Sample records for corn belt region

  1. Grassland and Wheat Loss Affected by Corn and Soybean Expansion in the Midwest Corn Belt Region, 2006–2013

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    Meimei Lin


    Full Text Available Increases in agricultural commodity price triggered by ethanol production and other socioeconomic conditions have dramatically affected land uses and agronomic practices in the U.S. This study used crop-specific land cover data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA to analyze agricultural expansion and crop rotation pattern from 2006 to 2013 in the Midwest Corn Belt (MWCB: nine states including Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and South Dakota. We identified a total of 3.9 million acres’ grassland loss between 2007 and 2012. The net loss of grassland occurred mainly along the western MWCB, an area with competing demand for limited water supply. Net conversion of grassland to corn or soybean is likely the result of a resumption of cropping on lands previously enrolled under the USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP, as well as expansion beyond CRP lands. Wheat, small grains, and other crops were also impacted by corn and soybean expansion. The amount of corn planted on corn increased by 23% between 2006 and 2013, whereas the amount of continuous soybean cropping fluctuated over time.

  2. A refined regional modeling approach for the Corn Belt - Experiences and recommendations for large-scale integrated modeling (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Gassman, Philip W.; Jha, Manoj K.; Kling, Catherine L.; Campbell, Todd; Srinivasan, Raghavan; White, Michael; Arnold, Jeffrey G.


    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. This region is comprised of two large river basins, the intensely row-cropped Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) and Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which are considered the key contributing areas for the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, in this area it is of utmost importance to ensure that intensive agriculture for food, feed and biofuel production can coexist with a healthy water environment. To address these objectives within a river basin management context, an integrated modeling system has been constructed with the hydrologic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, capable of estimating river basin responses to alternative cropping and/or management strategies. To improve modeling performance compared to previous studies and provide a spatially detailed basis for scenario development, this SWAT Corn Belt application incorporates a greatly refined subwatershed structure based on 12-digit hydrologic units or 'subwatersheds' as defined by the US Geological Service. The model setup, calibration and validation are time-demanding and challenging tasks for these large systems, given the scale intensive data requirements, and the need to ensure the reliability of flow and pollutant load predictions at multiple locations. Thus, the objectives of this study are both to comprehensively describe this large-scale modeling approach, providing estimates of pollution and crop production in the region as well as to present strengths and weaknesses of integrated modeling at such a large scale along with how it can be improved on the basis of the current modeling structure and results. The predictions were based on a semi-automatic hydrologic calibration approach for large-scale and spatially detailed modeling studies, with the use of the Sequential

  3. Periodicity in tree rings from the corn belt. (United States)

    Meko, D M; Stockton, C W; Blasing, T J


    Previous tree-ring studies indicated that the total area affected by drought in the western United States has rhythmically expanded and contracted over the past 300 years, with a period near the 18.6-year lunar nodal and 22-year double-sunspot cycles. Recently collected tree-ring data from the U.S. Corn Belt for the years 1680 to 1980 were examined for evidence of either of these cycles on a regional scale. Spectral analysis indicated no periodicity in the eastern part of the Corn Belt, but a significant 18.33-year period in the western part. The period length changed from 17.60 to 20.95 years between the first 150 years and the last 151. High-resolution frequency analysis showed that the structure of the 18.33-year spectral peak was complex, with contributions from several frequencies near both the lunar nodal and double-sunspot periods. A t-test of difference of means in reconstructed annual precipitation weakly corroborated a previous finding of an association between drought area and the phase of the double-sunspot cycle. Both the high-resolution frequency analysis and the t-test results indicate that the periodic component of drought near 20 years is too weak and irregular to be of use in drought forecasting for the Corn Belt.

  4. Watershed regressions for pesticides (WARP) for predicting atrazine concentration in Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.


    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, can be improved for application to the U.S. Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include important watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for predicting annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. All streams used in development of WARP-CB models drain watersheds with atrazine use intensity greater than 17 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2). The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62 percent of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites.

  5. 4. 1. Response of the North American corn belt to climatic warming

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    Blasing, T.J.; Solomon, A.M.


    The climate of the North American corn belt was characterized as part of an effort to estimate the effects of climatic change on that agricultural region. Heat and moisture characteristics of the current corn belt were first identified. Locations of those characteristics were then mapped, based on a climate simulated to result from doubling the amount of atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Such projections of corn-belt location were made both with and without allowance for earlier planting dates under a warmer climate. Because the direct effects of CO/sub 2/ on plants, improvements in farm technology, and plant breeding are not considered, the resulting projections represent an extreme or worst case. Results indicate that even for such a worst case, climatic conditions favoring corn production would not extend very far into Canada. Greatest translocations are projected for the western, or driest, part of the corn belt where other crops such as winter wheat could replace corn. However, this kind of exercise clearly shows that the use of climate-model output requires several highly questionable assumptions about changes in the timing and regional distribution of precipitation accompanying a climatic warming. Increased use of climatic data and improved specification of CO/sub 2/-induced increases in water-use efficiency of corn are suggested for more credible projections of corn belt responses to increasing CO/sub 2/. 12 references, 4 figures.

  6. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in re...

  7. Impacts of climate change on corn yield and the length of corn growing season in U.S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Niyogi, D.; Liu, X.; Takle, E. S.; Anderson, C.; Andresen, J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Gramig, B. M.; Doering, O.


    This study is a result of a USDA sponsored project titled Useful to Usable (U2U): "Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers". The objective of this project is to improve farm resilience and profitability in the U.S. Corn Belt region by transforming existing meteorological dataset into usable knowledge and tools for the agricultural community. In this study, we conducted the Hybrid-Maize corn growth simulation model at 18 sites across the U.S. Corn Belt with 5 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models. The crop model was running for two time periods: 1981-2010 ('current') and 2041-2070 ('future'). We also developed a "delta" method, which combines the current climate variability with the "mean" model projected climate change. The results indicate that under the 'future' climate, growing degree days (GDD) projected corn growing season (from planting date reach to maturity required GDD) are shortened due to the increasing of mean temperature. Compare to the contemporary simulations, the shorter growing season under "future" scenario brings lower attainable yields if farmers using the same cultivar. This presentation will focus on the details about the model simulations, the interactive process employed in developing the simulations, the implications of the results, the uncertainties, and the lessons learned.

  8. Watershed regressions for pesticides (warp) models for predicting atrazine concentrations in Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.


    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, are improved for application to the United States (U.S.) Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62% of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites. Model predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observed concentration statistic for over 90% of the model-development sites. The WARP-CB residuals and uncertainty are lower than those of the National WARP model for the same sites. Although atrazine-use intensity is the most important explanatory variable in the National WARP models, it is not a significant variable in the WARP-CB models. The WARP-CB models provide improved predictions for Corn Belt streams draining watersheds with atrazine-use intensities of 17 kg/km2 of watershed area or greater.

  9. Recent land use change in the Western Corn Belt threatens grasslands and wetlands. (United States)

    Wright, Christopher K; Wimberly, Michael C


    In the US Corn Belt, a recent doubling in commodity prices has created incentives for landowners to convert grassland to corn and soybean cropping. Here, we use land cover data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer to assess grassland conversion from 2006 to 2011 in the Western Corn Belt (WCB): five states including North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Iowa. Our analysis identifies areas with elevated rates of grass-to-corn/soy conversion (1.0-5.4% annually). Across the WCB, we found a net decline in grass-dominated land cover totaling nearly 530,000 ha. With respect to agronomic attributes of lands undergoing grassland conversion, corn/soy production is expanding onto marginal lands characterized by high erosion risk and vulnerability to drought. Grassland conversion is also concentrated in close proximity to wetlands, posing a threat to waterfowl breeding in the Prairie Pothole Region. Longer-term land cover trends from North Dakota and Iowa indicate that recent grassland conversion represents a persistent shift in land use rather than short-term variability in crop rotation patterns. Our results show that the WCB is rapidly moving down a pathway of increased corn and soybean cultivation. As a result, the window of opportunity for realizing the benefits of a biofuel industry based on perennial bioenergy crops, rather than corn ethanol and soy biodiesel, may be closing in the WCB.

  10. Rapid corn and soybean mapping in US Corn Belt and neighboring areas (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Yu, Le; Li, Xuecao; Hu, Lina; Gong, Peng


    The goal of this study was to promptly map the extent of corn and soybeans early in the growing season. A classification experiment was conducted for the US Corn Belt and neighboring states, which is the most important production area of corn and soybeans in the world. To improve the timeliness of the classification algorithm, training was completely based on reference data and images from other years, circumventing the need to finish reference data collection in the current season. To account for interannual variability in crop development in the cross-year classification scenario, several innovative strategies were used. A random forest classifier was used in all tests, and MODIS surface reflectance products from the years 2008–2014 were used for training and cross-year validation. It is concluded that the fuzzy classification approach is necessary to achieve satisfactory results with R-squared ~0.9 (compared with the USDA Cropland Data Layer). The year of training data is an important factor, and it is recommended to select a year with similar crop phenology as the mapping year. With this phenology-based and cross-year-training method, in 2015 we mapped the cropping proportion of corn and soybeans around mid-August, when the two crops just reached peak growth.

  11. Characterizing major agricultural land change trends in the Western Corn Belt (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Taff, Gregory N.; Ren, Jie; Campbell, James B.


    In this study we developed annual corn/soybean maps for the Western Corn Belt within the United States using multi-temporal MODIS NDVI products from 2001 to 2015 to support long-term cropland change analysis. Based on the availability of training data (cropland data layer from the USDA-NASS), we designed a cross-validation scheme for 2006-2015 MODIS data to examine the spatial generalization capability of a neural network classifier. Training data points were derived from a three-state sub-region consisting of North Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa. Trained neural networks were applied to the testing sub-region (South Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota, and Missouri) to generate corn/soybean maps. Using a default threshold value (neural network output signal ⩾ 0.5), the neural networks performed well for South Dakota and Minnesota. Overall accuracy was higher than 80% (kappa > 0.55) for all testing years from 2006 to 2015. However, we observed high variation of classification performance for Kansas (overall accuracy: 0.71-0.82) and Missouri (overall accuracy: 0.65-0.77) for various testing years. We developed a threshold-moving method that decreases/increases threshold values of neural network output signals to match MODIS-derived corn/soybean acreage with the NASS acreage statistics. Over 70% of testing states and years showed improved classification performance compared to the use of a default 0.5 threshold. The largest improvement of kappa value was about 0.08. This threshold-moving method was used to generate MODIS-based annual corn/soybean map products for 2001-2015. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was then used to identify areas that showed significant (p North Dakota, South Dakota, and the west portion of Minnesota. The highest annual increase rate for a 5-km moving window was about 6.8%.

  12. Breeding drought-tolerant maize hybrids for the US corn-belt: discovery to product. (United States)

    Cooper, Mark; Gho, Carla; Leafgren, Roger; Tang, Tom; Messina, Carlos


    Germplasm, genetics, phenotyping, and selection, combined with a clear definition of product targets, are the foundation of successful hybrid maize breeding. Breeding maize hybrids with superior yield for the drought-prone regions of the US corn-belt involves integration of multiple drought-specific technologies together with all of the other technology components that comprise a successful maize hybrid breeding programme. Managed-environment technologies are used to enable scaling of precision phenotyping in appropriate drought environmental conditions to breeding programme level. Genomics and other molecular technologies are used to study trait genetic architecture. Genetic prediction methodology was used to breed for improved yield performance for drought-prone environments. This was enabled by combining precision phenotyping for drought performance with genetic understanding of the traits contributing to successful hybrids in the target drought-prone environments and the availability of molecular markers distributed across the maize genome. Advances in crop growth modelling methodology are being used to evaluate the integrated effects of multiple traits for their combined effects and evaluate drought hybrid product concepts and guide their development and evaluation. Results to date, lessons learned, and future opportunities for further improving the drought tolerance of maize for the US corn-belt are discussed.

  13. Use of the Cropland Data Layer to monitor grassland conversion in the U.S. Western Corn Belt (Invited) (United States)

    Wright, C.; Wimberly, M. C.


    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Cropland Data Layer (CDL) provides new opportunities for monitoring land cover/land use change (LCLUC) related to U.S. agricultural policy, bioenergy development, and recent commodity price increases. We used the CDL to assess the conversion of grasslands to corn/soy cultivation along the western periphery of the U.S. Corn Belt. Here, we find rapid grassland conversion (1-5% annually) as the Corn Belt expands westward and northward into North Dakota and South Dakota. This LCLUC is occurring in close proximity to wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. In most counties in the eastern Dakotas, grassland conversion exceeds declines in land area enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Within the core corn/soy growing area in Iowa and southern Minnesota, LCLUC is occurring on marginal lands characterized by high erosion potential and less-productive soils. In Minnesota, particularly, corn/soy production is increasing on lands previously too wet to farm without an expansion of agricultural drainage practices. Over the period 2006-2011, we estimate a net greenhouse gas impact of grassland conversion in the Western Corn Belt of approximately 4*106 metric tons CO2-equivalent. Although not designed for monitoring grasslands, we suggest that the CDL can be used judiciously to identify grassland conversion at farm- to sub-county scales, and, in conjunction with other national-level datasets (e.g., the National Wetlands Inventory and SSURGO database), to provide timely feedback to policymakers and the public on likely environmental impacts of U.S. agricultural policies and shifting market forces.

  14. Assessment of soil attributes and crop productivity after diversification of the ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Highly specialized cash-grain production systems based upon corn-soybean rotations under tilled soil management are common in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt. This study, initiated in 1997, was conducted to determine if diversification of this ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation would affect soil char...

  15. Growing season temperature and precipitation variability and extremes in the U.S. Corn Belt from 1981 to 2012 (United States)

    Dai, S.; Shulski, M.


    Climate warming and changes in rainfall patterns and increases in extreme events are resulting in higher risks of crop failures. A greater sense of urgency has been induced to understand the impacts of past climate on crop production in the U.S. As one of the most predominant sources of feed grains, corn is also the main source of U.S. ethanol. In the U.S. Corn Belt, region-scale evaluation on temperature and precipitation variability and extremes during the growing season is not well-documented yet. This study is part of the USDA-funded project 'Useful to Usable: Transforming climate variability and change information for cereal crop producers'. The overall goal of our work is to study the characteristics of average growing season conditions and changes in growing season temperature- and precipitation-based indices that are closely correlated with corn grain yield in the U.S. Corn Belt. The research area is the twelve major Corn Belt states, including IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, OH, SD, ND, and WI. Climate data during 1981-2010 from 132 meteorological stations (elevation ranges from 122 m to 1,202 m) are used in this study, including daily minimum, maximum, and mean temperature, and daily precipitation. From 1981 to 2012, beginning date (BD), ending date (ED), and growing season length (GSL) in the climatological corn growing season are studied. Especially, during the agronomic corn growing season, from Apr to Oct, temperature- and precipitation-based indices are analyzed. The temperature-based indices include: number of days with daily mean temperature below 10°C, number of days with daily mean temperature above 30°C, the sum of growing degree days (GDD) between 10°C to 30°C (GDD10,30, growth range for corn), the sum of growing degree days above 30°C (GDD30+, exposure to harmful warming for corn), the sum of growing degree days between 0°C and 44°C (GDD0,44, survival range limits for corn), the sum of growing degree days between 5°C and 35°C (GDD5

  16. Corn Belt soil carbon and macronutrient budgets with projected sustainable stover harvest (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shu-Guang


    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a prime feedstock for biofuel production in the U.S. Corn Belt because of its perceived abundance and availability, but long-term stover harvest effects on regional nutrient budgets have not been evaluated. We defined the minimum stover requirement (MSR) to maintain current soil organic carbon levels and then estimated current and future soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) budgets for various stover harvest scenarios. Analyses for 2006 through 2010 across the entire Corn Belt indicated that currently, 28 Tg or 1.6 Mg ha−1 of stover could be sustainably harvested from 17.95 million hectares (Mha) with N, P, and K removal of 113, 26, and 47 kg ha−1, respectively, and C removal for that period was estimated to be 4.55 Mg C ha−1. Assuming continued yield increases and a planted area of 26.74 Mha in 2050, 77.4 Tg stover (or 2.4 Mg ha−1) could be sustainably harvested with N, P, and K removal of 177, 37, and 72 kg ha−1, respectively, along with C removal of ∼6.57 Mg C ha−1. Although there would be significant variation across the region, harvesting only the excess over the MSR under current fertilization rates would result in a small depletion of soil N (−5 ± 27 kg ha−1) and K (−20 ± 31 kg ha−1) and a moderate surplus of P (36 ± 18 kg ha−1). Our 2050 projections based on continuing to keep the MSR, but having higher yields indicate that soil N and K deficits would become larger, thus emphasize the importance of balancing soil nutrient supply with crop residue removal.

  17. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

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    James R. Angel


    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  18. Linking Resilience Theory and Diffusion of Innovations Theory to Understand the Potential for Perennials in the U.S. Corn Belt

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    Ryan C. Atwell


    Full Text Available In the last 200 yr, more than 80% of the land in the U.S. Corn Belt agro-ecosystem has been converted from natural perennial vegetation to intensive agricultural production of row crops. Despite research showing how re-integration of perennial vegetation, e.g., cover crops, pasture, riparian buffers, and restored wetlands, at strategic landscape positions can bolster declining regional ecosystem functions, the amount of land area devoted to row crop production in the Corn Belt continues to increase. As this region enters a time of fast-paced and uncertain reorganization driven by the emerging bioeconomy, changes in land use will continue to take place that will impact the resilience of the Corn Belt's linked social and ecological systems for years to come. Both resilience theory and the diffusion of innovations theory investigate how change is brought about in systems through the adaptation and innovation of social actors. In this paper, we integrate these two frameworks in the analysis of 33 in-depth interviews to improve our understanding of how rural Corn Belt stakeholders make conservation decisions in the midst of an uncertain future. Interview data indicate that the adoption of conservation practices is based not only on immediate profitability but also on the interplay between contextual factors at three distinct levels of the system: compatibility with farm priorities, profitability, practices, and technologies; community-level reinforcement through local social networks, norms, and support structures; and consistent, straightforward, flexible, and well-targeted incentives and regulations issuing from regional institutions. Interviewees suggest that the multiscale drivers that currently support the continued expansion of row crop production could be realigned with conservation objectives in landscapes of the future. Adaptation of social actors through collaborative learning at the community level may be instrumental in brokering the sort

  19. Crop and Soil Responses to Using Corn Stover as a Bioenergy Feedstock: Observations from the Northern US Corn Belt

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    Jane M. F. Johnson


    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. stover is a potential bioenergy feedstock, but little is known about the impacts of reducing stover return on yield and soil quality in the Northern US Corn Belt. Our study objectives were to measure the impact of three stover return rates (Full (~7.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1, Moderate (~3.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or Low (~1.5 Mg ha yr−1 Return on corn and soybean (Glycine max. L [Merr.] yields and on soil dynamic properties on a chisel-tilled (Chisel field, and well- (NT1995 or newly- (NT2005 established no-till managed fields. Stover return rate did not affect corn and soybean yields except under NT1995 where Low Return (2.88 Mg ha−1 reduced yields compared with Full and Moderate Return (3.13 Mg ha−1. In NT1995 at 0–5 cm depth, particulate organic matter in Full Return and Moderate Return (14.3 g kg−1 exceeded Low Return (11.3 g kg−1. In NT2005, acid phosphatase activity was reduced about 20% in Low Return compared to Full Return. Also the Low Return had an increase in erodible-sized dry aggregates at the soil surface compared to Full Return. Three or fewer cycles of stover treatments revealed little evidence for short-term impacts on crop yield, but detected subtle soil changes that indicate repeated harvests may have negative consequences if stover removed.

  20. Environmental Impacts of Stover Removal in the Corn Belt

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    Alicia English; Wallace E. Tyner; Juan Sesmero; Phillip Owens; David Muth


    When considering the market for biomass from corn stover resources erosion and soil quality issues are important to consider. Removal of stover can be beneficial in some areas, especially when coordinated with other conservation practices, such as vegetative barrier strips and cover crops. However, benefits are highly dependent on several factors, namely if farmers see costs and benefits associated with erosion and the tradeoffs with the removal of biomass. This paper uses results from an integrated RUSLE2/WEPS model to incorporate six different regime choices, covering management, harvest and conservation, into simple profit maximization model to show these tradeoffs.

  1. La concentración de la agricultura entre 1937 y 1988: El Corn Belt y la pampa maicera argentina

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    Javier Balsa


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo comparamos la evolución del tamaño de las explotaciones agropecuarias y de la superficie que controlaban, en el Corn Belt norteamericano y la zona predominantemente agrícola de la pampa argentina. En primer lugar, cotejamos las estructuras para fines de los años treinta y, luego, analizamos su evolución durante los siguientes cincuenta años. Para ello trabajamos no sólo con la información censal, sino con los informes técnicos de las estaciones experimentales de ambas regiones. Por último, incorporamos algunas hipótesis sobre los diversos factores que pudieron haber incidido sobre el proceso de concentración.This article compares the evolution of farm size and the acreage they occupied in U.S.' Corn Belt and the Agricultural Zone of the Argentine Pampas. The first part devotes to the contrast between both regions in the late thirties. Then, there is an analysis of their evolution during the following fifty years. Along with census data, technical reports of the Agricultural Experiment Stations of both regions were used. Finally, some hypotheses dealing with the factors that could have influenced in the concentration process were introduced.

  2. When it Rains, It Pours: Drought, Excess Water, and Agricultural Risk Management in the U.S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Baker, J. M.; Anderson, M. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Kustas, W.; Schultz, N. M.


    Ever since its inception agriculture has been a risky proposition, with yields subject to losses from insects, diseases, weeds, and weather anomalies. The transition from subsistence farming to production agriculture motivated research that eventually provided tools to combat some of the traditional sources of risk, particularly pests. However, weather-related risk remains resistant to mitigation, except in cases where there has been a fundamental alteration of lands otherwise unsuited for agriculture, e.g. - irrigation of arid lands and drainage of swamps. We have undertaken a multi-faceted analysis of potential avenues to reduce weather-related risk in the central U.S. corn belt, focusing on MN, IA, IL, IN, and OH. Mean annual precipitation has increased across the region over the past 60 years, and mean stream flows have increased as much or more, indicating relatively stable ET. The precipitation increase is consistent with changes predicted by GCMs for the region, while the stable (and even decreasing) regional ET primarily reflects changes in farming, particularly an increase in soybean acreage at the expense of permanent pasture. Unfortunately, the observed increases in precipitation are primarily associated with an increase in spatially and temporally isolated high intensity storms, so transient drought remains a problem. Indeed, analysis of crop insurance indemnities in recent years for the region reveals nearly equal yield losses due to drought and excess water, each totaling roughly $3 billion USD between 2000 and 2011, and jointly accounting for more than two thirds of all payments. County level mapping shows that losses from both causes occur throughout the corn belt, often in the same county in the same year. The ALEXI model, which provides continental-scale estimates of ET on a 10 km grid, was used to map ET anomalies across the region for the same time period. Correspondence between ALEXI output and insurance loss data was reasonably good in drought

  3. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt

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    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)


    The ultimate economic feasibility of biomass depends on its cost of production and on the cost of competing fuels. The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the production costs of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass for energy use in Iowa. Herbaceous biomass production systems have costs similar to other crop production systems, such as corn, soybean, and forages. Thus, the factors influencing the costs of producing dedicated biomass energy crops include technological factors such as the cultivation system, species, treatments, soil type, and site and economic factors such as input prices and use of fixed resources. In order to investigate how these production alternatives are influenced by soil resources, and climate conditions, two locations in Iowa, Ames and Chariton, with different soil types and slightly different weather patterns were selected for both the agronomic and economic analyses. Nine crops in thirteen cropping systems were grown at the two sites for five years, from 1988 to 1992. Some of the systems had multiple cropping or interplanting, using combinations of cool-season species and warm-season species, in order to meet multiple objectives of maximum biomass, minimal soil loss, reduced nitrogen fertilization or diminished pesticide inputs. Six of the systems use continuous monocropping of herbaceous crops with an emphasis on production. The seven other systems consist of similar crops, but with crop rotation and soil conservation considerations. While the erosion and other off-site effects of these systems is an important consideration in their overall evaluation, this report will concentrate on direct production costs only.

  4. Investigation of the N2O emission strength in the U. S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Fu, Congsheng; Lee, Xuhui; Griffis, Timothy J.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Andrews, Arlyn E.


    Nitrous oxide (N2O) has a high global warming potential and depletes stratospheric ozone. The U. S. Corn Belt plays an important role in the global anthropogenic N2O budget. To date, studies on local surface N2O emissions and the atmospheric N2O budget have commonly used Lagrangian models. In the present study, we used an Eulerian model - Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model to investigate the relationships between N2O emissions in the Corn Belt and observed atmospheric N2O mixing ratios. We derived a simple equation to relate the emission strengths to atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, and used the derived equation and hourly atmospheric N2O measurements at the KCMP tall tower in Minnesota to constrain agricultural N2O emissions. The modeled spatial patterns of atmospheric N2O were evaluated against discrete observations at multiple tall towers in the NOAA flask network. After optimization of the surface flux, the model reproduced reasonably well the hourly N2O mixing ratios monitored at the KCMP tower. Agricultural N2O emissions in the EDGAR42 database needed to be scaled up by 19.0 to 28.1 fold to represent the true emissions in the Corn Belt for June 1-20, 2010 - a peak emission period. Optimized mean N2O emissions were 3.00-4.38, 1.52-2.08, 0.61-0.81 and 0.56-0.75 nmol m- 2 s- 1 for June 1-20, August 1-20, October 1-20 and December 1-20, 2010, respectively. The simulated spatial patterns of atmospheric N2O mixing ratios after optimization were in good agreement with the NOAA discrete observations during the strong emission peak in June. Such spatial patterns suggest that the underestimate of emissions using IPCC (Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change) inventory methodology is not dependent on tower measurement location.

  5. Trends in Pesticide Concentrations in Corn-Belt Streams, 1996-2006 (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Lorenz, David L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Martin, Jeffrey D.


    Trends in the concentrations of commonly occurring pesticides in the Corn Belt of the United States were assessed, and the performance and application of several statistical methods for trend analysis were evaluated. Trends in the concentrations of 11 pesticides with sufficient data for trend assessment were assessed at up to 31 stream sites for two time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Pesticides included in the trend analyses were atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, alachlor, cyanazine, EPTC, simazine, metribuzin, prometon, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon. The statistical methods applied and compared were (1) a modified version of the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test (SEAKEN), (2) a modified version of the Regional Kendall test, (3) a parametric regression model with seasonal wave (SEAWAVE), and (4) a version of SEAWAVE with adjustment for streamflow (SEAWAVE-Q). The SEAKEN test is a statistical hypothesis test for detecting monotonic trends in seasonal time-series data such as pesticide concentrations at a particular site. Trends across a region, represented by multiple sites, were evaluated using the regional seasonal Kendall test, which computes a test for an overall trend within a region by computing a score for each season at each site and adding the scores to compute the total for the region. The SEAWAVE model is a parametric regression model specifically designed for analyzing seasonal variability and trends in pesticide concentrations. The SEAWAVE-Q model accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic trends from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. There was broad, general agreement between unadjusted trends (no adjustment for streamflow effects) identified by the SEAKEN and SEAWAVE methods, including the regional seasonal Kendall test. Only about 10 percent of the paired comparisons between SEAKEN and SEAWAVE indicated a difference in the direction of trend, and none of these had

  6. Tweak, Adapt, or Transform: Policy Scenarios in Response to Emerging Bioenergy Markets in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M. Westphal


    Full Text Available Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios. Analysis of workshop and interview data, in conjunction with the results of regional social and ecological research, was used to develop a heuristic model outlining interactions between key drivers and outcomes of regional landscape change. Three policy scenarios were built on this framework and included the following approaches: tweak, adapt, and transform. Our results suggest that if macroscale markets, technologies, and federal farm policies are allowed to be the overriding drivers of farm owner and operator decision making, Iowa's agricultural landscapes will likely become highly efficient at row crop production at the cost of other desired outcomes. However, the perspectives of Iowa leaders demonstrate how multifunctional agricultural landscapes can be achieved through a concerted portfolio of change coordinated across local, regional, and national scales.

  7. Reducing nitrogen export from the corn belt to the Gulf of Mexico: agricultural strategies for remediating hypoxia (United States)

    McLellan, Eileen; Robertson, Dale M.; Schilling, Keith; Tomer, Mark; Kostel, Jill; Smith, Douglas G.; King, Kevin


    SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed models developed for the Upper Midwest were used to help evaluate the nitrogen-load reductions likely to be achieved by a variety of agricultural conservation practices in the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin (UMORB) and to compare these reductions to the 45% nitrogen-load reduction proposed to remediate hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Our results indicate that nitrogen-management practices (improved fertilizer management and cover crops) fall short of achieving this goal, even if adopted on all cropland in the region. The goal of a 45% decrease in loads to the GoM can only be achieved through the coupling of nitrogen-management practices with innovative nitrogen-removal practices such as tile-drainage treatment wetlands, drainage–ditch enhancements, stream-channel restoration, and floodplain reconnection. Combining nitrogen-management practices with nitrogen-removal practices can dramatically reduce nutrient export from agricultural landscapes while minimizing impacts to agricultural production. With this approach, it may be possible to meet the 45% nutrient reduction goal while converting less than 1% of cropland in the UMORB to nitrogen-removal practices. Conservationists, policy makers, and agricultural producers seeking a workable strategy to reduce nitrogen export from the Corn Belt will need to consider a combination of nitrogen-management practices at the field scale and diverse nitrogen-removal practices at the landscape scale.

  8. Cover cropping to reduce nitrate loss through subsurface drainage in the northern U.S. corn belt. (United States)

    Strock, J S; Porter, P M; Russelle, M P


    Despite the use of best management practices for nitrogen (N) application rate and timing, significant losses of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) in drainage discharge continue to occur from row crop cropping systems. Our objective was to determine whether a autumn-seeded winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop following corn (Zea mays L.) would reduce NO3(-)-N losses through subsurface tile drainage in a corn-soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.] cropping system in the northern Corn Belt (USA) in a moderately well-drained soil. Both phases of the corn-soybean rotation, with and without the winter rye cover crop following corn, were established in 1998 in a Normania clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Haplustoll) soil at Lamberton, MN. Cover cropping did not affect subsequent soybean yield, but reduced drainage discharge, flow-weighted mean nitrate concentration (FWMNC), and NO3(-)-N loss relative to winter fallow, although the magnitude of the effect varied considerably with annual precipitation. Three-year average drainage discharge was lower with a winter rye cover crop than without (p = 0.06). Over three years, subsurface tile-drainage discharge was reduced 11% and NO3(-)-N loss was reduced 13% for a corn-soybean cropping system with a rye cover crop following corn than with no rye cover crop. We estimate that establishment of a winter rye cover crop after corn will be successful in one of four years in southwestern Minnesota. Cover cropping with rye has the potential to be an effective management tool for reducing NO3(-)-N loss from subsurface drainage discharge despite challenges to establishment and spring growth in the north-central USA.

  9. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  10. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt? (United States)

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W


    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Mapping the decision points and climate information use of agricultural producers across the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Haigh


    Full Text Available The usefulness of climate information for agricultural risk management hinges on its availability and relevance to the producer when climate-sensitive decisions are being made. Climate information providers are challenged with the task of balancing forecast availability and lead time with acceptable forecast skill, which requires an improved understanding of the timing of agricultural decision making. Achieving a useful balance may also require an expansion of inquiry to include use of non-forecast climate information (i.e. historical climate information in agricultural decision making. Decision calendars have proven valuable for identifying opportunities for using different types of climate information. The extent to which decision-making time periods are localized versus generalized across major commodity-producing regions is yet unknown, though, which has limited their use in climate product development. Based on a 2012 survey of more than 4770 agricultural producers across the U.S. Corn Belt region, we found variation in the timing of decision-making points in the crop year based on geographic variation as well as crop management differences. Many key decisions in the cropping year take place during the preceding fall and winter, months before planting, raising questions about types of climate information that might be best inserted into risk management decisions at that time. We found that historical climate information and long term climate outlooks are less influential in agricultural risk management than current weather, short term forecasts, or monthly climate projections, even though they may, in fact, be more useful to certain types of decision making.

  12. An Analysis of the Climate Change Mitigation Potential through Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in a Corn Belt Watershed. (United States)

    Bhattarai, Mukesh Dev; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin


    Land-based carbon sequestration constitutes a major low cost and immediately viable option in climate change mitigation. Using downscaled data from eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models for a simulation period between 2015 and 2099, we examine the carbon sequestration potential of alternative agricultural land uses in an intensively farmed Corn Belt watershed and the impact of climate change on crop yields. Our results show that switching from conventional tillage continuous corn to no-till corn-soybean can sequester the equivalent of 192.1 MtCO2 eq of soil organic carbon per hectare with a sequestration rate of 2.26 MtCO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1). Our results also indicate that switchgrass can sequester the equivalent of 310.7 MtCO2 eq of soil organic carbon per hectare with a sequestration rate of 3.65 MtCO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1). Our findings suggest that, unlike for corn and soybean yields, climate change does not have a significant effect on switchgrass yields, possibly due to the carbon fertilization effect.

  13. An Analysis of the Climate Change Mitigation Potential through Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in a Corn Belt Watershed (United States)

    Bhattarai, Mukesh Dev; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin


    Land-based carbon sequestration constitutes a major low cost and immediately viable option in climate change mitigation. Using downscaled data from eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models for a simulation period between 2015 and 2099, we examine the carbon sequestration potential of alternative agricultural land uses in an intensively farmed Corn Belt watershed and the impact of climate change on crop yields. Our results show that switching from conventional tillage continuous corn to no-till corn-soybean can sequester the equivalent of 192.1 MtCO2 eq of soil organic carbon per hectare with a sequestration rate of 2.26 MtCO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. Our results also indicate that switchgrass can sequester the equivalent of 310.7 MtCO2 eq of soil organic carbon per hectare with a sequestration rate of 3.65 MtCO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. Our findings suggest that, unlike for corn and soybean yields, climate change does not have a significant effect on switchgrass yields, possibly due to the carbon fertilization effect.

  14. The asteroid belt outer region under jumping-Jupiter migration (United States)

    Gaspar, H. S.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.


    The radial configuration of the outer region of the main asteroid belt is quite peculiar, and has much to say about the past evolution of Jupiter. In this work, we investigate the dynamical effects of a jumping-Jupiter-like migration over a more extended primordial asteroid belt. Jupiter's migrations are simulated using a fast jumping-Jupiter synthesizer. Among the results, we highlight non-negligible fractions of primordial objects trapped in 3:2 and 4:3 mean motion resonances (MMRs) with Jupiter. They survived the whole truculent phase of migration and originated populations that are like Hildas and Thules. Fractions ranging from 3 to 6 per cent of the initial distribution remained trapped in 3:2 MMR, and at least 0.05 per cent in 4:3. These results show that the resonance trapping of primordial objects may have originated these resonant populations. This theory is consistent even for Jupiter's truculent evolution.


    Random surveys of 174 headwater streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP) and 110 third-order streams in the Midwest Corn Belt (MCB) were conducted in 2000 and 2004, respectively in two cooperative research studies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geolo...

  16. Using MODIS Data to Predict Regional Corn Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Young Ban


    Full Text Available A simple approach was developed to predict corn yields using the MoDerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data product from two geographically separate major corn crop production regions: Illinois, USA and Heilongjiang, China. The MOD09A1 data, which are eight-day interval surface reflectance data, were obtained from day of the year (DOY 89 to 337 to calculate the leaf area index (LAI. The sum of the LAI from early in the season to a given date in the season (end of DOY (EOD was well fitted to a logistic function and represented seasonal changes in leaf area duration (LAD. A simple phenology model was derived to estimate the dates of emergence and maturity using the LAD-logistic function parameters b1 and b2, which represented the rate of increase in LAI and the date of maximum LAI, respectively. The phenology model predicted emergence and maturity dates fairly well, with root mean square error (RMSE values of 6.3 and 4.9 days for the validation dataset, respectively. Two simple linear regression models (YP and YF were established using LAD as the variable to predict corn yield. The yield model YP used LAD from predicted emergence to maturity, and the yield model YF used LAD for a predetermined period from DOY 89 to a particular EOD. When state/province corn yields for the validation dataset were predicted at DOY 321, near completion of the corn harvest, the YP model, including the predicted phenology, performed much better than the YF model, with RMSE values of 0.68 t/ha and 0.66 t/ha for Illinois and Heilongjiang, respectively. The YP model showed similar or better performance, even for the much earlier pre-harvest yield prediction at DOY 257. In addition, the model performance showed no difference between the two study regions with very different climates and cultivation methods, including cultivar and irrigation management. These results suggested that the approach described in this paper has potential for application to

  17. Regional SOC inventory in the Belgian loam belt (United States)

    Stevens, F.; Bogaert, P.; van Wesemael, B.


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest component of the terrestrial carbon pool and plays a vital role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC dynamics in intensively cultivated landscapes. The general objective of the research is to improve the regional SOC dynamics by taking into account the lateral fluxes of sediments and carbon. The study focuses on the croplands of the Belgian loam belt. The first part of the project consists in constructing a 3-dimensional SOC map from soil profile description and ancillary environmental data. A georeferenced soil database provided soil profile description and analyses across the entire Belgian loam belt. A Monte Carlo method was used to account for the uncertainty in the reported SOC content of each horizon. Different methods permitting to construct continuous distribution of SOC density from bulk horizon measurements were compared. Properties that best characterized the erosion-accumulation pattern in the region were searched in the profile description database. Different topographic indices were computed from digital elevation models to assess the influence of the topography on the SOC distribution. A linear regression analysis was conducted in order to predict the SOC spatial distribution at different depth intervals from soil and terrain properties. Using the resulting model, maps of SOC and other soil properties at different depths, and representative of the situation in ~1960, will be constructed. The total uncertainty will be assessed and the main sources of uncertainty determined. These maps could be used as input data for a processed-based model coupling lateral fluxes of sediment and carbon turnover.

  18. Technical Efficiency of Corn Production in Main Producing Region in China Based on DEA-Tobit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Panel Data of corn production in 11 provinces are analyzed, such as Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Hubei and Sichuan. Based on the CRS, VRS and Malmquist exponential models of DEA, technical efficiency of corn production is measured in main producing region by DEA-Tobit. And its influencing factors are analyzed. Result shows that corn production in main producing areas is mainly scale inefficiency and is at the stage of decreasing returns to scale. Pure technical efficiency of corn production is effective in most main producing regions. Total Factor Productivity of corn production is improved in main producing regions, because the speed of technical progress is greater than the speed of efficiency reduction. In the years 1998-2008, corn production in main producing regions is rational in structure and is not affected by the natural disasters.

  19. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.


    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  20. Fluxes of dissolved organic matter and mineral weathering products from Corn Belt landscapes dominated by subsurface drainage: large-scale soil and hydrologic change (United States)

    Jelinski, N. A.; Yoo, K.; Strock, J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Finlay, J. C.


    The human alteration of agricultural landscapes is one of the most important factors in pedologic and geomorphic change, and can influence hydrology and aquatic chemistry at large scales. Most of the Midwestern Corn Belt that is currently dominated by subsurface tile drainage (such as southern Minnesota) was historically prairie and wetland which had hydrologic flow-paths through organic-rich surface soil horizons, a condition that favored the export of dissolved organic matter. When hydrology is altered through subsurface drainage, adsorption of organic materials to mineral surfaces and increases in mineral weathering may result because more water is flowing through subsurface mineral soils. We suggest that the alteration of hydrologic flowpaths in agricultural landscapes can dramatically alter the rate of mineral weathering as well as surface export of weathering products and dissolved organic matter. This could be at least one contributing factor to observed increases in Mississippi River alkalinity over the past four decades. Here, we examine trends in dissolved organic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen, total suspended solids, and indicators of mineral weathering (Si, Ca, Na, K) from subsurface drainage systems located in southwestern MN. Then, using a simple conceptual model, we estimate the effects of subsurface drainage on the regional fluxes of these parameters and present directions for future research.

  1. Estimation of Daily Air Temperature Based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products over the Corn Belt in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglin Zeng


    Full Text Available Air temperature (Ta is a key input in a wide range of agroclimatic applications. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Ts (Land Surface Temperature (LST products are widely used to estimate daily Ta. However, only daytime LST (Ts-day or nighttime LST (Ts-night data have been used to estimate Tmax/Tmin (daily maximum or minimum air temperature, respectively. The relationship between Tmax and Ts-night, and the one between Tmin and Ts-day has not been studied. In this study, both the ability of Ts-night data to estimate Tmax and the ability of Ts-day data to estimate Tmin were tested and studied in the Corn Belt during the growing season (May–September from 2008 to 2012, using MODIS daily LST products from both Terra and Aqua. The results show that using Ts-night for estimating Tmax could result in a higher accuracy than using Ts-day for a similar estimate. Combining Ts-day and Ts-night, the estimation of Tmax was improved by 0.19–1.85, 0.37–1.12 and 0.26–0.93 °C for crops, deciduous forest and developed areas, respectively, when compared with using only Ts-day or Ts-night data. The main factors influencing the Ta estimation errors spatially and temporally were analyzed and discussed, such as satellite overpassing time, air masses, irrigation, etc.

  2. Contribution of landfalling tropical system rainfall to the hydroclimate of the eastern U.S. Corn Belt 1981–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Kellner


    Landfalling tropical system rainfall accounts for approximately 20% of the observed monthly rainfall during the tropical storm season (June–November across the eastern U.S. Corn Belt (1981–2012. Correlation between the annual number of landfalling tropical systems and annual yield by state results in no relationship, but correlation of August monthly observed rainfall by climate division to crop reporting district annual yields has a weak to moderate, statistically significant correlation in Ohio districts 30–60 and Indiana CRD 90. ANOVA analysis suggests that landfalling tropical rainfall may actually reduce yields in some state's climate divisions/crop reporting districts while increasing yield in others. Results suggest that there is a balance between landfalling tropical storms providing sufficient rainfall or too much rainfall to be of benefit to crops. Findings aim to provide information to producers, crop advisers, risk managers and commodity groups so that seasonal hurricane forecasts can potentially be utilized in planning for above or below normal precipitation during phenologically important portions of the growing season.

  3. Cortical connections of auditory cortex in marmoset monkeys: lateral belt and parabelt regions


    de la Mothe, Lisa A.; Blumell, Suzanne; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Hackett, Troy A.


    The current working model of primate auditory cortex is constructed from a number of studies of both New and Old World monkeys. It includes three levels of processing. A primary level, the core region, is surrounded both medially and laterally by a secondary belt region. A third level of processing, the parabelt region, is located lateral to the belt. The marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) has become an important model system to study auditory processing, but its anatomical organiza...

  4. The Relative Deep Penetrations of Energetic Electrons and Ions into the Slot Region and Inner Belt (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.


    Energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere are distributed into two regions: the inner radiation belt and the outer radiation belt, with the slot region in between separating the two belts. Though many studies have focused on the outer belt dynamics, the energetic electrons in the slot region and especially inner belt did not receive much attention until recently. A number of new features regarding electrons in the low L region have been reported lately, including the abundance of 10s-100s of keV electrons in the inner belt, the frequent deep injections of 100s of keV electrons, and 90°-minimum pitch angle distributions of 100s of keV electrons in the inner belt and slot region. In this presentation, we focus on the relative deep injections into the slot region and inner belt of energetic electrons and ions using observations from HOPE and MagEIS instruments on the Van Allen Probes. It is shown that while 10s - 100s of keV electrons penetrate commonly deep into the low L region and are persistent in the inner belt, the deep injections of ions with similar energies occur rarely, possibly due to the fast loss of ions in the low L region. The energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons and ions during injections are also very different, indicating the existence of different physical mechanisms acting on them. In addition, some intriguing similarities between lower energy ions and higher energy electrons will also be discussed.

  5. Winter cover crops impact on corn production in semiarid regions (United States)

    Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the impact of winter brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...

  6. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charles G.


    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  7. Cortical connections of auditory cortex in marmoset monkeys: lateral belt and parabelt regions. (United States)

    de la Mothe, Lisa A; Blumell, Suzanne; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Hackett, Troy A


    The current working model of primate auditory cortex is constructed from a number of studies of both new and old world monkeys. It includes three levels of processing. A primary level, the core region, is surrounded both medially and laterally by a secondary belt region. A third level of processing, the parabelt region, is located lateral to the belt. The marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) has become an important model system to study auditory processing, but its anatomical organization has not been fully established. In previous studies, we focused on the architecture and connections of the core and medial belt areas (de la Mothe et al., 2006a, J Comp Neurol 496:27-71; de la Mothe et al., 2006b, J Comp Neurol 496:72-96). In this study, the corticocortical connections of the lateral belt and parabelt were examined in the marmoset. Tracers were injected into both rostral and caudal portions of the lateral belt and parabelt. Both regions revealed topographic connections along the rostrocaudal axis, where caudal areas of injection had stronger connections with caudal areas, and rostral areas of injection with rostral areas. The lateral belt had strong connections with the core, belt, and parabelt, whereas the parabelt had strong connections with the belt but not the core. Label in the core from injections in the parabelt was significantly reduced or absent, consistent with the idea that the parabelt relies mainly on the belt for its cortical input. In addition, the present and previous studies indicate hierarchical principles of anatomical organization in the marmoset that are consistent with those observed in other primates.

  8. Which regional features of Danish agriculture favour the corn bunting in the contemporary farming landscape?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning


    Corn buntings Miliaria calandra were abundant throughout arable agricultural landscapes in Europe, but have catastrophically declined since the mid 1970s with changes in farming practice and now give serious conservation cause for concern. Corn buntings declined in Denmark during 1976......-1993, but (almost unique in Europe) have since increased (by up to 11% per annum) in some areas without specific conservation recovery actions. Based on breeding bird surveys in the mid 1990s, highest corn bunting densities occurred on mixed agriculture in west Denmark (Jylland); the species was rarer or absent...... in regions of highest arable land cover. Corn bunting density and extent of rotational and permanent grassland were correlated, but not with spring sown barley (all known to constitute important corn bunting winter habitat). The extent of spring barley rapidly declined in Denmark during the 1980s, but since...

  9. Which regional features of Danish agriculture favour the corn bunting in the contemporary farming landscape?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning


    Corn buntings Miliaria calandra were abundant throughout arable agricultural landscapes in Europe, but have catastrophically declined since the mid 1970s with changes in farming practice and now give serious conservation cause for concern. Corn buntings declined in Denmark during 1976......-1993, but (almost unique in Europe) have since increased (by up to 11% per annum) in some areas without specific conservation recovery actions. Based on breeding bird surveys in the mid 1990s, highest corn bunting densities occurred on mixed agriculture in west Denmark (Jylland); the species was rarer or absent...... in regions of highest arable land cover. Corn bunting density and extent of rotational and permanent grassland were correlated, but not with spring sown barley (all known to constitute important corn bunting winter habitat). The extent of spring barley rapidly declined in Denmark during the 1980s, but since...

  10. Three Alkali-Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Newly Discovered in the Mt. Kunlun-Mt. Altun Region, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 毕华; 王中刚


    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt. Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive rock belt,the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt. The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period, and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period, which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China. The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  11. Three Alkali—Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Bewly Discovered in the Mt.Kunlkun—Mt.Altun Region,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 等


    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt.Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive fock belt, the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beeilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt.The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period,and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period,which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China.The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  12. Cross-border cooperation in the Fehmarn Belt Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document......Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document...

  13. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.


    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  14. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey III. The Orion region

    CERN Document Server

    Kounkel, Marina; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Dzib, Sergio A; Ortiz-León, Gisela N; Rodríguez, Luis F; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L; Torres, Rosa M; Boden, Andrew F; Evans, Neal J II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John


    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 $\\mu$Jy), large-scale (2.26 square degree) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for followup VLBA radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  15. Comparison of the production, economic returns, and energy intensiveness of corn belt farms that do and do not use inorganic fertilizers and pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockeretz, W.; Klepper, R.; Commoner, B.; Gertler, M.; Fast, S.; O' Leary, D.; Blobaum, R.


    This report compares crop production on a sample of 16 mixed crop-livestock farms in the Corn Belt on which no inorganic fertilizers and almost no pesticides are used, to that of a matched sample that uses conventional fertilization and pest control practices. In the 1974 crop year, the market value of the crops raised per acre was slightly higher on the conventional sample (an average of 8 percent), but this difference was not statistically significant at the 90 percent probability level. There was no difference between the two groups' crop production returns, that is, value of production less operating costs. The operating costs on the conventional farms were greater for fertilization and pest control, but other costs were about equal for the two samples. The energy intensiveness (defined as energy input divided by value of production) on the farms that do not use fertilizers is an average of one-third as much as that of the conventional group. This difference arises almost entirely from the latters' use of energy-intensive fertilizers, primarily anhydrous ammonia and other forms of nitrogen. (auth)

  16. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  17. Investigations of garnets from polymetamorphic rocks of the Lapland Granulite Belt of the Kandalaksha Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz A. Huber


    Full Text Available Introduction: The Lapland Granulite Belt is placed on the Kandalaksha region (Kola Peninsula, Russia. The rocks of this Belt are composed mainly of amphibolites and granulites.Materials and methods: The research were focused on the garnets from the amphibolite and granulite rocks of Lapland Granulite Belt. The petrological methods like polarizing microscopy (PM, SEM-EDS, XRD for powdered samples and single crystal diffraction were used together with IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy and REE analysis by ion–microprobe.Results: It was found that the garnets from studied amphibolite and granulite rocks could be classified to pyralspite group without hydrogarnets components, so they were formed in high metamorphic facies.Conclusions: The joint geological observations and results of the performed experiments suggest that the garnets were subject of a blastesy, i.e. there were formed in long lasting metamorphic processes of low dynamics, except of those garnets from tectonic zones, found in the vicinity of mineral veins.

  18. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: First results from SCUBA-2 observations of the Cepheus Flare Region

    CERN Document Server

    Pattle, Kate; Kirk, Jason M; Di Francesco, James; Kirk, Helen; Mottram, Joseph C; Keown, Jared; Buckle, Jane; Beaulieu, Sylvie F; Berry, David S; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Currie, Malcolm J; Fich, Michel; Hatchell, Jenny; Jenness, Tim; Johnstone, Doug; Nutter, David; Pineda, Jaime E; Quinn, Ciera; Salji, Carl; Tisi, Sam; Walker-Smith, Samantha; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Bastien, Pierre; Bresnahan, David; Butner, Harold; Chen, Mike; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Coudé, Simon; Davis, Chris J; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Duarte-Cabral, Ana; Fiege, Jason; Friberg, Per; Friesen, Rachel; Fuller, Gary A; Graves, Sarah; Greaves, Jane; Gregson, Jonathan; Holland, Wayne; Joncas, Gilles; Knee, Lewis B G; Mairs, Steve; Marsh, Ken; Matthews, Brenda C; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald; Mowat, Chris; Rawlings, Jonathan; Richer, John; Robertson, Damien; Rosolowsky, Erik; Rumble, Damian; Sadavoy, Sarah; Thomas, Holly; Tothill, Nick; Viti, Serena; White, Glenn J; Wouterloot, Jan; Yates, Jeremy; Zhu, Ming


    We present observations of the Cepheus Flare obtained as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Legacy Survey (GBLS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We produce a catalogue of sources found by SCUBA-2, and separate these into starless cores and protostars. We determine masses and densities for each of our sources, using source temperatures determined by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. We compare the properties of starless cores in four different molecular clouds: L1147/58, L1172/74, L1251 and L1228. We find that the core mass functions for each region typically show shallower-than-Salpeter behaviour. We find that L1147/58 and L1228 have a high ratio of starless cores to Class II protostars, while L1251 and L1174 have a low ratio, consistent with the latter regions being more active sites of current star formation, while the former are forming stars less actively. We determine that, if modelled as thermally-supported Bonnor-Ebert spheres, most of our cores have stable configurations accessible...

  19. How to build multifunctional agricultural landscapes in the U.S corn belt: add perennials and partnerships (United States)

    Ryan C. Atwell; Lisa A. Schulte; Lynne M. Westphal


    Conservation of ecosystem services in agricultural regions worldwide is foundational to, but often perceived to be in competition with, other societal outcomes, including food and energy production and thriving rural communities. To address this tension, we engaged regional leaders in agriculture, conservation, and policy from the state of Iowa (USA) in a participatory...

  20. Long-Term Variations of the Electron Slot Region and Global Radiation Belt Structure (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.; Shao, Xi; Tan, Lun C.


    We report the observations of changes of the nominal position of the quiet-time radiation belt slot over the solar cycles. It has been found that the slot region, believed to be a result of enhanced precipitation losses of energetic electrons due to their interactions with VLF waves in the magnetosphere, tends to shift to higher L (approximately 3) during a solar maximum compared to its canonical L value of approximately 2.5, which is more typical of a solar minimum. The solar-cycle migration of the slot can be understood in terms of the solar-cycle changes in ionospheric densities, which may cause the optimal wave-particle interaction region during higher solar activity periods to move to higher altitudes and higher latitudes, thus higher L. Our analysis also suggests that the primary wave-particle interaction processes that result in the slot formation are located off of the magnetic equator.

  1. The Gould's Belt very large array survey. III. The Orion region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radiostronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)


    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg{sup 2}) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  2. Thermal structure of pumpellyite-actinolite facies regions in the Sanbagawa belt, Shikoku, SW Japan (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M.


    On the basis of the mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks, the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku, SW Japan, has been divided, from low- to high-grade parts, into the chlorite, garnet, albite-biotite and oligoclase-biotite zones (Higashino, 1990). Also, the mineral assemblage of pumpellyite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite or epidote + actinolite + hematite + chlorite, which defines the pumpellyite-actinolite (PA) facies (e.g., Banno, 1998), is widely recognized in metabasites in the chlorite zone (e.g. Banno & Sakai, 1989). However, the detailed study on the PA facies regions has been done only in the Omoiji-Nagasawa area (Nakajima et al., 1977) and Asemigawa-Shirataki area (Nakajima, 1982) in central Shikoku, and thus, it is still hard to solve the regional thermal structure of the PA facies region. This study is aimed to reveal the thermal structure of the PA facies region of the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku by analyzing the mineral assemblages and mineral chemistries of metabasites from the nine newly studied areas. The studied areas studied belong to the chlorite zone in the Oboke and Besshi units; the Oboke unit structurally underlay the Besshi unit. The mineral assemblages include pumpellyite + epidote + actinolite, epidote + actinolite _ hematite and epidote + Na-amphibole + actinolite + hematite. The metabasites from some areas involve Na-pyroxene-bearing assemblages, but the analyses of the Schreinemakers bundle of Tagiri et al. (1992) show that these assemblages do not define the Na-pyroxene-chlorite subfacies. As the low-grade metamorphic rocks do not have the hematite + pumpellyite paragenesis, its metamorphic temperature is estimated to be higher than the discontinuous reaction temperature of pumpellyite + hematite + quartz = epidote + actinolite + H2O, as shown by Nakajima et al. (1977). It is difficult to detect the difference in temperature in the PA facies regions by analyzing mineral assemblages. To detect the difference in temperature, and then to reveal

  3. Loss and source mechanisms of Jupiter's radiation belts near the inner boundary of trapping regions (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Becker, Heidi N.; Clark, George; Kollmann, Peter; Paranicas, Chris; Mauk, Barry; Joergensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Thorne, Richard M.; Bagenal, Fran; Janssen, Mike A.; Levin, Steve M.; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Williamson, Ross; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Kurth, Bill; Connerney, John E. P.


    We have merged a set of physics-based and empirical models to investigate the energy and spatial distributions of Jupiter's electron and proton populations in the inner and middle magnetospheric regions. Beyond the main source of plasma (> 5 Rj) where interchange instability is believed to drive the radial transport of charged particles, the method originally developed by Divine and Garrett [J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6889-6903, 1983] has been adapted. Closer to the planet where field fluctuations control the radial transport, a diffusion theory approach is used. Our results for the equatorial and mid-latitude regions are compared with Pioneer and Galileo Probe measurements. Data collected along Juno's polar orbit allow us to examine the features of Jupiter's radiation environment near the inner boundary of trapping regions. Significant discrepancies between Juno (JEDI keV energy particles and high energy radiation environment measurements made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager) and Galileo Probe data sets and models are observed close to the planet. Our simulations of Juno MWR observations of Jupiter's electron-belt emission confirm the limitation of our model to realistically depict the energy and spatial distributions of the ultra-energetic electrons. In this paper, we present our modeling approach, the data sets and resulting data-model comparisons for Juno's first science orbits. We describe our effort to improve our models of electron and proton belts. To gain a physical understanding of the dissimilarities with observations, we revisit the magnetic environment and the mechanisms of loss and source in our models.

  4. Do mesoscale faults in a young fold belt indicate regional or local stress? (United States)

    Kokado, Akihiro; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi


    The result of paleostress analyses of mesoscale faults is usually thought of as evidence of a regional stress. On the other hand, the recent advancement of the trishear modeling has enabled us to predict the deformation field around fault-propagation folds without the difficulty of assuming paleo mechanical properties of rocks and sediments. We combined the analysis of observed mesoscale faults and the trishear modeling to understand the significance of regional and local stresses for the formation of mesoscale faults. To this end, we conducted the 2D trishear inverse modeling with a curved thrust fault to predict the subsurface structure and strain field of an anticline, which has a more or less horizontal axis and shows a map-scale plane strain perpendicular to the axis, in the active fold belt of Niigata region, central Japan. The anticline is thought to have been formed by fault-propagation folding under WNW-ESE regional compression. Based on the attitudes of strata and the positions of key tephra beds in Lower Pleistocene soft sediments cropping out at the surface, we obtained (1) a fault-propagation fold with the fault tip at a depth of ca. 4 km as the optimal subsurface structure, and (2) the temporal variation of deformation field during the folding. We assumed that mesoscale faults were activated along the direction of maximum shear strain on the faults to test whether the fault-slip data collected at the surface were consistent with the deformation in some stage(s) of folding. The Wallace-Bott hypothesis was used to estimate the consistence of faults with the regional stress. As a result, the folding and the regional stress explained 27 and 33 of 45 observed faults, respectively, with the 11 faults being consistent with the both. Both the folding and regional one were inconsistent with the remaining 17 faults, which could be explained by transfer faulting and/or the gravitational spreading of the growing anticline. The lesson we learnt from this work was

  5. ICME-driven sheath regions deplete the outer radiation belt electrons (United States)

    Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K.; Turner, D. L.


    It is an outstanding question in space weather and solar wind-magnetosphere interaction studies, why some storms result in an increase of the outer radiation belt electron fluxes, while others deplete them or produce no change. One approach to this problem is to look at differences in the storm drivers. Traditionally drivers have been classified to Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). However, an 'ICME event' is a complex structure: The core is a magnetic cloud (MC; a clear flux rope structure). If the mass ejection is fast enough, it can drive a shock in front of it. This leads to the formation of a sheath region between the interplanetary shock and the leading edge of the MC. While both the sheath and the MC feature elevated solar wind speed, their other properties are very different. For instance, the sheath region has typically a much higher dynamic pressure than the magnetic cloud. Moreover, the sheath region has a high power in magnetic field and dynamic pressure Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range fluctuations, while the MC is characterised by an extremely smooth magnetic field. Magnetic clouds have been recognised as important drivers magnetospheric activity since they can comprise long periods of very large southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that sheath regions can also act as storm drivers. In this study, we analyse the effects of ICME-driven sheath regions on the relativistic electron fluxes observed by GOES satellites on the geostationary orbit. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of 31 sheath regions from solar cycle 23. Our results show that the sheaths cause an approximately one order of magnitude decrease in the 24h-averaged electron fluxes. Typically the fluxes also stay below the pre-event level for more than two days. Further analysis reveals that the decrease does not depend on, e.g., whether the sheath interval contains predominantly northward

  6. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: first results from SCUBA-2 observations of the Cepheus Flare region (United States)

    Pattle, K.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.; Di Francesco, J.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J. C.; Keown, J.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.


    We present observations of the Cepheus Flare obtained as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Legacy Survey (GBLS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We produce a catalogue of sources found by SCUBA-2, and separate these into starless cores and protostars. We determine masses and densities for each of our sources, using source temperatures determined by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. We compare the properties of starless cores in four different molecular clouds: L1147/58, L1172/74, L1251 and L1228. We find that the core mass functions for each region typically show shallower-than-Salpeter behaviour. We find that L1147/58 and L1228 have a high ratio of starless cores to Class II protostars, while L1251 and L1174 have a low ratio, consistent with the latter regions being more active sites of current star formation, while the former are forming stars less actively. We determine that if modelled as thermally supported Bonnor-Ebert spheres, most of our cores have stable configurations accessible to them. We estimate the external pressures on our cores using archival 13CO velocity dispersion measurements and find that our cores are typically pressure confined, rather than gravitationally bound. We perform a virial analysis on our cores, and find that they typically cannot be supported against collapse by internal thermal energy alone, due primarily to the measured external pressures. This suggests that the dominant mode of internal support in starless cores in the Cepheus Flare is either non-thermal motions or internal magnetic fields.

  7. Behavior of hybrid corn crop as second rot incidence in West Region Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and influence of stalk rot and ear in cultivation of hybrid corn second crop in west region Paraná. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six transgenic corn hybrids (DKB 330PRO, P4285HX, P3646HX, 30F53HX, P3340HX and P3161HX with four replications at spacing of 0.90 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants. The characteristics evaluated were: number of healthy and symptomatic plants, number of ears healthy and symptomatic and total number of spikes. After harvest, we assessed the length of ears healthy and symptomatic, bulk grain ears healthy and symptomatic, thousand grain weight of ears healthy and symptomatic, and grain mass per spike weighted, thousand grain weight and weighted productivity. The hybrid P3646HX showed 100% of plants with stem base rot (Colletotrichum graminicola and soft rot cob (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Zeae and 100% of ears with symptoms of soft rot, followed by hybrid 30F53HX, DKB 330PRO with 34.9 and 29.1% of ears with symptoms of soft rot respectively. The hybrid DKB330PRO showed healthy spikes and patients with superior size, resulting in less interference in the grain yield. The hybrid P3340 productivity was higher, with 7952 kg ha-1 , followed by hybrid 30F53HX and DKB330PRO. A positive correlation between agronomic characteristics and grain yield.

  8. Protostars, multiplicity, and disk evolution in the Corona Australis region: A Herschel Gould Belt Study

    CERN Document Server

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Linz, Hendrik; Andre, Philippe; Stutz, Amy; Eiroa, Carlos; White, Glenn J


    The CrA region and the Coronet cluster form a nearby (138 pc), young (1-2 Myr) star-forming region hosting a moderate population of YSO. We present Herschel PACS photometry at 100 and 160 micron, obtained as part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. The Herschel maps reveal the cluster members with high sensitivity and high dynamic range. Many of the cluster members are detected, including some embedded, very low-mass objects, several protostars, and substantial emission from the surrounding cloud. The Herschel data provide sufficient spatial resolution to detect small-scale details, such as bright filaments around the IRS5 protostar complex and a bubble-shaped rim associated with the Class I object IRS2. The disks around the Class II objects display a wide range of mid- and far-IR excesses consistent with different disk structures. We have modeled the disks using the RADMC radiative transfer code, finding an interesting mixture of objects for a young and presumably coeval cluster. Some of them are consistent w...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Baoqing; ZENG Qiaosong; LIU Shunsheng; WANG Shijie


    As the structural body related to temporal-spatial evolution and tectonic dynamic system, the orogenic belt and basin are not only dependent on each other in space but also closely related with each other in terms of infrastructure, matter transference and dynamic mechanisms. By using apatite fission-track method, the authors firstly analyze the uplift and denudation ratios of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt, and by using tectonically deformed combination analysis and tectonic-thermal simulation the main geological occurrences are also illustrated. It is found that there must have had multi-phase differential uplift and denudation phenomena in the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Then, the regional evolution pattern of qualitative and quantitative denudation process is obtained during the post-orogenic period. On the basis of summarizing evolution process of the basin-range system in the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic and its effects on regional environment, the influence of evolution process on geomorphologic landscapes change, water system vicissitude, eco-environment succession and drainage basin system evolution is discussed.

  10. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.


    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  11. Climate, water management, and land use: Estimating potential potato and corn production in the U.S. northeastern seaboard region (United States)

    The potential production capacity of the United States Northeastern Seaboard Region (NESR) was assessed using corn and potato as representative commodities. Geospatial data regarding historical climate, land use, soils, and management were coupled with a weather generator, the crop models SPUDSIM a...

  12. Fracture patterns in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Kurdistan Region of Iraq (United States)

    Reif, Daniel; Decker, Kurt; Grasemann, Bernhard; Peresson, Herwig


    Fracture data have been collected in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, which is a poorly accessible and unexplored area of the Zagros. Pre to early folding NE-SW striking extensional fractures and NW-SE striking contractive elements represent the older set affecting the exposed multilayer of the area. These latter structures are early syn-folding and followed by folding-related mesostructural assemblages, which include elements striking parallel to the axial trend of major folds (longitudinal fractures). Bedding perpendicular joints and veins, and extensional faults belonging to this second fracture set are located in the outer arc of exposed anticlines, whilst longitudinal reverse faults locate in the inner arcs. Consistently, these elements are associated with syn-folding tangential longitudinal strain. The younger two sets are related to E-W extension and NNE-SSW to N-S shortening, frequently displaying reactivation of the older sets. The last shortening event, which is described along the entire Zagros Belt, probably relates with the onset of N-S compression induced by the northward movement of the Arabian plate relative to the Eurasian Plate. In comparison between the inferred palaeostrain directions and the kinematics of recent GPS measurements, we conclude that the N-S compression and the partitioning into NW-SE trending folds and NW to N trending strike-slip faults likely remained unchanged throughout the Neogene tectonic history of the investigated area.

  13. Determination of Some Agronomıcal Characteristics of Local Flint Corn (Zea mays L. indurata) Genotypes in The Black Sea Region of Turkey



    In this study, 84 flint corn (Zea mays L. indurata) genotypes were used. Twelwe agronomical characteristics of 84 flint local corn genotypes were examined. Local corn genotypes were collected from 12 cities in the Black Sea Region in 2008 and field and laboratuary studies were completed in 2009. Variance analysis showed that there were high variations in most of the agronomical characteristics. At this study, plant height, ear height, stalk diameter, number of leaf per plant, ear length, ear ...

  14. Determination of Some Agronomıcal Characteristics of Local Flint Corn (Zea mays L. indurata) Genotypes in The Black Sea Region of Turkey


    ONER, Fatih; GULUMSER, Ali


    In this study, 84 flint corn (Zea mays L. indurata) genotypes were used. Twelwe agronomical characteristics of 84 flint local corn genotypes were examined. Local corn genotypes were collected from 12 cities in the Black Sea Region in 2008 and field and laboratuary studies were completed in 2009. Variance analysis showed that there were high variations in most of the agronomical characteristics. At this study, plant height, ear height, stalk diameter, number of leaf per plant, ear length, ear ...

  15. On future opportunities to observe gravitational scattering of main belt asteroids into NEO source regions (United States)

    Ivantsov, A.; Eggl, S.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.


    Physical and orbital properties of the current NEO population can be explained when one assumes that their primary origin lies in the asteroid main-belt and Jupiter-family comet (PMorbidelli et al. 2002).

  16. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad


    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  17. Lightning driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: regional and global estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available In this study we examine energetic electron precipitation fluxes driven by lightning, in order to determine the global distribution of energy deposited into the middle atmosphere. Previous studies using lightning-driven precipitation burst rates have estimated losses from the inner radiation belts. In order to confirm the reliability of those rates and the validity of the conclusions drawn from those studies, we have analyzed New Zealand data to test our global understanding of troposphere to magnetosphere coupling. We examine about 10000h of AbsPAL recordings made from 17 April 2003 through to 26 June 2004, and analyze subionospheric very-low frequency (VLF perturbations observed on transmissions from VLF transmitters in Hawaii (NPM and western Australia (NWC. These observations are compared with those previously reported from the Antarctic Peninsula. The perturbation rates observed in the New Zealand data are consistent with those predicted from the global distribution of the lightning sources, once the different experimental configurations are taken into account. Using lightning current distributions rather than VLF perturbation observations we revise previous estimates of typical precipitation bursts at L~2.3 to a mean precipitation energy flux of ~1×10-3 ergs cm-2s-1. The precipitation of energetic electrons by these bursts in the range L=1.9-3.5 will lead to a mean rate of energy deposited into the atmosphere of 3×10-4 ergs cm-2min-1, spatially varying from a low of zero above some ocean regions to highs of ~3-6×10-3 ergs cm-2min-1 above North America and its conjugate region.

  18. Equatorial belt of Titan: Aaru Region as seen by VIMS/Cassini (United States)

    Florian Brossier, Jeremy; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Maltagliati, Luca; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Hirtzig, Mathieu; Jaumann, Ralf; Brown, Robert H.


    Since eleven years of observation, near-infrared imaging data from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini1 reveal a variety of surface units that are compositionally and structurally distinct2, 3. The analysis of these units enables constraining the surface composition of Titan, which is of prime importance for modelling Titan's interior, surface, and atmosphere, particularly in the search for an endogenic methane source. For this study, we investigate a selection of units of interest seen in VIMS data by comparatively applying an empirical correction4, 5 and a radiative transfer code6-8 in order to correct for atmospheric contributions and retrieve surface albedo. SAR swaths from the Radar instrument are also used for geomorphological mapping purposes. We focus on the region of Aaru, located in the equatorial belt and centered at 10°N and 340°W, where several geological features have been identified: (1) infrared-brown dunes material; (2) a strongly eroded impact crater named Paxsi9 (3) mountainous and infrared-bright plateaus; and (4) infrared-blue areas devoid of dunes (similar to those seen in other regions probably enriched in water-ice, such as Chusuk Planitia10). By using our radiative transfer model, we estimate the surface albedo of regions of our interest within different infrared units of the Aaru region and compare with spectra of surface candidates, starting with water-ice and tholins. As seen in the similar study over Sinlap crater and its surroundings11, this method of analysis allows understanding of the compositional and structural relations between the different spectral units.References: 1 Brown, R. H. et al. (2005) SSR. 2 Barnes, J. W. et al. (2007) Icarus, 186 (1). 3 Soderblom, L. A. et al. (2007) PSS, 55 (13). 4 Cornet, T. et al. (2012) Icarus, 218 (2). 5 Le Mouélic, S. et al. (2012) PSS, 73 (1). 6 Hirtzig, M. et al. (2013) Icarus, 226 (1). 7 Solomonidou, A. et al. (2014) JGR, 119 (8). 8 Maltagliati, L. et al

  19. The "One Belt and One Road" is a Strategy to Optimize Regional Pattern Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Boya


    "We should focus on implementation of the three grand strategies, the One Belt and One Road,Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei collaborative development,and the Yangtze River Economic Belt,and strive for a good start the next year".The just completed Central Economic Work Conference lists"the optimization of economic spatial development"as one of the five major tasks for economic work in 2015.After last year’s Central Economic Work Conference proposed to push forward building

  20. Automatic detection of the belt-like region in an image with variational PDE model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoutao Li; Xiaomao Li; Yandong Tang


    In this paper, we propose a novel method to automatically detect the belt-like object, such as highway,river, etc., in a given image based on Mumford-Shah function and the evolution of two phase curves. The method can automatically detect two curves that are the boundaries of the belt-like object. In fact, this is a partition problem and we model it as an energy minimization of a Mumford-Shah function based minimal partition problem like active contour model. With Eulerian formulation the partial differential equations (PDEs) of curve evolution are given and the two curves will stop on the desired boundary. The stop term does not depend on the gradient of the image and the initial curves can be anywhere in the image. We also give a numerical algorithm using finite differences and present various experimental results. Compared with other methods, our method can directly detect the boundaries of belt-like object as two continuous curves, even if the image is very noisy.

  1. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  2. Local structures of electrons with energies of hundreds of keV in the inner belt and the slot region observed from the Vernov satellite (United States)

    Kovtyukh, A. S.; Myagkova, I. N.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Svertilov, S. I.


    The structure and dynamics of electron fluxes of subrelativistic energies in the range 235-300 keV at L proceeds. The most likely chain of physical mechanisms that could lead to variations in electron fluxes of the inner belt described in this paper is presented. For the first time, the topological effects in stationary distributions of the electrons of the inner belt observed at low altitudes in the South Atlantic Anomaly region are explained.

  3. Remagnetization in the Monterrey Salient (NE Mexico) and regional tecto-magnetic events in the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt (United States)

    Nemkin, S. R.; Chavez-Cabello, G.; Fitz-Diaz, E.; van der Pluijm, B.; Van Der Voo, R.


    In the 1980's, carbonate remagnetizations became widely recognized, with many units re-analyzed to examine these later magnetization events. In this study we focus on the Lower Cretaceous La Peña-Cupido formations transition from the Monterrey Salient in Northeast Mexico, at the external most part of the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt in this area. The remagnetization observed is carried by single domain (SD) magnetite, resulting from chemical growth of magnetite in a range of superparamagnetic (SPM) to SD grain sizes. In order to determine the relative remagnetization age, local km-scale folds were sampled for paleomagnetic fold tests. The application resulted in 8 syn-folding (1 a regional test) and 4 pre-folding remagnetizations (1 a regional application). Syn-folding results are found in the N-S to NW-SE trending portion of the Monterrey Salient and pre-folding results in the E-W trending segment of the belt. By combining syn-folding results with Ar/Ar illite ages of folds, a remagnetization age of 51 + 4 Ma is obtained in folded limestone samples. Relatively strong ferrimagnetic signals from sites with syn-folding remagnetizations suggest that more magnetite growth occurred in these folds, as compared to pre-folding sites where paramagnetic and diamagnetic signals are more dominant. Based on the relative timing of remagnetization, deformation progressed from the SW to the NE in northern Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt. Prior results (Nemkin et al., 2015) from the central Sierra Madre Oriental, to the south, showed two remagnetization events; 77 Ma and 44 Ma from W to E. Based on the timing of remagnetization in the new study area, folding and remagnetization in the Monterrey Salient occurred in between these events to the south.

  4. Study on the Balanced Fertilization for Corn in Black Soil Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Regressive models were obtained by employing "311-B" and "3414" optimal regressive desingns through 5-year (1993~1997) field experiment,and by datum processing with computer. These models express the re- lationships between corn yields in high,middle and low yield areas and N,P,and K application rates in black soil. By analysis to the models, the fertilizer application rates for maximum yield and optimal yield were achieved.

  5. Study on the Balanced Fertilization for Corn in Black Soil Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuDe-zhi; GaoYun; 等


    Regressive models were obtained by employing “311-B” and “3414” optimal regressive desingns through 5-year (1993-1997) field experiment,and by datum processing with computer.These models express the relationships between corn yields in high,middle and low yield areas and N,P,and K application rates in black soil.By analysis to the models,the fertilizer application rates for maximum yield and optimal yield were achieved.

  6. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira


    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  7. The examination of climate comfortable conditions in terms of coastal tourism on the Aegean Region coastal belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Güçlü


    Full Text Available It is important that climate comfortable conditions are within presumed threshold values with respect to tourism activities in the form that people rest in a healthy environment. The climatical elements bearing importance for climate comfortable conditions in general sunshine duration, temperature, relative humidity, wind and precipitation have been taken into consideration for this purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine of the climate comfortable conditions in respect to tourism on the Aegean Region coastal belt of Turkey. In this study, TCI, THI and SSI indices have been used for determining climate comfort conditions. The best climate comfortable conditions in terms of coastal tourism are seen May-June and September-October periods in the study area. Climate comfortable decreases due to high temperature and relative humidity in July-August period. November-April period is not appropriate for the coastal tourism. The favourable period for sea bathing is seen between 9 June-26 September.

  8. Sustainability of the effects of the demerit points system on seat belt use: a region-wide before-and-after observational study in Italy. (United States)

    Zambon, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Milan, Giovanni; Brocco, Stefano; Marchesan, Maria; Cinquetti, Sandro; Spolaore, Paolo


    To assess the short and long term effects of the demerit points system on seat belt use, we set a region-wide cross-sectional observational study 3 months before, and 3 and 15 months after the introduction of the scheme (July 2003) in the Veneto Region, Italy. We analysed differences in seat belt use by year of observation, gender and position in the vehicle, and obtained adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) through Poisson regression. A total of 29,303 drivers, 28,778 front and 12,186 rear passengers were observed. Prevalence levels of 54% for drivers and 53% for front passengers in 2003 switched to 83 and 76%, respectively, 3 months after the new legislation, with further slight increases 15 months thereafter. Seventy-four percent rear passengers were still not compliant with the legislation in 2005. The probability of being belted was 25% lower in males than females (APR=0.75, 95% CI 0.73-0.77) at the beginning of the study period. However, the effect of the new legislation was 19% greater among males (APR=1.19, 95% CI 1.16-1.23). A substantial increase in seat belt use was reached and sustained with the demerit points system. Specific efforts should target rear passengers whose seat belt use still remains worryingly low.

  9. Magma accumulation and segregation during regional-scale folding: The Holland's dome granite injection complex, Damara belt, Namibia (United States)

    Kruger, Tolene; Kisters, Alexander


    The regional-scale, upright fold of the Holland's dome in the Damara belt of central Namibia contains a kilometre-scale network of intrusive, highly fractionated uraniferous leucogranites. Three broadly orthogonal and intersecting sets of leucogranite sheets that intruded parallel and at right angles to the axial plane of the first-order fold can be distinguished. The granites are internally sheeted and illustrate the growth of the injection complex through the successive addition of thousands of smaller magma batches. Spatial and timing relationships point to a stepwise evolution of the injection complex. Early dilatancy-driven segregation and accumulation of granitic magmas in the core of the fold, above a basal detachment, was followed by compaction-driven segregation of a melt phase during fold tightening. The intersecting leucogranite sets provide a suitably organized permeability structure for melt segregation, while the successive injection of magma batches ensures compatibility between regional strain rates during folding and the rates of magma segregation. The three-dimensional network of melt-bearing structures further assisted regional shortening past the lock-up of the fold. The Holland's dome injection complex illustrates the geometric complexity of magma transfer pathways and the significance of regional-scale folding for the accumulation, segregation and fractionation of granitic magmas in suprasolidus crust.

  10. A positive correlation between energetic electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves in the radiation belt slot region (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.


    Energetic (hundreds of keV) electrons in the radiation belt slot region have been found to exhibit the butterfly pitch angle distributions. Resonant interactions with magnetosonic and whistler-mode waves are two potential mechanisms for the formation of these peculiar distributions. Here we perform a statistical study of energetic electron pitch angle distribution characteristics measured by Van Allen Probes in the slot region during a 3 year period from May 2013 to May 2016. Our results show that electron butterfly distributions are closely related to magnetosonic waves rather than to whistler-mode waves. Both electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves occur more frequently at the geomagnetically active times than at the quiet times. In a statistical sense, more distinct butterfly distributions usually correspond to magnetosonic waves with larger amplitudes and vice versa. The averaged magnetosonic wave amplitude is less than 5 pT in the case of normal and flat-top distributions with a butterfly index BI =1 but reaches ˜50-95 pT in the case of distinct butterfly distributions with BI >1.3. For magnetosonic waves with amplitudes >50 pT, the occurrence rate of butterfly distribution is above 80%. Our study suggests that energetic electron butterfly distributions in the slot region are primarily caused by magnetosonic waves.

  11. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Corn/soybean decision logic development and testing (United States)

    Dailey, C. L.; Abotteen, K. M. (Principal Investigator)


    The development and testing of an analysis procedure which was developed to improve the consistency and objectively of crop identification using Landsat data is described. The procedure was developed to identify corn and soybean crops in the U.S. corn belt region. The procedure consists of a series of decision points arranged in a tree-like structure, the branches of which lead an analyst to crop labels. The specific decision logic is designed to maximize the objectively of the identification process and to promote the possibility of future automation. Significant results are summarized.

  12. Effect of Electrode Belt and Body Positions on Regional Pulmonary Ventilation- and Perfusion-Related Impedance Changes Measured by Electric Impedance Tomography (United States)

    Ericsson, Elin; Tesselaar, Erik; Sjöberg, Folke


    Ventilator-induced or ventilator-associated lung injury (VILI/VALI) is common and there is an increasing demand for a tool that can optimize ventilator settings. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can detect changes in impedance caused by pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, but the effect of changes in the position of the body and in the placing of the electrode belt on the impedance signal have not to our knowledge been thoroughly evaluated. We therefore studied ventilation-related and perfusion-related changes in impedance during spontaneous breathing in 10 healthy subjects in five different body positions and with the electrode belt placed at three different thoracic positions using a 32-electrode EIT system. We found differences between regions of interest that could be attributed to changes in the position of the body, and differences in impedance amplitudes when the position of the electrode belt was changed. Ventilation-related changes in impedance could therefore be related to changes in the position of both the body and the electrode belt. Perfusion-related changes in impedance were probably related to the interference of major vessels. While these findings give us some insight into the sources of variation in impedance signals as a result of changes in the positions of both the body and the electrode belt, further studies on the origin of the perfusion-related impedance signal are needed to improve EIT further as a tool for the monitoring of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. PMID:27253433

  13. Effect of Electrode Belt and Body Positions on Regional Pulmonary Ventilation- and Perfusion-Related Impedance Changes Measured by Electric Impedance Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Ericsson

    Full Text Available Ventilator-induced or ventilator-associated lung injury (VILI/VALI is common and there is an increasing demand for a tool that can optimize ventilator settings. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT can detect changes in impedance caused by pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, but the effect of changes in the position of the body and in the placing of the electrode belt on the impedance signal have not to our knowledge been thoroughly evaluated. We therefore studied ventilation-related and perfusion-related changes in impedance during spontaneous breathing in 10 healthy subjects in five different body positions and with the electrode belt placed at three different thoracic positions using a 32-electrode EIT system. We found differences between regions of interest that could be attributed to changes in the position of the body, and differences in impedance amplitudes when the position of the electrode belt was changed. Ventilation-related changes in impedance could therefore be related to changes in the position of both the body and the electrode belt. Perfusion-related changes in impedance were probably related to the interference of major vessels. While these findings give us some insight into the sources of variation in impedance signals as a result of changes in the positions of both the body and the electrode belt, further studies on the origin of the perfusion-related impedance signal are needed to improve EIT further as a tool for the monitoring of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion.

  14. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn


    Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L: imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: <2 ng/L). Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source.

  15. Characteristics of Pitch Angle Distributions of 100s Kev Electrons in the Slot Region and Inner Radiation Belt­­­­­­­­ (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Malaspina, D.


    The pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt received little attention in the past decades due to the lack of quality measurements. Using the state-of-art pitch-angle-resolved data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, a detailed analysis of 100s keV electron PADs below L =4 is performed, in which the PADs is categorized into three types: normal (flux peaking at 90°), cap (exceedingly peaking narrowly around 90°) and 90°-minimum (lower flux at 90°) PADs. By examining the characteristics of the PADs of 460 keV electrons for over a year, we find that the 90°-minimum PADs are generally present in the inner belt (Lbelt and relatively constant in the inner belt but changes significantly in the slot region (2mechanism can hardly explain the formation of 90°-minimum PADs at the center of inner belt. These new and compelling observations, made possible by the high-quality measurements of MagEIS, present a challenge for the wave modelers, and future work is still needed to fully understand them.

  16. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey II: The Serpens region

    CERN Document Server

    Ortíz-León, Gisela N; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Dzib, Sergio A; Rodríguez, Luis F; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana; Torres, Rosa M; Boden, Andrew; Hartmann, Lee W; Evans, Neal J; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John J; Kounkel, Marina A; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A


    We present deep ($\\sim 17~\\mu$Jy) radio continuum observations of the Serpens molecular cloud, the Serpens south cluster, and the W40 region obtained using the Very Large Array in its A configuration. We detect a total of 146 sources, 29 of which are young stellar objects (YSOs), 2 are BV stars and 5 more are associated with phenomena related to YSOs. Based on their radio variability and spectral index, we propose that about 16 of the remaining 110 unclassified sources are also YSOs. For approximately 65% of the known YSOs detected here as radio sources, the emission is most likely non-thermal, and related to stellar coronal activity. As also recently observed in Ophiuchus, our sample of YSOs with X-ray counterparts lies below the fiducial G\\"udel & Benz relation. Finally, we analyze the proper motions of 9 sources in the W40 region. This allows us to better constrain the membership of the radio sources in the region.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Vallarta 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, 44130, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hartmann, Lee; Kounkel, Marina A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); II, Neal J. Evans [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)


    We present deep (∼17 μJy) radio continuum observations of the Serpens molecular cloud, the Serpens south cluster, and the W40 region obtained using the Very Large Array in its A configuration. We detect a total of 146 sources, 29 of which are young stellar objects (YSOs), 2 of which are BV stars, and 5 more of which are associated with phenomena related to YSOs. Based on their radio variability and spectral index, we propose that about 16 of the remaining 110 unclassified sources are also YSOs. For approximately 65% of the known YSOs detected here as radio sources, the emission is most likely non-thermal and related to stellar coronal activity. As also recently observed in Ophiuchus, our sample of YSOs with X-ray counterparts lies below the fiducial Güdel and Benz relation. Finally, we analyze the proper motions of nine sources in the W40 region. This allows us to better constrain the membership of the radio sources in the region.

  18. Performance of Hybrid Corn in Different Environmental Conditions in the Region Of Sinop-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. T. Souza


    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn hybrids in environmental conditions favorable and unfavorable. For this, two experiments were conducted at Sinop / MT, being considered as favorable environmental conditions the use of fertilizer recommended for the crop at planting and coverage, and unfavorable conditions only recommended fertilization at planting. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates, with plots of 2 rows of 3 meters. The treatments were: double hybrid (Balu 761, single hybrids (AG 7088 and 30F90Y and triple hybrid (2B688. The characteristics evaluated were number of spikes, husked spikes weight, plant height and height of first spike. Regarding the number of ears, under favorable conditions, the hybrid double (Balu 761 and the triple hybrid (2B688 stood out against the simple hybrid. For the character number of spikes per plant, the husked spike weight in kg the triple hybrid 2B688 stood in relation to other unfavorable conditions. Considering the character plant height and first spike insertion, single hibrid 30F90Y, showed higher estimate in unfavorable conditions. In conclusion, the agronomic performance of types of hybrids varies in relation to environmental conditions and genotypes composition, and in this study the triple hybrid stood out in relation to others. Keywords: Zea mays, fertilization and breeding.

  19. Regional and local phenomena influencing the thermal state in the Flysch belt of the northeastern part of Slovakia (United States)

    Majcin, Dušan; Bilčík, Dušan; Kutas, Roman; Hlavňová, Petra; Bezák, Vladimír; Kucharič, Ľudovít


    The locality of the northeastern most part of Slovakian Flysch belt belongs to interesting areas in terms of the interpretation of geothermal conditions in mutual relation with the lithosphere structure and their tectonic development. The evaluation of the geothermal energy sources parameters of this locality is likewise worthwhile. The region under study has the centre in position of the borehole Zboj ZB-1 and spreads out Slovakia also in Poland and Ukraine. Our contribution provides the analyses of existing geothermal data enhanced by the construction of temperature field models corresponding to the global and local aspects that influence the temperature and heat flow density distributions. The analyses are related to the structures and effects of separate phenomena along as well as across the Carpathian arc. The model calculations were carried out both by analytical and numerical methods of solving the heat transfer equations including their steady state forms and transient cases too. Besides the regional trend of thermal activity decrease in direction from East-Slovakian Basin to the outer Carpathian units the combined local influences are applied: subsurface thermophysical parameters of rock complexes distributions, non-stationary sources from supposed subvolcanic bodies in close surroundings of borehole Zboj ZB-1, and the effects of the hydrological factors. Considering the observed higher thermal activity in arched zone along the Carpathian structures we discussed the thermal effects of rock complexes supposed as a source of regional Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly and the transfer of heat from East-Slovakian Basin to Outer Carpathian Flysch units. The analysis and the modelling results suggest that the mentioned activity is caused by the influences of source type phenomena mainly related to deep fault systems at the margin of the European Platform. That means the anomalies in heat flow density distribution can reach the value 70 mW/m2 and more in the zone

  20. Local spatial-autocorrelation and urban ring identification in Mexico City's Regional Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Suárez Lastra


    Full Text Available Se exploró la estructura urbana de las ocho áreas metropolitanas que forman la Corona Regional de la Ciudad de México, mediante la identificación de clusters espaciales basados en un algoritmo de autocorrelación espacial regionalmente estandarizado. El análisis revela claros patrones de contornos urbanos con diferente grado de complejidad alrededor de las ciudades centrales, lo que sugiere distintas etapas en la evolución de las áreas metropolitanas.

  1. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Legacy Survey of Nearby Star-forming Regions in the Gould Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Ward-Thompson, D; Hatchell, J; Hogerheijde, M R; Bastien, P; Basu, S; Bonnell, I; Bowey, J; Brunt, C; Buckle, J; Butner, H; Cavanagh, B; Chrysostomou, A; Curtis, E; Davis, C J; Dent, W R F; van Dishoeck, E; Edmunds, M G; Fich, M; Fiege, J; Fissel, L; Friberg, P; Friesen, R; Frieswijk, W; Fuller, G A; Gosling, A; Graves, S; Greaves, J S; Helmich, F; Hills, R E; Holland, W S; Houde, M; Jayawardhana, R; Johnstone, D; Joncas, G; Kirk, H; Kirk, J M; Knee, L B G; Matthews, B; Matthews, H; Matzner, C; Moriarty-Schieven, G H; Naylor, D; Nutter, D; Padman, R; Plume, R; Rawlings, J M C; Redman, R O; Reid, M; Richer, J S; Shipman, R; Simpson, R J; Spaans, M; Stamatellos, D; Tsanis, Y; Viti, S; Weferling, B; White, G J; Whitworth, A P; Wouterloot, J; Yates, J; Zhu, M


    This paper describes a James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) legacy survey that has been awarded roughly 500 hrs of observing time to be carried out from 2007 to 2009. In this survey we will map with SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array 2) almost all of the well-known low-mass and intermediate-mass star-forming regions within 0.5 kpc that are accessible from the JCMT. Most of these locations are associated with the Gould Belt. From these observations we will produce a flux-limited snapshot of star formation near the Sun, providing a legacy of images, as well as point-source and extended-source catalogues, over almost 700 square degrees of sky. The resulting images will yield the first catalogue of prestellar and protostellar sources selected by submillimetre continuum emission, and should increase the number of known sources by more than an order of magnitude. We will also obtain CO maps with the array receiver HARP (Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme), in three CO isotopologues, of a large typi...

  2. Augen gneisses versus Augen gneisses from the Jaguaribeana Belt, northeastern region from Brazil: stratigraphy, geochemistry and U-Pb ages; Augen gnaisses versus Augen gnaisses da faixa Jaguaribeana, NE do Brasil: estratigrafia, geoquimica e idades U-Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Jaziel Martins; Silva, Elvis Roberto da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Bertrand, Jean Michel [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France). Lab. de Geodynamique; Leterrier, Jacques [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques


    The Jaguaribeana Belt is located at Borborema Province, Ceara State, Brazil and this study aims to present Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) data and the augen gneisses petrographic and geochemical study of the Jaguaribe Belt, and to realize comparisons between these and the augen gneisses from the Oros Belt. It describes the geological characteristics of this region, the augen gneisses petrography and geochemical data and the U-Pb method results for a discussion about the augen gneisses from the Oros and Jaguaribe Belt 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. CORN FLAVOR (United States)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  4. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey V: The Perseus Region

    CERN Document Server

    Pech, Gerardo; Dzib, Sergio A; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Rodríguez, Luis F; Ortiz-León, Gisela N; Rivera, Juana L; Torres, Rosa M; Boden, Andrew F; Hartman, Lee; Kounkel, Marina A; Evans, Neal J; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John; Zapata, Luis


    We present multi-epoch, large-scale ($\\sim$ 2000 arcmin${}^2$), fairly deep ($\\sim$ 16 $\\mu$Jy), high-resolution ($\\sim$ 1") radio observations of the Perseus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. These observations were mainly focused on the clouds NGC 1333 and IC 348, although we also observed several fields in other parts of the Perseus complex. We detect a total of 206 sources, 42 of which are associated with young stellar objects (YSOs). The radio properties of about 60% of the YSOs are compatible with a non-thermal radio emission origin. Based on our sample, we find a fairly clear relation between the prevalence of non-thermal radio emission and evolutionary status of the YSOs. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we show that YSOs in Perseus follow a G\\"udel-Benz relation with $\\kappa$ = 0.03 consistent with other regions of star formation. We argue that most of the sources detected in our observati...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, Gerardo; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rivera, Juana L.; Zapata, Luis A. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Centro Universitario de Tonalá, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Nuevo Periférico No. 555, Ejido San José Tatepozco, C.P. 48525, Tonalá, Jalisco (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hartman, Lee; Kounkel, Marina A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    We present multiepoch, large-scale (∼2000 arcmin{sup 2}), fairly deep (∼16 μJy), high-resolution (∼1″) radio observations of the Perseus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 and 7.5 GHz. These observations were mainly focused on the clouds NGC 1333 and IC 348, although we also observed several fields in other parts of the Perseus complex. We detect a total of 206 sources, 42 of which are associated with young stellar objects (YSOs). The radio properties of about 60% of the YSOs are compatible with a nonthermal radio emission origin. Based on our sample, we find a fairly clear relation between the prevalence of nonthermal radio emission and evolutionary status of the YSOs. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we show that YSOs in Perseus follow a Güdel–Benz relation with κ = 0.03, consistent with other regions of star formation. We argue that most of the sources detected in our observations but not associated with known YSOs are extragalactic, but provide a list of 20 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are consistent with being YSO candidates. Finally, we also detect five sources with extended emission features that can clearly be associated with radio galaxies.

  6. Kinematic evolution of a regional-scale gravity-driven deepwater fold-and-thrust belt: The Lamu Basin case-history (East Africa) (United States)

    Cruciani, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Koyi, H. A.; Porreca, M.


    The deepwater fold-and-thrust belts (DWFTBs) are geological structures recently explored thanks to advances in offshore seismic imaging by oil industry. In this study we present a kinematic analysis based on three balanced cross-sections of depth-converted, 2-D seismic profiles along the offshore Lamu Basin (East African passive margin). This margin is characterized by a regional-scale DWFTB (> 450 km long), which is the product of gravity-driven contraction on the shelf that exhibits complex structural styles and differing amount of shortening along strike. Net shortening is up to 48 km in the northern wider part of the fold-and-thrust belt (≈ 180 km), diminishing to 95% of net shortening was produced in < 10 Myr (during Paleocene). During this acme phase, which followed a period of high sedimentation rate, thrusts were largely synchronous and the shortening rate reached a maximum value of 5 mm/yr. The kinematic evolution reconstructed in this study suggests that the structural evolution of gravity-driven fold-and-thrust belts differs from the accretionary wedges and the collisional fold-and-thrust belts, where thrusts propagate in-sequence and shortening is uniformly accommodated along dip.

  7. W40 region in the Gould Belt : An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K K; Ojha, D K; Bachiller, Rafael; Samal, M R; Pirogov, L


    We present a multiwavelength study of W40 star-forming region using IR observations in UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer IRAC bands & Herschel PACS bands; 2.12 micron H2 narrow-band imaging; & radio observations from GMRT (610 & 1280 MHz), in a FoV of ~34'x40'. Spitzer observations along with NIR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III & 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The NN stellar surface density analysis shows that majority of these YSOs constitute the embedded cluster centered on the source IRS1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly younger population, are distributed along & trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is obtained as 0.44pc - matching well with the extent of radio emission - with a peak density of 650pc^-2. The JHK data is used to map the extinction which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass. It has resulted in 126 Msun & 71 Msun for the central cluster & the northern IRS5 region, respectively. H2 narrow-band im...

  8. Evolution of fold-thrust belts and Cenozoic uplifting of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the Kuqa region, Northwest China (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Yue-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Tian, Zuo-Ji; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang


    The evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt is accompanied with the Cenozoic uplifting of South Tianshan Mountain range. The critical Coubomb wedge theory can be well applied to the structural evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt where the décollement structures are well developed. Following the initial hypotheses of this theory, with the base of the taper wedge (not the sea level) as the reference level, we propose a geometric relationship between the evolution of fold-thrust belt and tectonic uplifting of orogen, and deduce a calculation formula between orogen tectonic uplifting amount (very different from the topographic uplifting) (∂H), fold-thrust belt extending distance (∂S) and crustal shortening amount (∂L): ∂H = (∂S - ∂L) ∗ tan(α + ∂α) + [tan(α + ∂α)/tanα - 1] ∗ H0. In this paper we select two representative seismic profiles across the Kuqa fold-thrust belt to reconstruct the structural evolution, and use the calculation formula to get the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in Kuqa region during two geological periods. The results showed: during the end of Miocene to the end of Pliocene, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM1) is 4.1 km; during the end of Pliocene to the present, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM2) is 4.7 km, and in the east segment of Kuqa (∂HE) is 5.0 km.

  9. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of Paleoproterozoic ultramafic lamprophyres and carbonatites from the Chitrangi region, Mahakoshal supracrustal belt, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Srivastava


    A number of ENE–WSW trending Paleoproterozoic dykes and plugs of mafic, ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite rocks intrude Mahakoshal supracrustal belt (MSB), which is a part of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ). Best exposures of these intrusions are found in the eastern parts of the MSB, particularly in and around Chitrangi area. Many of these intrusions have greenschist facies mineral composition and show sharp contact with supracrustal rocks. However, igneous textures, such as porphyritic/glomeroporphyritic, are still preserved in the form of partly pseudomorphed olivines, phlogopites and pyroxenes. Striking feature observed in some ultramafic samples is the presence of melanite garnet and rounded or elliptical carbonate ocelli. The petrographic characteristics suggest occurrence of carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres; close to aillikite composition. Coarse-grained carbonatites show hypidiomorphic texture and mostly composed of calcite with appreciable amount of silicate minerals like clinopyroxene, phlogopite and olivine (often pseudomorphed by calcite, amphibole and chlorite). It is difficult to establish any direct genetic relationship between carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyre samples on the basis of their chemistry; they were likely derived from distinct parental melts. High Mg#(up to ∼78), and high Ni and Cr contents (up to ∼1700 and ∼1100, respectively) and low HREE concentration in few ultramafic lamprophyre samples apparently suggest their derivation from a near-primary mantle-derived melts originated at great depths. Geochemistry and presence of carbonate ocellae in ultramafic lamprophyre samples suggest genesis of these silicate rocks and associated carbonatites through liquid immiscibility, however possibility of their derivation through vein-plus-wall-rock melting model cannot be ignored. A multi-stage veined mantle melting model is suitable in the latter case. It is suggested that early stages of rifting in the Mahakoshal

  10. Timing of late Palaeoproterozoic metamorphism in the northern Belomorian Belt, White Sea region: conclusions from U-Pb isotopic data and P-T evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Skiöld


    Full Text Available Brilliant-looking zircon crystals from a garnet-amphibolitic, metamorphosed mafic dyke at Lyagkomina in the Lake Kovdozero area, northern Belomorian Belt, most probably mark the 1875±4 Ma age of peak late Palaeoproterozoic regional metamorphism which followed upon dyke intrusion associated with deformation of the Lapland-Kola orogenic tectonic collage. U-Pb ages of titanites (ca. 1860 Ma and rutiles (ca. 1750 Ma help reconstruct the retrograde path and the cooling rates which decreased with time. The new titanite and rutile ages agree well with similar age data previously obtained on a regional scale from the central part of the belt and suggest absence of variation in mineral ages as a function of lithological differences. P-T analysis of the metamorphic parageneses indicates initial sharp decompression after peak metamorphism and jump uplift with unroofing of ca. 9-10 km of the crust in the Belomorian Belt previously thickened by late Palaeoproterozoic orogenic thrusting and stacking.

  11. Characterization of corn landraces planted grown in the campos gerais region (Paraná, Brazil for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Teixeira Barbosa Pinto


    Full Text Available This work has the objective of characterizing twenty corn landraces grown in the Campos Gerais region (Paraná State in relation to its chemical composition (moisture, ash, protein, ether extract, dietary fiber and starch and physical properties (weight of 1000 grains, real density, flotation index, granulometry and color. In addition, also the lab scale processing of the kernels from the varieties was carried out for producing starch; starch purity was evaluated by measuring its protein contamination. Amylose contents and viscoamylograph profile were also evaluated. The results showed that the evaluated landraces have differences in chemical composition as well as in pericarp/endosperm/germ proportions and consequently it should have different industrial applications and interest for plant breeding.Esse trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar vinte variedades de milho crioulo cultivadas na região dos Campos Gerais (Estado do Paraná em relação a sua composição química (umidade, cinzas, proteína, extrato etéreo, fibra alimentar e amido e propriedades físicas (peso de 1000 grãos, densidade real, índice de flotação, granulometria e cor Além disso, foi feito o processamento dos grãos em escala de laboratório para a extração do amido, sendo mensurado o teor de proteína. Foram avaliados os conteúdos de amilose e o perfil viscoamilográfico. Os resultados mostraram que os milhos apresentaram diferentes composições químicas e proporções pericarpo/endosperma/ gérmen e consequentemente podem ter diferentes aplicações industriais e interesse ao melhoramento de plantas.

  12. Influence of Stenocarpella maydis infected corn on the composition of corn kernel and its conversion into ethanol (United States)

    Widespread epidemics of Stenocarpella ear rot (formerly Diplodia ear rot) have occurred throughout the central U.S. Corn Belt in recent years, but the influence of S. maydis infected grain on corn ethanol production is unknown. In this study, S. maydis infected ears of variety 'Heritage 4646' were h...

  13. On The Effect of Giant Planets on the Scattering of Parent Bodies of Iron Meteorite from the Terrestrial Planet Region into the Asteroid Belt: A Concept Study

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader


    In their model for the origin of the parent bodies of iron meteorites, Bottke et al proposed differentiated planetesimals that were formed in the region of 1-2 AU during the first 1.5 Myr, as the parent bodies, and suggested that these objects and their fragments were scattered into the asteroid belt as a result of interactions with planetary embryos. Although viable, this model does not include the effect of a giant planet that might have existed or been growing in the outer regions. We present the results of a concept study where we have examined the effect of a planetary body in the orbit of Jupiter on the early scattering of planetesimals from terrestrial region into the asteroid belt. We integrated the orbits of a large battery of planetesimals in a disk of planetary embryos, and studied their evolutions for different values of the mass of the planet. Results indicate that when the mass of the planet is smaller than 10 Earth-masses, its effects on the interactions among planetesimals and planetary embryo...

  14. Belt conveyer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwieczek, A.; Dembinski, C.


    The patented belt conveyor is distinguished by the fact that the rate of motion of the belt changes smoothly depending on the load: the greater the load the higher the rate. This makes it possible to prolong the service life of the belt, i.e., during idling of the conveyor it is exposed to deformation on the drive and tension drums a fewer number of times. The essence of the invention is based on the use for driving the drum of a friction transmission. One of the elements of this transmission is the drive drum of the conveyor, and the other is the drive wheel which is pressed to the inner (or outer) surface of the drum. Change in rotation velocity of the drum is reached by changing the diameter of the drive wheel. The rim of the latter has an elastic tire to which compressed air is fed. The diameter of the drive wheel depends on the quantity of air in the tire. It is set automatically by a regulating system depending on the conveyor load. Variants are patented for the belt conveyor which is distinguished by the design of the friction transmission. It contains 1, 2 or more drive wheels. It can have a cylindrical or conical inner surface of the drive drum, etc.

  15. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.


    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  16. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt. (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D


    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  17. Wolbachia wsp gene hypervariable region specific PCR primers detect multiple strain infections in northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) (United States)

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern and central North America exhibits at least three distinct populations with respect to Wolbachia infection: uninfected; singly-infected; multi-infected. The infected states are associated with different mtDNA haplo...

  18. Folding style controlled by intermediate decollement thickness change in the Lurestan region (NW of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt), using analogue models (United States)

    Farzipour Saein, Ali


    The basal and intermediate decollements play an important role in structural style of fold-and-thrust belts. The decollement units, or different mechanical stratigraphy within the rock units, are not uniform throughout the ZFTB and show a strong spatial variation. The Lurestan region with varied thickness of the intermediate decollement in its northern and southern parts is one of the most important parts of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, regarding its hydrocarbon exploration-extraction projects. Thickness variation of the intermediate decollement in different parts of the Lurestan region allows us to address its role on folding style. Based on scaled analogue modeling, this study outlines the impact of thickness and facies variation of sedimentary rocks in the northern and southern parts of this region on folding style. Two models simulated the mechanical stratigraphy and its consequent different folding styles of the northern and southern parts of the region. In the models, only thickness of the intermediate decollement (thick and thin) for the northern and southern parts of the Lurestan region was varied. Detached minor folds above the intermediate decollement were created in response to the presence of the thicker intermediate decollement, northern part of the study area, which consequently deformed complexly and disharmonically folded, in contrast to polyharmonic folding style in the section, compared to polyharmonic folding style in the southern part, where thin intermediate decollement exists. The model results documented that thickness variation of intermediate decollement levels could explain complex and different folding styles in natural examples which must be taken into account for hydrocarbon exploration throughout these areas.

  19. Folding style controlled by intermediate decollement thickness change in the Lurestan region (NW of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt), using analogue models (United States)

    Farzipour Saein, Ali


    The basal and intermediate decollements play an important role in structural style of fold-and-thrust belts. The decollement units, or different mechanical stratigraphy within the rock units, are not uniform throughout the ZFTB and show a strong spatial variation. The Lurestan region with varied thickness of the intermediate decollement in its northern and southern parts is one of the most important parts of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, regarding its hydrocarbon exploration-extraction projects. Thickness variation of the intermediate decollement in different parts of the Lurestan region allows us to address its role on folding style. Based on scaled analogue modeling, this study outlines the impact of thickness and facies variation of sedimentary rocks in the northern and southern parts of this region on folding style. Two models simulated the mechanical stratigraphy and its consequent different folding styles of the northern and southern parts of the region. In the models, only thickness of the intermediate decollement (thick and thin) for the northern and southern parts of the Lurestan region was varied. Detached minor folds above the intermediate decollement were created in response to the presence of the thicker intermediate decollement, northern part of the study area, which consequently deformed complexly and disharmonically folded, in contrast to polyharmonic folding style in the section, compared to polyharmonic folding style in the southern part, where thin intermediate decollement exists. The model results documented that thickness variation of intermediate decollement levels could explain complex and different folding styles in natural examples which must be taken into account for hydrocarbon exploration throughout these areas.

  20. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer


    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  1. Seasonal exposures to triazine and other pesticides in surface waters in the western Highveld corn-production region in South Africa (United States)

    Du Preez, L.H.; Jansen Van Rensburg, P.J.; Jooste, A.M.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G.; Solomon, K.R.


    The objective of this study was to characterize concentrations of atrazine, terbuthylazine, and other pesticides in amphibian habitats in surface waters of a corn-production area of the western Highveld region (North-West Province) of South Africa. The study was conducted from November 2001 to June 2002, coinciding with the corn-production season. Pesticide residues were measured at regular intervals in surface water from eight ponds, three in a non-corn-growing area (NCGA) and five within the corn-growing area (CGA). Measured atrazine concentrations differed significantly among sites and between samples. In the five CGA sites, the maximum atrazine concentrations measured during the study ranged from 1.2 to 9.3 ??g/L. Although no atrazine was recorded as being applied in the catchment of the three NCGA sites, maximum concentrations from 0.39 to 0.84 ??g/L were measured during the study, possibly as a result of atmospheric transport. Maximum measured concentrations of terbuthylazine ranged from 1.22 to 2.1 ??g/L in the NCGA sites and from 1.04 to 4.1 ??g/L in the CGA sites. The source of terbuthylazine in the NCGA sites may have been in use other than in corn. The triazine degradation products, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA) and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) were also found in water from both the CGA and NCGA sites. Concentrations of DIA were ??? 1 ??g/L throughout the season, while DEA concentrations were mostly 2 ??g/L in some locations. Concentrations of DACT were highly variable (LOD to 8 ??g/L) both before and after planting and application, suggesting that they resulted from historical use of triazines in the area. Other herbicides such as simazine and acetochlor were only detected infrequently and pesticides such as S-metolachlor, cypermethrin, monocrotophos, and terbuphos, known to be used in the CGA, were not detected in any of the samples. Because of dilution by higher than normal rainfall in the study period, these concentrations may

  2. A case study on the formation and evolution of ice supersaturation in the vicinity of a warm conveyor belt's outflow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger


    Full Text Available A case study is presented on the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by a radiosonde in NE Germany at 06:00 UTC 29 November 2000. The ISSR was situated in the vicinity of the outflow region of a warm conveyor belt associated with an intense event of cyclogenesis in the eastern North Atlantic. Using ECMWF analyses and trajectory calculations it is determined when the air parcels became supersaturated and later subsaturated again. In the case considered, the state of air parcel supersaturation can last for longer than 24h. The ISSR was unusually thick: while the mean vertical extension of ISSRs in NE Germany is about 500m, the one investigated here reached 3km. The ice-supersaturated region investigated was bordered both vertically and horizontally by strongly subsaturated air. Near the path of the radiosonde the ISSR was probably cloud free, as inferred from METEOSAT infrared images. However, at other locations within the ISSR it is probable that there were cirrus clouds. Relative humidity measurements obtained by the Lindenberg radiosonde are used to correct the negative bias of the ECMWF humidity and to construct two-dimensional maps of ice supersaturation over Europe during the considered period. A systematic backward trajectory analysis for the ISSRs on these maps shows that the ISSR air masses themselves experienced only a moderate upward motion during the previous days, whereas parts of the ISSRs were located just above strongly ascending air masses from the boundary layer. This indicates qualitatively that warm conveyor belts associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis are disturbances that can induce the formation of ISSRs in the upper troposphere. The ISSR maps also lead us to a new perception of ISSRs as large dynamic regions of supersaturated air where cirrus clouds can be embedded at some locations while there is clear air at others.

  3. Kinematic Analysis of Fold-Thrust-Belt Using Integrated Analogue Sandbox Modeling and 3D Palinspatic Reconstructions in Babar-Selaru Area, Banda Sea Region, Indonesia (United States)

    Sapiie, Benyamin; Hadiana, Meli; Kurniawan, Ade; Daniel, Dicky; Danio, Harya; Fujimoto, Masamichi; Ohara, Michio; Alam Perdana, Lisnanda; Saputra, Afif


    Kinematic analysis of Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt is challenging and often difficult particularly in conducting seismic interpretation due to complex structural geometries. Resolving such as issue, in this study we proposed to use integrated seismic interpretation, analogue sandbox modeling and 3D palinspatic reconstructions. This paper is presented results of detail kinematic analysis for understanding tectonic evolution as well as mechanism of fold-thrust-belt in relation to their hydrocarbon prospect. Babar-Selaru Area is located within the collisional boundary between Australian continental margin and Banda Arc region of Indonesia. The area is characterized by complex deformation zone of fold-thrust-belt, involving Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary sequences of Australian continental margin. The age of deformation is ranging from 8-5 Ma. Seismic interpretations show two styles of faults developed in the area, which are thrust and normal faults system. The last deformation observed in the Babar Selaru area is controlled by south verging imbricated thin-skinned thrust fault system, with the staircase style of fault detachment. Although, both structural styles occurred in separated locations, they are formed not only in the same time but also related in time and space. Total extension is ranging from 1-3 % where average shortening is in the order of 35-38%. Sandbox modeling is an effective way to study and understand the style, pattern and geometry of the deformed sedimentary sequences in the study area. Based on comparison of five settings experiments (mainly different geological boundary condition) with more than 50 different modeling; deformation is particularly controlled by types and thickness of lithology package and detachment geometry. These two parameters were quite sensitive in generating different deformation style and pattern in Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt. Therefore, choosing the right combination of stratigraphy model and material setting are

  4. Lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt--On deep-seated xenoliths in Minggang region of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Fengxiang; WANG; Chunyang; ZHENG; Jianping


    Swarms of mafic-intermediate volcaniclastic bodies occur in the Minggang region of Henan Province, a tectonic boundary between the North Qinling and the North China Block, and emplaced at (178.31±3.77) Ma. These volcanic rocks are subalkaline basaltic andesites and contain abundance of lower crust and mantle xenoliths. Thus this area is an ideal place to reveal the lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt. Geochemical data indicate that these mafic granulites, eclogites and metagabbros have trace elemental and Pb isotopic characteristics very similar to those rocks from the South Qinling Block, representing the lower part of lower crust of the South Qinling which subducted beneath the North China Block. Talcic peridotites represent the overlying mantle wedge materials of the North China Block, which underwent the metasomatism of the acidic melt/fluid released from the underlying lower crust of the South Qinling Block. Deep tectonic model proposed in this paper is that after the Late Paleozoic South Qinling lithosphere subducted northward and decoupled, the upper part of the lithosphere emplaced under the North Qinling and the lower part continuously subducted northward under the North China Block. In Early Mesozoic, the North Qinling Block obducted northward and the North China Block inserted into the Qinling orogenic belt in a crocodile-mouth shape.

  5. The Late Cretaceous Aarya flora of the northern Okhotsk region and phytostratigraphy of the lower part of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt section (United States)

    Shczepetov, S. V.; Golovneva, L. B.


    The Zarya flora comes from volcanogenic sedimentary rocks of the Zarya and Parnyi formations that correspond to the basal part of the section of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt in the Omsukchan district (Magadan oblast, Russia). The revision of its taxonomic composition resulted in identifying approximately 25 species of horsetails, ferns, cycads, ginkgoalens, czekanowskians, conifers, and angiosperms. The Zarya flora is characterized by a combination of the Early Cretaceous relicts ( Hausmannia, Birisia, Sphenobaiera, Phoenicopsis, Nilssonia, Podozamites) and typical Late Cretaceous taxa ( Taxodium, Sequoia, Menispermites, Dalembia, Trochodendroides, Cissites, Terechovia, Platanaceae). Among all the paleofloral assemblages of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt, the Zarya flora is the most similar to the Turonian-Coniacian Arman flora of the Magadan region, which indicates their synchronism and floral unity. The Chingandzha flora of the Omsukchan area, which comes from the same stratigraphic level as Zarya flora, differs substantially from the latter in its taxonomic composition. It is conceivable that the Chingandzha flora was confined to a large river valley which was connected to coastal lowlands. The plant remains of the Arman flora with many mountain relicts could be buried in sediments of intermountain troughs isolated from coastal lowlands. Araucarites ochotensis sp. nov. is described.

  6. 甘肃旱作区玉米育种的实践与思考%Practice and Thinking on the Corn Breeding in the Dry Farming Region of Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The existing problems of the corn breeding and a place in agriculture development was analyzed in the dry farming region of Gansu,this paper discusses the main ideas of corn breeding in the dry farming region from the close combination of the corn breeding objectives in the dry farming region with the actual,improvement and development of technology system of dry farming corn, according drought characteristics determine the corn drought strategy in the dry farming region.%  分析了玉米在甘肃旱作区农业发展中的地位和玉米育种存在的问题,从旱作区玉米育种目标与实际紧密结合、完善与发展旱作玉米技术体系、根据干旱特点确定旱作区玉米的抗旱策略等方面论述了旱作区玉米育种的主要思路。

  7. Post-Collisional Ductile Extensional Tectonic Framework in the UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts in the Dabie-Sulu Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索书田; 钟增球; 游振东; 张泽明


    The present-day observable tectonic framework of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) metamorphic belts in the Dabie-Sulu region was dominantly formed by an extensional process, mostly between 200 and 170 Ma, following the Triassic collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. The framework that controls the present spatial distribution of UHP and HP metamorphic rocks in particular displays the typical features of a Cordilleran-type metamorphic core complex, in which at least four regional-scale, shallow-dipping detachment zones are recognized. Each of these detachment zones corresponds to a pressure gap of 0.5 to 2.0 GPa. The detachment zones separate the rocks exposed in the region into several petrotectonic units with different P-T conditions. The geometry and kinematics of both the detachment zones and the petrotectonic units show that the exhumation of UHP and HP metamorphic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu region was achieved, at least in part, by non-coaxial ductile flow in the multi-layered detachment zones, and by coaxial vertical shortening and horizontal stretching in the metamorphic units, under amphibolite- to greenschist-facies conditions, and in an extensional regime. All ductile extensional deformations occurred at depths below 10 to 15 km, i.e. below the brittle/ductile deformation transition.

  8. Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas I.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Barber, Douglas E.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Kendall, Jerome J.


    The Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq encroached southward toward a rapidly subsiding Neogene foreland basin and was later partitioned by out-of-sequence shortening focused along the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), as defined by new low-temperature thermochronologic, stratigraphic, and provenance results. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages document rapid deformation advance from the Main Zagros Fault to southern frontal structures (Kirkuk, Shakal, and Qamar thrusts) at 10-8 Ma, followed by potential basement-involved out-of-sequence development of the MFF (Qaradagh anticline) by 5 Ma. Distinct shifts in detrital zircon U-Pb provenance signatures for Neogene foreland basin fill provide evidence for drainage reorganization during fold-thrust belt advance. U-Pb age spectra and petrologic data from the Injana (Upper Fars) Formation indicate derivation from a variety of Eurasian, Pan-African, ophiolitic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic terranes, whereas the Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations show nearly exclusive derivation from the Paleogene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic complex near the Iraq-Iran border. Such a sharp cutoff in Eurasian, Pan-African, and ophiolitic sources is likely associated with drainage reorganization and tectonic development of the geomorphic barrier formed by the MFF. As a result of Zagros crustal shortening, thickening and loading, the Neogene foreland basin developed and accommodated an abrupt influx of fluvial clastic sediment that contains growth stratal evidence of synkinematic accumulation. The apparent out-of-sequence pattern of upper crustal shortening in the hinterland to foreland zone of Iraqi Kurdistan suggests that structural inheritance and the effects of synorogenic erosion and accumulation are important factors influencing the irregular and episodic nature of orogenic growth in the Zagros.

  9. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt reminde

  10. [Effects of no-tillage on soil water content and physical properties of spring corn fields in semiarid region of northern China]. (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Ying; Peng, Wen-Ying; Ma, Xiu; Zhang, Ke-Li


    Field experiments were conducted in 2006-2008 to study the effects of no-tillage on the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water content and related soil physical properties in spring corn fields in Beijing region during growth season. In study period, the water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer in tillage and no-tillage treatments had the same variation trend with time and precipitation, but the water storage at different time periods and under different precipitations was 2.7%-30.3% higher in no-tillage treatment than in tillage treatment. When the precipitation was relatively abundant, the increment of soil water storage was somewhat increased, but no-tillage was still worth to be popularized in the regions relatively deficit in precipitation. Under no-tillage, the average water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer during the three growth seasons in 2006-2008 was 3.4%-12.8% higher than that under conventional tillage, and the increment of the water storage in 0-20 cm and 80-100 cm soil layers under no-tillage was higher than that in intermediate layer, with the highest increment reached 22.2%. No-tillage improved soil water-holding capacity and water use efficiency via decreasing soil bulk density, increasing soil porosity, and promoting the formation of soil water-stable aggregates, and thereby, promoted crop yielding. After 3 years no-tillage, the soil water use efficiency and spring corn yield were increased by 13.3% and 16.4%, respectively, compared with those under conventional tillage.

  11. Belt attachment and system (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  12. Long-Term Landscape Evolution of the Northparkes Region of the Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia: Constraints from Fission Track and Paleomagnetic Data. (United States)

    O'Sullivan; Gibson; Kohn; Pillans; Pain


    Apatite fission track thermochronology (AFTT) and paleomagnetic (PM) results have been used to constrain the Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic landscape evolution of the Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) around the Northparkes copper-gold deposit in east-central New South Wales. The present-day landscape of this region of the LFB is relatively flat with little expression of the underlying rock and has previously been interpreted to indicate long-term stability of the region since the end of LFB orogenesis in the Early Carboniferous. This was presumably borne out by PM analyses from thick weathered horizons within open pits at the mine, which suggested that significant periods of weathering, and hence relative landscape stability, prevailed during the Early to middle Carboniferous and at some time during the Cenozoic. Results from AFTT analyses, however, indicate that the region must have experienced significant episodes of cooling/denudation during the mid-Permian to mid-Triassic and during the early Cenozoic, as well as episodes of heating/burial during the Late Carboniferous to mid-Permian and during the late Mesozoic. When combined, the AFTT and PM results are in fact consistent and indicate that since the late Paleozoic the landscape of the LFB around the Northparkes deposit has evolved through multiple episodes of denudation and deposition as well as periods of relative stability during which the thick weathering horizons formed. Together these results establish a complementary chronological framework that constrains the Late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic landscape evolution of the Northparkes region and highlights the importance of using dual data sets in elucidating the long-term landscape evolution of similar "stable" terranes.

  13. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  14. The role of the convection electric field in filling the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts (United States)

    Califf, S.; Li, X.; Zhao, H.; Kellerman, A.; Sarris, T. E.; Jaynes, A.; Malaspina, D. M.


    The Van Allen Probes have reported frequent flux enhancements of 100s keV electrons in the slot region, with lower energy electrons exhibiting more dynamic behavior at lower L shells. Also, in situ electric field measurements from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Van Allen Probes have provided evidence for large-scale electric fields at low L shells during active times. We study an event on 19 February 2014 where hundreds of keV electron fluxes were enhanced by orders of magnitude in the slot region and electric fields of 1-2 mV/m were observed below L = 3. Using a 2-D guiding center particle tracer and a simple large-scale convection electric field model, we demonstrate that the measured electric fields can account for energization of electrons up to at least 500 keV in the slot region through inward radial transport.

  15. Mapping seismic moment and b-value within the continental-collision orogenic-belt region of the Iranian Plateau (United States)

    Mousavi, S. Mostafa


    In this paper, high-resolution map of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value and seismic moment-release are provided for the Iranian Plateau using the unified and homogeneous part of the seismicity record of the region (January 1995-July 2016). We use these parameters as stressmeters and qualitatively explore their correlations with the GPS velocity field, strain rate, faulting mechanism, attenuation, and structure of the region. Our goal is to reveal the correlations and anomalous patterns that can help to better understand the seismotectonics and the state of present-day crustal stress within the region. A negative correlation between b-value and seismic moment release as well as convergence rates is found. Correlation between geodetic measurements and seismic observations might indicate the existence of a strong mechanical coupling between the basement and the sediment cover across Zagros. High geodetic strain rates east of the Hormuz strait, southern central Alborz, and along the north Tabriz fault correspond to low b-value anomalies at these areas. A strong low b-value anomaly is observed at the major tectonic discontinuity between the Zagros continental collision and the oceanic Makran subduction.

  16. GEOGLAM best available crop masks and calendars for the four primary crop types (corn, wheat, soy and rice) within the main agricultural producing regions of the world. (United States)

    Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Claverie, M.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.; Becker-Reshef, I.


    The Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative was developed by the Group on Earth Observations in order to produce and disseminate relevant, timely and accurate forecasts of agricultural production at national, regional and global scales through the use of earth observations, agro-meteorological data, field reports and national level expertise. As part of this goal GEOGLAM has developed the monthly GEOGLAM Crop Monitor, which provides coordinated global crop assessments on the four primary crop types (corn, wheat, soy and rice) within the main agricultural producing regions of the world. As a component of these assessments the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor has developed best available crop specific masks and seasonal specific calendars for each of the four primary crop types within these main producing regions of the world based on Crop Monitor partner products and inputs. These crop masks and calendars are due to be publically released in order to be of benefit to the greater agricultural research and monitoring communities. This talk will discuss the sources and development of these crop specific masks and calendars.

  17. Use of Multi-Media Sampling as Integrated Approach to Surficial Geochemical Sampling for Gold in Regional Reconnaissance Surveys in Parts of the Ashanti Belt, Southwest Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper M. Nude


    Full Text Available This study compared the conventional method used in surficial geochemical sampling to multimedia sampling method during reconnaissance surveys in gold exploration. The use of the conventional method in regional reconnaissance exploration surveys whereby surficial geochemical sampling is done step-wise, first by sampling stream sediments followed by rock chips then soils and other regolith materials in the search and defining of prospective targets of gold mineralization appears inefficient in geological environments characterized by complex regolith and landform modifications. However, multi-media geochemical sampling which involves the simultaneous sampling of different geochemical samples appears a better alternative and eliminates false and erratic anomalies often associated with the sampling of a single medium. Multi-media samples comprising rock chips, scree, termite mounds and lateritic lags, were collected simultaneously to support stream sediments in parts of the Ashanti belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana, which is characterized by complex regolith and landform modifications. The most prospective targets among the three anomalous zones defined by the stream survey were better pronounced with the support of the other media, based on the consistency in significant gold contents in those samples. Gold assay values from the multi-media samples ranked the Manso East target as the most prospective and the Manso Northwest target being least prospective due to the inconsistent gold assay values in the different media. Thus the integration of the gold assay values from the various media defined real and prospective geochemical gold targets better than in the conventional method in which sampling of different media was done in stages. Unlike the conventional method, the multi-media survey provided gold results that showed regional, proximal and in-situ anomalies simultaneously. Multi-media geochemical survey therefore, appears to be a

  18. Modifying the University of Missouri corn canopy sensor algorithm using soil and weather information (United States)

    Corn production across the U.S. Corn belt can be often limited by the loss of nitrogen (N) due to leaching, volatilization and denitrification. The use of canopy sensors for making in-season N fertilizer applications has been proven effective in matching plant N requirements with periods of rapid N ...

  19. Oviposition Behaviors in Relation to Rotation Resistance in the Western Corn Rootworm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knolhoff, L.M.; Glas, J.J.; Spencer, J.L.; Berenbaum, M.R.


    Across a large area of the midwestern United States Corn Belt, the western corn rootworm beetle (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) exhibits behavioral resistance to annual crop rotation. Resistant females exhibit increased locomotor activity and frequently lay eggs i

  20. Typical values of the electric drift E × B/B2 in the inner radiation belt and slot region as determined from Van Allen Probe measurements (United States)

    Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F. S.


    The electric drift E × B/B2 plays a fundamental role for the description of plasma flow and particle acceleration. Yet it is not well-known in the inner belt and slot region because of a lack of reliable in situ measurements. In this article, we present an analysis of the electric drifts measured below L 3 by both Van Allen Probes A and B from September 2012 to December 2014. The objective is to determine the typical components of the equatorial electric drift in both radial and azimuthal directions. The dependences of the components on radial distance, magnetic local time, and geographic longitude are examined. The results from Van Allen Probe A agree with Van Allen Probe B. They show, among other things, a typical corotation lag of the order of 5 to 10% below L 2.6, as well as a slight radial transport of the order of 20 m s-1. The magnetic local time dependence of the electric drift is consistent with that of the ionosphere wind dynamo below L 2 and with that of a solar wind-driven convection electric field above L 2. A secondary longitudinal dependence of the electric field is also found. Therefore, this work also demonstrates that the instruments on board Van Allen Probes are able to perform accurate measurements of the electric drift below L 3.

  1. New models for Paleoproterozoic orogenesis in the Cheyenne belt region: Evidence from the geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming (United States)

    Jones, D.S.; Snoke, A.W.; Premo, W.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.


    The disputed age of the deep crust of the Colorado Province is central to hypotheses for Paleoproterozoic crustal growth in the region. We studied the high-grade Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming, as a potential exposure of pre-1780 Ma basement rocks. New geologic mapping and U-Pb geochronological data indicate that the Big Creek Gneiss exposes a deeper, but coeval, level of the Green Mountain arc relative to the predominantly supracrustal section to the west. The Big Creek Gneiss is composed of: supracrustal rocks; a ca. 1780 Ma Green Mountain arc-correlative, bimodal intrusive suite; a ca. 1763 Ma extensional(?) bimodal intrusive suite; and widespread ca. 1630 Ma pegmatitic leucogranite. The mafic member of the younger bimodal suite is documented here for the first time. U-Pb zircon ages from migmatite leucosomes indicate penetrative deformation of the Big Creek Gneiss at ca. 1750 Ma. We find that the postarc intrusive suite is mantle-involved, implying a second period of crustal growth. Shortening postdates arc magmatism by ~20 m.y., implying that termination of arc magmatism and accretion were separate events. Finally, criteria previously used to constrain the polarity of subduction for the Green Mountain arc are not reliable. We propose two competing models: (1) southward-dipping Green Mountain arc subduction (present coordinates), with slab breakoff-related magmatism following arc accretion; or (2) northward-dipping subduction, with extensional postarc magmatism. In both models, high-temperature deformation coincides with accretion along the Cheyenne belt, and extensional magmatism is an important component of crustal growth. We prefer the northward-dipping subduction model because it can be better integrated with regional tectonic events and published isotopic compositions of the igneous rocks. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  2. Structural characterization of the internal domain of Paraguai Belt, in the Cangas region, south central portion of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Siqueira Costa

    Full Text Available The structural study of rocks in the district of Cangas showed the identification of three phases of deformation for the Cuiabá Group in this region. The main structure oriented 120/27 is related to the first phase of deformation defined by a slate cleavage, parallel to the bedding and to the axial plane of recumbent folds. In the early stages of this phase a family of quartz veins (V1 was generated, arranged parallel to the structures of this phase of deformation, being all almost deformed. The second phase of deformation formed a crenulation cleavage (Sn+1, axial plane of opened to gentle and asymmetric normal folds, with preferential orientation 110/68. The third phase of deformation is represented by a set of centimetric to decametric scale fractures and faults with metric slip that cut all previous structures, with orientations 35/82. Related to this phase of deformation occurs a second family of quartz veins (V2, which fills the fractures related to Dn+2 and may or may not be carrying gold mineralization.

  3. Regional Innovation Ability Factor Analysis of Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt%辽宁沿海经济带区域创新能力的因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关旭; 孙明帅


    在区域创新的相关研究基础上,介绍了辽宁沿海经济带经济发展总体水平和区域发展现状,并采用因子分析方法对辽宁沿海经济带创新能力进行了评价,得出影响辽宁沿海经济带区域创新能力问题的主要因素,包括创新基础能力、投入能力、产出能力和支持能力。并通过因子得分情况对区域内部一体化问题进行了分析,并提供了相应的解决对策。%Based on the regional innovation research ,this paper introduces Liaoning coastal economic belt overall level of economic development and situation of regional innovation. Then it uses factor analysis method to evaluate the innovation ability of Liaoning coastal economic belt and it concludes that the main factors affecting regional innovation ability of Liaoning coastal economic belt includes the innovation ability ,input capabili-ty ,output capability and support capability. It analyzes the regional internal integration problems through factor score table ,at last it provides the countermeasures .

  4. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation wh

  5. Massive sulfide exploration models of the Iberian Pyrite Belt Neves Corvo mine region, based in a 3D geological, geophysical and geochemical ProMine study (United States)

    Inverno, Carlos; Matos, João Xavier; Rosa, Carlos; Mário Castelo-Branco, José; Granado, Isabel; Carvalho, João; João Baptista, Maria; Represas, Patrícia; Pereira, Zélia; Oliveira, Tomás; Araujo, Vitor


    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) hosts one of the largest concentrations of massive sulfides in the Earth's crust. This highly productive VMS belt contains more than 85 massive sulfide deposits, totalling an estimate of 1600 Mt of massive ore and about 250 Mt of stockwork ore (Leistel et al., 1998; Oliveira et al., 2005; Tornos, 2006). Included in the South Portuguese Zone the IPB is represented by the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQG) composed of shales and quartzites of late Devonian age followed by the Volcanic-Sedimentary Complex (VSC) a submarine succession of sediments and felsic and basic volcanic rocks (late Famennian-late Viséan age). Above the IPB a turbidite sedimentary unit occurs being represented by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (BAFG). The ore deposits are hosted by felsic volcanic rocks and sediments that are dominant in the lower part of the VSC succession. The Neves Corvo (ProMine, EU FP7) project area is focused on the Neves Corvo deposit, an active copper mine. The project area is located between the Messejana Fault and the Portuguese/Spanish border which has been selected for the 3D geological and geophysical modelling study, based on high exploration potential of the Neves Corvo area (Oliveira et al. 2006, Relvas et al. 2006, Pereira et al. 2008, Rosa et al. 2008, Matos et al. 2011, Oliveira et al. 2013). In this study existing LNEG and AGC geological, geophysical and geochemistry databases were considered. New surveys were done: i) - A physical volcanology and palynostratigraphic age data study and log of the Cotovio drill-hole core (1,888 m, drilled by AGC). ii) - Interpretation of 280 km of Squid TEM performed by AGC. Based on the TEM data, significant conductors have been identified related with: shallow conductive cover, graphitic shale, black shale and sulphide mineralizations. The most important TEM conductors are related with the Neves Corvo massive sulphides lenses (1-10 Ωm). iii) - Ground and residual gravimetry studies including

  6. Carbon Dynamics of Bioenergy Cropping Systems Compared to Conventional Cotton Cropping Systems in the Southern Cotton Belt Region of the U.S. (United States)

    Rajan, N.; Sharma, S.; Casey, K.; Maas, S. J.


    We are facing an unprecedented challenge in securing America's energy future. To address this challenge, increased biofuel crop production is needed. Second-generation biofuels are made from the by-products of intensive agriculture or from less-intensive agriculture on more marginal lands. The Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt can play a significant role in this effort through a change from more conventional crops (like continuous cotton) to second-generation biofuel feedstocks (biomass sorghum and perennial grasses). We have established eddy covariance flux towers in producer fields in the Southern High Plains region. Among the four land uses compared, the net carbon uptake was the highest for the biomass sorghum field. During the year 2014, the biomass sorghum field gained approximately 672 gC m-2y-1. The next highest carbon uptake was recorded for the Old World Bluestem grass field, which was approximately 301 gC m-2y-1. The dominant land use in the region is cotton. While the forage sorghum and grass fields acted as net carbon sinks, the irrigated cotton field acted as a net carbon source to the atmosphere during the same period. The irrigated cotton field exhibited a net carbon loss of approximately 246 gC m-2y-1. In contrast, the dryland cotton field acted as a net carbon sink, with a total uptake of approximately 58 g C m-2y-1. The net primary production of the irrigated cotton field was higher than that of the dryland cotton field, yet the irrigated field was a significant carbon source to the atmosphere. This was due to conventional tillage practices combined with irrigation which enhanced the ecosystem respiration significantly compared to the dryland field. In 2014, an early spring cold front caused poor germination of seeds in the majority of the cotton fields in the region, including the eddy covariance site. This site was re-planted on 9 June, which shortened the growing season for cotton. This was also a contributing factor to this field being a net

  7. Agroforestry in temperate regions: where does the water go? A case study with ERT in a corn field bordered by poplar trees. (United States)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Coussement, Tom; Pardon, Paul; Artru, Sidonie; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah


    Recently, agroforestry systems have been recognized to provide an opportunity for "ecological intensification", thereby increasing yield outcome while simultaneously minimizing negative impacts on the environment. Mixtures of trees and crops have the potential to capture more resources of light, water and nutrients than monocultures of trees or crops (Cannell et al. 1996). Nevertheless, few studies are available focusing on the impact of trees on soil moisture dynamics in cropped soil in temperate regions. In this study, we monitored the soil water dynamics in a corn field bordered by poplar trees in Ieper, Belgium using Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and classical soil tension sensors (Watermark) during the entire growing season of 2016 (May-September). We installed four ERT transects of 30 m long with an electrode spacing of 50cm. Three transects were placed in a part of the field bordered by trees and one reference transect was located in a part of the field without trees. Next to each transect, Watermark sensors were installed to estimate the soil water tension. The data allow us to monitor the influence of the trees on the soil water depletion by the crop. Preliminary results show a marked effect of the trees on the measured resistivity distribution, which corresponds to observed patterns in plant growth.

  8. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. (Geophysics Lab., Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Physics Dept., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (US))


    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  9. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control. (United States)

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P


    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided.

  10. Soil Hydraulic Properties Influenced by Corn Stover Removal from No-Till Corn in Ohio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Canqui, H.; Lal, Rattan; Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Shipitalo, M. J.


    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for biofuel production and other uses may alter soil hydraulic properties, but site-specific information needed to determine the threshold levels of removal for the U.S. Corn Belt region is limited. We quantified impacts of systematic removal of corn stover on soil hydraulic parameters after one year of stover management under no-till (NT) systems in three soils in Ohio including Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludult) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston. Interrelationships among soil properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) predictions were also studied. Earthworm middens, Ksat, bulk density (ρb), soil-water retention (SWR), pore-size distribution, and air permeability (ka) were determined for six stover treatments including 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200) % of corn stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal reduced the number of middens, Ksat, SWR, and ka at all sites (P<0.01). Complete stover removal reduced earthworm middens by 20-fold across sites, decreased geometric mean Ksat from 6.3 to 0.1 mm h-1 at Coshocton, 3.2 to 0.3 mm h-1 at Hoytville, and 5.8 to 0.6 mm h-1 at Charleston, and increased ρb in the 0- to 10-cm depth by about 15% relative to double stover plots. The SWR for T100 was 1.3 times higher than that for T0 at 0 to -6 kPa. The log ka for T200, T100, and T75 significantly exceeded that under T50, T25, and T0 at Coshocton and Charleston. Measured parameters were strongly correlated, and ka was a potential Ksat predictor. Stover harvesting at rates above 1.25 Mg ha-1 affects soil hydraulic properties and earthworm activity, but further monitoring is needed to ascertain the threshold levels of stover removal.Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for

  11. A long-lived refilling event of the slot region between the Van Allen radiation belts from Nov 2004 to Jan 2005 (United States)

    Yang, X.


    A powerful relativistic electron enhancement in the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts is investigated by multi-satellites measurements. The measurement from Space Particle Component Detectors (SPCDs) aboard Fengyun-1 indicates that the relativistic electron (>1.6MeV) flux began to enhance obviously on early 10 November with the flux peak fixed at L~3.0. In the next day, the relativistic electron populations increased dramatically. Subsequently, the flux had been enhancing slowly, but unceasingly, until 17 November, and the maximum flux reached up to 7.8×104 cm-2·sr-1·s-1 at last. The flux peak fixed at L~3.0 and the very slow decay rate in this event make it to be an unusual long-lived slot region refilling event. We trace the cause of the event back to the interplanetary environment and find that there were two evident magnetic cloud constructions: dramatically enhanced magnetic field strength and long and smooth rotation of field vector from late 7 to 8 November and from late 9 to 10 November, respectively; solar wind speed increased in 'step-like' fashion on late 7 November and persisted the level of high speed >560 km·s-1 for about 124 hours. Owed to the interplanetary disturbances, very strong magnetic storms and substorms occurred in the magnetosphere. Responding to the extraordinarily magnetic perturbations, the plasmasphere shrank sharply. The location of plasmapause inferred from Dst indicates that the plasmapause shrank inward to as low as L~2.5. On account of these magnetospheric conditions, strong chorus emissions are expected near the earth. In fact, the STAFF on Cluster mission measured intensive whistler mode chorus emissions on 10 and 12 November, corresponding to the period of the remarkable enhancement of relativistic electron. Furthermore, we investigate the radial profile of phase space density (PSD) by electron flux from multi-satellites, and the evolution of the phase space density profile reveals that the local

  12. Empirical Analysis on Elements Contribution and Regional Differences of Corn Production in China——Based on Panel Data of 21 Major Corn-producing Provinces%我国玉米生产要素贡献率和地区差异实证分析——基于21个玉米主产省(区、市)的面板数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 赵宽辽; 路燕


    In order to provide basis for developing agricultural subsidies policy of corn production,this paper adopted fixed effect model to establish production function,and analyzed elements contribution of 21 major corn-producing provinces and the differences between them.The results showed that corn production capacity was very different between different regions,corn planting area,farmland areas hit by natural calamities and other material service fee had significant influence on the output of corn.This paper put forward some suggestions for corn production according to the estimate result.%采用固定效应模型建立生产函数,对我国21个省(区、市)的玉米生产要素贡献率及其之间的差异进行分析,以期为玉米生产农业补贴政策的制定提供依据.结果表明,玉米的生产能力在地区间差距较大;玉米播种面积、成灾面积和其他物质服务费用对玉米产量有显著影响.并针对上述结果对玉米生产提出政策建议.

  13. Environmental Assessment : Use of genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans and corn on National Wildlife Refuge Lands in the Mountain–Prairie Region (Region 6) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mountain–Prairie Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service currently uses row crop farming on lands within the National Wildlife Refuge System to achieve a...

  14. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn. (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred


    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  15. Fiscal year 1981 US corn and soybeans pilot preliminary experiment plan, phase 1 (United States)

    Livingston, G. P.; Nedelman, K. S.; Norwood, D. F.; Smith, J. H. (Principal Investigator)


    A draft of the preliminary experiment plan for the foreign commodity production forecasting project fiscal year 1981 is presented. This draft plan includes: definition of the phase 1 and 2 U.S. pilot objectives; the proposed experiment design to evaluate crop calendar, area estimation, and area aggregation components for corn and soybean technologies using 1978/1979 crop-year data; a description of individual sensitivity evaluations of the baseline corn and soybean segment classification procedure; and technology and data assessment in support of the corn and soybean estimation technology for use in the U.S. central corn belt.

  16. Impact of the spatial resolution of climatic data and soil physical properties on regional corn yield predictions using the STICS crop model (United States)

    Jégo, Guillaume; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mesbah, S. Morteza; Liu, Jiangui; Duchesne, Isabelle


    The assimilation of Earth observation (EO) data into crop models has proven to be an efficient way to improve yield prediction at a regional scale by estimating key unknown crop management practices. However, the efficiency of prediction depends on the uncertainty associated with the data provided to crop models, particularly climatic data and soil physical properties. In this study, the performance of the STICS (Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard) crop model for predicting corn yield after assimilation of leaf area index derived from EO data was evaluated under different scenarios. The scenarios were designed to examine the impact of using fine-resolution soil physical properties, as well as the impact of using climatic data from either one or four weather stations across the region of interest. The results indicate that when only one weather station was used, the average annual yield by producer was predicted well (absolute error distance between the weather stations and the fields, for distances smaller than 10 km, and reached 0.5 t ha-1 for a 5-km distance when fine-resolution soil properties were used. When four weather stations were used, no significant improvement in model performance was observed. This was because of a marginal decrease (30%) in the average distance between fields and weather stations (from 10 to 7 km). However, the yield predictions were improved by approximately 15% with fine-resolution soil properties regardless of the number of weather stations used. The impact of the uncertainty associated with the EO-derived soil textures and the impact of alterations in rainfall distribution were also evaluated. A variation of about 10% in any of the soil physical textures resulted in a change in dry yield of 0.4 t ha-1. Changes in rainfall distribution between two abundant rainfalls during the growing season led to a significant change in yield (0.5 t ha-1 on average). Our results highlight the importance of using fine

  17. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive? (United States)

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D


    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  18. Oscillations control of a transmission belt by Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) (United States)

    Temporelli, Robin; Micheau, Philippe


    A transmission belt deals with non-linear phenomena such as parametric excitations that can bring the belt in an instability region resulting in large transverse oscillations. These oscillations can cause belt life deflection, noise and unexpected vibration on its environment. The present study proposes a new strategy to control oscillations of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations. Indeed, for a transmission belt, periodic torque fluctuations cause periodic belt tension fluctuations which can be a source of excitation for the belt and resulting in belt oscillations under certain conditions. The presence of a clutch between the belt end-point and the source of torque fluctuations offers a means to clip torque fluctuations and thus to clip belt excitation. In keeping with this notion, belt oscillations can be controlled by an Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) strategy. Through an example of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations, the E4C strategy is presented and a new analytical model of belt behavior with its E4C strategy is constructed. Free belt oscillations (E4C is not activated) and controlled belt oscillations (E4C is activated) are observed through an experimental setup and predicted owing to the new analytical model. Finally, the E4C strategy leads to frequency unlocking that successfully removes belt oscillations. This new analytical model furthermore provides an accurate prediction of belt behavior with its E4C strategy.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhongli; DENG Yongfu; LIAO Guangyu


    The Jinping orogenic belt in Sichuan, China consists mainly of the Jinpingshan intracontinental thrust-nappe belt, foreland thrust-nappe belt and foreland uplift belt. Based on analyses about the characteristics of the structural units in this area, the authors propose in this paper that Chapuzi-Bazhe revival fault belt is the regional boundary fault, and points out that after the formation of the Pre-Sinian basement, the western edge of the Yangtze paraplatform was turned into the passive continental margin in Sinian to Triassic, then into the Mesozoic collision orogenic belt, and finally into the Cenozoic orogenic belt through intracontinental orogeny.

  20. 一带一路经济区现代物流体系构建%The Construction of Modern Logistic System in the Belt and Road Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    “一带一路”战略是“五位一体”发展理念的具体诠释,所涉及区域的经济发展水平相近,处于同一经济域面高度,能够在同一个经济区框架下发展经济,并正在与京津冀协同区、长江经济带一起向中国经济“新三极”的方向发展。受制于有限的自我发展能力,一带一路经济区难以自协同于发达地区的经济域面高度,需要引入新介质缩小经济势差,打造现代物流体系是占优选择。立足一带一路经济区的产品特质和经济现状,应当以因物而流的物流本义为原则发展现代物流体系,着重提升当前产品物流效率,疏通产业转移结果收敛于预期效果的渠道。在这一发展目标约束下,一带一路经济区现代物流体系必然是政府和市场合力作用的结果,其以政府参与和物流设施为软硬基础,培育具有显著一带一路特色的物流能力,通过物流服务提升高度。在现代经济模式下实现这一构想,需要云计算扩展一带一路经济区现代物流体系的容量、消除传统物流瓶颈,需要大数据整合信息增值物流,需要各经济体强化互联互通共同打造物联网,从根本上夯实经济区物流效率提升的基础。基于已有基础和市场化需要,电子商务是落实一带一路经济区现代物流体系的流通渠道,物流业与制造业协同共进是以供给侧改革理念发展完善这一体系的生产渠道。%The Belt and Road strategy is the explanation of the development idea of“Five in One”;the development levels of related regions are similar,and all these areas can be developed within the same framework of economic region;the Belt and Road economic region,the coordinated economic region of Beijing,Tianjian and Hebei,and the Yangtze Economic Belt are developing on the road to the“New Three Poles”. Constrained by the capacity for self-development,it is difficult for the Belt

  1. 基于DEA-Tobit两步法的主产区玉米生产技术效率分析%Technical Efficiency of Corn Production in Main Producing Region in China Based on DEA-Tobit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Panel Data of com production in 11 provinces are analzed, such as Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei,Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Hubei and Sichuan. Based on the CRS, VRS and Malmquist exponential models of DEA, technical efficiency of corn production is measured in main producing region by DEA-Tobit. And its influencing factors are analyzed. Result shows that corn production in main producing areas is mainly scale inefficiency and is at the stage of decreasing returns to scale. Pure technical efficiency of corn production is effective in most main producing regions. Total Factor Productivity of corn production is improved in main producing regioas, because the speed of technical progress is greater than the speed of efficiency reduction. In the years 1998 -2008, corn production in main producing regions is rational in structure and is not affected by the natural disasters.%以1998~2008年玉米主产区(吉林、黑龙江、辽宁、内蒙古、河北、山东、河南、安徽、江苏、湖北、四川)的面板数据为基础,基于DEA的CRS、VRS和Malmquist指数模型,运用DEA-Tobit两步法测度主产区玉米生产的技术效率,并分析其影响因素.结果表明,主产区玉米生产多为规模无效,且普遍处于规模报酬递减阶段;主产区玉米生产多为纯技术效率有效;主产区玉米生产全要素生产率提高主要是由于技术进步速度大于技术效率下降的速度.1998~2008年,玉米主产区的生产结构合理,并未受到自然灾害的影响.

  2. Seat belt restraint system (United States)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.


    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serga G. V.


    Full Text Available The article demonstrates a possibility of creation of a corn harvester with a sweep frame mounted from individual modules. Such corn harvesters include modules for cutting stalks, snapping modules, conveyor modules for turning, stacking and feeding the stalks in the shredding unit, conveyor modules for supplying corncobs to the cleaning device placed on the sweep frame, leading and managing bridges, power unit, as well as conveyor belt for cobs and auger for discharging the crushed plant matter. The technique for calculating the grinding module drive was shown. The arrangement of the modules on the corn harvester sweep frame was demonstrated. Corn harvesting with the suggested module corn harvester allows not only reducing combine metal consumption and reducing corn ears injuring, but improving maintainability as well

  4. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    Wygant, J. R., et al., “The Electric Field and Waves Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission,” Space Sci. Rev., 179, 2013, pp. 183–220, doi...A. N., Li, X., Kanekal, S. G., Hudson, M. K., and Kress, B. T., “Observations of the Inner Radiation Belt: CRAND and Trapped Solar Protons,” J...1215–1228, doi:10.1002/2014JA020777. [27] Selesnick, R. S., “ Measurement of Inner Radiation Belt Electrons with Kinetic Energy Above 1 MeV,” J

  5. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.


    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  6. Northern Belt of Jupiter (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere, absorb sunlight. That

  7. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon


    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  8. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin. (United States)

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S


    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies.

  9. Actinomycetales from corn. (United States)

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F


    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  10. Digital Spectra and Analysis of Altitudinal Belts in Tianshan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baiping; MO Shenguo; WU Hongzhi; XIAO Fei


    Based on the framework of the geo-info spectra of montane altitudinal belts, this paper firstly reviews six classification systems for the spectra of mountain altitudinal belts in China and considers that detailed regional study of altitudinal belts is the key for reaching standardization and systemization of mountain altitudinal belts. Only can this furtheridentify and resolve problems with the study of altitudinal belts. The factors forming the spectra of altitudinal belts are analyzed in the Tianshan Mountains of China, and a digital altitudinal belt system is constructed for the northern flank, Southern flank, the heartland, and Ilivalley in the west. The characteristics of each belt are revealed with a summarization of the pattern of areal differentiation of altitudinal belts.

  11. Research and simulation on the rollover system of corn harvester (United States)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun


    The structural characteristics of our country's corn harvester are narrow-track, high centroid and existence of eccentric distance, so rollover accident is easily to occur when driving in mountainous and hilly regions. In order to improve the design quality of corn harvester and enhance the security of operation, it is of great significance to research the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester. Hydro-pneumatic suspension has powerful function of adjusting the balance of automobile body and good shock absorption function. In this paper, hydro-pneumatic suspension is applied to the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester to improve the ability of anti-rollover. At last using ADAMS simulation technology to simulate the roll stability of traditional corn harvester and the corn harvester with hydro pneumatic suspension, then calculating the heeling angle in both cases.

  12. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui


    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  13. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region X. Analysis of classical Kuiper belt objects from Herschel and Spitzer observations

    CERN Document Server

    Vilenius, E; Müller, T; Mommert, M; Santos-Sanz, P; Pál, A; Stansberry, J; Mueller, M; Peixinho, N; Lellouch, E; Fornasier, S; Delsanti, A; Thirouin, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Perna, D; Henry, F


    The classical Kuiper belt contains objects both from a low-inclination, presumably primordial, distribution and from a high-inclination dynamically excited population. Based on a sample of classical TNOs with observations at thermal wavelengths we determine radiometric sizes, geometric albedos and thermal beaming factors as well as study sample properties of dynamically hot and cold classicals. Observations near the thermal peak of TNOs using infra-red space telescopes are combined with optical magnitudes using the radiometric technique with near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM). We have determined three-band flux densities from Herschel/PACS observations at 70.0, 100.0 and 160.0 $\\mu$m and Spitzer/MIPS at 23.68 and 71.42 $\\mu$m when available. We have analysed 18 classical TNOs with previously unpublished data and re-analysed previously published targets with updated data reduction to determine their sizes and geometric albedos as well as beaming factors when data quality allows. We have combined these s...

  14. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  15. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control (United States)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena


    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.

  16. Ionospheric heating for radiation-belt control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, W.J.; Villalon, E.


    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons, as formulated by Kennel and Petschek 1, describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a slot region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. We describe a set of planned, active experiments in which VLF radiation will be injected from ground and space based transmitters in conjunction with the CRRES satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments will measure the intensity of waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves. An ability to reduce the flux of energetic particles trapped in the radiation belts by artificial means could improve the reliability of microelectronic components on earth-observing satellites in middle-altitude orbits.

  17. 兰新铁路沿线经济带区域经济差异变动的空间分析%Spatial analysis of evolvement of regional economic disparities in the economic belt along Lan-Xin Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永平; 张秋亮; 黄永斌; 李建豹; 杨靖


    Over the last decades, there has been considerable interest in the analysis of regional spatio-temporal pattern. Indeed, regional growth has exhibited complex spatial patterns including both population spread and economic equity decentralization from the well-developed counties to the less developed ones. Regional disparity is an important issue to the regional study in revealing the discrepancy of related regions and thus to display the spatial pattern between regions. And interregional disparities in China' s economic development have attracted considerable political and scholarly attention. Although in a country of such a vast size as China, large disparities seem to be an unavoidable fact of nature, there is the additional impact of distorting policy interventions and spatially divergent institutional change, which renders the topic analytically very difficult and fiscally sensitive. In recent years, a host of studies have been devoted to this topic, with an increasing degree of analytical sophistication. This paper takes per capita GDP as the measurable index, whose data was derived from the economic belt along Lan-Xin Railway. That region consists of 114 administrative counties from which the first and the ongoing second double-line of Lan-Xin Railway buffers 150 kilometers away. In order to reveal the spatio-temporal distribution patterns and spatial interaction types of economic disparities in the economic belt along Lan-Xin Railway, between 2000 and 2009, traditional statistic analysis, which is often used as a tool to reveal the disparities within regions, and spatial autocorrelation analysis that is helpful in taking the geographical location into consideration to make up for the shortcomings of former methods, are combined together to reveal the economic disparities of research units. The conclusions are as follows: the absolute disparity of per capita GDP for administrative counties increased constantly, while the economic concentration of those



    Grzegorz DOMEK


    Paper presents the state of the art gear with timing belts. Areas of use pose new challenges for designers gear. It has materials and technologies used in the production. Has been developed algorithm of design timing belts to new applications

  19. Polyphase deformation and metamorphism of the Cuiabá group in the Poconé region (MT, Paraguay Fold and Thrust Belt: kinematic and tectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rodrigo Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Several deformation models have been proposed for the Paraguay Belt, which primarily differ in the number of phases of deformation, direction of vergence and tectonic style. Structural features presented in this work indicate that the tectonics was dominated by low dip thrust sheets in an initial phase, followed by two progressive deformation phases. The first phase of deformation is characterized by a slate cleavage and axial plane of isoclinal recumbent folds with a NE axial direction, with a recrystallization of the minerals in the greenschist facies associated with horizontal shear zones with a top-to-the-SE sense of movement. The second stage shows vergence towards the NW, characterized by crenulation cleavage axial plane to F2 open folds over S0 and S1, locally associated with reverse faults. The third phase of deformation is characterized by subvertical faults and fractures with a NW direction showing sinistral movement, which are commonly filled by quartz veins. The collection of tectonic structures and metamorphic paragenesis described indicate that the most intense deformation at the deeper crustal level, greenschistfacies, occurred during F1, which accommodated significant crustal shortening through isoclinal recumbent folds and shear zones with low dip angles and hangwall movement to the SE, in a thin-skinned tectonic regime. The F2 deformation phase was less intense and had a brittle to ductile behavior that accommodated a slight shortening through normal open subvertical folds, and reverse faults developed in shallower crustal level, with vergence towards the Amazonian Craton. The third phase was less pervasive, and the shortening was accommodated by relief subvertical sinistral faults.

  20. Thick-skinned tectonics within the intracontinental easternmost Atlas foreland-and-thrust belt (Tunisia): Meso-Cenozoic kinematics and implications for regional geodynamics (United States)

    Belkhiria, W.; Boussiga, H.; Inoubli, M. H.


    The transition zone between western and central Mediterranean domains presents a key area to investigate kinematic interactions within the adjacent orogen systems such as the easternmost Atlas foreland-and-thrust belt. Gravity and seismic data revealed a highly structured basement, characterizing a series of structural highs and lows delimited by high-angle N-S, E-W, and NW-SE extensional faults. This basement architecture is inherited from successive extensional events related to the openings of the Triassic-Early Cretaceous Tethys oceans (i.e., Alpine Tethys, Ligurian Tethys, and Mesogea). Throughout this period, this mosaic of continental blocks significantly controlled the thickness and facies distributions. Early stages of diapirism took place along these basement faults and allowed maximum subsidence in minibasins revealed by the development of growth strata. In response to the Late Cretaceous-Eocene shortenings, these extensional faults have been reactivated as trasnpressional shear zones, giving rise to narrow pop-up structures. In addition, gravity modeling indicates crustal thinning and deep-rooted faults affecting the crust south of the Zaghouan Thrust and along E-W transfer zones. From the late Miocene, a drastic change in the stress regime is attributed to the effect of the adjacent Sicily channel on the study area. This promotes crustal thinning, basin subsidence, and channeling up of mantle-derived helium along lithospheric-scale weak zones. Our results give rise to new insights into the reactivation of inherited weakness zones of southern Tethys margin in response to the complex interaction between African and Eurasian plates accommodated by subduction, rollback, collision, and slab segmentation.

  1. Mafic rocks from Erinpura gneiss terrane in the Sirohi region: Possible ocean-floor remnants in the foreland of the Delhi Fold Belt, NW India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Pandit; H De Wall; H Daxberger; J Just; M Bestmann; K K Sharma


    A small isolated mafic body occurs to the south of Sirohi near village Daba within the Neoproterozoic Erinpura Granite in the southern sector of the Proterozoic Delhi Fold Belt in NW India. This mafic body occurs close to a 100 m wide NE–SW trending shear zone (Daba Shear Zone) which overprints the felsic rock fabrics. Further south, a small mafic body near village Kui was also sampled which forms the southern limit of the Phulad Ophiolite Suite which is a 300 km long major NE–SW trending lineament, described as Western Margin Fault. Some of the lithological components of the Daba mafic body show locally preserved magmatic fabric but completely transformed mineralogies under lower amphibolites facies metamorphic conditions where two-stage deformation has been inferred. Magnetic fabric analysis underlines a general correspondence of structural elements in both felsic and mafic lithologies. Binary correlations of Zr with other high field strength elements underline fractionation as the main process in the evolution of Daba and Kui rocks. Geochemical characteristics indicate subalkaline tholeiitic basalt affinity for these mafic rocks. The trace element characteristics, such as enriched LIL elements, high Th, absence of negative Nb anomalies and depletion in compatible elements in Daba samples suggest an enriched mantle source and lower degree of melting. The trace and rare earth element characteristics for Kui (Th anomaly, Nb–Ta trough and less spiked patterns, flat REE trends) indicate derivation from a refractory mantle source affected by fluids derived from subduction. Distinct differences in trace and REE characteristics between Daba and Kui can be interpreted in terms of different stages of ophiolite development.

  2. Winter triticale response to nitrogen fertilization when grown after corn or soybean (United States)

    Winter triticale (XTriticosecale Wittmack) could be more widely grown as a forage, grain, or cover crop in the U.S. Corn and Soybean Belt, but research needed to establish best management practices is limited. This study was conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer needed to opti...

  3. Corn yield under subirrigation and future climate scenarios in the Maumee river basin (United States)

    Subirrigation has been proposed as a water table management practice to maintain appropriate soil water content during periods of high crop water demand on subsurface drained croplands in the Corn Belt. Subirrigation takes advantage of the subsurface drainage systems already installed on drained agr...

  4. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, ... the surfaces is your tender skin! What's a Blister? A blister is an area of raised skin ...

  5. Corns and calluses (United States)

    ... rowers get calluses on their hands that prevent blisters from forming. People with bunions often develop a callus over the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems. Symptoms ...

  6. Radiation belts of jupiter. (United States)

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S


    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  7. Effect of Solar Cycle Activity on High Energy Proton of Inner Radiation Belt in the Low Altitude Region%太阳周期活动对低高度内辐射带高能质子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师立勤; 林瑞淋; 刘四清; 郑惠南


    The NOAA-15 high energy proton observation from 1998 to 2011 is used to analyze the effect of solar cycle activity on high energy proton flux. The statistic research indicates that there is an inverse correlative relationship between the proton flux in inner radiation belt and solar activity. This anti-correlation is related to geomagnetic coordinates L and B, and more significant with the increasing of L and decreasing of B. There is also a phase lag between the solar activity and the proton flux. This hysteresis effect is more obvious in the region with smaller L or larger B. The lagcan reach one year in some regions. This hysteresis effect means it takes a long time to reach the dynamic balance between the source and the loss for the proton of inner radiation belt in the low altitude region. The unbalance between the source and loss is the reason why the intensity of proton flux at the same solar activity is different. The comparison with the result of AP8 model indicates the energetic proton flux from AP8 is higher than the satellite's observation in the region with large B, which suggests that the AP8 model may overstate the proton flux enhancement at inner radiation belt in the low altitude region if only the long-term variation of magnetic field is considered.%利用NOAA-15卫星1998年到2011年近13年的高能质子全向通量观测资料,分析了一个太阳活动周内,低高度内辐射带高能质子通量的分布变化特性及其物理原因,比较了观测结果与AP8模型的不同.研究表明,低高度内辐射带高能质子通量与太阳活动水平的反相关关系与磁壳参数L值及磁场B值有关;L值越低,B值越大的空间点,其高能质子通量与太阳活动水平的反向相关性越明显.高能质子通量随太阳活动水平的变化存在明显滞后现象,L值越高、B值越小的空间点,滞后现象就越明显,滞后严重时可以达到一年左右的时间;这种滞后现象反映出

  8. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi


    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn is the one of the most important types of corn. There is a high amount of sugar in the endosperm of sweet corn than dent corn. Baby corn is the ear of corn that is being harvested in the silking stage before the end of pollination. This crop has an interesting using methods as salad, conserve production and vegetative consumption. Both two sweet and baby corn is obtained from one plant in different growth stages and could be harvested from one corn hybrid. Best yield and quality of baby corn is obtained from sweet corn hybrids, because of high amounts of sugar in the grains and ears. Sweet corn and baby corn could be harvested at early dough stage (with about 30 % of humidity and early silking stage before the pollination is completed, respectively. Plant density is the most important factor in growing corn, especially in sweet and baby corn. Khuzestan province is one of the main regions of corn production in Iran. In Khuzestan, forage and silage corn have the most production among the summer crops. Corn is planted in two planting date in Khuzestan: early spring and early summer. Spring corn planting produces little grain yield due to Simultaneity of silking stage with hot early summer days. Because of little production and little research about sweet and baby corn, this study was performed and designed. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of plant density and harvesting method on sweet corn and baby corn yield, an experiment was performed during 2012-13, in research farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, located in southwest of Iran. In this experiment, four plant densities (7, 9, 11 and 13 plants.m-2 and two harvesting methods (baby corn and sweet corn were investigated in an RCB statistical design with four replications. The KSC 403 hybrid was used and investigated in the experiment, as a sweet corn hybrid. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 through

  9. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere (United States)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.


    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  10. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge (United States)

    Sheppard, Scott


    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  11. Detecting extrasolar asteroid belts through their microlensing signatures (United States)

    Lake, Ethan; Zheng, Zheng; Dong, Subo


    We propose that extrasolar asteroid belts can be detected through their gravitational microlensing signatures. Asteroid belt + star lens systems create so-called 'pseudo-caustics', regions in the source plane where the magnification exhibits a finite but discontinuous jump. These features allow such systems to generate distinctive signatures in the microlensing light curves for a wide range of belt configurations, with source trajectories as far as tenths of the Einstein ring radius from the centre of the lens. Sample light curves for a range of asteroid belt parameters are presented. In the near future, space-based microlensing surveys like WFIRST, which will have the power of detecting per cent-level changes in microlensing light curves even with subminute exposure times, may be able to discover extrasolar asteroid belts with masses of the order of an earth mass.

  12. Radiation-belt dynamics during solar minimum. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Holeman, E.


    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45 deg. and 55 deg. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  13. 皖江城市带区域支柱性产业空间集聚水平及特征研究%Research on Spatial Agglomeration Level and Character of Regional Pillar Industries in Wanjiang City Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠芳; 王伟; 叶成


    Based on the selected regional pillar industries in Wanjiang City Belt ,this paper measures the spatial agglomeration level of these pillar industries by industrial agglomeration index ,agglomera-tion elasticity coefficient ,market concentration rate and Krugman regional division index ,then analy-zes the spatial agglomeration degree ,agglomeration elasticity and regional division of labor from two dimensions of industry and city .T he results indicate that during 2003-2011 ,the overall agglomera-tion degree of pillar industries in Wanjiang City Belt is high ,but there are significant differences in va-rious industries ;both high-tech industries and capital intensive industries within low-tech industries appear spatial agglomeration with high degree ;the economic growth of different industries shows dif-ferent sensitivity to the industrial agglomeration changes .Hefei and Wuhu are the core layer and the other cities are the external layer in the religion ,thus forming a binary spatial distribution pattern ;the division of labor based on specialization in each city is quite reasonable .%选定皖江城市带区域支柱性产业,利用产业空间集聚指数、集聚弹性系数、市场集中率和克鲁格曼区域分工指数对其空间集聚水平进行了综合测度,基于行业和城市的双维度视角针对空间集聚程度、集聚弹性及区域分工等展开探究。结果表明:2003-2011年,皖江城市带区域支柱性产业整体集聚程度较高,但各行业存在明显差异;高技术类别行业、中低技术类别中的资本密集型行业均呈现出高度空间集聚;不同行业的工业经济增长对产业集聚度变动的敏感性不同。区域内基本形成了以合肥、芜湖为核心层,其他城市为外围层的“核心-外围”二元空间分布模式;各城市间的专业化分工较为合理。

  14. The empty primordial asteroid belt. (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre


    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  15. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  16. Mechanics of Cutting and Boring. Part 3. Kinematics of Continuous Belt Machines, (United States)


  17. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of molecular outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Drabek-Maunder, E; Buckle, J V; Di Francesco, J; Richer, J


    Using JCMT Gould Belt Survey data from CO J=3-2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  18. 陇东旱塬区玉米高产集成技术与示范%Research and Demonstration of Integrated High Yield Corn Cultivation Technology on the Loess Plateau Region of East Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    陇东旱塬区玉米(Zea mays L.)高产集成技术是以全膜覆盖、双垄沟播技术为核心,集成组装测土配方施肥+良种应用+适期早播、宽窄行密植+病虫害监测防控等技术,推出“全膜覆盖玉米(留膜免耕)-冬油菜(留膜免耕)-大豆(高塬夏菜)”两年三熟制种植模式.该技术在甘肃省泾川县经5年推广试验示范,玉米平均增产3 247.5 kg/hm2,增加产值7 306.9元/hm2,较对照(常规种植)增加生产成本1 357.5元/hm2,新增总产值19 641.5万元,新增总纯收益15 941.7万元,产投比5.3∶1,科技投资收益率431%,推广投资收益率4 460%,取得了极显著的社会效益和经济效益.%The core of integrated high yield corn (Zea mays L.) cultivation technology on the Loess plateau region of east Gansu was double ridges with whole plastic film cover. By integrating fertilization according to soil testing, elite seed application, suitable early sowing, reasonable planting dense and pest monitor-control technology, the "mulching corn (film remaining and no-tillage)-winter rape (film remaining and no-tillage)-soybean (high tableland summer vegetable)" with three mature in two years planting model was put forward. Through experiment and demonstration plant for 5 years in Jingchuan of Gansu, the average yield of corn was increased by 3 247.5 kg/hm2, with the output value increasing by 7 306.9 Yuan/hm2 compared with control. The cost of production was increased by 1 357.5 Yuan/hm2; while the total output value was increased by 19 641.5 million yuan, thus the total net income was increased by 15 941.7 million Yuan with the output to input ratio 5.3:1. The return of science and technology investment was 431%; of promotion investment was 4 460%, with remarkable social and economic benefits.

  19. Kuiper Belt Occultation Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W; Kavelaars, JJ; Brown, Michael E; Bianco, Federica B; Boyle, Richard P; Brucker, Melissa J; Hetherington, Nathan; Joner, Michael; Keel, William C; Langill, Phil P; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Russet J; Young, Leslie


    Here we present observations of 7 large Kuiper Belt Objects. From these observations, we extract a point source catalog with $\\sim0.01"$ precision, and astrometry of our target Kuiper Belt Objects with $0.04-0.08"$ precision within that catalog. We have developed a new technique to predict the future occurrence of stellar occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects. The technique makes use of a maximum likelihood approach which determines the best-fit adjustment to cataloged orbital elements of an object. Using simulations of a theoretical object, we discuss the merits and weaknesses of this technique compared to the commonly adopted ephemeris offset approach. We demonstrate that both methods suffer from separate weaknesses, and thus, together provide a fair assessment of the true uncertainty in a particular prediction. We present occultation predictions made by both methods for the 7 tracked objects, with dates as late as 2015. Finally, we discuss observations of three separate close passages of Quaoar to field star...

  20. Region study of the impact of an accidental radioactive pollution on the corn of winter; Etude regionalisee de l'impact d'une pollution radioactive accidentelle sur le ble d'hiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delboe, A.; Mercat-Rommens, C


    The goal of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of corn of winter with respect to an accidental release of radioactivity. We want to know if a uniform and specific deposit would involve the same contamination on the scale of the whole territory. the study was based on the equations of the A.S.T.R.A.L. model which makes it possible to evaluate the transfer of the radionuclides in the terrestrial food chain following an accidental atmospheric emission. The parameter of A.S.T.R.A.L. on which the study concentrated is the factor of transfer of the radioactivity of the air to the grain. This factor depends on the parameters of captation and translocation, since harvest is contaminated when the radionuclides deposited on the leaves are assimilated and transported towards the grain. Methodology thus consisted in regionalizing these two parameters. for that, software S.T.I.C.S. (multidisciplinary simulator for standard cultures) developed by the I.N.R.A. of Avignon was used. This model proposes a daily follow-up of the foliar index, as well as the dates of occurrence of the agronomic stages of corn. These variables were correlated with captation and translocation. The outputs of the simulations carried out on 12 climates and 2 varieties made it possible to express the parameters of captation and translocation according to the typology of A.S.T.R.A.L., i e according to the time deposit-harvest. Then, these values were compared with bibliographical data and with data issued from I.R.S.N. programs R.E.S.S.A.C. and R.A.D.E.M.I.C.. (authors)

  1. Public Transit Service-Opportunities in Commuter-Belt Municipalities – A Systemic Analysis of Two Districts in the Vienna Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Brezina


    Full Text Available Public transport in the transition zone from cities to rural areas is increasingly becoming a focus from the financial and public service provision perspective. The (perceived supply differences of rural and remote areas are on the agenda of policy discourse. Our survey studies the public transport supply of two districts and their municipalities in the region of Vienna, Austria, by using the parameters of service-opportunities, municipal population, acreage of settlement units and potential demand. Annual service-opportunities is a parameter recorded by the public transport authority of the Vienna region for every single station under its zone of influence. These parameters are analyzed to conclude that service-opportunities pose a viable entity for systematic public transport analysis and differences in supply of these two districts are in contrast to expectations. Finally, we address the need for future development of service-opportunities based analyses.

  2. Observations of MeV electrons in Jupiter's innermost radiation belts and polar regions by the Juno radiation monitoring investigation: Perijoves 1 and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Jørgensen, John Leif


    Juno's “Perijove 1” (27 August 2016) and “Perijove 3” (11 December 2016) flybys through the innermost region of Jupiter's magnetosphere (radial distances ... Investigation collected particle counts and noise signatures from penetrating high-energy particle impacts in images acquired by the Stellar Reference Unit and Advanced Stellar Compass star trackers, and the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper infrared imager. This coordinated observation campaign sampled radiation...

  3. Retrieval of soil erosion relevant parameters in the Western Australian wheat belt region from VNIR-SWIR and TIR spectral signatures


    Andreas Eisele; Sabine Chabrillat; I. Lau; Kobayashi, C.; B. Wheaton; Carter, D.; Kashimura, O.; Kato, M.; Ong, C.; R. Hewson; Cudahy, T.; Hermann Kaufmann


    With the focus on new available hyperspectral imaging sensors sensitive within the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength region, this study is testing the ability of the TIR in deriving soil erosion relevant parameters (e.g. texture, organic carbon content) from soil spectral measurements with the respect to commonly used VNIR-SWIR spectrometers. Therefore a study site was chosen located within an agricultural area in Western Australia, which is suffering from soil loss through wind erosion proce...

  4. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar


    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  5. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  6. 5m Main Belt Asteroid Population Estimation Using Vesta Imagery (United States)

    Rynders, Michael; Trilling, David E.


    The Main Belt is the largest source of Near-Earth asteroids, but objects 2 pixels in diameter that were counted in a 33km 2 region to give a crater density. By knowing the crater density and making some reasonable assumptions about the orbital distribution of asteroids and the age of Vesta's surface, an estimate of the population of small asteroids in the inner main belt was made. It was found that the inner region of the main asteroid belt contains approximately 20 billion asteroids larger than 5 m. These results agree well with the measured inner Main Belt Size distribution derived by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, WISE (Masiero et al. 2011).

  7. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  8. Processo de semeadura e o rendimento do milho na região dos Campos Gerais do Paraná Seeding process and corn yield in the region of Campos Gerais, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Colet


    Full Text Available Na região dos Campos Gerais (PR, a cultura do milho ocupa aproximadamente um terço das áreas sob plantio direto no verão. Visando a manejos diferenciados, faz-se necessário conhecer as variáveis que influenciam no rendimento do milho. Este trabalho teve como objetivo correlacionar variáveis químicas e físicas de solo e antrópicas com a resposta da cultura do milho, considerando-se variabilidade espacial regional. As variáveis antrópicas estudadas foram: pressão de população, índice de pressão populacional, profundidade de semeadura e desvio padrão da profundidade de semeadura. As variáveis de solo estudadas foram: profundidade do horizonte A, areia, silte, argila, matéria orgânica, pH, boro e manganês para a profundidade de 0-20cm, e areia, silte, argila, matéria orgânica, manganês e cobre para a profundidade 20-40cm. Para representar o rendimento da cultura, a variável resposta avaliada foi a massa de grãos da espiga por planta. Para redução do número de variáveis, utilizaram-se os métodos estatísticos de redução de variáveis explicativas "Todas Regressões Possíveis" (Best subsets e "Passo-a-Passo" (Stepwise. As variáveis de solo reafirmaram-se como importantes para explicar o fenômeno massa de grãos. A variável antrópica profundidade de semeadura mostrou-se explicativa para o fenômeno estudado, demonstrando a influência do processo de semeadura no rendimento do milho.In the region of Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brazil, corn fields cover about one third of no-tillage summer cropland. Before introducing alternative forms of management, it is necessary to gather information on variables that influence crop yield. This paper was aimed at correlating corn yield with chemical and physical soil variables, and human variables, considering spatial variability in the region. The human variables considered in the study were population pressure, population pressure index, seeding depth and standard deviation of

  9. Coronal radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, H S; Frewen, S F N; DeRosa, M L


    The magnetic field of the solar corona has a large-scale dipole character, which maps into the bipolar field in the solar wind. Using standard representations of the coronal field, we show that high-energy ions can be trapped stably in these large-scale closed fields. The drift shells that describe the conservation of the third adiabatic invariant may have complicated geometries. Particles trapped in these zones would resemble the Van Allen Belts and could have detectable consequences. We discuss potential sources of trapped particles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin


    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  11. Dunlop Enerka Belting supplies and installs Europe's longest conveyor belt at British Coal-Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Dunlop Enerka Belting of Farington, U.K., has supplied a steel cord conveyor belt to the mine complex at Selby in North Yorkshire operated by RJB Mining plc. The new conveyor belt replaces the belt supplied and installed in 1981 by Dunlop Enerka Belting (then BTR Belting Ltd.).

  12. 鄂西北山地夏玉米全程机械化生产技术集成研究%Study on Mechanized Production Technol ogy Integration for Summer Corn in Mountain Region of Northwest Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承国; 谢菊英; 肖能武; 周刚; 李永学; 陈光勇; 向世标; 孟鸿洲; 柯磊; 唐余成


    [目的]探索适宜鄂西北低山丘陵区的夏播玉米全程机械化集成生产技术,加快机械化进程,促进鄂西北山地玉米产业发展。[方法]2012—2015年连续开展夏玉米品种筛选试验、播期试验和种植密度试验,筛选适宜鄂西北山区机械化生产的夏玉米品种,研究相应的栽培技术,并结合农机具进行了机械化生产试验,论证其可行性以及评价其生产效益。[结果]筛选出最适宜鄂西北低山丘陵地区夏播玉米机械化生产的玉米品种郑单958,播种时间控制在6月15日前最佳,种植密度为7.50×104株/hm 2最佳。[结论]研究出一套适宜低山丘陵地区的夏播玉米全程机械化生产模式,缓解了当前农村劳动力不足与老龄化问题。%Objective]To explore a suitable fully mechanized integrated production technology for the summer sowing maize in low mountain and hilly region of northwest Hubei Province ,promote the process of mechanization and improve the development of northwest mountain maize .[ Meth-od]We screened summer maize varieties, sowing date and planting density of summer corn from 2012 to 2015.Based on the results, to determine the suitable summer maize varieties and the corresponding cultivation techniques in the northwest mountain mechanized production .At the same time, we conducted the production mechanization development , so as to analyze the feasibility of this technology and its production efficiency . [ Result] Zhengdan 958 was suitable for the summer sowing maize production mechanization in low hilly land of northwest Hubei Province .The best sowing time was before June15.The best planting density was 7.5 ×10 4plants per hectare.[Conclusion]We studied mechanized production technology for summer corn in low mountain and hilly region ,which could alleviate the current rural labor shortages and the aging problem.

  13. Factors associated with seat belt use: an evaluation from the Ontario Health Survey. (United States)

    Sahai, V S; Pitblado, J R; Bota, G W; Rowe, B H


    This study examines the factors associated with seat belt use for drivers and passengers in Ontario. Using the 1990 Ontario Health Survey, a population-based survey of non-institutionalized Ontario residents, factors associated with seat belt use among drivers and passengers were identified and are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% CI). Seat belt non-use in Ontario drivers was most strongly associated with younger age (p Seat belt non-use in passengers was associated with younger age (p seat belt use has been shown to reduce injuries in the event of a crash. Any strategy to increase seat belt use in Ontario should be targeted to involve both drivers and passengers. Attention should be paid to increasing seat belt usage by younger adults, males, and especially those living in northern and rural regions.

  14. Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothast, R.J.; Schlicher, M.A. [National Corn-To-Ethanol Research Center, Southern Illinois Univ. Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL (United States)


    Ethanol has been utilized as a fuel source in the United States since the turn of the century. However, it has repeatedly faced significant commercial viability obstacles relative to petroleum. Renewed interest exists in ethanol as a fuel source today owing to its positive impact on rural America, the environment and United States energy security. Today, most fuel ethanol is produced by either the dry grind or the wet mill process. Current technologies allow for 2.5 gallons (wet mill process) to 2.8 gallons (dry grind process) of ethanol (1 gallon = 3.7851) per bushel of corn. Valuable co-products, distillers dried grains with solubles (dry grind) and corn gluten meal and feed (wet mill), are also generated in the production of ethanol. While current supplies are generated from both processes, the majority of the growth in the industry is from dry grind plant construction in rural communities across the corn belt. While fuel ethanol production is an energy-efficient process today, additional research is occurring to improve its long-term economic viability. Three of the most significant areas of research are in the production of hybrids with a higher starch content or a higher extractable starch content, in the conversion of the corn kernel fiber fraction to ethanol, and in the identification and development of new and higher-value co-products. (orig.)

  15. Application of AMMI Model in Regional Experiment of Waxy Corn%AMMI模型在鲜食糯玉米区域试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩盈; 魏志刚; 宋希云


    [Objective] To analyze the effect of gene,environment and their interaction on ear number per unit area of cown and to evaluate the stability of com varieties and their discriminating ability of places. [ Method ] AMMI model was adopted to analyze the experimental data of fresh waxy com tested in Shandong in 2010. [ Result] Three principal constituent axles explained 98.09 % interactive ear number per unit area. With the high yield and stable varieties of LN7807 and Lutiannuol08,they were extensively adaptable; Luxingnuol was higher average yield and bad stability; Lainongnuol 1 and Lunuo6 were lower average yield and better stable. The result also indicated that varieties in the test locations of e, and e2 expressed stronger resolution power; e3 and e, expressed weaker discriminating ability. [Conclusion] In spite of some limitations, AMMI model can be used to evaluate stability and adaptability of com varieties as well as explicitly analyze interaction between environment and gene. This study laid the foundation for statistic methods used to objectively evaluate yielding ability and stability of corn varieties in short period.%[目的]分析基因型、环境及基因型与环境互作对玉米品种单位面积果穗数的影响,评价山东省不同玉米品种的稳定性和地点的鉴别力.[方法]采用AMMI模型对2010年山东省鲜食糯玉米品种区域试验数据进行分析.[结果]3条主成分轴共解释了98.09%的互作平均果穗数;LN7087和鲁甜糯1号属于高产、稳产型品种,适应性广;鲁星糯1号平均果穗数较高,稳定性差;菜农糯11、鲁糯6号平均果穗数较低,稳定性较好,适应性广泛.e1和e2试点对品种的分辨力较强;e3和e5试点对品种的分辨力较弱.[结论]AMMI模型分析方法可用于评价玉米品种的稳定性和适应性,较透彻地分析环境和基因互作效应,但也有局限性.该研究可为在较短时间内建立较客观地评价玉米品种的丰产性和

  16. Investigation of the Dominant Factors Influencing the ERA15 Temperature Increments at the Subtropical and Temperate Belts with a Focus over the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Hirsch-Eshkol


    Full Text Available A stepwise multi regression-based statistics was employed for prioritizing the influence of several factors, anthropogenic and/or natural, on the ERA15 temperature increments. The 5 factors that are defined as predictors are: topography, aerosol index (TOMS-AI, tropospheric vertical velocity along with two anthropogenic factors, population density and land use changes (Land Use Change Index (LUCI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI trends. The seismic hazard assessment factor was also chosen as the “dummy variable” for validity. Special focus was given to the land use change factor, which was based on two different data sets; Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems (HITE data of historical land use/land cover data and of NDVI trends during 1982 and 1991. The increment analysis updates of temperature, increments analysis update (IAU (T, the predicted variable, was obtained from the ERA15 (1979–1993 reanalysis. The research consists of both spatial and vertical analyses, as well as the potential synergies of selected variables. The spatial geographic analysis is divided into three categories; (1 coarse region; (2 subregion analysis; and (c a “small cell” of 4° × 4° analysis covering the global domain. It is shown that the following three factors, topography, TOMS-AI and NDVI, are statistically significant (at the p < 0.05 level in the relationship with the IAU (T, which means that they are the most effective predictors of IAU (T, especially at the 700-hPa level during March–June. The 850-hPa level presents the weakest contribution to IAU (T, probably due to the contradicting influences of the various variables at this level. It was found that the land use effect, as expressed by the NDVI trends factor, shows a strong decrease with height and is one of the most influential near-surface factors over the East Mediterranean (EM, which explains up to 20% of the temperature increments in January at 700 hPa. Moreover


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz DOMEK


    Full Text Available Paper presents the state of the art gear with timing belts. Areas of use pose new challenges for designers gear. It has materials and technologies used in the production. Has been developed algorithm of design timing belts to new applications

  18. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  19. Zapatista corn: a case study in biocultural innovation. (United States)

    Brandt, Marisa


    In November 2001, Nature published a letter in which University of California Berkeley's biologists claimed to have found evidence of genetically modified (GM) DNA in regional varieties of maize in Oaxaca, even though the Mexican government had banned transgenic corn agriculture in 1998. While urban protesters marched against the genetic 'contamination' of Mexican corn by US-based agricultural biotech firms, rural indigenous communities needed a framework for understanding concepts such as GM before they could take action. This article analyzes how the indigenous organization, the Zapatistas, mobilized a program to address this novel entity. Their anti-GM project entailed educating local farmers about genetics, importing genetic testing kits, seed-banking landrace corn and sending seeds to 'solidarity growers' around the world. This article explores material-semiotic translations to explain one of the central aspects of this project, the definition and circulation of Zapatista corn--an entity defined not only through cultural geography, but also technological means. Through its circulation, Zapatista corn serves to perform a biocultural engagement with Zapatista's political project of resistance to neoliberalism. While much has been written about both regulatory policy and consumer activism against GM in the Global North, Zapatista corn also provides a case study in indigenous, anti-GM activism founded on biocultural innovation and the creation of alternative networks for circulating corn.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  1. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay. (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette


    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  2. HP metamorphic belt of the western Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The understanding of the subduction-related processes benefited by the studies of the high-pressure (HP) meta-morphic rocks from the western Alps. The most stimu-lating information was obtained from the inner part of the western Alpine belt, where most tectonic units show an early Alpine eclogite-facies recrystallisation. This is especially true for the Austroalpine Sesia Zone and the Penninic Dora-Maira massif. From the Sesia zone,which consists of a wide spectrum of continental crust lithologies recrystallised to quartz-eclogite-facies min-eral assemblages, the first finding of a jadeite-bearingmeta-granitoid has been described, supporting evidencethat even continental crust may subduct into the mantle.From the Dora-Maira massif the first occurrence of regional metamorphic coesite has been reported, open-ing the new fertile field of the ultrahigh-pressure meta-morphism (UHPM), which is now becoming the rule in the collisional orogenic belts.

  3. Effect of one-way clutch on the nonlinear vibration of belt-drive systems with a continuous belt model (United States)

    Ding, Hu; Zu, Jean W.


    This study focuses on the nonlinear steady-state response of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch. A dynamic model is established to describe the rotations of the driving pulley, the driven pulley, and the accessory shaft. Moreover, the model considers the transverse vibration of the translating belt spans for the first time in belt-drive systems coupled with a one-way clutch. The excitation of the belt-drive system is derived from periodic fluctuation of the driving pulley. In automotive systems, this kind of fluctuation is induced by the engine firing harmonic pulsations. The derived coupled discrete-continuous nonlinear equations consist of integro-partial-differential equations and piece-wise ordinary differential equations. Using the Galerkin truncation, a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained from the integro-partial-differential equations. Applying the Runge-Kutta time discretization, the time histories of the dynamic response are numerically solved for the driven pulley and the accessory shaft and the translating belt spans. The resonance areas of the coupled belt-drive system are determined using the frequency sweep. The effects of the one-way clutch on the belt-drive system are studied by comparing the frequency-response curves of the translating belt with and without one-way clutch device. Furthermore, the results of 2-term and 4-term Galerkin truncation are compared to determine the numerical convergence. Moreover, parametric studies are conducted to understand the effects of the system parameters on the nonlinear steady-state response. It is concluded that one-way clutch not only decreases the resonance amplitude of the driven pulley and shaft's rotational vibration, but also reduces the resonance region of the belt's transverse vibration.

  4. The Role of Plasma in Radiation Belt Loss. (United States)

    Jahn, J. M.; Bonnell, J. W.; Kurth, W. S.; Millan, R. M.; Goldstein, J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Blake, J. B.; Denton, R. E.


    The radiation belts are zones of relativistic electrons encircling the Earth. Their radial structure is controlled by the competition between source and loss processes. Most commonly, a two-belt structure prevails, though a more complicated three-belt structure - an inner belt plus two outer electron belts - have repeatedly been observed. The plasma conditions that enable and enhance loss-facilitating wave activity in the inner magnetosphere are still under discussion. Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves (EMIC) when the total plasma density is large (i.e., in the plasmasphere and plume). However, there is evidence that this interaction may be not as strong as thought, and that instead the field-aligned motion of lower energy ring current ions (up to a few 10's keV) may play a key role. Similarly, the exact influence of large heavy ion (O+) concentrations remains unsettled. We use 2.5+ years of Van Allen Probes observations to study the region of plasmasphere-outer belt overlap (and its vicinity). By now, the Van Allen Probes provide a complete and very dense coverage of the complete magnetosphere inside geosynchronous orbit We focus our interest on understanding the plasma conditions that can favor EMIC wave growth. We investigate the temperature anisotropy A (modified by plasma β) of the warm/hot plasma, and contrast it with the location specifics of the plasmasphere (i.e., very high total density) and the occurrence of high O+ concentrations in the overlap regions with the radiation belt(s). We present both average conditions for all parameters during a variety of geomagnetic conditions, and highlight specific loss and overlap events in an effort to establish favorable plasma conditions for relativistic electron loss during those times.

  5. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  6. 中国部分地区玉米中4种黄曲霉毒素污染调查%Aflatoxin contamination of corn samples collected from six regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀芬; 荫士安; 张宏元; 韩春卉; 赵熙; 计融


    目的 了解中国玉米中黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)、黄曲霉毒素B2(AFB2)、黄曲霉毒素G1(AFG1)和黄曲霉毒素G2(AFG2)的污染状况.方法 从吉林、河南、湖北、四川、广东、广西采集玉米样品,用HPLC测定黄曲霉毒素含量.结果 共测定279份玉米,黄曲霉毒素阳性率为75.63%,阳性样品平均浓度为44.04μg/kg,浓度范围0.20~888.30μg/kg.四川、湖北、广西、河南、广东和吉林样品的阳性率依次为90.48%、93.75%、87.50%、36.96%、91.84%和52.17%.平均浓度依次为107.93、70.98、39.65、8.06、3.70和1.15μg/kg.4种毒素中AFB1阳性率和平均浓度最高,分别为74.55%和39.64μg/kg;AFB2、AFG1和AFG2的阳性率和平均浓度依次降低,阳性率分别为58.42%、41.22%和19.71%,平均浓度分别为3.81、3.47和0.51μg/kg.结论 玉米的黄曲霉毒素污染比较普遍;调查的各地样品均有不同程度污染,总体上南方地区高于北方;4种毒素中以AFB1污染为主.%Objective To identify the aflatoxins contamination of corn in China. Methods Aflatoxins B1, B2 ,G1 and G2 in 279 corn samples collected from 6 provinces or autonomous regions were determined by HPLC. Results Aflatoxins were detected in 75.63% of 279 corn samples. The average concentration of positive samples was 44. 04μg/kg, with a range of 0.20 -888. 30μg/kg. The positive rates of samples from Sichuan, Hubei, Guangxi,Henan, Guangdong and Jilin Provinces were 90.48%, 93.75%, 87.50%, 36.96%, 91.84% and 52.17%respectively, with an average concentration of 107.93, 70.98, 39.65, 8.06, 3.70μg/kg, and 1.15μg/kg respectively. AFB1 was detected more frequently and with higher levels than the other three aflatoxins, with a positive rate of 74. 55% and an average concentration of 39. 64μg/kg. The positive rate of AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 was 58.42% , 41.22% and 19.71% respectively, and the average concentration of them was 3.81, 3.47 and 0. 51 μg/kg respectively. Conclusion Corn samples


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loinard


    Full Text Available Observaciones que utilizan la interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI por sus siglas en ingl´es pueden proveer la posición de radiofuentes compactas con una precisión del orden de 50 micro-segundos de arco. Esto es suficiente para medir la paralaje trigonométrica y los movimientos propios de cualquier objeto localizado hasta 500 pc del Sol con una precisión mejor que unos porcientos. Por ser magnéticamente activas, las estrellas jóvenes a menudo emiten emisión radio compacta detectable usando técnicas VLBI. Aquí, mostraremos cómo observaciones VLBI ya han restringido la distancia a las regiones de formación estelar cercanas más frecuentemente estudiadas (Tauro, Ofiuco, Orión, etc. y han empezado a revelar su estructura y su cinemática interna. Luego, describiremos un gran proyecto (llamado The Gould's Belt Distance Survey diseñado para proveer una vista detallada de la formación estelar en la vecindad Solar, usando observaciones VLBI.

  10. Potential economic losses to the USA corn industry from aflatoxin contamination (United States)

    Mitchell, N.J.; Bowers, E.; Hurburgh, C.; Wu, F.


    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonize food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the United States corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the US and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from $52.1 million to $1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years. PMID:26807606

  11. Potential economic losses to the US corn industry from aflatoxin contamination. (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Bowers, Erin; Hurburgh, Charles; Wu, Felicia


    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the US corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the United States and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses the probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from US$52.1 million to US$1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years.

  12. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents. (United States)

    Schichor, Aric; And Others


    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  13. Emplacement ages, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characterization of Mesozoic to early Cenozoic granitoids of the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt, Russian Far East: Crustal growth and regional tectonic evolution (United States)

    Jahn, Bor-ming; Valui, Galina; Kruk, Nikolai; Gonevchuk, V.; Usuki, Masako; Wu, Jeremy T. J.


    The Sikhote-Alin Range of the Russian Far East is an important accretionary orogen of the Western Pacific Orogenic Belt. In order to study the formation and tectonic evolution of the orogen, we performed zircon U-Pb dating, as well as geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic analyses on 24 granitoid samples from various massifs in the Primorye and Khabarovsk regions. The zircon dating revealed that the granitoids were emplaced from 131 to 56 Ma (Cretaceous to Paleogene). In the Primorye Region, granitoids in the coastal Sikhote-Alin intruded the Cretaceous Taukha Accretionary Terrane from ca. 90 to 56 Ma, whereas those along the Central Sikhote-Alin Fault zone intruded the Jurassic Samarka Accretionary Terrane during ca. 110-75 Ma. The "oldest" monzogranite (131 Ma) was emplaced in the Lermontovka area of the NW Primorye Region. Granitoid massifs along the Central Sikhote-Alin Fault zone in the Khabarovsk Region formed from 109 to 58 Ma. Thus, the most important tectonothermal events in the Sikhote-Alin orogen took place in the Cretaceous. Geochemical analysis indicates that most samples are I-type granitoids. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7040 to 0.7083, and initial Nd isotopic ratios, expressed as εNd(t) values, from +3.0 to -5.0 (mostly 0 to -5). The data suggest that the granitoid magmas were generated by partial melting of sources with mixed lithologies, including the subducted accretionary complex ± hidden Paleozoic-Proterozoic basement rocks. Based on whole-rock Nd isotopic data, we estimated variable proportions (36-77%) of juvenile component (=mantle-derived basaltic rocks) in the generation of the granitic magmas. Furthermore, zircon Hf isotopic data (εHf(t) = 0 to +15) indicate that the zircon grains crystallized from melts of mixed sources and that crustal assimilation occurred during magmatic differentiation. The quasi-continuous magmatism in the Sikhote-Alin orogen suggests that the Paleo-Pacific plate subduction was very active in the

  14. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  15. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  16. Evaluation of Cuphea as a rotation crop for control of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (United States)

    Behle, Robert W; Isbell, Terry A


    The ability to prevent significant root feeding damage to corn, Zea mays L., by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, by crop rotation with soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., has been lost in portions of the Corn Belt because this pest has adapted to laying eggs in soybean fields. Cuphea spp. has been proposed as a new broadleaf crop that may provide an undesirable habitat for rootworm adults because of its sticky surface and therefore may reduce or prevent oviposition in these fields. A 4-yr study (1 yr to establish seven rotation programs followed by 3 yr of evaluation) was conducted to determine whether crop rotation with Cuphea would provide cultural control of corn rootworm. In support of Cuphea as a rotation crop, fewer beetles were captured by sticky traps in plots of Cuphea over the 4 yr of this study compared with traps in corn and soybean, suggesting that fewer eggs may be laid in plots planted to Cuphea. Also, corn grown after Cuphea was significantly taller during vegetative growth, had significantly lower root damage ratings for 2 of 3 yr, and had significantly higher yields for 2 of 3 yr compared with continuous corn plots. In contrast to these benefits, growing Cuphea did not prevent economic damage to subsequent corn crops as indicated by root damage ratings > 3.0 recorded for corn plants in plots rotated from Cuphea, and sticky trap catches that exceeded the threshold of five beetles trap(-1) day(-1). Beetle emergence from corn plots rotated from Cuphea was significantly lower, not different and significantly higher compared with beetle emergence from continuous corn plots for 2002, 2003 and 2004 growing seasons, respectively. A high number of beetles were captured by emergence cages in plots planted to Cuphea, indicating that rootworm larvae may be capable of completing larval development by feeding on roots of Cuphea, although peak emergence lagged approximately 4 wk behind peak emergence from corn. Based on these data

  17. Orion revisited. III. The Orion Belt population (United States)

    Kubiak, K.; Alves, J.; Bouy, H.; Sarro, L. M.; Ascenso, J.; Burkert, A.; Forbrich, J.; Großschedl, J.; Hacar, A.; Hasenberger, B.; Lombardi, M.; Meingast, S.; Köhler, R.; Teixeira, P. S.


    Aims: This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the ɛ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0 Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. Methods: We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (XMM-Newton) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. Results: We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5 Myr and likely 10 Myr and estimate a total of about 2500 members, assuming a normal IMF. This new population, which we call the Orion Belt population, is essentially extinction-free, disk-free, and its spatial distribution is roughly centered near ɛ Ori, although substructure is clearly present. Conclusions: The Orion Belt population is likely the low-mass counterpart to the Ori OB Ib subgroup. Although our results do not rule out Blaauw's sequential star formation scenario for Orion, we argue that the recently proposed blue streams scenario provides a better framework on which one can explain the Orion star formation region as a whole. We speculate that the Orion Belt population could represent the evolved counterpart of an Orion nebula-like cluster. The catalog (Full Table A.1) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  18. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  19. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...

  20. Nutrient Content in Soils and Adaptability of Corn n Yuanzhou District, Guyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective] The aim was to research rational fertilization of corn in Yuanzhou District, Guyuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. [Method] Nutrient con- tents in soils in Yuanzhou District were measured with conventional analysis method and the suitable fertilization scheme of corn growth was proposed based on fertiliz- er-application rule of corn growth and nutrient balance. [Result] Soil in farmlands in Yuanzhou District was of alkalinity; organic matter, N, P and Zn were shortage; S was extremely insufficient; Fe and Mn were moderate; K was abundant; Cu would satisfy crop growth, [Conclusion] The research provides references for yield increase, reduction of chemical fertilizer and related pollution for corn growth.

  1. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth M. Lenihan


    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique ({alpha} < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (T{sub oG}), narrower range of gelatinization (R{sub G}), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization ({Delta}H{sub G}). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower T{sub oG}, wider R{sub G}, and lower {Delta}H{sub G}. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were studied by using DSC

  2. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt (United States)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.


    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  3. Study of southern corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavia Mubeen


    Full Text Available Southern corn leaf blight is considered the most devastating disease of maize crop, which causes noticeable reduction in crop yield. Inbred lines are useful because they are genotyped, multiple time phenotyping is possible, and genetic uniformity, genetic stability and its vigor make inbred lines suitable to study in diversified environment. In present investigation, 12 maize genotypes viz: NC-2703 (hybrid, NC-2003 (hybrid, SP-3 (inbred line, NCML-73 (inbred line, NRL-6 (inbred line, NRL-4 (inbred line, Soan-3 (variety, Rakaposhi (variety, Margala (variety, EV-1097 (variety, Local-Y (variety, Local-W (variety were tested against southern corn leaf blight under laboratory and field conditions. According to disease severity scale (0–5 inbreds SP-3 and NCML-73 were found highly resistant; Local-W moderately resistance and rest of the genotypes were least resistance in in vitro analysis. In field screening, Margala, NRL-4, EV-1097 showed maximum resistance followed by moderately resistant SP-3, NCML-73, NC-2703, NRL-6 and Local-Y maize genotypes. NC-2003, Rakaposhi and Soan-3 showed least resistance during field evaluation. Cochliobolus heterostrophus showed considerable effects on yield of crop. Significant difference was found in grain yield, plant height, ear height and ear weight while ear placement, ear per plant and infected ear data were non-significant. The results clearly showed the effect on maize genotypes and its yield.

  4. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma


    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  5. Prohexadione-calcium responsive alfalfa varieties ensure success of corn-interseeded alfalfa production systems (United States)

    Recent USDA-NASS data indicate alfalfa and corn were planted on about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively, in the Northeast, Great Lakes, Upper Midwest, and Northern Mountain regions the USA. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn plantin...

  6. Erosion analysis related to corn-based ethanol production in the US (United States)

    Since the Renewable Fuel Standard has encouraged the development of biofuels, the US has seen an increase in corn production for conversion to ethanol. In many of these agricultural regions, increased corn production is accompanied with increased erosion. An erosion analysis w...

  7. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia


    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  8. Western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) dispersal and adaptation to single-toxin transgenic corn deployed with block or blended refuge. (United States)

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David W; Nowatzki, Timothy M; Stanley, Bruce H; Meinke, Lance J; Flexner, J Lindsey


    A simulation model of the temporal and spatial dynamics and population genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was created to evaluate the use of block refuges and seed blends in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn (Zea mays L.). This Bt corn expresses one transgenic corn event, DAS-59122-7, that produces a binary insecticidal protein toxin (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and provides host-plant resistance. The model incorporates the latest information about larval and adult behavior. Results of this modeling effort indicate that the seed-blend scenarios in many cases produced equal or greater durability than block refuges that were relocated each year. Resistance evolved in the most likely scenarios in 10-16 yr. Our standard analysis presumed complete adoption of 59122 corn by all farmers in our hypothetical region, no crop rotation, and 100% compliance with Insect Resistant Management (IRM) regulations. As compliance levels declined, resistance evolved faster when block refuges were deployed. Seed treatments that killed the pest when applied to all seeds in a seed blend or just to seeds in Bt corn blocks delayed evolution of resistance. Greater control of the pest population by the seed treatment facilitated longer durability of the transgenic trait. Therefore, data support the concept that pyramiding a transgenic insecticidal trait with a highly efficacious insecticidal seed treatment can delay evolution of resistance.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract. (United States)


    ... filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol to produce corn silk extract. The extract may be concentrated at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract....

  10. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  11. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J


    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  12. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.


    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  13. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D


    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  14. First record of Eudorylas schreiteri (Shannon) (Diptera: Pipunculidae) as a parasitoid of the corn leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina, with a table of pipunculid-host associations in the neo tropical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virla, Eduardo G. [PROIMI-Biotecnologia, Tucuman (Argentina). Div. de Control Biologico]. E-mail:; Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo [Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico). Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias (CUCBA)]. E-mail:; Rafael, Jose A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    The big-headed fly Eudorylas schreiteri (Shannon) is recorded for the first time as an endoparasitoid of the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (DeLong and Wolcott) in Northern Argentina. A table of known Neotropical pipunculid-host associations is presented. (author)

  15. First record of Eudorylas schreiteri (Shannon) (Diptera: Pipunculidae) as a parasitoid of the corn leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina, with a table of pipunculid-host associations in the neotropical region. (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo; Rafael, José A


    The big-headed fly Eudorylas schreiteri (Shannon) is recorded for the first time as an endoparasitoid of the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott) in Northern Argentina. A table of known Neotropical pipunculid-host associations is presented.

  16. Plantas infestantes em lavouras de milho safrinha, sob diferentes manejos, no Médio Paranapanema Weed in second corn crops submitted to different systems in the Médio Paranapanema Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Duarte


    controle foi variável de acordo com o ano agrícola.A weed infestation survey was performed in 20 second corn crop areas in 1997 and in 40 areas in 1998 and 1999 after soybean planting in the Médio Paranapanema Region, São Paulo. The survey was conducted in the counties of Assis, Campos Novos, Cândido Mota, Cruzália, Florínea, Maracaí, Palmital, Pedrinhas Paulista and Platina. When the corn reached the grain filling stage, the crop weeds were evaluated by zigzag walking through the areas starting from different points to represent the whole area. The crops were classified in three types, according to the system applied: no-tillage, conventional system with disc plowing, and second corn crop in the soybean straw only. Infestation level and occurring weed species were evaluated in each crop. The weed control systems adopted were also considered, according to the herbicides applied. The most important weed species occurring in the areas were: Cenchrus echinatus, Bidens pilosa, Euphorbia heterophylla, Raphanus sativus, Digitaria horizontalis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus sp., Achyrocline satureioides, Sinapis arvensis, Sida sp., Glycine max, Avena strigosa, Eleusina indica and Sorghum halepense. The results showed a strong infestation increase of C. echinatus, which turned out to be the most important weed species in the area evaluated. R. sativus was also important and showed an expressive increase from 1997 to 1999. Weed infestations were higher in the conventional system areas, showing that this system is inferior to the others, concerning weed control. The chemical weed control most used was the mixture of (atrazine+oil plus 2,4-D, followed by (atrazine+oil and atrazine alone. No weed control was used in 22% of the crops, which were the most infested. The infestation level varied from year to year for the different weed control systems, depending on climate conditions.

  17. Determining Comparative Advantages of Corn in Optimal Cultivation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Abedi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate comparativeadvantages of corn in comparison with other competitorcrops. To do so, Linear Programming, to 2004-2005 data relatedto classic index (DRC in Kermanshah province was applied.Results showed that corn has comparative advantages in allregions of Kermanshah province while in optimal cultivationpattern of 37.5 percentages of regions in existence of rotationand 50 percentages of regions in lack of rotation, corn acreagehas been increased. In addition, comparing optimal cultivationpattern resulted from linear programming models with cropsranking based on comparative advantage indices indicated that,resources availability and limitations, tradable and non-tradableinputs costs and yield will lead to shift in production’s comparativeadvantage from one crop to another. Factors such as supportingpolicies and rotation might also have effects on comparative advantages and optimal cultivating pattern.

  18. Smoking, Sociodemographic Determinants, and Stress in the Alabama Black Belt (United States)

    Shuaib, Faisal; Foushee, H. R.; Ehiri, John; Bagchi, Suparna; Baumann, Angela; Kohler, Connie


    Purpose: In the Alabama Black Belt, poverty is high, and the educational level is low. Studies have found increased tobacco use among individuals exposed to high levels of stress. Few studies have been conducted in this region to measure smoking status, its sociodemographic determinants, and how smoking status relates to stressful environmental…

  19. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons. (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q-G; Zhou, X-Z; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y-X; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Reeves, G D; Blake, J B; Wygant, J R


    Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. Our results demonstrate that the ULF waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.

  20. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J


    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  1. The Comparison of Sugar Components in the Developing Grains of Sweet Corn and Normal Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; WANG Kong-jun; ZHANG Ji-wang


    The sugar components and their dynamic variation in the developing grains of sweet corn(Zeamays L. seccharata Sturt)and normal corn (Zea mays L. indentata Sturt) were compared. There are WSP(water-soluble polysaccharides), sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannitol and sorbitol in both sweet corn and nor-mal corn, but no maltose. Two components with different degrees of polymerization (D. P. N) were detected inthe sweet corn; only one of them was detected in the normal corn 20 days after pollination. With the develop-ment of grains, the total soluble sugar content(TSS)in sweet corn increased, but in normal corn it decreased.The dynamic variation of WSP, sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol and sorbitol in sweet and normal corngrains are different. The contents of sugar components in the sweet corn grains are higher than that in the nor-mal corn. Sweet corn accumulates less starch than normal corn.

  2. Analysis of Competitiveness and Government Policy on Rice, Corn and Soybean Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyo Ari Bowo


    Full Text Available Rice, corn and soybean is the strategic commodities and the government always maintains their availability. Indonesia still imports rice, corn and soybean and implements the policy of tariffs, taxes and subsidies on rice, corn, soybean imports and farming inputs. Central Java is the main producer of rice, corn and soybean with the contibution of Gross Regional Domestic Product of the food crop sub-sector to the highest Provincial GRDP in Indonesian. This research examines the competitiveness and the government policy towards rice, corn and soybean farming in Central Java Province. It uses secondary data of Farming Economic Analysis from the relevant agencies and scientific publications on the international price of rice, corn and soybean that is analyzed using the quantitative descriptive method with analysis tool of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The PAM result shows that the rice farming in Cilacap Regency and the corn farming in Grobogan Regency have competitive and comparative advantage. The soybean farming in Grobogan only has a comparative advantage. Overall the government policies are protective towards the rice farming in Cilacap, but not protective towards the corn and soybean farming in Grobogan. The sensitivity analysis shows that the advantages and competitiveness of the rice farming in Cilacap and the corn and soybean farming in Grobogan are sensitive towards the international price changes of commodities and fertilizers, the labor cost changes, the exchange rate fluctuations of Rupiah towards USD, and the import tariff changes of commodities.

  3. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation


    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie


    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  4. Corn prices and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, W.


    Corn has attracted the most attention as a feedstock for alcohol production. The economics are computed on the basis of fixed costs for labor, taxes, depreciation, heat, and enzymes. Changes in feedstock prices are shown to determine whether corn is used for energy or protein as cattle feed. Comparisons of gasoline refined from imported oil and gasohol are made for a range of prices per bushel and oil prices per barrel. (DCK)

  5. fusing regional and weather variability with site-specific canopy reflectance for improved in-season N fertilizer recommendation (United States)

    Corn production across the U.S. Corn belt can be often limited by the loss of nitrogen (N) due to leaching, volatilization and denitrification. The use of canopy sensors for making in-season N fertilizer applications has been proven effective in matching plant N requirements with periods of rapid N ...

  6. The Pattern and Evolution of the Permian Palaeobiogeography and Tectonic Palaeogeography in Jilin and Heilongjiang Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xiangdong; Li Xiaomin; Liu Pengju


    The orogenic belt locates between the North China plate and Siberia plate. The Permian palaeobiogeography and tectonic palaeogeography changed quickly and clearly. The line from Changchun to Yanji is an important palaeobiogeographic provincing line, which may be the collission suture belt of the North China plate and north middle massifs. The orogenic belt has been divided into 2 regions: the North middle massif region and the North Margin of North China plate, the pattern and evolution of Permian palaeobiogeography in the present area were discussed and the Permian biota mixture and its significants were analysed. Then, Based on the above, the Permian tectonic palaeogeography of the orogenic belt is reconstructed.

  7. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; D Himabindu; N Srinivasulu


    Semi-detailed gravity investigations were carried out over an area of approximately 2750 sq km with maximum N-S and E-W extents of 55 and 50km respectively in the Gadag region in the Dharwar craton with a view to obtain a clearer perception of the structural configuration of the region. From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are inferred: the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep seated fault. While the N-S trend of the Gadag schist belt is bounded on its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNW-SSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is likewise bounded by two other NW-SE major faults. Quantitative evaluation from forward modeling/inversion of five profiles in the region, assuming a density contrast of 0.29 gm/cc of the anomalous schistose body with the gneissic host rocks indicated a synclinal structure plunging to the southeast along its axis for the Gadag schist belt. The maximum width and depth from surface of the schist belt are 22km and 5.6km respectively.

  8. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan


    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  9. Subsurface Meridional Circulation in the Active Belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Hill, F; Howe, R; Komm, R


    Temporal variations of the subsurface meridional flow with the solar cycle have been reported by several authors. The measurements are typically averaged over periods of time during which surface magnetic activity existed in the regions were the velocities are calculated. The present work examines the possible contamination of these measurements due to the extra velocity fields associated with active regions plus the uncertainties in the data obtained where strong magnetic fields are present. We perform a systematic analysis of more than five years of GONG data and compare meridional flows obtained by ring-diagram analysis before and after removing the areas of strong magnetic field. The overall trend of increased amplitude of the meridional flow towards solar minimum remains after removal of large areas associated with surface activity. We also find residual circulation toward the active belts that persist even after the removal of the surface magnetic activity, suggesting the existence of a global pattern o...

  10. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint. (United States)

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck


    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury.

  11. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  12. Kuiper belts around nearby stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, R.; Liseau, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Risacher, C.; Rodmann, J.; Augereau, J-C.; Bergman, P.; Eiroa, C.; Fridlund, M.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.


    Context. The existence of dusty debris disks around a large fraction of solar type main-sequence stars, inferred from excess far-IR and submillimetre emission compared to that expected from stellar photospheres, suggests that leftover planetesimal belts analogous to the asteroid-and comet reservoirs

  13. Formation and Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt (United States)

    Bottke, William F.


    Asteroids are critical to our desire to unravel the origin of the Solar System because they supply unique, relatively pristine snapshots of the environment in which the Earth formed and evolved. This is due to the fact that, although the asteroids and Earth have followed very different evolutionary pathways, they all formed from the same set of physical processes and share a common ancestry. The asteroid belt presents a particular challenge to understanding terrestrial planet formation because of its small mass. Models of the protoplanetary disk suggest the region between 2-3 AU should contain roughly 3 Earth masses, while less than 0.001 of an Earth mass is actually found there.A long-standing explanation for the asteroid belt's small mass is that it is due to the gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn. Some have suggested protoplanets grew there before they were dynamically removed from the asteroid belt by resonances with the gas giants. This left the asteroid belt dynamically excited (which is observed) and heavily depleted in mass. More recently, however, detailed models have shown that this process produces an asteroid belt that is inconsistent with observations.Two recent models propose new ways to match asteroid belt constraints. The first, the so-called ‘Grand Tack’ scenario, uses the results of hydrodynamic simulations to show that Jupiter (and Saturn) migrated both inward and outward across the asteroid belt while interacting with the protoplanetary gas disk. The Grand Tack not only reproduces the mass and mixture of spectral types in the asteroid belt, but it also truncates the planetesimal disk from which the terrestrial planets form, potentially explaining why Mars is less massive than Earth. In a second scenario, planetesimals that form directly from cm- to meter-sized objects, known as “pebbles”, are rapidly converted to 100 to 1000 km asteroid-like object that subsequently grow by accreting even more pebbles. Pebble accretion models

  14. The Ivisartoq Greenstone Belt, Southwest Greenland: New Investigations (United States)

    Mader, M. M.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.


    The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is situated 40 km south of the Isua greenstone belt, within the Archean gneiss complex of southwest Greenland. The Isua region has been the focus of intense study because it contains some of the oldest known (~ 3.8-3.7 Ga) rocks on Earth. However, relatively little research has been conducted within the Ivisartoq belt. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is exceptionally well-exposed in three dimensions, and primary features are better preserved here than in any other Archean greenstone belt in Greenland. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt provides a unique opportunity to characterise early-middle Archean mafic-ultramafic magmatism. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt forms a southwest-closing, V-shaped synform and was subjected to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. New field mapping has concentrated on the 3 km thick southern limb of the synform, where the most complete section of the tectonostratigraphy is preserved, and where pillow structures with unambiguous way-up indicators are observed. The southern limb has been divided into two units of amphibolites: a lower unit and an upper unit. The upper amphibolite unit is characterized by heterogeneously deformed pillow structures interlayered with ultramafic amphibole schists, meta-gabbro, and with boudins of olivine-bearing ultrabasic rocks. The lower amphibolite unit is more heterogenous and intensely deformed than the upper unit. Layers of quartz-feldspathic rocks with sulfides are abundant in both the upper and lower unit and are highly sheared. A thick (~ 500m) section of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and schists in the lower unit has been the focus of preliminary geochronological work. Previously, only one U/Pb zircon age (~ 2580 Ma from a "paraschist") has been obtained from the Ivisartoq belt and was reported by Baadsgaard in 1976. Currently, laser ablation microprobe inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LAM ICP-MS) and isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry

  15. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US corn and soybeans exploratory experiment (United States)

    Malin, J. T.; Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)


    The U.S. corn and soybeans exploratory experiment is described which consisted of evaluations of two technology components of a production forecasting system: classification procedures (crop labeling and proportion estimation at the level of a sampling unit) and sampling and aggregation procedures. The results from the labeling evaluations indicate that the corn and soybeans labeling procedure works very well in the U.S. corn belt with full season (after tasseling) LANDSAT data. The procedure should be readily adaptable to corn and soybeans labeling required for subsequent exploratory experiments or pilot tests. The machine classification procedures evaluated in this experiment were not effective in improving the proportion estimates. The corn proportions produced by the machine procedures had a large bias when the bias correction was not performed. This bias was caused by the manner in which the machine procedures handled spectrally impure pixels. The simulation test indicated that the weighted aggregation procedure performed quite well. Although further work can be done to improve both the simulation tests and the aggregation procedure, the results of this test show that the procedure should serve as a useful baseline procedure in future exploratory experiments and pilot tests.

  16. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling. (United States)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E


    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  17. The Role of Seat Belt in the Prevention of Fatalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    conducted in conjunction with the FRSC on the incidence of RTA in the ... located in the South Southern region of. Nigeria. ... The relationships of seat belt use I violation ... Certain relevant information ..... traumatic brain injury in Northeast Italy.

  18. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saricks, Christoper [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  19. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  20. Seat belt sign and its significance. (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar


    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term "seat belt sign" was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries.

  1. Multicolored sweet-waxy corn variety-Caitiannuo 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Corn, as the third largest grain crop in China, isgrown on approximately 200 million ha per year. With theimprovement of people's living standard, variousrequirements for corn breeding have presented. Nowadays,the aim of corn breeding is not only for increasing yield,but also for higher quality and other special demands, suchas sweet corn, waxy corn, colored corn, oil-rich corn,lysine-rich corn, etc.

  2. Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn. (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M


    When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović


    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  4. Dynamics of the low altitude secondary proton radiation belt. (United States)

    Gusev, A A; Kohno, T; Spjeldvik, W N; Martin, I M; Pugacheva, G I; Turtelli, A


    At the interface between the upper atmosphere and the radiation belt region, there exists a secondary radiation belt consisting mainly of energetic ions that have become neutralized in the ring current and the main radiation belt and then re-ionized by collisions in the inner exosphere. The time history of the proton fluxes in the 0.64-35 MeV energy range was traced in the equatorial region beneath the main radiation belts during the three year period from 21 February 1984 to 26 March 1987 using data obtained with the HEP experiment on board the Japanese OHZORA satellite. During most of this period a fairly small proton flux of -1.2 cm-2 S-1 sr-1 was detected on geomagnetic field lines in the range 1.05 < L < 1.15. We report a few surprisingly deep and rapid flux decreases (flux reduction by typically two orders of magnitude). These flux decreases were also long in duration (lasting up to three months). We also registered abrupt flux increases where the magnitude of the proton flux enhancements could reach three orders of magnitude with an enhancement duration of 1-3 days. Possible reasons for these unexpected phenomena are discussed.

  5. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel


    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q.


    Background Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and...

  6. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  7. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids. (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John


    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  8. Ring current and radiation belts (United States)

    Williams, D. J.


    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  9. Transgenic corn for control of the European corn borer and corn rootworms: a survey of Midwestern farmers' practices and perceptions. (United States)

    Wilson, Ted A; Rice, Marlin E; Tollefson, Jon J; Pilcher, Clinton D


    In 2001, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1000 corn, Zea mays L., farmers in each of five states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska) to evaluate their perceptions of transgenic corn designed to control the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. Respondents returned 1,313 surveys (26.2%). Farmers with small acreages planted a greater portion of their corn (54.5%) with transgenic corn for control of European corn borer than farmers with large farms (39.2%). The majority (75.2%) of farmers use crop rotation to control the corn rootworm. Nine insecticides comprised 92.2% of the commercial soil insecticides used for control of corn rootworm larvae. More than one-third of the farmers in Illinois (33.5%) and Indiana (39.4%) treated first-year corn for corn rootworm, primarily due to western corn rootworm egg laying in soybean, Glycine max (L.). When asked whether they would plant transgenic corn protected against the corn rootworm, 35.0% of farmers responded they would, whereas 40.5% said they were unsure. The two greatest farmer concerns about transgenic corn were the ability to sell harvested grain (59.3%) and additional technology fees (54.8%). Respondents indicated that less farmer exposure to insecticide (69.9%) and less insecticide in the environment (68.5%) were the primary benefits of transgenic corn. Farmers who had no concerns about transgenic corn for rootworm control were more likely to purchase the product (46.8%). The most common refuge-planting options farmers favored were adjacent fields (30.9%) and split fields (29.9%). Farmers (21.1%) observed a yield increase (23.7 bu/ha [9.6 bu/acre]) when using transgenic corn for European corn borer control compared with non-transgenic corn. These data can help in understanding farmers' knowledge and concerns regarding transgenic corn. This information may be of value to guide researchers, extension specialists, and policy makers in designing

  10. Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Whole Corn Stover and Its Morphological Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Li


    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and ruminal degradability of corn stover in three maize-planting regions in Qiqihaer, Heilongjiang Province, China. The whole stover was separated into seven morphological fractions, i.e., leaf blade, leaf sheath, stem rind, stem pith, stem node, ear husk, and corn tassel. The assessment of nutritive value of corn stover and its fractions was performed based on laboratory assays of the morphological proportions, chemical composition, and in situ degradability of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The chemical composition of corn stover was significantly different from plant top to bottom (p<0.05. Among the whole corn stover and seven morphological fractions, leaf blade had the highest crude protein (CP content and the lowest NDF and ADF contents (p<0.05, whereas stem rind had the lowest CP content and the highest ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL contents (p<0.05. Ear husk had significantly higher NDF content and relatively lower ADL content than other corn stover fractions. Overall, the effective degradability of DM, NDF, and ADF in rumen was the highest in leaf blade and stem pith, followed by ear husk. The results indicate that leaf blade, ear husk, and stem pith potentially have higher nutritive values than the other fractions of corn stover. This study provides reference data for high-efficiency use of corn stover in feeding ruminants.

  11. Taiwan’s Regional Economic Foundation and Feasible Approaches in Participation in “One Belt One Road Initiative”%台湾参与“一带一路”建设的区域经济基础与可行途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华晓红; 宫毓雯; 张裕仁


    This paper makes a careful analysis of Taiwan’s economic foundation in its participation in the Belt and Road In-itiative ( BRI) and, at the same time, a detailed discussion of its feasible patterns and approaches as well as the mainland’s policies towards it. As an important platform for the mainland’s future reform and economic development, the BRI provides a new opportunity for both sides to further deepen and expand their economic and trade cooperation. The research shows that, as Taiwan has laid for a long time the foundation of its strong economic cooperation with participating capability within the regions or countries along the Belt and Road, it may provides a favorable condition for both sides to join hand in hand for opening up the Belt and Road market. On the other hand, with the help of the Belt and Road platform, the cross-Strait economic and trade cooperation will be likely to break through the existing constraints on the bilateral economic and trade exchanges and create a new pattern in which the two sides jointly open up the third market and participate in global competition.%本文重点分析台湾参与“一带一路”的经济基础,并就其参与模式、途径,以及大陆政策展开讨论。“一带一路”建设作为中国大陆未来改革开放和经济发展的重要平台,为深化和扩展两岸经贸合作提供了新的契机。研究表明,台湾长期布局“一带一路”沿线国家及地区,在区域内具有比较深厚的经济合作基础和参与能力,为两岸携手开辟“一带一路”市场提供了条件。两岸经贸合作将有可能借助“一带一路”平台,突破以往双边经贸交流的局限,创造携手开辟第三方市场、参与全球竞争的新格局。

  12. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E


    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  13. East Central Uplift Belt of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Mosuowandong ( Z3 ) and Dongdaohaizi (Z4) are two bidding blocks located in the east part of central uplift Belt, the hinterland of Junggar Basin. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It totally covers an area of 8 100km2. Topographically, the two blocks are quite gentle with elevation of 380-400 m on average. The north part is desert and the south area is good for farming. There are three ephemeral streams flowing across the desert from south to north. The ground water is buried at the depth ranging from 6 to 8 m. It belongs to continental climate with the annually averaged precipitation of 80 mm. The traffic is rather convenient in the south part of both blocks. There are several sand-paved roads and two asphalt roads connected with the highway from Karamay to Urumqi City.

  14. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  15. A Chaos Conveyor Belt (United States)

    Schmidt, Britney E.


    A critical question for the habitability of Europa remains: how does the ice shell work? The detection of shallow subsurface lenses below Europa’s chaos implies that the ice shell is recycled rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. While this is not the first time liquid water has been implicated for Europa, the location of these features combined with new perspective on their dynamics frames the question in a new way. Melt lenses are intriguing potential habitats. Moreover, their formation requires the existence of impurities within the upper ice shell that may be sources of energy for microorganisms. Geomorphic evidence also exists for hydraulic redistribution of fluids both vertically and horizontally through pores and fractures. This process, observed in terrestrial ice shelves, may preserve liquid water within the ice matrix over many kilometers from the source. Horizontal transport of material may produce interconnectivity between distinct regions of Europa, thus preserving habitable conditions within the ice over a longer duration. At a surface age of 40-90 Myr, with 25-50% covered by chaos terrain, Europa's resurfacing rate is very high and water likely plays a significant role. Because of the vigor of overturn implied by this new work, it is likely that surface and subsurface materials are well-mixed within the largest and deepest lenses, providing a mechanism for bringing oxidants and other surface contaminants to the deeper ice shell where it can reach the ocean by convective or compositional effects. The timescales over which large lenses refreeze are large compared to the timescales for vertical transport, while the timescales for smaller lenses are comparable to or shorter than convective timescales. Moreover, marine ice accretion at the bottom of the ice shell may be contributing to a compositional buoyancy engine that would change the makeup of the ice shell. From this point of view, we evaluate the habitability of Europa’s ice and

  16. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components. (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X


    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  17. Intelligent seat belt reminders-do they change driver seat belt use in Europe? (United States)

    Lie, Anders; Krafft, Maria; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes


    Many modern cars have seat belt reminders (SBRs) using loud and clear sound and light signals. These systems have developed over the last few years. This study investigates how these modern systems influence the seat belt use in real-life traffic in built-up areas in some European cities. The data were collected by field observations in major cities in six European countries and in five cities around Sweden. A selection of car models having seat belt reminders (SBR) were compared to a fleet of similar car models without such reminders. A significant difference in seat belt wearing rate was found in the cars with seat belt reminders. For all observations, the total seat belt wearing rate was 97.5% +/- 0.5% in cars with SBR, while it was 85.8% +/- 0.8% in cars without. There were differences in seat belt use in the different observation locations. The lowest seat belt use was found in Brussels/Belgium with a use rate of 92.6 +/- 2.2% in cars with seat belt reminders and 69.6 +/- 3.1% in cars not fitted with reminders. The highest seat belt use was found in Paris/France where 99.8 +/- 0.4% of the drivers used the seat belt in cars with reminders and 96.9 +/-1.1% were belted in cars without reminders. Seat belt reminders fulfilling Euro NCAP's seat belt reminder protocol are increasing the seat belt use in daily traffic significantly. Around 80% (82.2% +/- 8.6%) of the drivers not putting the belt on without a seat belt reminder do so in cars equipped with an SBR that has a light signal and an associated loud and clear sound signal.

  18. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schievano Elena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003. Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an

  19. Orion revisited III. The Orion Belt population

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, K; Bouy, H; Sarro, L M; Ascenso, J; Burkert, A; Forbrich, J; Großschedl, J; Hacar, A; Hasenberger, B; Lombardi, M; Meingast, S; Köhler, R; Teixeira, P S


    This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the $\\epsilon$ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0\\,Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (\\textit{XMM-Newton}) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2\\,000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5\\, Myr and likely $\\sim10$\\,Myr and estimate a total of about 2\\,500 mem...

  20. Structure of Possible Long-lived Asteroid Belts

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W


    High resolution simulations are used to map out the detailed structure of two long-lived stable belts of asteroid orbits in the inner Solar system. The Vulcanoid belt extends from 0.09 to 0.20 astronomical units (au), though with a gaps at 0.15 and 0.18 au corresponding to de-stabilising mean motion resonances with Mercury and Venus. As collisional evolution proceeds slower at larger heliocentric distances, kilometre-sized or larger Vulcanoids are most likely to be found in the region between 0.16 and 0.18 au. The optimum location in which to search for Vulcanoids is at geocentric ecliptic longitudes roughly between 9 and 10 degrees. Dynamically speaking, the Earth-Mars belt between 1.08-1.28 au is an extremely stable repository for asteroids on nearly circular orbits. It is interrupted at 1.21 au due to the 3:4 commensurability with the Earth, while secular resonances with Saturn are troublesome beyond 1.17 au. These detailed maps of the fine structure of the belts can be used to plan search methodologies. S...

  1. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. (United States)

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E


    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  2. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization (United States)

    Daglis, I. A.; Bourdarie, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Santolik, O.; Horne, R.; Mann, I.; Turner, D.


    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. (The members of the MAARBLE team are: I. A. Daglis, S. Bourdarie, Y. Khotyaintsev, O. Santolik, R. Horne, I. Mann, D. Turner, A. Anastasiadis, V. Angelopoulos, G. Balasis, E. Chatzichristou, C. Cully, M. Georgiou, S. Glauert, B. Grison, I. Kolmasova, D. Lazaro, E. Macusova, V. Maget, C. Papadimitriou, G. Ropokis, I. Sandberg, M. Usanova.)

  3. Chemical composition, fermentation characteristics, digestibility, and degradability of silages from two amaranth varieties (Kharkovskiy and Sem), corn, and an amaranth-corn combination. (United States)

    Rahjerdi, N Karimi; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J


    Amaranth ( sp.) is a C plant adapted to poor soils and regions with limited rainfall and high temperatures. The plant is characterized by a yield of up to 85 t/ha, CP concentration of up to 28.5% of DM, and DM digestibility of 59 to 79%, which may vary depending on the species and variety. The potential of this plant as a forage source for ruminants has not been completely considered. This study aimed at assessing the nutritive value of silages from corn (), 2 amaranth () varieties (var. Kharkovskiy and Sem), and an amaranth-corn combination by chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vivo digestibility, and in situ DM degradability. Treatments evaluated were ensiled corn var. hybrid SC 704 (EC), ensiled amaranth var. Kharkovskiy (EK), ensiled amaranth var. Sem (ES), ensiled corn-amaranth var. Kharkovskiy mixture, and ensiled corn-amaranth var. Sem mixture. Five sheep were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design experiment to determine in vivo digestibility. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ DM degradability using 3 ruminally fistulated sheep. Compared with EK, ES had greater ash-free NDF (NDFom) and CP concentrations. In comparison with EC, the ensiled amaranths and corn-amaranth mixtures had a greater ( Silage pH and ammonia-N concentration were the least ( silages. The in vivo DM digestibility ( = 0.035) and ME ( = 0.030) of EK and ES were greater than those of EC. Effective degradability of DM in EK and ES was less ( silages. Overall, mixing amaranth with corn improved concentration of CP and digestibility of the mixed corn-amaranth silages and has the potential of completing corn in ruminant diets.

  4. Improved corn protein based articles (United States)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  5. Compatibility with corn: N credits (United States)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  6. 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database (United States)


    TR-14-18 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. March...the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database”, AFRL-VS-PS-TR- 2006-1079, Air Force Research Laboratory...Roth, B., “Blue Ribbon Panel and Support Work Assessing the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  8. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study]. (United States)

    Dudov, S V


    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study.

  9. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain


    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  10. Effect of corn stover compositional variability on minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Templeton, David W; Humbird, David; Aden, Andy


    A techno-economic sensitivity analysis was performed using a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2011 biochemical conversion design model varying feedstock compositions. A total of 496 feedstock near infrared (NIR) compositions from 47 locations in eight US Corn Belt states were used as the inputs to calculate minimum ethanol selling price (MESP), ethanol yield (gallons per dry ton biomass feedstock), ethanol annual production, as well as total installed project cost for each composition. From this study, the calculated MESP is $2.20 ± 0.21 (average ± 3 SD) per gallon ethanol.

  11. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em


    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  12. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  13. Analysis of the Construction of Domestic Inter-governmental Relations in Sub-regional Economic Cooperation--The Silk Road Economic Belt as an Example%次区域经济合作国内纵向府际关系构建分析——以丝绸之路经济带为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓剑; 唐兴和


    Deficiencies exist in studies on domestic inter-governmental relations in sub-regional economic cooperation, especially after the sub-regional economic cooperation strategy-the silk road economic belt-was proposed and implemented, which demands more research in the field of inter-governmental relations. The main feature of domestic inter-governmental relations in sub-regional economic cooperation is the pres-ence of an asymmetry game. The resulting equilibrium from the game between the investment and industries creates dilemmas. Focusing on the reasons leading to these dilemmas and the expected goal of the sub-region-al economic cooperation, this paper proposes a framework for the domestic inter-governmental relations fol-lowing two different patterns:top-down and bottom-up, whereupon suggestions are made regarding the do-mestic inter-governmental relations on the silk road economic belt. The innovation lies in the introduction of international dimension in the analysis of domestic inter-governmental relations in sub-regional economic co-operation and the proposal of establishing possible international economic links and industry allocation prin-ciples.%学界对次区域经济合作国内纵向府际关系的国际性研究不足,特别是丝绸之路经济带这一次区域经济合作战略构想的提出及实施,使其间纵向府际关系具有进一步研究需要.次区域经济合作国内纵向府际关系表现为府际非对称博弈.投资和产业博弈的均衡结果经常形成现实困境,针对困境产生的原因,围绕实现次区域经济合作预期目标,从自上而下和自下而上两个维度系统地构建了次区域经济合作国内纵向府际应然关系框架,据此对丝绸之路经济带国内纵向府际关系构建提出建议.主要创新在于首次解析次区域经济合作国内纵向府际关系的国际性特点,提出次区域经济合作国际经济联系可发生性国内产业配置原则等.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Corn is a nitrogen-intensive crop, and the use of management practices such as inoculation of the seed with diazotrophic bacteria, which can maximize crop productivity and reduce the need of nitrogen fertilizers, may result in lower production costs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation of corn seed with Azospirillum brasilense and controlled addition of nitrogen to topdressing on the nutrition, production components, and productivity of crop grain. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with four replications in a 2 × 5 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of inoculation or not of corn seed with A. brasilense (at 100 mL per 25 kg of seed and five nitrogen (N levels in topdressing (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg N ha-1 from urea [45% N] were applied when the corn was in the phenological growth stage V6. Foliar macronutrients, foliar chlorophyll index (FCI, production components, and yield of corn grain were valuated. Inoculation of corn seeds with A. brasilense increased plant height and grain yield. Fertilization in topdressing, with N levels up to 120 kg ha-1, linearly increased the foliar nutrients and productivity of corn cultivated in the spring/summer in the low-altitude Cerrado region of Brazil.

  15. Effects of different mechanized soil fertilization methods on corn nutrient accumulation and yield (United States)

    Shi, Qingwen; Bai, Chunming; Wang, Huixin; Wu, Di; Song, Qiaobo; Dong, Zengqi; Gao, Depeng; Dong, Qiping; Cheng, Xin; Zhang, Yahao; Mu, Jiahui; Chen, Qinghong; Liao, Wenqing; Qu, Tianru; Zhang, Chunling; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Yifei; Han, Xiaori


    Aim: Experiments for mechanized corn soil fertilization were conducted in Faku demonstration zone. On this basis, we studied effects on corn nutrient accumulation and yield traits at brown soil regions due to different mechanized soil fertilization measures. We also evaluated and optimized the regulation effects of mechanized soil fertilization for the purpose of crop yield increase and production efficiency improvement. Method: Based on the survey of soil background value in the demonstration zone, we collected plant samples during different corn growth periods to determine and make statistical analysis. Conclusions: Decomposed cow dung, when under mechanical broadcasting, was able to remarkably increase nitrogen and potassium accumulation content of corns at their ripe stage. Crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage would remarkably increase phosphorus accumulation content of corn plants. When compared with top application, crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage would remarkably increase corn thousand kernel weight (TKW). Mechanized broadcasting of granular organic fertilizer and crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage, when compared with surface application, were able to boost corn yield in the in the demonstration zone.

  16. Corning: supplier of multiple optical materials for telescope projects (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Navan, W. David; Edwards, Mary J.


    Corning manufactures several optical materials that can be used as reflective and transmissive optics for telescope optical systems. Corning can manufacture these materials in a large range of sizes and configurations. This paper discusses Corning's portfolio of optical materials and their properties, along with Corning's manufacturing capabilities using these materials. Specific examples of optical blanks that Corning has supplied will be discussed.

  17. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  18. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases. (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  19. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue? (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher


    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  20. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G


    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats.

  1. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  2. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt (United States)

    Anderson, Terry


    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  3. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack o

  4. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system. (United States)

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis


    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  5. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations. (United States)

    Soule, David


    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  6. Seat belt use in cars with air bags. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K


    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  7. Causal analyzing on regional economic disparities based on the spatial economic model: A case study of Lan-Xin railway radiation belt%基于空间计量经济模型的区域经济差异成因分析——以兰新铁路辐射带为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建豹; 白永平; 李建虎; 侯成成


    利用空间分析法确定兰新铁路辐射带的辐射范围,以县级行政单元为基本研究单元,综合运用SPSS、GeoDA和ARCGIS分析区域经济差异后发现:在兰新铁路辐射带内,兰州市市辖区、乌鲁木齐市市辖区、嘉峪关市、哈密市、阿拉善左旗的经济发展水平明显比其它地区高,甘肃段内区域经济差异较大,新疆段内区域经济差异较小;区域经济空间集聚特征明显;利用空间计量经济模型分析区域经济差异成因可知,财政收入对经济发展具有明显的负面影响,市场规模、经济结构、工业化、虚拟变量对经济发展具有明显的促进作用,其中虚拟变量与经济发展水平的回归系数最大,说明农村城市化对经济发展的促进作用最大。区域投资水平对经济发展影响不明显。%In this paper we discussed economic development disparities and the causes by taking administrative county units in the radiation range through spatial analysis of GIS.Based on the ten relative economic indices in Lan-Xin railway radiation belt,the general score of regional economic level was calculated by SPSS,and the disparities of regional economic level in Lan-Xin railway radiation belt were analyzed by means of GIS spatial analysis provided by ARCGIS and GeoDA.Based on studying on the economic development disparities,some conclusions were drawn as follows.In Lan-Xin railway radiation belt,the regional economic level is significantly higher in the municipal of Lanzhou city,the municipal of Urumqi city,Jiayuguan city,Hami city,Alxa Left Banner than others.The economic disparities is larger in Gansu section,it is comparatively smaller in Xinjiang section.Regional economy takes on significantly spatial agglomeration.Based on the spatial econometric models,we analyzed the causes of regional economic disparities,and got some conclusions as follows.Financial receipt has obvious negative impact on economic development.Market scale

  8. Trapped radiation belts of saturn: first look. (United States)

    Fillius, W; Ip, W H; McIlwain, C E


    Pioneer 11 has made the first exploration of the magnetosphere and trapped radiation belts of Saturn. Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between Earth's and Jupiter's, with trapped particle intensities comparable to Earth's. The outer region of Saturn's magnetosphere contains lower energy radiation and is variable with time; the inner region contains higher energy particles. The pitch angle distributions show a remarkable variety of field-aligned and locally mirroring configurations. The moons and especially the rings of Saturn are effective absorbers of trapped particles; underneath the rings, the trapped radiation is completely absorbed. We confirm the discovery of a new ring, called the F ring, a new division, the Pioneer division, and a moon, called 1979 S 2. The latter has probably been seen from Earth. There may be evidence for more bodies like 1979 S 2, but at this stage the interpretation of the data is ambiguous. Using particle diffusion rates, we estimate that the cross-sectional area of the F ring is > 7 x 10(13) square centimeters and that the opacity is > 10(-5). Cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay should be looked into as a source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  9. Trapped radiation belts of Saturn - First look (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W. H.; Mcilwain, C. E.


    Data on the magnetosphere of Saturn obtained with the trapped radiation detector package on board the Pioneer 11 spacecraft is reported. Radiation belt profiles determined by the trapped radiation detectors on Pioneer 10 and 11 indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between those of the earth and Jupiter, with particle intensities similar to those of the earth. The outer region of the Saturn magnetosphere is found to contain particles of lower energy than the outer region, being strongly influenced by the time-varying solar wind. The moons and rings of Saturn are observed to be effective absorbers of trapped particles, confirming the discoveries of the F ring, the Pioneer ring division and the moon 1979 S 2. Particle diffusion rates are used to estimate a cross-sectional area of greater than 7 x 10 to the 13th sq cm and an opacity greater than 0.00001 for the F ring. It is suggested that cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay be studied as a possible source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  10. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony


    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  11. Properties of Hermean plasma belt: Numerical simulations and comparison with MESSENGER data (United States)

    Herčík, David; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Å tverák, Å. těpán.; Hellinger, Petr


    Using a global hybrid model and test particle simulations we present a detailed analysis of the Hermean plasma belt structure. We investigate characteristic properties of quasi-trapped particle population characteristics and its behavior under different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field. The plasma belt region is constantly supplied with solar wind protons via magnetospheric flanks and tail current sheet region. Protons inside the plasma belt region are quasi-trapped in the magnetic field of Mercury and perform westward drift along the planet. This region is well separated by a magnetic shell and has higher average temperatures and lower bulk proton current densities than the surrounding area. On the dayside the population exhibits loss cone distribution function matching the theoretical loss cone angle. The simulation results are in good agreement with in situ observations of MESSENGER's (MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry, and Ranging) MAG and FIPS instruments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon


    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P generally occurs in soils as the anions H2PO4- or HPO4-2 depending on soil pH. These anions readily react with soil cations such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Crop recovery of applied phosphate fertilizer can be quite low during the season of application. In addition, the large amounts of crop residue present in no-tillage production systems can lower soil temperature thus reducing root growth and nutrient uptake of plants even on soils not low in available Phosphorus (P. Specialty Fertilizer Products, Leawood, KS has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of the applied P in available form for plant uptake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of AVAIL treated P-fertilizer on growth, P-uptake and yield of irrigated corn (Zea mays L. grown in a no-tillage production system. A 3-year experiment was conducted from 2001-2003 at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field, located near Scandia, KS, on a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Arquistoll. Treatments consisted of three rates of P with or without AVAIL. A no P check plot was also included. When averaged over the years and P rates, the use of AVAIL increased yield of corn by 1.1 Mg ha-1. AVAIL also increased corn dry weight at the six-leaf stage, whole plant P uptake at the six-leaf stage and P concentration at mid-silk. The use of AVAIL proved beneficial in overcoming many of the problems associated with P nutrition in corn. AVAIL consistently increased P uptake and yield in this experiment.

  13. Avaliação dos atributos físicos do solo em consórcio de forrageiras e milho em sucessão com soja em região de cerrados Evaluation of soil physical properties in a forage-corn intercropping in succession with soybean in the cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Zocoler de Mendonça


    V4 and corn without intercropping (control, in the experimental area of UNESP, campus Ilha Solteira. Summer soybean was sown on the crop remains of previous treatments. To determine macro and microporosity, total porosity and bulk density soil was sampled twice, after the maize and after the soybean harvest. From the results, it was concluded that in Cerrado region, the crop succession improved soil macroporosity, total porosity and bulk density, regardless of the use of forages intercropped with maize.

  14. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation. (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li


    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota (United States)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  16. Optical spectroscopy and photometry of main-belt asteroids with a high orbital inclination (United States)

    Iwai, Aya; Itoh, Yoichi; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Gupta, Ranjan; Sen, Asoke; Takahashi, Jun


    We carried out low-resolution optical spectroscopy of 51 main-belt asteroids, most of which have highly-inclined orbits. They are selected from D-type candidates in the SDSS-MOC 4 catalog. Using the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope and the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics 2 m telescope in India, we determined the spectral types of 38 asteroids. Among them, eight asteroids were classified as D-type asteroids. Fractions of D-type asteroids are 3.0+/-1.1 for low orbital inclination main-belt asteroids and 7.3+/-2.0 for high orbital inclination main-belt asteroids. The results of our study indicate that some D-type asteroids were formed within the ecliptic region between the main belt and Jupiter, and were then perturbed by Jupiter.

  17. Production of ethyl alcohol from corn silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H.J.; Ponitz, H.


    Corn silage may be employed as a raw material for the production of ethyl alcohol when starch is first cracked by pressure cooking and subsequently saccharified by microbial amalyses. Cracking conditions are: pressure increase 1.6 atmosphere within 60 minutes; maximum maintained for 35 minutes. The fermentation is complete after 72 hours. Extract decreases of fermented mashes made from corn silage are less than when dried corn is used. In the most advantageous case the degree of fermentation was -0.2 weight % of the extract. The maximum yields of alcohol were 26.0.1. pure alcohol/100 kg corn silage and 61.2.1. pure alcohol/100 kg starch. The latter is 3.9.1. pure alcohol lower than when dried corn was used. Despite the high bacterial infection of corn silage practically infection-free processing is assured.

  18. Global-scale coherence modulation of radiation-belt electron loss from plasmaspheric hiss. (United States)

    Breneman, A W; Halford, A; Millan, R; McCarthy, M; Fennell, J; Sample, J; Woodger, L; Hospodarsky, G; Wygant, J R; Cattell, C A; Goldstein, J; Malaspina, D; Kletzing, C A


    Over 40 years ago it was suggested that electron loss in the region of the radiation belts that overlaps with the region of high plasma density called the plasmasphere, within four to five Earth radii, arises largely from interaction with an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss. This interaction strongly influences the evolution of the radiation belts during a geomagnetic storm, and over the course of many hours to days helps to return the radiation-belt structure to its 'quiet' pre-storm configuration. Observations have shown that the long-term electron-loss rate is consistent with this theory but the temporal and spatial dynamics of the loss process remain to be directly verified. Here we report simultaneous measurements of structured radiation-belt electron losses and the hiss phenomenon that causes the losses. Losses were observed in the form of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by hiss-scattered electrons colliding with the Earth's atmosphere after removal from the radiation belts. Our results show that changes of up to an order of magnitude in the dynamics of electron loss arising from hiss occur on timescales as short as one to twenty minutes, in association with modulations in plasma density and magnetic field. Furthermore, these loss dynamics are coherent with hiss dynamics on spatial scales comparable to the size of the plasmasphere. This nearly global-scale coherence was not predicted and may affect the short-term evolution of the radiation belts during active times.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly...

  20. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production


    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi


    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  1. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.


    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  2. Development of a new Global RAdiation Belt model: GRAB (United States)

    Sicard-Piet, Angelica; Lazaro, Didier; Maget, Vincent; Rolland, Guy; Ecoffet, Robert; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Boscher, Daniel; Standarovski, Denis


    The well known AP8 and AE8 NASA models are commonly used in the industry to specify the radiation belt environment. Unfortunately, there are some limitations in the use of these models, first due to the covered energy range, but also because in some regions of space, there are discrepancies between the predicted average values and the measurements. Therefore, our aim is to develop a radiation belt model, covering a large region of space and energy, from LEO altitudes to GEO and above, and from plasma to relativistic particles. The aim for the first version is to correct the AP8 and AE8 models where they are deficient or not defined. At geostationary, we developed ten years ago for electrons the IGE-2006 model which was proven to be more accurate than AE8, and used commonly in the industry, covering a broad energy range, from 1keV to 5MeV. From then, a proton model for geostationary orbit was also developed for material applications, followed by the OZONE model covering a narrower energy range but the whole outer electron belt, a SLOT model to asses average electron values for 2file system to switch between models, in order to obtain at each location in space and energy point the most reliable value. Of course, the way the model is developed is well suited to add new local developments or to include international partnership. This model will be called the GRAB model, as Global Radiation Belt model. We will present first beta version during this conference.

  3. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) (United States)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  4. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  5. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He


    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  6. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  7. Relevance of traditional integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for commercial corn producers in a transgenic agroecosystem: a bygone era? (United States)

    Gray, Michael E


    The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pest management (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to

  8. An assessment of alternative agricultural management practice impacts on soil carbon in the corn belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, GA (United States)


    This impact of alternative management practices on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and impacts of management practices has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and impacts of management practices are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the impacts of alternative management practices on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural practices, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.

  9. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  10. Computer-aided design of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolewski, B.; Pytel, J.


    Possibilities are discussed for using mathematical models of belt conveyors for development of computer-aided design of conveyors for coal mining. Examples of optimization tasks and methods for their solution using computerized simulation are analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by an algorithm used to design a starter for the drive system of a belt conveyor. Electromagnetic moment and starting current are used as optimization criteria. A simplified model of a belt conveyor is used. The model consists of an equation of motion with variable braking moment and variable moment of inertia. 3 references.

  11. Collisional evolution of the early asteroid belt (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, Ricardo; Brunini, Adrián


    We present numerical results obtained by a simulation of the collisional process between asteroids and scattered comets from the Uranus-Neptune zone. This mechanism allows the use of single exponent incremental size distributions for the initial belt reaching a final distribution that matches the observed population very well. Since the cometary bombardment was extremely efficient removing mass from the primordial asteroid belt in a very short time, we always obtained belts with total masses less than 0.001 M ⊕ after ≈ 2×10 7 yrs. This result allows processes with an important initial mass preserving Vestas basaltic crust.

  12. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuMoucheng; ChenXiaoyi


    Three corn varieties,supper-sweet corn(S),standard-sweet corn(M),corn-non corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein,vitamin,total sugar showed as parabola.Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually.Total sugar,protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn.VE and VC were very plentiful,and lysine was high.Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  13. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil. (United States)


    ... corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols.... (b) Specifications. Corn endosperm oil conforms to the following specifications: Total fatty...

  14. Modeling the Inner Magnetosphere: Radiation Belts, Ring Current, and Composition (United States)

    Glocer, Alex


    The space environment is a complex system defined by regions of differing length scales, characteristic energies, and physical processes. It is often difficult, or impossible, to treat all aspects of the space environment relative to a particular problem with a single model. In our studies, we utilize several models working in tandem to examine this highly interconnected system. The methodology and results will be presented for three focused topics: 1) Rapid radiation belt electron enhancements, 2) Ring current study of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs), Dst, and plasma composition, and 3) Examination of the outflow of ionospheric ions. In the first study, we use a coupled MHD magnetosphere - kinetic radiation belt model to explain recent Akebono/RDM observations of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. In the second study, we present initial results of a ring current study using a newly coupled kinetic ring current model with an MHD magnetosphere model. Results of a dst study for four geomagnetic events are shown. Moreover, direct comparison with TWINS ENA images are used to infer the role that composition plays in the ring current. In the final study, we directly model the transport of plasma from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. We especially focus on the role of photoelectrons and and wave-particle interactions. The modeling methodology for each of these studies will be detailed along with the results.

  15. Metallogenic belt and mineral deposit maps of northeast Asia (United States)

    Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Seminskiy, Zhan V.


    This report contains explanatory material and summary tables for lode mineral deposits and placer districts (Map A, sheet 1) and metallogenic belts of Northeast Asia (Maps B, C, and D on sheets 2, 3, and 4, respectively). The map region includes eastern Siberia, southeastern Russia, Mongolia, northeast China, and Japan. A large group of geologists—members of the joint international project, Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia—prepared the maps, tables, and introductory text. This is a cooperative project with the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian National University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Technical University, Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia, Geological Research Institute, Jilin University, China Geological Survey, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Japan, and U.S. Geological Survey. This report is one of a series of reports on the mineral resources, geodynamics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia. Companion studies include (1) a detailed geodynamics map of Northeast Asia (Parfenov and others, 2003); (2) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000); (3) a series of metallogenic belt maps (Obolenskiy and others, 2004); (4) location map of lode mineral deposits and placer districts of Northeast Asia (Ariunbileg and others, 2003b); (5) descriptions of metallogenic belts (Rodionov and others, 2004); (6) a database on significant metalliferous and selected nonmetalliferous lode deposits and selected placer districts (Ariunbileg and others, 2003a); and (7) a series of summary project publications (Ariunbileg and 74 others, 2003b).

  16. Adubação nitrogenada para alto rendimento de milho em plantio direto na região centro-sul do Paraná Nitrongen-fertilizer recommendation for high corn yields under no-tillage in the South-Central region of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Vieira Fontoura


    .Nitrogen (N is required in large quantities by corn and its supply causes technical concerns related to crop performance and profitability, and environmental concerns in view of the high risk of nitrate leaching. Results of 61 field experiments conducted through 13 years, in a cooperative effort of the Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, were analyzed and interpreted aiming at establishing a N fertilizer indication for high corn yields, adjusted to the use of winter cover crops in no-till soils in the South-Central region of Parana, Brazil. The urea-N rates were calculated based on the N required for different corn yield levels (6-8, 8.1-10, 10.1-12 and 12.1-14 t ha-1 and taking into account the N availability in soils with different soil organic matter contents in the layer 0-10 cm ( 60 g kg-1, the effect of winter cover crops (grass, leguminous, grass-legume consortium, and wild radish on N availability, and the efficiency of N fertilizer. The indicated rates of urea-N were closely related to the N rates for maximum economic efficiency (MEE for different soil OM contents, cover crop and corn yield (N indication = 39+0.80MEE, R² =0.74, n=20, p=0.03 corroborating the adequacy of this N indication for corn. The N rates were closely correlated with the rates recommended in the states of Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC (Indication PR = -14+1.06 RS/SC, R² = 0.88, n=12, p=0.02. This confirms the use of the indication of Central South Parana for subregions of RS and SC with high corn yield potential. Likewise, the recommendation for RS and SC can also be used in subregions in PR that are climatically less suitable for corn.

  17. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  18. Extensive Admixture and Selective Pressure Across the Sahel Belt. (United States)

    Triska, Petr; Soares, Pedro; Patin, Etienne; Fernandes, Veronica; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luisa


    Genome-wide studies of African populations have the potential to reveal powerful insights into the evolution of our species, as these diverse populations have been exposed to intense selective pressures imposed by infectious diseases, diet, and environmental factors. Within Africa, the Sahel Belt extensively overlaps the geographical center of several endemic infections such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fevers. We screened 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 161 individuals from 13 Sahelian populations, which together with published data cover Western, Central, and Eastern Sahel, and include both nomadic and sedentary groups. We confirmed the role of this Belt as a main corridor for human migrations across the continent. Strong admixture was observed in both Central and Eastern Sahelian populations, with North Africans and Near Eastern/Arabians, respectively, but it was inexistent in Western Sahelian populations. Genome-wide local ancestry inference in admixed Sahelian populations revealed several candidate regions that were significantly enriched for non-autochthonous haplotypes, and many showed to be under positive selection. The DARC gene region in Arabs and Nubians was enriched for African ancestry, whereas the RAB3GAP1/LCT/MCM6 region in Oromo, the TAS2R gene family in Fulani, and the ALMS1/NAT8 in Turkana and Samburu were enriched for non-African ancestry. Signals of positive selection varied in terms of geographic amplitude. Some genomic regions were selected across the Belt, the most striking example being the malaria-related DARC gene. Others were Western-specific (oxytocin, calcium, and heart pathways), Eastern-specific (lipid pathways), or even population-restricted (TAS2R genes in Fulani, which may reflect sexual selection).

  19. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. (United States)

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M


    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  20. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.


    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  1. The absolute magnitude distribution of cold classical Kuiper belt objects (United States)

    Petit, Jean-Marc; Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Chen, Ying-Tung; Gladman, Brett; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, JJ; Volk, Kathryn


    We report measurements of the low inclination component of the main Kuiper Belt showing a size freqency distribution very steep for sizes larger than H_r ~ 6.5-7.0 and then a flattening to shallower slope that is still steeper than the collisional equilibrium slope.The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is ongoing and is expected to detect over 500 TNOs in a precisely calibrated and characterized survey. Combining our current sample with CFEPS and the Alexandersen et al. (2015) survey, we analyse a sample of ~180 low inclination main classical (cold) TNOs, with absolute magnitude H_r (SDSS r' like flter) in the range 5 to 8.8. We confirm that the H_r distribution can be approximated by an exponential with a very steep slope (>1) at the bright end of the distribution, as has been recognized long ago. A transition to a shallower slope occurs around H_r ~ 6.5 - 7.0, an H_r mag identified by Fraster et al (2014). Faintward of this transition, we find a second exponential to be a good approximation at least until H_r ~ 8.5, but with a slope significantly steeper than the one proposed by Fraser et al. (2014) or even the collisional equilibrium value of 0.5.The transition in the cold TNO H_r distribution thus appears to occur at larger sizes than is observed in the high inclination main classical (hot) belt, an important indicator of a different cosmogony for these two sub-components of the main classical Kuiper belt. Given the largish slope faintward of the transition, the cold population with ~100 km diameter may dominate the mass of the Kuiper belt in the 40 AU < a < 47 au region.

  2. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  3. 甜玉米%Growing Good Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ James Bender, in his book How to Talk Well (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1994)relates the story of a farmer who grew awardwinning corn. Each year he entered his corn in the state fair where it won a blue ribbon. One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it.

  4. Corn stalk as a bioenergy resource (United States)

    Haney, Paul E., Jr.

    Waste corn stalk has the potential to help reduce the nation's dependence upon foreign sources of petroleum by becoming a major bioenergy resource. There are many sources of biomass that could also be utilized for this endeavor. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of agricultural waste are produced in the United States alone. This represents a significant source of energy. Through gasification, this waste could be used to generate power, fuels, and/or products. This dissertation shows that the gasification of corn stalk can produce char, heat, synthesis gases (CO and H2), and can also be used for work to dry moist biomass. Through the integration of drying, gasification, and carbon production, waste corn stalk can be used as a significant bioenergy resource. Novel concepts included in this dissertation include: (1) using corn stalk as a gasification fuel, (2) using corn stalk to generate activated carbon, (3) using activated carbon from corn stalk to adsorb organic pollutants, (4) using the gasification of corn stalk in a new process to dry moist biomass, (5) using the "partial" gasification of moist corn stalk in another new process to dry moist biomass in a single step. Each concept could be integrated with existing gasification technology to increase the efficient utilization of energy from biomass.

  5. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  6. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses. (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest


    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  7. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  8. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  9. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.


    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  10. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P


    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  11. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Renu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64,000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that Plummer's (1916) conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution: there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than $\\sim0.1$ and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance: the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modeled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Ra...

  12. Dynamical erosion of the asteroid belt and implications for large impacts in the inner solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Minton, David A


    The cumulative effects of weak resonant and secular perturbations by the major planets produce chaotic behavior of asteroids on long timescales. Dynamical chaos is the dominant loss mechanism for asteroids with diameters D > 10 km in the current asteroid belt. In a numerical analysis of the long term evolution of test particles in the main asteroid belt region, we find that the dynamical loss history of test particles from this region is well described with a logarithmic decay law. In our simulations the loss rate function that is established at t = 1 My persists with little deviation to at least t = 4 Gy. Our study indicates that the asteroid belt region has experienced a significant amount of depletion due to this dynamical erosion - having lost as much as ~50% of the large asteroids - since 1 My after the establishment of the current dynamical structure of the asteroid belt. Because the dynamical depletion of asteroids from the main belt is approximately logarithmic, an equal amount of depletion occurred i...

  13. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Burkett, Katie M.; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second compo...

  14. Seat-belt message and the law? (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G


    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  15. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  16. 从区域经济学视角看"一带一路"方略——兼论五大支撑平台的建立和完善%On the Strategy of the Belt and Road from the Angle of Regional Economics——and the Building and Improvement of the Five Supporting Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    "一带一路"把历史因素与时代发展、国家命运、区域联通串联起来,是今后相当长一段时间中国全面对外开放的总体方略,它开启了中国对外开放的新方向,是促进沿线各国合作共赢、繁荣发展的重要纽带,是中国转型发展和区域均衡发展的需要.在具体实施和建设中,不免会有许多难点,甚至会面临自然、经济、政治、社会等方面的各种风险,沿线差异较大的自然条件、错综复杂的地缘政治、经济的贫富差别及线型带状模式的弱点,都是重大挑战.当前,要尽快建立和完善数据支撑平台、人才支撑平台、智库支撑平台、法则支撑平台、实力支撑平台等,确保"一带一路"方略顺利实施并收到实效,进而真正实现全球资源配置、全球市场共享、经济全球化的目标.%The strategy of the Belt and Road",which will be the overall strategy of China's opening up in the future period,linked historical factors with era development,national destiny and regional connectivity. This strategy pointed out the new orientation of China's opening up;it is the important link promoting the cooperation,mutual benefits,and the booming of the countries along the Belt and Road;it is the requirement of China's transformational development and regional balanced development. There inevitably exist some difficulties and risks,such as the natural risk,economic risk,political risk and social risk,in the implementation and construction;and all the different natural condition,complex geopolitics,economic gaps and weakness of linear banding pattern will bring us with challenges. At present,we should establish and perfect the supporting platform of data,talent,think tank,regulation and strength to guarantee the implementation and effects of the strategy of the Belt and Road,and achieve the objectives of resources distribution,global market sharing,and economic globalization.

  17. Decay rate of the second radiation belt. (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  18. Genetically modified corn on fall armyworm and earwig populations under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Regina Frizzas


    Full Text Available The effects of corn MON810 on the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and the earwig Doru luteipes (Scudder were tested under field conditions in Brazil. Results from MON810 corn fields were compared with those fields of conventional corn with and without the application of insecticides in four harvests in the region of Barretos, SP. It was assessed the damage to S. frugiperda via direct counts of the number of fall armyworms and adults and nymphs of the predator D. luteipes on corn plants. The rate of S. frugiperda damage and the average numbers of larvae (large and small were lower in the MON810 corn field relative to the control plot. There were no differences (P>0.05 between treatments regarding the predator abundance in corn plants. The second crop season ("safrinha" showed the greatest extent of S. frugiperda damage and the lowest average abundance of earwigs. MON810 was effective in controlling S. frugiperda and abundance of predator D. luteipes was similar in the three treatments under field conditions.

  19. Greenhouse-gas Consequences of US Corn-based Ethanol in a Flat World (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Coe, M. T.; Nepstad, D. C.; Donner, S. D.; Bustamante, M. M.; Neill, C.


    Competition for arable land is now occurring among food, fiber, and fuel production sectors. In the USA, increased corn production for ethanol has come primarily at the expense of reduced soybean production. Only a few countries, mainly Brazil, have appropriate soils, climate, and infrastructure needed for large absolute increases in cropped area in the next decade that could make up the lost US soybean production. Our objective is to improve estimates of the potential net greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences, both domestically and in Brazil, of meeting the new goals established by the US Congress for expansion of corn- based ethanol in the USA. To meet this goal of 57 billion liters per year of corn-based ethanol production, an additional 1-7 million hectares will need to be planted in corn, depending upon assumptions regarding future increases in corn yield. Net GHG emissions saved in the USA by substituting ethanol for gasoline are estimated at 14 Tg CO2-equivalents once the production goal of 57 million L/yr is reached. If reduced US soybean production caused by this increase in US corn planting results in a compensatory increase in Brazilian production of soybeans in the Cerrado and Amazon regions, we estimate a potential net release of 1800 to 9100 Tg CO2-equivalents of GHG emissions due to land-use change. Many opportunities exist for agricultural intensification that would minimize new land clearing and its environmental impacts, but if Brazilian deforestation is held to only 15% of the area estimated here to compensate lost US soybean production, the GHG mitigation of US corn-based ethanol production during the next 15 years would be more than offset by emissions from Brazilian land-use change. Other motivations for advancing corn-based ethanol production in the USA, such as reduced reliance on foreign oil and increased prosperity for farming communities, must be considered separately, but the greenhouse-gas-mitigation rationale is clearly unsupportable.

  20. Implications of Using Corn Stalks as a Biofuel Source: A Joint ARS and DOE Project (United States)

    Wilhelm, W. W.; Cushman, J.


    Corn stover is a readily source of biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and may provide additional income for growers. Published research shows that residue removal changes the rate of soil physical, chemical, and biological processes, and in turn, crop growth. Building a sustainable cellulosic ethanol industry based on corn residue requires residue management practices that do not reduce long-term productivity. To develop such systems, impacts of stover removal on the soil and subsequent crops must be quantified. The ARS/DOE Biofuel Project is the cooperative endeavor among scientists from six western Corn Belt US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) locations and US Dept. of Energy. The objectives of the project are to determine the influence of stover removal on crop productivity, soil aggregation, quality, carbon content, and seasonal energy balance, and carbon sequestration. When residue is removed soil temperatures fluctuate more and soil water evaporation is greater. Residue removal reduces the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC), but the degree of reduction is highly dependent on degree of tillage, quantity of stover removed, and frequency of stover removal. Of the three cultural factors (stover removal, tillage, and N fertilization) tillage had the greatest effect on amount of corn-derived SOC. No tillage tends to increase the fraction of aggregates in the 2.00 to 0.25 mm size range at all removal rates. Stover harvest reduces corn-derived SOC by 35% compared to retaining stover on the soil averaged over all tillage systems. Corn stover yield has not differed across stover removal treatments in these studies. In the irrigated study, grain yield increased with stover removal. In the rain-fed studies, grain yield has not differed among residue management treatments. Incorporating the biomass ethanol fermentation by-product into a soil with low SOC showed a positive relationship between the amount of lignin added and the subsequent

  1. Origin of the Asteroid Belt and Mars' Small Mass (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Morbidelli, A.; Raymond, S. N.; O'Brien, D. P.; Mandell, A.


    Reproducing the small mass of Mars is a major problem for modern simulations of terrestrial planet accretion (Raymond et al. 2009). Terrestrial planet formation simulations using a planetesimal disk with an outer edge at 1.0 AU have been found to form good Mars analogs (Hansen et al. 2009). However, these initial conditions appear inconsistent with solar system evolution and the asteroid belt. Hydrodynamical simulations show that the evolution of Jupiter and Saturn in a gas-disk generically leads to a two-stage, inward-then-outward migration (Masset & Snellgrove 2001, Morbidelli & Crida 2007, Pierens & Nelson 2008). We present simulations showing that if Jupiter's minimal orbital radius was 1.5 AU, this evolution both truncates the planetesimal disk at 1.0 AU and repopulates the asteroid belt from two distinct parent populations. Our model links the origin of the inner solar system - explaining both the mass of Mars and the properties of the asteroid belt - to a realistic evolution of the giant planets. This scenario represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the early evolution of the inner solar system. Previously S- and C-type asteroids were thought to have both originated in the 2--3 AU region, with comets forming far away beyond the giant planets. This posed problems in explaining the vast physical differences between S- and C-type asteroids, and the physical similarities between comets and C-type asteroids as shown by Stardust and micrometeorite samples (Brownlee et al. 2006, Gounelle et al. 2008). Our presented scenario finds that S-types likely formed in the 1--3 AU region, with C-types and comets forming in the outer regions of the disk. This provides a much better qualitative explanation of the observed differences and similarities. This work is part of the Helmholtz Alliances "Planetary Evolution and Life", which KJW and AM thank for financial support.

  2. Life cycle of the corn-soybean agroecosystem for biobased production. (United States)

    Landis, Amy E; Miller, Shelie A; Theis, Thomas L


    Biobased product life cycle assessments (LCAs) have focused largely on energy (fossil fuel) usage and greenhouse gas emissions during the agriculture and production stages. This paper compiles a more comprehensive life cycle inventory (LCI) for use in future bioproduct LCAs that rely on corn or soybean crops as feedstocks. The inventory includes energy, C, N, P, major pesticides, and U.S. EPA criteria air pollutants that result from processes such as fertilizer production, energy production, and on-farm chemical and equipment use. Agroecosystem material flows were modeled using a combination of GREET (the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model), a linear fractionation model that describes P biogeochemical cycling, and Monte Carlo Analysis. Results show that the dominant air emissions resulted from crop farming, fertilizers, and on-farm nitrogen flows (e.g., N20 and NO). Seed production and irrigation provided no more than 0.002% to any of the inventory emissions or energy flows and may be neglected in future LCAs of corn or soybeans as feedstocks from the U.S. Corn Belt. Lime contributes significantly (17% of total emissions) to air emissions and should not be neglected in bioproduct LCAs.

  3. An analysis of cropland mask choice and ancillary data for annual corn yield forecasting using MODIS data (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Campbell, James B.; Taff, Gregory N.; Zheng, Baojuan


    The Midwestern United States is one of the world's most important corn-producing regions. Monitoring and forecasting of corn yields in this intensive agricultural region are important activities to support food security, commodity markets, bioenergy industries, and formation of national policies. This study aims to develop forecasting models that have the capability to provide mid-season prediction of county-level corn yields for the entire Midwestern United States. We used multi-temporal MODIS NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) 16-day composite data as the primary input, with digital elevation model (DEM) and parameter-elevation relationships on independent slopes model (PRISM) climate data as additional inputs. The DEM and PRISM data, along with three types of cropland masks were tested and compared to evaluate their impacts on model predictive accuracy. Our results suggested that the use of general cropland masks (e.g., summer crop or cultivated crops) generated similar results compared with use of an annual corn-specific mask. Leave-one-year-out cross-validation resulted in an average R2 of 0.75 and RMSE value of 1.10 t/ha. Using a DEM as an additional model input slightly improved performance, while inclusion of PRISM climate data appeared not to be important for our regional corn-yield model. Furthermore, our model has potential for real-time/early prediction. Our corn yield esitmates are available as early as late July, which is an improvement upon previous corn-yield prediction models. In addition to annual corn yield forecasting, we examined model uncertainties through spatial and temporal analysis of the model's predictive error distribution. The magnitude of predictive error (by county) appears to be associated with the spatial patterns of corn fields in the study area.

  4. Corn yield and water use efficiency under contrasting irrigation application methods: an AquaCrop study contrasting subsurface drip and sprinkler irrigation methods (United States)

    Grain corn (Zea mays, L.) is sensitive to soil water availability, which can be influenced by irrigation application method. Four facts motivate deficit irrigation of corn in this region. First, declining Ogallala aquifer well yields limit water availability and thus the area of land that can be irr...

  5. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn (United States)

    Cooper, John F.


    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  6. Data assimilation in the radiation belts using the Salammbô code (United States)

    Maget, Vincent; Bourdarie, Sébastien


    The natural energetic electron environment in the Earth's radiation belts is of general importance as dynamic variations in this environment can impact space hardware and contribute significantly to background signals in a range of other instruments flying in that region. The most dramatic changes in the relativistic electron populations occur during enhanced periods of geomagnetic activity. The relative importance of all competing physical processes involved in the radiation belt dynamics changes from storm to storm and the net result on particle distribution might then be very different. Modeling Earth's radiation belts still constitutes an active field of research. The most common practice is to deduce empirical formulae of physical processes amplitudes versus one or more proxies like Kp, Dst or solar wind parameters from statistical studies. Although this allows us to reproduce the mean dynamics of the radiation belts, this may introduce errors in the system, which becomes even more important for high magnetic activity conditions for which statistics are usually poor. In parallel, it has been shown in the recent years that a data assimilation scheme based on an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) may lead to great improvements in (1) the accuracy of modeling the different regions of Earth's radiation belts, (2) the possibility to accurately predict the state of the radiation belts, and (3) in accurately reanalyzing a long time period as a basis for specification model and climatology. This talk aims at presenting a global overview of the recent efforts undergone at ONERA concerning data assimilation in the radiation belts based on the Salammbô code and an EnKF. We will in particular focus our attention on the benefits of being able to accurately assimilate different types of measurements in our data assimilation tool.

  7. Evaluation of the compositional and nutritional values of phytase transgenic corn to conventional corn in roosters. (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G; Ji, C; Luo, X G; Tang, H F; Wei, Y M


    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the compositional and nutritional values of corn grains [phytase transgenic corn (PTC) and isogenic conventional corn (CC)] and compare the efficacy of corn-based phytase and extraneous microbial phytase for enhancing the utilization of phytate phosphorus (P) in single corn or corn-soybean mixed meals (corn:soybean = 2.5:1, wt:wt) fed to roosters. Following a 48-h fasting period, 16 roosters were given 50 g of each sample via crop intubation and excreta were collected for 48 h. Nitrogen-free and phosphorus-free diets were used to evaluate endogenous amino acid and endogenous P losses, respectively. Chemical composition was not different between PTC and CC, whereas the phytase content for PTC was greater than CC (8,047 vs. 37 FTU/kg of corn, DM basis; P 0.05) between roosters fed PTC and extraneous microbial phytase in equivalent FTU/kg of diets. The results of this study indicated that the chemical composition, TME, and true amino acid availability in PTC are essentially equivalent to that in CC, and the true P utilization for roosters is higher in PTC than in CC. Corn expressing phytase is as efficacious as equivalent microbial phytase when supplemented in corn-soybean diets for chickens.

  8. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture. (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul


    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.

  9. The radiation belt origin of Uranus' nightside radio emission (United States)

    Curtis, S. A.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.


    On the basis of the location of the source field lines of the smooth nightside component of Uranus kilometric radiation, the most likely free energy source is the outer radiation belts. As the terminator sweeps over the magnetic north polar region, precipitation of electrons generated by solar heating of the upper atmosphere and submergence of the electron mirror points deeper in the atmosphere will create a backscattered electron distribution with an enhanced population at large pitch angles. The clocklike radio emission turns out to be a direct consequence of the terminator's control of the emission process.

  10. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N


    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  11. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products (United States)

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  12. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  13. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan (United States)

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  14. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn (United States)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  15. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  16. Investigating the source of near-relativistic and relativistic electrons in Earth's inner radiation belt (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; O'Brien, T. P.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.


    Using observations from NASA's Van Allen Probes, we study the role of sudden particle enhancements at low L shells (SPELLS) as a source of inner radiation belt electrons. SPELLS events are characterized by electron intensity enhancements of approximately an order of magnitude or more in less than 1 day at L belt electrons under quiet/average conditions. During SPELLS events, the evolution of electron distributions reveals an enhancement of phase space density that can exceed 3 orders of magnitude in the slot region and continues into the inner radiation belt, which is evidence that these events are an important - and potentially dominant - source of inner belt electrons. Electron fluxes from September 2012 through February 2016 reveal that SPELLS occur frequently ( 2.5/month at 200 keV), but the number of observed events decreases exponentially with increasing electron energy for ≥100 keV. After SPELLS events, the slot region reforms due to slow energy-dependent decay over several day time scales, consistent with losses due to interactions with plasmaspheric hiss. Combined, these results indicate that the peaked phase space density distributions in the inner electron radiation belt result from an "on/off," geomagnetic-activity-dependent source from higher radial distances.

  17. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Moucheng; Chen Xiaoyi


    Three corn varieties, supper-sweet corn (S), standard-sweet corn (M), common corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein, vitamin, total sugar showed as parabola. Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually. Total sugar, protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn. VE and Vc were very plentiful, and lysine was high. Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21 ,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  18. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore


    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SarwarJalaan; M.AN.Russell; S.A.N.Shamim; A.I.Mostafa; Md.AbdulQuaiyyum


    Pulping of corn stalks was studied in soda,soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft and kraft-AQprocesses. The time, temperature and alkaliconcentration were varied in soda process. In respectto kappa number and pulp yield, 1 hour cooking at1400C in 14% alkali were best conditions for cornstalks pulping. Pulp yield was increased by 5.5% andkappa number was reduced by 4.4 points with anaddition of 0.05% AQ in the soda liquor. Breakinglength was better in soda-AQ process than sodaprocess but tear strength was inferior. In the kraftprocess, pulp yield was increased with increasingsulphidity and decreasing active alkali. Theeffectiveness of AQ in the low and high sulphiditykraft process was studied. Results showed that AQwas more effective in low sulphidity than highsulphidity. Strength properties in kraft processeswere better than the soda and soda-AQ processes.

  20. GCR as a source for Inner radiation belt of Saturn. (United States)

    Kotova, A.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Dandouras, I. S.


    During the insertion orbit of Cassini in 2004 the Ion and Neutron Camera measured significant fluxes of the energetic neutral atoms (ENA) coming from the area between the D-ring and the Saturn's atmosphere, what brought up the idea of the possible existence of the innermost radiation belt in this narrow gap (1). There are two main sources of energetic charged particles for such inner radiation belt: the interaction of the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Saturn's atmosphere and rings, which due to CRAND process can produce the keV-MeV ions or electrons in the region, and the double charge exchange of the ENAs, coming from the middle magnetosphere, what can bring the keV ions to the region of our interest. Using the particles tracer, which was developed in our group, and GEANT4 software, we study in details those two processes. With a particle tracer we evaluate the GCR access to the Saturn atmosphere and rings. Simulation of the GCR trajectories allows to calculate the energy spectra of the arriving energetic particles, which is much more accurate, compare to the analytically predicted spectra using the Stoermer theory, since simulation includes effects of the ring shadow and non-dipolar processes in the magnetosphere. Using the GEANT4 software the penetration of the GCR through the matter of rings was simulated, and the production of secondaries particles was estimated. Finally, the motion of secondaries was simulated using the particles tracer, and evaluation of the energy spectrum of neutrons the decay of which leads to the production of final CRAND elements in the inner Saturnian radiation belts was done. We show that for inner radiation belt most energetic ions comes from GCR interaction with rings, it's penetration and from interaction of secondaries with Saturn's atmosphere. This simulation allows us to predict the fluxes of energetic ions and electrons, which particle detector MIMI/LEMMS onboard the Cassini can measure during the so-called "proximal

  1. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)


    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  2. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.


    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  3. Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting. (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon


    Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.

  4. The effects of Maine's change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neil K; Tison, Julie; Casanova, Tara


    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Belt observations during the day and night were conducted along with awareness surveys in state licensing offices. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77-84%; night 69-81%). Although daytime belt use was generally higher, nighttime belt use showed a greater increase than daytime belt use. Awareness surveys indicated that Maine motorists were clearly aware of the law change and its consequences. Survey respondents also indicated having heard both messages about enforcement and messages encouraging belt use. Primary seat belt laws may have a stronger effect on belt use at night--when risk is higher--than during the day.

  5. Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher K.WRIGHT; Kirsten BEURS; Geoffrey M.HENEBRY


    We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1).NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05)positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface.LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes;cropland,grassland,and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic.Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC,we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant (p≤0.05)negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought.In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case,represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland,and also associated with statistically significant (p≤0.05) negative NDVI trends.Relatively small clusters of statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region.Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe,Russia,and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets.Here,we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt,involving both broader climatic forcing,and narrower anthropogenic impacts,than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

  6. Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt (United States)

    Wright, Christopher K.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.


    We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001 and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1). NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface. LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes; cropland, grassland, and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic. Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC, we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought. In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case, represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland, and also associated with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends. Relatively small clusters of statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region. Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe, Russia, and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets. Here, we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt, involving both broader climatic forcing, and narrower anthropogenic impacts, than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

  7. Black belt landowners respond to State-sponsored wildland fire mitigation policies and programs (United States)

    Cassandra Johnson; Jianbang Gan; Adam Jarrett; Miriam S. Wyman; Sparkle Malone; Keenan J. Adams; J.M. Bowker; Taylor V. Stein


    This investigation focused on nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) landowners in selected counties across five States in the Southeastern United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina). These counties are located in the Southern Black Belt region, which has higher than average percentages of African-American residents and higher poverty rates...

  8. Jupiter's Decametric Radio Emission and the Radiation Belts of Its Galilean Satellites. (United States)

    Burns, J A


    Many of the observed properties of Jupiter's decametric radiation may be explained by postulation that the inner Galilean satellites of Jupiter have magnetic properties that strongly distort Jupiter's magnetic field in the region of each satellite. Charged particles from Jupiter's radiation belts are trapped by these distorted fields and emit synchrotron radiation.

  9. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover. (United States)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab


    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  10. Ethanol from corn silage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlberg, R.L.


    The corn silage to ethanol process is described. The process feed is corn silage preserved with sulfuric acid. No anaerobic ensilement is necessary since H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ completely prevents microbial growth. The acidified corn silage is heated by steam injection as it is loaded into a batch reactor. The polysaccharides are hydrolyzed to xylose and glucose over a 6 to 8 hour period. Then the sugars are washed from the residual fibers over a 6 to 12 hour period with thin stillage or water. The hot, acidic syrup is then neutralized and cooled for fermentation. After fermentation the ethanol is distilled. The residual fibers containing the thin stillage, corn germ, cellulose, and lignin are unloaded from the reactor and dried with flue gases for animal feed.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup. (United States)


    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  12. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  13. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions. (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Wilson, Blake E; Reagan, Thomas E


    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into Louisiana. Through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, Zea mays L., more than sugarcane and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases during the next approximately equal to 2 mo to harvest. Corn was more infested than sugarcane and sorghum in commercial fields regardless of whether sampling occurred on field edges or farther into field interiors. Differences in numbers of infested stalks and in numbers of larval entry holes between field edges and interiors were not detected. We found that Mexican rice borer infestation of corn can cause loss of ears, and lodging, shattering, and complete destruction of maturing stalks. The larger quantities of adult Mexican rice borers captured in pheromone-based traps placed at corn field edges compared with sorghum and sugarcane field edges further indicates that corn is preferred to sugarcane and sorghum. The basis for the pest's attraction to corn and implications to potential range expansion to other U.S. sugarcane-growing regions are discussed.

  14. Phillips solves Venezuelan tar-belt producing problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, R.E.; Meldau, R.F.


    Phillips Petroleum Co. and partners have just completed an expansion to produce, treat, and ship 88,000 bpd of heavy oil from the tar-belt region of E. Venezuela. The first phase of the expansion was a $4.5-million diluent project to produce 80 API oil from the largest reservoir in the Morichal field, Monagas State. The second phase was to drill 41 wells in Amoco's Jobo field under an operating contract. The final phase was a $3.5-million expansion of treating, pipeline, and terminal facilities to handle the increased throughput. The crude produced is naphthenic and after treating is ready for road-building use, and as residual fuel at its usual viscosity of 520 to 550 sfs at 122/sup 0/F. As an asphalt stock, it has a yield of 60 to 70% and is readily processed into quality-paving asphalts which meet standard specifications. Production of the viscous 80 API crude oil, even though the major oil reservoir in Morichal, was very limited until installation of the diluent facilities last year. The same problem exists all over the famous tar-belt region of E. Venezuela. Vast oil reserves exist almost continuously in the area shown by the base map, but the oil cannot be dehydrated, desalted or transported when produced by itself. Thus, the 80 API oil is a known reserve, but without an external supply of diluent it cannot be commercially recovered.

  15. Study of the NWC electrons belt observed on DEMETER Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xinqiao; Wang, Ping; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Xuemin; Huang, Jianping; Shi, Feng; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yanbing; Meng, Xiangcheng; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Parrot, M


    We analyzed the data from 2007 to 2008, which is observed by IDP onboard DEMETER satellite, during ten months of NWC working and seven months of NWC shutdown. The characteristic of the space instantaneous electron belts, which come from the influence of the VLF transmitted by NWC, is studied comprehensively. The main distribution region of the NWC electron belts and the flux change are given. We also studied the distribution characteristic of the average energy spectrum in different magnetic shell at the height of DEMETER orbit and the difference of the average energy spectrum of the electrons in the drift loss-cone between day and night. As a result, the powerful power of NWC transmitter and the 19.8 kHz narrow bandwidth VLF emission not only created a momentary electrons enhancement region, which strides 180 degree in them longitude direction and from 1.6 to 1.9 in L value, with the rise of the electrons flux reaching to 3 orders of magnitude mostly, but also induced the enhancement or loss of electrons in ...

  16. Applicability of vineyard mapping as the method of determining spatial characteristics of thermal belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Ogrin


    Full Text Available In three peri-Pannonian regions in east Slovenia was tested method of determining spatial features of thermal belt by means of a detailed mapping of vineyards. The results corroborated the applicability of the method, however also exposed some of the methodćs limitations. It is suitable primarily for the areas with a lasting winegrowing tradition and with the population well informed about the local climate conditions. It yields good results in landscapes having strongly dissected landforms. The obtained results reflect spatial characteristics of thermal belt particularly at the beginning of the growth in spring when vine is most sensitive to frosts.

  17. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Loftin, Laurel; Barlament, James; Cotton, Carol; Davidson, Steve M; Burkett, Katie M.; Stephens, James


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was t...

  18. Development of belt conveyor driving system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jun-qing(付峻青); WANG Cong(王聪); HUO Wei(霍伟)


    A short review for the existing various driving methods for belt conveyor was given, which include the analysis and comparison about the advantages, disadvantages and suitable application range of these methods. Based on this the variable-frequency-control(VFC) method for belt conveyor drive was fully discussed with focus on its application in medium-high voltage range. The principle of Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Three-Level Inverter using high-voltage IGBTs together with the control strategy of rotor field-oriented vector control for induction motor drive were illustrated.

  19. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei


    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  20. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles......, the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Ibishi


    Full Text Available In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension mechanization, so forces on the rope passing through pulley there has to dominate the friction coefficient. All this process is related to economy of transportationmechanism.

  2. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Manigart

    Full Text Available The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97] and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57] on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028. Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics.

  3. Exploring for hydrocarbons under thrust belts - A challenging new frontier in the Carpathians and elsewhere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picha, F.J. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)


    New significant reserves of hydrocarbons may occur in subthrust autochthonous and parautochthonous series buried below the frontal zones of thin-skinned thrust belts. The subthrust plays have been tested in several orogenic belts of the world, the Carpathians being one of the best examples. The arcuate thin-skinned Carpathian orogenic belt, which evolved during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, is thrust tens of kilometers over its Neogene foredeeps and the underlying. European plate. Various structural and stratigraphic settings and potential hydrocarbon plays have been recognized within the buried margins of the European plate, including a late Paleozoic Hercynian compressional system, Mesozoic rifted margins of the Tethys, and a Cenozoic synorogenic foreland-type fault system. Possibly, deeper parautochthonous structures, documented on examples from the southern Apennines, may also be present below the thin-skinned frontal zone of the Carpathian thrust belt. In addition to these structural settings, large Paleogene valleys/submarine canyons have been found within the margins of the European plate. These structural and morphologic features, if combined with source rocks, reservoirs, and proper burial history, represent potential hydrocarbon plays. Generation of hydrocarbons from sources within the subthrust plate was greatly enhanced by emplacement of the wedge-shaped thrust belt, which may also provide a regional seal; therefore, the combination of the long and complex geological history of the European plate with the impact of the Alpine thrusting and foreland deformation created unique conditions for generation, entrapment, and preservation of hydrocarbons in subthrust settings.

  4. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R


    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for

  5. 西藏冈底斯多金属成矿带铅锌矿定位预测与资源潜力评价%Regional metallogenic predication and mineral reserves evaluation of lead and zinc deposits in the Gangdise polymetallic ore-forming belt,Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭钢; 佘宏全; 常帼雄; 李光明; 董英君; 潘桂棠; 李进文; 张德全; 丰成友


    矽卡岩型和热液脉型铅锌多金属矿是冈底斯地区铅锌资源量的主要来源.本文在全面收集冈底斯成矿带及其周边(主要包括冈底斯及其以南的喜马拉雅带)地质、矿产、物探、化探、遥感等基础地质资料的基础上,建立了GIS 平台基础上的资源预测评价系统.运用特征分析模型和数理统计方法,分别确定了预测区内矽卡岩型和热液脉型铅锌多金属矿定位预测的找矿模型和定量化标志,其中对铅锌矿预测比较重要的地质变量(变量权重>0.2)有中酸性花岗质侵入岩体,其他类型矿床(点),Cu、Pb、Zn、Ag、Cd、Au、Bi 单元素化探异常,Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag、Pb-Zn、Pb-Zn-Ag-Cd 组合化探异常,磁异常正负场变化,中低负重力异常场等.在此基础上,利用 MRAS 资源评价系统,圈定了铅锌矿成矿远景区共 57 处,总体上预测成果与实际地质情况及已知矿床(点)分布吻合较好.采用面金属量法估算了各远景区的铅锌矿资源量.统计结果表明,预测区内 1000 m 以浅潜在铅锌资源总量可达 2.9 亿吨,指示了冈底斯成矿带及其周边仍具有良好的铅锌矿找矿远景和资源潜力.%Skarn and hydrothermal vein deposits constitute the main resources of lead and zinc in the Gangdise metallogenic belt.In recent years, especially since the beginning of the Geological Survey Project in 1999, great progress in geological survey and resource exploration has been made, several large-size lead and zinc ore deposits have been discovered, and many important regional geological data have been accumulated in Gangdise region.Based on detailed collection of geological, ore deposits, minerals, geophysical and geochemical data and remotesensing information in this region, the authors established a mineral resources evaluation system based on GIS technology.The basic data of the mineral resources evaluation system cover a wide range of information, which includes geology (stratigraphy

  6. Tectonic Evolution of an Early Precambrian High-Pressure Granulite Belt in the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A large-scale high-pressure granulite belt (HPGB), more than 700 km long, is recognized within the metamorphic basement of the North China craton. In the regional tectonic framework, the Hengshan-Chengde HPGB is located in the central collision belt between the western block and eastern block, and represents the deep crustal structural level. The typical high-pressure granulite (HPG) outcrops are distributed in the Hengshan and Chengde areas. HPGs commonly occur as mafic xenoliths within ductile shear zones, and underwent multipile deformations. To the south, the Hengshan-Chengde HPGB is juxtaposed with the Wutai greenstone belt by several strike-slip shear zones. Preliminary isotopic age dating indicates that HPGs from North China were mainly generated at the end of the Neoarchaean, assocaited with tectonic assembly of the western and esatern blocks.

  7. The effect of the earth's radiation belts on an optical system. (United States)

    Wolff, C


    A photoelectric optical imaging system has survived one year in the earth's radiation belts with no measurable (radiation belts twice every 64 hr, and experiences a noise level equivalent to 400 photons/sec when in their most intense regions. While this noise is far less than that of other photoelectric systems operating in the belts because of the small effective area of the photocathode, the noise per unit cathode area is 1.3 x 10(5) photons/sec-cm(2), and is similar to the best of the other systems. The number and energy distribution of incident particles is calculated and then combined with shielding estimates to give the total energy absorbed in the optical elements. Radiation damage reports in the literature are shown to be consistent with the lack of a sensitivity change in this orbiting optical system. The effects of particle radiation on optical systems in general is briefly summarized, with emphasis on recent work of others.

  8. Explaining occurrences of auroral kilometric radiation in Van Allen radiation belts (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Su, Zhenpeng; He, Zhaoguo; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei


    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a strong terrestrial radio emission and dominates at higher latitudes because of reflection in vicinities of the source cavity and plasmapause. Recently, Van Allen Probes have observed occurrences of AKR emission in the equatorial region of Earth's radiation belts but its origin still remains an open question. Equatorial AKR can produce efficient acceleration of radiation belt electrons and is a risk to space weather. Here we report high-resolution observations during two small storm periods 4-6 April and 18-20 May 2013 and show, using a 3-D ray tracing simulation, that AKR can propagate downward all the way into the equatorial plane in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions. The simulated results can successfully explain the observed AKR's spatial distribution and frequency range, and the current results have a wide application to all other magnetized astrophysical objects in the universe.

  9. Gravity survey of the southwestern part of the sourthern Utah geothermal belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Cook, K.L.


    A gravity survey covering an area of 6200 km/sup 2/ was made over the southwestern part of the southern Utah geothermal belt. The objective of the gravity survey is to delineate the geologic structures and assist in the understanding of the geothermal potential of the area. A total of 726 new gravity stations together with 205 existing gravity stations, are reduced to give: (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map, and (2) a fourth-order residual gravity anomaly map; both maps have a 2-mgal contour interval. The complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows an east-trending regional gravity belt with a total relief of about 70 mgal which crosses the central portion of the survey area. The gravity belt is attributed to a crustal lateral density variation of 0.1 gm/cc from a depth of 5 to 15 km.

  10. The One Belt and One Road:Grand Strategy and Smart Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Ling


    "The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21stCentury Maritime Silk Road"(referring to the One Belt and One Road)is a high-level and all-dimensional grand strategy,carrying the overall objective and the lofty mission of full-range opening-up,overall development,and national rejuvenation,the propelled process of which is also the process for China to go to the world.The One Belt and One Road is the strategic roadmap for China from a regional country to become a world major country under the new situation,with distinct Chinese characteristics of opening and inclusiveness,peaceful development and win-win

  11. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A


    the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. Architectonic criteria for the core, lateral belt, and parabelt were readily adapted from monkey to human. Additionally, we found evidence for an architectonic subdivision within the parabelt, present in both species......The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...... that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used serial sets of adjacent sections processed for Nissl substance, acetylcholinesterase...

  12. Emissions savings in the corn-ethanol life cycle from feeding coproducts to livestock. (United States)

    Bremer, Virgil R; Liska, Adam J; Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Yang, Haishun S; Walters, Daniel T; Cassman, Kenneth G


    Environmental regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from corn (Zea mays L.)-ethanol production require accurate assessment methods to determine emissions savings from coproducts that are fed to livestock. We investigated current use of coproducts in livestock diets and estimated the magnitude and variability in the GHG emissions credit for coproducts in the corn-ethanol life cycle. The coproduct GHG emissions credit varied by more than twofold, from 11.5 to 28.3 g CO(2)e per MJ of ethanol produced, depending on the fraction of coproducts used without drying, the proportion of coproduct used to feed beef cattle (Bos taurus) vs. dairy or swine (Sus scrofa), and the location of corn production. Regional variability in the GHG intensity of crop production and future livestock feeding trends will determine the magnitude of the coproduct GHG offset against GHG emissions elsewhere in the corn-ethanol life cycle. Expansion of annual U.S. corn-ethanol production to 57 billion liters by 2015, as mandated in current federal law, will require feeding of coproduct at inclusion levels near the biological limit to the entire U.S. feedlot cattle, dairy, and swine herds. Under this future scenario, the coproduct GHG offset will decrease by 8% from current levels due to expanded use by dairy and swine, which are less efficient in use of coproduct than beef feedlot cattle. Because the coproduct GHG credit represents 19 to 38% of total life cycle GHG emissions, accurate estimation of the coproduct credit is important for determining the net impact of corn-ethanol production on atmospheric warming and whether corn-ethanol producers meet state- and national-level GHG emissions regulations.

  13. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez


    beneficial organisms. However, we concluded that these products are less toxic than chemical pesticides to nontarget organisms, which eventually will be used with less risk of environment contamination in the control of corn pest in theagricultural region of northern Sinaloa.

  14. Closed depressions in the European loess belt - Natural or anthropogenic origin? (United States)

    Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Renata; Poesen, Jean


    Closed depressions (CDs) are typical geomorphological features of the loess belt in Europe. CDs have been reported in several regions of the European loess belt, where they are described as hollows, mardeles, wymoki, crovuri, bludtsa and zapadiny. The natural and anthropogenic origins of CDs are debated in literature. Moreover, no comprehensive review of the geomorphic properties or the evolution of these depressions exists. Therefore this paper reviews the characteristics of CDs in the European loess belt and attempts to better understand their genesis based on detailed case studies. The main morphometric features as well as sediment deposits within CDs in several sub-regions of Europe were analysed and compared. Morphometric properties of CDs from the West European and East European loess belt were investigated through a comparison of CDs from two representative regions, i.e. East Poland and Central Belgium. In both study areas, CDs under cropland are similar. However, a comparison of morphological features of CDs under forest, revealed clear differences, suggesting a different origin of CDs from both regions. Infilled sediments in CDs show various litho-genetical features in different regions of the European loess belt. The morphometric features, ages and stratigraphy of infillings clearly indicate that both anthropogenic and natural processes have shaped these landforms within the loess belt of Europe. CDs observed in Eastern Europe may have a very different origin than those documented in Western Europe. Detailed analysis of CDs in Poland and in neighbouring regions of East Europe, suggest that CDs are natural landforms: thermokarst, deflation and dissolution of loess are reported as probable genetic processes. In contrast, several studies in Western Europe indicate a dominant anthropogenic origin (i.e. digging of calcareous loess or marls, bomb and mining craters, collapse of underground limestone quarries), although CDs formed by natural processes (i

  15. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can enhance productivity and soil and water conservation (United States)

    Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...

  16. Collisions and drag in debris discs with eccentric parent belts (United States)

    Löhne, T.; Krivov, A. V.; Kirchschlager, F.; Sende, J. A.; Wolf, S.


    Context. High-resolution images of circumstellar debris discs reveal off-centred rings that indicate past or ongoing perturbation, possibly caused by secular gravitational interaction with unseen stellar or substellar companions. The purely dynamical aspects of this departure from radial symmetry are well understood. However, the observed dust is subject to additional forces and effects, most notably collisions and drag. Aims: To complement the studies of dynamics, we therefore aim to understand how the addition of collisional evolution and drag forces creates new asymmetries and strengthens or overrides existing ones. Methods: We augmented our existing numerical code Analysis of Collisional Evolution (ACE) by an azimuthal dimension, the longitude of periapse. A set of fiducial discs with global eccentricities ranging from 0 to 0.4 was evolved over gigayear timescales. Size distribution and spatial variation of dust were analysed and interpreted. We discuss the basic impact of belt eccentricity on spectral energy distributions and images. Results: We find features imposed on characteristic timescales. First, radiation pressure defines size cut-offs that differ between periapse and apoapse, resulting in an asymmetric halo. The differences in size distribution make the observable asymmetry of the halo depend on wavelength. Second, collisional equilibrium prefers smaller grains on the apastron side of the parent belt, reducing the effect of pericentre glow and the overall asymmetry. Third, Poynting-Robertson drag fills the region interior to an eccentric belt such that the apastron side is more tenuous. Interpretation and prediction of the appearance in scattered light is problematic when spatial and size distribution are coupled.

  17. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection (United States)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  18. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  19. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes (United States)

    King, Kristin


    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  20. Age constraints of the Wassa and Benso mesothermal gold deposits, Ashanti Belt, Ghana, West Africa (United States)

    Parra-Avila, Luis A.; Bourassa, Yan; Miller, John; Perrouty, Stéphane; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Campbell McCuaig, T.


    The Ashanti Belt in Ghana hosts numerous multi-million ounce gold deposits and is one of the most richly gold endowed Paleoproterozoic belts of the West African Craton. This work shows that the Wassa mineralized intrusion is part of the Sefwi Group. This unit at Wassa is strongly magnetic and show a distinctly high response in regional magnetic data sets compared to other units of equivalent age within the belt. The unit is inferred to be a lateral extension of an exposed fragment of what defines the substrate to the Tarkwa Basin sediments. The Wassa deposit, located in the eastern limb of the belt, is hosted within mafic to intermediate volcanic flows that are interbedded with minor horizons of volcaniclastics, clastic sediments. The clastic sediments include wackes and magnetite rich sedimentary layers, presumably derived from banded iron formations. The previously described sequence is intruded by syn-volcanic mafic intrusives and felsic porphyries rocks that are all part of the Birimian stratigraphy. Two new key SHRIMP II U-Pb ages were determined as part of this study: a new age of 2191 ± 6 Ma was determined on magmatic zircon grains of the Wassa porphyry host rock, which now represents the oldest known felsic intrusion hosting gold mineralization in the Ashanti Belt region. The Benso gold deposit system, which is located in the eastern limb of the Ashanti Belt approximately 38 km southwest of Wassa is hosted within a series of volcanic units intruded by mafic to intermediate units. A SHRIMP II U-Pb age of 2157 ± 5 Ma was determined from magmatic zircons obtained from a granodiorite of the G-Zone of the Benso deposit. This granodiorite is the main host rock for gold mineralization and thus the age provides an upper constraint for mineral emplacement. The newly determined ages provide an upper constraint for the gold mineralization within this region of the Ashanti Belt. They also support recent structural studies that have interpreted that the Wassa

  1. The Strategic Vision of the "Belt and Road" and a New Development of China’s Economic Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Guoyou


    The "Belt and Road" strategy is the most ambitious comprehensive regional economic cooperation strategy put forward up to date by the Chinese Government. In the process of planning, promoting and implementing this conception, the concept, practice and strategy of China’s economic diplomacy witnesses a new development. This article makes some observations on the "Belt and Road" conception mainly from the perspective of economic diplomacy, with focus on the new thinking, new mechanisms, new models and new policies of China’s economic diplomacy in the process of pushing forward the "Belt and Road" concept, and tries to understand its important challenges. These challenges contain new requirements on China’s economic and diplomatic ability, and need to be carefully addressed in the process of promoting the "Belt and Road" strategic concept.

  2. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from...

  3. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is...

  4. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  5. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  6. Observed seat belt use in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. (United States)

    Afukaar, Francis K; Damsere-Derry, James; Ackaah, Williams


    We conducted an observational survey of seat belt use to determine the use rate of drivers and front-right passengers of vehicles in Kumasi, Ghana. Unobtrusive observations of seat belt use were made at 41 locations composed of signalized intersections and roundabouts where vehicles come to a halt or slow down considerably. The overall driver seat belt use rate was 17.6% compared to 4.9% for front-right passengers. Driver belt use was 33.2% for private cars, 9.0% for taxis, 8.3% for minibus (trotro), 13.1% for large buses and 9.7% for trucks. Overall seat belt use was higher for female drivers than for male drivers (44.8% versus 16.4%, p seat belt use rate increased with age. Passengers belted more often if drivers were belted, but about three-quarters of male passengers and 70-80% of female passengers were unbelted even when drivers were belted. In conclusion, the seat belt use rate was generally low in Kumasi, Ghana, and it is a function of occupant seating position, gender, vehicle type and usage, age group, and location setting. The results provide important preliminary data about seat belt use, particularly among male drivers and commercial vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests the need to develop effective strategies and programs that address low seat belt use in Ghana.

  7. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion. (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  8. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the r

  9. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  10. Is the Cameron River greenstone belt allochthonous? (United States)

    Kusky, T. M.


    Many tectonic models for the Slave Province, N.W.T., Canada, and for Archean granite - greenstone terranes in general, are implicitly dependent on the assumption that greenstone belt lithologies rest unconformably upon older gneissic basement. Other models require originally large separations between gneissic terranes and greenstone belts. A key question relating to the tectonics of greenstone belts is therefore the original spatial relationship between the volcanic assemblages and presumed-basement gneisses, and how this relationship has been modified by subsequent deformation. What remains unclear in these examples is the significance of the so-called later faulting of the greenstone - gneiss contacts. Where unconformities between gneisses and overlying sediments are indisputable, such as at Point Lake, the significance of faults which occur below the base of the volcanic succession also needs to be evaluated. As part of an on-going investigation aimed at answering these and other questions, the extremely well-exposed Cameron River Greenstone Belt and the Sleepy Dragon Metamorphic Complex in the vicinity of Webb Lake and Sleepy Dragon Lake was mapped.

  11. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt? (United States)

    ... always wear your seat belt even if your car has air bags.Where should I sit if I’m a ... editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Pregnancy and ChildbirthTags: air bag, auto accident, automobile safety, car accident, car safety, fetal injury, patient ...

  12. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.


    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  13. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  14. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  15. Economic Valuation of Green Belt: Focusing on the Conservation Value of Green Belt in Greater Seoul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Koo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Young Cheol [Daejin University, Pochon (Korea)


    The purpose of this paper is to measure the benefits of conservation of the green belt in the Greater Seoul area by CVM using dichotomous choice with a follow-up elicitation method. According to the government's plan, part of the green belt in the Greater Seoul area is to be freed from green belt designation. The mean willingness-to-pay(WTP) to conserve the green belt in the current state turns out to be about 7,430 won(95% confidence interval 6,220{approx}8,640 won) per household, which amounts to 308 billion won per year for entire population of Seoul. This WTP figure is found to be significantly influenced by level of education, sex, and the variables related to the perception and attitudes of respondents. (author). 26 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Semi-selective culture medium for Exserohilum turcicum isolation from corn seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luis De Rossi


    Full Text Available Northern corn leaf blight, caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Et, is a disease of widespread occurrence in regions where corn, sweetcorn and popcorn are grown. This disease has great potential to cause damage and has been studied for years, but the association of its causal agent with seeds remains unconfirmed. Thus, the availability of a sensitive method to detect and quantify the inoculum in seeds, even at low incidence, is essential. The aim of this study was to develop a method to detect and quantify the presence of the fungus infecting and infesting corn and popcorn seeds. Artificially and naturally infected seeds were employed to develop the medium. The semi-selective medium was composed of carbendazim (active ingredient (60 mg/L, captan (30 mg/L, streptomycin sulfate (500 mg/L and neomycin sulfate (600 mg/L aggregated to the medium lactose casein hydrolysate agar medium. By using this, Et was detected in naturally infected corn seeds, showing 0.124% incidence, in four out of ten analyzed samples. In addition, 1.04 conidia were detected per infested seed. By means of isolation, pathogenicity test, morphological characterization and comparison with descriptions of the species in the literature, the fungus isolated from the seeds was confirmed to be Et. Both infection and infestation were considered low; thus, for studies of Et detection in corn seeds, the use of semi-selective medium and more than 1,200 seeds/sample is suggested.

  17. Comparative studies on thermochemical characterization of corn stover pretreated by white-rot and brown-rot fungi. (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying


    The effects of white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of corn stover were investigated. Fungus-pretreated corn stover was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the changes in chemical composition. Differences in thermochemical conversion of corn stover after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric and pyrolysis analysis. The results indicated that the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2 has great lignin-degrading ability, whereas the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. IMER2 preferentially degrades the amorphous regions of the cellulose. The biopretreatment favors thermal decomposition of corn stover. The weight loss of IMER2-treated acid detergent fiber became greater, and the oil yield increased from 32.7 to 50.8%. After CD2 biopretreatment, 58% weight loss of acid detergent lignin was achieved and the oil yield increased from 16.8 to 26.8%.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Analysis of the Interaction Between Corn Starch and an Exogenous Lipid During Hydrothermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Hernandez-Hernandez; C Avila-Orta; B Hsiao; j Castro-Rosas; J Gallegos-Infante; J Morales-Castro; L Ochoa-Martinez; C Gomez-Aldapa


    Lipids have an important effect on starch physicochemical properties. There exist few reports about the effect of exogenous lipids on native corn starch structural properties. In this work, a study of the morphological, structural and thermal properties of native corn starch with L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, the main phospholipid in corn) was performed under an excess of water. Synchrotron radiation, in the form of real-time small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), was used in order to track structural changes in corn starch, in the presence of LPC during a heating process from 30 to 85 C. When adding LCP, water absorption decreased within starch granule amorphous regions during gelatinization. This is explained by crystallization of the amylose-LPC inclusion complex during gelatinization, which promotes starch granule thermal stability at up to 95 C. Finally, a conceptual model is proposed for explaining the formation mechanism of the starch-LPC complex.

  19. Belt fires and mine escape problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, J.G.; Lazzara, C.P. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kravitz, J.H.


    A conveyor belt fire in an underground coal mine is a serious threat to life and property. About 30% of the reportable underground coal mine fires from 1988 through 1992 occurred in belt entries. In one instance, a fire started in the drive area of a belt line, spread rapidly, and resulted in seating of the entire mine. Large-scale studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in an aboveground fire gallery at Lake Lynn Laboratory clearly show the hazards of conveyor belt fires. Mine conveyor belt formulations which passed the current Federal acceptance test for fire-resistant betting were completely consumed by propagating fires or propagated flame, with flame spread rates ranging from 0.3 to 9 m/min. High downstream temperatures and large quantities of smoke and toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, were generated as the belting burned. The smoke and gases can be spread by the mine`s ventilation system and can create significant problems for miners in the process of evacuation, such as reduction in visibility and incapacitation. In the aftermath of a belt fire, the atmosphere inside of the mine can become smoke filled or unbreathable, forcing miners to evacuate while wearing Self-Contained Self-Rescuers (SCSR`s), Sometimes there is confusion about how to regard the rated duration of an MSHA/NIOSH-approved 60-min. SCSR, especially when an SCSR is used in a way which takes it outside of the test conditions under which it was approved. As examples, for a mine escape that takes a miner from the deepest point of penetration in the mine to the surface: How long will a 60-min. SCSR actually last? and How many SCSR`s will a miner need? To answer these kinds of questions, in-mine data being gathered on escape times, distance and heart rates using miners escaping on foot and under oxygen. A model will be developed and validated which predicts how much oxygen is actually needed for a mine escape, and compares oxygen consumption bare faced versus wearing an SCSR.

  20. Crustal structure beneath the Songpan-Garze orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王椿镛; 韩渭宾; 吴建平; 楼海; 白志明


    The Benzilan-Tangke deep seismic sounding profile in the western Sichuan region passes through the Songpan-Garze orogenic belt with trend of NNE. Based on the travel times and the related amplitudes of phases in the record sections, the 2-DP-wave crustal structure was ascertained in this paper. The velocity structure has quite strong lateral variation along the profile. The crust is divided into 5 layers, where the first, second and third layer belong to the upper crust, theforth and fifth layer belong to the lower crust. The low velocity anomaly zone generally exists in the central part of the upper crust on the profile, and it integrates into the overlying low velocity basement in the area to the north of Ma.erkang. The crustal structure in the section can be divided into 4 parts: in the south of Garze-Litang fault, between Garze-Litang fault and Xianshuihe fault,between Xianshuihe fault and Longriba fault and in the north of Longriba fault,which are basically coincided with the regional tectonics division. The crustalthickness decreases from southwest to northeast along the profile, that is, from 62 km in the region of the Jinshajiang River to 52 km in the region of the Yellow River. The Moho discontinuity does not obviously change across the Xianshuihe fault based on the PmP phase analysis. The crustal average velocity along the profile is lower, about 6.30 km/s. The Benzilan-Tangke profile reveals that the crust in the study area is orogenic. The Xianshuihe fault belt is located in thecentral part of the profile, and the velocity is positive anomaly on the upper crust, and negative anomaly on the lower crust and upper mantle. It is considered as a deep tectonic setting in favor of strong earthquake's accumulation and occurrence.

  1. International survey of seat belt use exemptions. (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E


    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  2. A Lambda 1400 spectrophotometric census of the Orion belt region (United States)

    Brown, Douglas N.; Shore, Steven N.


    Low dispersion IUE spectrophotometry were used to generate a pair of photometric indices which measure the strength of the broad continuum absorption feature at 1400 A, likely an autoionizing transition of Si II. Calibration of the indices as identifiers of silicon overabundance is based on measurements of 25 IUE spectral standards and a sample of O8-A0 IV-V stars, 18 of them silicon stars. The correlations of delta alpha 1400 with delta alpha 5200 and delta (VI-G) support the association of the lambda 5200 feature with silicon. Using this technique, a magnitude limited survey of 28 B-stars in sub-groups b1, b2 and b3 of the Orion OB1 association was conducted. Two previously unrecognized candidate (perhaps weakly overabundant) silicon stars, HD 37187 and BD - 0 deg 984 are identified.

  3. Liaoning Coastal Economy:Cross-regional Belt Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lin


    @@ On 1st July,Liaoning Coastal Economic Zone Development Planning(the Planning)was basically passed in the executive meeting of State Council,meaning"five points in one line"strategy will have its place,and the plan for Liaoning Coastal Economic Zone will come true,leaving great potential for the port,trade,information and other industries in Liaoning Province,which used to be the leading industrial base in China."The Planning not only add new engine to the aged Northeast Industrial Base.

  4. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu


    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  5. The Gould Belt, the de Vaucouleurs-Dolidze Belt, and the Orion Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V


    Based on masers with measured trigonometric parallaxes, we have redetermined the spatial orientation parameters of the Local (Orion) arm. Using 23 sources (the Gould Belt objects were excluded), we have found that their spatial distribution can be approximated by a very narrow ellipsoid elongated in the direction L_1=77.1+/-2.9^o whose symmetry plane is inclined to the Galactic plane at an angle of 5.6+/-0.2^o. The longitude of the ascending node of the symmetry plane is l_\\Omega=70+/-3^o. A new estimate for the pitch angle of the Local spiral arm has been obtained by an independent method: i=12.9+/-2.9^o. Previously, a belt of young B stars, the de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt, was pointed out on the celestial sphere with parameters close to such an orientation. We have refined the spatial orientation parameters of this belt based on a homogeneous sample of protostars. The de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt can be identified with the Local arm, with the belt proper as a continuous band on the celestial sphere like the ...

  6. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  7. Structural ensembles of the north belt of Venus deformations and possible mechanisms of their formation (United States)

    Markov, M. S.


    The author discusses structural formations in the northern deformation belt of Venus, studied according to the data of the radar pictures obtained with the Venera 15 and 16 probes. He shows that it consists of regions of compression with submeridional orientation, regions of displacement, extending in the sublatitudinal direction and individual slightly deformed blocks. He puts forward the hypothesis that the formation of these structures is related with horizontal movements in the mantle in the sublatitudinal direction.

  8. The Collisional Divot in the Kuiper belt Size Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C


    This paper presents the results of collisional evolution calculations for the Kuiper belt starting from an initial size distribution similar to that produced by accretion simulations of that region - a steep power-law large object size distribution that breaks to a shallower slope at r ~1-2 km, with collisional equilibrium achieved for objects r ~0.5 km. We find that the break from the steep large object power-law causes a divot, or depletion of objects at r ~10-20 km, which in-turn greatly reduces the disruption rate of objects with r> 25-50 km, preserving the steep power-law behavior for objects at this size. Our calculations demonstrate that the roll-over observed in the Kuiper belt size distribution is naturally explained as an edge of a divot in the size distribution; the radius at which the size distribution transitions away from the power-law, and the shape of the divot from our simulations are consistent with the size of the observed roll-over, and size distribution for smaller bodies. Both the kink r...

  9. Spectrophotometry of Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Vilas, F.


    We present an ongoing study of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and Centaurs. We acquired broadband (UBVRI) and medium band photometry with the 4m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak and the 1.8m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. We present broadband colors of these objects and discuss the results of our search for absorption bands in the visible spectral region. Vilas (Icarus, 111) demonstrated that the existence of the 0.7um absorption feature in asteroids with solar-like colors was strongly correlated with the presence of the 3.0um water of hydration feature. The broad 0.7um absorption band is attributed to a charge-transfer in Fe-bearing hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates), which are a product of aqueous alteration. For aqueous alteration to take place, one must have water ice present in an object, and an energy source to heat the water ice to a liquid water phase. Water ice has already been discovered in some Centaurs (Luu et al. ApJ, 531; Brown AJ, 119), and Durda and Stern (Icarus, 145) estimate that KBOs experience collisional processing regularly throughout their lifetimes. The estimated impact energies are high enough to induce aqueous alteration. We undertook this study to search for evidence of the 0.7um feature in KBOs and Centaurs. We employed medium band Windhorst filters, located at 0.527, 0.666, 0.705, 0.755 and 0.848 um in conjunction with the Mosaic CCD to search for this absorption band, which extends from 0.57-0.83um. Initial analysis suggests that an absorption feature exists near 0.7um in the greyer objects but not the redder objects, following the correlations observed in asteroids. These data are consistent with the absorption band detected near 0.7um by de Bergh et al. (ACM 2002, Berlin) in visible spectra of 2000 EB173 and 2000 GN171. However, further analysis is required to confirm whether the absorption we see is due to phyllosilicates or another source. We will present the results from this analysis. This research was supported through the

  10. Origins and Asteroid Main-Belt Stratigraphy for H-, L-, LL-Chondrite Meteorites (United States)

    Binzel, Richard; DeMeo, Francesca; Burbine, Thomas; Polishook, David; Birlan, Mirel


    We trace the origins of ordinary chondrite meteorites to their main-belt sources using their (presumably) larger counterparts observable as near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). We find the ordinary chondrite stratigraphy in the main belt to be LL, H, L (increasing distance from the Sun). We derive this result using spectral information from more than 1000 near-Earth asteroids [1]. Our methodology is to correlate each NEA's main-belt source region [2] with its modeled mineralogy [3]. We find LL chondrites predominantly originate from the inner edge of the asteroid belt (nu6 region at 2.1 AU), H chondrites from the 3:1 resonance region (2.5 AU), and the L chondrites from the outer belt 5:2 resonance region (2.8 AU). Each of these source regions has been cited by previous researchers [e.g. 4, 5, 6], but this work uses an independent methodology that simultaneously solves for the LL, H, L stratigraphy. We seek feedback from the planetary origins and meteoritical communities on the viability or implications of this stratrigraphy.Methodology: Spectroscopic and taxonomic data are from the NASA IRTF MIT-Hawaii Near-Earth Object Spectroscopic Survey (MITHNEOS) [1]. For each near-Earth asteroid, we use the Bottke source model [2] to assign a probability that the object is derived from five different main-belt source regions. For each spectrum, we apply the Shkuratov model [3] for radiative transfer within compositional mixing to derive estimates for the ol / (ol+px) ratio (and its uncertainty). The Bottke source region model [2] and the Shkuratov mineralogic model [3] each deliver a probability distribution. For each NEA, we convolve its source region probability distribution with its meteorite class distribution to yield a likelihood for where that class originates. Acknowledgements: This work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.References: [1] Binzel et al. (2005), LPSC XXXVI, 36.1817. [2] Bottke et al. (2002). Icarus 156, 399. [3

  11. Effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and gastric mucosa integrity of heavy pigs at slaughter. (United States)

    Mason, Federico; Pascotto, Ernesto; Zanfi, Cristina; Spanghero, Mauro


    The effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and on the incidence of gastric lesions was studied in heavy pigs. Three groups of 14 castrated male pigs were fed a control cereal-based diet and two diets containing whole ear corn silage (15% or 30% DM) from 90 kg bodyweight to slaughter at 170 kg. The diets with whole ear corn silage increased the amount of neutral detergent fibre in the stomach contents, the weight of the organs and the area of the pyloric region. Follicular gastritis was significantly lower and gastritis less severe in pigs fed the whole ear corn silage diets than pigs fed the control diet. The inclusion of whole ear corn silage in the diet influenced the development of the stomach and reduced the incidence of gastritis in heavy pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn. (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G


    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  13. Yanshanian Magma-Tectonic-Metallogenic Belt in East China of Circum-Pacific Domain (Ⅰ):Igneous Rocks and Orogenic Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Yanshanian igneous rocks in the East China, on an orogenic belt scale, are characterized by the continental marginal arc in petrology and geochemistry as Andes and West USA, except for the Hercyn-type biotite-two mica-muscovite granite belt in the Nanling region. Three segments of the Yanshanian igneous rocks along the belt are recognized. In terms of magma-tectonic event sequence, the north, middle and south segments have counter-clockwise (ccw), clockwise (cw) and ccw+cw pTt paths of the orogenic process, respectively. A genetic model of the lithospheric delamination (loss of the lithospheric root in about 120 km) in combination with the oceanic subduction for the Yanshanian Andes-like orogenic belt and both the crust and lithosphere thickening for the Yanshanian Hercyn-type Nanling orogenic belt in the East China is suggested.

  14. Mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a slate belt. Examples from the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, Germany) (United States)

    Sintubin, Manuel; van Baelen, Hervé; van Noten, Koen; Muchez, Philippe


    again a blocky infill. The detachments reflect the late orogenic destabilisation of the slate belt, again suggesting vein development related to a tectonic inversion (from compression to extension). A kinematic model is developed in which brittle parental cracks are affected by a steady-state solid-state deformation within a creeping shear zone and evolve as plastically deforming fluid-filled cavities. Also this type of quartz veins reflects mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in mid-crustal conditions. Both types of quartz vein demonstrate that fluid-assisted, mixed brittle-plastic deformation in a developing slate belt is strongly related to major changes in the overall stress regime. Both during the tectonic inversion in the earliest and late stages of the Variscan orogeny extensive veining occurred. This is in contrast to the main compression stage of the orogeny, during which vein development seems rather occasional. While the late orogenic vein occurrence can be linked directly to a mid-crustal detachment root of an upper-crustal fault system, the regional aspect of the early orogenic veins remains enigmatic. In both cases a transient strain-rate dependent deepening of the brittle-plastic transition is proposed to explain the formation of the brittle parental cracks. The plastic deformation of the fluid-filled cavities may be related to a recovery of the long-term brittle-plastic transition. The former deepening may thus be related to coseismic loading of the middle crust, while the latter recovery may reflect the postseismic relaxation. In this respect the different types of mixed brittle-plastic vein structures observed in the High-Ardenne slate belt may be seen as a reflection of earthquake-related deformation and fluid redistribution in the middle crust.

  15. 甘肃省玉米生产空间格局变迁及驱动因素--基于全膜双垄沟播技术的视角%Regional Changes of Production Layout of Corn and Its Actuation Factors in Gansu Province:Based on the Perspective of Agricultural Technological Advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海鸿; 吴頔


    基于1991—2011年甘肃省各地区玉米生产面板数据,以雨养旱作农业技术革命———全膜双垄沟播技术为视角,在对玉米产量时空尺度分析的基础上,运用灰色系统关联分析法,构建关于玉米产量及其10个影响因素的交互作用关联度模型,分2个时段对玉米生产驱动机制进行阐析。研究结果表明:2003年以来,甘肃省玉米产量出现突发性持续上升的根本原因是大面积推广全膜双垄沟播技术,反映该技术的指标———地膜玉米覆盖面积已成为影响玉米产量的首要因子,对甘肃省玉米生产空间格局变迁产生了深刻影响。%Based on various areas of Gansu Province corn production panel data in nearly 20 years, this paper choose the perspective of rainfed agricultural technology revolution that whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges and planting in catchment furrows in the dry land.On the basis of the analysis of the spatial and temporal scales of corn production,the gray system model of corn production was established depend on the data about corn production and its related historical data of Gansu Province.Besides,it expounding on corn production drive mechanism by di-viding into 2 periods.The results showed that the large area of marketing the technology in Gansu Province is the root cause of the rising corn yield dramatically since 2003 , plastic-film corn area covered as index reflecting the technology has become the primary factor which influence the production of corn.Meanwhile, it has had a profound impact on the change of spatial pattern of corn production in Gansu Province.

  16. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production. (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin


    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  17. Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin


    Aug 31, 2016 ... The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance mechanisms in 12 corn genotypes (transgenic hybrids: ..... FAW that fed on GM corn genotypes exhibited lower ... preference for other food types, particularly given the.

  18. Effect of corn cobs concentration on xylanase biosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 24, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION. Corn cobs ... like corn cobs, sugar cane bagasse , rice husk, rice straw and oat straw ... Xylanase hydrolyzes the polymer xylan into the xylose monomers. The free ..... using central composite rotary design.

  19. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What is high-fructose corn syrup? What are the health concerns? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. High-fructose corn syrup is a common sweetener in ...

  20. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  1. An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. (United States)

    Baker, D N; Jaynes, A N; Hoxie, V C; Thorne, R M; Foster, J C; Li, X; Fennell, J F; Wygant, J R; Kanekal, S G; Erickson, P J; Kurth, W; Li, W; Ma, Q; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Malaspina, D M; Gerrard, A; Lanzerotti, L J


    Early observations indicated that the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts could be separated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies showed that electrons of moderate energy (less than about one megaelectronvolt) often populate both zones, with a deep 'slot' region largely devoid of particles between them. There is a region of dense cold plasma around the Earth known as the plasmasphere, the outer boundary of which is called the plasmapause. The two-belt radiation structure was explained as arising from strong electron interactions with plasmaspheric hiss just inside the plasmapause boundary, with the inner edge of the outer radiation zone corresponding to the minimum plasmapause location. Recent observations have revealed unexpected radiation belt morphology, especially at ultrarelativistic kinetic energies (more than five megaelectronvolts). Here we analyse an extended data set that reveals an exceedingly sharp inner boundary for the ultrarelativistic electrons. Additional, concurrently measured data reveal that this barrier to inward electron radial transport does not arise because of a physical boundary within the Earth's intrinsic magnetic field, and that inward radial diffusion is unlikely to be inhibited by scattering by electromagnetic transmitter wave fields. Rather, we suggest that exceptionally slow natural inward radial diffusion combined with weak, but persistent, wave-particle pitch angle scattering deep inside the Earth's plasmasphere can combine to create an almost impenetrable barrier through which the most energetic Van Allen belt electrons cannot migrate.

  2. Reanalysis and forecasting killer electrons in Earth's radiation belts using the VERB code (United States)

    Kellerman, Adam; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Shprits, Yuri; Podladchikova, Tatiana; Drozdov, Alexander


    The Van Allen radiation belts are torii-shaped regions of trapped energetic particles, that in recent years, have become a principle focus for satellite operators and engineers. During geomagnetic storms, electrons can be accelerated up to relativistic energies, where they may penetrate spacecraft shielding and damage electrical systems, causing permanent damage or loss of spacecraft. Data-assimilation provides an optimal way to combine observations of the radiation belts with a physics-based model in order to more accurately specify the global state of the Earth's radiation belts. We present recent advances to the data-assimilative version of the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, including more sophisticated error analysis, and incorporation of realistic field-models to more accurately specify fluxes at a given MLT or along a spacecraft trajectory. The effect of recent stream-interaction-region (SIR) driven enhancements are investigated using the improved model. We also present a real-time forecast model based on the data-assimilative VERB code, and discuss the forecast performance over the past 12 months.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利


    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  4. Ethanol production from corn, corn stover and corncob from the Jilin Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, E.; Thomsen, A.B. [Risoe National Lab., Biosystem Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Feng, L. [Jilin Light Industry Design and Reserch Inst., Changchun City (China)


    Among the available agricultural by-products, corn stover is far the most abundant lignocellulosic raw material for fuel ethanol production in China. More than 120 million tons of corn stover is produced annually, representing approximately 40 million tons of ethanol. In this study ethanol was produced from corn and alkaline wet oxidized (WO) corn stover and corncob followed by non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eight different combinations of reaction temperature and time were applied for wet oxidation of corn stover and corncob using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} as catalysts to find the best reaction conditions, resulting in both high glucose and ethanol yield. The best condition (200 deg. C, 8 min, 2g/L Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) increased the enzymatic conversion from cellulose to glucose of corn stover more then four times and resulted in 87% ethanol yield of theoretical, based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover. This was achieved with a substrate concentration of 6% (w/w) dry material at 20 FPU/g DM enzyme loading after 120 h of SSF. The pretreatment with NH{sub 3} at the same conditions resulted slightly lower cellulose conversion to glucose, but also gave promising ethanol yield (75%), demonstrated, that the baker's yeast still could adapt to the WO material and ferment the glucose content to ethanol efficiently. (au)

  5. Corn Heterotic Group and Model in Heilongjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; DONG Ling; YU Tianjiang; LI Yan; GUO Ran


    The concept and research achievements of the heterotic group and model in corn were introduced briefly. The results showed that the domestic corn germplasm could be divided into three main heterotic groups and two main heterotic models. The research on corn germplasm in Heilongjiang Province could be concluded as three main heterotic groups and three main heterotic models. Some new opinions about corn heterotic group and heterotic model in Heilongjiang Province were proposed such as Northeast group and NortheastxLancaster model.

  6. A radiation belt disturbance study from the space weather point of view (United States)

    Rochel, S.; Boscher, D.; Benacquista, R.; Roussel, J. F.


    The radiation belts are a key region located close to the Earth, where the satellites travel. They are located in the centre of the magnetosphere and constitute a region sensitive to the variations of magnetosphere activity. The magnetosphere is in equilibrium in the solar wind. If the solar wind parameters change, then, the magnetospheric balance is upset. Using several processes, particles and energy from the solar wind can enter it, disturbing the magnetosphere and the radiation belts. In this paper, the am index has been used to define a new parameter named Cm, which is indicative of the energy level in the magnetosphere. The impact of CIRs (Corotating Interaction region) and of CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejection) on the magnetosphere has been studied from the Cm point of view, as well as the reaction of the radiation belts to a solar wind disturbance. The results show that the Cm parameter provides a new perspective in space weather studies as it clearly shows that the energy level can be higher for a CIR than for a CME. It also demonstrates that the events with several solar wind structures are much more effective to increase the energy level in the magnetosphere than single ones. Finally, Cm correlates better with the radiation belts fluxes, showing again that Cm is a good indicator of the inner magnetosphere activity. Nevertheless, the energy level in the radiation belts is maximised and the energy level in this population cannot go above a given value which depends on the altitude. The particles coming from the plasmasheet also push the particles from the highest altitudes to the lower ones, allowing the slot filling for Cm> .

  7. A method for sampling waste corn (United States)

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.


    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  8. Pretreatment of Corn Stalk by Steam Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵自强; 田永生; 谭惠民


    A steam explosion pretreatment, which is one of the best ways of pretreating plant stalk, is applied at various severities to corn stalk. It could effectively modify the super-molecular structure of corn stalk and defibrating corn stalk into individual components. The relationship between yield of reducing sugar and the operating conditions, including temperature, pressure of steam explosion pretreatment and acidity, is also established. Experimental results prove that the steam explosion substantially increases the yield of reducing sugar, and the optimal condition for steam explosion is as follows: the pressure is 2.0 MPa, the pressure-retaining time 300 s, the initial acid concentration 1% and the acid treatment time 24 h.

  9. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.


    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  10. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn. (United States)

    Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene


    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product.

  11. Profundidade de deposição de semente de milho na região dos Campos Gerais, Paraná Placement depth of seed corn in the region of Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. Weirich Neto


    Full Text Available O sistema plantio direto encontra-se hoje plenamente incorporado à região dos Campos Gerais no Paraná. A acurácia e a precisão no processo de semeadura são itens de grande importância para que tal sistema alcance sucesso. Sendo assim, foram selecionadas 50 propriedades e, em 38, determinou-se a profundidade de deposição da semente de milho. A área experimental era formada por quatro ou cinco linhas de semeadura, onde se avaliaram dez plântulas por linha. A profundidade ficou em torno de 46 mm, observando-se diferenças significativas entre as linhas, em 21 áreas. O coeficiente de variação médio ficou em torno de 20%, limite estatístico entre médio e alto. Conforme análise de outros parâmetros, tais coeficientes podem representar diferentes tipos de erro no processo. Pode-se considerar o processo de semeadura da região como eficiente quando considerada a média da profundidade. Entretanto, a análise da variabilidade demonstra necessidade de ações junto a fatores antrópicos e de máquina.No Tillage system is fully incorporated to farming in the region of Campos Gerais, state of Paraná. Accuracy and precision in the planting process are items of great importance for the success of this system. In order to evaluate the planting process, thirty eight farms were selected as sites for analysis of the placement depth of seeds. The research area was 4 or 5 planting rows, evaluating 10 plantlets per row. The average seed depth was around 46 mm, and significant differences between rows were observed in 21 areas. The average coefficient of variation was around 20%, the statistical limit between medium and high. Analyses of other parameters show that those coefficients may represent different errors in the process. The planting process in Campos Gerais can be considered efficient regarding to the average seed depth. However, the analysis of variability implies de need of actions concerning to anthropic and machinery factors.

  12. The Interactive Climate and Vegetation Along the Pole-Equator Belts Simulated by a Global Coupled Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The interaction between climate and vegetation along four Pole-Equator-Pole (PEP) belts were explored using a global two-way coupled model, AVIM-GOALS, which links the ecophysiological processes at the land surface with the general circulation model (GCM). The PEP belts are important in linking the climate change with the variation of sea and land, including terrestrial ecosystems. Previous PEP belts studies have mainly focused on the paleoclimate variation and its reconstruction. This study analyzes and discusses the interaction between modern climate and vegetation represented by leaf area index (LAI) and net primary production (NPP). The results show that the simulated LAI variation, corresponding to the observed LAI variation, agrees with the peak-valley variation of precipitation in these belts. The annual mean NPP simulated by the coupled model is also consistent with PIK NPP data in its overall variation trend along the four belts, which is a good example to promote global ecological studies by coupling the climate and vegetation models. A large discrepancy between the simulated and estimated LAI emerges to the south of 15°N along PEP 3 and to the south of 18°S in PEP 1S, and the discrepancy for the simulated NPP and PIK data in the two regions is relatively smaller in contrast to the LAI difference. Precipitation is a key factor affecting vegetation variation, and the overall trend of LAI and NPP corresponds more obviously to precipitation variation than temperature change along most parts of these PEP belts.

  13. Structural features and petroleum geology of the fold-thrust belt in the southern Tarim basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xinyuan; LUO Jinhai; WANG Qinghua


    The west Kunlun fold-thrust belt (WKFTB) and the Altun fold-thrust belt (AFTB) are respectively located in the southern margin of the Tarim basin, NW China. The analyses of typical structures and regional dynamics of the fold-thrust belts reveal their different structural and petroleum features and mechanisms. WKFTB differs from AFTB by abundant fault-related folds and triangles zones, and was formed by northward extrusion of the west Kunlun orogen. AFTB was affected synchronously by northward extrusion of the Altun orogen and the sinistral strike-slipping of the Altun Fault, so it is characterized by the minor scale and the monotonous structural styles. The Aqike anticline and the Aqike fault, of which the strikes are orthogonal to the strike of the fold-thrust belts, are regarded as the adjustive structures between both of the fold-thrust belts. The oil-gas pools of WKFTB develop mainly in the faulted-related anticline traps, but the oil-gas pools of AFTB develop mainly in the low fault-block and anticlines traps related with the paleo-uplifts. There are different exploration countermeasures for both of the fold-thrust belts.

  14. Correlation of Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous Depositional Sequences in Different Facies Belts on Southern Margin of Upper Yangtze Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A fundamental problem in sequence stratigraphy is whether the sequences are global in extent and whether the sea level changes are eustatic in nature. Study on the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous depositional sequences in different facies belts on the southern margin of the Upper Yangtze platform shows that different orders of sequences possess distinctive distribution and correlation in space, although the sea level changes in various orders of sequences may be primarily global in nature. The present paper regards the distribution in space, especially in different facies belts, as a criterion for defining and recognizing the various orders of sequences. The orthosequence (third-order sequence) is probably global in nature, which may be discerned in various depositional facies belts on the continental margin and can be correlated over long distances, sometimes maybe worldwide. Commonly, correlation of the subsequences (fourth-order sequences with time interval of 0.5 Ma to 1.5 Ma) is difficult in different facies belts, although some of them are probably also worldwide in distribution. A subsequence should be distinguishable and correlatable within at least one facies belt. The higher-order sequences, including parasequences (fifth-order sequences) and microsequences (sixth-order sequences), are regional or local in distribution. They may have reflected the longer and shorter Milankovitch cycles respectively. Orthosequences and subsequences are usually recognizable in different facies belts, while parasequences and microsequences may be distinguished only in shallow marine deposits, but not in slope and basin facies deposits.

  15. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  16. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  17. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae) (United States)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  18. Corn texture and particle size in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Benedetti


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers.

  19. Bacterial Diversity in Rhizospheres of Nontransgenic and Transgenic Corn


    Fang, Min; Kremer, Robert J.; Peter P. Motavalli; Davis, Georgia


    Bacterial diversity in transgenic and nontransgenic corn rhizospheres was determined. In greenhouse and field studies, metabolic profiling and molecular analysis of 16S rRNAs differentiated bacterial communities among soil textures but not between corn varieties. We conclude that bacteria in corn rhizospheres are affected more by soil texture than by cultivation of transgenic varieties.

  20. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...