

  1. Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MBI International

    2007-12-31

    MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

  2. Rheology of corn stover slurries during fermentation to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanchari; Epps, Brenden; Lynd, Lee

    2017-11-01

    In typical processes that convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol fuel, solubilization of the biomass is carried out by saccharolytic enzymes; however, these enzymes require an expensive pretreatment step to make the biomass accessible for solubilization (and subsequent fermentation). We have proposed a potentially-less-expensive approach using the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum, which can initiate fermentation without pretreatment. Moreover, we have proposed a ``cotreatment'' process, in which fermentation and mechanical milling occur alternately so as to achieve the highest ethanol yield for the least milling energy input. In order to inform the energetic requirements of cotreatment, we experimentally characterized the rheological properties of corn stover slurries at various stages of fermentation. Results show that a corn stover slurry is a yield stress fluid, with shear thinning behavior well described by a power law model. Viscosity decreases dramatically upon fermentation, controlling for variables such as solids concentration and particle size distribution. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the changes in the physical properties of biomass during fermentation by a thermophilic bacterium.

  3. The causes and unintended consequences of a paradigm shift in corn production practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fausti, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biotechnology adoption and the U.S. corn production system are causally linked. • U.S. agriculture and energy policy choices merged to incentivize U.S. corn production. • U.S. biofuel energy policy contributed to the adoption of Bt corn seed technology. • Policy alternatives to modify the corn-based ethanol production system are provided. - Abstract: Independent but simultaneously occurring changes in U.S. agricultural and energy policies in conjunction with advances in biotechnology converged to create an economic and regulatory environment that incentivized corn acreage expansion. Advancements in Bt seed and ethanol production technologies contributed to scale efficiency gains in corn and biofuel production. These advancements were accompanied by changes in market forces that altered the balance between corn and other agricultural crop production. The causal linkages among Bt adoption, ethanol production, and corn production are explored along with a discussion of how this shift toward corn production generated unexpected economic and environmental consequences. Alternative policy solutions to mitigate the negative consequences and enhance the resiliency of U.S. agriculture are discussed

  4. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelen Kurt D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS and matured whole corn plants (WCP as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan. Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading CS hydrolyzate (resulting

  5. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  6. Ethanol, Corn, and Soybean Price Relations in a Volatile Vehicle-Fuels Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Escalante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid upward shift in ethanol demand has raised concerns about ethanol’s impact on the price level and volatility of agricultural commodities. The popular press attributes much of this volatility in commodity prices to a price bubble in ethanol fuel and recent deflation. Market economics predicts not only a softening of demand to high commodity prices but also a positive supply response. This volatility in ethanol and commodity prices are investigated using cointegration, vector error corrections (VECM, and multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedascity (MGARCH models. In terms of derived demand theory, results support ethanol and oil demands as derived demands from vehicle-fuel production. Gasoline prices directly influence the prices of ethanol and oil. However, of greater significance for the fuel versus food security issue, results support the effect of agricultural commodity prices as market signals which restore commodity markets to their equilibriums after a demand or supply event (shock. Such shocks may in the short-run increase agricultural commodity prices, but decentralized freely operating markets will mitigate the persistence of these shocks. Results indicate in recent years there are no long-run relations among fuel (ethanol, oil and gasoline prices and agricultural commodity (corn and soybean prices.

  7. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  8. Sequential high gravity ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion of steam explosion and organosolv pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Zacharopoulou, Maria; Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates the suitability of pretreated corn stover (CS) to serve as feedstock for high gravity (HG) ethanol production at solids-content of 24wt%. Steam explosion, with and without the addition of H 2 SO 4 , and organosolv pretreated CS samples underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Maximum ethanol concentration of ca. 76g/L (78.3% ethanol yield) was obtained from steam exploded CS (SECS) with 0.2% H 2 SO 4 . Organosolv pretreated CS (OCS) also resulted in high ethanol concentration of ca. 65g/L (62.3% ethanol yield). Moreover, methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) was conducted from fermentation residues and resulted in maximum methane yields of ca. 120 and 69mL/g volatile solids (VS) for SECS and OCS samples, respectively. The results indicated that the implementation of a liquefaction/saccharification step before SSF employing a liquefaction reactor seemed to handle HG conditions adequately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical and economical analyses of combined heat and power generation from distillers grains and corn stover in ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun; Hanna, Milford A.; Weller, Curtis L.; Jones, David D.

    2009-01-01

    The technical and economical feasibilities of a novel integrated biomass gasification and fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system were analyzed for supplying heat and power in an ethanol plant from distillers grains (DG) and corn stover. In a current dry-grind plant with an annual production capacity of 189 million liters (50 million gallons) of ethanol, the energy cost for ethanol production using natural gas at a price of 6.47 US$/GJ for processing heat and commercial grid at a price of 0.062 US$/kWh for electrical power supply was 0.094 US$/liter. If the integrated CHP system using wet DG with 64.7% moisture on a wet basis at 105 US$/dry tonne and corn stover with 20% moisture at 30 US$/dry tonne as feedstock was used to supply heat and power in the ethanol plant, the energy costs for ethanol production would be 0.101 US$/liter and 0.070 US$/liter, which are 107% and 75% of the current energy cost for ethanol production, respectively. To meet the demand of processing heat and power in the ethanol plant, the integrated CHP system required 22.1 dry tonnes of corn stover with 20% moisture or 14.5 dry tonnes of DG with 64.7% moisture on a wet basis per hour, compared with the available 18.8 dry tonnes of DG per hour in the ethanol plant. High-value chemicals such as policosanols, phytosterols and free fatty acids can be extracted out of the raw DG to reduce the cost of DG as a feedstock of the integrated CHP system. The energy cost for ethanol production using the integrated CHP system with corn stover and DG as the feedstock for supplying heat and power can be reduced further by increasing ethanol production scale, decreasing the moisture content of biomass feedstock, and decreasing thermal energy to electricity output ratio of the CHP system. In terms of the energy efficiency of the integrated CHP system and the energy cost for ethanol production, the moisture content of the feedstock going into the integrated CHP should be lower than 70% on a wet basis

  10. How does petroleum price and corn yield volatility affect ethanol markets with and without an ethanol use mandate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Wyatt; Meyer, Seth; Westhoff, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The recent increase in ethanol use in the US strengthens and changes the nature of links between agricultural and energy markets. Here, we explore the interaction of market volatility and the scope for policy to affect this interaction, with a focus on how corn yields and petroleum prices affect ethanol prices. Mandates associated with new US energy legislation may intervene in these links in the medium-term future. We simulate stochastically a structural model that represents these markets, and that includes mandates, in order to assess how shocks to corn or oil markets can affect ethanol price and use. We estimate that the mandate makes ethanol producer prices more sensitive to corn yields and less sensitive to changes in petroleum prices overall. We note a discontinuity in these links that is caused by the mandate. Ethanol use can exceed the mandate if petroleum prices and corn yields are high enough, but the mandate limits downside adjustments in ethanol use to low petroleum prices or corn yields

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkaline-pretreated corn stover to ethanol using a recombinant yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Xia, Liming [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Bio-ethanol converted from cheap and abundant lignocellulosic materials is a potential renewable resource to replace depleting fossil fuels. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of alkaline-pretreated corn stover for the production of ethanol was investigated using a recombinant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-10. Low cellobiase activity in Trichoderma reesei cellulase resulted in cellobiose accumulation. Supplementing the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation system with cellobiase greatly reduced feedback inhibition caused by cellobiose to the cellulase reaction, thereby increased the ethanol yield. 12 h of enzymatic prehydrolysis at 50 C prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was found to have a negative effect on the overall ethanol yield. Glucose and xylose produced from alkaline-pretreated corn stover could be co-fermented to ethanol effectively by S. cerevisiae ZU-10. An ethanol concentration of 27.8 g/L and the corresponding ethanol yield on carbohydrate in substrate of 0.350 g/g were achieved within 72 h at 33 C with 80 g/L of substrate and enzyme loadings of 20 filter paper activity units (FPU)/g substrate and 10 cellobiase units (CBU)/g substrate. The results are meaningful in co-conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulosic materials to fuel ethanol. (author)

  12. Market for ethanol feed joint products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.

  13. Impact of recycling stillage on conversion of dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Ali; Schell, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Both the current corn starch to ethanol industry and the emerging lignocellulosic biofuels industry view recycling of spent fermentation broth or stillage as a method to reduce fresh water use. The objective of this study was to understand the impact of recycling stillage on conversion of corn stover to ethanol. Sugars in a dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate were fermented to ethanol by the glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Three serial fermentations were performed at two different initial sugar concentrations using either 10% or 25% of the stillage as makeup water for the next fermentation in the series. Serial fermentations were performed to achieve near steady state concentration of inhibitors and other compounds in the corn stover hydrolysate. Little impact on ethanol yields was seen at sugar concentrations equivalent to pretreated corn stover slurry at 15% (w/w) with 10% recycle of the stillage. However, ethanol yields became progressively poorer as the sugar concentration increased and fraction of the stillage recycled increased. At an equivalent corn stover slurry concentration of 20% with 25% recycled stillage the ethanol yield was only 5%. For this microorganism with dilute-acid pretreated corn stover, recycling a large fraction of the stillage had a significant negative impact on fermentation performance. Although this finding is of concern for biochemical-based lignocellulose conversion processes, other microorganism/pretreatment technology combinations will likely perform differently. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage for energy recovery and water reuse in corn-ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan-Ozkaynak, A; Karthikeyan, K G

    2011-11-01

    Recycling of anaerobically-digested thin stillage within a corn-ethanol plant may result in the accumulation of nutrients of environmental concern in animal feed coproducts and inhibitory organic materials in the fermentation tank. Our focus is on anaerobic digestion of treated (centrifugation and lime addition) thin stillage. Suitability of digestate from anaerobic treatment for reuse as process water was also investigated. Experiments conducted at various inoculum-to-substrate ratios (ISRs) revealed that alkalinity is a critical parameter limiting digestibility of thin stillage. An ISR level of 2 appeared optimal based on high biogas production level (763 mL biogas/g volatile solids added) and organic matter removal (80.6% COD removal). The digester supernatant at this ISR level was found to contain both organic and inorganic constituents at levels that would cause no inhibition to ethanol fermentation. Anaerobic digestion of treated-thin stillage can be expected to improve the water and energy efficiencies of dry grind corn-ethanol plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating fuel ethanol feedstocks from energy policy perspectives: A comparative energy assessment of corn and corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, Amanda; Powers, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns surrounding the continued, un-checked use of petroleum-based fuels in the transportation sector, the search for more sustainable, renewable alternatives, and the constraints of the existing supply infrastructure in the United States have placed a spotlight on biomass-derived fuels. The central question of the ethanol debate has changed from 'Should we make ethanol?' to 'From what should we make ethanol?' emphasizing the importance of understanding the differences between specific biomass supply systems for fuel ethanol. When presented with numerous options, the priorities of an individual decision maker will define which feedstock alternative is the most appropriate choice for development from their perspective. This paper demonstrates how energy data can be successfully used to quantify assessment metrics beyond a standard net energy value calculation, thus quantifying the relative 'value' of ethanol supply systems. This value is defined based on decision-maker priorities that were adopted from national energy policy priorities: increased national energy security and increased conservation of energy resources. Nine energy assessment metrics that quantify detailed system energy data are calculated and a straightforward comparative assessment is performed between corn and corn stover feedstocks produced under the same farm scenario. Corn stover is shown to be more compatible with the national energy policy priorities and it is recommended that additional research be performed on utilizing this feedstock from the corn farm

  16. Establishing an ethanol production business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Many Saskatchewan communities are interested in the potential benefits of establishing an ethanol production facility. A guide is presented to outline areas that communities should consider when contemplating the development of an ethanol production facility. Political issues affecting the ethanol industry are discussed including environmental impacts, United States legislation, Canadian legislation, and government incentives. Key success factors in starting a business, project management, marketing, financing, production, physical requirements, and licensing and regulation are considered. Factors which must be taken into consideration by the project manager and team include markets for ethanol and co-products, competent business management staff, equity partners for financing, production and co-product utilization technologies, integration with another facility such as a feedlot or gluten plant, use of outside consultants, and feedstock, water, energy, labour, environmental and site size requirements. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Biodiesel production from corn oil by transesterification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Dessouky, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is much political demand and economic pressure to convert agricultural surpluses into material, such as motor fuel, in which the world is deficient. Transport industry is primary consumer of crude oil. Due to scarcity of known petroleum reserves, the possible alternative fuel for use in present engine technology is biofuels. Europe, USA and Brazil are successfully using biofuels. Biofuels causes less environmental pollution as compared to normal petro fuels. As a fuel, ethanol (gasohol) is used in internal combustion engine while methyester (Biodiesel) is used in diesel engines with same or better performance as compared to petro fuels. Corn is very valuable crop with numerous industrial applications, and is used in more than 300 modern industries, including the manufacture of textiles, paper, adhesives, insecticides, paints, soaps, explosives and many more. Presently the biggest source of ethanol production is from corn (produced by USA). Edible oil can also be extracted from corn which is normally used for cooking and it can be used for biodiesel production. Many countries are experimenting on fats and oil to get feasible data for production of biodiesel. Presently USA prefer to use soybean oil as raw material for commercial production of biodiesel while in Europe rapeseed oil is preferred, so therefore, it depends upon the availability of raw material in particular area and may change from location to location. In Pakistan we started with corn oil to produce biodiesel by transesterification method. In present study different design parameters such as effect of temperature, catalyst concentration, molar ratio, and Stirrer speed were founded for better conversion of neat and used corn oil into biodiesel. The optimum parameters proposed for neat corn oil are 0.5% of catalyst based on weight of corn oil, temperature between 50 deg. C to 60 deg. C, reaction time 15 minutes, molar ratio of 6:1 and speed of stirrer 155 rpm. In case of used corn oil high catalyst

  18. Monetary value of the environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from biomass feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiima, Jamil M.; Powers, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    This research is aimed at monetizing the life cycle environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from corn, corn stover, switchgrass, and forest residue. The results of this study reveal current average external costs for the production of 1 l of ethanol ranged from $0.07 for forest residue to $0.57 for ethanol production from corn. Among the various feedstocks, the external costs of PM 10 , NO X , and PM 2.5 are among the greatest contributors to these costs. The combustion of fossil fuels in upstream fertilizer and energy production processes is the primary source of these emissions and their costs, especially for corn ethanol. The combined costs of emissions associated with the production and use of nitrogen fertilizer also contribute substantially to the net external costs. For cellulosic ethanol production, the combustion of waste lignin to generate heat and power helps to keep the external costs lower than corn ethanol. Credits both for the biogenic carbon combustion and displacement of grid electricity by exporting excess electricity substantially negate many of the emissions and external costs. External costs associated with greenhouse gas emissions were not significant. However, adding estimates of indirect GHG emissions from land use changes would nearly double corn ethanol cost estimates.

  19. Dry-grind processing using amylase corn and superior yeast to reduce the exogenous enzyme requirements in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost. The fermentation of amylase corn (producing endogenous α-amylase) using conventional yeast and no addition of exogenous α-amylase resulted in ethanol concentration of 4.1 % higher compared to control treatment (conventional corn using exogenous α-amylase). Conventional corn processed with exogenous α-amylase and superior yeast (producing glucoamylase or GA) with no exogenous glucoamylase addition resulted in ethanol concentration similar to control treatment (conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase addition). Combination of amylase corn and superior yeast required only 25 % of recommended glucoamylase dose to complete fermentation and achieve ethanol concentration and yield similar to control treatment (conventional corn with exogenous α-amylase, conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase). Use of superior yeast with 50 % GA addition resulted in similar increases in yield for conventional or amylase corn of approximately 7 % compared to that of control treatment. Combination of amylase corn, superior yeast, and in situ ethanol removal resulted in a process that allowed complete fermentation of 40 % slurry solids with only 50 % of exogenous GA enzyme requirements and 64.6 % higher ethanol yield compared to that of conventional process. Use of amylase corn and superior yeast in the dry-grind processing industry

  20. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, S; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ......Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics...... such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal...... specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial...

  1. Quantifying cradle-to-farm gate life-cycle impacts associated with fertilizer used for corn, soybean, and stover production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Susan E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for harvesting corn stover for ethanol production.

  2. Production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-10

    Ethanol is produced by fermentation with a photohardening resin-immobilized yeast preparation. The ethanol producing yeast may be selected from Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, or Schizosaccharomyces. The photohardening resin for yeast immobilization is a hydrophilic unsaturated compound, especially polyurethane acrylate, with an average molecular weight of 300-80,000 and containing at least 2 photopolymerizable ethylene groups. The immobilized yeast preparation is prepared by irradiating an aqueous suspension of yeast and a photohardening resin with UV light; the average size of the immobilized yeast is 0.1-3.0 mm and with various shapes. Thus, an aqueous suspension containing Saccharomyces formosensis cells (5 parts), a poly(ethylene glycol)isopharone diisocyanate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (50 parts), and benzoin ethyl ether (0.5 parts) was homogenized, spread on a polypropylene tray (1.0 mm depth), and irradiated with a 3600 A Hg lamp for 5-10 minutes to form a yeast-containing polyurethane acrylate sheet (1.0 mm thickness), which was then sliced into bits of approximately 1.0 mm. When a molasses substrate solution (pH 4.5-5.0) was passed through a column (200 x 20 mm) packed with the polyurethane acrylate-immobilized yeast preparation, eluates containing 7% (weight/volume) ethanol were produced for >3000 hours.

  3. Evaluation of the multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a cost effective crop in semiarid regions, is an underestimated supplement to corn in starch based ethanol production. Twenty three multi-seeded (msd) mutant sorghums and one wild type sorghum BTx623 were evaluated for ethanol production and effect of che...

  4. Energy, carbon dioxide and water use implications of hydrous ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffy, Howard A.; Northrop, William F.; Kittelson, David B.; Boies, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We use a chemical refinery model and exergy analysis to determine the impact of hydrous ethanol. • The process is 70% efficient with 86% of the losses from fermentation, steam generation and drying. • We found that producing 86 wt% ethanol is optimal for thermal energy consumption. • Hydrous ethanol production can reduce energy costs and emissions by ∼8%. • Hydrous ethanol reduces water use by decreasing evaporation in cooling towers. - Abstract: Sub-azeotropic hydrous ethanol has been demonstrated as an effective diesel fuel replacement when used in dual-fuel compression ignition engines. Previous studies have also suggested that hydrous ethanol may be more efficient to produce from corn than anhydrous ethanol. In this study, we investigate corn ethanol production from a dry-mill, natural gas-fired corn ethanol refinery, producing ethanol with a range of ethanol concentrations from 58 wt% to 100 wt% to determine the effect on energy use, water consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the refining stage of the corn ethanol lifecycle. A second law (exergy) analysis of anhydrous ethanol refining revealed the overall process to be 70% efficient, whereby 86% of the exergy losses could be accounted for by three processes: fermentation (34%), steam generation (29%) and distiller’s grains and solubles drying (23%). We found that producing 86 wt% ethanol is optimal as thermal energy consumption decreases by a maximum of 10% (from 7.7 MJ/L to 6.9 MJ/L). These savings have the potential to reduce energy costs by approximately 8% ($0.34/L) and reduce refinery emissions by 8% (2 g CO 2 e/MJ). Production of hydrous ethanol reduced refinery water use due to decreased evaporative losses in the cooling towers, leading to water savings of between 3% and 6% at 86 wt% ethanol.

  5. Exploring Corn-Ethanol As A Complex Problem To Teach Sustainability Concepts Across The Science-Business-Liberal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    The highly interdisciplinary nature of sustainability presents pedagogic challenges when sustainability concepts are incorporated into traditional disciplinary courses. At Bentley University, where over 90 percent of students major in business disciplines, we have created a multidisciplinary course module centered on corn ethanol that explores a complex social, environmental, and economic problem and develops basic data analysis and analytical thinking skills in several courses spanning the natural, physical, and social sciences within the business curriculum. Through an NSF-CCLI grant, Bentley faculty from several disciplines participated in a summer workshop to define learning objectives, create course modules, and develop an assessment plan to enhance interdisciplinary sustainability teaching. The core instructional outcome was a data-rich exercise for all participating courses in which students plot and analyze multiple parameters of corn planted and harvested for various purposes including food (human), feed (animal), ethanol production, and commodities exchanged for the years 1960 to present. Students then evaluate patterns and trends in the data and hypothesize relationships among the plotted data and environmental, social, and economic drivers, responses, and unintended consequences. After the central data analysis activity, students explore corn ethanol production as it relates to core disciplinary concepts in their individual classes. For example, students in Environmental Chemistry produce ethanol using corn and sugar as feedstocks and compare the efficiency of each process, while learning about enzymes, fermentation, distillation, and other chemical principles. Principles of Geology students examine the effects of agricultural runoff on surface water quality associated with extracting greater agricultural yield from mid-continent croplands. The American Government course examines the role of political institutions, the political process, and various

  6. Ethanol from wood. Cellulase enzyme production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengyel, Zsolt

    2000-03-01

    Conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such as ethanol, has been investigated during the past decades. First due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and lately because of concerns about greenhouse effect, ethanol has been found to be a suitable substitute for gasoline in transportation. Although ethanol is produced in large quantities from corn starch, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is rather problematic. However, cellulosic raw materials are important as they are available in large quantities from agriculture and forestry. One of the most extensively investigated processes is the enzymatic process, in which fungal cellulolytic enzymes are used to convert the cellulose content of the biomass to glucose, which is then fermented to ethanol. In order to make the raw material accessible to biological attack, it has to be pretreated first. The most successful method, which has been evaluated for various lignocellulosic materials, is the steam pretreatment. In this thesis the utilization of steam pretreated willow (hardwood) and spruce (softwood) was examined for enzyme production using a filamentous fungus T. reesei RUT C30. Various carbon sources originating from the steam pretreated materials have been investigated. The replacement of the solid carbon source with a liquid carbon source, as well as the effect of pH, was studied. The effect of toxic compounds generated during pretreatment was also examined. Comparative study of softwood and hardwood showed that steam pretreated hardwood is a better carbon source than softwood. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme solutions produced on wood derived carbon sources was better compared to commercial cellulases. Also enzyme solutions produced on steam pretreated spruce showed less sensitivity towards toxic compounds formed during steam pretreatment.

  7. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  8. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  9. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devantier, R. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, S. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Olsson, L. [Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. (orig.)

  10. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in response to ethanol policy incentives in recent years is well documented and may worsen this effect. We develop a spatially distributed dynamic environmental performance index (EPI), accounting for both desirable agricultural outputs and undesirable nonpoint source emissions from farm production, to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance within the UMRB between 2002 and 2007, which is characterized by increasing policy incentives for ethanol production. County-level production data from the USDA agricultural census are aggregated to hydrologic unit code (HUC8) boundaries using a geographic information system (GIS), and a previously developed statistical model, which includes net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) as well as precipitation and land use characteristics as inputs, is used to estimate annual nitrogen loadings delivered to streams from HUC8 watersheds. The EPI allows us to decompose performance of each HUC8 region over time into changes in productive efficiency and emissions efficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance for producers in this region at the watershed scale. The resu

  11. Fed-batch production of concentrated fructose syrup and ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, D W [CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Duvnjak, Z [Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1992-01-01

    A fed-batch process is used for the production of concentrated pure fructose syrup and ethanol from various glucose/fructose mixtures by S.cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Applying this technique, glucose-free fructose syrups with over 250 g/l of this sugar were obtained using High Fructose Corn Syrup and hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke juice. Bey encouraging ethanol evaporation from the reactor and condensing it, a separate ethanol product with a concentration of up to 350 g/l was also produced. The rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were higher than in classical batch ethanol fermentation processes. (orig.).

  12. Availability of crop cellulosics for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, R.D.

    1982-10-01

    Past estimates of cellulosic resources available from Canadian agriculture totalled over 23 million tonnes of cereal grain straw and corn stover residues surplus to soil and animal requirements. A new much reduced estimate, based on four detailed regional studies that also include previously unassessed resources such as chaff, oilseed hulls, and food processing wastes, is suggested. Eleven million tonnes are currently available from all residue sources for energy conversion by different processes. Only five million tonnes are identified as potentially usable in ethanol production plants were they to be constructed. Additional resource opportunities may become available in future from currently underutilized land, especially saline soils, novel processing techniques of conventional grains and forages, innovative cropping systems that may increase the yield of agricultural biomass, and new food/feed/fuel (i.e. multi-purpose) crops such as kochia, milkweed, and Jerusalem artichoke. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  14. Design and analysis of fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, J.A.; Cardona, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Three configurations for fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol using Escherichia coli were simulated and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus, respectively. These assessments considered raw glycerol (60 wt%) purification to both crude glycerol (88 wt%) and pure glycerol (98 wt%). The highest purification cost (PC) was obtained using pure glycerol due to its higher energy consumption in the distillation stage. In addition, the remaining methanol in the raw glycerol stream was recovered and recycled, decreasing the purification costs. The E. coli strain is able to convert crude glycerol (at 10 g/L or 20 g/L), or pure glycerol (at 10 g/L) to ethanol. Among these three glycerol concentrations, the lowest bioconversion cost was obtained when crude glycerol was diluted at 20 g/L. Purification and global production costs were compared with the commercial prices of glycerol and fuel ethanol from corn and sugarcane. Purification costs of raw glycerol were lower than previously reported values due to the methanol recovery. Global production costs for fuel ethanol from glycerol were lower than the reported values for corn-based production and higher than those for cane-based production. (author)

  15. An evaluation of dilute acid and ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Parameshwaran, Binod; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    The challenge associated with cellulosic ethanol production is maximizing sugar yield at low cost. Current research is being focused to develop a pretreatment method to overcome biomass recalcitrance in an efficient way. This review is focused on two major pretreatments: dilute acid (DA) and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment of corn stover and how these pretreatment cause morphological and chemical changes to corn stover in order to overcome the biomass recalcitrance. This review highlights the key differences of these two pretreatments based on compositional analysis, cellulose and its crystallinity, morphological changes, structural changes to lignin, enzymatic reactivity and enzyme adsorption onto pretreated solids and finally cellulosic ethanol production from the hydrolysate of DA and AFEX treated corn stover. Each stage of the process, AFEX pretreated corn stover was superior to DA treated corn stover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  17. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiche, Jody L; Bryant, Henry L; Richardson, James W

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. In the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  18. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges.

  19. Amylolysis of raw corn by Aspergillus niger for simultaneous ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, I.Y.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The novelty of this approach was hydrolysis of the raw starch in ground corn to fermentable sugars that are simultaneously fermented to ethanol by yeast in a nonsterile environment. Thus, the conventional cooking step can be eliminated for energy conservation. A koji of Aspergillus niger grown on whole corn for 3 days was the crude enzyme source. A ratio of 0.2 g dry koji/g total solids was found sufficient. Optimum pH was 4.2. Ethanol concentration was 7.7% (w/w) in the aqueous phase with 92% raw starch conversion. Agitation increased rate. Sacharification was the rate-limiting step. The initial ethanol concentration preventing fermentation was estimated to be 8.3% by weight. (Refs. 96).

  20. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  1. Biofilm reactors for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-07-01

    Whole cell immobilization has been studied in the laboratory during the last few years as a method to improve the performance and economics of most fermentation processes. Among the various techniques available for cell immobilization, methods that provide generation of a biofilm offer reduced diffusional resistance, high productivities, and simple operation. This paper reviews some of the important aspects of biofilm reactors for ethanol production, including reactor start-up, steady state behavior, process stability, and mathematical modeling. Special emphasis is placed on covalently bonded Saccharomyces cerevisiae in packed bed reactors.

  2. Influence of spatially dependent, modeled soil carbon emission factors on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Kwon, Hoyoung [Environment and Production Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K St. NW Washington DC 20006 USA; Mueller, Steffen [Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1309 South Halsted Street Chicago IL 60607 USA; Wander, Michelle M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 South Goodwin Avenue Urbana IL 61801 USA

    2016-03-03

    Converting land to biofuel feedstock production incurs changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) that can influence biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates of these land use change (LUC) and life-cycle GHG emissions affect biofuels’ attractiveness and eligibility under a number of renewable fuel policies in the U.S. and abroad. Modeling was used to refine the spatial resolution and depth-extent of domestic estimates of SOC change for land (cropland, cropland pasture, grasslands, and forests) conversion scenarios to biofuel crops (corn, corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar, and willow). In most regions, conversions from cropland and cropland pasture to biofuel crops led to neutral or small levels of SOC sequestration, while conversion of grassland and forest generally caused net SOC loss. Results of SOC change were incorporated into the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess their influence on life-cycle GHG emissions for the biofuels considered. Total LUC GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1) were 2.1–9.3 for corn, -0.7 for corn stover, -3.4–12.9 for switchgrass, and -20.1–-6.2 for Miscanthus; these varied with SOC modeling assumptions applied. Extending soil depth from 30 to 100cm affected spatially-explicit SOC change and overall LUC GHG emissions; however the influence on LUC GHG emissions estimates were less significant in corn and corn stover than cellulosic feedstocks. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm) were estimated to be 59–66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -0.6–-7 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  3. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

  4. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  5. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  6. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M.; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E. O.; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms’ specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS3) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified. PMID:28874548

  7. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M; Goodkind, Andrew L; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E O; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-09-19

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms' specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS 3 ) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified.

  8. High solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wet oxidized corn stover to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, E.; Klinke, H.B.; Reczey, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study ethanol was produced from corn stover pretreated by alkaline and acidic wet oxidation (WO) (195 degreesC, 15 min, 12 bar oxygen) followed by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In the first step of the SSF, small amounts of cellulases were added at 50...... increase of substrate concentration reduced the ethanol yield significant as a result of insufficient mass transfer. It was also shown that the fermentation could be followed with an easy monitoring system based on the weight loss of the produced CO2. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  9. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  10. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life-Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, S. E.

    2005-05-01

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particular eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for harvesting corn stover for ethanol production. This modeling study found that eutrophication potential for the base case already exceeds proposed water quality standards, that switching to no-till cultivation and collecting stover increased that eutrophication potential by 21%, and that switching to continuous-corn production on top of that would triple eutrophication potential.

  11. Utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, Svetlana; Mojovic, Ljiljana; Rakin, Marica [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Pejin, Dusanka; Pejin, Jelena [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2011-08-15

    Bioethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn meal by Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast in a batch system with prior ultrasound or microwave treatment was studied. The optimal duration of the pretreatments and the SSF process kinetics were assessed and determined. Also, the effect of ultrasound and microwave pretreatments on ethanol yield and productivity was investigated. An optimal duration of 5 min was determined for both pretreatments. Ultrasonic and microwave pretreatments effectively increased the glucose concentration obtained after liquefaction by 6.82 and 8.48%, respectively, compared to untreated control sample. Also, both pretreatments improved ethanol yield and productivity during the SSF process. Ultrasound and microwave pretreatments increased the maximum ethanol concentration produced in the SSF process by 11.15 and 13.40% (compared to the control sample), respectively. The application of microwave pretreatment resulted in higher glucose release during liquefaction and consequently in higher ethanol concentration, compared to ultrasound pretreatment. A maximum ethanol concentration of 9.91% (w/w) and percentage of theoretical ethanol yield of 92.27% were achieved after 44 h of the SSF process of corn meal with prior microwave treatment. (orig.)

  12. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  13. A novel cell factory for efficient production of ethanol from dairy waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Dantoft, Shruti Harnal; Würtz, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of cheese whey or various processed forms thereof are generated. Because of their nutrient-rich nature, these substrates are particularly well suited as feedstocks for microbial production. We have generated a Lactococcus lactis strain which produces ethanol as its sole fermentation product from the lactose...... contained in residual whey permeate (RWP), by introducing lactose catabolism into a L. lactis strain CS4435 (MG1363 Δ(3) ldh, Δpta, ΔadhE, pCS4268), where the carbon flow has been directed toward ethanol instead of lactate. To achieve growth and ethanol production on RWP, we added corn steep liquor...

  14. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    addition were evaluated in the dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process). Addition of proteases resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (15.2 to 18.0% v/v) and lower (DDGS) yields (32.9 to 45.8% db) compared to the control (no protease addition). As level of proteases and GSHE increased, ethanol concentrations increased and DDGS yields decreased. Proteases addition reduced required GSHE dose. Ethanol concentrations with protease addition alone were higher than with urea or with addition of both protease and urea. Corn endosperm consists of soft and hard endosperm. More exposed starch granules and rough surfaces produced from soft endosperm compared to hard endosperm will create more surface area which will benefit the solid phase hydrolysis as used in GSH process. In this study, the effects of protease, urea, endosperm hardness and GSHE levels on the GSH process were evaluated. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from dry milling pilot plant. Soft endosperm resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) for soft and hard endosperm. The effect of protease addition on increasing ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was more predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm and least for ground corn. The GSH process with protease resulted in higher ethanol concentration than that with urea. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm due to the presence of inherent nutrients which enhanced yeast growth.

  15. Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1986-11-01

    Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (..mu..) and fermentation rates (..nu..) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, ''flor'' yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory medium were also the best at fermenting molasses. Invertase activity was not a limiting step in ethanol production, ..nu.. being accelerated by supplementing molasses with ammonia and biotine, and by cell recycle.

  16. The impact of ethanol production on food prices: The role of interplay between the U.S. and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Nathalia; Altman, Ira; Lahiri, Sajal

    2012-01-01

    Food prices have increased rapidly in recent years, and so has ethanol production. Some studies have claimed that there is a connection between the two. The main purpose of this paper is to add to this literature by examining the influence that the interplay between Brazil and the U.S. in ethanol production has on food prices. Specifically, and controlling for other variables, which have been shown to affect food prices, we investigate whether sugarcane ethanol and corn ethanol production have similar impacts on food prices, and whether ethanol productivity affects food prices. We find a positive significant effect of Brazilian market share in world ethanol market on relative food prices. We also find that an increase of Brazilian cane ethanol area has a negative effect on relative food prices. - Highlights: ► We examine if sugarcane ethanol and corn ethanol have similar impacts on food price. ► We examine if ethanol productivity affects food prices. ► We control for many other variables, which have been shown to affect food prices. ► Brazilian market share in ethanol market has a positive effect on food prices. ► Brazilian cane ethanol area has a negative effect on relative food prices.

  17. Bio-butanol vs. bio-ethanol: A technical and economic assessment for corn and switchgrass fermented by yeast or Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfromm, Peter H.; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard; Vadlani, Praveen; Madl, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation-derived butanol is a possible alternative to ethanol as a fungible biomass-based liquid transportation fuel. We compare the fermentation-based production of n-butanol vs. ethanol from corn or switchgrass through the liquid fuel yield in terms of the lower heating value (LHV). Industrial scale data on fermentation to n-butanol (ABE fermentation) or ethanol (yeast) establishes a baseline at this time, and puts recent advances in fermentation to butanol in perspective. A dynamic simulation demonstrates the technical, economic and policy implications. The energy yield of n-butanol is about half that of ethanol from corn or switchgrass using current ABE technology. This is a serious disadvantage for n-butanol since feedstock costs are a significant portion of the fuel price. Low yield increases n-butanol's life-cycle greenhouse gas emission for the same amount of LHV compared to ethanol. A given fermenter volume can produce only about one quarter of the LHV as n-butanol per unit time compared to ethanol. This increases capital costs. The sometimes touted advantage of n-butanol being more compatible with existing pipelines is, according to our techno-economic simulations insufficient to alter the conclusion because of the capital costs to connect plants via pipeline.

  18. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  19. Zymomonas mobilis for fuel ethanol and higher value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P L; Jeon, Y J; Lee, K J; Lawford, H G

    2007-01-01

    High oil prices, increasing focus on renewable carbohydrate-based feedstocks for fuels and chemicals, and the recent publication of its genome sequence, have provided continuing stimulus for studies on Zymomonas mobilis. However, despite its apparent advantages of higher yields and faster specific rates when compared to yeasts, no commercial scale fermentations currently exist which use Z. mobilis for the manufacture of fuel ethanol. This may change with the recent announcement of a Dupont/Broin partnership to develop a process for conversion of lignocellulosic residues, such as corn stover, to fuel ethanol using recombinant strains of Z. mobilis. The research leading to the construction of these strains, and their fermentation characteristics, are described in the present review. The review also addresses opportunities offered by Z. mobilis for higher value products through its metabolic engineering and use of specific high activity enzymes.

  20. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only...... small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...

  1. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  2. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ..... Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods,.

  3. A bacterial cell factory for efficient production of ethanol from whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for homo-ethanol production from lactose using a genetically modified lactic acid bacterium of the invention, where the cells are provided with a substrate comprising dairy waste supplemented with an amino nitrogen source (such as acid hydrolysed corn steep liquo...

  4. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  5. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  6. Climate change impacts on corn phenology and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is changing around the world and will impact future production of all food and feed crops. Corn is no exception to these impacts and to ensure a future supply of this vital crop we must begin to understand how climate impacts both the phenological development of corn and the productivity. Te...

  7. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  8. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high corn stover solids loading in a helical stirring bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chu, Deqiang; Huang, Juan; Yu, Zhanchun; Dai, Gance; Bao, Jie

    2010-03-01

    The higher ethanol titer inevitably requires higher solids loading during the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as the feedstock. The mixing between the solid lignocellulose and the liquid enzyme is crucially important. In this study, a bioreactor with a novel helical impeller was designed and applied to the SSF operation of the steam explosion pretreated corn stover under different solids loadings and different enzyme dosages. The performances using the helical impeller and the common Rushton impeller were compared and analyzed by measuring rheological properties and the mixing energy consumption. The results showed that the new designed stirring system had better performances in the saccharification yield, ethanol titer, and energy cost than those of the Rushton impeller stirring. The mixing energy consumption under different solids loadings and enzyme dosages during SSF operation were analyzed and compared to the thermal energy in the ethanol produced. A balance for achieving the optimal energy cost between the increased mixing energy cost and the reduced distillation energy cost at the high solids loading should be made. The potentials of the new bioreactor were tested under various SSF conditions for obtaining optimal ethanol yield and titer. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    the transportation sector. Examples include steam reforming of natural gas to provide hydrogen for hydrotreating unit operations within the refinery and production of urea for use as a reductant for diesel after treatment in selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This discussion focuses on the consumption of natural gas in the production pathway of conventional ethanol (non-cellulosic) from corn through fermentation. Though it is clear that NG would also play a significant role in the cellulosic production pathways, those cases are not considered in this analysis.

  10. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  11. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, Dan [Logos Technologies, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  12. Energy analysis of ethanol production from sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, J.W. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Vaughan, D.H.; Cundiff, J.S. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Piedmont System is a collection of equipment for efficiently removing the juice from sweet sorghum stalks for the production of ethanol. The concept is to separate the whole stalks into pith and rind-leaf fractions, pass only the pith fraction through a screw press, and thus achieve an improvement in juice-expression efficiency and press capacity. An energy analysis was done for two options of this proposed harvesting/processing system: (Option 1) The juice is evaporated to syrup and used throughout the year to produce ethanol, and the by-products are used as cattle feed. (Option 2) The juice is fermented as it is harvested, and the by-products (along with other cellulosic materials) are used as feedstock for the remainder of the year. Energy ratios (energy output/energy input) of 0.9, 1.1 and 0.8 were found for sweet sorghum Option 1, sweet sorghum Option 2, and corn, respectively, as feedstocks for ethanol. If only liquid fuels are considered, the ratios are increased to 3.5, 7.9 and 4.5. (author).

  13. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  14. Greenprint on ethanol production in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Investment in Saskatchewan's ethanol industry is being actively promoted by the provincial government. This document represents the provincial strategy in support of the ethanol industry, which will result in significant environmental benefits for the province and the residents through the increased use of ethanol as an additive to conventional gasoline. The big advantage offered by ethanol is a more complete fuel combustion, thereby reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by as much as 30 per cent. The production costs of ethanol have decreased in the last twenty years by 50 per cent. The competitiveness of ethanol should increase due to ongoing research and development progress being made. The agricultural sector should benefit through the creation of meaningful jobs in the sector, as well as offering new marketing opportunities to the grain producers of the province and the wood-product companies. A renewable resource, ethanol reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions bu up to 20 per cent, reduces the smog-creating compounds up to 15 per cent, and achieves a net reduction of up to 10 per cent in carbon dioxide emissions. The abundance of raw materials and resources required for the production of ethanol, Saskatchewan possesses an obvious advantage for becoming a world leader in the field. The government of Saskatchewan has developed its strategy, outlined in this document. It calls for tax incentives, the mandating of ethanol blend, opening up markets, working with communities. The industry size, economic impact, export potential, and future opportunities were briefly discussed in the last section of the document. 1 tab., 3 figs

  15. Linking Air Land & Water to Examine the Vulnerability of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Increased Corn Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. Thi...

  16. Forecasting corn production in Serbia using ARIMA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural crop production is closely related to climate, as a decisive success factor. Temperature fluctuations and changes in the volume of precipitation are the main factors affecting the growth and development of crops, and, ultimately, the quantity produced. Corn is the most common crop necessary to provide for domestic needs, and a strategic product for export. Production of corn in the period from 1947 to 2014 in Serbia had an oscillatory trend, with significant jumps and falls in production. The subject of this paper is the forecasting of future trends in corn production in Serbia. Building on the subject, the purpose of this paper is to create the model for forecasting future corn production and establishing its trends.

  17. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisha, Gaber Z.

    2010-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g -1 of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l -1 together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l -1 led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm 3 min -1 m 3 of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production.

  18. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisha, Gaber Z. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g{sup -1} of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l{sup -1} together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l{sup -1} led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm{sup 3} min{sup -1} m{sup 3} of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production. (author)

  19. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Guardabassi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO 2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  20. Prospects for ethanol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, K R

    1978-05-01

    Whey is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese and casein. Casein whey is not as fully utilized as cheese whey although in the last five years commercial processes have been developed to recover the whey proteins, either in denatured form as lactalbumin or in their soluble form as Solac. The removal of the whey proteins makes little difference to the polluting strength or volume of the whey and a crude lactose solution - serum or permeate - remains to be processed. Many processes have been evaluated for the use of this crude lactose solution; one is microbial transformation to produce products such as methane, ethanol, acetone and butanol and etc. The technologies for these processes are well known and it is the economic evaluation which ultimately determines the feasibility of the process being considered. For the purposes of this paper, the prospects for ethanol production have been evaluated. Unless there is a significant reduction in capital costs, it is concluded that ethanol production from whey is not a viable proposition as an energy source for New Zealand. Industrial ethanol (annual imports; 3.5 x 10/sup 6/ 1 CIF value 32 c/1) and potable ethanol production may be worth contemplating.

  1. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  2. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  3. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Gardebroek, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. The estimation results indicate a higher

  4. Continuous Ethanol Production Using Immobilized-Cell/Enzyme Biocatalysts in Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor (FBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nghiem, NP

    2003-11-16

    The immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Previous studies at ORNL using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in FBR at both laboratory and demonstration scale (4-in-ID by 20-ft-tall) have shown that the system was more than 50 times as productive as industrial benchmarks (batch and fed-batch free cell fermentations for ethanol production from glucose). Economic analysis showed that a continuous process employing the FBR technology to produce ethanol from corn-derived glucose would offer savings of three to six cents per gallon of ethanol compared to a typical batch process. The application of the FBR technology for ethanol production was extended to investigate more complex feedstocks, which included starch and lignocellulosic-derived mixed sugars. Economic analysis and mathematical modeling of the reactor were included in the investigation. This report summarizes the results of these extensive studies.

  5. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2001-01-01

    and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production processes and cheap substrates are needed. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper...... substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex, differing, in many aspects from crop-based ethanol production. One important requirement is an efficient microorganism able to ferment a variety of sugars......With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment...

  6. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluating the production ... Key words: Ganoderma, corn cobs, substrate, mushrooms, sawdust, basidiocarp. INTRODUCTION .... those which have high lignin and low cellulose. This is because ...

  7. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  8. A MICROWAVE-ASSISTED LIQUEFACTION AS A PRETREATMENT FOR THE BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY THE SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CORN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolić

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted liquefaction as a pretreatment for the bioethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fer entation (SSF of corn meal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast in a batch system was studied. An optimal power of microwaves of 80 W and the 5-min duration of the microwave treatment were selected by following the concentration of glucose released from the corn meal suspensions at hidromodul of 1:3 (corn meal to water ratio in the liquefaction step. The results indicated that the microwave pretreatment could increase the maximum ethanol concentration produced in the SSF process for 13.4 %. Consequently, a significant increase of the ethanol productivity on substrate (YP/S, as well as the volumetric ethanol productivity (P in this process, could be achieved

  9. Ethanol production in China: Potential and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shi-Zhong; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Rising oil demand in China has resulted in surging oil imports and mounting environmental pollution. It is projected that by 2030 the demand for fossil fuel oil will be 250 million tons. Ethanol seems to be an attractive renewable alternative to fossil fuel. This study assesses China's ethanol supply potential by examining potential non-food crops as feedstock; emerging conversion technologies; and cost competitiveness. Results of this study show that sweet sorghum among all the non-food feedstocks has the greatest potential. It grows well on the available marginal lands and the ASSF technology when commercialized will shorten the fermentation time which will lower the costs. Other emerging technologies such as improved saccharification and fermentation; and cellulosic technologies will make China more competitive in ethanol production in the future. Based on the estimated available marginal lands for energy crop production and conversion yields of the potential feedstocks, the most likely and optimistic production levels are 19 and 50 million tons of ethanol by 2020. In order to achieve those levels, the roadmap for China is to: select the non-food feedstock most suitable to grow on the available marginal land; provide funding to support the high priority conversion technologies identified by the scientists; provide monetary incentives to new and poor farmers to grow the feedstocks to revitalize rural economy; less market regulation and gradual reduction of subsidies to producers for industry efficiency; and educate consumers on the impact of fossil fuel on the environment to reduce consumption. Since the share of ethanol in the overall fuel demand is small, the impact of ethanol on lowering pollution and enhancing fuel security will be minimal. (author)

  10. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the existing usage of fossil fuels, thereby minimizing negative environmental impacts. Due to mechanical harvesting of sugarcane, the amount of pointer and straw has increased in sugarcane fields, becoming inputs of great energy potential.

  11. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License · 4.0 International .... Statistical analysis. The results of cell viability and ethanol production were subjected to analysis of variance by the F test, and the comparison of the means.

  12. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  13. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  14. RECTIFIED ETHANOL PRODUCTION COST ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola J Budimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of the most important factors of the total production costs in bioethanol production. The most influential factors are: total investment costs, price of raw materials (price of biomass, enzymes, yeast, and energy costs. Taking into account these factors, a procedure for estimation total production costs was establish. In order to gain insight into the relationship of production and selling price of bioethanol, price of bioethanol for some countries of the European Union and the United States are given.

  15. The possibility of drought risk reduction in corn production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are contemporary instruments for insurance risk of drought in agricultural production. Corn production is particularly sensitive to this risk, and the amount of the yield of this crop is in significant correlation with the July-August rainfall amount. Oscillations of production output, caused by the risk of drought, are reflected directly on the fluctuations of the financial result. The application of weather derivatives may decrease the variability of the mentioned economic parameter in corn production. In the investigated example of corn production, simulating the application of the weather option the coefficient of variation of realized financial results decreased by 9.64% compared to the version without the insured risk. At the same time, using the analysed insurance instrument, the risk of achieving a negative financial result is eliminated.

  16. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  17. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for ethanol production without foreign genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngnyun

    Worldwide dependence on finite petroleum-based energy necessitates alternative energy sources that can be produced from renewable resources. A successful example of an alternative transportation fuel is bioethanol, produced by microorganisms, from corn starch that is blended with gasoline. However, corn, currently the main feedstock for bioethanol production, also occupies a significant role in human food and animal feed chains. As more corn is diverted to bioethanol, the cost of corn is expected to increase with an increase in the price of food, feed and ethanol. Using lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production is considered to resolve this problem. However, this requires a microbial biocatalyst that can ferment hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. Escherichia coli is an efficient biocatalyst that can use all the monomeric sugars in lignocellulose, and recombinant derivatives of E. coli have been engineered to produce ethanol as the major fermentation product. In my study, ethanologenic E. coli strains were isolated from a ldhA-, pflB- derivative without introduction of foreign genes. These isolates grew anaerobically and produced ethanol as the main fermentation product. The mutation responsible for anaerobic growth and ethanol production was mapped in the lpdA gene and the mutation was identified as E354K in three of the isolates tested. Another three isolates carried an lpdA mutation, H352Y. Enzyme kinetic studies revealed that the mutated form of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LPD) encoded by the lpdA was significantly less sensitive to NADH inhibition than the native LPD. This reduced NADH sensitivity of the mutated LPD was translated into lower sensitivity to NADH of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in strain SE2378. The net yield of 4 moles of NADH and 2 moles of acetyl-CoA per mole of glucose produced by a combination of glycolysis and PDH provided a logical basis to explain the production of 2 moles of ethanol per glucose. The development of E

  18. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Yue, Wen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries. The effectiveness of moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment on the bioconversion efficiency of cellulose in the acid-steam-exploded corn stover was investigated in this study. Results showed that an increase of the alcoholic sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration from 0.05 to 4% led to a decrease in the lignin content in the post-treated samples from 32.8 to 10.7%, while the cellulose digestibility consequently increased. The cellulose conversion of the 4% alcoholic NaOH integrally treated corn stover reached up to 99.3% after 72 h, which was significantly higher than that of the acid steam exploded corn stover without post-treatment (57.3%). In addition to the decrease in lignin content, an expansion of cellulose I lattice induced by the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment played a significant role in promoting the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. More importantly, the lignin fraction (AL) released during the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment and the lignin-rich residue (EHR) remained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treated acid-steam-exploded corn stover were employed to synthesize lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins. The plywoods prepared with the resins exhibit satisfactory performances. An alkaline ethanol system with an appropriate NaOH concentration could improve the removal of lignin and modification of the crystalline structure of cellulose in acid

  19. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  20. Simple and enhanced production of lignocellulosic ethanol by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol can be produced from a fermentation process using raw materials obtained from highly economically important plants such as corn, cassava and sugarcane, and used as an alternative energy source. These economical plants are being used less because their initial cost is still increasing. However, lignocellulosic ...

  1. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  2. Comparison of several ethanol productions using xylanase, inorganic salts, surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Lu, Jie; Yang, Rui-feng; Song, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-ming; Wang, Hai-song; Zhou, Jing-hui

    2017-03-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to produce bioethanol with lignocellulosic materials. Corn stover was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and then subjected to semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) to obtain high ethanol concentration and yield. The present study aimed to confirm the effect of several additives on the fermentation digestibility of unwashed WIS of corn stover pretreated with LHW. So we also investigated the process, such as enzyme addition, inorganic salts, surfactant and different loading Triton. Results show that high ethanol concentration is necessary to add xylanase in the stage of saccharification. The ethanol concentration increased mainly with magnesium ion on fermentation. Comparing with Tween 80, Span 80 and Polyethylene glycol, Triton is the best surfactant. In contrast to using xylanase and Triton respectively, optimization can make up the lack of stamina and improve effect of single inorganic salts.

  3. Use of corn distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, C.C.

    1984-06-01

    Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it further. The purpose of this project is to determine if the soluble by-product could potentially be used as a food source in an aquatic environment where its high water content would not necessarily pose an impediment. Studies have shown that corn distiller's solubles are not highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that it be administered to ponds at rates less than 2000 ppM on a daily basis. Golden shiners were observed to actively consume the particulates of the corn distiller's solubles. Direct consumption of the particulates by fish makes the use of corn distiller's solubles in aquaculture much more attractive than if the by-product only serves to increase pond fertility. Despite the minimum amount of food material added to the ponds, production of shrimp and fish was favorable over the 4 month growing periods. Golden shiners reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to 130 kg ha/sup -1/. Monoculture of shrimp at higher densities (3000 to 5000 shrimp stocked per pond versus 2000 in 1982) resulted in an average production equivalent to approximately 228 kg ha/sup -1/, with individual shrimp averaging 10.5 g. Based on estimated wholesale prices of $10.00 and $7.75 per kilogram for frozen shrimp and live fish, respectively, the gross profit margin would have exceeded $2000 ha/sup -1/ both years. 25 references, 13 figures, 13 tables.

  4. The ethanol pathway from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum improves ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G; Holwerda, Evert K; Lanahan, Anthony A; Murphy, Sean J L; Maloney, Marybeth I; Zheng, Tianyong; Papanek, Beth; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ferments cellulose, is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, and has been the focus of studies aimed at improving ethanol yield. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ferments hemicellulose, but not cellulose, and has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. Recent research has led to the identification of four genes in T. saccharolyticum involved in ethanol production: adhE, nfnA, nfnB and adhA. We introduced these genes into C. thermocellum and observed significant improvements to ethanol yield, titer, and productivity. The four genes alone, however, were insufficient to achieve in C. thermocellum the ethanol yields and titers observed in engineered T. saccharolyticum strains, even when combined with gene deletions targeting hydrogen production. This suggests that other parts of T. saccharolyticum metabolism may also be necessary to reproduce the high ethanol yield and titer phenotype in C. thermocellum. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accounting for all sugars produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Daniel J; Dowe, Nancy; Chapeaux, Alexandre; Nelson, Robert S; Jennings, Edward W

    2016-04-01

    Accurate mass balance and conversion data from integrated operation is needed to fully elucidate the economics of biofuel production processes. This study explored integrated conversion of corn stover to ethanol and highlights techniques for accurate yield calculations. Acid pretreated corn stover (PCS) produced in a pilot-scale reactor was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resulting sugars were fermented to ethanol by the glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. The calculations presented here account for high solids operation and oligomeric sugars produced during pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, which, if not accounted for, leads to overestimating ethanol yields. The calculations are illustrated for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of PCS at 17.5% and 20.0% total solids achieving 80.1% and 77.9% conversion of cellulose and xylan to ethanol and ethanol titers of 63g/L and 69g/L, respectively. These procedures will be employed in the future and the resulting information used for techno-economic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of Corn Stover Pretreated with Liquid Hot Water and Fed-Batch Semi-Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h). The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism. PMID:24763192

  7. Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landis, D.A.; Gardiner, M.M.; Werf, van der W.; Swinton, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Increased demand for corn grain as an ethanol feedstock is altering U. S. agricultural landscapes and the ecosystem services they provide. From 2006 to 2007, corn acreage increased 19% nationally, resulting in reduced crop diversity in many areas. Biological control of insects is an ecosystem

  8. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Pimphan A.; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi to identify promising opportunities, and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, filamentous fungi are applied in multi-organism and consolidated process configurations. Organism performance and technology readiness are categorized as near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years), and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. The results of the analysis suggest that the opportunity for fungal fermentation exists for lignocellulosic ethanol production.

  9. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  10. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moncada Botero, J. (Jonathan)

    Key words: Fuel-ethanol, cassava, Tanzania, process modelling. INTRODUCTION ..... mathematical calculations such as Matlab, Octave and Polymath were also ... models. To start the different simulation procedures in ethanol production, a.

  12. A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeehoon; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A; Maravelias, Christos T

    2015-04-01

    The work develops a strategy for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In this strategy, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are simultaneously converted to sugars using a γ-valerolactone (GVL) solvent containing a dilute acid catalyst. To effectively recover GVL for reuse as solvent and biomass-derived lignin for heat and power generation, separation subsystems, including a novel CO2-based extraction for the separation of sugars from GVL, lignin and humins have been designed. The sugars are co-fermented by yeast to produce ethanol. Furthermore, heat integration to reduce utility requirements is performed. It is shown that this strategy leads to high ethanol yields and the total energy requirements could be satisfied by burning the lignin. The integrated strategy using corn stover feedstock leads to a minimum selling price of $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent, which suggests that it is a promising alternative to current biofuels production approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel for Automobiles: Using the First Law of Thermodynamics to Calculate the "Corn-Area-per-Car" Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Students will use the first law of thermodynamics to determine the feasibility of using corn ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in automobiles. Energy flow is tracked from the Sun, to photosynthesized carbohydrate, to ethanol through fermentation, and finally to work in the combustion engine. Feasibility is gauged by estimating a…

  14. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes.

  15. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  16. Impacts of retrofitting analysis on first generation ethanol production: process design and techno-economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Rajoli, Sreevathsava; Teichert, Oliver; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-02-01

    More than half of the bioethanol plants in operation today use corn or grains as raw materials. The downstream processing of mash after fermentation to produce ethanol and distiller grains is an energy-demanding process, which needs retrofitting for optimization. In addition, the fluctuation in the ethanol and grain prices affects the overall profitability of the plant. For this purpose, a process simulation was performed in Aspen Plus(®) based on an existing industrial plant located in Sweden. The simulations were compared using different scenarios including different concentrations of ethanol, using the stillage for biogas production to produce steam instead of distiller grains as a by-product, and altering the purity of the ethanol produced. Using stillage for biogas production, as well as utilizing the steam, reduced the overall energy consumption by 40% compared to the plant in operation. The fluctuations in grain prices had a high impact on the net present value (NPV), where grain prices greater than 349 USD/ton reached a zero NPV. After 20 years, the plant in operation producing 41,600 tons ethanol/year can generate a profit of 78 million USD. Compared to the base case, the less purified ethanol resulted in a lower NPV of 30 million USD.

  17. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  18. Corn stover-enhanced cellulase production by Aspergillus niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of extracellular cellulases by Aspergilus niger NRRL 567 on corn stover was studied in liquid state fermentation. In this study, three cellulases, exoglucanase (EXG), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) were produced by A. niger NRRL 567. The optimal pH, temperature and incubation time for ...

  19. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    and costing for the lignin combustor and boiler turbogenerator was reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. (REI) and Merrick & Company reviewed the wastewater treatment. Since then, NREL has engaged Harris Group (Harris) to perform vendor testing, process design, and costing of critical equipment identified during earlier work. This included solid/liquid separation and pretreatment reactor design and costing. Corn stover handling was also investigated to support DOE's decision to focus on corn stover as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol. Working with Harris, process design and costing for these areas were improved through vendor designs, costing, and vendor testing in some cases. In addition to this work, enzyme costs were adjusted to reflect collaborative work between NREL and enzyme manufacturers (Genencor International and Novozymes Biotech) to provide a delivered enzyme for lignocellulosic feedstocks. This report is the culmination of our work and represents an updated process design and cost basis for the process using a corn stover feedstock. The process design and economic model are useful for predicting the cost benefits of proposed research. Proposed research results can be translated into modifications of the process design, and the economic impact can be assessed. This allows DOE, NREL, and other researchers to set priorities on future research with an understanding of potential reductions to the ethanol production cost. To be economically viable, ethanol production costs must be below market values for ethanol. DOE has chosen a target ethanol selling price of $1.07 per gallon as a goal for 2010. The conceptual design and costs presented here are based on a 2010 plant start-up date. The key research targets required to achieve this design and the $1.07 value are discussed in the report.

  20. Development of synthetic chromosomes and improved microbial strains to utilize cellulosic feedstocks and express valuable coproducts for sustainable production of biofuels from corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable biorefinery must convert a broad range of renewable feedstocks into a variety of product streams, including fuels, power, and value-added bioproducts. To accomplish this, microbial-based technologies that enable new commercially viable coproducts from corn-to-ethanol biofuel fermentati...

  1. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater. Simulated values from this modeling system were used in a land-use regression model to examine associations between groundwater nitrate-N measurements and a suite of factors related to N fertilizer and groundwater nitrate contamination. Multi-variable modeling analysis revealed that the N-fertilizer rate (versus total) applied to irrigated (versus rainfed) grain corn (versus other crops) was the strongest N-related predictor variable of groundwater nitrate-N concentrations. Application of this multi-variable model considered groundwater nitrate-N concentration responses under two corn production scenarios. Findings suggest that increased corn production between 2002 and 2022 could result in 56% to 79% increase in areas vulnerable to groundwater nitrate-N concentrations ≥ 5 mg/L. These above-threshold areas occur on soils with a hydraulic conductivity 13% higher than the rest of the domain. Additio

  2. Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on ethanol stillage as a nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T P; Strohfus, B

    1996-01-01

    Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans strain RP-1 using thin stillage from fuel ethanol production as a nitrogen source was studied in a medium using corn syrup as a carbon source. The use of 1% thin stillage as a nitrogen source instead of ammonium sulphate elevated polysaccharide production by strain RP-1 cells when grown on a concentration of up to 7.5% corn syrup, independent of yeast extract supplementation. Dry weights of cells grown in medium containing ammonium sulphate as the nitrogen source were higher than the stillage-grown cells after 7 days of growth. The viscosity of the polysaccharide on day 7 was higher for cells grown on thin stillage rather than ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source. The pullulan content of the polysaccharide elaborated by ammonium sulphate-grown cells on day 7 was higher than the pullulan content of polysaccharide produced by stillage-grown cells regardless of whether yeast extract was added to the culture medium.

  3. Catalytic Production of Ethanol from Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewyn, Brian G. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Ryan G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been developed for the conversion of biomass-derived synthetic gas (syngas) to ethanol. The objectives of this project were to develop a clean synthesis gas from biomass and develop robust catalysts with high selectivity and lifetime for C2 oxygenate production from biomass-derived syngas and surrogate syngas. During the timeframe for this project, we have made research progress on the four tasks: (1) Produce clean bio-oil generated from biomass, such as corn stover or switchgrass, by using fast pyrolysis system, (2) Produce clean, high pressure synthetic gas (syngas: carbon monoxide, CO, and hydrogen, H2) from bio-oil generated from biomass by gasification, (3) Develop and characterize mesoporous mixed oxide-supported metal catalysts for the selective production of ethanol and other alcohols, such as butanol, from synthesis gas, and (4) Design and build a laboratory scale synthesis gas to ethanol reactor system evaluation of the process. In this final report, detailed explanations of the research challenges associated with this project are given. Progress of the syngas production from various biomass feedstocks and catalyst synthesis for upgrading the syngas to C2-oxygenates is included. Reaction properties of the catalyst systems under different reaction conditions and different reactor set-ups are also presented and discussed. Specifically, the development and application of mesoporous silica and mesoporous carbon supports with rhodium nanoparticle catalysts and rhodium nanoparticle with manganese catalysts are described along with the significant material characterizations we completed. In addition to the synthesis and characterization, we described the activity and selectivity of catalysts in our micro-tubular reactor (small scale) and fixed bed reactor (larger scale). After years of hard work, we are proud of the work done on this project, and do believe that this work will provide a solid

  4. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  5. Ethanol production from biomass by repetitive solid-state fed-batch fermentation with continuous recovery of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukamnerd, Churairat; Kino-oka, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi; Katakura, Yoshio [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Boonchird, Chuenchit [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Biotechnology; Noda, Hideo [Kansai Chemical Engineering Co., Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan); Ninomiya, Kazuaki [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Inst. of International Environment Technology; Shioya, Suteaki [Sojo Univ., Kumamoto (Japan). Dept. of Applied Life Science

    2010-09-15

    To save cost and input energy for bioethanol production, a consolidated continuous solid-state fermentation system composed of a rotating drum reactor, a humidifier, and a condenser was developed. Biomass, saccharifying enzymes, yeast, and a minimum amount of water are introduced into the system. Ethanol produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is continuously recovered as vapor from the headspace of the reactor, while the humidifier compensates for the water loss. From raw corn starch as a biomass model, 95 {+-} 3, 226 {+-} 9, 458 {+-} 26, and 509 {+-} 64 g l{sup -1} of ethanol solutions were recovered continuously when the ethanol content in reactor was controlled at 10-20, 30-50, 50-70 and 75-85 g kg-mixture{sup -1}, respectively. The residue showed a lesser volume and higher solid content than that obtained by conventional liquid fermentation. The cost and energy for intensive waste water treatment are decreased, and the continuous fermentation enabled the sustainability of enzyme activity and yeast in the system. (orig.)

  6. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin 4, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  7. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger

    2009-01-01

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

  8. SWEET CORN FARMING: THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION FACTOR, EFFICIENCY AND RETURN TO SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwijatenaya I.B.M.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of production factors on the sweet corn production, the efficiency of sweet corn farming, and the return to scale of sweet corn production. The sampling technique was taken by proportionate stratified random sampling method with the sample number of 57 people while the analyzer used was the program of Frointer 4.1c. The results show that the production factors of the land farm, seed, and fertilizer have a positive and significant effect on sweet corn production. On the other hand, labor production factors have a positive but not significant effect on sweet corn production. It also found that technical efficiency, price efficiency, and economic efficiency of sweet corn farming in Muara Wis Sub-district of Kutai Kartanegara Regency are not efficient yet. The return to scale of sweet corn yield has an increasing return to scale condition.

  9. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  10. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Pimphan; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi in order to identify promising opportunities and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Organism performance and technology readiness are split into three groups: near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years) and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. Processes classified as near-term could reasonably be developed in this shorter time frame, as suggested by recent literature. Mid-term technology process models are based on lab-scale experimental data, and yields near the theoretical limit are used to estimate long-term technology goals. Further research and economic evaluation on the integrated production of chemicals and fuels in biorefineries are recommended.

  11. Ethanol production from paper sludge using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Lina Maria; Quintero Diaz, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Recycled paper sludge is a promising raw material for ethanol production. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of ethanol concentration, solids load, and cellulose crystallinity on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to produce reducing sugars. We then evaluated the production of ethanol by either saccharification and simultaneous fermentation (SSF) or separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907. We found that cellulose hydrolysis decreased as ethanol concentrations increased; at 40 g/L ethanol, the reducing sugar production was decreased by 79 %. Hydrolysis also decreased as solids load increased; at 9 % of solids, the cellulose conversion was 76 % of the stoichiometric production. The ethanol yield and cellulose conversion rate were higher with SSF as opposed to SHF processes at 72 h of treatment.

  12. Effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on the conversion of different parts of corn stalk to fermentable sugars and its application in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Li, Ping; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on different parts of biomass, corn stalk was separated into flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem, which were treated by NaOH in range of temperature and chemical loading. The NaOH-pretreated solid was then enzymatic hydrolysis and used as the substrate for batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The results demonstrated the five parts of corn stalk could be used as potential feedstock separately, with vivid performances in solvents production. Under the optimized conditions towards high product titer, 7.5g/L, 7.6g/L, 9.4g/L, 7g/L and 7.6g/L of butanol was obtained in the fermentation broth of flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem hydrolysate, respectively. Under the optimized conditions towards high product yield, 143.7g/kg, 126.3g/kg, 169.1g/kg, 107.7g/kg and 116.4g/kg of ABE solvent were generated, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanol Transportation Backgrounder

    OpenAIRE

    Denicoff, Marina R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first 6 months of 2007, U.S. ethanol production totaled nearly 3 billion gallons—32 percent higher than the same period last year. As of August 29, there were 128 ethanol plants with annual production capacity totaling 6.78 billion gallons, and an additional 85 plants were under construction. U.S. ethanol production capacity is expanding rapidly and is currently expected to exceed 13 billion gallons per year by early 2009, if not sooner. Ethanol demand has increased corn prices and le...

  14. Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis.

  15. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2009-01-01

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  16. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurantz M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2% making it suitable for use in both ruminant

  17. Pilot plant study for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J S [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    Most of domestic alcohol fermentation factory adopt batch process of which productivity is lower than continuous fermentation process. They have made great effort to increase productivity by means of partial unit process automatization and process improvement with their accumulated experience but there is technical limitation in productivity of batch fermentation process. To produce and supply fuel alcohol, economic aspects must be considered first of all. Therefore, development of continuous fermentation process, of which productivity is high, is prerequisite to produce and use fuel alcohol but only a few foreign company possess continuous fermentation technic and use it in practical industrial scale fermentation. We constructed pilot plant (5 Stage CSTR 1 kl 99.5 v/v% ethanol/Day scale) to study some aspects stated below and our ultimate aims are production of industrial scale fuel alcohol and construction of the plant by ourselves. Some study concerned with energy saving separation and contamination control technic were entrusted to KAIST, A-ju university and KIST respectively. (author) 67 refs., 100 figs., 58 tabs.

  18. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  19. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  20. Treatment of corn ethanol distillery wastewater using two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ráduly, B; Gyenge, L; Szilveszter, Sz; Kedves, A; Crognale, S

    In this study the mesophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of corn bioethanol distillery wastewater is investigated in laboratory-scale reactors. Two-stage AD technology separates the different sub-processes of the AD in two distinct reactors, enabling the use of optimal conditions for the different microbial consortia involved in the different process phases, and thus allowing for higher applicable organic loading rates (OLRs), shorter hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and better conversion rates of the organic matter, as well as higher methane content of the produced biogas. In our experiments the reactors have been operated in semi-continuous phase-separated mode. A specific methane production of 1,092 mL/(L·d) has been reached at an OLR of 6.5 g TCOD/(L·d) (TCOD: total chemical oxygen demand) and a total HRT of 21 days (5.7 days in the first-stage, and 15.3 days in the second-stage reactor). Nonetheless the methane concentration in the second-stage reactor was very high (78.9%); the two-stage AD outperformed the reference single-stage AD (conducted at the same reactor loading rate and retention time) by only a small margin in terms of volumetric methane production rate. This makes questionable whether the higher methane content of the biogas counterbalances the added complexity of the two-stage digestion.

  1. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  2. Effect of the presence of initial ethanol on ethanol production in sugar cane juice fermented by Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Tano,Marcia Sadae; Buzato,João Batista

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol production in sugar cane juice in high initial sugar concentration, fermented by Z. mobilis in the presence and absence of ethanol, was evaluated. Ethanol production was low in both media. The presence of initial ethanol in the sugar cane juice reduced ethanol production by 48.8%, biomass production by 25.0% and the total sugar consumption by 28.3%. The presence of initial ethanol in the medium did not affect significantly levan production and biomass yield coefficient (g biomass/g su...

  3. Ethanol production from Dekkera bruxellensis in synthetic media with pentose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina B. Codato

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is obtained in Brazil from the fermentation of sugarcane, molasses or a mixture of these. Alternatively, it can also be obtained from products composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, called “second generation ethanol - 2G”. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly applied in industrial ethanol production, is not efficient in the conversion of pentoses, which is present in high amounts in lignocellulosic materials. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a yeast strain of Dekkera bruxellensis in producing ethanol from synthetic media, containing xylose or arabinose, xylose and glucose as the sole carbon sources. The results indicated that D. bruxellensis was capable of producing ethanol from xylose and arabinose, with ethanol concentration similar for both carbon sources, 1.9 g L-1. For the fermentations performed with xylose and glucose, there was an increase in the concentration of ethanol to 5.9 g L-1, lower than the standard yeast Pichia stipitis (9.3 g L-1, but with similar maximum yield in ethanol (0.9 g g TOC-1. This proves that the yeast D. bruxellensis produced lower amounts of ethanol when compared with P. stipitis, but showed that is capable of fermenting xylose and can be a promising alternative for ethanol conversion from hydrolysates containing glucose and xylose as carbon source.

  4. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanelov, Valeri; McKenzie, Andrew M.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  5. The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute : position on ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A brief overview of the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI), an industry association which represents Canadian Petroleum Refiners and Marketers is provided. It is not against nor for the use of ethanol as a fuel. Ethanol blends are marketed by some CPPI members. It is mentioned that consumers accept ethanol fuels when the price is competitive with the price of non-ethanol fuel. Mandating the use of ethanol in fuels is not an issue supported by the CPPI. A subsidy is required in order for ethanol to be an economically attractive option, and the consumers would be forced to bear subsidy costs if the use of ethanol in fuels were to be mandated. The technology is still some years away for ethanol from cellulose to be an attractive option. It is difficult to finance new plants, and 50 million of the 240 million litres of ethanol blended has to be imported. The advantages of ethanol as a fuel are marginal and not cost effective. Some changes to the gasoline distribution system would be required, as ethanol must be added near the consumer, and it may not be appropriate for some older vehicles and some off-road equipment. The gasoline industry's flexibility would be reduced by provincial mandates. Several questions have not yet been answered, such as what is the real purpose of mandating ethanol in motor fuels? when will new technology be available? The CPPI makes four recommendations: (1) the development of a clear understanding of and the articulation of the objectives of a new ethanol policy, (2) support the development of new cellulose based technology, (3) take a prudent and gradual approach to development of a new policy, and (4) CPPI does not believe that an ethanol mandate is in the best interests of all Canadians

  6. Integrated Process for Extraction of Wax as a Value-Added Co-Product and Improved Ethanol Production by Converting Both Starch and Cellulosic Components in Sorghum Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grain sorghum is a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production due to its high starch content, which is equivalent to that of corn, and has been successfully used in several commercial corn ethanol plants in the United States. Some sorghum grain varieties contain significant levels of surface wax, which may interact with enzymes and make them less efficient toward starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, wax can be recovered as a valuable co-product and as such may help improve the overall process economics. Sorghum grains also contain lignocellulosic materials in the hulls, which can be converted to additional ethanol. An integrated process was developed, consisting of the following steps: 1. Extraction of wax with boiling ethanol, which is the final product of the proposed process; 2. Pretreatment of the dewaxed grains with dilute sulfuric acid; 3. Mashing and fermenting of the pretreated grains to produce ethanol. During the fermentation, commercial cellulase was also added to release fermentable sugars from the hulls, which then were converted to additional ethanol. The advantages of the developed process were illustrated with the following results: (1 Wax extracted (determined by weight loss: ~0.3 wt % of total mass. (2 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using raw grains: 86.1 g/L. (3 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed grains: 106.2 g/L (23.3% improvement. (4 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed and acid-treated grains (1 wt % H2SO4 plus cellulase (CTec2: 117.8 g/L (36.8% improvement.

  7. A systems approach for the evaluation of ethanol production based on forages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvo, P. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Macdonald Coll.; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Saine-Foy Research Centre; Tremblay, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Rural; Emond, J.-P.; Turcotte, G. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Sciences et Technologie des Aliments

    1996-04-01

    A systems approach is proposed to simultaneously consider the agronomic aspects of forage production and the processing aspects related to the extraction of a glucose or xylose substrate, its fermentation into ethanol and the optimal utilization of co-products (protein meal, fibrous residue). The energy to produce and transport forage on the farm was estimated to be only 375 MJ/t dry matter (DM) when liquid manure was used and 1165 MJ/t DM when mineral fertilizer was used. An additional 126 MJ/t DM would be required to transport it to a processing plant. In contrast, whole-plant corn production using mineral fertilizer required about 3211 MJ/t DM, but it had a potential ethanol yield 3.2 times greater per unit area than perennial forage. A forage system with mechanical juice extraction resulted in 8-20% of the original forage dry matter available in a liquid substrate with subsequent protein meal separation and the fermentation of soluble sugars into ethanol. Another forage system with relatively complete conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars by thermal, acidic and enzymatic treatments was estimated to produce 12-28 times more ethanol per unit area than the mechanically extracted juice. Complete conversion of perennial forages would meet the petroleum industry`s needs more consistently than simple extraction of soluble components. (Author)

  8. Modifying yeast tolerance to inhibitory conditions of ethanol production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCaspeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated –omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose.

  9. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S....... cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular...... functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose....

  10. Ethanol production from alfalfa fiber fractions by saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenath, H.K. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Koegel, R.G. [US Department of Agriculture, Madison, WI (United States). Dairy Forage Research Center; Moldes, A.B. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Universidade de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Jeffries, T.W. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Straub, R.J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    2001-07-01

    This work describes ethanol production from alfalfa fiber using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with and without liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment. Candida shehatae FPL-702 produced 5 and 6.4 g/l ethanol with a yield of 0.25 and 0.16 g ethanol/g sugar respectively by SHF and SSF from alfalfa fiber without pretreatment. With LHW pretreatment using SSF, C. shehatae FPL-702 produced 18.0 g/l ethanol, a yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g sugar from cellulosic solids or 'raffinate'. Using SHF, it produced 9.6 g/l ethanol, a yield of 0.47 g ethanol/g sugar from raffinate. However, the soluble extract fraction containing hemicelluloses was poorly fermented in both SHF and SSF due to the presence of inhibitors. Addition of dilute acid during LHW pretreatment of alfalfa fiber resulted in fractions that were poorly saccharified and fermented. These results show that unpretreated alfalfa fiber produced a lower ethanol yield. Although LHW pretreatment can increase ethanol production from raffinate fiber fractions, it does not increase production from the hemicellulosic and pectin fractions. (author)

  11. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  12. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane

  13. Comparison of kinetic model for biogas production from corn cob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitophyta, L. M.; Maryudi

    2018-04-01

    Energy demand increases every day, while the energy source especially fossil energy depletes increasingly. One of the solutions to overcome the energy depletion is to provide renewable energies such as biogas. Biogas can be generated by corn cob and food waste. In this study, biogas production was carried out by solid-state anaerobic digestion. The steps of biogas production were the preparation of feedstock, the solid-state anaerobic digestion, and the measurement of biogas volume. This study was conducted on TS content of 20%, 22%, and 24%. The aim of this research was to compare kinetic models of biogas production from corn cob and food waste as a co-digestion using the linear, exponential equation, and first-kinetic models. The result showed that the exponential equation had a better correlation than the linear equation on the ascending graph of biogas production. On the contrary, the linear equation had a better correlation than the exponential equation on the descending graph of biogas production. The correlation values on the first-kinetic model had the smallest value compared to the linear and exponential models.

  14. Thermophilic, lignocellulolytic bacteria for ethanol production: current state and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Yao, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    of cellulolytic and saccharolytic thermophilic bacteria for lignocellulosic ethanol production because of their unique properties. First of all, thermophilic bacteria possess unique cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems and are considered as potential sources of highly active and thermostable enzymes...... for efficient biomass hydrolysis. Secondly, thermophilic bacteria ferment a broad range of carbohydrates into ethanol, and some of them display potential for ethanologenic fermentation at high yield. Thirdly, the establishment of the genetic tools for thermophilic bacteria has allowed metabolic engineering......, in particular with emphasis on improving ethanol yield, and this facilitates their employment for ethanol production. Finally, different processes for second-generation ethanol production based on thermophilic bacteria have been proposed with the aim to achieve cost-competitive processes. However, thermophilic...

  15. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.

  16. Assessment of soil attributes and crop productivity after diversification of the ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly specialized cash-grain production systems based upon corn-soybean rotations under tilled soil management are common in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt. This study, initiated in 1997, was conducted to determine if diversification of this ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation would affect soil char...

  17. Investigation of ethanol productivity of cassava crop as a sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol productivity of cassava crop was investigated in a laboratory experiment by correlating volumes and masses of ethanol produced to the masses of samples used. Cassava tubers (variety TMS 30555) were peeled, cut and washed. 5, 15, 25 and 35 kg samples of the tubers were weighed in three replicates, ...

  18. Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    A study on yeast fermentation of bitter kola pod( agricultural waste) was ... optimization of the ethanol production were investigated. ... components of biomass to produce a liquid .... Mani, S., Tabil, L. G. and Opoku, A. (2002). Ethanol from Agricultural crop residues-An. Overview. ... Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola.

  19. Bioelectrochemical ethanol production through mediated acetate reduction by mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Schaap, Joris D; Kampman, Christel; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate reduction in conjunction of an electron mediator. Initially, the effect of three selected mediators on metabolic flows during acetate reduction with hydrogen was explored; subsequently, the best performing mediator was used in a bioelectrochemical system to stimulate acetate reduction at the cathode with mixed cultures at an applied cathode potential of -550 mV. In the batch test, methyl viologen (MV) was found to accelerate ethanol production 6-fold and increased ethanol concentration 2-fold to 13.5 +/- 0.7 mM compared to the control. Additionally, MV inhibited n-butyrate and methane formation, resulting in high ethanol production efficiency (74.6 +/- 6%). In the bioelectrochemical system, MV addition to an inoculated cathode led directly to ethanol production (1.82 mM). Hydrogen was coproduced at the cathode (0.0035 Nm(3) hydrogen m(-2) d(-1)), so it remained unclear whether acetate was reduced to ethanol by electrons supplied by the mediator or by hydrogen. As MV reacted irreversibly at the cathode, ethanol production stopped after 5 days.

  20. Fumonisins B₁, B₂ and B₃ in corn products, wheat flour and corn oil marketed in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zheng, Fengjia; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study a total of 522 samples were collected from Shandong province of China in 2014 and analysed for the occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 by isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fumonisins were detected in 98.1% of the corn products, with the average total level of 369.2 μg kg(-1). The individual average values of FB1, FB2 and FB3 in corn products were 268.3, 53.7 and 47.2 μg kg(-1), respectively. The simultaneous occurrence of FB1, FB2 and FB3 was observed in 76.7% of the corn products. Especially, the results demonstrated that the difference in the contamination levels for fumonisins in these three types of corn products was apparent. In addition, 6.2% of the wheat flour samples were contaminated with FB1, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 34.6 µg kg(-1). No FB2 or FB3 was detected in wheat flour. In corn oil samples no fumonisins were detected.

  1. Oxidative production of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Han, Xushen; Wei, Chengxiang; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    An oxidative production process of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth was designed, experimentally investigated, and evaluated. Dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was simultaneously saccharified and fermented into 59.80g/L of ethanol (no xylose utilization). 65.39g/L of xylose was obtained in the distillation stillage without any concentrating step after ethanol was distillated. Then the xylose was completely converted into 66.42g/L of xylonic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. The rigorous Aspen Plus modeling shows that the wastewater generation and energy consumption was significantly reduced comparing to the previous xylonic acid production process using xylose in pretreatment liquid. This study provided a practical process option for xylonic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock with significant reduction of wastewater and energy consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zymomonas mobilis: a bacterium for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratti, J.C.; Bu' Lock, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a facultative anaerobic gram negative bacterium first isolated in tropical countries from alcoholic beverages like the African palm wine, the Mexican pulque and also as a contaminant of cider (cider sickness) or beer in the European countries. It is one of the few facultative anaerobic bacteria degrading glucose by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway usually found in strictly aerobic microorganisms. Some work was devoted to this bacterium in the 50s and 60s and was reviewed by Swings and De Ley in their classical paper published in 1977. During the 70s there was very little work on the bacterium until 1979 and the first report by the Australian group of P.L. Rogers on the great potentialities of Z. mobilis for ethanol production. At that time the petroleum crisis had led the developed countries to search for alternative fuel from renewable resources. The Australian group clearly demonstrated the advantages of the bacterium compared to the yeasts traditionally used for the alcoholic fermentation. As a result, there was a considerable burst in the Zymomonas literature which started from nearly zero in the late 70s to attain 70 papers published in the field in 1984. In this article, papers published from 1982 to 1986 are reviewed.

  3. Current and potential sustainable corn stover feedstock for biofuel production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shu-Guang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Bliss, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Increased demand for corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol raises concerns about agricultural sustainability. Excessive corn stover harvesting could have long-term impacts on soil quality. We estimated current and future stover production and evaluated the potential harvestable stover amount (HSA) that could be used for biofuel feedstock in the United States by defining the minimum stover requirement (MSR) associated with the current soil organic carbon (SOC) content, tillage practices, and crop rotation systems. Here we show that the magnitude of the current HSA is limited (31 Tg y−1, dry matter) due to the high MSR for maintaining the current SOC content levels of soils that have a high carbon content. An alternative definition of MSR for soils with a moderate level of SOC content could significantly elevate the annual HSA to 68.7 Tg, or even to 132.2 Tg if the amount of currently applied manure is counted to partially offset the MSR. In the future, a greater potential for stover feedstock could come from an increase in stover yield, areal harvest index, and/or the total planted area. These results suggest that further field experiments on MSR should be designed to identify differences in MSR magnitude between maintaining SOC content and preventing soil erosion, and to understand the role of current SOC content level in determining MSR from soils with a wide range of carbon contents and climatic conditions.

  4. Second Generation Ethanol Production from Brewers’ Spent Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomasses raises a global interest because it represents a good alternative to petroleum-derived energies and reduces the food versus fuel conflict generated by first generation ethanol. In this study, alkaline-acid pretreated brewers’ spent grain (BSG was evaluated for ethanol production after enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes. The obtained hydrolysate containing a glucose concentration of 75 g/L was adopted, after dilution up to 50 g/L, for fermentation by the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 selected as the best producer among five ethanologenic microorganims. When the hydrolysate was supplemented with yeast extract, 12.79 g/L of ethanol, corresponding to 0.28 g of ethanol per grams of glucose consumed (55% efficiency, was obtained within 24 h, while in the non-supplemented hydrolysate, a similar concentration was reached within 48 h. The volumetric productivity increased from 0.25 g/L·h in the un-supplemented hydrolysate to 0.53 g/L h in the yeast extract supplemented hydrolysate. In conclusion, the strain S. cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 was shown able to produce ethanol from BSG. Although an equal amount of ethanol was reached in both BSG hydrolysate media, the nitrogen source supplementation reduced the ethanol fermentation time and promoted glucose uptake and cell growth.

  5. Ethanol production by immobilized cells with forced substrate supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, Y.; Nishizawa, Y.; Nagai, S.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation by a forced substrate supply into an immobilized cell layer was carried out to increase the ethanol production rate and to eliminate the diffusion dependency of substrate supply in an ordinary immobilized cell reaction. Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 2347 was immobilized in a mixture of k-carrageenan, locust bean gum, and celite (2: 0.5: 40 wt/vol %). A glucose minimal medium was fed into the immobilized cell layer (5 to 22 mm in thickness) at retention times between 0.6 and 2.8 h under pressure. The stable ethanol fermentation could be maintained for more than 3 weeks with an ethanol yield of 0.48 g ethanol/g glucose and ethanol productivity of 63 g.(l gel)/sup -1/.h/sup -1/ at a retention time of 1.5 h. The yeast cells were well distributed through the gel layer with a vertical gradient, and an average cell density was ca. 8.0 X 10/sup 9/ cells/ml gel, 4-fold higher than that of ordinary immobilized cells. A small filter press reactor was constructed to examine the applicability of ethanol fermentation with this forced substrate supply. The operation could be continued for a month at a retention time of 2 h yielding 96 g/l of ethanol from 200 g/l of glucose. 6 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Bioethanol production from corn stover residues. Process design and Life Cycle Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, I.; Dinnino, G.; Braccio, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the mass and energy balance along with a land-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is described for a corn stover-to-ethanol industrial process assumed to consist of the main technologies being researched at ENEA TRISAIA: pretreatment by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. The modelled plant has a processing capacity of 60kt/y (dimensioned on realistic supplying basins of residues in Italy); biomass is pre-treated by acid catalyzed-steam explosion; cellulose and hemicelluloses are hydrolyzed and separately fermented; enzymes are on-site produced. The main target was to minimize the consumption of fresh water, enzymes and energy. The results indicate that the production of 1kg bio ethanol (95.4 wt%) requires 3.5 kg biomass dry matter and produces an energy surplus up to 740 Wh. The main purpose of the LCA analysis was to assess the environmental impact of the entire life cycle from the bio ethanol production up to its end-use as E10 blended gasoline. Boustead Model was used as tool to compile the life cycle inventory. The results obtained and discussed in this reports suffer of some limitations deriving from the following main points: some process yields have been extrapolated according to optimistic development scenarios; the energy and steam recovery could be lower than that projected because of lacks in the real systems; water recycle could be limited by the yeast tolerance toward the potential accumulation of toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the detailed process analysis here provided has its usefulness in: showing the challenging targets (even if they are ambitious) to bet on to make the integrated process feasible; driving the choice of the most suitable technologies to bypass some process bottlenecks [it

  7. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  8. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  9. Anaerobic digestion of whole stillage from dry-grind corn ethanol plant under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Kennedy, Kevin J; Marin, Juan; Strehler, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of whole stillage from a dry-grind corn-based ethanol plant was evaluated by batch and continuous-flow digesters under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. At whole corn stillage concentrations of 6348 to 50,786 mg total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD)/L, at standard temperature (0 °C) and pressure (1 atm), preliminary biochemical methane potential assays produced 88±8 L (49±5 L CH4) and 96±19 L (65±14 L CH4) biogas per L stillage from mesophilic and thermophilic digesters, respectively. Continuous-flow studies for the full-strength stillage (TCOD=254 g/L) at organic loadings of 4.25, 6.30 and 9.05 g TCOD/L days indicated unstable performance for the thermophilic digester. Among the sludge retention times (SRTs) of 60, 45 and 30 days tested, the mesophilic digestion was successful only at 60 days-SRT which does not represent a practical operation time for a large scale bioethanol plant. Future laboratory studies will focus on different reactor configurations to reduce the SRT needed in the digesters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... ... of these studies, the preferred candidate for industrial production of ethanol ... The yeast strains were isolated using the method of Ameh et al. (1989), on ... gas in the Durham tube during the incubation period. Fermentation ...

  11. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production ..... The authors wish to acknowledge financial support from ... Official energy statistics from.

  12. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... glycerol waste by mutant Enterobacter aerogenes ... wild type strain was altered for enhancing ethanol production using UV irradiation and chemical method. .... microbial medium analytical methods were of laboratory and.

  13. Ethanol production from biomass: technology and commercialisation status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R.

    2001-06-01

    Owing to technical improvements in the processes used to produce ethanol from biomass, construction of at least two waste-to-ethanol production plants in the United States is expected to start this year. Although there are a number of robust fermentation microorganisms available, initial pretreatment of the biomass and costly cellulase enzymes remain critical targets for process and cost improvements. A highly efficient, very low-acid pretreatment process is approaching pilot testing, while research on cellulases for ethanol production is expanding at both enzyme and organism level. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of ethanol productivity from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurose, N; Yagyu, J; Miyazaki, T; Uchida, M; Hanai, S; Obayashi, A

    1986-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, directly converts cellulose to EtOH. To estimate its EtOH production from cellulose, we used a new method based on material balance by which the efficiencies of the enzymes that convert cellulose to ethanol were calculated. Using this method, the maximum efficiency of ethanol production of two strains of C. thermocellum was estimated to be 0.05, with 0.67 as the theoretical maximum. 3 references.

  15. The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, Vincenza [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); School of Biotechnological Sciences, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Hadar, Yitzhak [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    This review provides an overview of the potential of bioethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic residues in the Mediterranean Basin. Residues from cereal crops, olive trees, and tomato and grape processing are abundant lignocellulosic wastes in France, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Egypt, where their use as raw materials for ethanol production could give rise to a potential production capacity of 13 Mtoe of ethanol. Due to the lack of sufficient amounts of agricultural residues in all of the other Mediterranean countries, use of the cellulosic content of municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for ethanol fuel production is also proposed. A maximum potential production capacity of 30 Mtoe of ethanol could be achieved from 50% of the 180 million tons of waste currently produced annually in the Mediterranean Basin, the management of which has become a subject of serious concern. However, to make large-scale ethanol production from agricultural residues and MSW a medium-term feasible goal in the Mediterranean Basin, huge efforts are needed to achieve the required progress in cellulose ethanol technologies and to overcome several foreseeable constraints. (author)

  16. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  17. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. Fermentation and on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, L.

    1994-04-01

    The fermentation performance of bacteria, yeast and fungi was investigated in lignocellulosic hydrolysates with the aim of finding microorganisms which both withstand the inhibitors and that have the ability to ferment pentoses. Firstly, the performance of Saccharomyces cidri, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, Escherichia coli and Zymomonas mobilis was investigated in spent sulphite liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate of steam-pretreated willow. Secondly, the performance of natural and recombinant E. coli, Pichia stipitis, recombinant S. cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae in combination with xylose isomerase and Fusarium oxysporum was investigated in a xylose-rich acid hydrolysate of corn cob. Recombinant E. coli was the best alternative for fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, giving both high yields and productivities. The main drawback was that detoxification was necessary. The kinetics of the fermentation with recombinant E. coli KO11 was investigated in the condensate of steam-pretreated willow. A cost analysis of the ethanol production from willow was made, which predicted an ethanol production cost of 3.9 SEK/l for the pentose fermentation. The detoxification cost constituted 22% of this cost. The monitoring of three monosaccharides and ethanol in lignocellulosic hydro lysates is described. The monosaccharides were determined using immobilized pyranose oxidase in an on-line amperometric analyser. Immobilization and characterization of pyranose oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is also described. The ethanol was monitored on-line using a micro dialysis probe as an in situ sampling device. The dialysate components were then separated in a column liquid chromatographic system and the ethanol was selectively detected by an amperometric alcohol bio sensor. The determinations with on-line analysis methods agreed well with off-line methods. 248 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  18. Co-production of bio-ethanol, electricity and heat from biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, J.H.; Den Uil, H.; Van Veen, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); De Laat, W.T.A.M.; Niessen, J.J. [Royal Nedalco, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); De Jong, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weusthuis, R. [Agrotechnological Research Institute ATO, BU Renewable Resources, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Dijken, J.P.; Raamsdonk, L. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    sections), necessitates concentration of the sugar solutions by evaporation to obtain an industrially acceptable final ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Follow-up RandD will focus on reduction of water use, internal water recycling and energy integration of the evaporation step with the ethanol purification section. The estimated production costs of bio-ethanol from 3 types of (ligno)cellulo sic residues are 0.75-0.99 e/l (34-45 E/GJ), which is considerably higher than the current costs of fuel ethanol from corn starch (0.34 e/l; 16.2 e/GJ) and gasoline (7.3 e/GJ). A sensitivity analysis shows that cellulase costs will have to be reduced with at least a factor 10 and capital costs need to be reduced by 30% to reach ethanol production costs competitive with ethanol from starch crops.

  19. Ethanol production from biomass. Voorlopig nauwelijks ethanolproduktie uit biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Knijff, A; Wildschut, L R [Haskoning Koninklijk Ingenieurs- en Architectenbureau, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Williams, A [Technische Univ. Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1991-04-01

    Fluid fuels, for instance ethanol and methanol, can be produced from agricultural materials and from waste materials. For 37 waste flows (among which scrap from the oil- and fat industry, waste potatoes, withdrawn vegetables, waste wood, straw, roadside grass, vegetables-, fruits- and garden wastes and beet tails) possibilities to produce fuels have been considered. In general, sacchariferous and farinaceous wastes, which could be used for ethanol production, are used for other purposes. Therefore ethanol production from these materials is expensive. Cellulose wastes (for instance straw, wood wastes and paper sludge) can be suitable in the future for ethanol production. But first a cheap method to decompose and hydrolize cellulose has to be developed. 2 figs., 2 ills., 3 refs.

  20. Enhancing ethanol production from cellulosic sugars using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, C C; Azam, M M; Ezeji, T C; Qureshi, N

    2016-07-01

    Studies were performed on the effect of CaCO3 and CaCl2 supplementation to fermentation medium for ethanol production from xylose, glucose, or their mixtures using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Both of these chemicals were found to improve maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity. Use of xylose alone resulted in the production of 20.68 ± 0.44 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.17 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1), while xylose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 24.68 ± 0.75 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.21 ± 0.01 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of xylose plus glucose in combination with 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 47.37 ± 0.55 g L(-1) ethanol (aerobic culture), thus resulting in an ethanol productivity of 0.39 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1). These values are 229 % of that achieved in xylose medium. Supplementation of xylose and glucose medium with 0.40 g L(-1) CaCl2 resulted in the production of 44.84 ± 0.28 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.37 ± 0.02 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of glucose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 57.39 ± 1.41 g L(-1) ethanol under micro-aerophilic conditions. These results indicate that supplementation of cellulosic sugars in the fermentation medium with CaCO3 and CaCl2 would improve economics of ethanol production from agricultural residues.

  1. Fuel Processing Plants - ETHANOL_PRODUCTION_FACILITIES_IN: Ethanol Production Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This GIS layer shows the locations of ethanol production facilities in the state of Indiana. Attributes include the name and address of the facility, and information...

  2. Ethanol production from cellulose, lactose and xylose using yeasts and enzymes. Gewinnung von Ethanol aus Cellulose, Lactose, und Xylose mit Hilfe von Hefen und Enzymen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, U

    1986-07-03

    Experiments with mixtures of whey and corn showed that more than 85% of the lactose was degraded into ethanol. The applicability of cellulose was investigated by means of potatoes. Cellulase is inhibited by glucose, which is a fermentation intermediate, as well as by the end product ethanol. A cellulase inhibitor in potatoes was detected and stabilized; this inhibitor could be degraded into neutral components by a suitable enzyme. Saccharification and fermentation experiments showed that the cellulose fraction of potatoes can be reduced efficiently. The effects of non-enzymatic pretreatment on enzymatic degradation of cellulose, combined with fermentation of the degradation products, are illustrated by the example of cellulose treated with acid and alkaline substances. A continuous fermentation system was developed from which the ethanol is withdrawn in vapour form. The system made better use of the cellulase activity and increased the efficiency of a xylose-fermenting yeast. The new method is compared with batch experiments in order to assess its efficiency. The advantages of the continuous process are proved for two yeasts of the species Pachysolu and Pichia. Specific fermentation rates up to 0.08 g/(g x h) and fermentation yields up to 0.42 g ethanol/g xylose were achieved with Pichia stipitis.

  3. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in re...

  4. Ethanol production from soybean molasses by Zymomonas mobilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Karp, Susan Grace; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the utilization of soybean molasses (a low cost byproduct) to produce ethanol, an important biofuel, using the microorganism Zymomonas mobilis NRRL 806, a gram negative bacterium. At the first part of the work, laboratorial scale tests, using 125 mL flasks were performed to evaluate the effect of three variables on ethanol production: soybean molasses concentration (the sole carbon and nitrogen source), pH and period of previous aerobial phase. The optimal soybean concentration was around 200 g L -1 of soluble solids, pH between 6.0 and 7.0, and the period of previous aerobial phase did not provide significant effect. At the second part, kinetic tests were performed to compare the fermentation yields of Zymomonas mobilis NRRL 806 in flasks and in a bench scale batch reactor (it was obtained respectively 78.3% and 96.0% of the maximum theoretical yields, with productions of 24.2 and 29.3 g L -1 of ethanol). The process with a reactor fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae LPB1 was also tested (it was reached 89.3% of the theoretical maximum value). A detailed kinetic behavior of the molasses sugars metabolism for Z. mobilis was also shown, either in reactor or in flasks. This work is a valuable tool for further works in the subject of ethanol production from agro-industrial by-products. -- Highlights: ► Zymomonas mobilis was able to grow and produce ethanol on diluted soybean molasses. ► Best conditions for ethanol production:200g L -1 of soluble solids; pH around 6,5. ► Z. mobilis had better ethanol production and yield when compared to S. cerevisiae. ► In reactor, Z. mobilis produced 29.3 g L -1 of ethanol, 96.0% of the maximum yield.

  5. Yeast metabolic engineering for hemicellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Van Vleet; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Efficient fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars is critical for the bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol. Efficient sugar uptake through the heterologous expression of yeast and fungal xylose/glucose transporters can improve fermentation if other metabolic steps are not rate limiting. Rectification of cofactor imbalances through heterologous expression of...

  6. Determining the cost of producing ethanol from corn starch and lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAloon, Andrew [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C. (United States); Taylor, Frank [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C. (United States); Yee, Winnie [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C. (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This report describes the comparison of the processes, each producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol. This paper attempts to compare the two processes as mature technologies, which requires assuming that the technology improvements needed to make the lignocellulosic process commercializable are achieved, and enough plants have been built to make the design well-understood.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shaohui; Yan, Wei; Sun, Peiqin; Chen, Junwu

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the simulated equilibrium compositions of ethanol steam reforming (SR), partial oxidation (POX) and auto-thermal reforming (ATR) at a large temperature range, steam-to-ethanol and oxygen-to-ethanol molar ratios. The simulation work shows that the moles of hydrogen yield per mole ethanol are of this order: SR > ATR > POX. The results are compared with other simulation works and fitted models, which show that all the simulation results obtained with different methods agree well with each other. And the fitted models are in highly consistency with very small deviations. Moreover, the thermal-neutral point in corresponding to temperature, steam-to-ethanol and oxygen-to-ethanol mole ratios of ethanol ATR is estimated. The result shows that with the increasing of oxygen-to-ethanol mole ratio, the T-N point moves to higher temperatures; with the increasing of steam-to-ethanol mole ratio, the T-N point moves to lower temperatures. Furthermore, the energy exchanges of the reforming process and the whole process and the thermal efficiencies are also analyzed in the present work and that the energy demands and generated in the whole process are greater than the reforming process can be obtained. Finally, the optimum reaction conditions are selected. -- Highlights: ► The equilibrium compositions simulated by different researchers with different methods are compared. ► The simulation results are fitted with polynomials for convenient reference. ► The energy balance and thermal efficiencies are analyzed. ► The optimum reaction conditions of ethanol POX, SR and ATR for hydrogen production are selected.

  8. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation - Process development and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugulis, A.J.; Axford, D.B.; Mau, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    Extractive Fermentation is an ethanol processing strategy in which the operations of fermentation and product recovery are integrated and undertaken simultaneously in a single step. In this process an inert and biocompatible organic solvent is introduced directly into the fermentation vessel to selectively extract the ethanol product. The ethanol is readily recovered from the solvent at high concentration by means of flash vaporization, and the solvent is recycled in a closed loop back to the fermentor. This process is characterized by a high productivity (since ethanol does not build up to inhibitory levels), continuous operation, significantly reduced water consumption, and lower product recovery costs. The technical advantages of this processing strategy have been extensively demonstrated by means of a continuous, fully integrated and computer-controlled Process Demonstration Unit in the authors' laboratory. Numerous features of this technology have been protected by US patent. A thorough economic comparison of Extractive Fermentation relative to modern ethanol technology (continuous with cell recycle) has been completed for both new plants and retrofitting of existing facilities for a capacity of 100 million liters of ethanol per year. Substantial cost savings are possible with Extractive Fermentation ranging, depending on the process configuration, from 5 cents to 16 cents per liter. Activities are under way to transfer this proprietary technology to the private sector

  9. Production of ethanol from Carica papaya (pawpaw) agro waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    sample was pulverised with a blender, packed in plastic container and stored in the freezer for subsequent analysis. Dried baker's yeast (Sacchromyces cerevisiae) is .... Production from Corn-cob Wastes and Grass-straw. Nig. J. Biotechnol. 6: 110 - 112. Akin-Osanaiye et al. 659. Association of Official Analytical Chemists ...

  10. Yeast flocculation: New story in fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    Yeast flocculation has been used in the brewing industry to facilitate biomass recovery for a long time, and thus its mechanism of yeast flocculation has been intensively studied. However, the application of flocculating yeast in ethanol production garnered attention mainly in the 1980s and 1990s. In this article, updated research progress in the molecular mechanism of yeast flocculation and the impact of environmental conditions on yeast flocculation are reviewed. Construction of flocculating yeast strains by genetic approach and utilization of yeast flocculation for ethanol production from various feedstocks were presented. The concept of self-immobilized yeast cells through their flocculation is revisited through a case study of continuous ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast SPSC01, and their technical and economic advantages are highlighted by comparing with yeast cells immobilized with supporting materials and regular free yeast cells as well. Taking the flocculating yeast SPSC01 as an example, the ethanol tolerance of the flocculating yeast was also discussed.

  11. Selective ethanol production from reducing sugars in a saccharide mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Satoshi; Kato, Taku; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Fermentation profiles of four different yeasts reportedly defective in sucrose utilization indicate that all strains tested removed particular sugar via selective conversion to ethanol in a saccharide mixture. At the temperature of pressed sugarcane juice, Saccharomyces dairenensis and Saccharomyces transvaalensis performed better in ethanol production rate and yield, respectively. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances in ethanol reforming for the production of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guerrero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol (SRE is a promising route for the production of renewable hydrogen (H2. This article reviews the influence of doping supported-catalysts used in SRE on the conversion of ethanol, selectivity for H2, and stability during long reaction periods. In addition, promising new technologies such as membrane reactors and electrochemical reforming for performing SRE are presented.

  13. Ethanol Production from Waste Potato Mash by Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-ethanol is one of the energy sources that can be produced by renewable sources. Waste potato mash was chosen as a renewable carbon source for ethanol fermentation because it is relatively inexpensive compared with other feedstock considered as food sources. However, a pretreatment process is needed: specifically, liquefaction and saccharification processes are needed to convert starch of potato into fermentable sugars before ethanol fermentation. In this study, hydrolysis of waste potato mash and growth parameters of the ethanol fermentation were optimized to obtain maximum ethanol production. In order to obtain maximum glucose conversions, the relationship among parameters of the liquefaction and saccharification process was investigated by a response surface method. The optimum combination of temperature, dose of enzyme (α-amylase and amount of waste potato mash was 95 °C, 1 mL of enzyme (18.8 mg protein/mL and 4.04 g dry-weight/100 mL DI water, with a 68.86% loss in dry weight for liquefaction. For saccharification, temperature, dose of enzyme and saccharification time were optimized and optimum condition was determined as 60 °C-72 h-0.8 mL (300 Unit/mL of amyloglucosidase combination, yielded 34.9 g/L glucose. After optimization of hydrolysis of the waste potato mash, ethanol fermentation was studied. Effects of pH and inoculum size were evaluated to obtain maximum ethanol. Results showed that pH of 5.5 and 3% inolculum size were optimum pH and inoculum size, respectively for maximum ethanol concentration and production rate. The maximum bio-ethanol production rate was obtained at the optimum conditions of 30.99 g/L ethanol. Since yeast extract is not the most economical nitrogen source, four animal-based substitutes (poultry meal, hull and fines mix, feather meal, and meat and bone meal were evaluated to determine an economical alternative nitrogen source to yeast extract. Poultry meal and feather meal were able to produce 35 g/L and

  14. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  15. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma

    2011-01-01

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  16. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) Users’ Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Energy Resources Center; Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2016-09-01

    The $\\underline{C}$arbon $\\underline{C}$alculator for $\\underline{L}$and $\\underline{U}$se Change from $\\underline{B}$iofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  17. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  18. Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Muhammad Asyraf Kasim; Nasrin Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

  19. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caixia; Xie, Gaodi; Li, Shimei; Ge, Liqiang; He, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm 2 ) are only as much as 78.6 x 10 4 hm 2 ; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 10 4 -294.6 x 10 4 t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 10 4 t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China.

  20. Bridging the logistics gap for sustainable ethanol production: the CentroSul ethanol pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megiolaro, Moacir; Daud, Rodrigo; Pittelli, Fernanda [CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria, SP (Brazil); Singer, Eugenio [EMS Consultant, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increase of ethanol production and growth in consumption in Brazil is a reality that poses significant logistics challenges both for producers and consumers. The Brazilian local market absorbs a great portion of the country's production of ethanol, but the export market is also experiencing significant expansion so that both local and external market consumption will require more adequate transportation solutions. The alternative routes for Brazilian ethanol exports within the South and Southeast regions of Brazil range from the port of Paranagua, in the state of Parana, to the port of Vitoria, in the state of Espirito Santo. Each of these routes is about 1,000 km distance from the main production areas in the Central South states of Brazil. Brazilian highways and railways systems are overly congested and do not present efficient logistics alternatives for the transportation of large ethanol flows over long distances (cross-country) from the central Midwest regions of the country to the consumer and export markets in the Southeast. In response to the challenge to overcome such logistic gaps, CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria 'CentroSul', a company recently founded by a Brazilian ethanol producer group, the Brenco Group, is developing a project for the first fully-dedicated ethanol pipeline to be constructed in Brazil. The ethanol pipeline will transport 3,3 million m{sup 3} of Brenco - Brazilian Renewable Energy Company's ethanol production and an additional 4,7 million cubic meters from other Brazilian producers. The pipeline, as currently projected, will, at its full capacity, displace a daily vehicle fleet equivalent to 500 trucks which would be required to transport the 8,0 million cubic meters from their production origins to the delivery regions. In addition, the project will reduce GHG (trucking) emissions minimizing the project's overall ecological footprint. Key steps including conceptual engineering, environmental

  1. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-01-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ► The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ► Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short

  2. Metabolic engineering of ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Yao

    2010-11-15

    Strain BG1 is a xylanolytic, thermophilic, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium originally isolated from an Icelandic hot spring. The strain belongs to the species Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. The strain ferments glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and mannose simultaneously and produces ethanol, acetate, lactate, CO{sub 2}, and H2 as fermentation end-products. As a potential ethanol producer from lignocellulosic biomass, tailor-made BG1 strain with the metabolism redirected to produce ethanol is needed. Metabolic engineering of T. mathranii BG1 is therefore necessary to improve ethanol production. Strain BG1 contains four alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) encoding genes. They are adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE encoding primary alcohol dehydrogenase, secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, butanol dehydrogenase and bifunctional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively. The presence in an organism of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with overlapping specificities makes the determination of the specific role of each ADH difficult. Deletion of each individual adh gene in the strain revealed that the adhE deficient mutant strain fails to produce ethanol as the fermentation product. The bifunctional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, AdhE, is therefore proposed responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii BG1, by catalyzing sequential NADH-dependent reductions of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde and then to ethanol under fermentative conditions. Moreover, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Over-expression of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitates the production of ethanol at an increased yield. With a cofactor-dependent ethanol production pathway in T. mathranii BG1, it may become crucial to regenerate cofactor to increase the ethanol yield. Feeding the cells with a more reduced carbon source, such as mannitol, was shown to increase ethanol

  3. The state of autotrophic ethanol production in Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, J; Armshaw, P; Sheahan, C; Pembroke, J T

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol production directly from CO2 , utilizing genetically engineered photosynthetic cyanobacteria as a biocatalyst, offers significant potential as a renewable and sustainable source of biofuel. Despite the current absence of a commercially successful production system, significant resources have been deployed to realize this goal. Utilizing the pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas species, metabolically derived pyruvate can be converted to ethanol. This review of both peer-reviewed and patent literature focuses on the genetic modifications utilized for metabolic engineering and the resultant effect on ethanol yield. Gene dosage, induced expression and cassette optimizat-ion have been analyzed to optimize production, with production rates of 0·1-0·5 g L(-1) day(-1) being achieved. The current 'toolbox' of molecular manipulations and future directions focusing on applicability, addressing the primary challenges facing commercialization of cyanobacterial technologies are discussed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  5. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abreu-Cavalheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  6. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  7. Bioenergy from stillage anaerobic digestion to enhance the energy balance ratio of ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

    2015-10-01

    The challenges associated with the availability of fossil fuels in the past decades intensified the search for alternative energy sources, based on an ever-increasing demand for energy. In this context, the application of anaerobic digestion (AD) as a core treatment technology in industrial plants should be highlighted, since this process combines the pollution control of wastewaters and the generation of bioenergy, based on the conversion of the organic fraction to biogas, a methane-rich gaseous mixture that may supply the energetic demands in industrial plants. In this context, this work aimed at assessing the energetic potential of AD applied to the treatment of stillage, the main wastewater from ethanol production, in an attempt to highlight the improvements in the energy balance ratio of ethanol by inserting the heating value of methane as a bioenergy source. At least 5-15% of the global energy consumption in the ethanol industry could be supplied by the energetic potential of stillage, regardless the feedstock (i.e. sugarcane, corn or cassava). The association between bagasse combustion and stillage anaerobic digestion in sugarcane-based distilleries could provide a bioenergy surplus of at least 130% of the total fossil fuel input into the ethanol plant, considering only the energy from methane. In terms of financial aspects, the economic gains could reach US$ 0.1901 and US$ 0.0512 per liter of produced ethanol, respectively for molasses- (Brazil) and corn-based (EUA) production chains. For large-scale (∼1000 m(3)EtOH per day) Brazilian molasses-based plants, an annual economic gain of up to US$ 70 million could be observed. Considering the association between anaerobic and aerobic digestion, for the scenarios analyzed, at least 25% of the energetic potential of stillage would be required to supply the energy consumption with aeration, however, more suitable effluents for agricultural application could be produced. The main conclusion from this work

  8. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  9. Enhancing biogas production of corn stover by fast pyrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Deli; Wu, Houkai; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Li, Yongjun; Li, Zhihe

    2016-10-01

    A new thermo-chemical pretreatment by a lower temperature fast pyrolysis (LTFP) was applied to promote anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency of corn stover (CS). The pretreatment experiment was performed by a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor at 180, 200 and 220°C with a carrier gas flow rate of 4 and 3m(3)/h. The components characteristics, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and Crystal Intensity (CrI) of the pretreated CS were tested to explore effectiveness of the pretreatment. The results showed that the cumulative methane production at 180°C for 4 and 3m(3)/h were 199.8 and 200.3mL/g TS, respectively. As compared to the untreated CS, the LTFP pretreatment significantly (a<0.05) increased the methane production by 18.07% and 18.33%, respectively. Methane production was well fitted by the Gompertz models, and the maximum methane potential and AD efficiency was obtained at 180°C for 3m(3)/h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative effects of dietary corn oil, safflower oil, fish oil and palm oil on metabolism of ethanol and carnitine in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Dileep S; Yatim, Ayub M; Daily, James W

    2002-06-01

    This study was launched to determine comparative effects of corn oil (CO), safflower oil (SO), fish oil (FO) and palm oil (PO) on carnitine status and ethanol metabolism in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g bw) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6) and fed a semisynthetic diets containing fat as oils listed above. Blood and 24 hour urine samples were collected before and after dietary treatment and acute ethanol administration. Samples were analyzed for blood-ethanol concentration (BEC) and carnitine species. The diets containing FO and PO retarded ethanol metabolism compared to the diets containing CO and SO. The effect of these dietary fats on carnitine species in plasma and urine was varied before and after dietary treatment and following a single oral ethanol dose. The liver carnitine content was higher in the PO group after dietary and ethanol treatment. It is concluded that attenuation of ethanol clearance was related to unique fatty acid makeup of the oils that in part may be attributed to the composite ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in the oils.

  11. Analysis of ethanol production potential from cellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J E

    1982-03-01

    This report provides a comprehensive and scientific overview of results emerging from research on ethanol producton from cellulosic materials and indicates those areas which appear to warrant additional support. Many published economic analyses of production costs are examined, but the emphasis of the report is on research and on its potential for reducing the cost of ethanol production. The author concludes that the uncertainty surrounding the cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks via enzymatic hydrolysis will not be resolved until a pilot plant has been built of sufficient size to produce realistic engineering data. He gives five reasons why Canada should build such a pilot plant: Canada's apparent leadership in developing a steam pre-treatment process, the desirability of encouraging developments and building a cadre of experts in biotechnology, the absence of a pilot plant in Canada where the various organisms and biochemical processes involved in ethanol production and by-product utilization can be developed on a reasonably large scale, Canadian expertise in lignin chemistry which might be used to capitalize upon the reactive lignin residue, and research in progress at National Research Council and elsewhere on the conversion of C/sub 5/ sugars to ethanol. 37 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Engineering microorganisms to increase ethanol production by metabolic redirection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu; Olson, Daniel G.; van Dijken, Johannes Pieter; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Argyros, Aaron; Barrett, Trisha; Caiazza, Nicky; Herring, Christopher D.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Agbogbo, Frank

    2017-10-31

    The present invention provides for the manipulation of carbon flux in a recombinant host cell to increase the formation of desirable products. The invention relates to cellulose-digesting organisms that have been genetically modified to allow the production of ethanol at a high yield by redirecting carbon flux at key steps of central metabolism.

  13. Influence of land area and capital strengthening fund of rural economic enterprises toward corn production in North Sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanta

    2018-02-01

    Corn is one of the staple food crops. Corn can also be processed into various foods and also as animal feed. The need for corn will continue to increase from year to year so it is necessary to increase production. The government has targeted corn crop self-sufficiency to achieve the corn production standards required by the animal feed industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of land area and capital strengthening funds to rural economic enterprises on corn production. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency of North Sumatra Province. The research method used is panel regression method. The result shows that the area of land has a significant effect on corn production and the capital strengthening fund to the rural economy institution has an insignificant effect on corn production in North Sumatera Province.

  14. Simultaneous saccharification and bioethanol production from corn cobs: Process optimization and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewsynker-Sukai, Yeshona; Gueguim Kana, E B

    2018-08-01

    This study investigates the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for bioethanol production from corn cobs with prehydrolysis (PSSF) and without prehydrolysis (OSSF). Two response surface models were developed with high coefficients of determination (>0.90). Process optimization gave high bioethanol concentrations and bioethanol conversions for the PSSF (36.92 ± 1.34 g/L and 62.36 ± 2.27%) and OSSF (35.04 ± 0.170 g/L and 58.13 ± 0.283%) models respectively. Additionally, the logistic and modified Gompertz models were used to study the kinetics of microbial cell growth and ethanol formation under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions. Cell growth in the OSSF microaerophilic process gave the highest maximum specific growth rate (µ max ) of 0.274 h -1 . The PSSF microaerophilic bioprocess gave the highest potential maximum bioethanol concentration (P m ) (42.24 g/L). This study demonstrated that microaerophilic rather than anaerobic culture conditions enhanced cell growth and bioethanol production, and that additional prehydrolysis steps do not significantly impact on the bioethanol concentration and conversion in SSF process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Feng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Li, Chenlin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tanjore, Deepti [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Narani, Akash [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pray, Todd R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Singh, Seema [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  16. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  17. Ethanol Production from Hydrothermally-Treated Biomass from West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Cudjoe Bensah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of diverse biomass resources in Africa, they have received little research and development focus. This study presents compositional analysis, sugar, and ethanol yields of hydrothermal pretreated (195 °C, 10 min biomass from West Africa, including bamboo wood, rubber wood, elephant grass, Siam weed, and coconut husk, benchmarked against those of wheat straw. The elephant grass exhibited the highest glucose and ethanol yields at 57.8% and 65.1% of the theoretical maximums, respectively. The results show that the glucose yield of pretreated elephant grass was 3.5 times that of the untreated material, while the ethanol yield was nearly 2 times higher. Moreover, the sugar released by the elephant grass (30.8 g/100 g TS was only slightly lower than by the wheat straw (33.1 g/100 g TS, while the ethanol yield (16.1 g/100 g TS was higher than that of the straw (15.26 g/100 g TS. All other local biomass types studied exhibited sugar and ethanol yields below 33% and 35% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. Thus, elephant grass is a highly promising biomass source for ethanol production in Africa.

  18. Fast pyrolysis product distribution of biopretreated corn stalk by methanogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tipeng; Ye, Xiaoning; Yin, Jun; Jin, Zaixing; Lu, Qiang; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing

    2014-10-01

    After pretreated by methanogen for 5, 15 and 25 days, corn stalk (CS) were pyrolyzed at 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C by Py-GC/MS and product distribution in bio-oil was analyzed. Results indicated that methanogen pretreatment changed considerably the product distribution: the contents of sugar and phenols increased; the contents of linear carbonyls and furans decreased; the contents of linear ketones and linear acids changed slightly. Methanogen pretreatment improved significantly the pyrolysis selectivity of CS to phenols especially 4-VP. At 250 °C, the phenols content increased from 42.25% for untreated CS to 79.32% for biopretreated CS for 5 days; the 4-VP content increased from 28.6% to 60.9%. Increasing temperature was contributed to convert more lignin into 4-VP, but decreased its content in bio-oil due to more other chemicals formed. The effects of biopretreatment time on the chemicals contents were insignificant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of fuel ethanol from molasses by thermotolerant yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    A thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxians, isolated from Kenana sugar factory in the Sudan, was used for the production of ethanol from molasses. Fermentations were carried out in a bioreactor with 10-litre working volume at three temperatures and three sugar concentrations in batch and at one temperature and three feeding rates in fed-batch processes. In the batch fermentations, the best results were obtained at 40 o C and 20% sugar, where a maximum of 9.2% (w/v) ethanol concentration was produced in 30 hours with a yield of 90% of the theoretical and a maximum ethanol specific productivity of 0.65 g per gramme yeast and hour. In the fed-batch process at 40 o C , the best results were obtained at 0.5 1/h feeding rate of a substrate with 400 g/1 sugar. Under such conditions, the yeast produced up to 9.34% (w/v) ethanol with 91.6% of the theoretical yield in 14 hours of fermentation and a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.9 g per gramme yeast and hour. (Author)

  20. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  1. Ethanol, biomass and enzyme production for whey waste abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorella, B L; Castillo, F J

    1984-08-01

    Methods of ethanol, biomass, and lactase production are evaluated for the treatment of whey waste. These processes can all reduce the whey BOD load of 35,000 ppm by at least 90%. Plant designs are evaluated at the scale of 25,000 l whey per day, corresponding to the output of a typical independent cheese factory. Ethanol production is the most practical of the alternatives evaluated and the waste treatment would add 7.3 US cents per kilogramme to the cost of cheese manufacture. 57 references.

  2. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], nitrous oxide [N 2 O], and methane [CH 4 ]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO x ], sulfur oxide [SO x ], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM 10 ]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most

  3. Anaerobic digestion of corn ethanol thin stillage in batch and by high-rate down-flow fixed film reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A; Kennedy, K J

    2012-01-01

    Thin stillage (CTS) from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant was evaluated as a carbon source for anaerobic digestion (AD) by batch and high rate semi-continuous down-flow stationary fixed film (DSFF) reactors. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were carried out with CTS concentrations ranging from approximately 2,460-27,172 mg total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre, achieved by diluting CTS with clean water or a combination of clean water and treated effluent. High TCOD, SCOD and volatile solids (VS) removal efficiencies of 85 ± 2, 94 ± 0 and 82 ± 1% were achieved for CTS diluted with only clean water at an organic concentration of 21,177 mg TCOD per litre, with a methane yield of 0.30 L methane per gram TCOD(removed) at standard temperature and pressure (STP, 0 °C and 1 atmosphere). Batch studies investigating the use of treated effluent for dilution showed promising results. Continuous studies employed two mesophilic DSFF anaerobic digesters treating thin stillage, operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 20, 14.3, 8.7, 6.3, 5 and 4.2 d. Successful digestion was achieved up to an organic loading rate (OLR) of approximately 7.4 g TCOD L(-1)d(-1) at a 5 d HRT with a yield of 2.05 LCH(4) L(-1)d(-1) (at STP) and TCOD and VS removal efficiencies of 89 ± 3 and 85 ± 3%, respectively.

  4. Value Chain Structures that Define European Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    production plants across Europe from a global value chain (GVC) perspective. We find that most CE production plants in the EU focus largely on intellectual property and are therefore only at the pilot or demonstration scale. Crescentino, the largest CE production facility in Europe, is also more interested...... petroleum markets and higher financial risks. We argue that, to increase CE production, policies should consider value chains, promote the wider bio-economy of products and focus on economies of scope. Whereas the EU and its member states have ethanol quotas and blending targets, a more effective policy......Production of cellulosic ethanol (CE) has not yet reached the scale envisaged by the literature and industry. This study explores CE production in Europe to improve understanding of the motivations and barriers associated with this situation. To do this, we conduct a case study-based analysis of CE...

  5. An enzyme to improve the ethanol production; Une enzyme pour ameliorer la production d'ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    The American firm Genecor launches a technology which allows to improve the production of ethanol from agricultural resources. This technology involves in particular a decrease of the energy consumption and of the production costs and a best yield. In the process, is used a mixture of enzymes composed of alpha-amylase and gluco-amylase. (O.M.)

  6. Microbial pretreatment of corn stovers by solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Wu, Shubiao; Pang, Changle; Li, Wei; Dong, Renjie

    2014-02-01

    The microbial pretreatment of corn stover and corn stover silage was achieved via the solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium; pretreatment effects on the biodegradability and subsequent anaerobic production of biogas were investigated. The peak levels of daily biogas production and CH₄ yield from corn stover silage were approximately twice that of corn stover. Results suggested that ensiling was a potential pretreatment method to stimulate biogas production from corn stover. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the microbial pretreatment of corn stover silage improved biogas production by 10.5 to 19.7% and CH4 yield by 11.7 to 21.2% because pretreatment could decrease dry mass loss (14.2%) and increase substrate biodegradability (19.9% cellulose, 32.4% hemicellulose, and 22.6% lignin). By contrast, the higher dry mass loss in corn stover (55.3%) after microbial pretreatment was accompanied by 54.7% cellulose, 64.0% hemicellulose, and 61.1% lignin degradation but did not significantly influence biogas production.

  7. The economics of ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugulis, A J; Axford, D B; McLellan, P J [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    Extractive fermentation is a processing strategy in which reaction and recovery occur simultaneously in a fermentation vessel through the use of a water-immiscible solvent which selectively removes an inhibitory product. An ethanol-extractive fermentation process has been developed, incorporating continuous operation and the ability to ferment concentrated feedstocks. A detailed economic assessment of this process is provided relative to current technology for an annual capacity of 100 million litres of ethanol. Extractive fermentation provides significant economic advantages for both grass roots and retrofitted plants. Total production costs are estimated at 45{cents}/l for a conventional plant and 29.4{cents}/l for a retrofitted plant. The main cost saving achievable by extractive fermentation is in energy, used for evaporation and drying, since the process uses significantly less water in its conversion of concentrated feedstocks. Producing anhydrous ethanol without distillation is also a prospect. 15 refs., 5 fig., 10 tabs.

  8. Engineering Escherichia coli for improved ethanol production from gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Amanda; Schlacta, Theresa; Warmack, Rebeccah; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang

    2013-10-10

    We report on engineering Escherichia coli to produce ethanol at high yield from gluconic acid (gluconate). Knocking out genes encoding for the competing pathways (l-lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase A) in E. coli KO11 eliminated lactate production, lowered the carbon flow toward acetate production, and improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 97.5% of the theoretical maximum, while the growth rate of the mutant strain was about 70% of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modifications led to a small improvement of ethanol yield from 101.5% to 106.0% on glucose. Deletion of the pyruvate dehydrogenase gene (pdh) alone improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 90.4% when gluconate was a substrate. The growth rate of the mutant strain was identical to that of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modification led to no improvements on ethanol yield on glucose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecosystem and human health impacts from increased corn production: vulnerability assessment of exposure to high nitrate concentrations in groundwater and blue baby syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. This study applies the geophysical relationships captured with linked meteorological, air quality and agriculture models to examine the impact of corn production before enactment of the RFS in 2002 and at the height of the RFS targets in 2022. In particular, we investigate the probability of high-levels of nitrate in groundwater resulting from increased corn production and then relate this vulnerability to the potential for infants to acquire Methemoglobinemia, or 'Blue Baby Syndrome'. Blue Baby Syndrome (BBS) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when the hemoglobin (Fe2+) in an infant's red blood cells is oxidized to methemoglobin (Fe3+), preventing the uptake of oxygen from the baby's blood. Exposure to high levels of nitrate in groundwater occur near the intersection of areas where surface water can more readily leach into shallow aquifers, wells are the main source of drinking water, and high nitrogen inputs exist. We use a coupled meteorological, agricultural and air quality model to identify areas vulnerable to increased nitrate contamination and associated risk to acquiring BBS. We first verify the relationship between predictive variables (e.g., nitrogen deposition and fertilization rates, landcover, soils and aquifer type) and nitrate groundwater levels by applying a regression model to over 800 nitrate measurements taken from wells located throughout the US (Figure 1). We then apply the regression coefficients to the coupled model output to identify areas that are at an increased risk for high nitrate groundwater levels in 2022. Finally, we examine the potential change in risk for acquiring BBS resulting from increased corn production by applying an Oral Reference Dose (Rf

  10. Production of butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: Part II - Use of corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Hector, Ronald E.; Dien, Bruce; Iten, Loren; Bowman, Michael J.; Cotta, Michael A. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), Bioenergy Research, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Hughes, Stephen; Liu, Siqing [USDA-ARS-NCAUR, Renewable Product Technology, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Sarath, Gautam [USDA-ARS, Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, University of Nebraska, 314 Biochemistry Hall, East Campus, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced from hydrolysed corn stover and switchgrass using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. A control experiment using glucose resulted in the production of 21.06 g L{sup -1} total ABE. In this experiment an ABE yield and productivity of 0.41 and 0.31 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1} was achieved, respectively. Fermentation of untreated corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) exhibited no growth and no ABE production; however, upon dilution with water (two fold) and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH, ratio 1:1), 16.00 and 18.04 g L{sup -1} ABE was produced, respectively. These experiments resulted in ABE productivity of 0.17-0.21 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Inhibitors present in CSH were removed by treating the hydrolysate with Ca(OH){sub 2} (overliming). The culture was able to produce 26.27 g L{sup -1} ABE after inhibitor removal. Untreated switchgrass hydrolysate (SGH) was poorly fermented and the culture did not produce more than 1.48 g L{sup -1} ABE which was improved to 14.61 g L{sup -1}. It is suggested that biomass pretreatment methods that do not generate inhibitors be investigated. Alternately, cultures resistant to inhibitors and able to produce butanol at high concentrations may be another approach to improve the current process. (author)

  11. Cofermentation of sweet sorghum juice and grain for production of fuel ethanol and distillers' wet grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the costs associated with fuel ethanol production from grain, sweet sorghum juice was used as a partial or complete replacement for tap-water in mash preparation and fermentation. This juice, which was an unutilized by-product of sweet sorghum silage preservation by the Ag-Bag method, contained 6.5-7.6% (wt/wt) reducing sugar and produced up to 3.51% (v/v) ethanol beers after fermentation. Varying amounts of this juice were mixed with water and corn or wheat, either before or after liquefaction (front-end or back-end loading, respectively). When over 60% juice replacement was used in front-end loading trials, salt buildup, due to required pH adjustments during cooking, inhibited yeast metabolism and thereby reduced yields. This inhibition was not observed during back-end loading trials since acid and base usage during cooking were reduced. (author).

  12. Effective method of fermentation of Riga hydrolyzates of corn cobs and other vegetable waste products for butanol and acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, B M; Kameneva, L; Kalnina, V

    1963-01-01

    A simplified method is described for the production of butanol and acetone. The acid mixture (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, 10 to 20%; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 90 to 80%) used to hydrolyze corn cobs and other vegetable waste products served also to invert the sugar of molasses which was added in 3 parts to 1 part hydrolyzate on the basis of reducing sugar content. The mixture was then diluted and neutralized with NH/sub 4/OH to pH 6.3 to 6.8. In this way a suitable hydrolyzate medium containing the appropriate amounts of mineral salts as well as invert sugar was provided for fermentation by Clostridium butyricum Prazmowsky. Lignin which precipitated during hydrolysis served as a solid phase which helped to accelerate fermentation. Combined yields of butanol, acetone, and small amounts of ethanol amounted to 30 to 38% of the available sugar; approximately 67% consisted of butanol.

  13. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  14. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  15. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset was used to create graphics associated with manuscript: Garcia et al., Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a...

  16. Vinasse from Sugarcane Ethanol Production: Better Treatment or Better Utilization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Reis, Cristiano E.; Hu, Bo, E-mail: bhu@umn.edu [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is a well-established industry, with relatively simple operations and high yield. The ethanol primarily serves as a renewable fuel blending with gasoline and diesel to increase the energy security in Brazil. Several environmental concerns are emerged around the by-products from this industry. Vinasse, the liquid fraction generated from the rectification and distillation operations of ethanol, is a sulfur-rich, low pH, dark-colored, and odorous effluent, produced at volumes as high as 20-fold of ethanol. Traditional wastewater treatments, such as bioprocessing, advanced oxidative processes, anaerobic digestion (AD), and chemical-based processes, have been applied to vinasse management. Despite most of its utilization being in fertirrigation practices, vinasse may represent a key factor in enhancing profitability and environmental outcomes of a sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The application of some upgrade solutions to sugarcane-derived vinasse may represent additional sources of energy, production of animal feed components, and reduction in water consumption within a plant. The use of mature technologies, yet not widespread in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry, could help attenuate environmental concerns. Oxidation and chemical processes, AD, and microbial fermentation have been presented as alternative impactful alternatives to (i) reduce its organic and mineral load, converting it to a feedstock with fewer environmental applications when applied as fertilizer and (ii) to convert organic matter and nutrients to a nutritious biomass, simultaneously increasing water reclamation potential by plants. This mini-review article provides a critical and comprehensive summary of the alternatives developed or under development to vinasse management.

  17. Immobilization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Rice Hulls for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Martini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The whole cell immobilization in ethanol fermentation can be done by using natural carriers or through synthetic carriers. All of these methods have the same purpose of retaining high cell concentrations within a certain defined region of space which leads to higher ethanol productivity. Lignocellulosic plant substance represents one of highly potential sources in ethanol production. Some studies have found that cellulosic substances substances can also be used as a natural carrier in cell immobilization by re-circulating pre-culture medium into a reactor. In this experiment, rice hulls without any treatment were used to immobilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae through semi solid state incubation combined with re-circulating pre-culture medium. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM pictures of the carrier show that the yeast cells are absorbed and embedded to the rice hull pore. In liquid batch fermentation system with an initial sugar concentration of 50 g/L, nearly 100% total sugar was consumed after 48 hours. This resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.32 g ethanol/g glucose, which is 62.7% of the theoretical value. Ethanol productivity of 0.59 g/(L.h is 2.3 fold higher than that of free cells which is 0.26 g/(L.h. An effort to reuse the immobilized cells in liquid fermentation system showed poor results due to cell desorption in the first batch which led to high sugar concentration inhibitory effect in the second batch fermentation. This might be solved by using semi solid fermentation process in the future work.

  18. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Lima, Isabel M.; Laird, David A.; Hicks, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ∼20 MJ kg -1 , and densities >1.0 Mg m -3 ) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, ∼20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed 'farm scale' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields.

  19. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Hicks, Kevin B. [Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lima, Isabel M. [Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Laird, David A. [National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2110 University Blvd., Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are {proportional_to}20 MJ kg{sup -1}, and densities >1.0 Mg m{sup -3}) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, {proportional_to}20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed ''farm scale'' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields. (author)

  20. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  1. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa | Marx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be grown on marginal lands where frost is not prevalent. In this study, the production of ethanol from unpeeled Cassava roots and cassava peels were investigated. It was found that temperature; pH and biomass loading had a significant effect on glucose yield during hydrolysis. Simultaneous saccharification and ...

  2. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Rising crude oil prices, lower crop prices on world ... industrial strategy of South Africa suggests the use of sugar based crops, ... Development of the biofuels industry in South Africa is ... production of ethanol from cassava is both economical ... In the SSF process, the saccharification step and fermentation.

  3. Production, transport, and metabolism of ethanol in eastern cottonwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In plant tissues, the production of acetaldehyde and ethanol are usually thought to occur as a mechanism to allow tolerance of hypoxic conditions. Acetaldehyde and ethanol were found to be common in vascular cambium and the transpiration stream of trees. Ethanol concentrations in the vascular cambium of Populus deltoides were not changed by placing logs from nonflooded trees in a pure oxygen environment for as long as 96 h, but increased by almost 3 orders of magnitude when exposed to low external pO 2 s. Ethanol is present in the xylem sap of flooded and nonflooded trees. Because of the constitutive presence of alcohol dehydrogenase in the mature leaves of woody plants, it was hypothesized that the leaves and shoots of trees had the ability to metabolize ethanol supplied by the transpiration stream. 1-[ 14 C]ethanol was supplied to excised leaves and shoots of Populus deltoides Bartr. in short- and long-term experiments. Greater than 99% of the radiolabel was incorporated into plant tissue in short-term experiments, with more than 95% of the label remaining in plant tissue after 24 h. Very little label reached the leaf mesophyll cells of excised shoots, as revealed by autoradiography. Radiolabel appeared primarily in the water- and chloroform-soluble fractions in short-term experiments, while in long-term experiments, label was also incorporated into protein. When labelled ethanol was supplied to excised petioles in a 5 min pulse, 41% of the label was incorporated into organic acids. Some label was also incorporated into amino acids, protein, and the chloroform-soluble fraction, with very little appearing in neutral sugars, starch, or the insoluble pellet. Labelled organic acids were separated by HPLC, and were comprised of acetate, isocitrate, α-ketoglutarate, and succinate. There was no apparent incorporation of label into phosphorylated compounds

  4. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Value of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Seed Treatments in Mid-South Corn (Zea mays) Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, J H; Gore, J; Catchot, A L; Stewart, S D; Lorenz, G M; Musser, F R; Cook, D R; Kerns, D L; Leonard, B R; Dodds, D M

    2018-02-09

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are one of several effective control options used in corn, Zea mays L., production in the Mid-South for early season insect pests. An analysis was performed on 91 insecticide seed treatment trials from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee to determine the value of neonicotinoids in corn production systems. The analysis compared neonicotinoid insecticide treated seed plus a fungicide to seed only with the same fungicide. When analyzed by state, corn yields were significantly higher when neonicotinoid seed treatments were used compared to fungicide only treated seed in Louisiana and Mississippi. Corn seed treated with neonicotinoid seed treatments yielded 111, 1,093, 416, and 140 kg/ha, higher than fungicide only treatments for Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Across all states, neonicotinoid seed treatments resulted in a 700 kg/ha advantage compared to fungicide only treated corn seed. Net returns for corn treated with neonicotinoid seed treatment were $1,446/ha compared with $1,390/ha for fungicide only treated corn seed across the Mid-South. Economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treated corn were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated corn seed in 8 out of 14 yr. When analyzed by state, economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treatments were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated seed in Louisiana. In some areas, dependent on year, neonicotinoid seed treatments provide significant yield and economic benefits in Mid-South corn. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Production of ethanol from blackstrap molasses by saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S.; Hashmi, Abu-S.; Akhtar, C.M.; Ilahi, A.; Rajoka, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    Blackstrap molasses was analyzed for its composition and its fermentation was brought about by the yeast S. cerevisiae at predetermined optimal environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, Sugar concentration, and incubation period. The results revealed that sugar concentration 17%, pH 4.5, temperature 30 C and incubation period of 72 hours were the optimal conditions for producing maximum (73 g/l) ethanol. Clearance of molasses by 20% single superphosphate enhanced ethanol production by only 0.2%. (author)

  7. Enhanced ethanol production from brewer's spent grain by a Fusarium oxysporum consolidated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christakopoulos Paul

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brewer's spent grain (BG, a by-product of the brewing process, is attracting increasing scientific interest as a low-cost feedstock for many biotechnological applications. BG in the present study is evaluated as a substrate for lignocellulolytic enzyme production and for the production of ethanol by the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum under submerged conditions, implementing a consolidated bioconversion process. Fermentation experiments were performed with sugar mixtures simulating the carbohydrate content of BG in order to determine the utilization pattern that could be expected during the fermentation of the cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysate of BG. The sugar mixture fermentation study focused on the effect of the initial total sugar concentration and on the effect of the aeration rate on fermenting performance of F. oxysporum. The alkali pretreatment of BG and different aeration levels during the ethanol production stage were studied for the optimization of the ethanol production by F. oxysporum. Results Enzyme yields as high as 550, 22.5, 6.5, 3225, 0.3, 1.25 and 3 U per g of carbon source of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-D-glucosidase, xylanase, feruloyl esterase, β-D-xylosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase respectively, were obtained during the growth stage under optimized submerged conditions. An ethanol yield of 109 g ethanol per kg of dry BG was obtained with alkali-pretreated BG under microaerobic conditions (0.01 vvm, corresponding to 60% of the theoretical yield based on total glucose and xylose content of BG. Conclusion The enzymatic profile of the extracellular extract from F. oxysporum submerged cultures using BG and corn cob as the carbon source was proved efficient for a successful hydrolysis of BG. The fermentation study carried out using sugar mixtures simulating BG's carbohydrates content and consecutively alkali-pretreated and untreated BG, indicates that BG hydrolysis is the bottleneck

  8. Value Chain Structures that Define European Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Sterling Gregg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of cellulosic ethanol (CE has not yet reached the scale envisaged by the literature and industry. This study explores CE production in Europe to improve understanding of the motivations and barriers associated with this situation. To do this, we conduct a case study-based analysis of CE production plants across Europe from a global value chain (GVC perspective. We find that most CE production plants in the EU focus largely on intellectual property and are therefore only at the pilot or demonstration scale. Crescentino, the largest CE production facility in Europe, is also more interested in technology licensing than producing ethanol. Demonstration-scale plants tend to have a larger variety of feedstocks, whereas forestry-based plants have more diversity of outputs. As scale increases, the diversity of feedstocks and outputs diminishes, and firms struggle with feedstock provisioning, global petroleum markets and higher financial risks. We argue that, to increase CE production, policies should consider value chains, promote the wider bio-economy of products and focus on economies of scope. Whereas the EU and its member states have ethanol quotas and blending targets, a more effective policy would be to seek to reduce the risks involved in financing capital projects, secure feedstock provisioning and support a diversity of end products.

  9. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. PMID:27420088

  10. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-07-13

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984-1993, 1994-2003, and 2004-2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984-1993), 802.67 (1994-2003), and 803.92 (2004-2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984-2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984-1993), 99.05 (1994-2003), and 99.04 (2004-2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984-2013). Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security.

  11. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  12. Supply chain optimization of sugarcane first generation and eucalyptus second generation ethanol production in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J. G G; Junginger, H. M.; Verstegen, J. A.; Lin, T.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Ting, K. C.; Faaij, A. P C; van der Hilst, F.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of the ethanol industry in Brazil faces two important challenges: to reduce total ethanol production costs and to limit the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of the ethanol produced. The objective of this study is to economically optimize the scale and location of ethanol

  13. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  14. Investigation of Pleurotus ostreatus pretreatment on switchgrass for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Shelyn Gehle

    Fungal pretreatment using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on switchgrass for ethanol production was studied. In a small-scale storage study, small switchgrass bales were inoculated with fungal spawn and automatically watered to maintain moisture. Sampled at 25, 53, and 81 d, the switchgrass composition was determined and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was conducted. Fungal pretreatment significantly decreased the xylan and lignin content; glucan was not significantly affected by fungal loading. The glucan, xylan, and lignin contents significantly decreased with increased fungal pretreatment time. The effects of the fungal pretreatment were not highly evident after the LHW pretreatment, showing only changes based on sampling time. Although other biological activity within the bales increased cellulose degradation, the fungal pretreatment successfully reduced the switchgrass lignin and hemicellulose contents. In a laboratory-scale nutrient supplementation study, copper, manganese, glucose, or water was added to switchgrass to induce production of ligninolytic enzymes by P. ostreatus. After 40 d, ligninolytic enzyme activities and biomass composition were determined and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to determine ethanol yield. Laccase activity was similar for all supplements and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was significantly less in copper-treated samples than in the other fungal-inoculated samples. The fungal pretreatment reduced glucan, xylan, and lignin content, while increasing extractable sugars content. The lowest lignin contents occurred in the water-fungal treated samples and produced the greatest ethanol yields. The greatest lignin contents occurred in the copper-fungal treated samples and produced the lowest ethanol yields. Manganese-fungal and glucose-fungal treated samples had similar, intermediate lignin contents and produced similar, intermediate ethanol yields. Ethanol yields from switchgrass

  15. Biomass production of 12 winter cereal cover crop cultivars and their effect on subsequent no-till corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops can improve the sustainability and resilience of corn and soybean production systems. However, there have been isolated reports of corn yield reductions following winter rye cover crops. Although there are many possible causes of corn yield reductions following winter cereal cover crops,...

  16. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  17. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicari Kristin J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic (TE model, which calculates biofuel production costs using a process model and an economic model. The process model solves mass and energy balances for each unit, and the economic model estimates capital and operating costs from the process model based on economic assumptions. The process model inputs include experimental data on the feedstock composition and intermediate product yields for each unit. These experimental yield data are calculated from primary measurements. Uncertainty in these primary measurements is propagated to the calculated yields, to the process model, and ultimately to the economic model. Thus, outputs of the TE model have a minimum uncertainty associated with the uncertainty in the primary measurements. Results We calculate the uncertainty in the Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP estimate for lignocellulosic ethanol production via a biochemical conversion process: dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and co-fermentation of the resulting sugars to ethanol. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the TE model and identify the feedstock composition and conversion yields from three unit operations (xylose from pretreatment, glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis, and ethanol from fermentation as the most important variables. The uncertainty in the pretreatment xylose yield arises from multiple measurements, whereas the glucose and ethanol yields from enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, respectively, are dominated by a single measurement: the fraction of insoluble solids (fIS in the biomass slurries. Conclusions We calculate a $0.15/gal uncertainty in MESP from the TE model due to uncertainties in primary measurements. This result sets a lower bound on the error bars of

  18. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  19. A Comparative Assessment of the Broiler:Corn Ratio and Its Impact on Broiler Processors' Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Sandra J.; Goodwin, Harold L., Jr.; McKenzie, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Input prices for broiler production, particularly corn, are becoming increasingly volatile due to increasing competition for corn from ethanol and biofuels production suggesting volatility in poultry profits will follow indicator of profits relating feed input prices and broiler meat output prices, such as a Broiler:corn ratios. Total chicken exports, total chicken ready-to-cook production, number of eggs set, number of chicks placed, and cold storage chicken inventory are used to estimate. U...

  20. Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Giulietti, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L(-1) h(-1).

  1. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvel, G.E.; Vogel, K.P.; Mitchell, R.B. [USDA-ARS, 344 Keim Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, P.O. Box 830937, Lincoln, NE 68583-0937 (United States); Follett, R.F. [USDA-ARS, Room S-100, 2150 Centre Avenue Building D, Ft. Collins, CO 80526-8119 (United States); Kimble, J.M. [USDA-NRCS, National Soil Survey Center, 100 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508-3866 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Crop residues such as corn (Zea mays L.) stover are viewed as an abundant and inexpensive source of biomass that can be removed from fields to produce bioenergy. Assumptions include that with minimum or no-tillage farming methods, there will be no deleterious production or environmental effects. A long-term field study was established in eastern Nebraska, USA, to compare the switchgrass managed as a biomass energy crop versus no-till corn on a non-irrigated site, marginal for row-crop production, in the western Corn Belt. Our objective in this paper is to report on corn stover removal effects on corn grain yields and potential ethanol production in both cropping systems. Corn, under no-till management, and switchgrass were grown at three N fertilizer levels. In the first 5 years (2001-2005), removal of half the available stover significantly reduced corn yields. During that same time period, the potential ethanol yield for switchgrass was equal to or greater than the potential total ethanol yield of corn grain and harvested stover fertilized at the same optimum N rate. The effect of crop residue removal on crop productivity needs to be investigated in other agro-ecosystems and the potential use of dedicated perennial biomass energy crops should remain a viable renewable energy option on non-irrigated marginal croplands. (author)

  2. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  3. High titer L-lactic acid production from corn stover with minimum wastewater generation and techno-economic evaluation based on Aspen plus modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Jiaoe; Zhang, Jian; Tu, Yi; Bao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Technological potentials of l-lactic acid production from corn stover feedstock were investigated by experimental and techno-economic studies. An optimal performance with 104.5 g/L in l-lactic acid titer and 71.5% in overall yield from cellulose in corn stover to l-lactic acid using an engineered Pediococcus acidilactici strain were obtained by overcoming several technical barriers. A rigorous Aspen plus model for l-lactic acid production starting from dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was developed. The techno-economic analysis shows that the minimum l-lactic acid selling price (MLSP) was $0.523 per kg, which was close to that of the commercial l-lactic acid produced from starch feedstock, and 24% less expensive than that of ethanol from corn stover, even though the xylose utilization was not considered. The study provided a prototype of industrial application and an evaluation model for high titer l-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  5. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  6. Physiochemical Properties and Probiotic Survivability of Symbiotic Corn-Based Yogurt-Like Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuina; Zheng, Huajie; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Mingruo

    2017-09-01

    Corn is a major grain produced in northern China. Corn-based functional food products are very limited. In this study, a symbiotic corn-based yogurt-like product was developed. Corn milk was prepared through grinding, extrusion and milling, and hydration processes. Corn extrudate was prepared under the optimized conditions of corn flour particle size fermented at 35 °C for 6 h using a probiotic starter culture containing L. plantarum. Chemical composition (%) of the symbiotic corn-based yogurt-like product was: total solids (17.13 ± 0.31), protein (1.12 ± 0.03), fat (0.30 ± 0.05), carbohydrates (15.14 ± 0.19), and ash (0.16 ± 0.02), respectively. pH value of this symbiotic product decreased from 4.50 ± 0.03 to 3.88 ± 0.13 and the population of L. plantarum declined from 7.8 ± 0.09 to 7.1 ± 0.14 log CFU/mL during storage at 4 °C. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that there were no changes in protein profile during storage. Texture and consistency were also stable during the period of this study. It can be concluded that a set-type corn-based symbiotic yogurt-like product with good texture and stability was successfully developed that would be a good alternative to the dairy yogurt. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Grain sorghum is a viable feedstock for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bean, S; McLaren, J; Seib, P; Madl, R; Tuinstra, M; Shi, Y; Lenz, M; Wu, X; Zhao, R

    2008-05-01

    Sorghum is a major cereal crop in the USA. However, sorghum has been underutilized as a renewable feedstock for bioenergy. The goal of this research was to improve the bioconversion efficiency for biofuels and biobased products from processed sorghum. The main focus was to understand the relationship among "genetics-structure-function-conversion" and the key factors impacting ethanol production, as well as to develop an energy life cycle analysis model (ELCAM) to quantify and prioritize the saving potential from factors identified in this research. Genetic lines with extremely high and low ethanol fermentation efficiency and some specific attributes that may be manipulated to improve the bioconversion rate of sorghum were identified. In general, ethanol yield increased as starch content increased. However, no linear relationship between starch content and fermentation efficiency was found. Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum include protein digestibility, level of extractable proteins, protein and starch interaction, mash viscosity, amount of phenolic compounds, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and formation of amylose-lipid complexes in the mash. A platform ELCAM with a base case showed a positive net energy value (NEV) = 25,500 Btu/gal EtOH. ELCAM cases were used to identify factors that most impact sorghum use. For example, a yield increase of 40 bu/ac resulted in NEV increasing from 7 million to 12 million Btu/ac. An 8% increase in starch provided an incremental 1.2 million Btu/ac.

  8. Yeast selection for fuel ethanol production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Luiz C; de Amorim, Henrique V; de Oliveira, Antonio J; Lopes, Mario L

    2008-11-01

    Brazil is one of the largest ethanol biofuel producers and exporters in the world and its production has increased steadily during the last three decades. The increasing efficiency of Brazilian ethanol plants has been evident due to the many technological contributions. As far as yeast is concerned, few publications are available regarding the industrial fermentation processes in Brazil. The present paper reports on a yeast selection program performed during the last 12 years aimed at selecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suitable for fermentation of sugar cane substrates (cane juice and molasses) with cell recycle, as it is conducted in Brazilian bioethanol plants. As a result, some evidence is presented showing the positive impact of selected yeast strains in increasing ethanol yield and reducing production costs, due to their higher fermentation performance (high ethanol yield, reduced glycerol and foam formation, maintenance of high viability during recycling and very high implantation capability into industrial fermenters). Results also suggest that the great yeast biodiversity found in distillery environments could be an important source of strains. This is because during yeast cell recycling, selective pressure (an adaptive evolution) is imposed on cells, leading to strains with higher tolerance to the stressful conditions of the industrial fermentation.

  9. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas A.F.

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  10. Conditioning of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate liquors by treatment with lime or ammonium hydroxide to improve conversion of sugars to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Edward W; Schell, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass enhances the ability of enzymes to hydrolyze cellulose to glucose, but produces many toxic compounds that inhibit fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treating hydrolysate liquor with Ca(OH)2 and NH4OH for improving ethanol yields. Corn stover was pretreated in a pilot-scale reactor and then the liquor fraction (hydrolysate) was extracted and treated with various amounts of Ca(OH)2 or NH4OH at several temperatures. Glucose and xylose in the treated liquor were fermented to ethanol using a glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Sugar losses up to 10% occurred during treatment with Ca(OH)2, but these losses were two to fourfold lower with NH4OH treatment. Ethanol yields for NH4OH-treated hydrolysate were 33% greater than those achieved in Ca(OH)2-treated hydrolysate and pH adjustment to either 6.0 or 8.5 with NH4OH prior to fermentation produced equivalent ethanol yields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  12. USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic ethanol production has drawn much attention in recent years. However, there remain significant technical challenges before such production can be considered as economically feasible at an industrial scale. Among them, the efficient conversion of carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is one of the most challenging technical difficulties in cellulosic ethanol production. Use of ionic liquids has opened new avenues to solve this problem by two different pathways. One is pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids to increase its enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. The other is to transform the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic biomass from a heterogeneous reaction system to a homogeneous one by dissolving it into ionic liquids, thus improving its hydrolysis efficiency.

  13. Production of ethanol from excess ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Adam S.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    will focus on the synthetic method, which employs direct hydration of ethylene. A conceptual process design of an ethyl alcohol producing plant is performed in a MSc-level course on Process Design at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU. In the designed process, 190 proof ethyl...... alcohol (azeotropic mixture) is produced from excess ethylene containing propylene and methane as impurities. The design work is based on a systematic approach consisting of 12 tasks performed in a specified hierarchy. According to this 12-tasks design procedure, information about the product and process...... of the designed process. The resulting design utilizes 75 million kg/year ethylene feed in order to obtain an ethyl alcohol production of 90.5 million kg/year. The total capital investment has been estimated to 43 million USD and the total product cost without depreciation estimated to 58.5 million USD...

  14. Production Systems and Potential Development of Corn in West Pasaman Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulmar Jastra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second national food crop after rice and its role is increasing in line increase of population, livestock operations, and development of raw material corn processing industry. This research is a descriptive qualitative and quantitative as well as done in stages, namely: pre -study in order neighbor information gathering and general condition of farmers in the districts of West Pasaman, intensive desk study on the extent of data and the development of hybrid corn and all information obtained from pre -study activities; observation, field survey. This study aims to: identify systems of maize production in West Pasaman, identify potential areas of development and analysis of maize farming, Prepare Corn Development Action Programme in West Pasaman. Age maize farmers in West Pasaman between 40-60 years old, with old school for 9 years and the number of family members of farmers 5. The highest maize production in West Pasaman district occurred in 2009 amounted to 364 287 tonnes with 44 793 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.99 tonnes/ha, in 2010, a decline in production to 220 761 tonnes with a productivity of 6.3 tons /ha due to a decline in harvested area into 33 757 ha. And in 2011 the production of corn production back to normal by 286 078 tons / year with 44 360 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.50 tonnes/ha. Potential land that can be used to achieve the 142 850 ha of maize farming dominated peat and mineral soil of each area of 7,550 ha and 16,550 ha. Of corn farming can provide a gain of Rp 8,860,000,-/ha . When the period of 4 months of the corn crop corn farmer income per month is Rp 2.215.000,-

  15. Intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and leguminous plants: productivity, quality and composition of silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Monteiro Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective to evaluate the productive and qualitative characteristics of forages produced in systems of intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and different leguminous plants. Productivity, bromatological composition and the fermentative profile of the silages from the following treatments were evaluated: corn in exclusive cultivation (CEC; intercropping of corn with brachiaria grass (CB; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Calopogonium mucunoides (CBCal; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Macrotyloma axillare (CBMac; and intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Stylozanthes capitata (CBSty. The experimental design utilized was completely randomized. For each type of cultivation, five plots or replications of three linear meters were harvested, and the material was separated. The variables assessed were: dry matter productivity per area; dry matter productivity of corn per area; crude protein production per area and productivity of total digestible nutrients per area. The material originated from the cultures was ensiled, with dry matter between 28 and 32%. After, the material was placed and compacted appropriately in bucket silos. A sample was collected from each replication for determination of the contents of DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, lignin, neutral and acid detergent fibers (NDF and ADF and TDN. A fraction of the sample of silages from each treatment was compressed for extraction of the juice and determination of the silage quality. There was difference between the forms of cultivation for the dry matter production per hectare. The CEC with production of 11920.1 kg DM/ha did not differ from CB (8997.41 kg DM/ha or CBCal (10452.10 kg DM/ha; however, it was superior to CBMac (8429.75 kg DM/ha and to CBSty (8164.83 kg DM/ha. The contents of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, lignin and TDN did not differ between the silages from the different treatments. All the silages presented

  16. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... South Africa and transport costs constitute approximately. 20% of South Africa's gross domestic product (Singh,. 2006). Globally transportation accounts for 30% of the energy demand and is responsible ..... fermentation by wine yeasts in media containing structurally complex nitrogen sources. J. Inst. Brew.

  17. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on alcohol production from corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.W.; Cho, Y.K.; Ciegler, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cracked corn was irradiated with γ rays at 0-100 Mrad and the effects of the irradiation on sugar yield, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, yeast growth, and alcohol production were studied. Gamma irradiation at 50 Mrad or greater produced a considerable amount of reducing sugar but little glucose. At lower dosages, γ irradiation significantly increased the susceptibility of corn starch to enzymatic hydrolysis, but dosages of 50 Mrad or greater decomposed the starch molecules as indicated by the reduction in iodine uptake. About 12.5% reducing sugar was produced by amylase treatment of uncooked, irradiated corn. This amount exceeded the level of sugar produced from cooked (gelatinized) corn by the same enzyme treatment. The yeast numbers in submerged cultivation were lower on a corn substrate that was irradiated at 50 Mrad or greater compared to that on an unirradiated control. About the same level of alcohol was produced on uncooked, irradiated (10 5 - 10 6 rad) corn as from cooked (121 degrees C for 30 min) corn. Therefore, the conventional cooking process for gelatinization of starch prior to its saccharification can be eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation also eliminated the necessity of sterilization of the medium and reduced the viscosity of high levels of substrate in the fermentation broth. (Refs. 10)

  18. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corn cobs and saw dust (control) were sterilized, inoculated under aseptic conditions in clear plastic bags and incubated at room temperature. Fruit bodies were observed within 30 to 50 days, results considerably shorter compared to when using saw dust, which can take up to four months before mushrooms are ...

  19. Production of high fructose corn syrup Streptomyces sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, M; Prabhu, K A

    1978-01-01

    A Streptomyces strain exhibiting considerable glucose isomerase activity was isolated from soil. The cell free extract of the culture was able to convert glucose to fructose in a period of 48 ha and gave 40% conversion. With acid hydrolyzates of corn and bagasse as substrates, the cell-free extract gave glucose to fructose conversions of 39.8 and 29%, respectively.

  20. On the use of differential solubility in aqueous ethanol solutions to narrow the DP range of food-grade starch hydrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Amy S; Lapis, Trina J; Silver, Rachel K; Ferreira, Andrew J; Beaudry, Christopher M; Lim, Juyun; Penner, Michael H

    2016-04-15

    Considerable research is focused on understanding the functionality of starch hydrolysis products (SHP) consisting of glucose, maltose, maltooligosaccharides (MOS), and maltopolysaccharides (MPS). A confounding factor in this research is the high molecular dispersity of commercially available SHP. The study presented herein characterizes a flexible fractionation approach for lowering the dispersity of such products. This was accomplished by fractionating a corn syrup solids (CSS) preparation based on the differential solubility of its component saccharides in aqueous-ethanol solutions. Products obtained from selected fractionations were characterized with respect to degree of polymerization (DP; liquid chromatography), dextrose equivalency (reducing sugar assays), and prevalence of branching (NMR). Glucose and maltose were preferentially removed from CSS using high (⩾90%) ethanol extractants. Preparations with relatively narrow ranges of MOS, lower DP MPS, and higher DP MPS were obtained through repetitive 70%-ethanol extractions. Linear, as opposed to branched, MOS and MPS were preferentially extracted under all conditions tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Viability and application of ethanol production coupled with solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americano da Costa, Marcus V.; Pasamontes, Manuel; Normey-Rico, Julio E.; Guzmán, José L.; Berenguel, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two types of clean energy were analized together: bioethanol and solar. ► The ethanol fermentation process was modeled. ► An advanced control was implemented in the unit model. ► A real plant of solar energy was operated. ► The experiments were performed using the Hardware in the Loop technique. -- Abstract: This work presents a combined optimization system to use solar energy as support for the ethanol industry. Solar radiation is used to produce energy in order to assist the cooling systems in the fermentation process. The experiments have been performed following a hardware in the loop technique by mixing the solar cooling plant in the Centro de Investigación de Energía Solar (CIESOL) located at the University of Almería (Spain), and a simulator of ethanol fermentation processes in Brazilian factories. The results are analyzed in detail to show the main advantages (important increment in ethanol production and use of clean energies) compared to the mode of operation of the current factories in Brazil.

  2. Investigation of potential of agro-industrial residues for ethanol production by using Candida tropicalis and Zymomonas mobilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patle, Sonali

    India is becoming more susceptible regarding energy security with increasing world prices of crude oil and increasing dependence on imports. Based on experiments by the Indian Institute of Petroleum, a 10% ethanol blend with gasoline is being considered for use in vehicles in at least one state and it will be mandatory for all oil companies to blend petrol with 10% ethanol from October 2008. In view of the above, the Government has already started supply of 5% ethanol blended petrol from 2003 in nine states and four contiguous Union Territories. Currently, fuel ethanol is produced mainly from molasses, corn, wheat and sugar beets. The production cost of ethanol from these agro-feedstocks is more than twice the price of gasoline. The high feedstock cost poses a major obstacle to large scale implementation of ethanol as a transportation fuel. Molasses could be in short supply due to the implementation of 10% blending norm. A reduction in import duty for industrial alcohol from7.5% to 5% has been suggested. The use of lignocellulosic energy crops, and particularly low cost biomass residues, offers excellent perspectives for application of ethanol in transportation fuels (Ridder, 2000). These materials will increase the ethanol production capacity and reduce the production cost to a competitive level. There is a huge demand (500 million litres) of ethanol to meet the 5% blending in India. With the present infrastructure, only 90 million litres of ethanol was produced till November 2006 and could reach up to 140 million litres (around) till October 2007. Bioethanol from these materials provides a highly cost effective option for CO2 emission reduction in the transportation sector. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the potential of biomass as feedstock for ethanol production. The dedicated energy crops would require thorough support as well as planning efforts such as assessing resources, availability and utilization. Furthermore, applied research is

  3. Improving hybrid seed production in corn with glyphosate-mediated male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Paul C C; Qi, Youlin; Chiu, Tommy; Stoecker, Martin A; Schuster, Christopher L; Johnson, Scott C; Fonseca, Augustine E; Huang, Jintai

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid corn varieties exhibit benefits associated with heterosis and account for most of the corn acreage in the USA. Hybrid seed corn is produced by crossing a female parent which is male-sterile and therefore incapable of self-pollination with a male parent as the pollen donor. The majority of hybrid seed corn is produced by mechanical detasseling which involves physically removing the tassel, a process that is laborious and costly. Glyphosate-resistant corn was developed via expression of a glyphosate insensitive 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme (CP4-EPSPS). Experimentation with molecular expression elements resulted in selective reduction of CP4-EPSPS expression in male reproductive tissues. The resulting plant demonstrated sterile tassel following glyphosate application with little to no injury to the rest of the plant. Using (14)C-glyphosate as a marker, we also examined the translocation of glyphosate to the tassel via spray application in a track sprayer to simulate field application. The results allowed optimization of spray parameters such as dose, spray timing and target to maximize tassel delivery of glyphosate for efficient sterilization. The Roundup hybridization system (RHS) is a novel process for hybrid seed production based on glyphosate-mediated male sterility. RHS replaces mechanical detasseling with glyphosate spray and greatly simplifies the process of hybrid seed corn production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sanette; Ndaba, Busiswa; Chiyanzu, Idan; Schabort, Corneels

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg −1 was obtained in a 50 g kg −1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g −1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg −1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m 3  tonne −1 or 33 m 3  ha −1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  5. Management of ammonium sulfate fertilization on productive performance of corn grown after oats and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The time, dose and applied nutrients in corn have a direct effect on its productivity. Therefore, the objective was to study the application of N and S in corn as ammonium sulfate, in succession to wheat and oats and evaluate different forms of fertilizer management. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in Oxisol (Hapludox. The five treatments with N, at a dose of 120 kg ha-1 were applied in 20 plots (5x4, according to the management of fertilizer: T1-N (120 kg ha-1 full at sowing, T2-N (120 kg ha-1 total coverage; T3 –N (40 kg ha-1 at sowing and N (80 kg ha-1 in coverage; T4-N advance in wheat sowing and sowing oats (120 kg ha-1, T5- (control. The S doses were corresponding to their concentrations in the fertilizer. Only wheat received a dose of 24 kg N ha-1 at sowing all plots and oats received 24 kg N ha- 1 at sowing only the portions related to treatment with anticipation of corn N ( T4 . We evaluated the biomass production of winter crops (oats and wheat, according to the fertilization at sowing, and also the influence of winter crops and management of ammonium sulfate, the corn yield. The oats produced more dry matter in relation to wheat, positively influencing the corn yield, regardless of fertilizer management. The anticipation of ammonium sulfate, the sowing of oats, was favorable to corn yield, equating to other forms of management of fertilizer. Rotation corn and oats, forms management, ammonium sulphate, at seeding, topdressing or applied in split were equally efficient in corn yields.

  6. Ethanol from sugar beet in The Netherlands: energy production and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Vries, de S.C.; Brink, van den L.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in The Netherlands have been analysed using measured production data from two experimental farms and literature on beet to ethanol conversion. The analyses include beet cultivation and harvesting, transport to the factory, conversion into ethanol and

  7. Performances comparison between three technologies for continuous ethanol production from molasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouallagui, Hassib; Touhami, Youssef; Hanafi, Nedia; Ghariani, Amine; Hamdi, Moktar

    2013-01-01

    Molasses are a potential feedstock for ethanol production. The successful application of anaerobic fermentation for ethanol production from molasses is critically dependent to the development and the use of high rate bioreactors. In this study the fermentation of sugar cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the ethanol production in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), an immobilised cell reactor (ICR) and a membrane reactor (MBR) was investigated. Ethanol production and reactor productivities were compared under different dilution rates (D). When using the CSTR, a decent ethanol productivity (Qp) of 6.8 g L −1 h −1 was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.5 h −1 . The Qp was improved by 48% and the residual sugar concentration was reduced by using the ICR. Intensifying the production of ethanol was investigated in the MBR to achieve a maximum ethanol concentration and a Qp of 46.5 g L −1 and 19.2 g L −1 h −1 , respectively. The achieved results in the MBR worked with high substrate concentration are promising for the scale up operation. -- Highlights: ► We compare three reactors for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses. ► The ethanol productivity of 6.8 g L -1 h -1 was obtained using the CSTR. ► The ethanol productivity was improved by 48% by using the ICR. ► Intensifying ethanol productivity (19.2 g L -1 h -1 ) was investigated in the MBR

  8. Arrowroot as a novel substrate for ethanol production by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tian-xiang; Tang, Qing-li; Zhu, Zuo-hua [School of Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550003 (China); Wang, Feng [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Ethanol production from Canna edulis Ker was successfully carried out by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of C. edulis were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. The effect of inert carrier (corncob and rice bran) on ethanol fermentation and the kinetics of solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was investigated. It was found that C. edulis was an alternative substrate for ethanol production, 10.1% (v/v) of ethanol concentration can attained when 40 g corncob and 10 g rice bran per 100 g C. edulis powder were added for ethanol fermentation. No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. There was no wastewater produced in the process of ethanol production from C. edulis with solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and the ethanol yield of more than 0.28 tonne per one tonne feedstock was achieved. This is first report for ethanol production from C. edulis powder. (author)

  9. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate...... production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100 mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11 g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio...... ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700 mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42 g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550 m...

  10. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternativeclean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended withgasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewableresources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can beproduced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentationbatch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivityand cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. Theprocess can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is toinvestigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The researchwas conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor withvacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, andconcentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. Theresults show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic undervacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanolformation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cellsproductivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivityand the yield of ethanol.

  11. Membrane bioreactors' potential for ethanol and biogas production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Akinbomia, Julius; Taherzadeha, Mohammad J

    2013-01-01

    Companies developing and producing membranes for different separation purposes, as well as the market for these, have markedly increased in numbers over the last decade. Membrane and separation technology might well contribute to making fuel ethanol and biogas production from lignocellulosic materials more economically viable and productive. Combining biological processes with membrane separation techniques in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) increases cell concentrations extensively in the bioreactor. Such a combination furthermore reduces product inhibition during the biological process, increases product concentration and productivity, and simplifies the separation of product and/or cells. Various MBRs have been studied over the years, where the membrane is either submerged inside the liquid to be filtered, or placed in an external loop outside the bioreactor. All configurations have advantages and drawbacks, as reviewed in this paper. The current review presents an account of the membrane separation technologies, and the research performed on MBRs, focusing on ethanol and biogas production. The advantages and potentials of the technology are elucidated.

  12. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  13. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bátori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement, around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

  14. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  15. PATH-ANALYSIS ON SEVERAL CHARACTERS IN POTENTIAL OF CORN PRODUCTION AND RESISTANCE TO DOWNY MILDEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hary Pudjiwati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating both direct and indirect impacts, and heritability values of characters regarding the potential of corn production and resistance to downy mildew. The result of this investigation is required to determine some criteria taken into account for selection process of downy mildew-resistant corn breeding with high yield. The field experiment was conducted at Research Centre of Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University from January to April 2012. Five varieties of hybrid crown and five inbreeding lines were employed, and Randomised Block Design was applied with two replications. As observed, the characters held heritability ranging from average to high, except for heritability of length and width of stomata on the lower surface of the leaves which was categorised as low. Moreover, the stomata density found on lower surface of the leaves was directly and positively correlated to the intensity of attack by downy mildew, which, then, was used as criteria selection in downy mildew-resistance. The intensity of disease and the density of the stomata on lower surface of the leaves accounted for direct and negative correlation to corn production, while the length and diameter of corncob was responsible for direct and positive correlation to corn production. The betterment of corn production can be coped by improving the plant resistance to downy mildew and characters of corncob diameter.

  16. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS; high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with 60% of DDS. Spittlebug attack caused significant losses in cane quality, reducing total soluble solids, sucrose content, total reducing sugars, and pH, and increasing total phenolic compounds, and total and volatile juice acidity. The fermentation process was also significantly affected, resulting in lower ethanol content in wine. There was an increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the distillate. The spittlebug attack caused negative impacts on sugarcane quality and fermentation process, and these impacts are stronger in late season harvests.

  17. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  18. A novel spiral reactor for biodiesel production in supercritical ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farobie, Obie; Sasanami, Kazuma; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel spiral reactor for biodiesel production in supercritical ethanol was proposed. • The spiral reactor employed in this study successfully recovered heat. • The effects of temperature and time on FAEE yield were investigated. • FAEE yield as high as 0.937 mol/mol was obtained at 350 °C after 30 min. • The second-order kinetic model expressed the experimental yield well. - Abstract: A spiral reactor is proposed as a novel reactor design for biodiesel production under supercritical conditions. Since the spiral reactor serves as a heat exchanger, it offers the advantage of reduced apparatus space compared to conventional supercritical equipment. Experimental investigations were carried out at reaction temperatures of 270–400 °C, pressure of 20 MPa, oil-to-ethanol molar ratio of 1:40, and reaction times of 3–30 min. An FAEE yield of 0.937 mol/mol was obtained in a short reaction time of 30 min at 350 °C and oil-to-ethanol molar ratio of 1:40 under a reactor pressure of 20 MPa. The spiral reactor was not only as effective as conventional reactor in terms of transesterification reactor but also was superior in terms of heat recovery. A second-order kinetic model describing the transesterification of canola oil in supercritical ethanol was proposed, and the reaction was observed to follow Arrhenius behavior. The corresponding reaction rate constants and the activation energies as well as pre-exponential factors were determined

  19. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  20. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  1. Production of xylitol from corn cob hydrolysate through acid and enzymatic hydrolysis by yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardawati, Efri; Andoyo, R.; Syukra, K. A.; Kresnowati, MTAP; Bindar, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The abundance of corn production in Indonesia offers the potential for its application as the raw material for biorefinery process. The hemicellulose content in corn cobs can be considered to be used as a raw material for xylitol production. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of hydrolysis methods for xylitol production and the effect of the hydrolyzed corn cobs to produce xylitol through fermentation. Hydrolysis methods that would be evaluated were acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. The result showed that the xylitol yield of fermented solution using enzymatic hydrolysates was 0.216 g-xylitol/g-xylose, which was higher than the one that used acid hydrolysates, which was 0.100 g-xylitol/g-xylose. Moreover, the specific growth rate of biomass in fermentation using enzymatic hydrolysates was also higher than the one that used acid hydrolysates, 0.039/h compared to 0.0056/h.

  2. Evaluating different interrow distance between corn and soybean for optimum growth, production and nutritive value of intercropped forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongtae; Song, Yowook; Kim, Dong Woo; Fiaz, Muhammad; Kwon, Chan Ho

    2018-01-01

    Maize fodder is being used as staple feed for livestock but it lacks protein and essential amino acids; lysine and tryptophan. Intercropping maize with leguminous soybean crop is promising technique under limited land resources of South Korea but it can only give considerable advantages when adequate distance is provided between corn and soybean rows. Main aim of present study was to find-out adequate distance between corn and soybean seeding rows for optimum growth, yield and nutritive value of intercropped forage. Different interrow distances between corn and soybean were evaluated under four treatments, viz. 1) Corn sole as positive control treatment 2) Zero cm between corn and soybean (control); 2) Five cm between corn and soybean; 3) 10 cm between corn and soybean, with three replicates under randomized block design. Findings depicted that height and number of corn stalks and ears were similar ( P  > 0.05) among different treatments. Numerically average corn ear height was decreased at zero cm distance. Dry matter percentage in all components; corn stalk, corn ear and soybean was also found not different ( P  > 0.05) but dry matter yield in component of corn ear was lower ( P  value, total digestible nutrient yield in intercropped corn was also found lower ( P  value of forage at wider interrow distance i.e. 5 cm between corn and soybean might be due to adequate interseed distance. Conclusively, pattern of corn and soybean seeding in rows at 5 cm distance was found suitable which provided adequate interrow distance to maintain enough mutual cooperation and decreased competition between both species for optimum production performance and nutritive value of intercropped forage.

  3. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  4. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simas, Monica M.S.; Albuquerque, Ricardo; Oliveira, Carlos A.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Correa, Benedito

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  6. Autohydrolysis pretreatment assessment in ethanol production from agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-González, Leopoldo J; Morales-Martínez, Thelma K; Rodríguez-Flores, María F; Rodríguez-De la Garza, José A; Castillo-Quiroz, David; Castro-Montoya, Agustín J; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the autohydrolysis pretreatment of Agave tequilana bagasse for ethanol production. The pretreatment was conducted using a one-liter high pressure Parr reactor under different severity factors (SF) at a 1:6w/v ratio (solid:liquid) and 200rpm. The solids obtained under the selected autohydrolysis conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase cocktail, and the enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results obtained from the pretreatment process showed that the glucan content in the pretreated solid was mostly preserved, and an increase in the digestibility was observed for the case with a SF of 4.13 (190°C, 30min). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solids showed a yield of 74.3%, with a glucose concentration of 126g/L, resulting in 65.26g/L of ethanol after 10h of fermentation, which represent a 98.4% conversion according to the theoretical ethanol yield value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsalve G, John F; Medina de Perez, Victoria Isabel; Ruiz colorado, Angela Adriana

    2006-01-01

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  8. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic byproducts of olive oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, I; Oliva, J M; Saez, F; Ballesteros, M

    2001-01-01

    The recent implementation of a new two-step centrifugation process for extracting olive oil in Spain has substantially reduced water consumption, thereby eliminating oil mill wastewater. However, a new high sugar content residue is still generated. In this work the two fractions present in the residue (olive pulp and fragmented stones) were assayed as substrate for ethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Pretreatment of fragmented olive stones by sulfuric acid-catalyzed steam explosion was the most effective treatment for increasing enzymatic digestibility; however, a pretreatment step was not necessary to bioconvert the olive pulp into ethanol. The olive pulp and fragmented olive stones were tested by the SSF process using a fed-batch procedure. By adding the pulp three times at 24-h intervals, 76% of the theoretical SSF yield was obtained. Experiments with fed-batch pretreated olive stones provided SSF yields significantly lower than those obtained at standard SSF procedure. The preferred SSF conditions to obtain ethanol from olives stones (61% of theoretical yield) were 10% substrate and addition of cellulases at 15 filter paper units/g of substrate.

  9. Final report (September, 1999--February, 2002) [Public outreach and information dissemination - cellulosic and corn-based ethanol outreach project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Jeremy; Werner, Carol

    2002-08-01

    EESI's ''Ethanol, Climate Protection, Oil Reduction'' (ECO) electr[on]ic newsletter reaches out to the environmental and agricultural communities, state/local government officials and other interested parties, and provides a forum for dialogue about ''the potential benefits of ethanol--and particularly the expanded opportunities provided by cellulosic ethanol--with a special focus on climate protection.'' Each issue features expert commentary, excerpts from recent studies about ethanol, a summary of current government activity on ethanol, and ''notable quotables.'' The newsletter is distributed primarily via email and is also posted on EESI's web site. EESI also conducts outreach on the benefits of ethanol and other biofuels by attending and speaking at conferences, meetings and workshops around the country. The 16 issues of the newsletter published through December 2001 are included as attachments.

  10. Improving ethanol productivity through self-cycling fermentation of yeast: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chae, Michael; Sauvageau, Dominic; Bressler, David C

    2017-01-01

    The cellulosic ethanol industry has developed efficient strategies for converting sugars obtained from various cellulosic feedstocks to bioethanol. However, any further major improvements in ethanol productivity will require development of novel and innovative fermentation strategies that enhance incumbent technologies in a cost-effective manner. The present study investigates the feasibility of applying self-cycling fermentation (SCF) to cellulosic ethanol production to elevate productivity. SCF is a semi-continuous cycling process that employs the following strategy: once the onset of stationary phase is detected, half of the broth volume is automatically harvested and replaced with fresh medium to initiate the next cycle. SCF has been shown to increase product yield and/or productivity in many types of microbial cultivation. To test whether this cycling process could increase productivity during ethanol fermentations, we mimicked the process by manually cycling the fermentation for five cycles in shake flasks, and then compared the results to batch operation. Mimicking SCF for five cycles resulted in regular patterns with regards to glucose consumption, ethanol titer, pH, and biomass production. Compared to batch fermentation, our cycling strategy displayed improved ethanol volumetric productivity (the titer of ethanol produced in a given cycle per corresponding cycle time) and specific productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per cellular biomass) by 43.1 ± 11.6 and 42.7 ± 9.8%, respectively. Five successive cycles contributed to an improvement of overall productivity (the aggregate amount of ethanol produced at the end of a given cycle per total processing time) and the estimated annual ethanol productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per year) by 64.4 ± 3.3 and 33.1 ± 7.2%, respectively. This study provides proof of concept that applying SCF to ethanol production could significantly increase productivities, which will help strengthen the

  11. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-01-01

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510–1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300–2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs

  12. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  13. A practical method for extending the biuret assay to protein determination of corn-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zelong; Pan, Junhui

    2017-06-01

    A modified biuret method suitable for protein determination of corn-based products was developed by introducing a combination of an alkaline reagent with sodium dodecyl sulfate (reagent A) and heat treatments. The method was tested on seven corn-based samples. The results showed mostly good agreement (P>0.05) as compared to the Kjeldahl values. The proposed method was found to enhance the accuracy of prediction on zein content using bovine serum albumin as standard. Reagent A and sample treatment were proved to effectively improve protein solubilization for the thermally-dried corn-based products, e.g. corn gluten meal. The absorbance was stable for at least 1-h. Moreover, the whole measurement of protein content only needs 15-20min more than the traditional biuret assay, and can be performed in batches. The findings suggest that the proposed method could be a timesaving alternative for routine protein analyses in corn processing factories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Succinic acid production from acid hydrolysate of corn fiber by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Yao, Jiaming; Wu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Dilute acid hydrolysate of corn fiber was used as carbon source for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiments. When corn fiber particles were of 20 mesh in size and treated with 1.0% sulfuric acid at 121 degrees C for 2 h, the total sugar yield could reach 63.3%. It was found that CaCO(3) neutralization combined with activated carbon adsorption was an effective method to remove fermentation inhibitors especially furfural that presented in the acid hydrolysate of corn fiber. Only 5.2% of the total sugar was lost, while 91.9% of furfural was removed. The yield of succinic acid was higher than 72.0% with the detoxified corn fiber hydrolysate as the carbon source in anaerobic bottles or 7.5 L fermentor cultures. It was proved that the corn fiber hydrolysate could be an alternative to glucose for the production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113.

  15. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  16. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a system where lignocellulosic ethanol production is integrated with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. • We conduct an exergy analysis for the ethanol production in six different system operation points. • Integrated operation, district heating (DH) production and low CHP loads all increase the exergy efficiency. • Separate operation has the largest negative impact on the exergy efficiency. • Operation is found to have a significant impact on the exergy efficiency of the ethanol production. - Abstract: Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible, and a gas boiler is used as back-up when integration is not possible. The system was evaluated according to six operation points that alternate on the following three different operation parameters: Load in the CHP unit, integrated versus separate operation, and inclusion of district heating production in the ethanol facility. The calculated standard exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility varied from 0.564 to 0.855, of which the highest was obtained for integrated operation at reduced CHP load and full district heating production in the ethanol facility, and the lowest for separate operation with zero district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the

  17. Power-law approach to modeling biological systems. II. Application to ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voit, E O; Savageau, M A

    1982-01-01

    The use of the power-law formalism is illustrated by modeling yeast ethanol production in batch culture at high cell densities. Parameter values are estimated from experimental data. The results suggest that ethanol killing of viable cells and lysis of nonviable cells are major determinants of system behavior, whereas catabolism of ethanol and inhibition of cell growth by ethanol appear to be insignificant under these experimental conditions.

  18. Mutants of Pachysolen tannophilus with Improved Production of Ethanol from d-Xylose †

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hung; James, Allen P.; Zahab, Diana M.; Mahmourides, George; Maleszka, Ryszard; Schneider, Henry

    1986-01-01

    The conversion of d-xylose to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus is relatively inefficient in batch culture. The inefficiency has been attributed in part to concurrent utilization of ethanol in the presence of appreciable concentrations of d-xylose and to the formation of xylitol and other by-products. To increase the concentration of ethanol accumulated in batch cultures, UV-induced mutants of P. tannophilus were selected on the basis of diminished growth on ethanol. Eleven independ...

  19. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    (0–7 h), e.g., oxalic acid and acetovanillon. Interestingly, washing had no effect on the ethanol production with pretreatment times up to 1 h. Washing improved the glucose availability with pretreatment times of more than 2 h. One hour of ozonisation was found to be optimal for the use of washed...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  20. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Fonseca, Jorge (Linkoeping Univ., Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: michael.martin@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels may be optimized to increase the environmental performance through the concepts of industrial symbiosis. This paper offers a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits in industrial symbiosis, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods chosen

  1. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended with gasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewable resources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can be produced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentation batch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivity and cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. The process can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The research was conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor with vacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, and concentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. The results show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic under vacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanol formation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cells productivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at 166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at 141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivity and the yield of ethanol.

  2. Expression of a mutated SPT15 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances both cell growth and ethanol production in microaerobic batch, fed-batch, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeong-Je; Park, Haeseong; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Soo-Jung; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    The SPT15 gene encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA-binding protein, which is able to globally control the transcription levels of various metabolic and regulatory genes. In this study, a SPT15 gene mutant (S42N, S78R, S163P, and I212N) was expressed in S. cerevisiae BY4741 (BSPT15-M3), of which effects on fermentative yeast properties were evaluated in a series of culture types. By applying different nitrogen sources and air supply conditions in batch culture, organic nitrogen sources and microaerobic condition were decided to be more favorable for both cell growth and ethanol production of the BSPT15-M3 strain than the control S. cerevisiae BY4741 strain expressing the SPT15 gene (BSPT15wt). Microaerobic fed-batch cultures of BSPT15-M3 with glucose shock in the presence of high ethanol content resulted in a 9.5-13.4% higher glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity than those for the BSPT15wt strain. In addition, BSPT15-M3 showed 4.5 and 3.9% increases in ethanol productivity from cassava hydrolysates and corn starch in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes, respectively. It was concluded that overexpression of the mutated SPT15 gene would be a potent strategy to develop robust S. cerevisiae strains with enhanced cell growth and ethanol production abilities.

  3. Enhancing Corn Productivity through Application of Vermi Tea as Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Bulalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major commodities in the Province of Apayao is corn. In the municipality of Conner, a previous study conducted showed that corn farmers heavily rely on the use of inorganic fertilizers and still produce low yield. This study was then conducted to compare traditional farming against the use of an intervention using Vermi Tea as supplemental spray. Results of this endeavor showed that the farms applied with supplemental organic spray performed better that that of the usual farmer’s practice in various aspects of corn growth and yield. Findings show that vermi tea, when used as a foliar spray can significantly improve the growth and yield of corn . Due to the presence of plant growth regulators, and its ability to improve the condition of the soil, the corn farm sprayed with vermi tea produced taller corn crops with longer and thicker ears. As reflected in this study, corn when applied with the vermi tea can have an increased yield which can go as high as two tons/ha. More importantly, vermi tea promotes the use of organic fertilizer which does not entail high cost and can be prepared using agricultural wastes and other locally available materials. This will not only contribute to the reduction of the amount of total waste but will also help minimize the use of chemical fertilizers. The technology intervention promoted in this project complements and supports various government agency thrusts and priorities which are geared towards improving the agriculture industry, maintaining environmental quality and sustainable use of resources, climate change adaptation and mitigation; and production of excellent researches that will promote quality education and contribute to the upliftment of the country and encourage multisectoral/ multidisciplinary research along the priority areas like food safety and security among others.

  4. Recent trends in acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikhosro Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.

  5. Intermediate products of radiolytic conversions of 6-aminophenalenone in ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, G.V.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Intermediate products of the conversions of 6-aminophenalenone in ethanol were investigated by pulse radiolysis. In alkaline medium the main product is the 6-aminophenalenone radical cation, the optical absorption spectrum of which contains two bands with maxima at 355 and 400 nm. The precursors of this particle are e s , CH 3 CHOH and CH 3 CHO - radicals. In neutral and acid medium, radical cations are protonated in reactions with alcohol and hydrogen ions. The H-adduct of 6-aminophenalenone that arises has optical absorption maxima at 350 and 390 nm. The presence of two maxima is due to two different structures of the product. The molar extinction coefficients of the radical anions and H-adducts of 6-aminophenalenone and the rate constants of the reactions involving them were estimated. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Ethanol addition enhances acid treatment to eliminate Lactobacillus fermentum from the fermentation process for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M A S; Cerri, B C; Ceccato-Antonini, S R

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the most critical steps of the fuel ethanol production and it is directly influenced by the fermentation system, selected yeast, and bacterial contamination, especially from the genus Lactobacillus. To control the contamination, the industry applies antibiotics and biocides; however, these substances can result in an increased cost and environmental problems. The use of the acid treatment of cells (water-diluted sulphuric acid, adjusted to pH 2·0-2·5) between the fermentation cycles is not always effective to combat the bacterial contamination. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanol addition to the acid treatment to control the bacterial growth in a fed-batch system with cell recycling, using the industrial yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2. When only the acid treatment was used, the population of Lactobacillus fermentum had a 3-log reduction at the end of the sixth fermentation cycle; however, when 5% of ethanol was added to the acid solution, the viability of the bacterium was completely lost even after the first round of cell treatment. The acid treatment +5% ethanol was able to kill L. fermentum cells without affecting the ethanol yield and with a low residual sugar concentration in the fermented must. In Brazilian ethanol-producing industry, water-diluted sulphuric acid is used to treat the cell mass at low pH (2·0) between the fermentative cycles. This procedure reduces the number of Lactobacillus fermentum from 10 7 to 10 4  CFU per ml. However, the addition of 5% ethanol to the acid treatment causes the complete loss of bacterial cell viability in fed-batch fermentation with six cell recycles. The ethanol yield and yeast cell viability are not affected. These data indicate the feasibility of adding ethanol to the acid solution replacing the antibiotic use, offering a low cost and a low amount of residue in the biomass. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Study of advanced control of ethanol production through continuous fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelHamid Ajbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the control of an experimentally validated model of production of bioethanol. The analysis of the open loop system revealed that the maximum productivity occurred at a periodic point. A robust control was needed to avoid instabilities that may occur when disturbances are injected into the process that may drive it toward or through the unstable points. A nonlinear model predictive controller (NLMPC was used to control the process. Simulation tests were carried out using three controlled variables: the ethanol concentration, the productivity and the inverse of the productivity. In the third configuration, the controller was required to seek the maximum operating point through the optimization capability built in the NLMPC algorithm. Simulation tests presented overall satisfactory closed-loop performance for both nominal servo and regulatory control problems as well as in the presence of modeling errors. The third control configuration managed to steer the process toward the existing maximum productivity even when the process operation or its parameters changed. For comparison purposes, a standard PI controller was also designed for the same control objectives. The PI controller yielded satisfactory performance when the ethanol concentration was chosen as the controlled variable. When, on the other hand, the productivity was chosen as the controlled output, the PI controller did not work properly and needed to be adjusted using gain scheduling. In all cases, it was observed that the closed-loop response suffered from slow dynamics, and any attempt to speed up the feedback response via tuning may result in an unstable behavior.

  8. Microwave-assisted co-pyrolysis of brown coal and corn stover for oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaning; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Nan; Ding, Kuan; Peng, Peng; Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Li, Bingxi; Snyder, John; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-07-01

    The controversial synergistic effect between brown coal and biomass during co-pyrolysis deserves further investigation. This study detailed the oil production from microwave-assisted co-pyrolysis of brown coal (BC) and corn stover (CS) at different CS/BC ratios (0, 0.33, 0.50, 0.67, and 1) and pyrolysis temperatures (500, 550, and 600 °C). The results showed that a higher CS/BC ratio resulted in higher oil yield, and a higher pyrolysis temperature increased oil yield for brown coal and coal/corn mixtures. Corn stover and brown coal showed different pyrolysis characteristics, and positive synergistic effect on oil yield was observed only at CS/BC ratio of 0.33 and pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C. Oils from brown coal mainly included hydrocarbons and phenols whereas oils from corn stover and coal/corn mixtures were dominated by ketones, phenols, and aldehydes. Positive synergistic effects were observed for ketones, aldehydes, acids, and esters whereas negative synergistic effects for hydrocarbons, phenols and alcohols. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can enhance productivity and soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...

  10. Impact of Increased Corn Production on Ground Water Quality and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we use a complex coupled modeling system to assess the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater. In particular, we show how the models provide new information on the drivers of contamination in groundwater, and then relate pollutant concentration change...

  11. MAPPING AND SCOUTING CORN PEST INFESTATIONS IN A PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT USING REMOTE SENSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imagery was acquired three times during the 2006 agricultural growing season (late July to mid-September) over 35 corn fields in east central Illinois. The imagery was processed with an emphasis on rapid image product development (turnabround time of less than 24 ho...

  12. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  13. Ethanol Production from Kitchen Garbage Using Zymomonas mobilis: Optimization of Parameters through Statistical Experimental Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, H.; Wang, Q.; Gong, L.; Wang, X.; Yin, W.

    2008-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was employed to screen 8 parameters for ethanol production from kitchen garbage by Zymomonas mobilis in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The parameters were divided into two parts, four kinds of enzymes and supplementation nutrients. The result indicated that the nutrient inside kitchen garbage could meet the requirement of ethanol production without supplementation, only protease and glucoamylase were needed to accelerate the ethanol production. The opti...

  14. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible...... district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the expected operation pattern of such polygeneration system is taken......Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol...

  15. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) Users’ Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass, and a soy biodiesel pathway. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2017 which includes five ethanol LUC scenarios and four soy biodiesel LUC scenarios.

  16. Study of growth kinetic and modeling of ethanol production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... coefficient (0.96299). Based on Leudking-Piret model, it could be concluded that ethanol batch fermentation is a non-growth associated process. Key words: Kinetic parameters, simulation, cell growth, ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  17. Ethanol Production from Biomass: Large Scale Facility Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R. Eric [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2009-10-29

    High solids processing of biomass slurries provides the following benefits: maximized product concentration in the fermentable sugar stream, reduced water usage, and reduced reactor size. However, high solids processing poses mixing and heat transfer problems above about 15% for pretreated corn stover solids due to their high viscosities. Also, highly viscous slurries require high power consumption in conventional stirred tanks since they must be run at high rotational speeds to maintain proper mixing. An 8 liter scraped surface bio-reactor (SSBR) is employed here that is designed to efficiently handle high solids loadings for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover (PCS) while maintaining power requirements on the order of low viscous liquids in conventional stirred tanks. Saccharification of biomass exhibit slow reaction rates and incomplete conversion, which may be attributed to enzyme deactivation and loss of activity due to a variety of mechanisms. Enzyme deactivation is classified into two categories here: one, deactivation due to enzyme-substrate interactions and two, deactivation due to all other factors that are grouped together and termed “non-specific” deactivation. A study was conducted to investigate the relative extents of “non-specific” deactivation and deactivation due to “enzyme-substrate interactions” and a model was developed that describes the kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by considering the observed deactivation effects. Enzyme substrate interactions had a much more significant effect on overall deactivation with a deactivation rate constant about 20X higher than the non-specific deactivation rate constant (0.35 h-1 vs 0.018 h-1). The model is well validated by the experimental data and predicts complete conversion of cellulose within 30 hours in the absence of enzyme substrate interactions.

  18. Effect of Organic Amendments and Chemical Fertilization in Production of Corn (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Emilio Forero Ulloa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corn is grown in 135 countries, and because of its uses and nutritional benefits is the world's most important cereal. In Colombia it is grown in various agro-ecological conditions of production. The bagasse is an organic residue resulting from the grinding of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L., used for the production of jaggery (solid resulting of boiling and evaporation of the juice from sugar cane, which can be used as an amendment and is a soil conditioner, as a rich source of phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of bagasse against the application of other organic sources and chemical fertilization in maize, variety ICA-V-305. For this, a completely random statistical design with four treatments and absolute control was established. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey comparison test. Applying Bagasse + Abimgra® produced the greatest number of ears of corn, while the use of only bagasse, presented the second best results in terms of number of grains / ear and weight of 100 grains of corn, therefore bagasse becomes , through time, an important option as organic amendment, which would favor the production of corn, and an option as organic fertilizer.

  19. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  20. Impacts of facility size and location decisions on ethanol production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matt; Michael Griffin, W.; Scott Matthews, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol has been identified as a promising alternative to fossil fuels to provide energy for the transportation sector. One of the obstacles cellulosic ethanol must overcome in order to contribute to transportation energy demand is the infrastructure required to produce and distribute the fuel. Given a nascent cellulosic ethanol industry, locating cellulosic ethanol refineries and creating the accompanying infrastructure is essentially a greenfield problem that may benefit greatly from quantitative analysis. This study models cellulosic ethanol infrastructure investment using a mixed integer program (MIP) that locates ethanol refineries and connects these refineries to the biomass supplies and ethanol demands in a way that minimizes the total cost. For the single- and multi-state regions examined in this study, larger facilities can decrease ethanol costs by $0.20-0.30 per gallon, and placing these facilities in locations that minimize feedstock and product transportation costs can decrease ethanol costs by up to $0.25 per gallon compared to uninformed placement that could result from influences such as local subsidies to encourage economic development. To best benefit society, policies should allow for incentives that encourage these low-cost production scenarios and avoid politically motivated siting of plants. - Research highlights: → Mixed-integer programming can be used to model ethanol infrastructure investment. → Large cellulosic ethanol facilities can decrease production cost by $0.20/gallon. → Optimized facility placement can save $0.25/gallon.

  1. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of different yeast strains isolated from ripe banana peels to produce ethanol was investigated. Of the 8 isolates screened for their fermentation ability, 5 showed enhanced performance and were subsequently identified and assessed for important ethanol fermentation attributes such as ethanol producing ability, ...

  2. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iye, Edward; Bilsborrow, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy introduced in 2007 mandates a 10% blend (E10) of bioethanol with gasoline. This study investigates the potential for the development of a cellulosic ethanol industry based on the availability of agricultural residues and models the number of commercial processing facilities that could be sited in the six Geo-political zones. The potential for cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria is 7556 km 3 per annum exceeding the mandate of 10% renewable fuel required and providing the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium-scale processing facilities based on the use of a single feedstock. Cassava and yam peelings provided in excess of 80% of the process residues available with enough feedstock to supply 10 large-scale facilities with a fairly even distribution across the zones. Sorghum straw, millet straw and maize stalks represented 75% of the potential resource available from field residues with the potential to supply 2 large- and 7 medium-scale processing facilities, all of which would be located in the north of the country. When a multi-feedstock approach is used, this provides the potential for either 29 large- or 58 medium-scale facilities based on outputs of 250 and 125 km 3 per annum respectively. - Highlights: • Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy mandates a 10% blend of bioethanol with gasoline. • Total bioethanol production from agricultural residues was 7556 km 3 per annum. • Process residues offer the greatest potential accounting for 62% of production. • Nigeria has the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium scale commercial. • The use of mixed feedstocks significantly increases the potential for production

  3. Production, carbon and nitrogen in stover fractions of corn (Zea mays L.) in response to cultivar development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of genetic selection of corn to quantity and quality of stover is still poor-known. The aim of the study was to evaluate production, C and N in fractions of corn stover in response to the cultivar development. Two field experiments were conducted in the city of Rolândia (Paraná - Br...

  4. Changes in the phenolic acid content during commercial dry-grind processing of corn to ethanol and DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine fractions (ground corn-1, cooked slurry-2, liquefied slurry-3, fermented mash-4, whole stillage-5, thin stillage-6, condensed distillers soluble (CDS)-7, distillers wet grains (DWG)-8, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-9) were collected from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol ...

  5. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Sacchromyces cervisae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64% followed by rice straw (40% and wheat straw (34%. Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L and wheat straw (44 g/L using medium composition of (% 0.25 (NH42SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

  6. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  7. Study on genotypic variation for ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnavathi, C.V.; Suresh, K.; Kumar, B.S. Vijay; Pallavi, M.; Komala, V.V.; Seetharama, N. [Directorate of Sorghum Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-07-15

    Sugarcane molasses is the main source for ethanol production in India. Sweet sorghum with its juicy stem containing sugars equivalent to that of sugarcane is a very good alternative for bio-ethanol production to meet the energy needs of the country. Sweet sorghum is drought resistant, water logging resistant and saline-alkaline tolerant. Growing sweet sorghum for ethanol production is relatively easy and economical and ethanol produced from sweet sorghum is eco-friendly. In view of this, it is important to identify superior genotypes for ethanol production in terms of percent juice brix, juice extractability, total fermentable sugars, ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency. This paper presents the study on the variability observed for the production of ethanol by various sweet sorghum genotypes in a laboratory fermentor. Five Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes were evaluated for ethanol production from stalk juice (Keller, SSV 84, Wray, NSSH 104 and BJ 248). Sweet sorghum juice differs from cane juice mainly in its higher content of starch and aconitic acid. Data were collected for biomass yield; stalk sugar yield and ethanol production in five genotypes. Maximum ethanol production of 9.0%w/v ethanol was obtained with Keller variety (20% sugar concentration was used), and decreased for other genotypes. A distiller's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gifted by Seagram Distilleries Ltd.) was employed for fermentation. The fermentation efficiency (FE) was 94.7% for this strain. High biomass of yeast was obtained with BJ 248 variety. When the similar experiments were conducted with unsterile sweet sorghum juice (15% sugar concentration) 6.47%w/v ethanol was produced. (author)

  8. Cashew apple bagasse as a source of sugars for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus CE025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Melo, Vania M M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    The potential of cashew apple bagasse as a source of sugars for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus CE025 was evaluated in this work. This strain was preliminarily cultivated in a synthetic medium containing glucose and xylose and was able to produce ethanol and xylitol at pH 4.5. Next, cashew apple bagasse hydrolysate (CABH) was prepared by a diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment and used as fermentation media. This hydrolysate is rich in glucose, xylose, and arabinose and contains traces of formic acid and acetic acid. In batch fermentations of CABH at pH 4.5, the strain produced only ethanol. The effects of temperature on the kinetic parameters of ethanol fermentation by K. marxianus CE025 using CABH were also evaluated. Maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)), overall yields of ethanol based on glucose consumption [Formula: see text] and based on glucose + xylose consumption (Y ( P/S )), overall yield of ethanol based on biomass (Y ( P/X )), and ethanol productivity (P (E)) were determined as a function of temperature. Best results of ethanol production were achieved at 30°C, which is also quite close to the optimum temperature for the formation of biomass. The process yielded 12.36 ± 0.06 g l(-1) of ethanol with a volumetric production rate of 0.257 ± 0.002 g l(-1) h(-1) and an ethanol yield of 0.417 ± 0.003 g g(-1) glucose.

  9. Consolidated briefing of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Achinas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production is one pathway for crude oil reduction and environmental compliance. Bioethanol can be used as fuel with significant characteristics like high octane number, low cetane number and high heat of vaporization. Its main drawbacks are the corrosiveness, low flame luminosity, lower vapor pressure, miscibility with water, and toxicity to ecosystems. One crucial problem with bioethanol fuel is the availability of raw materials. The supply of feedstocks for bioethanol production can vary season to season and depends on geographic locations. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as forest-based woody materials, agricultural residues and municipal waste, is prominent feedstock for bioethanol cause of its high availability and low cost, even though the commercial production has still not been established. In addition, the supply and the attentive use of microbes render the bioethanol production process highly peculiar. Many conversion technologies and techniques for biomass-based ethanol production are under development and expected to be demonstrated. In this work a technological analysis of the biochemical method that can be used to produce bioethanol is carried out and a review of current trends and issues is conducted.

  10. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, distillers dried grains with solubles composition, and lipid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in utilization of feedstocks other than corn for fuel ethanol production has been increasing due to political as well as environmental reasons. Grain sorghum is an identified alternative that has a number of potential benefits relative to corn in both composition and agronomic traits. Compo...

  11. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was 68.4 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bio-ethanol percentage was 7 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice) and 90 %, respectively.

  12. Influence of pressure and humidity on ethanol distillery power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumalacarregui de Cardenas, Lourdes; Perez Ones, Osney; Rodriguez Ramos, Pedro; Lombardi, Geraldo

    2011-01-01

    A distillery for the Generation of Renewable Energy Integrated to Food Production (GERIPA), that produces 125 000 L/day of ethanol, presents advantages in comparison with the traditional distilleries. In this paper the available thermal energy in sugar cane and sorghum, bagasse and straw, and also in biogas are calculated. This energy produces vapor for the process and electricity, using a boiler with 88 % of efficiency and a two stages with intermediate extraction turbine. The dependence of electric power surplus with vapor pressure is evaluated, finding that between 60 and 100 MPa, the electric power surplus reaches 7.15 to 7.82 MW. This electricity can be send to the electro-energetic system. The effective efficiency is calculated for 6 to 10 MPa finding values lower than 25 %. It is shown that a bagasse dryer can be used to increase the efficiency. (author)

  13. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Corn Stover and Immobilized Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost and abundant corn stover in yeast fermentation can reduce product costs. In this study, bioethanol was produced from a hydrolysate of corn stover using immobilized yeast. A kinetic model was established for the total reducing sugar consumption and the production of bioethanol. The parameter estimation for kinetic modeling considered the main process variables during bioethanol production from corn stover. Total reducing sugar concentrations decreased exponentially in the bioethanol fermentation for 6 h; consumption was more than 90%. To use kinetic modelling of yeast growth for bioethanol fermentation, the value of μmax reached 0.2891 h-1, and the matrix inhibition constant (KIS and production inhibition constant (KIP were 8.9154 g/dm3 and 0.00676 g/dm3, respectively. To use kinetic modelling of fermentation time on bioethanol, the maximum ratio of bioethanol production rate (qmax reached 1.427 g/g•L. However, KIS was 2.813 g/dm3, and KIP was 0.0149 g/dm3.

  15. Scale up of ethanol production using pulp mill wastewater sludge by cellulase and saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunchada Sangasintu; Petchporn Chawakitchareon

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of pulp mill wastewater sludge as substrate in ethanol production. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process was conducted by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5339 under optimum proportion of cellulase and pulp mill wastewater sludge. The ethanol production from cellulosic materials in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation needs cooperation between cellulase and yeast. The cellulase hydrolyzes cellulose to sugar while yeast utilizes sugar to produce ethanol. The pulp mill wastewater sludge has an average content of 73.3 % hemi cellulose, 67.1 % alpha cellulose, 4.7 % beta cellulose and 1.4 % gamma cellulose. The experimental results indicated that the volume of the ethanol tend to increase with time, providing the maximum ethanol yield of 0.69 g/g on the 7"t"h day, the last day of the experiment. The ethanol production was scaled up in 5 L fermentor under optimum proportion and increased the fermentation period. It was found that the ethanol production gave the maximum ethanol yield of 1.14 g/g on the 9"t"h day of the totally 13 days experimentation. These results showed that the cellulose from pulp mill wastewater sludge was as effective substrate for ethanol production and alternative energy for the future. (author)